WorldWideScience

Sample records for hypereutectoid steel wires

  1. Improvement of the bending fatigue resistance of the hyper-eutectoid steel wires used for tire cords by a post-processing annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.; Bae, J.G.; Park, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of annealing at a low temperature on the bending fatigue resistance have been investigated in the hyper-eutectoid steel wires drawn to an extreme strain of 4.12. The annealing temperature was varied from 100 to 500 deg. C. The bending fatigue resistance of the steel wires was measured by a Hunter rotating beam tester specially designed for thin-sized steel wires. The results showed that fatigue resistance as well as tensile strength improved as the annealing temperature increased up to 200 deg. C (Region I) and gradually decreased after annealing above 200 deg. C (Region II). In order to elucidate this behavior, residual stress was measured by dual beam FIB, surface defects observed by an optical 3D profiler and the microstructure in terms of lamellar spacing (λ p ) and cementite thickness (t c ) was observed by TEM

  2. Hypereutectoid steel in early medieval sword production in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kucypera, P.; Hošek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, [1] (2014), s. 31-39 ISSN 0860-0007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : swords * Early Middle Ages * hypereutectoid steel Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. Microstructural Evolution of Inverse Bainite in a Hypereutectoid Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rangasayee; Wang, Yiyu; Li, Leijun

    2017-12-01

    Microstructural evolution of inverse bainite during isothermal bainite transformation of a hypereutectoid low-alloy steel at 773 K (500 °C) was investigated through a series of interrupted isothermal experiments using a quench dilatometer. Microstructural characterization revealed that the inverse bainitic transformation starts by the nucleation of cementite (Fe3C) from parent austenite as a midrib in the bainitic microstructure. The inverse bainite becomes "degenerated" to typical upper bainite at prolonged transformation times. Crystallographic orientation relationships between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure were found to obey { _{γ } || _{θ } } { _{α } || _{θ } } { _{γ } || _{α } } 111_{γ } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 110} _{α } || { \\overline{2} 21} _{θ } } { 111} _{γ } || { 110 } _{α } {111} _{γ } || {211} _{θ } {110} _{α } || {211} _{θ } Furthermore, the crystallographic orientation deviations between the individual phases of inverse bainite microstructure suggest that the secondary carbide nucleation occurs from the inverse bainitic ferrite. Thermodynamic driving force calculations provide an explanation for the observed nucleation sequence in inverse bainite. The degeneracy of inverse bainite microstructure to upper bainite at prolonged transformation times is likely due to the effects of cementite midrib dissolution at the early stage and secondary carbide coarsening at the later stage.

  4. Effect of cumulative strain on texture characteristics during wire drawing of eutectoid steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.; Ma, C.; Jiang, J.Q.; Feng, H.P.; Zhai, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The texture characteristics associated with plastic deformation of Fe-C steels near-eutectoid composition during a continuous cold drawing process were thoroughly investigated by orientation distribution function analysis based on X-ray diffraction. The effect of cumulative drawing strains on the fiber texture in drawn hypereutectoid and hypoeutectoid steel wires was discussed

  5. Welding wires for high-tensile steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laz'ko, V.E.; Starova, L.L.; Koval'chuk, V.G.; Maksimovich, T.L.; Labzina, I.E.; Yadrov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Strength of welded joints in arc welding of high-tensile steels of mean and high thickness by welding wires is equal to approximately 1300 MPa in thermohardened state and approximately 600 MPa without heat treatment. Sv-15Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EhK44-VI) -Sv-30Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EkK47-VI) welding wires are suggested for welding of medium-carbon alloyed steels. These wires provide monotonous growth of ultimate strength of weld metal in 1250-1900 MPa range with increase of C content in heat-treated state

  6. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  7. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30, 7217.20... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19 U.S...

  8. Corrosion fatigue behaviors of steel wires used in coalmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Songquan; Zhang, Dekun; Chen, Kai; Xu, Linmin; Ge, Shirong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The CF life of steel wire in acid solution is the shortest. • The fatigue source zone showed dimple morphology when coupled with anode potential. • The area of dimple increases with the increase of the applied anode potential. • The strong cathode potential cannot reduce the CF life of the smooth steel wire. • The hydrogen impacted mainly on the plastic deformation of the wire surface. - Abstract: The corrosion fatigue (CF) behaviors of the mining steel wire in different solutions at different applied polarization potentials were investigated in this paper. The surfaces and fracture morphologies of the steel wire at different applied potentials were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the CF life of steel wire in acid solution is the shortest. Moreover, the strong anodic polarization potential greatly reduced the CF life of steel wire, while the strong cathode potential did not reduce the CF life. For the smooth steel wire, the hydrogen impacted mainly on the plastic deformation of the wire surface. There was obvious dimple in the fatigue source zone of the wire when coupled with anode potential, and the area of the dimple increased with the increase of the applied anode potential. Conversely, the fatigue source zone of the fracture was relatively smooth at cathode polarization potential, which indicated that the crack propagation followed the mechanism of hydrogen induced cracking

  9. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment... Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission instituted these...

  10. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-479 and 731-TA-1183-1184 (Preliminary)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of [[Page 19383

  11. Development of cutting techniques of steel pipe by wire sawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Inai, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    A cutting method has a high cutting efficiency and enable cutting in safe. A wire saw cutting method is used for dismantling of massive concrete structures such as nuclear power plants with an effective and safe mean. In the case of dismantling of structures with multiple pipes installed at these facilities, an effective method is also demanded. If a wire saw method to remotely cut target objects in a large block in bulk is applicable, it will be expected an effective dismantling work under severe conditions with radioactivity. Although the wire saw method has adaptability for any shapes of cutting target objects and is widely adopted in dismantling of concrete constructs, it has few actual achievements in dismantling of steel structures such as steel pipe bundle. This study aims to verify its cutting characteristics and adaptability as a cutting method by conducting a cutting basic test to develop a diamond wire saw method to efficiently cut constructs with multiple pipes in a bundle. The test proved that a wire saw cutting method apply to dismantle structures with steel pipe bundle. A wire saw for metal cutting is adaptable in dismantling of bundle of thick carbon steel and stainless steel pipes. And also a wire saw for concrete cutting is adaptable in dismantling of pipe bundle structure with a mortar. (author)

  12. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of prestressed concrete steel... in prestressed concrete (both pre-tensioned and post- tensioned) applications. The product definition..., producers, or exporters in China of prestressed concrete steel wire strand, and that such products are being...

  13. 77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-976] Galvanized Steel Wire From... exporters of galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from the People's Republic of China (the PRC). For... three parties withdrew their requests for a hearing. \\1\\ See Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's...

  14. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.370 RUS specification for seven wire galvanized... Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire galvanized steel strand purchased after April 1, 1990...

  15. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF PLASTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WIRE OF STEEL 70 AT HIGH-SPEED WIRE DRAWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Bobarikin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The carried out numerical experiments subject to initial and boundary conditions indicate that mathematical model of elastic-plastic characteristics of steel 90 can be used for numerical calculations of wire drawing routes for this grade of steel.

  16. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel... (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel that...

  17. Resistance microwelding of 316L stainless steel wire to block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Khan, M.I.; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of low carbon vacuum melted 316 stainless steel coupled with its non-magnetic properties makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The typical joint geometry for microcomponents, such as medical implants, includes joining of fine wire to a larger block. However......, this type of joint has received little attention in the current literature. The present study was conducted to examine the microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon vacuum melted 316 stainless steel wire welded to a larger block. Results revealed solid state bonding occurring at low currents......, while fusion bonding occurred at higher currents. This was due to the highly asymmetrical heat generation resulting in almost complete melting of the wire before the initiation of interfacial melting. This is a distinctly different bonding mechanism compared to previous studies on crossed wire joints....

  18. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...... in the structure and crystallography when a randomly oriented cementite structure in a patented wire during wire drawing is transformed into a lamellar structure parallel to the drawing axis. Changes in the interlamellar spacing and in the misorientation angle along and across the ferrite lamellae show significant...... through-diameter variations in wires drawn to large strains P 1.5. The structural evolution is hierarchical as the structural variations have their cause in a different macroscopic orientation of the cementite in the initial (patented) structure with respect to the wire axis. The through...

  19. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...... in the structure and crystallography when a randomly oriented cementite structure in a patented wire during wire drawing is transformed into a lamellar structure parallel to the drawing axis. Changes in the interlamellar spacing and in the misorientation angle along and across the ferrite lamellae show significant...... through-diameter variations in wires drawn to large strains ⩾ 1.5. The structural evolution is hierarchical as the structural variations have their cause in a different macroscopic orientation of the cementite in the initial (patented) structure with respect to the wire axis. The through...

  20. 75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION [A-201-831] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand...

  1. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu; Liu Wei; Liu Qing

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110} α or {112} α slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  2. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...... decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...

  3. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  4. 76 FR 55031 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-976] Galvanized Steel Wire From... galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). For information on the..., filed in proper form, concerning imports of galvanized wire from the PRC.\\1\\ The Department initiated a...

  5. 76 FR 73589 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-975] Galvanized Steel Wire From... galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We are amending our Preliminary... Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination: Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of...

  6. 76 FR 33242 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-976] Galvanized Steel Wire From... the countervailing duty investigation of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China. See Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

  7. Role of steel wire ropes in mine safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peake, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Today there are an estimated 2 300 steel wire ropes installed in roughly 200 underground mines in South Africa. These mines employ more than 280 000 workers underground and hoist several millions of tonnes of rock to the surface every month...

  8. Static friction of stainless steel wire rope–rubber contacts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.; Krijger, T.; Mugge, W.; Breedveld, P.; Dodou, D.; Dankelman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about static friction of stainless-steel wire ropes ('cables') in contact with soft rubbers, an interface of potential importance for rigidifiable medical instruments. Although friction theories imply that the size and profile of the cables affect static friction, there are no

  9. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation, the... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan, provided for in subheading 7326.20...

  10. 76 FR 21914 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-479 and 731-TA-1183-1184 (Preliminary)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. DATES: Effective Date...

  11. 75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject investigations. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  12. Development of austenitic stainless steel PC wire and strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubono, Hideyoshi; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Yamaoka, Yukio

    1986-01-01

    The effects of aging and stress-aging (called hot stretching) at the temperatures from 120 deg C to 700 deg C on the mechanical properties, relaxation values, Charpy impact values and SCC behavior of hard drawn SUS 304, SUS 316 stainless steel wires have been studied. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) Yield and tensile strength of the wires increased by aging at 230 deg C and 530 deg C as well as by hot stretching. The strengthening after 230 deg C treatment may be due to the strain aging by C and the increase of strength after 530 deg C treatment results from precipitation of Cr 23 C 6 on dislocations. (2) Stress relaxation values up to 250 deg C are low due to precipitation of Cr 23 C 6 . Almost no difference can be observed between aging and hot stretching. (3) Impact value at -196 deg C of SUS 304 stainless steel wire which was measured with 1 mm V-notched specimen was found to be about the same as that of 9 % Ni steel. (4) It is considered that in comparison with high carbon PC wire SUS 304 stainless steel showing high tensile strength is insensitive to SCC in NH 4 SCN and NH 4 NO 3 solutions. (5) In practice, tension member of the austenitic stainless steel wire and strand which were produced by aging at 500 deg C may be useful in special industrial field, for example, (a) SUS 304, in cryogenic field use (b) SUS 316, in intensive magnetic field use as a nonmagnetic material. (author)

  13. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires......, the thermal behaviour is of interest. This has been studied by annealing the wires for 1h at temperatures from ambient temperature to 300 ℃ (573 K). It is expected that a raising temperature may lead to structural changes and a reduction in strength. The change in strength is however not expected to be large....... For this reason we have applied a very precise technique to measure the tensile properties of the wires from a strain of 10-4 to the maximum strain of about 1-2%. The structural changes have also been followed to estimate and relate strength changes to changes in structural parameters and morphology....

  14. 76 FR 68422 - Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-840] Galvanized Steel Wire From... determines that galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from Mexico is being, or is likely to be, sold in the... investigation on galvanized wire from Mexico. See Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of China and...

  15. Hierarchical Structure and Strengthening Mechanisms in Pearlitic Steel Wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    Microstructure evolution and strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire (the strongest engineering materials in the world) with a nanostructure down to 10 nm and a flow stress up to 5.4 GPa. The interlamellar spacing and the cementite lamellae thickness...... are reduced during drawing in accordance with the change in wire diameter up to a strain of 2.5. At a higher strain enhanced thinning of cementite lamellae points to decomposition and carbon enrichment of the ferrite lamellae. Dislocations are stored as individual dislocations and in low angle boundaries...

  16. Locating the displacement of the steel wire implantation with the stereotactic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jie; Xu Jianmin; Sun Guomin; Sun Guoping; Zang Da; Zhou Dongxian; Mai Peicheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the manifestation, reason, the processing method of the steel wire implantation with the stereotactic mammography to improve the accuracy of the preoperative positioning. Methods: Seventy-nine cases which got the stereotactic steel wire implantation. In 96 lesions, 13 had steel wire displacement. Among them, 5 cases got steel wire displacement during the stereotactic process, 5 cases got steel wire displacement after the stereotactic process, 2 cases got steel wire displacement during the operation, one case did not show the calcification on the postoperative radiography. Results: The steel wire displacement occurred in 5 cases during the stereotactic process came from the patients and doctors respectively and the repositioning was needed. The steel wire displacement after the stereoscopic positioning was attributed to the overdose injection of local anesthesia, which led to the mismatch between the depth of Z axis of the mammary gland and the actual depth the computer given, the incorrect method for needle placement, and, neglecting whether the steel wire have got the lesion anchored when pulling out the needle set of steel wire hood, besides, these three kinds of instances above were all exaggerated by the accordion effect. For the displacement within 2 cm, the lesion can be excised toward the pathological change direction according to the position that steel wire prompted and re-place the second steel wire, putting the J-shaped steel wire into the needle hood and taking it out of the body. After repositioning, 2 cases had the steel wire prolapse during operation, which resulted from the over-lifting of the steel wire. After placing the steel wire, the radiologist should give an accurate description on the depth and direction to the surgeon and the notch should be taken for incision from the steel wire head end which is proximate to skin. The postoperative specimen from one case had no calcification, which might be related to the condition

  17. Nano-crystallization of steel wire and its wear behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.H. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian 716000 (China) and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytecnical University, Xian 710072 (China)], E-mail: xuyunhua@vip.163.com; Peng, J.H. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian 716000 (China); Fang, L. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China)

    2008-06-15

    As carbon steel wire is widely used in civil engineering and industry, it is quite important to increase its strength. In the present paper, a severe cold drawing approach is applied to increase strength and is shown to produce nano grains. With increasing true strain, the tensile strength increases continuously and the cementite flake thickness decreases correspondingly. It is observed by transmission electron microscopy that a significant amount of cementite flakes have been fragmented and dissolved at true strains. Finally, the grains are transformed to nano-sized crystals. Additionally, the cold drawn nano-sized steel wire has been knitted and filled with polyurethane to produce a composite material. Three-body abrasive wear tests show that the wear resistance of the test material is even better than that of high-Cr white cast irons.

  18. Nano-crystallization of steel wire and its wear behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.H.; Peng, J.H.; Fang, L.

    2008-01-01

    As carbon steel wire is widely used in civil engineering and industry, it is quite important to increase its strength. In the present paper, a severe cold drawing approach is applied to increase strength and is shown to produce nano grains. With increasing true strain, the tensile strength increases continuously and the cementite flake thickness decreases correspondingly. It is observed by transmission electron microscopy that a significant amount of cementite flakes have been fragmented and dissolved at true strains. Finally, the grains are transformed to nano-sized crystals. Additionally, the cold drawn nano-sized steel wire has been knitted and filled with polyurethane to produce a composite material. Three-body abrasive wear tests show that the wear resistance of the test material is even better than that of high-Cr white cast irons

  19. Wire-Arc-Sprayed Aluminum Protects Steel Against Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.; Poorman, Richard; Sanders, Heather L.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Bonds, James W., Jr.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum coatings wire-arc sprayed onto steel substrates found effective in protecting substrates against corrosion. Coatings also satisfy stringent requirements for adhesion and flexibility, both at room temperature and at temperatures as low as liquid hydrogen. Developed as alternatives to corrosion-inhibiting primers and paints required by law to be phased out because they contain and emit such toxic substances as chromium and volatile organic compounds.

  20. 78 FR 29325 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation... of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico, the PRC, and Thailand... Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from the PRC, Mexico, and Thailand, filed on April 23, 2013 (the...

  1. 76 FR 68407 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-975] Galvanized Steel Wire From... galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') is being, or is likely to be, sold in the... concerning imports of galvanized steel wire from the PRC, filed in proper form by Davis Wire Corporation...

  2. Hardening and softening mechanisms of pearlitic steel wire under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of pearlitic steel wire is studied using torsion. • Work hardening results from refinement lamellar pearlitic structure. • Softening results from recovery, shear bands and lamellar fragmentations. • A microstructure based analytical flow stress model is established. - Abstract: The mechanical behaviors and microstructure evolution of pearlitic steel wires under monotonic shear deformation have been investigated by a torsion test and a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with an aim to reveal the softening and hardening mechanisms of a randomly oriented pearlitic structure during a monotonic stain path. Significantly different from the remarkable strain hardening in cold wire drawing, the strain hardening rate during torsion drops to zero quickly after a short hardening stage. The microstructure observations indicate that the inter-lamellar spacing (ILS) decreases and the dislocations accumulate with strain, which leads to hardening of the material. Meanwhile, when the strain is larger than 0.154, the enhancement of dynamic recovery, shear bands (SBs) and cementite fragmentations results in the softening and balances the strain hardening. A microstructure based analytical flow stress model with considering the influence of ILS on the mean free path of dislocations and the softening caused by SBs and cementite fragmentations, has been established and the predicted flow shear curve meets well with the measured curve in the torsion test

  3. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  4. 76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty and... galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... merchandise as galvanized steel wire which is a cold- drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid...

  5. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Dario; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed...... retainers in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain...... or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non...

  6. 77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-820] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY... prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Thailand. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty...

  7. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of antidumping duty..., by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand...

  8. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in... China, Mexico, and Thailand. Accordingly, effective April 23, 2013, the Commission instituted...

  9. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...)) (the Act), that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in...

  10. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of the Harmonized... Publication 4162 (June 2010), entitled Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China: Investigation Nos... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464 and 731-TA-1160 (Final)] Prestressed...

  11. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China... prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation...

  12. STRENGTHENING OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE WITH PRESTRESSED STEEL WIRE ROPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes prestressed steel wire ropes as a way to strengthen a 20-year-old RC T-beam bridge. High strength, low relaxation steel wire ropes with minor radius, high tensile strain and good corrosion resistance were used in this reinforcement. The construction process for strengthening with prestressed steel wire ropes—including wire rope measuring, extruding anchor heads making, anchorage installing, tensioning steel wire ropes and pouring mortar was described. Ultimate bearing capacity of the bridge after strengthening was discussed based on the concrete structure theory. The flexural strength of RC T-beam bridges strengthened with prestressed steel wire ropes was governed by the failure of concrete crushing. To investigate effectiveness of the strengthening method, fielding-load tests were carried out before and after strengthening. The results of concrete strain and deflection show that the flexural strength and stiffness of the strengthened beam are improved. The crack width measurement also indicates that this technique could increase the durability of the bridge. Thus, this strengthened way with prestressed steel wire rope is feasible and effective.

  13. An ad-hoc fretting wear tribotester design for thin steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llavori Iñigo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel wire ropes experience fretting wear damage when the rope runs over a sheave promoting an oscillatory motion between the wires. Consequently, wear scars appear between the contacting wires leading to an increase of the stress field and the following rupture of the wires due to fatigue. That is why the understanding and prediction of the fretting wear phenomena of thin wires is fundamental in order to improve the performance of steel wire ropes. The present research deals with the design of an ad-hoc fretting wear test machine for thin wires. The test apparatus is designed for testing thin wires with a maximum diameter of 1.0 mm, at slip amplitudes ranging from 5 to 300 μm, crossing angle between 0-90°, and contacting force ranging from 0,5 to 5 N. The working principle of displacement amplitude and contacting force as well as the crossing angle between the wires are described. Preliminary studies for understanding the fretting wear characteristics are presented, analysing 0.45 mm diameter cold-drawn eutectoid carbon steel (0.8% C wires (tensile strength higher than 3000 MPa.

  14. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przondziono, J; Szatka, W; Walke, W; Młynarski, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  15. Evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes by statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boroška Ján

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the evaluation of mechanical properties of steel wire ropes using statistical methods from the viewpoint of the quality of single wires as well as the internal construction of the wire ropes. The evaluation is based on the loading capacity calculated from the strength, number of folds and torsions. For the better ilustration, a box plot has been constructed.

  16. 76 FR 13665 - Arcelor Mittal, Formerly Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Known as Mittal Steel Walker Wire, a Subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal--Montreal, Including On-Site Leased... Steel Walker Wire, a subsidiary of Arcelor Mittal-- Montreal, including on-site leased workers from... Walker Wire, Inc., Ferndale, Michigan, separated from employment on or after July 23, 2006 through August...

  17. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-843] Prestressed Concrete Steel...'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico is being... element levels; suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High...

  18. 77 FR 17430 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-975] Galvanized Steel Wire From... Determination of sales at less than fair value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping investigation of galvanized steel... galvanized steel wire from the PRC is being, or is likely to be, sold in the United States at LTFV, as...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755.702 Section 1755.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial...

  20. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dario T; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-06-01

    Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics. Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain, braided, coaxial, or chain) and dimensions were selected for this study. For a torquing angle of 16.2° in the 3-teeth setup torsion moments can vary between 390 cNmm and 3299 cNmm depending on the retainer wire. For the 2-teeth setup the torsion moments are much smaller. Exposure to the flame of a butane-gas torch for 10 seconds to anneal the wire reduces the stiffness of the retainer wire. Clinicians must select wires for fixed retainers very carefully since the difference in resistance to torque is large. A high level of torque control can be achieved with a plain 0.016 × 0.016-inch or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non-uniform and non-reproducible effect.

  1. Revealing microstructural and mechanical characteristics of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires undergoing simulated galvanization treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Feng, E-mail: fangfeng@seu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Hu Xianjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiangsu Sha-Steel Group, Zhangjiagang City, Jiangsu Province 215625 (China); Chen Shaohui [Jiangsu Sha-Steel Group, Zhangjiagang City, Jiangsu Province 215625 (China); Xie Zonghan [School of Engineering, Edith Cowen University, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Jiang Jianqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing time on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-drawn steel wires were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exothermic peak in cold-drawn wire was resulting from the spheroidization of lamellar cementite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spheroidization of lamellar cementite is the main effect for torsion property of wires after annealing. - Abstract: Spheroidization of lamellar cementite often occurs in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires during galvanizing treatment, leading to the degradation of mechanical properties. Therefore, it is important to understand effects of galvanization process on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-drawn wires. In this paper, cold-drawn steel wires were fabricated by cold drawing pearlitic steel rods from 13 mm to 6.9 mm in diameter. Thermal annealing at 450 Degree-Sign C was used to simulate galvanizing treatment of steel wires. Tensile strength, elongation and torsion laps of steel rods and wires with, and without, annealing treatment were determined. Microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to probe the spheroidization temperature of cementite. Experimental results showed that tensile strength of wires increased from 1780 MPa to 1940 MPa for annealing <5 min, and then decreased. Tensile strength became constant for annealing >10 min. Elongation of wires decreased for annealing <2.5 min, and then recovered slightly. It approached a constant value for annealing >5 min. Tensile strength and elongation of wires were both influenced by the strain age hardening and static recovery processes. Notably, torsion laps of wires hardly changed when annealing time was less than 2.5 min, and then decreased rapidly. Its value became constant when the hold time is greater than 10 min. Lamellar cementite began to spheroidize at annealing >2.5 min

  2. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p nickel stainless steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  3. Material and biofilm load of K wires in toe surgery: titanium versus stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Martin; Graf, Susanne; Gersbach, Silke; Hintermann, Beat; Ilchmann, Thomas; Knupp, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Recurrence rates for toe deformity correction are high and primarily are attributable to scar contractures. These contractures may result from subclinical infection. We hypothesized that (1) recurrence of toe deformities and residual pain are related to low-grade infections from biofilm formation on percutaneous K wires, (2) biofilm formation is lower on titanium (Ti) K wires compared with stainless steel (SS) K wires, and (3) clinical outcome is superior with the use of Ti K wires compared with SS K wires. In this prospective nonrandomized, comparative study, we investigated 135 lesser toe deformities (61 patients; 49 women; mean ± SD age, 60 ± 15 years) temporarily fixed with K wires between August 2010 and March 2011 (81 SS, 54 Ti). K wires were removed after 6 weeks. The presence of biofilm-related infections was analyzed by sonication. High bacterial loads (> 500 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were detected on all six toes requiring revision before 6 months. Increased bacterial load was associated with pain and swelling but not recurrence of the deformity. More SS K wires had greater than 100 CFU/mL bacteria than Ti K wires. For K wires with a bacterial count greater than 100 CFU/mL, toes with Ti K wires had a lower recurrence rate, less pain, and less swelling than toes with SS K wires. Ti K wires showed superior clinical outcomes to SS K wires. This appears to be attributable to reduced infection rates. Although additional study is needed, we currently recommend the use of Ti K wires for the transfixation of toe deformities. Level II, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. The influence of drawing speed on surface topography of high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the influence of the drawing speed on surface topography of high carbon steel wires has been assessed. The drawing process of f 5,5 mm wire rod to the final wire of f 1,7 mm was conducted in 12 passes by means of a modern Koch multi-die drawing machine. The drawing speeds in the last passes were: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 m/s. For final wires f 1,7 mm the three-dimensional analysis of the wire surface topography investigation was determined. It has been proved that the wire topography in the drawing process is characterized by a random anisotropy and the amount of directing the geometrical structure of the surface depends on the drawing speed.

  5. A Steel Wire Stress Measuring Sensor Based on the Static Magnetization by Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongge Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new stress measuring sensor is proposed to evaluate the axial stress in steel wires. Without using excitation and induction coils, the sensor mainly consists of a static magnetization unit made of permanent magnets and a magnetic field measurement unit containing Hall element arrays. Firstly, the principle is illustrated in detail. Under the excitation of the magnetization unit, a spatially varying magnetized region in the steel wire is utilized as the measurement region. Radial and axial magnetic flux densities at different lift-offs in this region are measured by the measurement unit to calculate the differential permeability curve and magnetization curve. Feature parameters extracted from the curves are used to evaluate the axial stress. Secondly, the special stress sensor for Φ5 and Φ7 steel wires is developed accordingly. At last, the performance of the sensor is tested experimentally. Experimental results show that the sensor can measure the magnetization curve accurately with the error in the range of ±6%. Furthermore, the obtained differential permeability at working points 1200 A/m and 10000 A/m change almost linearly with the stress in steel wires, the goodness of linear fits are all higher than 0.987. Thus, the proposed steel wire stress measuring sensor is feasible.

  6. Microstructure and transformation kinetics in bainitic steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzginova, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of reaching a better understanding of the microstructure evolution and the overall phase transformation kinetics in hyper-eutectoid steels a commercial SAE 52100 bearing steel and 7 model alloys with different concentrations of chromium, cobalt and aluminum have been studied in this

  7. Nanostructure and mechanical properties of heavily cold-drawn steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.; Bae, J.G.; Park, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of microstructure on the mechanical properties of the high-carbon steel wires were investigated. The wires were fabricated with carbon content of 0.82 and 1.02 wt.% and drawing strain from 4.12 to 4.32. The bending fatigue resistance and torsion ductility were measured by a Hunter fatigue tester and a torsion tester specially designed for fine wires. As the carbon content and drawing strain increased, the fatigue resistance and the torsional ductility of the steel wires decreased, and the tensile strength increased. To elucidate the causes of these behaviors, the microstructure in terms of lamellar spacing (λ P ), cementite thickness (t C ) and morphology of cementite was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 3-dimensional atom probe (3-DAP).

  8. Study Of The Wet Multipass Drawing Process Applied On High Strength Thin Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimont, J.; Felder, E.; Bobadilla, C.; Buessler, P.; Persem, N.; Vaubourg, JP.

    2011-05-01

    Many kinds of high strength thin steel wires are involved in so many applications. Most of the time, these wires are made of a pearlitic steel grade. The current developments mainly concern the wire last drawing operation: after a patenting treatment several reduction passes are performed on a slip-type multipass drawing machine. This paper focuses on modeling this multipass drawing process: a constitutive law based on the wire microstructure evolutions is created, a mechanical study is performed, a set of experiments which enables determining the process friction coefficients is suggested and finally the related analytical model is introduced. This model provides several general results about the process and can be used in order to set the drawing machines.

  9. Comparing the cyclic behavior of concrete cylinders confined by shape memory alloy wire or steel jackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joonam; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Hong-Taek; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire jackets for concrete are distinct from conventional jackets of steel or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) since they provide active confinement which can be easily achieved due to the shape memory effect of SMAs. This study uses NiTiNb SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter to confine concrete cylinders with the dimensions of 300 mm × 150 mm (L × D). The NiTiNb SMAs have a relatively wider temperature hysteresis than NiTi SMAs; thus, they are more suitable for the severe temperature-variation environments to which civil structures are exposed. Steel jackets of passive confinement are also prepared in order to compare the cyclic behavior of actively and passively confined concrete cylinders. For this purpose, monotonic and cyclic compressive loading tests are conducted to obtain axial and circumferential strain. Both strains are used to estimate the volumetric strains of concrete cylinders. Plastic strains from cyclic behavior are also estimated. For the cylinders jacketed by NiTiNb SMA wires, the monotonic axial behavior differs from the envelope of cyclic behavior. The plastic strains of the actively confined concrete show a similar trend to those of passive confinement. This study proposed plastic strain models for concrete confined by SMA wire or steel jackets. For the volumetric strain, the active jackets of NiTiNb SMA wires provide more energy dissipation than the passive jacket of steel

  10. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-829] Prestressed Concrete Steel...'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not... shape, size or alloy element levels; suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties...

  11. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...-807, A-583-828] Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan... stainless steel wire rod (SSWR) from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Spain, and Taiwan would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping and material injury to an industry in the United...

  12. Galvanic coupling of steel and gold alloy lingual brackets with orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronis, Georgios; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Eliades, Theodore; Zinelis, Spiros

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this research was to assess galvanic behavior of lingual orthodontic brackets coupled with representative types of orthodontic wires. Three types of lingual brackets: Incognito (INC), In-Ovation L (IOV), and STb (STB) were combined with a stainless steel (SS) and a nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwire. All materials were initially investigated by scanning electron microscopy / x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) while wires were also tested by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). All bracket-wire combinations were immersed in acidic 0.1M NaCl 0.1M lactic acid and neutral NaF 0.3% (wt) electrolyte, and the potential differences were continuously recorded for 48 hours. The SEM/EDX analysis revealed that INC is a single-unit bracket made of a high gold (Au) alloy while IOV and STB are two-piece appliances in which the base and wing are made of SS alloys. The SS wire demonstrated austenite and martensite iron phase, while NiTi wire illustrated an intense austenite crystallographic structure with limited martensite. All bracket wire combinations showed potential differences below the threshold of galvanic corrosion (200 mV) except for INC and STB coupled with NiTi wire in NaF media. The electrochemical results indicate that all brackets tested demonstrated galvanic compatibility with SS wire, but fluoride treatment should be used cautiously with NiTi wires coupled with Au and SS brackets.

  13. Interfacial Microstructure and Its Influence on Resistivity of Thin Layers Copper Cladding Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjuan; Ding, Zhimin; Zhao, Ruirong

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial microstructure and resistivity of cold-drawn and annealed thin layers copper cladding steel (CCS) wires have been systematically investigated by the methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and resistivity testing. The results showed that the Cu and Fe atoms near interface diffused into each other matrixes. The Fe atoms diffused into Cu matrixes and formed a solid solution. The mechanism of solid solution is of substitution type. When the quantity of Fe atoms exceeds the maximum solubility, the supersaturated solid solution would form Fe clusters and decompose into base Cu and α-Fe precipitated phases under certain conditions. A few of α-Fe precipitates was observed in the copper near Cu/Fe interfaces of cold-drawn CCS wires, with 1-5 nm in size. A number of α-Fe precipitates of 1-20 nm in size can be detected in copper near Cu/Fe interfaces of CCS wires annealed at 850°C. When annealing temperature was less than 750°C, the resistivity of CCS wires annealed was lower than that of cold-drawn CCS wires. However, when annealing temperature was above 750°C, the resistivity of CCS wires was greater than that of cold-drawn CCS wires and increased with rising the annealing temperature. The relationship between nanoscale α-Fe precipitation and resistivity of CCS wires has been well discussed.

  14. Bioactivity and osteointegration of hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel and titanium wires used for intramedullary osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Arnold V; Gorbach, Elena N; Kononovich, Natalia A; Popkov, Dmitry A; Tverdokhlebov, Sergey I; Shesterikov, Evgeniy V

    2017-08-01

    A lot of research was conducted on the use of various biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. Our study investigated the effects of nanostructured calcium-phosphate coating on metallic implants introduced into the bone marrow canal. Stainless steel or titanium 2-mm wires (groups 1 and 2, respectively), and hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel or titanium wires of the same diameter (groups 3 and 4, respectively) were introduced into the tibial bone marrow canal of 20 dogs (each group = 5 dogs). Hydroxyapatite coating was deposited on the wires with the method of microarc oxidation. Light microscopy to study histological diaphyseal transverse sections, scanning electron microscopy to study the bone marrow area around the implant and an X-ray electron probe analyzer to study the content of calcium and phosphorus were used to investigate bioactivity and osteointegration after a four weeks period. Osteointegration was also assessed by measuring wires' pull-off strength with a sensor dynamometer. Bone formation was observed round the wires in the bone marrow canal in all the groups. Its intensity depended upon the features of wire surfaces and implant materials. Maximum percentage volume of trabecular bone was present in the bone marrow canals of group 4 dogs that corresponded to a mean of 27.1 ± 0.14%, while it was only 6.7% in group 1. The coating in groups 3 and 4 provided better bioactivity and osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated titanium wires showed the highest degree of bone formation around them and greater pull-off strength. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating of metallic wires induces an expressed bone formation and provides osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated wires could be used along with external fixation for bone repair enhancement in diaphyseal fractures, management of osteogenesis imperfecta and correction of bone deformities in phosphate diabetes.

  15. The control of stainless steel tubes and wires of small diameter by the Eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stossel, A.; Gallet, G.

    1978-01-01

    Stainless steel tubes and wires with an outer diameter greater than 1 mm were studied by Eddy currents. The sensor characteristics and the detection of defects in function of frequency are presented together with the results obtained in the detection of dimensional and metallurgical defects [fr

  16. Strain-tempering of low carbon martensite steel wire by rapid heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisaka, Yasunori; Kihara, Junji

    1978-01-01

    In the production of prestressed concrete steel wires, a series of the cold drawing-patenting process are performed to improve the strength. In order to reduce cyclic process, the low carbon martensite steel wire which can be produced only by the process of hot rolling and direct quench has been investigated as strain-tempering material. When strain-tempering is performed on the low carbon martensite steel wire, stress relaxation (Re%) increases and mechanical properties such as total elongation, reduction of area, ultimate tensile strength and proof stress decrease remarkably by annealing. In order to shorten the heating time, the authors performed on the steel wire the strain-tempering with a heating time of 1.0 s using direct electrical resistance heating and examined the effects of rapid heating on the stress relaxation and the mechanical properties. Stress relaxation decreases without impairment of the mechanical properties up to a strain-tempering temperature of 573 K. Re(%) after 10.8 ks is 0% at the testing temperature 301 K, 0.49% at 363 K and 1.39% at 433 K. (auth.)

  17. Flat ended steel wires, backscattering targets for calibrating over a large dynamic range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Jaap; Graaff, Reindert

    2006-01-01

    A series of flat ended stainless steel wires was constructed and experimentally evaluated as point targets giving a calibrated backscattering over a large range (up to 72 dB) for ultrasound frequencies in the range 2 to 10 MHz. Over a range of 36 dB, theory was strictly followed (within 1 dB),

  18. Viscoelastic behavior and durability of steel wire - reinforced polyethylene pipes under a high internal pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, S.; Anoshkin, A.N.; Zuyko, V.Yu

    2011-01-01

    The strength tests of steel-wire-reinforced polyethylene pipe specimens showed that, under a constant internal pressure exceeding 80% of their short-term ultimate pressure, the fracture of the specimens occurred in less than 24 hours. At pressures slightly lower than this level, some specimens did

  19. Adhesive Properties of Bonded Orthodontic Retainers to Enamel : Stainless Steel Wire vs Fiber-reinforced Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Krebs, Eliza; Sandham, John; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to compare the bond strength of a stainless steel orthodontic wire vs various fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) used as orthodontic retainers on enamel, analyze the failure types after debonding, and investigate the influence of different application

  20. X-ray residual stress measurements on cold-drawn steel wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, P.F.; Naughton, B.P.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The interplanar spacing d{hkl} versus sin2 ψ distributions were measured for the 211, 310, 220 and 200 reflections from severely cold-drawn 0.7% C steel wire with a diameter of 0.25 mm. From the shape of the curves it was concluded that, as well as a 110 fibre texture and elastic anisotropy, plastic

  1. 77 FR 806 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Taiwan and...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  2. 77 FR 73424 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... materially injuring a U.S. industry, all unliquidated entries of such merchandise from Taiwan, entered or... From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... ``ITC''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan...

  3. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the..., and Taiwan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-770-773 and 775 (Second Review). By order of the Commission...

  4. Modeling the wire-EDM process parameters for EN-8 carbon steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling the wire-EDM process parameters for EN-8 carbon steel using .... The neural networks has been developed with the help of MATLAB 8.1 (R13) package .... Now, Simulation and Prediction will be performed using the trained network.

  5. The influnece of the partial single reduction on mechanical properties wires made from trip steel with 0,43 % C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wiewiórowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large strain inhomogeneity is caused by the shape of deformation zone of die and by the friction between tool and deformed wire for multistage wire drawing processes. The influence on the value of the redundant strain by the use of different partial single reductions during all wire drawing process was observed. This problem is particularly important for TRIP steel wires drawing processes because the strain intensity influences on the speed of retained austenite transformation into martensite.

  6. 76 FR 47150 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-975, A-201-840] Galvanized Steel... in the Federal Register the initiation of the antidumping duty investigations of galvanized steel... is January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010. See Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic...

  7. Electron beam freeforming of stainless steel using solid wire feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjara, P.; Brochu, M.; Jahazi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of electron beam technology for freeforming build-ups on 321 stainless steel substrates was investigated in this work by using 347 stainless steel as a filler metal. The electron beam freeforming studies indicated that line build-ups could be deposited on the substrate material for optimized processing conditions and a slight linear thickening of the re-build occurred as a function of the deposited layer. The evolution in the formation of the Ti (C, N) (Nb, Ti) carbonitrides and Nb (C, N) precipitates was demonstrated to counteract the formation of detrimental Cr-carbides usually observed during welding stainless steels. The mechanical properties of the re-build were similar to the properties of the base metal, showing that homogeneous properties can be expected in the repaired components

  8. An Experimental Study on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members using Steel Wire Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Saadi Hamza Salim Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges and contemporary research in the field of structural engineering is strengthening of existing structural elements using readily available materials in the market. Several investigations were conducted on strengthening of various structural components using traditional and advanced materials. Many researchers tried to enhance the reinforced concrete (RC beams strength using steel plate, Glass and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP & CFRP. For the reason that high weight to the strength ratio and compatibility in strength between FRP composites and steel bars, steel plates and GFRP and CFRP composites are not used for strengthening works practically. Hence, in this present work the suitability of using wire mesh for the purpose of strengthening the RC flexural members is studied by conducting experimental works. New technique of strengthening system using wire mesh with a view to improve sectional properties and subsequently flexural strength of RC beams is adopted in this work. The results for experimental and theoretical analysis were compared and found that good correlation exists between them. The experimental results indicate that RC beams strengthened with steel wire mesh are easy technique for strengthening of existing flexural members.

  9. Structural Parameters and Strengthening Mechanisms in Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Pearlitic steel wires have a nanoscale structure and a strength which can reach 5 GPa. In order to investigate strengthening mechanisms, structural parameters including interlamellar spacing, dislocation density and cementite decomposition, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy...... and high resolution electron microscopy in wires cold drawn up to a strain of 3.7. Three strengthening mechanisms, namely boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening have been analyzed and good agreement has been found between the measured flow stress and the value...

  10. 75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-945] Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES: Effective Date: January 13...

  11. Study of corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film using the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zaijian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jia; Peng, Xin; Wang, Yanhua; Zhang, Penghui; Wang, Haijie; Gao, Congjie

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film with various thickness was investigated by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. It was found that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased significantly under thin seawater film than it was immersed in seawater. The current variation under seawater film indicated that the thickness of diffusion layer of oxygen was about 500 μm, and the maximal current appeared around 40 μm, at which corrosion rate transited from cathodic control to anodic control. The results suggest that WBE method is helpful to study the corrosion process under thin electrolyte film

  12. Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel during wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki; Yi, Il-Cheol; Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong; Kim, Byoungkoo; Zargaran, A.; Kim, Nack J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of wire drawing on the microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of Fe–Mn–Al–C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel has been investigated. The inhomogeneities of the stress state, texture, microstructure, and mechanical properties were clarified over the cross section of drawn wire with the aid of numerical simulation, Schmid factor analysis, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The analysis of texture in drawn wire shows that a mixture of <111> and <100> fiber texture was developed with strain; however, the distribution of <111> and <100> fibers was inhomogeneous along the radial direction of wire due to uneven strain distribution and different stress state along the radial direction. It has also been shown that the morphology, volume fraction, and variant system of twins as well as twinning rate were dependent on the imposed stress state. The surface area was subjected to larger strain and more complex stress state involving compression, shear, and tension than the center area, resulting in a larger twin volume fraction and more twin variants in the former than in the latter at all the strain levels. While the surface area was saturated with twins at an early stage of drawing, the center area was not saturated with twins even at fracture, implying that the fracture of wire were initiated at the surface area because of the exhaustion of ductility due to twinning. Based on these results, it is suggested that imposing a uniform strain distribution along the radial direction of wire by the control of processing conditions such as die angle and amount of reduction per pass is necessary to increase the drawing limit of TWIP steel

  13. Phase transformation of 316L stainless steel from wire to fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyr, Tien-Wei; Shie, Jing-Wen; Huang, Shih-Ju; Yang, Shun-Tung; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2010-01-01

    In this work, quantitative crystalline phase analysis of 316L stainless steel from wire to fiber using a multi-pass cold drawing process was studied using the Rietveld whole XRD profile fitting technique. The different diameters of the fibers: 179, 112, 75, 50, 34, 20, and 8 μm, were produced from an as-received wire with a diameter of 190 μm. The crystalline phases were identified using MDI Jade 5.0 software. The volume fractions of crystalline phases were estimated using a Materials Analysis Using Diffraction software. XRD analysis revealed that the crystal structure of as-received wire is essentially a γ-austenite crystalline phase. The phase transformation occurred during the 316L stainless steel from wire to fiber. Three crystalline phases such as γ-austenite, α'-martensite, and sigma phase of the fine fiber were observed. A cold drawing accelerates the sigma phase precipitates, particularly during the heat treatment of the fiber.

  14. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress of about 3.5GPa. The wires have been drawn up to a strain of 3.7 and the structures analyzed and quantified by transmis......Strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress of about 3.5GPa. The wires have been drawn up to a strain of 3.7 and the structures analyzed and quantified...... by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy. The mechanical properties have been determined by tensile testing. It is found that the interlamellar spacing and the thickness of the cementite lamellae are reduced in accordance with the changes in wire diameter up to a strain of 2...... at the ferrite/cementite interface. Three strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed: (i) boundary strengthening, (ii) dislocation strengthening and (iii) solid solution hardening. The individual and combined contributions, based on an assumption of linear additivity, of these mechanisms to the wire strength...

  15. The Analysis of Force Parameters in Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires in Conventional and Hydrodynamic Dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes force parameters in the process of multistage drawing of steel wires in conventional and hydrodynamic dies. The drawing process of the wire rod with a diameter of 5.5 mm for wires with a diameter of 1.70 mm was performed in 12 drafts with the usage of the multistage drawbench Koch KGT with the speed range of 5-25 m/s.

  16. 76 FR 28953 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Wire Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-Market Economy Questionnaire (January 21, 2011... Administrative Review of Steel Garment Wire Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-Market Economy... Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-Market Economy Questionnaire (May 2, 2011); see also...

  17. 76 FR 23548 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations... Imports of Galvanized Steel Wire from the People's Republic of China (the PRC) and Mexico and... Initiation Checklist at 6-10 and Mexico Initiation Checklist at 6- 10. Export Price The PRC For the PRC...

  18. Self-protective powder wire for semiautomatic welding of corrosion resistant chromium-nickel type 18-10 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipodaev, V.N.; Kakhovskij, N.I.; Fadeeva, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    Self-protecting NP-ANV1 powder wire has been developed for welding 18-10 type stainless steels. The use of the wire provides for the same running properties of the welds as the TsL-11 electrodes, the welding being 3-5 times more efficient

  19. Pelepasan ion nikel dan kromium kawat Australia dan stainless steel dalam saliva buatan (The release of nickel and chromium ions from Australian wire and stainless steel in artificial saliva)

    OpenAIRE

    Nolista Indah Rasyid; Pinandi Sri Pudyani; JCP Heryumani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment needs several types of wire to produce biomechanical force to move teeth. The use orthodontic wire within the mouth interacts with saliva, causing the release of nickel and chromium ions. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the effect of immersion time in artificial saliva between special type of Australian wire and stainless steel on the release of nickel and chromium ions. Methods: Thirty special type Australian wires and 30 stainless steel wires ...

  20. Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

    2009-07-01

    A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

  1. Effect of surface treatment on mechanical properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N, Karunagaran [S.K.P Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai (India); A, Rajadurai [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates the effect of surface treatment for glass fiber, stainless steel wire mesh on tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. The glass fiber fabric is surface treated either by 1 N solution of sulfuric acid or 1 N solution of sodium hydroxide. The stainless steel wire mesh is also surface treated by either electro dissolution or sand blasting. The hybrid composites are fabricated using epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber and fine stainless steel wire mesh by hand lay-up technique at room temperature. The hybrid composite consisting of acid treated glass fiber and sand blasted stainless steel wire mesh exhibits a good combination of tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact behavior in comparison with the composites made without any surface treatment. The fine morphological modifications made on the surface of the glass fiber and stainless steel wire mesh enhances the bonding between the resin and reinforcement which inturn improved the tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties.

  2. Effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuyu; Wang, Dongyue; Zhou, Tingting; Wang, Lin; Ma, Junqing

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon (DLC) coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel archwires. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology was applied to coat DLC films onto the surface of austenitic stainless steel wires, and salt-bath nitrocarburizing technology was employed to achieve surface hardening of other wires. Surface and cross-sectional characteristics, microhardness, modulus of elasticity, friction resistance, corrosion resistance, and cell toxicity of the modified and control wires were analyzed. The surfaces of the DLC-coated and nitrocarburized wires were both smooth and even. Compared with the control, the DLC-coated wires were increased in surface hardness 1.46 times, decreased in elastic modulus, reduced in kinetic friction coefficient by 40.71%, and decreased in corrosion current density by two orders of magnitude. The nitrocarburized wire was increased in surface hardness 2.39 times, exhibited an unchanged elastic modulus, demonstrated a decrease in maximum static friction force of 22.2%, and rose in corrosion current density two orders of magnitude. Cytotoxicity tests revealed no significant toxicity associated with the modified wires. DLC coating and nitrocarburizing significantly improved the surface hardness of the wires, reduced friction, and exhibited good biocompatibility. The nanostructured DLC coating provided excellent corrosion resistance and good elasticity, and while the nitrocarburizing technique substantially improved frictional properties, it reduced the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel wires to a lesser extent.

  3. Study of the deoxidation of steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, K.; Jonsson, L.; Sichen, Du; Viswanathan, N. N.

    2001-04-01

    In the present work, the deoxidation of liquid steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle was studied by mathematical modeling using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. This was complemented by an industrial trial study conducted at Uddeholm Tooling AB (Hagfors, Sweden). The results of the industrial trials were found to be in accordance with the results of the model calculation. In order to study the aspect of nucleation of alumina, emphasis was given to the initial period of deoxidation, when aluminum wire was injected into the bath. The concentration distributions of aluminum and oxygen were calculated both by considering and not considering the chemical reaction. Both calculations revealed that the driving force for the nucleation fo Al2O3 was very high in the region near the upper surface of the bath and close to the wire injection. The estimated nucleation rate in the vicinity of the aluminum wire injection point was much higher than the recommended value for spontaneously homogeneous nucleation, 103 nuclei/(cm3/s). The results of the model calculation also showed that the alumina nuclei generated at the vicinity of the wire injection point are transported to other regions by the flow.

  4. Effect of tensile overloads on fatigue crack growth of high strength steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.; Reguly, A.; Strohaecker, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A proof load process may be an option to increase the fatigue life of flexible pipelines. • There is possibility to produce plastic deformation at crack tip of tensile armor wires. • Controlled overloads provide effective crack growth retardation. • Crack growth retardation is also evident at higher stress ratios. - Abstract: Fatigue of the tensile armor wires is the main failure mode of flexible risers. Techniques to increase the life of these components are required to improve the processes safety on oil exploration. This work evaluates the crack growth retardation of high strength steel wires used in flexible pipelines. Fracture toughness tests were performed to establish the level of stress intensity factor wherein the wires present significant plastic deformation at the crack tip. The effect of tensile overload on fatigue behavior was assessed by fatigue crack growth testing under constant ΔK control and different overload ratios with two different load ratios. The outcomes show that the application of controlled overloads provides crack retardation and increases the fatigue life of the wires more than 31%. This behavior is also evident at stress ratio of 0.5, in spite of the crack closure effect being minimized by increasing the applied mean stress

  5. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  6. Analysis of Steel Wire Rope Diagnostic Data Applying Multi-Criteria Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel ropes are complex flexible structures used in many technical applications, such as elevators, cable cars, and funicular cabs. Due to the specific design and critical safety requirements, diagnostics of ropes remains an important issue. Broken wire number in the steel ropes is limited by safety standards when they are used in the human lifting and carrying installations. There are some practical issues on loose wires—firstly, it shows end of lifetime of the entire rope, independently of wear, lubrication or wrong winding on the drums or through pulleys; and, secondly, it can stick in the tight pulley—support gaps and cause deterioration of rope structure up to birdcage formations. Normal rope operation should not generate broken wires, so increasing of their number shows a need for rope installation maintenance. This paper presents a methodology of steel rope diagnostics and the results of analysis using multi-criteria analysis methods. The experimental part of the research was performed using an original test bench to detect broken wires on the rope surface by its vibrations. Diagnostics was performed in the range of frequencies from 60 to 560 Hz with a pitch of 50 Hz. The obtained amplitudes of the broken rope wire vibrations, different from the entire rope surface vibration parameters, was the significant outcome. Later analysis of the obtained experimental results revealed the most significant values of the diagnostic parameters. The evaluation of the power of the diagnostics was implemented by using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Various decision-making methods are necessary due to unknown efficiencies with respect to the physical phenomena of the evaluated processes. The significance of the methods was evaluated using objective methods from the structure of the presented data. Some of these methods were proposed by authors of this paper. Implementation of MCDM in diagnostic data analysis and definition of the

  7. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL-MOLYBDENUM STEEL WITH WELDING FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  8. Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Defects in the Galvanized Coating of High Carbon Steel Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfi, Marcello; Solazzi, Luigi; Poli, Sandro

    2017-03-06

    This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present in the coating before the torsion test. In order to explain the origin of these cracks, systematic metallographic investigations were performed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope on both the wires and the rods that have been cold drawn to produce the wire. The chemical composition of the galvanized coatings was evaluated by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. Micro bidimensional X-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to measure the residual stresses in the galvanized coating. The results showed that the failure is related to two main factors: the relatively high content of silicon in the steel and the unsuitable cooling rate of the rods at the exit from the galvanizing bath. The mechanism proposed to explain the origin of the defects was supported by Finite Elements Methods simulations and verified with in-plant tests. The proper countermeasures were then applied and the problem successfully solved.

  9. Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Defects in the Galvanized Coating of High Carbon Steel Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gelfi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present in the coating before the torsion test. In order to explain the origin of these cracks, systematic metallographic investigations were performed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope on both the wires and the rods that have been cold drawn to produce the wire. The chemical composition of the galvanized coatings was evaluated by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. Micro bidimensional X-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to measure the residual stresses in the galvanized coating. The results showed that the failure is related to two main factors: the relatively high content of silicon in the steel and the unsuitable cooling rate of the rods at the exit from the galvanizing bath. The mechanism proposed to explain the origin of the defects was supported by Finite Elements Methods simulations and verified with in-plant tests. The proper countermeasures were then applied and the problem successfully solved.

  10. Martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel orthodontic wires during intraoral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Paula P; de Biasi, Ronaldo S; Elias, Carlos N; Nojima, Lincoln I

    2010-12-01

    Our purpose was to study the mechanical properties and phase transformations of orthodontic wires submitted to in-vivo exposure in the mouth for different periods of time. Stainless steel wires were tied to fixed orthodontic appliances of 30 patients from the orthodontics clinic of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro School of Dentistry in Brazil. According to the duration of the clinical treatment, the patients were divided into 3 groups. After in-vivo exposure, the samples were studied by mechanical testing (torsion) and ferromagnetic resonance. Statistical analyses were carried out to evaluate the correlation between time of exposure, mechanical properties, and austenite-to-martensite transformation among the groups. The results were compared with as-received control samples. The torque values increased as time in the mouth increased. The increase in torque resistance showed high correlations with time of exposure (P = 0.005) and austenite-martensite phase transformation. The resistance of stainless steel orthodontic wires increases as the time in the mouth increases; this effect is attributed to the austenite-to-martensite transformation. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  12. Investigation of the tensile properties of continuous steel wire-reinforced gray cast iron composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdemir, Ahmet; Kus, Recai; Simsir, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Metal matrix composite (MMC) is an important structural material. → Gray cast irons as a matrix material in MMC have more advantages than other cast irons. → Interface greatly determines the mechanical properties of MMC. → Interface formed by diffusion of carbon atoms. → While decarburizing takes place in gray cast iron, carburiszing takes place in steel near the interface. - Abstract: The aim of the present study was to improve the tensile properties of gray cast iron by reinforcing the material with a steel wire. The composite was produced by sand mold casting, and the specimens were normalized by applying heat treatments at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C, and 900 deg. C. Tension tests were conducted on gray cast iron and composite specimens, and the microstructure of the specimens was examined with an optical microscope. The fracture surface of the tension test specimens was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and graphite-free transition regions with high degrees of hardness were observed due to the diffusion of carbon from the cast iron to the steel wire. The microstructure of the transition region (fine pearlitic phase with partially dissolved graphite flakes) and the bond quality in the transition region increased the tensile properties of cast iron composites. Also, it is concluded that the tensile properties of gray cast iron increased with an increase in the normalization temperature.

  13. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: veronique.massardier@insa-lyon.fr [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Kléber, X. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2015-09-17

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing.

  14. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Kléber, X.; Sauvage, X.; Mari, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing

  15. Investigation of the tensile properties of continuous steel wire-reinforced gray cast iron composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdemir, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Kus, Recai [Department of Mechanical Education, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Simsir, Mehmet, E-mail: msimsir@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Kayseri Yolu 7. Km, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)

    2011-04-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Metal matrix composite (MMC) is an important structural material. {yields} Gray cast irons as a matrix material in MMC have more advantages than other cast irons. {yields} Interface greatly determines the mechanical properties of MMC. {yields} Interface formed by diffusion of carbon atoms. {yields} While decarburizing takes place in gray cast iron, carburiszing takes place in steel near the interface. - Abstract: The aim of the present study was to improve the tensile properties of gray cast iron by reinforcing the material with a steel wire. The composite was produced by sand mold casting, and the specimens were normalized by applying heat treatments at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C, and 900 deg. C. Tension tests were conducted on gray cast iron and composite specimens, and the microstructure of the specimens was examined with an optical microscope. The fracture surface of the tension test specimens was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and graphite-free transition regions with high degrees of hardness were observed due to the diffusion of carbon from the cast iron to the steel wire. The microstructure of the transition region (fine pearlitic phase with partially dissolved graphite flakes) and the bond quality in the transition region increased the tensile properties of cast iron composites. Also, it is concluded that the tensile properties of gray cast iron increased with an increase in the normalization temperature.

  16. Investigation about the Chrome Steel Wire Arc Spray Process and the Resulting Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, J.; Bergmann, J. P.; Jahn, S.; Knapp, S.; van Rodijnen, F.; Fischer, G.

    2007-12-01

    Nowadays, wire-arc spraying of chromium steel has gained an important market share for corrosion and wear protection applications. However, detailed studies are the basis for further process optimization. In order to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the effects of the spray parameters DoE-based experiments had been carried out with high-speed camera shoots. In this article, the effects of spray current, voltage, and atomizing gas pressure on the particle jet properties, mean particle velocity and mean particle temperature and plume width on X46Cr13 wire are presented using an online process monitoring device. Moreover, the properties of the coatings concerning the morphology, composition and phase formation were subject of the investigations using SEM, EDX, and XRD-analysis. These deep investigations allow a defined verification of the influence of process parameters on spray plume and coating properties and are the basis for further process optimization.

  17. Evaluation of frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brakcets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTiarch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mirzaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When using sliding mechanics for space closure during orthodontic treatment, friction occurs at the bracket-wire interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brackets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi wires. Methods: In this experimental study, we used 5 different types of orthodontic wires. Brackets and wires were divided in to 5 groups: 1-(monocrystalline+stainless steel 18 2–(monocrystalline+stainless steel 19×25 3-(monocrystalline+Beta-TMA 4–(monocrystalline+Beta TMA 19×25 5-(monocrystalline+NiTi 18. Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between bracket and wire was 0 and the wires were pulled through the slots at a speed of 10 mm/min. Tests were performed 10 times for each group in artificial saliva. The average of 10 forces recorded was considered as static friction. One-way ANOVA and SPSS Version 18 and LSD post hoc test were used to evaluate the results of the study. Results: The mean static frictional force for each group was: group1: 0.82 ± 0.14, group 2: 1.09 ± 0.30, group 3: 0.87 ± 0.53, group 4: 1.9 ± 1.16, group 5: 1.42 ± 0.30. There was a significant difference when comparing the two groups of similar wires in terms of shape (round or rectangular cross-section as when comparing Beta TMA 18 and 19×25 arch wires with each other, the obtained p-value was 0.023, while the obtained p-value for the comparison of stainles steel arch wires was 0.034 . Conclusions: The result of this study shows that Stainless Steel 18 wires generate the least amount of friction and round wires produce less friction than the rectangular wires. Beta TMA wires generate the highest amount of friction.

  18. Evaluation of frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brakcets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mirzaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When using sliding mechanics for space closure during orthodontic treatment, friction occurs at the bracket-wire interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brackets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi wires. Methods: In this experimental study, we used 5 different types of orthodontic wires. Brackets and wires were divided in to 5 groups: 1-(monocrystalline+stainless steel 18 2–(monocrystalline+stainless steel 19×25 3-(monocrystalline+Beta-TMA 4–(monocrystalline+Beta TMA 19×25 5-(monocrystalline+NiTi 18. Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between bracket and wire was 0 and the wires were pulled through the slots at a speed of 10 mm/min. Tests were performed 10 times for each group in artificial saliva. The average of 10 forces recorded was considered as static friction. One-way ANOVA and SPSS Version 18 and LSD post hoc test were used to evaluate the results of the study. Results: The mean static frictional force for each group was: group1: 0.82±0.14, group 2: 1.09±0.30, group 3: 0.87±0.53, group 4: 1.9±1.16, group 5: 1.42±0.30. There was a significant difference when comparing the two groups of similar wires in terms of shape (round or rectangular cross-section as when comparing Beta TMA 18 and 19×25 arch wires with each other, the obtained p-value was 0.023, while the obtained p-value for the comparison of stainles steel arch wires was 0.034. Conclusions: The result of this study shows that Stainless Steel 18 wires generate the least amount of friction and round wires produce less friction than the rectangular wires. Beta TMA wires generate the highest amount of friction.

  19. Dissimilar material joining using laser (aluminum to steel using zinc-based filler wire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Alexandre; Shabadi, Rajashekar; Deschamps, Alexis; Suery, Michel; Matteï, Simone; Grevey, Dominique; Cicala, Eugen

    2007-04-01

    Joining steel with aluminum involving the fusion of one or both materials is possible by laser beam welding technique. This paper describes a method, called laser braze welding, which is a suitable process to realize this structure. The main problem with thermal joining of steel/aluminum assembly with processes such as TIG or MIG is the formation of fragile intermetallic phases, which are detrimental to the mechanical performances of such joints. Braze welding permits a localized fusion of the materials resulting in a limitation on the growth of fragile phases. This article presents the results of a statistical approach for an overlap assembly configuration using a filler wire composed of 85% Zn and 15% Al. Tensile tests carried on these assemblies demonstrate a good performance of the joints. The fracture mechanisms of the joints are analyzed by a detailed characterization of the seams.

  20. Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Miao, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Lu, Xiaocui

    2008-03-01

    An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with Xilinx's VIRTEX-4 FPGA that embeds PowerPC and MAC IP core, and its network communication software based on TCP/IP protocol is programmed by loading LwIP to PowerPC. The nondestructive testing of high-speed conveyor belt with steel wire ropes and network transfer function are implemented. It is a strong real-time system with rapid scanning speed, high reliability and remotely nondestructive testing function. The nondestructive detector can be applied to the detection of product line in industry.

  1. Cladding nuclear steels - the application of plasma-arc hot wire surfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trarbach, K.O.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of one and two layer plasma-arc hot wire cladding on the HAZ microstructure of the fine grained structural steel 22 NiMoCr 3 7, which is similar to ASTM A 508, class 2, and steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5, similar to ASTM A 533, grade B, class 1 is determined. Attention is directed particularly to the behaviour of the susceptible region, and the consumables considered are cladding materials X 2 CrNiNb 19 9, similar to ER 347 Elc, and S-NiCr 20 Nb, similar to ER NiCr-3 (Inconel 82). Results of corrosion resistance tests show that this cladding technique can be recommended for manufacture of equipment for the chemical industry to avoid corrosion failure. Plasma-arc hot wire surfacing is also shown to be capable of depositing single or double clad layers to meet the highest safety requirements and could be applied to nuclear power plants for the special manufacture of wear resistant parts and for protection of equipment subject to a variety of corrosive environments. (U.K.)

  2. Strengthening of Masonry Columns with BFRCM or with Steel Wires: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Fossetti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, innovative materials are more frequently adopted for strengthening historical constructions and masonry structures. The target of these techniques is to improve the structural efficiency with retrofitting methods while having a reduced aesthetical impact. In particular, the use of basalt fiber together with a cementitious matrix emerges as a new technique. This kind of fiber is obtained by basalt rock without other components, and consequently it could be considered a natural material, compatible with masonry. Another innovative technique for strengthening masonry columns consists of applying steel wires in the correspondence of mortar joints. Both techniques have been recently proposed and some aspects of their structural performances are still open. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the compressive behavior of clay brick masonry columns reinforced either with Basalt Fiber–Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (BFRCM or with steel wire collaring. Uniaxial compressive tests were performed on eight retrofitted columns and four control specimens until failure. Two masonry grades were considered by varying the mix used for the mortar. Results are presented and discussed in terms of axial stress-strain curves, failure modes and crack patterns of tested specimens. Comparisons with unreinforced columns show the capability of these techniques in increasing ductility with limited strength enhancements.

  3. Structure of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus-steel blades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gerasimov, V. Yu.; Rodionov, D. P.

    2008-08-01

    Chemical composition, structure, and hardness of samples of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus steels), namely, an Anosov bulat blade (1841), Obukhov bulat blade (1859), and a Shvetsov forged bulat-steel blank (crucible steel) have been investigated. The Anosov bulat possesses all signs of the classical Damascus steel; this is a hypereutectoid carbon steel with a structure formed from chains of carbides against the background of fine pearlite (troostite). A banded pattern is revealed on the surface of the blade. The Obukhov blade cannot be referred to classical Damascus steel. The pattern on the surface of the blade is absent, despite the fact that the initial steel is hypereutectoid. The structure of the blade does not correspond to the structure of classical Damascus steel; this is bainite with numerous cementite particles. The Shvetsov sample cannot be regarded as Damascus steel since it is made from a hypereutectoid steel alloyed by managanese and tungsten. The pattern on the surface of the metal is a consequence of the dendritic structure of the ingot which is developed during forging. The structure of this pattern differs from classical damascene pattern, since the latter is formed due to a specific arrangement of a variety of carbide particles against the pearlitic or some other background obtained during heat treatment.

  4. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel has become necessary for India as a participant in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFM steel is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFM steel filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFM steel. The purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and for narrow-gap gas tungsten arc welding (NG-GTAW) that reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser-MIG welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using GTAW process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some amount of delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimized to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in the weld metal and with optimized mechanical properties. Results showed that the weld metals are free from delta-ferrite. Tensile properties at ambient temperature and at 500 C are well above the specified values, and are much higher than the base metal values. Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) has been evaluated as -81 C based on the 68 J criteria. The present study highlights the basis and methodology

  5. 77 FR 28354 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... from the People's Republic of China: Non-market Economy Questionnaire (December 28, 2011). \\4\\ See id... China: Non-market Economy Questionnaire (February 6, 2012). On March 8, 2012, we selected Shaoxing... Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-market Economy...

  6. 77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United...

  7. 77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final Phase of...) under section 735(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in...

  8. Twin-Wire Pulsed Tandem Gas Metal Arc Welding of API X80 Steel Linepipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin-Wire Pulsed Tandem Gas Metal Arc Welding process with high welding production efficiency was used to join the girth weld seam of API X80 steel linepipe of 18.4 mm wall thickness and 1422 mm diameter. The macrostructure, microstructure, hardness, and electrochemical corrosion behavior of welded joints were studied. Effects of temperature and Cl− concentration on the corrosion behavior of base metal and weld metal were investigated. Results show that the welded joint has good morphology, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of both the base metal and the weld metal decreases with increasing temperature or Cl− concentration. In the solution with high Cl− concentration, the base metal and weld metal are more susceptible to pitting. The corrosion resistance of the weld metal is slightly lower than that of the base metal.

  9. Correlations between operating conditions, microstructure and mechanical properties of twin wire arc sprayed steel coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandin, G.; Liao, H.; Feng, Z.Q.; Coddet, C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental design matrix was set up in which carbon steel coatings were deposited with a twin wire arc spray gun (TAFA 9000 TM ), using either compressed air or nitrogen as spraying gas. The coating's mechanical properties were studied. Some correlations were made between these properties, spraying conditions and the microstructure of the deposits. Young's modulus was estimated by the single beam method using finite element modeling. Results show that direct relationships do exist between spray conditions, oxide content in the coating and microhardness. Young's modulus of the coatings depends on the lamella thickness and the oxide content. When increasing the compressed air flow rate, Young's modulus increases at first because smaller particles and finer lamellae were made and it decreases later because of a higher oxide content. The increase of nitrogen flow rate lowers the oxide content and increases Young's modulus

  10. Mechanical and microstructural integrity of nickel-titanium and stainless steel laser joined wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannod, J.; Bornert, M.; Bidaux, J.-E.; Bataillard, L.; Karimi, A.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.; Hessler-Wyser, A.

    2011-01-01

    The biomedical industry shows increasing interest in the joining of dissimilar metals, especially with the aim of developing devices that combine different mechanical and corrosive properties. As an example, nickel-titanium shape memory alloys joined to stainless steel are very promising for new invasive surgery devices, such as guidewires. A fracture mechanics study of such joined wires was carried out using in situ tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy imaging combined with chemical analysis, and revealed an unusual fracture behaviour at superelastic stress. Nanoindentation was performed to determine the mechanical properties of the welded area, which were used as an input for mechanical computation in order to understand this unexpected behaviour. Automated image correlation allowed verification of the mechanical modelling and a reduced stress-strain model is proposed to explain the special fracture mechanism. This study reveals the fact that tremendous property changes at the interface between the NiTi base wire and the weld area have more impact on the ultimate tensile strength than the chemical composition variation across the welded area.

  11. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martenstic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Weld microstructure produced by RAFMS filler wires are free from delta ferrite. → Cooling rates of by weld thermal cycles influences the presence of delta ferrite. → Weld parameters modified with higher pre heat temperature and high heat input. → PWHT optimized based on correlation of hardness between base and weld metals. → Optimised mechanical properties achieved by proper tempering of the martensite. - Abstract: Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAFMS) has become mandatory to India to participate in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFMS is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFMS filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFMS. Purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) and narrow gap tungsten inert gas welding (NG-TIG), which reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, autogenous welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using TIG process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 deg. C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimised to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in

  12. Biofilm formation on stainless steel and gold wires for bonded retainers in vitro and in vivo and their susceptibility to oral antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Marije A; Pelser, Floris D H; van der Mei, Henny C; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Busscher, Henk J; Ren, Yijin

    2013-05-01

    Bonded retainers are used in orthodontics to maintain treatment result. Retention wires are prone to biofilm formation and cause gingival recession, bleeding on probing and increased pocket depths near bonded retainers. In this study, we compare in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation on different wires used for bonded retainers and the susceptibility of in vitro biofilms to oral antimicrobials. Orthodontic wires were exposed to saliva, and in vitro biofilm formation was evaluated using plate counting and live/dead staining, together with effects of exposure to toothpaste slurry alone or followed by antimicrobial mouthrinse application. Wires were also placed intra-orally for 72 h in human volunteers and undisturbed biofilm formation was compared by plate counting and live/dead staining, as well as by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for compositional differences in biofilms. Single-strand wires attracted only slightly less biofilm in vitro than multi-strand wires. Biofilms on stainless steel single-strand wires however, were much more susceptible to antimicrobials from toothpaste slurries and mouthrinses than on single-strand gold wires and biofilms on multi-strand wires. Also, in vivo significantly less biofilm was found on single-strand than on multi-strand wires. Microbial composition of biofilms was more dependent on the volunteer involved than on wire type. Biofilms on single-strand stainless steel wires attract less biofilm in vitro and are more susceptible to antimicrobials than on multi-strand wires. Also in vivo, single-strand wires attract less biofilm than multi-strand ones. Use of single-strand wires is preferred over multi-strand wires, not because they attract less biofilm, but because biofilms on single-strand wires are not protected against antimicrobials as in crevices and niches as on multi-strand wires.

  13. A preliminary study of laser cladding of AISI 316 stainless steel using preplaced NiTi wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, F.T.; Lo, K.H.; Man, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    NiTi wire of diameter 1 mm was preplaced on AISI 316 stainless steel samples by using a binder. Melting of the NiTi wire to form a clad track on the steel substrate was achieved by means of a high-power CW Nd:YAG laser using different processing parameters. The geometry and microstructure of the clad deposit were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The hardness and compositional profiles along the depth of the deposit were acquired by microhardness testing and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The elastic behavior of the deposit was analyzed using nanoindentation, and compared with that of the NiTi wire. The dilution of the NiTi clad by the substrate material beneath was substantial in single clad tracks, but could be successively reduced in multiple clad layers. A strong fusion bonding with tough interface could be obtained as evidenced by the integrity of Vickers indentations in the interfacial region. In comparison with the NiTi cladding on AISI 316 using the tungsten inert gas (TIG) process, the laser process was capable of producing a much less defective cladding with a more homogeneous microstructure, which is an essential cladding quality with respect to cavitation erosion and corrosion resistance. Thus, the present preliminary study shows that laser cladding using preplaced wire is a feasible method to obtain a thick and homogeneous NiTi-based alloy layer on AISI 316 stainless steel substrate

  14. Swelling behaviors in a fuel assembly for the wrapping wire and duct made of modified 316 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Ichiro; Akasaka, Naoaki

    2010-01-01

    Swelling behaviors in the wrapping wire and duct made of modified type 316 austenitic stainless steel were investigated in a fuel assembly irradiated in a fast breeder reactor. The temperature dependence of volumetric swelling was measured in the wrapping wire and the duct, and the peak temperatures of swelling were evaluated. The void distribution in the material was measured by microstructure observation with electron microscopy, and it was found that the voids prefentially grew near the surface. This phenomenon seemed to be caused by a surface effect on the neutron-irradiated materials. (author)

  15. Dislocation-based plasticity and strengthening mechanisms in sub-20 nm lamellar structures in pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The tensile properties and the deformation microstructure of pearlitic steel (0.8 wt % C) have been quantified in wires drawn to strains in the range from 3.7 to 5.4, having a flow stress in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 GPa. With increasing strain the interlamellar spacing (ILS) decreases from about...... mechanism in the wire and three strengthening mechanisms are applied: boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening with their relative contributions to the total flow stress which change as the strain is increased. Based on linear additivity good correspondence between...

  16. Plastohydrodynamic drawing and coating of stainless steel wire using a tapered bore die of no metal to metal contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S.; Basmage, O.; Stokes, J. T.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2018-05-01

    A review of wire coating studies using plasto-hydrodynamic pressure shows that most of the works were carried out by conducting experiments simultaneously with simulation analysis based upon Bernoulli's principle and Euler and Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. These characteristics relate to the domain of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which is an interdisciplinary topic (Fluid Mechanics, Numerical Analysis of Fluid flow and Computer Science). This research investigates two aspects: (i) simulation work and (ii) experimentation. A mathematical model was developed to investigate the flow pattern of the molten polymer and pressure distribution within the wire-drawing dies, assessment of polymer coating thickness on the coated wires and speed of coating on the wires at the outlet of the drawing dies, without deploying any pressurizing pump. In addition to a physical model which was developed within ANSYS™ environment through the simulation design of ANSYS™ Workbench. The design was customized to simulate the process of wire-coating on the fine stainless-steel wires using drawing dies having different bore geometries such as: stepped parallel bore, tapered bore and combined parallel and tapered bore. The convergence of the designed CFD model and numerical and physical solution parameters for simulation were dynamically monitored for the viscous flow of the polypropylene (PP) polymer. Simulation results were validated against experimental results and used to predict the ideal bore shape to produce a thin coating on stainless wires with different diameter. Simulation studies confirmed that a specific speed should be attained by the stainless-steel wires while passing through the drawing dies. It has been observed that all the speed values within specific speed range did not produce a coating thickness having the desired coating characteristic features. Therefore, some optimization of the experimental set up through design of experiments (Stat-Ease) was applied to

  17. Decompression Device Using a Stainless Steel Tube and Wire for Treatment of Odontogenic Cystic Lesions: A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun-Joo; Baek, Jin-A; Leem, Dae-Ho

    2014-11-01

    Decompression is considered an effective treatment for odontogenic cystic lesions in the jaw. A variety of decompression devices are successfully used for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and ameloblastoma. The purpose of these devices is to keep an opening between the cystic lesion and the oral environment during treatment. The aim of this report is to describe an effective decompression tube using a stainless steel tube and wire for treatment of jaw cystic lesions.

  18. INFLUENCE OF MICRO-SEGREGATION IN PB-S-ALLOYED FREE MACHINING STEELS ON THE SURFACE QUALITY OF THE ROLLED WIRE-ROD

    OpenAIRE

    Leuschke, U.; Rajesh Puvvada, N.; Puvvada, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Free machining steel billets were manufactured at the continuous casting machine. The manufactured billets did not exhibit any kind of surface defects but surface cracks and slivers appeared when the billets were rolled into wires and rods at the wire-rod mill. The defects on rolled wire-rod have been detected by a hot eddy current system. Further investigations in these defects with the help of microprobe analysis system and scanning electron microscope equipped with image analysis system re...

  19. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL-MOLYBDENUM STEEL WITH WELDING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  20. Modeling of electric and heat processes in spot resistance welding of cross-wire steel bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatcheva, Ilona; Darzhanova, Denitsa; Manilova, Marina

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is the modeling of coupled electric and heat processes in a system for spot resistance welding of cross-wire reinforced steel bars. The real system geometry, dependences of material properties on the temperature, and changes of contact resistance and released power during the welding process have been taken into account in the study. The 3D analysis of the coupled AC electric and transient thermal field distributions is carried out using the finite element method. The novel feature is that the processes are modeled for several successive time stages, corresponding to the change of contact area, related contact resistance, and reduction of the released power, occurring simultaneously with the creation of contact between the workpieces. The values of contact resistance and power changes have been determined on the basis of preliminary experimental and theoretical investigations. The obtained results present the electric and temperature field distributions in the system. Special attention has been paid to the temperature evolution at specified observation points and lines in the contact area. The obtained information could be useful for clarification of the complicated nature of interrelated electric, thermal, mechanical, and physicochemical welding processes. Adequate modeling is also an opportunity for proper control and improvement of the system.

  1. Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Dissimilar Titanium Alloy and Stainless Steel Using Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zemin; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Laser-arc hybrid welding with Cu3Si filler wire was employed to join dissimilar Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and AISI316 stainless steel (316SS). The effects of welding parameters on bead shape, microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were investigated in detail. The results show that cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 212 MPa. In the joint, obvious nonuniformity of the microstructure is found in the fusion zone (FZ) and at the interfaces from the top to the bottom, which could be improved by increasing heat input. For the homogeneous joint, the FZ is characterized by Fe67- x Si x Ti33 dendrites spreading on α-Cu matrix, and the two interfaces of 316SS/FZ and FZ/Ti6Al4V are characterized by a bamboo-like 316SS layer and a CuTi2 layer, respectively. All the tensile samples fractured in the hardest CuTi2 layer at Ti6Al4V side of the joints. The fracture surface is characterized by river pattern revealing brittle cleavage fracture. The bead formation mechanisms were discussed according to the melt flow and the thermodynamic calculation.

  2. Effect of Different Types of Toothpaste on the Frictional Resistance Between Orthodontic Stainless Steel Brackets and Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Farhadifard, Homa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of toothpaste on the frictional resistance between stainless steel brackets and archwires. Ninety stainless steel orthodontic brackets with stainless steel wires were bonded to bovine teeth and were divided into 6 groups for application of the following toothpastes: Colgate® Total® Advanced Whitening, Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health, Colgate® Anticavity, Ortho.Kin®, and Sunstar GUM® Ortho toothpastes. No toothpaste was applied in the control group. Each group was brushed by a brushing machine with the use of the designated solution for 4.5 minutes. The frictional force was measured in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 10 mm/minute over a 5-mm archwire. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 0.05 significance level. The frictional resistance values of Ortho.Kin® and GUM® Ortho toothpastes and the control group were not significantly different (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences between the frictional resistance values of Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health and Colgate® Anticavity toothpastes with that of the control group (Porthodontic toothpastes did not increase the frictional resistance between the orthodontic stainless steel brackets and wires.

  3. Pelepasan ion nikel dan kromium kawat Australia dan stainless steel dalam saliva buatan (The release of nickel and chromium ions from Australian wire and stainless steel in artificial saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolista Indah Rasyid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment needs several types of wire to produce biomechanical force to move teeth. The use orthodontic wire within the mouth interacts with saliva, causing the release of nickel and chromium ions. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the effect of immersion time in artificial saliva between special type of Australian wire and stainless steel on the release of nickel and chromium ions. Methods: Thirty special type Australian wires and 30 stainless steel wires were used in this study, each of which weighed 0.12 grams. The wires were immersed for 1, 7, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days in artificial saliva with a normal pH. The release of ions in saliva was examined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry. Results: The result indicated that the release of nickel ions on special type of Australian wire was larger than that on stainless steel wire (p<0.005, there were differences in the release of the amount of nickel ions on special type of Australia in different immersion time, and there was a correlation between the types of wire and immersion time. Nickel ions released from the special type of Australian wire detected on the 7th day of immersion and reached its peak on the 35th day, while from stainless steel wire were detected on the 49th day of immersion. The released of chromium ions from the special type of Australian wire and stainless steel wire were not detected until the 49th day of immersion. Conclusion: The release of nickel ions were highest on the 35th day of immersion in special type of Australian wire and they were detected on the 49th day in stainless steel wire. The release of chromium ions were not detected until 49th day of immersion in special type of Australian and stainless steel wire.Latar belakang: Perawatan ortodonti cekat memerlukan beberapa macam kawat untuk menghasilkan kekuatan biomekanika yang sesuai dalam menggerakkan gigi. Pemakaian kawat ortodonti di dalam mulut dapat bereaksi dengan

  4. Analysis of mechanical damage by drawing on spheroid ABNT 1080 steel wire; Analise do dano mecanico na trefilacao de arame de aco ABNT 1080 esferoidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Ferreira, Sergio A. de; Cetlin, Paulo R.; Coutinho, Carlos A.B. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenheria Metalurgica

    1990-12-31

    Patented Brazilian 1080 carbon steel wires were isothermal annealed at 720 deg C for different times to produce spheroid carbides of varying average diameters. The heat treated wires were then drawn to rupture. Longitudinal sections of the drawn wires were prepared after each drawing pass for analysis of the mechanical damage caused by the process. It was found that the damage observed in the drawn wires showed a similar development to the damage caused by uniaxial tensile stresses in the same material. 8 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  5. Advanced Process Possibilities in Friction Crush Welding of Aluminum, Steel, and Copper by Using an Additional Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besler, Florian A.; Grant, Richard J.; Schindele, Paul; Stegmüller, Michael J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Joining sheet metal can be problematic using traditional friction welding techniques. Friction crush welding (FCW) offers a high speed process which requires a simple edge preparation and can be applied to out-of-plane geometries. In this work, an implementation of FCW was employed using an additional wire to weld sheets of EN AW5754 H22, DC01, and Cu-DHP. The joint is formed by bringing together two sheet metal parts, introducing a wire into the weld zone and employing a rotating disk which is subject to an external force. The requirements of the welding preparation and the fundamental process variables are shown. Thermal measurements were taken which give evidence about the maximum temperature in the welding center and the temperature in the periphery of the sheet metals being joined. The high welding speed along with a relatively low heat input results in a minimal distortion of the sheet metal and marginal metallurgical changes in the parent material. In the steel specimens, this FCW implementation produces a fine grain microstructure, enhancing mechanical properties in the region of the weld. Aluminum and copper produced mean bond strengths of 77 and 69 pct to that of the parent material, respectively, whilst the steel demonstrated a strength of 98 pct. Using a wire offers the opportunity to use a higher-alloyed additional material and to precisely adjust the additional material volume appropriate for a given material alignment and thickness.

  6. Comparative short-term in vitro analysis of mutans streptococci adhesion on esthetic, nickel-titanium, and stainless-steel arch wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hye; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion between esthetic and metallic orthodontic arch wires based on their surface characteristics. Surface roughness (Ra) and apparent surface free energy (SFE) were measured for six wires-four esthetic, one nickel-titanium (NiTi), and one stainless-steel (SS)-using profilometry and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The amount of MS (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) adhering to the wires was quantified using the colony-counting method. The surfaces, coating layers, and MS adhesion were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical significance was set at P wires were significantly different from one another depending on the coating method (P wire showed the highest SFE, followed by the SS wire and then the four esthetic wires. The NiTi wires produced a significantly higher MS adhesion than did the SS wires (P wires showed significantly lower MS adhesions than did the NiTi wire (P < .05). Pearson correlation analyses found moderate significant positive correlations between the SFE and the S mutans and S sobrinus adhesions (r  =  .636/.427, P < .001/P  =  .001, respectively). The hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that some esthetic coatings on NiTi alloy might reduce MS adhesion in vitro in the short term.

  7. Microstructures and mechanical properties of welded joints of novel 3Cr pipeline steel using an inhouse and two commercial welding wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jinyang; Xu, Lining; Chang, Wei; Hu, Lihua; Lu, Minxu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Weldability of novel 3Cr pipeline steel was investigated using two commercial and an inhouse welding wires. • Mechanical properties were measured and microstructure characteristics were observed. • Fracture positions of tensile test just corresponded to the minimum hardness region of the joints. • The inhouse wire R01 can provide the highest cost-performance ratio. - Abstract: The welded joints of the novel 3Cr pipeline steel were fabricated via the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) technique using an inhouse welding wire labeled as R01 and two kinds of commercial wires (H08Cr3MoMnA and TGS-2CML). Microhardness, impact toughness and tensile properties of the joints were measured, and microstructure characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that under selected welding procedure, the joints of R01 can achieve quite good mechanical properties without preheating and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). After thermal refining, elongation (15.2%) doubled and met the DNV-OS-F101 standard. For low carbon or super low carbon pipeline steels such as 3Cr steel, the revised formula with the carbon applicable coefficient (A(c)) was quite good for predicting the maximum hardness in heat affected zone (HAZ). Compared with these two selected commercial wires, the inhouse welding wire R01 can provide the highest cost-performance ratio

  8. Synergistic effect of wire bending and salivary pH on surface properties and mechanical properties of orthodontic stainless steel archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelink, Marieke G; He, Yan; Xu, Jia; Xie, Huixu; Stoll, Richard; Ye, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosive behaviour of stainless steel archwires in a more clinically relevant way by bending and exposing to various pH. One hundred and twenty pieces of rectangular stainless steel wires (0.43 × 0.64 mm) were randomly assigned into four groups. In each group, there were 15 pieces of bent wires and 15 straight ones. Prior to measurements of the wires, as individual experimental groups (group 1, 2, and 3), the wires were exposed to artificial saliva for 4 weeks at pH 5.6, 6.6, and 7.6, respectively. A control group of wires (group 4) remained in air for the same period of time before sent for measurements. Surface roughness (Ra-value) was measured by a profilometer. Young's modulus and maximum force were determined by a four-point flexural test apparatus. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of straight wire. Differences between groups were examined using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean surface roughness values, flexural Young's moduli, and maximum force values of bent wires are significantly different from those of the straight wires, which was the main effect of wire bending, ignoring the influence of pH. A significant effect was found between Ra-values regarding the main effect of pH, ignoring the influence of shape. There was a significant interaction effect of bending and pH on flexural Young's moduli of stainless steel archwires, while pH did not show much impact on the maximum force values of those stainless steel wires. Bigger surface irregularities were seen on SEM images of straight wires immersed in artificial saliva at pH 5.6 compared to artificial saliva at other pH values. Surface depth (Rz) was more sensitive than Ra in revealing surface roughness, both measured from 3D reconstructed SEM images. Ra showed a comparable result of surface roughness to Ra-value measured by the profilometer. Bending has a significant influence on surface roughness and mechanical

  9. A comparison of torque expression between stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy, and copper nickel titanium wires in metallic self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Amy; Major, Thomas W; Carey, Jason P; Heo, Giseon; Badawi, Hisham; Major, Paul W

    2010-09-01

    The force moment providing rotation of the tooth around the x-axis (buccal-lingual) is referred to as torque expression in orthodontic literature. Many factors affect torque expression, including the wire material characteristics. This investigation aims to provide an experimental study into and comparison of the torque expression between wire types. With a worm-gear-driven torquing apparatus, wire was torqued while a bracket mounted on a six-axis load cell was engaged. Three 0.019 x 0.0195 inch wire (stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], copper nickel titanium [CuNiTi]), and three 0.022 inch slot bracket combinations (Damon 3MX, In-Ovation-R, SPEED) were compared. At low twist angles (wires were not statistically significant. At twist angles over 24 degrees, stainless steel wire yielded 1.5 to 2 times the torque expression of TMA and 2.5 to 3 times that of nickel titanium (NiTi). At high angles of torsion (over 40 degrees) with a stiff wire material, loss of linear torque expression sometimes occurred. Stainless steel has the largest torque expression, followed by TMA and then NiTi.

  10. The influence of drawing speed on structure changes in high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of the drawing speed on structure changes has been assessed. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigation confirmed that for wires drawn with high total draft, exceeding 80 %, makes it impossible to clearly assess the impact of drawing technology on structural changes in the drawn wires. Thus, to assess the structural changes necessary to apply quantitative methods. On the basis of examination of the wire structure by measuring of electrical resistance, the structure changes in drawn wires has been determined. It has been shown that the increase of drawing speed, especially above 15 m/s, causes an increase in structure defect, with a decline in platelet orientation of cementite in drawn wires.

  11. Delamination of Pearlitic Steel Wires: The Defining Role of Prior-Drawing Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgaprasad, A.; Giri, S.; Lenka, S.; Sarkar, Sudip Kumar; Biswas, Aniruddha; Kundu, S.; Mishra, S.; Chandra, S.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-03-01

    This article reports the occasional (alignment of the pearlite: 22 ± 5 pct vs 34 ± 4 pct in the nondelaminated wires. Although all wires had similar through-thickness texture and stress gradients, delaminated wires had stronger gradients in composition and higher hardness across the ferrite-cementite interface. Carbide dissolution and formation of supersaturated ferrite were clearly correlated with delamination, which could be effectively mitigated by controlled laboratory annealing at 673 K. Direct observations on samples subjected to simple shear revealed significant differences in shear localizations. These were controlled by pearlite morphology and interlamellar spacing. Prior-drawing microstructure of coarse misaligned pearlite thus emerged as a critical factor in the wire drawing-induced delamination of the pearlitic wires.

  12. Measurement of residual stress by using focused ion beam and digital image correlation method in thin-sized wires used for steel cords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y S; Park, C G; Bae, J G

    2008-01-01

    Residual stress in the axial direction of the steel wires has been measured by using a method based on the combination of the focused ion beam (FIB) milling and digital image correlation software. That is, the residual stress was calculated from the measured displacement field before and after the introduction of a slot along the steel wires. The displacement was obtained by the digital correlation analysis of high-resolution scanning electron micrographs, while the slot was introduced by FIB milling with low energy beam. The fitting of the experimental results to an analytical model with the independent Young's modulus determined allows us to find the residual stress. The complete experimental procedures are described and its feasibilities are also evaluated for the thin-sized steel wires

  13. Effect of reduction of area on microstructure and mechanical properties of twinning-induced plasticity steel during wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki; Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong; Zargaran, A.; Kim, Nack J.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of reduction of area (RA), 10%, 20%, and 30%, during wire drawing on the inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of Fe-Mn-Al-C twinning-induced plasticity steel has been investigated. After wire drawing, the deformation texture developed into the major and minor duplex fiber texture. However, the texture became more pronounced in both center and surface areas as the RA per pass increased. It also shows that a larger RA per pass resulted in a higher yield strength and smaller elongation than a smaller RA per pass at all strain levels. Although inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction decreased with increasing RA per pass, there existed an optimum RA per pass for maximum drawing limit. Insufficient penetration of strain from surface to center at small RA per pass (e.g., 10%) and high friction and unsound metal flow at large RA per pass (e.g., 30%) all resulted in heterogeneous microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of drawn wire. On the other hand, 20% RA per pass improved the drawing limit by about 30% as compared to the 10% and 30% RAs per pass.

  14. Separation of Electrolytic Reduction Product from Stainless Steel Wire Mesh Cathode Basket via Salt Draining and Reuse of the Cathode Basket

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jeong; Heo, Dong Hyun; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated that the metallic product obtained after electrolytic reduction (also called oxide reduction (OR)) can be simply separated from a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket only by using a salt drain. First, the OR run of a simulated oxide fuel (0.6 kg/batch) was conducted in a molten Li2O–LiCl salt electrolyte at 650°C. The simulated oxide fuel of the porous cylindrical pellets was used as a cathode by loading a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket. Platinum was employed as...

  15. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H; Shirazi, H [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nili-Ahmadabadi, M, E-mail: sut.caster.81710018@gmail.co, E-mail: nili@ut.ac.i [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was {epsilon} {approx}7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  16. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Shirazi, H.

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was epsilon ~7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  17. 75 FR 28560 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-945] Prestressed Concrete Steel... antidumping investigation of prestressed concrete steel strand (``PC strand'') from the People's Republic of... are shown in the ``Final Determination Margins'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Prestressed Concrete...

  18. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, G.; Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-07-01

    Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel has become necessary for India as a participant in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFM steel is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFM steel filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFM steel. The purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and for narrow-gap gas tungsten arc welding (NG-GTAW) that reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser-MIG welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using GTAW process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some amount of delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimized to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in the weld metal and with optimized mechanical properties. Results showed that the weld metals are free from delta-ferrite. Tensile properties at ambient temperature and at 500 C are well above the specified values, and are much higher than the base metal values. Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) has been evaluated as -81 C based on the 68 J criteria. The present study highlights the basis and methodology

  19. Hirarchical structures and strength in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    and the cementite decomposition, have been analyzed and quantified by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy for wires cold drawn up to a strain of 3.68. Three strengthening mechanisms, boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid...... solution hardening, have been analyzed based on the microstructural analysis. The individual and combined contributions, of these mechanisms to the wire strength have been estimated and good agreement has been found between the measured flow stress and values estimated based on an assumption of linear...... additivity of the three strengthening mechanisms. Mechanisms behind the higher strength of about 6.4 GPa in the wires drawn to higher strains and to a finer microstructural scale is also discussed....

  20. Signal Acquisition and Processing in the Magnetic Defectoscopy of Steel Wire Ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Jovičić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The system that resolves the problem of wire rope defects using a magnetic method of inspection is presented in this paper. Implementation of the system should provide for full monitoring of wire rope condition, according to the prescribed international standards. The purpose of this system, in addition to identifying defects in the rope, is to determine to what extent damage has been done. The measurement procedure provides for a better understanding of the defects that occur, as well as the rejection criteria of used ropes, that way increasing their security. Hardware and software design of appliance for recording defects and test results are presented in this paper.

  1. Characterization of Gas Metal Arc Welding welds obtained with new high Cr–Mo ferritic stainless steel filler wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaret, V.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.; Fras, G.; Chovet, C.; Petit, B.; Faivre, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New metal cored filler wires for welding 444 grade stainless steel are manufactured. • The effect of Nb and Ti minor elements on the fusion zone properties is investigated. • The relation between composition of fusion zone and grain structure is investigated. • Oxidation rates of fusion zones and base metal are compared. • High temperature behavior of the welded samples are studied. - Abstract: Several compositions of metal cored filler wire were manufactured to define the best welding conditions for homogeneous welding, by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process, of a modified AISI 444 ferritic stainless steel dedicated to automotive exhaust manifold applications. The patented grade is know under APERAM trade name K44X and has been developed to present improved high temperature fatigue properties. All filler wires investigated contained 19% Cr and 1.8% Mo, equivalent to the base metal K44X chemistry, but various titanium and niobium contents. Chemical analyses and microstructural observations of fusion zones revealed the need of a minimum Ti content of 0.15% to obtain a completely equiaxed grain structure. This structure conferred on the fusion zone a good ductility even in the as-welded state at room temperature. Unfortunately, titanium additions decreased the oxidation resistance at 950 °C if no significant Nb complementary alloying was made. The combined high Ti and Nb additions made it possible to obtain for the welded structure, after optimized heat treatment, high temperature tensile strengths and ductility for the fusion zones and assemblies, rather close to those of the base metal. 950 °C aging heat treatment was necessary to restore significantly the ductility of the as welded structure. Both fusion zone and base metal presented rather homogenized properties. Finally, with the optimized composition of the cored filler wire – 0.3 Ti minimum (i.e. 0.15% in the fusion zone) and high Nb complementary additions, the properties

  2. Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu

    Objective: To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods: Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the

  3. Investigation into the effects of steel wire rope specimen length on breaking force

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Brien, TM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available (2000). The methodology employed was to test different length of triangular strand and non-spin rope to destruction, and to evaluate these results against SABS 0293:1996. For each rope construction, specimens were prepared both with and without cut wires...

  4. Investigations on the wire saw process on steels of selected geometries in the encircling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis illustrates a new and innovative model for the usual looping method to describe cutting time and wear. Several test series have been carried out to determine and analyze the various influencing factors. This new model now allows for exact predictions for cutting times and the resulting wear. A special test stand was planned and built. With the help of this test stand various influencing parameters were determined in preliminary tests. Due to the high correlation between these parameters, a matrix was created to rate them. From these results and the findings of the preliminary tests, the boundary conditions such as work piece size were defined and an experimental design was created. Eleven test series were conducted and each one consists of up to ten work pieces. In each test series, only one parameter was changed, the other influencing parameters remained unchanged. The parameter of the following characteristics were varied: the speed of the diamond wire, the feed pressure, the cutting angle, the geometry with respective cutting area, the work piece material, as well as the twisting of the diamond wire. By varying these parameters, the influence could be shown on the performance of the cutting process and also on the wear behavior of the diamond wire. A model was created from the obtained data which enables a cutting time prediction for rectangular work pieces. In addition to the model, a new criterion has been developed, with which it is possible to quantify the progress of wear and to be able to determine a necessary wire replacement. The classification of particle sizes of the accumulated chips has shown that a lower average cutting performance results in a decrease of the average particle size. From this circumstance a termination criterion of <150 μm has been established. When the particle size drops below this value, the cutting process becomes ineffective and should not be continued, or the diamond wire should be replaced, respectively

  5. The Corrosion Resistance of Composite Arch Wire Laser-Welded By NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Stainless Steel Wires with Cu Interlayer in Artificial Saliva with Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect. PMID:23801895

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot wire laser clad layers for repairing precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng; Cai, Zhipeng; Feng, Zhenhua; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (PH-MSS) is widely used as load-bearing parts because of its excellent overall properties. It is economical and flexible to repair the failure parts instead of changing new ones. However, it is difficult to keep properties of repaired part as good as those of the substrate. With preheating wire by resistance heat, hot wire laser cladding owns both merits of low heat input and high deposition efficiency, thus is regarded as an advantaged repairing technology for damaged parts of high value. Multi-pass layers were cladded on the surface of FV520B by hot wire laser cladding. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared and analyzed for the substrate and the clad layer. For the as-cladded layer, microstructure was found non-uniform and divided into quenched and tempered regions. Tensile strength was almost equivalent to that of the substrate, while ductility and impact toughness deteriorated much. With using laser scanning layer by layer during laser cladding, microstructure of the clad layers was tempered to fine martensite uniformly. The ductility and toughness of the clad layer were improved to be equivalent to those of the substrate, while the tensile strength was a little lower than that of the substrate. By adding TiC nanoparticles as well as laser scanning, the precipitation strengthening effect was improved and the structure was refined in the clad layer. The strength, ductility and toughness were all improved further. Finally, high quality clad layers were obtained with equivalent or even superior mechanical properties to the substrate, offering a valuable technique to repair PH-MSS.

  7. Cluster analysis of stress corrosion mechanisms for steel wires used in bridge cables through acoustic emission particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wenyao

    2017-05-01

    Stress corrosion is the major failure type of bridge cable damage. The acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to monitor the stress corrosion process of steel wires used in bridge cable structures. The damage evolution of stress corrosion in bridge cables was obtained according to the AE characteristic parameter figure. A particle swarm optimization cluster method was developed to determine the relationship between the AE signal and stress corrosion mechanisms. Results indicate that the main AE sources of stress corrosion in bridge cables included four types: passive film breakdown and detachment of the corrosion product, crack initiation, crack extension, and cable fracture. By analyzing different types of clustering data, the mean value of each damage pattern's AE characteristic parameters was determined. Different corrosion damage source AE waveforms and the peak frequency were extracted. AE particle swarm optimization cluster analysis based on principal component analysis was also proposed. This method can completely distinguish the four types of damage sources and simplifies the determination of the evolution process of corrosion damage and broken wire signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Influence of heat input on weld bead geometry using duplex stainless steel wire electrode on low alloy steel specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Mondal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas metal arc welding cladding becomes a popular surfacing technique in many modern industries as it enhances effectively corrosion resistance property and wear resistance property of structural members. Quality of weld cladding may be enhanced by controlling process parameters. If bead formation is found acceptable, cladding is also expected to be good. Weld bead characteristics are often assessed by bead geometry, and it is mainly influenced by heat input. In this paper, duplex stainless steel E2209 T01 is deposited on E250 low alloy steel specimens with 100% CO2 gas as shielding medium with different heats. Weld bead width, height of reinforcement and depth of penetration are measured. Regression analysis is done on the basis of experimental data. Results reveal that within the range of bead-on-plate welding experiments done, parameters of welding geometry are on the whole linearly related with heat input. A condition corresponding to 0.744 kJ/mm heat input is recommended to be used for weld cladding in practice.

  9. Development of filler wires for welding of reduced activation ferritic martenstic steel for India's test blanket module of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, G., E-mail: gsrini@igcar.gov.in [Materials Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamilnadu (India); Arivazhagan, B.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Materials Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Weld microstructure produced by RAFMS filler wires are free from delta ferrite. > Cooling rates of by weld thermal cycles influences the presence of delta ferrite. > Weld parameters modified with higher pre heat temperature and high heat input. > PWHT optimized based on correlation of hardness between base and weld metals. > Optimised mechanical properties achieved by proper tempering of the martensite. - Abstract: Indigenous development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAFMS) has become mandatory to India to participate in the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Optimisation of RAFMS is in an advanced stage for the fabrication of test blanket module (TBM) components. Simultaneously, development of RAFMS filler wires has been undertaken since there is no commercial filler wires are available for fabrication of components using RAFMS. Purpose of this study is to develop filler wires that can be directly used for both tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) and narrow gap tungsten inert gas welding (NG-TIG), which reduces the deposited weld metal volume and heat affected zone (HAZ) width. Further, the filler wires would also be used for hybrid laser welding for thick section joints. In view of meeting all the requirements, a detailed specification was prepared for the development of filler wires for welding of RAFM steel. Meanwhile, autogenous welding trials have been carried out on 2.5 mm thick plates of the RAFM steel using TIG process at various heat inputs with a preheat temperature of 250 deg. C followed by various post weld heat treatments (PWHT). The microstructure of the weld metal in most of the cases showed the presence of some delta-ferrite. Filler wires as per specifications have also been developed with minor variations on the chemistry against the specified values. Welding parameters and PWHT parameters were optimised to qualify the filler wires without the presence of delta-ferrite in the weld

  10. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... The Department generally bases its decision with respect to knowledge on the margins calculated in the... importers' knowledge that material injury is likely by reason of such imports.\\8\\ Finally, as part of their... Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970, 31972-73 (June 5, 2008...

  11. Enhanced Strain Measurement Range of an FBG Sensor Embedded in Seven-Wire Steel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Chul-Min; Choi, Song-Yi; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2017-07-18

    FBG sensors offer many advantages, such as a lack of sensitivity to electromagnetic waves, small size, high durability, and high sensitivity. However, their maximum strain measurement range is lower than the yield strain range (about 1.0%) of steel strands when embedded in steel strands. This study proposes a new FBG sensing technique in which an FBG sensor is recoated with polyimide and protected by a polyimide tube in an effort to enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands. The validation test results showed that the proposed FBG sensing technique has a maximum strain measurement range of 1.73% on average, which is 1.73 times higher than the yield strain of the strands. It was confirmed that recoating the FBG sensor with polyimide and protecting the FBG sensor using a polyimide tube could effectively enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands.

  12. Control of Hydrogen Embrittlement in High Strength Steel Using Special Designed Welding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    microstructure 4. A low near ambient temperature is reached. • All four factor must be simultaneously present 3 Mitigating HIC and Improving Weld Fatigue...Performance Through Weld Residual Stress Control UNCLASIFIED:DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Click to edit Master...title style 4 • Welding of Armor Steels favors all these conditions for HIC • Hydrogen Present in Sufficient Degree – Derived from moisture in the

  13. Allergic reaction to stainless steel sternotomy wires requiring removal: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J; Sachithanandan, A; Leow, M

    2016-06-01

    Hypersensitivity to stainless steel sternal sutures are an uncommon occurrence. We present a case of such a patient who developed chronic tissue overgranulation over a sternotomy wound eight weeks post-operatively. Primary suspicion was infection, a more common complication however radiological and laboratory investigation showed otherwise. Conservative management provided limited ephemeral success. After ensuring adequate sternal bone healing, the sutures and granulation tissue were eventually surgically removed without complication and the reoperated wound healed well.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-09-01

    The orthodontist seeks an archwire-bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018″ slot manufactured with zero degree tip and -7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016″ round, 0.016 × 0.016″ square, 0.016 × 0.022″ rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025″ rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025″ SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction.

  15. The morphology and formation mechanism of pearlite in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.-X., E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [Division of Materials, School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kelly, P.M. [Division of Materials, School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    A number of morphological features of pearlite were revealed through scanning electron microscopy using deeply etched specimens. These include cementite branching, bridging, gaps, holes and curvature. The presence of cementite thin films or networks along the austenite grain boundaries in eutectoid steel and at the interface between pearlite and proeutectoid ferrite in hypoeutectoid steel is another characteristic of pearlite. Furthermore, ferrite thin films surrounding the proeutectoid cementite in hypereutectoid steels are also observed. Hence, it is considered that in hypoeutectoid steels the nucleus for pearlite is a film of cementite rather than the expected proeutectoid ferrite and, similarly, in hypereutectoid steels pearlite forms from a ferrite film rather than from proeutectoid cementite. Convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction was used to accurately determine the orientation relationships between pearlitic constituents and parent austenite in a Hadfields steel. The results show that neither the pearlitic ferrite nor the cementite is crystallographically related to the austenite grain into which the pearlite was growing and to that into which it was not growing. In addition, a new orientation relationship between pearlitic cementite and ferrite in the Hadfield steel was also observed.

  16. Comparison of nickel and chromium ions released from stainless steel and NiTi wires after immersion in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Moghaddas, Omid; Toopchi, Shabnam; Perillo, Letizia

    2014-07-01

    Oral environment of the mouth is a suitable place for biodegradation of alloys used in orthodontic wires. The toxicity of these alloys namely nickel and chromium has concerned the researchers about the release of these ions from orthodontic wires and brackets. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel and chromium ions released from 0.018" stainless steel (SS) and NiTi wires after immersion in three solutions. One hundred and forty-four round NiTi and 144 round SS archwires with the diameters of 0.018" were immersed in Oral B®, Orthokin® and artificial saliva. The amounts of nickel and chromium ions released were measured after 1, 6, 24 hours and 7 days. Two way repeated ANOVA showed that the amount of chromium and nickel significantly increased in all solutions during all time intervals (p nickel ions were released more in NiTi wire in all solutions compared with SS wire. The lowest increase rate was also seen in artificial saliva. There is general consensus in literature that even very little amounts of nickel and chromium are dangerous for human body specially when absorbed orally; therefore, knowing the precise amount of these ions released from different wires when immersed in different mouthwashes is of high priority.

  17. Nitrogen implantation into steel wire coated with zinc used as reinforcement in power transmission conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Maldonado, J. J.; Dulcé-Moreno, H. J.; V-Niño, E. D.

    2013-11-01

    In tropical environments, diversity of climatic factors such as temperature, relative humidity, deposition of environmental contaminants (such as sulfates and chlorides) affect a large proportion of materials exposed to the weather, and electrochemical corrosion is one of the phenomena that occur in the case of metals and alloys [1, 2]. It is therefore particularly important to study this behavior in the Zinc-coated steel, since this material is used for its economy in the industry specifically in the area of transport of electricity.

  18. The heterogeneous electrochemical characteristics of mild steel in the presence of local glucose oxidase-A study by the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Lu Yonghong; Zou Yan; Zhang Xia; Wang Jia

    2010-01-01

    The influence of glucose oxidase (GOD) activity on the heterogeneous electrochemistry at artificial biofilm/mild steel interface was first characterized by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. Potential/current distribution maps show that a cathodic zone can be formed at the GOD capsule site. The cathodic zone is gradually weakened due to the gluconic acid production in seawater. When GOD capsule is confined on rusted WBE surfaces, the formerly formed anodic zone is gradually changed into cathodic zone, in the presence of glucose. The novel device developed in our laboratory demonstrates powerful applications in heterogeneous electrochemistry measurements at the biofilm/mild steel interfaces.

  19. Nickel cobaltite nanograss grown around porous carbon nanotube-wrapped stainless steel wire mesh as a flexible electrode for high-performance supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Zheng, Zhi-Bin; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Jow, Jiin-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nickel cobaltite nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution is grown around the carbon nanotube-wrapped stainless steel wire mesh as a high capacitance and stable electrode for high-performance and flexible supercapacitors. - Highlights: • NiCo 2 O 4 nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution is hydrothermally prepared. • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) wrap around stainless steel (SS) wire mesh as a scaffold. • NiCo 2 O 4 grown on CNT-wrapped SS mesh shows excellent capacitive performance. • Porous CNT layer allows for rapid transport of electron and electrolyte. - Abstract: Nickel cobaltite nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution (small and large mesopores) is grown on various electrode substrates by one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. The small pores (<5 nm) in the nanograss of individual nanorods contribute to large surface area, while the large pore channels (>20 nm) between nanorods offer fast transport paths for electrolyte. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high electrical conductivity wrap around stainless steel (SS) wire mesh by electrophoresis as an electrode scaffold for supporting the nickel cobaltite nanograss. This unique electrode configuration turns out to have great benefits for the development of supercapacitors. The specific capacitance of nickel cobaltite grown around CNT-wrapped SS wire mesh reaches 1223 and 1070 F g −1 at current densities of 1 and 50 A g −1 , respectively. CNT-wrapped SS wire mesh affords porous and conductive networks underneath the nanograss for rapid transport of electron and electrolyte. Flexible CNTs connect the nanorods to mitigate the contact resistance and the volume expansion during cycling test. Thus, this tailored electrode can significantly reduce the ohmic resistance, charge-transfer resistance, and diffusive impedance, leading to high specific capacitance, prominent rate performance, and good cycle-life stability.

  20. Crack repair welding by CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire for long-term used steam turbine cases of Cr-Mo-V cast steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: kadoi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Murakami, Aoi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Matsumura, Hideo [Chugoku Electric Power Co., 3-9-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    Surface melting by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding and overlaying by cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing using low melting point filler wire were investigated to develop a repair process for cracks in worn cast steel of steam turbine cases. Cr-Mo-V cast steel, operated for 188,500 h at 566 °C, was used as the base material. Silver and gold brazing filler wires were used as overlaying materials to decrease the heat input into the base metal and the peak temperature during the welding thermal cycle. Microstructural analysis revealed that the worn cast steel test samples contained ferrite phases with intragranular precipitates of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, and CrSi{sub 2} and grain boundary precipitates of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Mo{sub 2}C. CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire was found to decrease the heat input and peak temperature during the thermal cycle of the process compared with those during GTA surface melting. Thus, the process helped to inhibit the formation of hardened phases such as intermetallics and martensite in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Additionally, in the case of CMT brazing using BAg-8, the change in the hardness of the HAZ was negligible even though other processes such as GTA surface melting cause significant changes. The creep-fatigue properties of weldments produced by CMT brazing with BAg-8 were the highest, and nearly the same as those of the base metal owing to the prevention of hardened phase formation. The number of fracture cycles using GTA surface melting and CMT brazing with BAu-4 was also quite small. Therefore, CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire such as BAg-8 is a promising candidate method for repairing steam turbine cases. However, it is necessary to take alloy segregation during turbine operation into account to design a suitable filler wire for practical use.

  1. Solid-phase microextraction of Methylene Blue using carboxy graphene-modified steel wires, and its detection by electrochemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sui; Lv, Shasha; Guo, Zhiyong; Jiang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We report on a new solid phase for microextraction (SPME) of Methylene Blue (MB). It was obtained by immobilizing carboxy graphene (G-COOH) on a stainless steel wire. Scanning electron micrography showed the surface to be homogeneous, porous and wrinkled. The effects of sample solution pH, extraction time, stirring rate, desorption time and of desorption solvent on the efficiency of extraction of MB were optimized. The new SPME was coupled to electrochemiluminescence detection of MB and gave a linear analytical range from 2.7 nM to 1.3 μM, and the detection limit is 0.89 nM which is better than other methods. When considering the enrichment factor of ∼20, the resulting detection limit is estimated to be 45 pM. The new SPME fiber was successfully applied to the analysis of MB in spiked real water samples. Recoveries range from 95.7 % to 113.0 %, and relative standard deviations are <5.0 %, which showed the good reproducibility of the method. (author)

  2. Evolution of carbon distribution and mechanical properties during the static strain ageing of heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Massardier, V.; Sauvage, X.; Kléber, X.; Mari, D.

    2016-01-01

    The static strain ageing of heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires was investigated using both global techniques and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography (APT)), in order to highlight how the cold-drawn destabilized microstructure returns to a more stable state during post-drawing treatments between 20 °C and 150 °C. The global techniques (thermoelectric power, differential scanning calorimetry) clearly showed that ageing occurs in three successive ageing stages and is due to a redistribution of the carbon atoms coming from the strain-induced cementite dissolution. The first ageing stage was unambiguously attributed to the carbon segregation to the defects, while the second and third stages were interpreted as being due to the precipitation of intermediate carbides (2nd stage) and cementite (3rd stage). The true strain was not found to significantly affect the ageing kinetics and mechanisms but appeared to play a role in the amount of carbon atoms involved in the different ageing stages. APT analyses confirmed that ageing is governed by the carbon depletion of strain-induced supersaturated ferrite. The strengthening mechanisms associated with the different ageing stages were also discussed.

  3. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288 degrees C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3 degrees C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288 degrees C to a fluence of 5 x 10 19 neutrons/cm 2 (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29 degrees C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to -125 degrees C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J Ic ) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343 degrees C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288 degrees C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288 degrees C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond

  4. Iridium Oxide pH Sensor Based on Stainless Steel Wire for pH Mapping on Metal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, S.; Ismail, M. C.; Kakooei, S.; Beheshti, M.; Zabihiazadboni, M.; Zavareh, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A simple technique to fabricate the iridium oxide pH sensor is useful in several applications such as medical, food processing and engineering material where it is able to detect the changes of pH. Generally, the fabrication technique can be classified into three types: electro-deposition iridium oxide film (EIrOF), activated iridium oxide film (AIROF) and sputtering iridium oxide film (SIROF). This study focuses on fabricating electrode, calibration and test. Electro-deposition iridium oxide film is a simple and effective method of fabricating this kind of sensor via cyclic voltammetry process. The iridium oxide thick film was successfully electrodeposited on the surface of stainless steel wire with 500 cycles of sweep potential. A further analysis under FESEM shows detailed image of iridium oxide film which has cauliflower-liked microstructure. EDX analysis shows the highest element present are iridium and oxygen which concluded that the process is successful. The iridium oxide based pH sensor has shown a good performance in comparison to conventional glass pH sensor when it is being calibrated in buffer solutions with 2, 4, 7 and 9 pH values. The iridium oxide pH sensor is specifically designed to measure the pH on the surface of metal plate.

  5. Slot deformation of various stainless steel bracket due to the torque force of the beta-titanium wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, M. M.; Siregar, E.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Stainless steel bracket slot deformation ffects the force applied to teeth and it can impede tooth movement and prolong orthodontic treatment time. The aim of this study is to determine the slot deformation due to torque of a 0.021 × 0.025 inch Beta Titanium wire with a torsional angle of 30° and 45° for five different bracket brands: y, 3M, Biom, Versadent, Ormco, and Shinye. The research also aims to compare the deformation and amount of torque among all five bracket brands at torsional angles of 30° and 45°. Fifty stainless steel edgewise brackets from the five bracket group brands (n=10) were attached to acrylic plates. The bracket slot measurements were carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the, deformation was measured by calculating the average bracket slot height using a stereoscopy microscope before and after application of torque. In the second stage, the torque was measured using a torque measurement apparatus. The statistical analysis shows that slot deformations were found on all five bracket brands with a clinical permanent deformation on the Biom (2.79 μm) and Shinye (2.29 μm) brackets. The most torque was observed on the 3M bracket, followed by the Ormco, Versadent, Shinye, and Biom brackets. When the brands were compared, a correlation between bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque was found, but the correlation was not statistically significant for the 3M and Ormco brackets and the Biom and Shinye brackets. There is a difference in the amount of torque between the five brands with a torsional angle of 30° (except the 3M and Ormco brackets) and those with a torsional angle of 45°. The composition of the metal and the manufacturing process are the factors that influence the occurrence of bracket slot deformation and the amount of torque. A manufacturing process using metal injection molding (MIM) and metal compositions of AISI 303 and 17-4 PH stainless steel reduce the risk of deformation.

  6. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Kararia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1-3 M 0.016" NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016" NiTi, group 3-3 M 0.019" FNx010.025" SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at Χ2000, Χ4000 and Χ6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0. Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.

  7. Double Fillet Welding of Carbon Steel T-Joint by Double Channel Shielding Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Using Metal Cored Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel material and T-joints are frequently used in ship building and steel constructions. Advantages such as high deposition rates, high quality and smooth weld metals and easy automation make cored wires preferable in these industries. In this study, low carbon steel materials with web and flange thicknesses of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were welded with conventional GMAW and double channel shielding gas metal arc welding (DMAG method to form double fillet T-joints using metal cored wire. The difference between these two methods were characterized by measurements of mean welding parameters, Vickers hardness profiles, weld bead and HAZ geometry of the joints and thermal camera temperature measurements. When weld bead and HAZ geometries are focused, it was seen filler metal molten area increased and base metal molten area decreased in DMAG of low carbon steel. When compared with traditional GMAW, finer and acicular structures in weld metal and more homogenous and smaller grains in HAZ are obtained with double channel shielding gas metal arc welding.

  8. Defects detection on the welded reinforcing steel with self-shielded wires by vibration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crâştiu Ion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the development and validation of a vibroacustic technique to welding defects detection, especially for welded reinforcing structures. In welded structures subjected to dynamic cyclic loads may appear and propagate fatigue cracks due to local structural damage. These cracks may initiate due to the technological parameters used in welding process, or due to environmental operating conditions. By the means of Finite Element Method (FEM, the natural frequencies and shape modes of more welded steel specimens are determined. The analysis is carried out in undamaged condition as well as damaged one, after artificially induced damages. The experimental measurement of the vibroacustic response is carried out by using a condenser microphone, which is suitable for high-fidelity acoustic measurements in the frequency range of 20 – 20.000 Hz. The vibration responses of the welded specimens, in free-free conditions, are carried out using algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, and Prony's series. The results are compared to modal parameters estimated using FE Analysis.

  9. Manufacture of Damascus steel: Metallographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criado, A.J.; Martinez, J.A.; Calabres, R.; Arias, D.

    1997-01-01

    Damascus Steel is the denomination that the Europeans gave to the material with which the musulman swords were manufactured during the Era of the Crusades. This hypereutectoid steel presents a high content in carbon more than 0.8%, and in some cases up to 2% in weight. The secret of its good mechanical characteristics is based in the hot forging process in the temperatures interval between 650 and 850 degree centigree. The final quenching in water brine or other aqueous solutions, confers to the swords manufactured with this steel a good resistance to its cutting edge and a high toughness. In the present investigation, the manufacture processes of this type of steel are studied. Electronic scanning microscopy has been applied to the study of materials manufactured by the authors following the ancient craftsmen methods of forging and quenching. (Author) 16 refs

  10. Experimental Evaluation of a New Single Wire Stainless Steel Fishscale Coronary Stent (Freedomª).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang; Verbeken; Mukherjee; Zhou; De Scheerder IK

    1996-10-01

    Recent randomized clinical trials revealed a significant reduction in angiographic restenosis rates when adjunctive stenting was performed after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty. Current approved coronary stents are however hampered by their rigidity, limiting their trackability in tortuous vessels and furthermore, needing high pressure deployment for optimal vessel apposition. New coronary stents are currently under development, using more biocompatible metal alloys and/or designs which better align to the vessel wall at moderate deployment pressures. We evaluated the safety, efficacy, angiographic and histological effect of a new stainless steel fishscale designed stent (Freedomª, Global Therapeutics, Co., USA) in a porcine coronary and peripheral artery model. Implantation in the right coronary artery was successful in all 20 pigs. Control angiograms at 6 weeks follow-up demonstrated patent vessels and morphologic evaluation showed only a mild fibromuscular neointimal response resulting in an area stenosis of 28.7 +/- 0.18% and a mean neointimal hyperplasia of 0.18 +/- 0.25 mm. Comparison with the Palmaz-Schatzª coronary stent in a porcine peripheral artery model demonstrated similar quantitative angiographic and morphologic vessel analysis results. Also the morphometric data were comparable. Area stenosis: Palmaz-Schatz: 37 +/- 0.24%, Freedom: 21 +/- 0.14%, p = 0.07. Mean neointimal hyperplasia: Palmaz-Schatz: 0.33 +/- 0.24 mm, Freedom: 0.18 +/- 0.08 mm, p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: Freedom coronary stent implantation in a porcine model resulted in a high procedural success without subacute thrombotic occlusions, despite no further anticoagulation nor antiplatelet therapy. Six weeks histopathological and morphometric evaluation demonstrated only a mild fibromuscular neointimal hyperplasia.

  11. Effects of filler wire on residual stress in electron beam welded QCr0.8 copper alloy to 304 stainless steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing-Gang; Zhao, Jian; Li, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The electron beam welding (EBW) of 304 stainless steel to QCr0.8 copper alloy with or without copper filler wire was studied in detail. The temperature fields and magnitude and distribution of stress fields in the joints during the welding process were numerically simulated using finite element method. The temperature cycles and residual stresses were also experimentally measured by thermometric and hole-drilling methods, respectively. The accuracy of the modeling procedure was verified by the good agreement between the calculated results and experimental data. The temperature distribution in the joint was found to be asymmetric along the center of weld. In particular, the temperature in the copper alloy plate is much higher than that in the 304 SS plate owing to the great difference in thermal conductivity between the two materials. The peak three-dimensional residual stresses all appeared at the interface between the copper and steel in the two different joints. Furthermore, the weld was subjected to tensile stress. The longitudinal residual stress, generally the most harmful to the integrity of the structure among the stress components in EBW with filler wire (EBFW), was 53 MPa lower than that of autogenous EBW (AEBW), and the through-thickness residual stress was 12 MPa lower. The transverse residual stress of EBFW was 44 MPa higher than that of AEBW. However, analysis of the von Mises stress showed that the EBFW process effectively reduced the extent of the high residual stress region in the weld location and the magnitude of the residual stresses in the copper side compared with those of the AEBW joint. - Highlights: • Copper and steel was welded by electron beam welding with copper filler wire. • The copper wire fed into gap can reduce the peak value of residual stress. • The peak value of longitudinal stress can be reduced 53 MPa by the filler wire. • The range of nov Mises stress in the weld could be reduced by the wire

  12. Comparing the Knotless Tension Band and the Traditional Stainless Steel Wire Tension Band Fixation for Medial Malleolus Fractures: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Downey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional stainless steel wire tension band (WTB has been popularized for small avulsion fractures at the medial malleolus. Despite the tension band principle creating a stable construct, complications continue to arise utilizing the traditional stainless steel WTB with patients experiencing hardware irritation at the tension band site and subsequent hardware removal. Coupled with hardware irritation is fatigue failure with the wire. The goal of this investigation was to retrospectively compare this traditional wire technique to an innovative knotless tension band (KTB technique in order to decrease costly complications. A total of 107 patients were reviewed with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcome measures include descriptive data, fracture classification, results through economic costs, and fixation results (including hardware status, healing status, pain status, and time to healing. The KTB group had a 13% lower true cost as compared to the WTB group while the fixation results were equivocal for the measured outcomes. Our results demonstrate that the innovative KTB is comparable to the traditional WTB while offering a lower true cost, an irritation free reduction all without the frustration of returning to the operating room for additional hardware removal, which averages approximately to $8,288.

  13. Investigation of the fabrication process of hot-worked stainless-steel and Mo sheathed PbMo6 S8 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, H.; Kimura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Stainless-steel and Mo sheathed PbMo 6 S 8 wires have been fabricated by hot working from modified PbS, Mo, and MoS 2 mixed powders which were prepared by reacting Pb, Mo, and S at 530 0 C. Critical current densities were investigated for different preparation conditions, and it is revealed that obtaining continuous current path between PbMo 6 S 8 grains is the most important factor to achieve high critical current density. The J/sub c/ value of 2.8 x 10 4 Acm 2 (8 T), 7.8 x 10 3 Acm 2 (15 T), and 1.3 x 10 3 Acm 2 (23 T) was observed for the PbMo 6 S/sub 7.0/ wire heat treated at 700 0 C.copic

  14. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  15. INFLUENCE OF DRAWING SPEED ON THE TEMPERATURE AND DEFLECTED MODE IN WIRE OF HIGH-CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vereshchagin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of deflected mode and temperature fields with the help of the method of finite elements for zones of wire deformation in dies for current and new technology of drawing of wire with diameter 0,41 mm is carried out.

  16. Poly(ionic liquids)-coated stainless-steel wires packed into a polyether ether ketone tube for in-tube solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Xiuqin; Tian, Yu; Luo, Chuannan; Sun, Min

    2017-12-01

    An in-tube solid-phase microextraction device was developed by packing poly(ionic liquids)-coated stainless-steel wires into a polyether ether ketone tube. An anion-exchange process was performed to enhance the extraction performance. Surface properties of poly(ionic liquids)-coated stainless-steel wires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The extraction device was connected to high-performance liquid chromatography equipment to build an online enrichment and analysis system. Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were used as model analytes, and important conditions including extraction time and desorption time were optimized. The enrichment factors from 268 to 2497, linear range of 0.03-20 μg/L, detection limits of 0.010-0.020 μg/L, extraction and preparation repeatability with relative standard deviation less than 1.8 and 19%, respectively were given by the established online analysis method. It has been used to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples, with the relative recovery (5, 10 μg/L) in the range of 85.1-118.9%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Separation of Electrolytic Reduction Product from Stainless Steel Wire Mesh Cathode Basket via Salt Draining and Reuse of the Cathode Basket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that the metallic product obtained after electrolytic reduction (also called oxide reduction (OR can be simply separated from a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket only by using a salt drain. First, the OR run of a simulated oxide fuel (0.6 kg/batch was conducted in a molten Li2O–LiCl salt electrolyte at 650°C. The simulated oxide fuel of the porous cylindrical pellets was used as a cathode by loading a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket. Platinum was employed as an anode. After the electrolysis, the residual salt of the cathode basket containing the reduction product was drained by placing it at gas phase above the molten salt using a holder. Then, at a room temperature, the complete separation of the reduction product from the cathode basket was achieved by inverting it without damaging or deforming the basket. Finally, the emptied cathode basket obtained after the separation was reused for the second OR run by loading a fresh simulated oxide fuel. We also succeeded in the separation of the metallic product from the reused cathode basket for the second OR run.

  18. All-solid, flexible solar textiles based on dye-sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanorod arrays on stainless steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Youngjin [Department of Clothing and Textiles, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Jong Kwan [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunae, E-mail: eakim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Clothing and Textiles, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • All-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with DSSCs is demonstrated. • DSSCs woven into a satin structure and transparent PET film are used. • Solar textile showed a high efficiency of 2.57%. -- Abstract: An all-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) woven into a satin structure and transparent poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was demonstrated. A ZnO nanorod (NR) vertically grown from fiber-type conductive stainless steel (SS) wire was utilized as a photoelectrode, and a Pt-coated SS wire was used as a counter electrode. A graft copolymer, i.e. poly(vinyl chloride)-graft-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as a solid electrolyte. The conditions for the growth of ZnO NR and sufficient dye loading were investigated to improve cell performance. The adhesion of PET films to DSSCs resulted in physical stability improvements without cell performance loss. The solar textile with 10 × 10 wires exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 2.57% with a short circuit current density of 20.2 mA/cm{sup 2} at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination, which is the greatest account of an all-solid, ZnO-based flexible solar textile. DSSC textiles with woven structures are applicable to large-area, roll-to-roll processes.

  19. Determinación del límite de rotura de un cable por Método de los Elementos Finitos. // Determination of resistance load on steel wire rope by Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones, se desconocen las características originales de un cable de acero. En estos casos, generalmente se estima ellímite de rotura de un cable a partir del límite de rotura de un alambre del cable. En el presente trabajo, se propone emplearun método para estimar el límite de rotura del cable en base al modelado del cordón mediante elementos finitos. En elcontenido se explica detalladamente el procedimiento y es ejemplificado. El procedimiento es iniciado con el dibujo delcable en un programa de diseño gráfico parámetrico y posteriormente se describen las características generales delmodelado con un programa especializado en el Método de Elementos Finitos. En el análisis se incluye la influencia delcontacto entre los alambres que forman el cordón. Por último, se comparan los resultados obtenidos para el límite de roturadel cable con los datos declarados por el fabricante. Con este procedimiento fueron obtenidos valores mediante modeladodel cable con diferencias entre el 11% al 2,5% en relación al límite de rotura declarado por los fabricantes. Las diferenciasfueron evidenciadas en dependencia de la calidad del mallado empleado.Palabras claves: Cables de acero, elementos finitos, carga límite de rotura._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In occasions, the original characteristics of steel wire rope are unknown. In these cases, could be estimated the resistanceof the wire rope knowing the wire resistance. In this proposal method for estimating the resistance load of steel wire thecord of the wire rope is modelling using finite elements. Procedure is explained and a sample with a selected wire rope ispresented. It is started with the drawing of the wire rope by professional software. General characteristics of themodelling are described with FEM software. In the analysis, the contact influence in the wires of the cord is included.Lastly, the obtained results of the resistance

  20. Design of Tunnel Magnetoresistive-Based Circular MFL Sensor Array for the Detection of Flaws in Steel Wire Rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiucheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel magnetoresistive (TMR devices have superior performances in weak magnetic field detection. In this study, TMR devices were first employed to form a circular magnetic flux leakage (MFL sensor for slight wire rope flaw detection. Two versions of this tailor-made circular TMR-based sensor array were presented for the inspection of wire ropes with the diameters of 14 mm and 40 mm, respectively. Helmholtz-like coils or a ferrite magnet-based magnetizer was selected to provide the proper magnetic field, in order to meet the technical requirements of the TMR devices. The coefficient of variance in the flaw detection performance of the sensor array elements was experimentally estimated at 4.05%. Both versions of the MFL sensor array were able to detect multiple single-broken wire flaws in the wire ropes. The accurate axial and circumferential positions of these broken wire flaws were estimated from the MFL scanning image results. In addition, the proposed TMR-based sensor array was applied to detect the MFL signal induced by slight surface wear defects. A mutual correlation analysis method was used to distinguish the signals caused by the lift-off fluctuation from the MFL scanning image results. The MFL sensor arrays presented in this study provide inspiration for the designing of tailor-made TMR-based circular sensor arrays for cylindrical ferromagnetic structural inspections.

  1. The influence of local glucose oxidase activity on the potential/current distribution on stainless steel: A study by the wire beam electrode method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao, 266100 (China)], E-mail: wwei@ouc.edu.cn; Zhang Xia [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao, 266100 (China); Wang Jia [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao, 266100 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang, 110016 (China)

    2009-09-30

    The wire beam electrode (WBE) method was first used to study the activity of local glucose oxidase (GOD) on stainless steel surface in seawater. Glucose oxidase was immobilized in calcium alginate gel capsules, which were embedded in a layer of artificial biofilm (calcium alginate gel) on the WBE surface. The potential/current distributions on the WBE surface were mapped using a newly developed device for the WBE method in our lab. The results demonstrated that the catalysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation by GOD can produce local noble potential peaks and cathodic current zones on the stainless steel surface. An interesting fluctuant current distribution around cathodic zones was observed the first time. The potential and current maps showed that the enzyme heterogeneity of the artificial biofilm caused a corresponding electrochemical heterogeneity at the biofilm/metal interface. The application of the WBE method to ennoblement study enables us to observe the heterogeneous electrochemistry at biofilm/stainless steel interface directly, providing us with a powerful tool to investigate other biofilm-related processes such as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC)

  2. The influence of local glucose oxidase activity on the potential/current distribution on stainless steel: A study by the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Xia; Wang Jia

    2009-01-01

    The wire beam electrode (WBE) method was first used to study the activity of local glucose oxidase (GOD) on stainless steel surface in seawater. Glucose oxidase was immobilized in calcium alginate gel capsules, which were embedded in a layer of artificial biofilm (calcium alginate gel) on the WBE surface. The potential/current distributions on the WBE surface were mapped using a newly developed device for the WBE method in our lab. The results demonstrated that the catalysis of H 2 O 2 formation by GOD can produce local noble potential peaks and cathodic current zones on the stainless steel surface. An interesting fluctuant current distribution around cathodic zones was observed the first time. The potential and current maps showed that the enzyme heterogeneity of the artificial biofilm caused a corresponding electrochemical heterogeneity at the biofilm/metal interface. The application of the WBE method to ennoblement study enables us to observe the heterogeneous electrochemistry at biofilm/stainless steel interface directly, providing us with a powerful tool to investigate other biofilm-related processes such as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC).

  3. 76 FR 16607 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b), the Department received a timely request from Nucor Corporation (Nucor... the review pursuant to 19 CFR 351.213(d)(1). On February 24, 2011, Nucor and Cascade Steel withdrew...

  4. 76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ArcelorMittal USA, et al.) and Nucor Corporation and Cascade Steel Rolling Mills, Inc. (collectively, Nucor/Cascade) requested that the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiate a scope inquiry...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing compared to green sand casting and CNC milling in stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, A.C.M.; Verlinden, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is a metal 3D printing technique based on robotic welding. This technique yields potential in decreasing material consumption due to its high material efficiency and freedom of shape. Empirical measurements of WAAM, using a deposition rate of 1 kg/h, were

  6. Three-dimensional chemical analysis of laser-welded NiTi–stainless steel wires using a dual-beam FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, P.; Vannod, J.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Rappaz, M.; Cantoni, M.

    2013-01-01

    The biomedical industry has an increasing demand for processes to join dissimilar metals, such as laser welding of NiTi and stainless steel wires. A region of the weld close to the NiTi interface, which previously was shown to be prone to cracking, was further analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) extended in the third dimension using a focused ion beam. As the spatial resolution of EDS analysis is not precise enough to resolve the finest parts of the microstructure, a new segmentation method that uses in addition secondary-electron images of higher spatial resolution was developed. Applying these tools, it is shown that this region of the weld close to the NiTi interface does not comprise a homogeneous intermetallic layer, but is rather constituted by a succession of different intermetallics, the composition of which can be directly correlated with the solidification path in the ternary Fe–Ni–Ti Gibbs simplex

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of China low activation martensitic steel joint by TIG multi-pass welding with a new filler wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Zhang, Junyu; Wu, Qingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Tungsten Inner Gas (TIG) welding is employed for joining of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel. A new filler wire was proposed, and the investigation on welding with various heat input and welding passes were conducted to lower the tendency towards the residual of δ ferrite in the joint. With the optimized welding parameters, a butt joint by multi-pass welding with the new filler wire was prepared to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructure of the joint was observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hardness, Charpy impact and tensile tests of the joint were implemented at room temperature (25 °C). The results revealed that almost full martensite free from ferrite in the joints were obtained by multipass welding with the heat input of 2.26 kJ/mm. A certain degree of softening occurred at the heat affected zone of the joint according to the results of tensile and hardness tests. The as welded joints showed brittle fracture in the impact tests. However, the joints showed toughness fracture after tempering and relatively better comprehensive performance were achieved when the joints were tempered at 740 °C for 2 h.

  8. In situ measurement of corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in 553 K pure water via the electrical resistance of a thin wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Lister, Derek

    2012-01-01

    A system for the in situ monitoring of corrosion depth via electrical resistance measurements was applied to study the corrosion rate of type 316L stainless steel at 553 K in pure water. Corrosion depth was measured using a 50 μm diameter wire probe mounted axially in the tube. Measurements were in good agreement with literature data for both the hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) condition and the normal water chemistry (NWC) condition. Oxide film analyses by scanning electron microscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy on the wire probe and the tube showed no effects from shape of the test specimens or the application of electric current. Corrosion kinetics was evaluated by fitting equations to the measurements. Data for the HWC condition could be fitted by a two-step logarithmic-parabolic law. A single-step logarithmic law fitted data for the NWC condition. Changes in corrosion rate by the water chemistry changes were readily detected with the technique. Corrosion depth change could be observed for the water chemistry change from the NWC condition to the HWC condition with electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) of -0.56 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode, which is lower than the ECP that the phase of iron oxide changes from α-Fe 2 O 3 to Fe 3 O 4 . (author)

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of China low activation martensitic steel joint by TIG multi-pass welding with a new filler wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bo [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Zhang, Junyu [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Wu, Qingsheng, E-mail: qingsheng.wu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Tungsten Inner Gas (TIG) welding is employed for joining of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel. A new filler wire was proposed, and the investigation on welding with various heat input and welding passes were conducted to lower the tendency towards the residual of δ ferrite in the joint. With the optimized welding parameters, a butt joint by multi-pass welding with the new filler wire was prepared to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructure of the joint was observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hardness, Charpy impact and tensile tests of the joint were implemented at room temperature (25 °C). The results revealed that almost full martensite free from ferrite in the joints were obtained by multipass welding with the heat input of 2.26 kJ/mm. A certain degree of softening occurred at the heat affected zone of the joint according to the results of tensile and hardness tests. The as welded joints showed brittle fracture in the impact tests. However, the joints showed toughness fracture after tempering and relatively better comprehensive performance were achieved when the joints were tempered at 740 °C for 2 h. - Highlights: •A new filler material was proposed to control ferrite content in CLAM weld metal. •Heat input affected ferrite content through influencing cooling rate during welding. •Multipass welding was a promising way to eliminate the ferrite in the weld.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Compressive and Flexural Test Results on the Sustainable Adobe Reinforced with Steel Wire Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, Gul A.; Syed Mohsin, Sharifah M.; Gul, Yasmeen

    2018-04-01

    It has been established that Adobe provides, in addition to being sustainable and economic, a better indoor air quality without spending extensive amounts of energy as opposed to the modern synthetic materials. The material, however, suffers from weak structural behaviour when subjected to adverse loading conditions. A wide range of mechanical properties has been reported in literature owing to lack of research and standardization. The present paper presents the statistical analysis of the results that were obtained through compressive and flexural tests on Adobe samples. Adobe specimens with and without wire mesh reinforcement were tested and the results were reported. The statistical analysis of these results presents an interesting read. It has been found that the compressive strength of adobe increases by about 43% after adding a single layer of wire mesh reinforcement. This increase is statistically significant. The flexural response of Adobe has also shown improvement with the addition of wire mesh reinforcement, however, the statistical significance of the same cannot be established.

  11. Multi-Response Optimization and Regression Analysis of Process Parameters for Wire-EDMed HCHCr Steel Using Taguchi’s Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srujay Varma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of machining process parameters viz. pulse-on time, pulse-off time, current and servo-voltage for machining High Carbon High Chromium Steel (HCHCr using copper electrode in wire EDM was investigated. High Carbon High Chromium Steel is a difficult to machine alloy, which has many applications in low temperature manufacturing, and copper is chosen as electrode as it has good electrical conductivity and most frequently used electrode all over the world. Tool making culture of copper has made many shops in Europe and Japan to used copper electrode. Experiments were conducted according to Taguchi’s technique by varying the machining process parameters at three levels. Taguchi’s method based on L9 orthogonal array was followed and number of experiments was limited to 9. Experimental cost and time consumption was reduced by following this statistical technique. Targeted output parameters are Material Removal Rate (MRR, Vickers Hardness (HV and Surface Roughness (SR. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Regression Analysis was performed using Minitab 17 software to optimize the parameters and draw relationship between input and output process parameters. Regression models were developed relating input and output parameters. It was observed that most influential factor for MRR, Hardness and SR are Ton, Toff and SV.

  12. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Results. On December 1, 2011, the Department received case briefs from AMLT and petitioners, Nucor Corporation (Nucor) and Cascade Steel Rolling Mills, Inc. (Cascade Mills). On December 6, 2011, the Department received rebuttal briefs from Nucor and Cascade Mills, and ArcelorMittal USA Inc., (ArcelorMittal USA...

  13. INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF STEEL WIRE FOR METAL CORD AND RVD AFTER PATENTING IN CONDITIONS OF RUP «BMZ»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kurenkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of microstructure, quantity, character of bainite allocation at lowering of the lead melt temperature is revealed as a result of investigations of microstructure of the samples of steel 80K after isothermal breakdown of austenite in temperature range 610–400 °C.

  14. 77 FR 19191 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... made a ministerial error in the calculation of the surrogate financial ratios of Nasco Steel Pvt., Ltd... calculation of Sterling Tools Limited's (``Sterling'') surrogate financial ratio calculations. Specifically... goods inventories in Sterling's SG&A and profit ratios. Additionally, when reviewing the financial ratio...

  15. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  16. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part I. Experimental design and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model which incorporates heat flow, phase transformation kinetics, and property-structure-composition relationships to predict the mechanical properties of steel rod being control cooled under industrial conditions. Thus, the principles of microstructural engineering have been brought to bear on this interdisciplinary problem by combining computer modeling with laboratory measurements of heat flow, austenite decomposition kinetics, microstructure and mechanical properties, and industrial trials to determine heat transfer and obtain rod samples under known conditions. Owing to the length and diversity of the study, it is reported in three parts,[8191]the first of which is concerned with the heat flow measurements. A relatively simple and reliable technique, involving a preheated steel rod instrumented with a thermocouple secured at its centerline, has been devised to determine the cooling rate in different regions of the moving bed of rod loops on an operating Stelmor line. The measured thermal response of the rod has been analyzed by two transient conduction models (lumped and distributed parameter, respectively) to yield overall heat-transfer coefficients for radiation and convection. The adequacy of the technique has been checked by cooling instrumented rods under well-defined, air crossflow conditions in the laboratory and comparing measured heat-transfer coefficients to values predicted from well-established equations. The industrial thermal measurements have permitted the characterization of a coefficient to account for radiative interaction among adjacent rod loops near the edge and at the center of the bed.

  17. Morphologies, microstructures, and mechanical properties of samples produced using laser metal deposition with 316 L stainless steel wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Mi, Gaoyang; Luo, Yuanqing; Jiang, Ping; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming

    2017-07-01

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) with a filler has been demonstrated to be an effective method for additive manufacturing because of its high material deposition efficiency, improved surface quality, reduced material wastage, and cleaner process environment without metal dust pollution. In this study, single beads and samples with ten layers were successfully deposited on a 316 L stainless steel surface under optimized conditions using a 4000 W continuous wave fibre laser and an arc welding machine. The results showed that satisfactory layered samples with a large deposition height and smooth side surface could be achieved under appropriate parameters. The uniform structures had fine cellular and network austenite grains with good metallurgical bonding between layers, showing an austenite solidification mode. Precipitated ferrite at the grain boundaries showed a subgrain structure with fine uniform grain size. A higher microhardness (205-226 HV) was detected in the middle of the deposition area, while the tensile strength of the 50 layer sample reached 669 MPa. In addition, ductile fracturing was proven by the emergence of obvious dimples at the fracture surface.

  18. Monitoring of chromium and nickel in biological fluids of stainless steel welders using the flux-cored-wire (FCW) welding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridsklev, Inger Cecilie; Schaller, Karl-Heinz; Langård, Sverre

    2004-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welders welding on stainless steel (SS). Seven FCW welders were monitored for 3 days to 1 workweek, measuring Cr and Ni in air, blood, and urine. The welders were questioned about exposure to Cr and Ni during their whole working careers, with emphasis on the week of monitoring, about the use of personal protective equipment and their smoking habits. The air concentrations were mean 200 microg/m(3) (range 2.4-2,744) for total Cr, 11.3 microg/m(3) (416.7) for Ni during the workdays for the five welders who were monitored with air measurements. The levels of Cr and Ni in biological fluids varied between different workplaces. For Cr in whole blood, plasma, and erythrocytes, the mean levels after work were 1.25 (<0.4-8.3) and 1.68 (<0.2-8.0) and 0.9 (<0.4-7.2) microg/l, respectively. For Ni most of the measurements in whole blood and plasma were below the detection limits, the mean levels after work being 0.84 (<0.8-3.3) and 0.57 microg/l (<0.4-1.7), respectively. Mean levels for Cr and Ni in the urine after work were 3.96 (0.34-40.7) and 2.50 (0.56-5.0) microg/g creatinine, respectively. Correlations between the Cr(VI) levels measured in air and the levels of total Cr in the measured biological fluids were found. The results seem to support the view that monitoring of Cr in the urine may be versatile for indirect monitoring of the Cr(VI) air level in FCW welders. The results seem to suggest that external and internal exposure to Cr and Ni in FCW welders welding SS is low in general.

  19. ANALISA KEKUATAN KONSTRUKSI SIDE RAMP DOOR SISTEM STEEL WIRE ROPE PADA KM. DHARMA KENCANA II AKIBAT BEBAN STATIS DENGAN METODE ELEMEN HINGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available KM. DHARMA KENCANA II adalah kapal tipe Ro - Ro (Passanger Ship yang memiliki rute pelayaran Surabaya - Kumai - Semarang yang mampu mengangkut penumpang dan kendaraan dalam jumlah yang relatif banyak. Untuk memudahkan akses keluar masuk kendaraan yang akan diangkut, maka kapal ini dilengkapi dengan empat buah ramp door sistem steel wire rope, salah satunya adalah ramp door yang terletak dibagian kiri lambung kapal (side ramp door. Side ramp door akan menerima beban statis secara berulang - ulang sehingga dapat mengakibatkan deformasi, keretakan, kerusakan, dll. Penelitian tentang kekuatan konstruksi side ramp door perlu diperhatikan dan dilakukan dimana tegangan yang diakibatkan oleh beban yang mengenainya tidak boleh melebihi batas maksimum σyield bahan dan σijin berdasarkan rules dari klas, adapun acuan rules yang dipakai dalam penelitian ini adalah berdasarkan rules Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia. Analisa kekuatan konstruksi side ramp door dilakukan dengan menggunakan program berbasis FEM sedangkan untuk pemodelan dilakukan dengan menggunakan program berbasis CAD. Analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa beban statis untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan letak tegangan terbesar pada konstruksi side ramp door berdasarkan empat variasi pembebanan. Hasil analisa menggunakan program berbasis FEM didapatkan hasil maximum stress terbesar terjadi pada kondisi side ramp door dengan beban kendaraan truck yaitu sebesar 93,91 N/mm2 dimana daerah paling kritis terjadi pada node 22097 yang terletak pada gading nomor 8 bagian memanjang dan gading nomor 1 bagian melintang. Tegangan ini masih dalam kondisi aman karena setelah dibandingan dengan σyield bahan sebesar 400 N/mm2 dan σijin berdasarkan rules BKI sebesar 225,24 N/mm2 menghasilkan nilai safety factor sebesar 3,87 dan 2,18.

  20. Peculiar features of metallurgical processes at plasma-arc spraying of coatings, made of steel wire with powder fillers B4C and B4C+ZrO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Георгій Михайлович Григоренко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of metallurgical processes occurring in plasma-arc spraying between the steel shell and the carbide fillers of B4C and B4C cored wires with the addition of nanocrystalline ZrO2 powder has been analyzed. Iron-boron compounds alloyed with carbon are formed in ingots as a result of ferritiс coating of wire interacrion with fillers while the ferritic matrix contains boride and carboboride eutectics. Average microhardness of the carboboride compounds and the matrix is high – 17,78; 16,40 and 8,69; 9,95 GPa for the ingots with с B4C and B4C+ZrO2 respectively. The best quality coatings with low porosity (~1%, lamellar structure consisting of ferrite matrix reinforced with dispersed Fe borides, were obtained at a higher heat input (plasmatron current 240-250 A. The average amount of oxides in the coatings makes 15%. 0,5% addition of nanopowder ZrO2 accelerates dispersed iron-boron compounds forming, promotes their uniform distribution in the structure and improves coating microhardness up to 7,0 GPa. Application of the differential thermal analysis method to simulate the interaction processes between the steel shell and the filler during the heating of wire in the shielding gas makes it possible to promote formation of new phases (borides and carboborides of iron and to predict the phase composition of the coatings

  1. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  2. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  3. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  4. Um novo fio de aço inoxidável para aplicações ortodônticas A new stainless steel wire for orthodontic purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Itman Filho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver uma metodologia para fabricação de fios ortodônticos de aço inoxidável austeno-ferrítico SEW 410 Nr. 14517 por meio dos processos convencionais de laminação e trefilação. MÉTODOS: o aço austeno-ferrítico foi elaborado em um forno elétrico de indução. A qualidade dos fios foi avaliada por ensaios de tração e medidas de microdureza. A ductilidade e a manuseabilidade foram analisadas por meio da confecção de componentes ortodônticos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os valores encontrados mostraram que os fios de aço inoxidável austeno-ferrítico atenderam às normas BS 3507:1976 e ISO 5832-1, e apresentaram ótima ductilidade para confecção de componentes ortodônticos com dobras complexas.OBJECTIVE: To develop a method to manufacture austenitic-ferritic stainless steel orthodontic wires (SEW 410 Nr. 14517 using conventional rolling and wiredrawing processes. METHODS: Austenitic-ferritic steel was produced in an induction furnace. Traction trials and microhardness measurements were used to evaluate wire quality. Orthodontic parts were fabricated to assess ductility and malleability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Austenitic-ferritic stainless steel wires meet the BS 3507:1976 and ISO 5832-1 norms and have excellent ductility for the fabrication of orthodontic parts with complex folds.

  5. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  6. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  7. Fricção em braquetes gerada por fios de aço inoxidável, superelásticos com IonGuard e sem IonGuard Friction force on brackets generated by stainless steel wire and superelastic wires with and without IonGuard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Campos Braga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a fricção no braquete (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3,2mm, largura 0,022" x 0,030", Torque -2° e angulação +13°, Morelli®, Brasil, utilizando fios ortodônticos retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" de aço inoxidável (Morelli®, Brasil e de níquel-titânio superelásticos Bioforce com IonGuard e sem IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, EUA. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 24 conjuntos braquetes/segmento de fio, divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o fio. Cada conjunto braquete/segmento de fio foi testado 3 vezes e obtida uma média. Os ensaios foram realizados em máquina universal de ensaios EMIC DL2000®. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância com significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: o fio retangular Bioforce com IonGuard apresentou fricção significativamente menor que o Bioforce sem IonGuard, porém sem diferença do fio de aço inoxidável. Entretanto, o coeficiente de variação dos fios Bioforce com e sem IonGuard foi menor que o do fio de aço inoxidável. CONCLUSÃO: os fios retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" Bioforce com IonGuard apresentam menor fricção que o fio Bioforce sem IonGuard, sem diferença para o fio de aço inoxidável.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction forces on brackets (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3.2 mm, width 0.022" x 0.030 ", Torque -2° and angulation +13°, Morelli®, Brazil, with stainless steel orthodontic rectangular wire (Morelli®, Brazil and nickel titanium superelastic Bioforce wires with and without IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, USA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four brackets/wire segment combinations were used, distributed into three groups according to the orthodontic wire. Each bracket/wire segment combination was tested three times. The tests were performed in a universal testing machine Emic DL2000®. The data was submitted to ANOVA one way followed by Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: The rectangular orthodontic Bioforce wire

  8. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  9. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, V.; Wessel, F.J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ∼1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 μm. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 degree with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 μm. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 μm) and steel wire d=25 μm were exploded in vacuum (10 -5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  13. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. Kirschner Wires : insertion techniques and bone related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, B.B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kirschner (K-) wire was first introduced in 1909 by Martin Kirschner. This is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. The use of K-wires is often promoted as a simple technique because of its easy placement,

  15. The Effect Of Carbon Concentration On The Retained Austenite Content And The Mechanical Properties Of TRIP Steel Wire Rod Obtained From The Stelmor Controlled Cooling Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskalski Z.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The austenite content of the multiphase TRIP-structure steels depends, inter alia, on the carbon concentration and the properly selected parameters of the two-stage heat treatment.

  16. Biofilm formation on stainless steel and gold wires for bonded retainers in vitro and in vivo and their susceptibility to oral antimicrobials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Marije A.; Pelser, Floris D. H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Busscher, Henk J.; Ren, Yijin

    OBJECTIVE: Bonded retainers are used in orthodontics to maintain treatment result. Retention wires are prone to biofilm formation and cause gingival recession, bleeding on probing and increased pocket depths near bonded retainers. In this study, we compare in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation on

  17. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING A ZINC-COATED TUB WIRE FOR MUZZLE (BOTTLE’ HOOD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  18. Investigations on the wire saw process on steels of selected geometries in the encircling process; Untersuchungen zum Seilsaegeprozess an Staehlen ausgewaehlter Geometrien im umschlingenden Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, Daniel

    2015-01-26

    This thesis illustrates a new and innovative model for the usual looping method to describe cutting time and wear. Several test series have been carried out to determine and analyze the various influencing factors. This new model now allows for exact predictions for cutting times and the resulting wear. A special test stand was planned and built. With the help of this test stand various influencing parameters were determined in preliminary tests. Due to the high correlation between these parameters, a matrix was created to rate them. From these results and the findings of the preliminary tests, the boundary conditions such as work piece size were defined and an experimental design was created. Eleven test series were conducted and each one consists of up to ten work pieces. In each test series, only one parameter was changed, the other influencing parameters remained unchanged. The parameter of the following characteristics were varied: the speed of the diamond wire, the feed pressure, the cutting angle, the geometry with respective cutting area, the work piece material, as well as the twisting of the diamond wire. By varying these parameters, the influence could be shown on the performance of the cutting process and also on the wear behavior of the diamond wire. A model was created from the obtained data which enables a cutting time prediction for rectangular work pieces. In addition to the model, a new criterion has been developed, with which it is possible to quantify the progress of wear and to be able to determine a necessary wire replacement. The classification of particle sizes of the accumulated chips has shown that a lower average cutting performance results in a decrease of the average particle size. From this circumstance a termination criterion of <150 μm has been established. When the particle size drops below this value, the cutting process becomes ineffective and should not be continued, or the diamond wire should be replaced, respectively

  19. Pacemaker wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of pacemaker wires were performed by comparing Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography (AMBER) with conventional chest radiography. The scanning equalization technique of the AMBER unit makes it superior to conventional technique in the depiction of different structures in the mediastinum or in the pleural sinuses. So far motion artifacts have not been considered clinically important. The longer exposure time, however, may impair the assessment of pacemaker wires. The motion artifact described may not only make adequate evaluation impossible but may even give a false impression of a lead fracture. The difference between the two systems was significant. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of the fit of preformed nickel titanium arch wires on normal occlusion dental arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhn G. Al-Barakati

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using an archwire form with the best fit to the dental arch should produce minimal changes in the dental arch form when NiTi wires are used and require less customization when stainless-steel wires are used.

  1. Evaluation of Effects of Sterilization on Mechanical Properties of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Results: Dry heat sterilization, autoclave, 2% glutaraldehyde solution had no effect on ultimate tensile strength, 0.1% yield strength, modulus of elasticity and percentage elongation of stainless steel and elgiloy wires. Tensile strength and yield strength of Nitinol and b-titanium wires together with percentage elongation of b-titanium wires significantly increased following dry heat sterilization and autoclave. No detrimental effects on properties of wires were observed. These sterilization procedures could be safely recommended for sterilization of orthodontic wires.

  2. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described

  3. Laparoscopic extraction of fractured Kirschner wire from the pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaykumar N Thati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire is a sharp stainless steel guide wire commonly used in fixation of fractured bone segments. There are case reports of migrated K wire from the upper limb into the spine and chest, and from the lower limb in to the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we present a case report of accidental intra-operative fracture of K wire during percutaneous femoral nailing for sub-trochanteric fracture of right femur, which migrated in to the pelvis when the orthopaedician tried to retrieve the broken segment of the K wire. This case highlights the use of laparoscopy as minimally invasive surgical option.

  4. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  5. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  6. Researching on Control Device of Prestressing Wire Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhui; Guo, Yangbo; Liu, Maoshe

    2017-06-01

    This paper mainly introduces a device for controlling prestress and its related research methods, the advantage of this method is that the reinforcement process is easy to operate and control the prestress of wire rope accurately. The relationship between the stress and strain of the steel wire rope is monitored during the experiment, and the one - to - one relationship between the controllable position and the pretightening force of the steel wire rope is confirmed by the 5mm steel wire rope, and the results are analyzed theoretically by the measured elastic modulus. The results show that the method can effectively control the prestressing force, and the result provides a reference method for strengthening the concrete column with prestressed steel strand.

  7. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  8. Application of irradiated wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord

  9. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  10. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  11. SIMULACIÓN EXPERIMENTAL Y NUMÉRICA DE UN PROCESO DE TREFILADO HÚMEDO DE UN ALAMBRE DE ACERO AL CARBONO EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE DAMP WIRE DRAWING PROCESS OF A CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio L Rojas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis experimental y numérico para la descripción del comportamiento mecánico de un alambre de acero al carbono durante un proceso industrial de trefilado húmedo. En primer lugar, se hizo una campaña experimental de mediciones de fuerza de trefilado de las doce reducciones presentes en el proceso. En segundo lugar, se llevaron a cabo ensayos de tracción con objeto de caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico del material en cada etapa de reducción. En estos ensayos se obtuvieron curvas de tensión-deformación que, en conjunto a las respuestas calculadas a partir de la simulación de los ensayos, permitieron derivar la evolución de los parámetros elásticos y plásticos característicos del material a medida que se reduce su diámetro. De dicha evolución se constató el gran endurecimiento que experimenta el material durante el proceso el que, a su vez, condiciona fuertemente su trefilabilidad. Las simulaciones se realizaron por medio de un modelo elastoplástico de grandes deformaciones implementado en un programa de cálculo preexistente, basado en el método de elementos finitos, denominado VULCAN. Luego, los parámetros del material obtenidos en los ensayos de tracción fueron considerados en la simulación del proceso de deformación que ocurre durante el paso del alambre a través de los dados. Los resultados de la simulación se consideran aceptables y representativos del comportamiento del alambre en el proceso.This paper presents an experimental and numerical analysis for the description of the mechanical behaviour of a carbon steel wire during an industrial process of damp drawing. Firstly, an experimental procedure aimed at measuring wire drawing forces in the twelve reductions present in the process was performed. Secondly, tensile tests were carried out in order to characterize the mechanical behavior of the material for each reduction step. The resulting stress-strain curves together with

  12. Electrodeposition of self-assembled poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) @gold nanoparticles on stainless steel wires for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic determination of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-11-04

    In this work, a novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)@Au nanoparticles (PEDOT@AuNPs) hybrid coating was prepared and characterized. Firstly, the monomer 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was self-assembled on AuNPs, and then electropolymerization was performed on a stainless steel wire by cyclic voltammetry. The obtained PEDOT@AuNPs coating was rough and showed cauliflower-like micro-structure with thickness of ∼40μm. It displayed high thermal stability (up to 330°C) and mechanical stability and could be used for at least 160 times of solid phase microextraction (SPME) without decrease of extraction performance. The coating exhibited high extraction capacity for some environmental pollutants (e.g. naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene and phenathrene) due to the hydrophobic interaction between the analytes and PEDOT and the additional physicochemical affinity between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and AuNPs. Through coupling with GC detection, good linearity (correlation coefficients higher than 0.9894), wide linear range (0.01-100μgL -1 ), low limits of detection (2.5-25ngL -1 ) were achieved for these analytes. The reproducibility (defined as RSD) was 1.1-4.0% and 5.8-9.9% for single fiber (n=5) and fiber-to-fiber (n=5), respectively. The SPME-GC method was successfully applied for the determination of three real samples, and the recoveries for standards added were 89.9-106% for lake water, 95.7-112% for rain water and 93.2-109% for soil saturated water, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Power supply in a wire mill; Energiefuehrungen sind schwer auf Draht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth-Stahl, Ingelore [Kabelschlepp GmbH, Wenden-Gerlingen (Germany). International Fairs and Public Relation

    2009-09-15

    Near Rotterdam, steel producer Ovako operates a wire mill including a coating and pickling unit. The pickling unit has a capacity of 450,000 tpa of wire and is one of the biggest of its kind. The cranes and lifting gear for transporting wire coils and operating the dipping tanks have plastic power tracks for uninterrupted operation. (orig.)

  14. Structural and phase studies of stainless wire after electroplastic drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Kir'yanchev, N.E.; Ryzhkov, V.G.; Kalugin, V.D.; Sokolov, N.V.; Klekovkin, A.A.; Klevtsur, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and phase properties of the 12Kh18N10T steel wire are studied after usual and electroplastic drawing from 0.40 up to 0.11 mm with 18-22% reduction per pass with passing 250 A/mm 2 electric current. The earlier made observation on a sharp decrease in content of deformation-induced martensite of α-phase takes place in the wire from stainless metastable austenitic steel as a result of electroplastic drawing. Distribution of the remained α-phase by the wire cross section is established

  15. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  16. Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge wire testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on tank 241-S-106 during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge's stainless steel measuring wire broke. After examination and laboratory analysis, it was determined that the wire broke due to severe chloride ion corrosion. It is suspected that the chloride ion contamination came from the radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liner. It is well documented that the breakdown of PVC due to radiation produces chloride containing compounds. This document provides a qualification test plan to remove and have analyzed the wire in all of the Enraf Series 854 that have been installed to date. These tests will confirm the presence or absence of chloride ions in the PVC liners and/or on the Enraf measuring wires installed in the tanks. This test will involve removing the 316 stainless steel wire drums from all of the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauges that have been installed. New 316 stainless steel wire drums shall be installed into the gauges and the gauges will be placed back into service. The wire that is removed from the gauges shall be sent to the 222-S Lab or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. Additional wire replacements will occur at intervals as determined necessary by the results of the laboratory analyses

  17. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures

  18. DT fusion neutron irradiation of BPNL niobium nickel and 316 stainless steel at 1750C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    The DT fusion neutron irradiation at 175 0 C of 17 niobium wires, one niobium foil, 14 316 stainless steel wires, one 316 stainless steel foil, nine nickel wires, and two nickel foils from BPNL is described. The sample position, beam-on time, neutron dose record, and neutron fluence are given

  19. Monitoring and evaluation of wire mesh forming life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemuoh, Emmanuel U.; Zhao, Ping; Kadlec, Alec

    2018-03-01

    Forming tables are used with stainless steel wire mesh conveyor belts to produce variety of products. The forming tables will typically run continuously for several days, with some hours of scheduled downtime for maintenance, cleaning and part replacement after several weeks of operation. The wire mesh conveyor belts show large variation in their remaining life due to associated variations in their nominal thicknesses. Currently the industry is dependent on seasoned operators to determine the replacement time for the wire mesh formers. The drawback of this approach is inconsistency in judgements made by different operators and lack of data knowledge that can be used to develop decision making system that will be more consistent with wire mesh life prediction and replacement time. In this study, diagnostic measurements about the health of wire mesh former is investigated and developed. The wire mesh quality characteristics considered are thermal measurement, tension property, gage thickness, and wire mesh wear. The results show that real time thermal sensor and wear measurements would provide suitable data for the estimation of wire mesh failure, therefore, can be used as a diagnostic parameter for developing structural health monitoring (SHM) system for stainless steel wire mesh formers.

  20. Micro Wire-Drawing: Experiments And Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, G. A.; Monti, M.; Bietresato, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, the authors propose to adopt the micro wire-drawing as a key for investigating models of micro forming processes. The reasons of this choice arose in the fact that this process can be considered a quasi-stationary process where tribological conditions at the interface between the material and the die can be assumed to be constant during the whole deformation. Two different materials have been investigated: i) a low-carbon steel and, ii) a nonferrous metal (copper). The micro hardness and tensile tests performed on each drawn wire show a thin hardened layer (more evident then in macro wires) on the external surface of the wire and hardening decreases rapidly from the surface layer to the center. For the copper wire this effect is reduced and traditional material constitutive model seems to be adequate to predict experimentation. For the low-carbon steel a modified constitutive material model has been proposed and implemented in a FE code giving a better agreement with the experiments

  1. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  2. Testing methods of steel wi re ropes at the anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kropuch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic andthermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobilesteel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. Firstmeasurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methodsare shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widelyused magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presentsa problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enableincreased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  3. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  4. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  5. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  6. Comparison of the Load Deflection Characteristics of Esthetic and Metal Orthodontic Wires on Ceramic Brackets using Three Point Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umal Hiralal Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Steel wires showed highest strength values, requiring the incorporation of loops and folds to reduce the load/deflection. NiTi and GFRPC wires produced more deflection at low levels of force, however the esthetic wire was shown to fracture and break.

  7. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  9. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2001-01-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  10. Effects of a diamond-like carbon coating on the frictional properties of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a diamond-like carbon coating does not affect the frictional properties of orthodontic wires. Two types of wires (nickel-titanium and stainless steel) were used, and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on the wires. Three types of brackets, a conventional stainless steel bracket and two self-ligating brackets, were used for measuring static friction. DLC layers were observed by three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM), and the surface roughness was measured. Hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing. Frictional forces and surface roughness were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The hardness and elastic modulus of the wires were compared using Student's t-test. When angulation was increased, the DLC-coated wires showed significantly less frictional force than the as-received wires, except for some wire/bracket combinations. Thin DLC layers were observed on the wire surfaces by SEM. As-received and DLC-coated wires had similar surface morphologies, and the DLC-coating process did not affect the surface roughness. The hardness of the surface layer of the DLC-coated wires was much higher than for the as-received wires. The elastic modulus of the surface layer of the DLC-coated stainless steel wire was less than that of the as-received stainless steel wire, whereas similar values were found for the nickel-titanium wires. The hypothesis is rejected. A DLC-coating process does reduce the frictional force.

  11. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires.

  12. Improvement of cold wire drawing process by electropulsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Egea, Antonio José; González Rojas, Hernan Alberto; Jorba Peiró, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The electroplastic effects on wire drawing process assisted with different short time current pulses configurations are investigated experimentally. The current pulses were induced to a specimen during the drawing process. The studied material is the 308L stainless steel. Current densities of 185 A/mm2, frequencies range from 140 to 350 Hz and pulse duration range from 100 to 250 μs were used in the electrically‐assisted wire drawing process. Frequency and pulse duration are...

  13. Hot wire TIG temper bead welding for nuclear repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.A.; Gilston, P.F.

    1989-08-01

    A preliminary assessment has been carried out to determine the suitability of the hot wire tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process for the repair of thick section, ferritic steel nuclear pressure vessels. The objective has been to identify a hot wire TIG temper bead procedure, suitable for repairs without post weld heat treatment. This procedure involves depositing two weld layers with carefully selected welding parameters such that overlapping thermal cycles produce a refined and tempered heat affected zone, HAZ, microstructure. (author)

  14. Kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite in 18CrNiMo7-6 steel applied for toothed wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Toothed wheels constitute essential part of the steel structural elements market. The most often hypereutectoid structural steels forcarburizing are used for toothed wheels. The final producers of toothed wheels are not demanding regarding a microstructure, providedthat the determined requirements will be fulfilled (e.g. metallurgical purity determined by ultrasounds. Therefore delivered forgings can be in an annealed or quenched state. This results from the situation that the final heat treatment or heat-chemical one is being done at one of the last stages of the toothed wheel production. An essential factor allowing to develop the proper heat treatment is the knowledge of the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite and its relating to technological conditions, being at the producer disposal, as well as to forging dimensions. Such investigations should be carried out on real melts used for forgings for toothed wheels production together with an analysis of microstructure changes on the forging cross-section. They should be based on calculation methods determining the distribution of cooling rates on its cross-section in dependence of an applied cooling medium.The mentioned above problems in relation to 18CrNiMo7-6 steel - are elucidated in this paper. The aim of the investigations wasthe description of the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite in this steel. The CCT diagram was constructed for the austenitizing temperature determined on the basis of phase transformations temperatures (the so-called critical points.

  15. Electroplastic drawing of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Spitsyn, V.I.; Sokolov, N.V.; Ryzhkov, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    Effect of electroplastic drawing on mechanical, magnetic and electrical properties of wire of 12Kh18N10T and Kh13N13M2 steels was studied. Pulse, direct and alternating currents were used. Direct and alternating current densities were 400 A/mm 2 , mean density of pulse current was 200 A/mm 2 . The investigations have shown that the current density increase results in decreasing the wire strengthening intensity though in increasing plastic properties. As a result of electroplastic drawing the growth of magnetic characteristics of wire occurs

  16. THE PRODUCTION OF STEEL CORD IN BELARUS IS 15 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Savenok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is briefly narrated about the history of the steel wire cord production, the development of its production at Belorussian metallurgical works, perspectives of the further increase of the Belorussian steel wire cord production volume. The information on the dynamics of the production of wire RVD, wire of bead rings of tires and steel wire cord at RUP “BMZ” for the last 15 years is given. The tendencies of the development of the tires reinforcing materials for the nearest future are considered.

  17. Hot drawn Fe–6.5 wt.%Si wires with good ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Li, H.; Yang, K.; Liang, Y.F.; Yang, J.; Ye, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe–6.5wt%Si steel wire with diameter of 1.6 mm can be successfully obtained by hot drawing process. • The ductility of Fe–6.5wt%Si alloy can be improved significantly when it is fabricated in the form of wire. • The Dc magnetic property of Fe–6.5wt%Si steel wire 1.6 mm in diameter is excellent, which is close to that of 0.3 mm thick cold-rolling sheet. - Abstract: Fe–6.5 wt.%Si high silicon steel wires with a diameter of 1.6 mm are fabricated successfully by hot drawing. The high silicon steel wires show much better ductility than sheets. The tensile strength and elongation of the wires at the room temperature can reach 1.31 GPa and 1.4%, respectively. The tensile strength and elongation of the rolling sheet at the room temperature are 0.8 GPa and 0, respectively. The microstructure analyses show that the elongated grains after drawing and reduced ordering phases by deformation in the wires might contribute to its good ductility. Bs value of 1.437 T and Hc value of 16.96 A/m are obtained for the wire after proper heat treatment for the wires

  18. Avaliação do coeficiente de atrito de braquetes metálicos e estéticos com fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio Evaluation of the friction coefficient of metal and esthetic brackets with stainless steel and beta-titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Pritsch Braga

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um fator importante que define a eficácia dos aparelhos ortodônticos fixos é o atrito existente entre as superfícies de fios e braquetes. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o coeficiente de atrito estático entre fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio (TP Orthodontics e braquetes de aço inoxidável (Dynalock® - Unitek, braquetes estéticos com slot de aço inoxidável (Clarity® - Unitek e estéticos convencionais (Allure® - GAC. Para tanto, construiu-se um equipamento no Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Mecatrônica da PUCRS. Antes de serem iniciados os testes, foi quantificado o erro de método e constatou-se que não houve interferência significante (p>0,05 do fator operador nas medições. Então, pôde-se calcular o valor do coeficiente de atrito, obtido pela divisão da força de atrito pela carga normal. O método estatístico utilizado neste estudo foi Análise de Variância (ANOVA e teste de Comparações Múltiplas (Tukey. Constatou-se que: 1 a combinação com menor coeficiente de atrito foi composta pelo fio de aço inoxidável e braquete Dynalock® e a que apresentou maior coeficiente foi a do braquete Allure® com o fio de beta-titânio; 2 o fio de beta-titânio apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente maior do que o fio de aço inoxidável; 3 o braquete Dynalock® não apresentou diferenças significativas em relação ao coeficiente de atrito do braquete Clarity® quando o fio utilizado foi de beta-titânio. No entanto, quando o fio testado foi de aço inoxidável, apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor. O braquete Clarity® apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor do que o braquete Allure®.An important factor that defines the effectiveness of the appliances is the friction between the surfaces of wires and brackets. Thus, that study was developed in order to investigate the static friction coefficient between stainless steel and beta-titanium wires (TP

  19. Gamma spectrometry on MANITU 271-01 gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Minkema, J.

    1994-08-01

    A series of irradiation experiments (271-series) is being performed of the sustain programme for material development and characterization of the NET (Next European Torus). In the framework of the first irradiation experiment 271-01, with irradiation up to 0.2 dpa, four gamma scan wires have been examined by gamma scanning. The purpose of the gamma scan wires (GSW) is to get information about the neutron fluence distribution in the capsules during irradiation. In the stainless steel wires the nuclides Co-58, Mu-54, Fe-59 and Co-60 are produced, are characteristic for fast and thermal neutron reactions. (orig./HP)

  20. Imperfection analysis of flexible pipe armor wires in compression and bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by a specific failure mode known as lateral wire buckling occurring in the tensile armor layers of flexible pipes. The tensile armor is usually constituted by two layers of initially helically wound steel wires with opposite lay directions. During pipe...... ability of the wires. This may cause the wires to buckle in the circumferential pipe direction, when these are restrained against radial deformations by adjacent layers. In the present paper, a single armoring wire modeled as a long and slender curved beam embedded in a frictionless cylinder bent...

  1. Breakdown dynamics of electrically exploding thin metal wires in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Caplinger, J.; Parada, F.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    Using a two-frame intensified charge coupled device (iCCD) imaging system with a 2 ns exposure time, we observed the dynamics of voltage breakdown and corona generation in experiments of fast ns-time exploding fine Ni and stainless-steel (SS) wires in a vacuum. These experiments show that corona generation along the wire surface is subjected to temporal-spatial inhomogeneity. For both metal wires, we observed an initial generation of a bright cathode spot before the ionization of the entire wire length. This cathode spot does not expand with time. For 25.4 μm diameter Ni and SS wire explosions with positive polarity, breakdown starts from the ground anode and propagates to the high voltage cathode with speeds approaching 3500 km/s or approximately one percent of light speed.

  2. Surface state of the wire electrode and its influence on the application characteristics in MAG welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piffer, W.; Marques, P.V.; Modenesi, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents an evaluation of the effect of the surface condition of the wire on GMA welding performance. Three wires samples were produced from the same steel heat with different surface conditions. Short circuit transfer welding trials were performed for two wire feed rates and different voltage levels. These tests indicated that stability tended to be worse and spatter level higher for the lowest and the highest welding voltage operation and the wire with no copper coating. No major difference was observed for intermediate voltage operation. Scanning electron microscopy of contact tips suggested that cooper coated wires produced less erosion on the tips. Electrical resistance of wires and friction forces between wires and contact tip were also evaluated and used to analyze differences in influence of wire surface condition on welding results. (Author) 14 refs

  3. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  4. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  5. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  6. Gamma spectrometry of 285-04 ILAS gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    In the frame work of their on-going sustain programme for the material development and characterization of fusion reactors, ECN is investigating the irradiation behaviour of ferritic/martensitic steels. In the fourth irradiation experiment 285-04, 55 steel tensile samples have been irradiated up to 2.5 dpa. Four gamma scan wires from this experiment have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  7. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  8. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  9. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  10. Hybrid Composite Tensile Armour Wires in Flexible Risers: A Multi-scale Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Mayank; Katnam, Kali-Babu; Potluri, Venkata; Jha, Vivekanand; Latto, J.; Dodds, NI

    2017-01-01

    Traditional carbon-steel armour wires pose limitations (e.g. long spans, weight reduction, corrosion and fatigue) for flexible risers to operate in demanding and deeper water environments. In this context, an alternative to carbon-steel tensile armour wires is proposed recently by the authors (Gautam et al. [1]), comprising of hexagonally packed polymer composite rods with uni-directional fibres and an over-braided (i.e. bi-axial braid with high performance fibres) sleeve. These hybrid compos...

  11. Mechanical and metallurgical changes on 308L wires drawn by electropulses

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Egea, Antonio José; González Rojas, Hernan Alberto; Celentano, Diego Javier; Jorba Peiró, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The electroplastic effects resulting from different electropulses configurations on a wire drawing process are investigated experimentally and numerically. Electropulses are induced into 308L stainless steel while it is simultaneously wire drawn. A current density of 185 A/mm2, a frequency range from 140 to 355 Hz and a pulse duration range from 100 to 250 µs are combined to electrically assist the wire drawing process. The electropulsing influence is studied in several mechanical parameters,...

  12. Evaluation of mechanical properties in metal wire mesh supported selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajath, S.; Siddaraju, C.; Nandakishora, Y.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate certain specific mechanical properties of certain stainless steel wire mesh supported Selective catalytic reduction catalysts structures wherein the physical properties of the metal wire mesh and also its surface treatments played vital role thereby influencing the mechanical properties. As the adhesion between the stainless steel wire mesh and the catalyst material determines the bond strength and the erosion resistance of catalyst structures, surface modifications of the metal- wire mesh structure in order to facilitate the interface bonding is therefore very important to realize enhanced level of mechanical properties. One way to enhance such adhesion properties, the stainless steel wire mesh is treated with the various acids, i.e., chromic acid, phosphoric acid including certain mineral acids and combination of all those in various molar ratios that could generate surface active groups on metal surface that promotes good interface structure between the metal- wire mesh and metal oxide-based catalyst material and then the stainless steel wire mesh is dipped in the glass powder slurry containing some amount of organic binder. As a result of which the said catalyst material adheres to the metal-wire mesh surface more effectively that improves the erosion profile of supported catalysts structure including bond strength.

  13. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  14. Finite element simulation of impact response of wire mesh screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Caizheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the response of wire mesh screens to low velocity impact with blunt objects is investigated using finite element (FE simulation. The woven wire mesh is modelled with homogeneous shell elements with equivalent smeared mechanical properties. The mechanical behaviour of the woven wire mesh was determined experimentally with tensile tests on steel wire mesh coupons to generate the data for the smeared shell material used in the FE. The effects of impacts with a low mass (4 kg and a large mass (40 kg providing the same impact energy are studied. The joint between the wire mesh screen and the aluminium frame surrounding it is modelled using contact elements with friction between the corresponding elements. Damage to the screen of different types compromising its structural integrity, such as mesh separation and pulling out from the surrounding frame is modelled. The FE simulation is validated with results of impact tests conducted on woven steel wire screen meshes.

  15. Effects of niobium additions on the structure, depth, and austenite grain size of the case of carburized 0.07% C steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Bepari, M. M. A.

    1996-10-01

    Carbon (0.07%) steel samples containing about 0.04% Nb singly and in combination with nitrogen were carburized in a natural Titas gas atmosphere at a temperature of 1223 K (950 °C) and a pressure of about 0.10 MPa for 1/2 to 4 h, followed by slow cooling in the furnace. Their microstructures were studied by optical microscopy. The austenite grain size of the case and the case depths were determined on baseline samples of low-carbon steels and also on niobium and (Nb + N) microalloyed steel samples. It was found that, when compared to the baseline steel, niobium alone or in combination with nitrogen decreased the thickness of cementite network near the surface of the carburized case of the steels. However, niobium in combination with nitrogen was more effective than niobium in reducing the thickness of cementite network. Niobium with or without nitrogen inhibited the formation of Widmanstätten cementite plates at grain boundaries and within the grains near the surface in the hypereutectoid zone of the case. It was also revealed that, when compared to the baseline steel, niobium decreased the case depth of the carburized steels, but that niobium with nitrogen is more effective than niobium alone in reducing the case depth. Niobium as niobium carbide (NbC) and niobium in the presence of nitrogen as niobium carbonitride, [Nb(C,N)] particles refined the austenite grain size of the carburized case, but Nb(C,N) was more effective than NbC in inhibiting austenite grain growth.

  16. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  18. Kinetics of manganese in MAG/MIG welding with a 18/8/6 wire

    OpenAIRE

    Tušek, Janez

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with a study of MAG/MIG welding of low-alloy ferritic steel and highalloy austenitic steel with a 18/8/6 wire. Manganese burn-off from the wire in welding a single-V butt weld was studied. It was found that manganese burns off in the arc during melting of a droplet at the wire end, and from the weld pool during weld formation. The range of manganese burn-off depends mainly on the type of shielding gas used and the arc length, i.e., from the arc voltage. The manganese burn-off ...

  19. Experimental study on manufacturing of grits-spiral- distribution electroplated wire saw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei GAO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high performance electroplating diamond wire saw, experimental studies are conducted for development of grits-spiral-distribution electroplated diamond wire saw using sand-suspend electroplating method. The influences of pre-plating cathode current density, grits electro-embedding cathode current density and time on composite deposite coating appearance and grits distribution of wire saw are analyzed, and the sawing experiment is carried out by using the trial wire saw. The results show that good bonding strength between the coating and the steel wire can be obtained when the adopted cathode current density is 5.0 A/dm2 at pre-plating stage; good coating and girts distribution can be obtained when the adopted cathode current density is 5.0 A/dm2 and the electroplating time is 7~8 min at grits electro-embedding stage. By winding insulation wire on the surface of steel wire and reasonably selecting technological parameters before pre-plating can make the diamond wire saw with grits-spiral-distribution on surface, and the new type of wire saw has a better crumbs-clearing effect in wire sawing process.

  20. Transition welds in welding of two-ply steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fartushnyj, V.G.; Evsyukov, Yu.G.

    1977-01-01

    Studied were physico-mechanical properties of welds made by various welding wires of chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium steels in submerged arc welding of double-layer steels with main layer of the VSt.3sp. carbon steel. It is shown that service-reliable structures welded of two-layer steels are obtained by providing the content from 11 to 20 % Ni in the automatically welded transition layer

  1. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  2. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  3. Velocity distribution measurement in wire-spaced fuel pin bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ohtake, Toshihide; Uruwashi, Shinichi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    1974-01-01

    Flow distribution measurement was made in the subchannels of a pin bundle in air flow. The present paper is interim because the target of this work is the decision of temperature of the pin surface in contact with wire spacers. The wire-spaced fuel pin bundle used for the experiment consists of 37 simulated fuel pins of stainless steel tubes, 3000 mm in length and 31.6 mm in diameter, which are wound spirally with 6 mm stainless steel wire. The bundle is wrapped with a hexagonal tube, 3500 mm in length and 293 mm in flat-to-flat distance. The bundle is fixed with knock-bar at the entrance of air flow in the hexagonal tube. The pitch of pins in the bundle is 37.6 mm (P/D=1.19) and the wrapping pitch of wire is 1100 mm (H/D=34.8). A pair of arrow-type 5-hole Pitot tubes are used to measure the flow velocity and the direction of air flow in the pin bundle. The measurement of flow distribution was made with the conditions of air flow rate of 0.33 m 3 /sec, air temperature of 45 0 C, and average Reynolds number of 15100 (average air velocity of 20.6 m/sec.). It was found that circular flow existed in the down stream of wire spacers, that axial flow velocity was slower in the subchannels, which contained wire spacers, than in those not affected by the wire, and that the flow angle to the axial velocity at the boundary of subchannels was two thirds smaller than wire wrapping angle. (Tai, I.)

  4. Engineering task plan and status of 241-S-106 Enraf level gauge wire break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the findings of a task team which was formed which identified the need for short-term actions to re-establish tank waste level monitoring and to permanently address wire failure. The failed wire was removed and sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. It was determined that the cause of the wire failure was due to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the 316 stainless steel (SS) wire. Radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the source of the chloride ions

  5. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-12-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb3Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb3Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb3Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb3Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb3Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system.

  6. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb 3 Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb 3 Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb 3 Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb 3 Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system

  7. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires on ceramic brackets associated with low friction ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando KOIKE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few studies investigated the mechanical properties of orthodontic wires on ceramic brackets associated the ligatures. Objective This study aimed to compare the load-deflection of orthodontic wires with round section of 0.016” made of stainless steel (SS, nickel-titanium (NiTi and glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite (GFRPC. Material and method Sixty specimens obtained from 10 sectioned pre-contoured arches (TP Orthodontics, were divided into 3 groups of 20 according to each type of material (1 esthetic-type wire and 2 not esthetic and length of 50 mm. The methodology consisted of a 3-point bending test using esthetic ceramic brackets (INVU, TP Orthodontics, Edgewise, 0.022”x 0.025” as points of support. The tensile tests were performed on a mechanical test machine, at a speed of 10 mm/min, deflection of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm. Friedman’s Non Parametric Multiple comparisons test was used (P<0.05. Result The nickel-titanium wire presented smaller load/ deflection compared with stainless steel. GFRPC wires had lower strength values among all groups evaluated (P<.05. The steel wire showed permanent deformation after 3 mm deflection, NiTi wire demonstrated memory effect and the esthetic type had fractures with loss of strength. Conclusion It can be concluded that steel wires have high strength values, requiring the incorporation of loops and folds to reduce the load / deflection. NiTi and GFRPC wires produced low levels of force, however the esthetic wire was shown to fracture and break.

  8. The effects of sterilization on the tensile strength of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggers, J A; Margeson, D

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization on the tensile strength of 0.016" beta-titanium, nickel titanium and stainless steel wires. Three common methods of sterilization--autoclaving, dry heat and ethylene oxide--were evaluated in three test trials involving zero, one and five sterilization cycles. For each of the test trials, five pieces each of 0.016" TMA, 0.016" Sentalloy and 0.016" Tru-chrome stainless steel wires were sterilized using a standard autoclave. Five other pieces of each of the same wires were sterilized in a dryclave, while an additional five pieces of each of the three wire types were sterilized using ethylene oxide. The ultimate tensile strengths of the wires were then determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were compared for statistical differences using analysis of variance. The results showed that dry heat sterilization significantly increased the tensile strength of TMA wires after one cycle, but not after five cycles. Autoclaving and ethylene oxide sterilization did not significantly alter the tensile strength of TMA wires. Dry heat and autoclave sterilization also significantly increased the tensile strength of Sentalloy wires, but the mean strength after five sterilization cycles was not significantly different than after one cycle. Ethylene oxide sterilization of Sentalloy wires did not significantly alter the tensile strengths of that wire. There were no significant differences in the tensile strengths of the stainless steel wires following zero, one or five cycles for any of the sterilization methods.

  9. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  10. Wire sawing for the application for dismantling of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Hillmann-Apmann, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Production Engineering and Machine Tools

    2001-07-01

    In recent years diamond wire sawing process has been established as a technique for machining of hard and brittle materials in the quarrying and dimensioning of natural stone, i.e. marble and granite /Bor94/, or in machining of concrete and reinforced concrete /NN89, NN90, Rus93, Zil89/. It is more and more applied in different industrial sectors, namely the building and road-building industry, for purposes of reconstruction and decommissioning/. For the application of cutting austenitic steel most of the current wire sawing tools can not be used. First the diamond get in chemical reaction with the steel (graphitisation) and also the plastic flow of the workpiece material (''smearing'') while processing this material, the chip spaces between the diamonds are filled with the steel chips and thus the effective processing is reduced. Only the very tips of the diamonds are in contact with the workpiece, which leads in most cases to rapid wear of the grains. The tool loses its ability to grind in short terms of time. All these problems exclude the wire sawing technique from wide areas of application of cutting ductile steel materials. (orig.)

  11. Wire sawing for the application for dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Hillmann-Apmann, H.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years diamond wire sawing process has been established as a technique for machining of hard and brittle materials in the quarrying and dimensioning of natural stone, i.e. marble and granite /Bor94/, or in machining of concrete and reinforced concrete /NN89, NN90, Rus93, Zil89/. It is more and more applied in different industrial sectors, namely the building and road-building industry, for purposes of reconstruction and decommissioning/. For the application of cutting austenitic steel most of the current wire sawing tools can not be used. First the diamond get in chemical reaction with the steel (graphitisation) and also the plastic flow of the workpiece material (''smearing'') while processing this material, the chip spaces between the diamonds are filled with the steel chips and thus the effective processing is reduced. Only the very tips of the diamonds are in contact with the workpiece, which leads in most cases to rapid wear of the grains. The tool loses its ability to grind in short terms of time. All these problems exclude the wire sawing technique from wide areas of application of cutting ductile steel materials. (orig.)

  12. Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, F; Shahria Alam, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (−62 °C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%. (paper)

  13. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  14. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  15. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  16. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  17. PECULIARITIES OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES AT THERMO-MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF ROLLED WIRE OF NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are results of researches of the mechanical properties and structure of the wire rod made of low-carbon nickel molybdenum steel after reduction to toughness thermomechanical treatment in the stream of high-speed wire mill.

  18. APPLICATION OF THE X-RAY STRUCTURE ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCES- SES OF WIRE PRODUCTION AT BMZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kuznetsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray diffraction methods of qualitative and quantative analysis of phase composition of the brass coating, scale on the surface of brass wire, rod, patented wire, methods of determining the characteristics of the microstrains the lattice ferritic matrix pearlitic high-carbon steel, are explored.

  19. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation

  20. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  1. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  2. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  3. Application of wire sawing method to decommissioning of high level activated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Nishimura, Youichi; Watanabe, Morishige; Yamashita Yoshitaka

    1999-01-01

    Wire sawing method is proposed as an effective cutting method for the dismantling of high level activated concrete of a nuclear power plant. The cutting test with wire sawing method discussed in this paper was carried out to obtain the data such as the cutting rate, the volume of concrete dust and the time of cutting and related work. The cutting test consisted of two parts; 'Fundamental test' and 'mock-up test.' In the fundamental test, we carried out the cutting test with small concrete blocks simulating the high level activated concrete of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Through the test, the following data were obtained: the cutting rate of wire sawing, the volume of generated concrete dust and the grading distribution of suspended particulate. We also studied the life of wire and the relations between the wire tension, the wire rotating speed, the steel ratio and the cutting rate. In the mock-up test, we carried out the test with large concrete blocks simulating the part of the reactor shield wall of BWR and the biological shield wall of PWR. Through the mock-up test, we made clear that it is possible that the large test blocks with high re-bar ratio and a steel plate (steel plates) were cut smoothly by the wire sawing method. In the test, the following data were obtained; the cutting rate, the time of the cutting and related work and the remote controllability of cutting machines. (author)

  4. Kinetics of manganese in MAG/MIG welding with a 18/8/6 wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with a study of MAG/MIG welding of low-alloy ferritic steel and high-alloy austenitic steel with a 18/8/6 wire. Manganese burn-off from the wire in welding a single-V butt weld was studied. It was found that manganese burns off in the arc during melting of a droplet at the wire end, and from the weld pool during weld formation. The range of manganese burn-of-depends mainly on the type of shielding gas used and the arc length,i. e., from the arc voltage. The manganese burn-off increases with an increase of the content of active gases, i.e., CO 2 and O 2 in the neutral gas i. e., argon. It also increases with an increase in arc voltage. The longer the welding arc, the longer exposition of the filler materials to the welding arc and the wider the penetration, Which allows manganese vapours to evaporate from the weld pool. The most important finding is that manganese burn-off from the 18/8/6 wire during welding of austenitic stainless steel with low-alloy ferritic steel is considerably strong, i.e., from 20% to 30%; nevertheless the wire concerned is perfectly suitable for welding of different types of steel. (Author) 23 refs

  5. Wired vs. Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  6. A World without Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  7. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  8. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  9. Behavior of prestressing steels after fire

    OpenAIRE

    Atienza Riera, José Miguel; Elices Calafat, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Even if a fire does not give rise to apparent damage in a prestressed structure, mechanical properties of materials as well as load distribution can be affected. A verification of residual load bearing capacity after fire is necessary to determine if the structure can be maintained in use. Mechanical properties of structural steels at high temperatures have been extensively studied. However, no attention has been paid to the behavior of steel wires after fire. This paper seeks to give a simpl...

  10. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  11. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  12. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  13. Initial arch wires for alignment of crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Lai, Wenli; Zhao, Zhihe; Yang, Zhi; Liao, Zhengyu; Shi, Zongdao; Wu, Taixiang; Millett, Declan T; McIntyre, Grant T; Hickman, Joy

    2010-04-14

    The initial arch wire is the first arch wire to be inserted into the fixed appliance at the beginning of orthodontic treatment and is used mainly for correcting crowding and rotations of teeth. With a number of orthodontic arch wires available for initial tooth alignment, it is important to understand which wire is most efficient, as well as which wires cause the least amount of root resorption and pain during the initial aligning stage of treatment. To identify and assess the evidence for the effects of initial arch wires for alignment of teeth with fixed orthodontic braces in relation to alignment speed, root resorption and pain intensity. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (30th November 2009), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to 30th November 2009) and EMBASE (1980 to 30th November 2009). Reference lists of articles were also searched. There was no restriction with regard to publication status or language of publication. We contacted all authors of included studies to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of initial arch wires to align crooked teeth with fixed orthodontic braces were selected. Only studies involving patients with upper and/or lower full arch fixed orthodontic appliances were included. Two review authors were responsible for study selection, validity assessment and data extraction. All disagreements were resolved by discussion amongst the review team. Corresponding authors of included studies were contacted to obtain missing information. Seven RCTs, with 517 participants, provided data for this review. Among them, five trials investigated the speed of initial tooth alignment comparing: 0.016 inch ion-implanted A-NiTi wire versus 0.016 inch A-NiTi versus 0.0175 multistrand stainless steel wire; 0.016x0.022 inch medium force active M-NiTi wire versus 0.016x0.022 inch graded force active M-NiTi wire versus 0.0155 inch multistrand

  14. Some special problems of steel reinforcement in nuclear structural engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, B.; Smejkal, P.; Vetchy, J.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is made of the mechanical and design characteristics of reinforcing steels for reinforced concrete structures of classes A-0 to A-IV under Czechoslovak State Standard CSN 73 1201 and Soviet standard SNiP II-21-75. Tests were performed to study changes in the values of the yield point, breaking strength, the tensile strength limit and the module of elasticity in selected Czechoslovak steels. The comparison showed that the steels behave in the same manner at high temperatures as Soviet steels of corresponding strength characteristics. Dynamic design strength of Czechoslovak materials also corresponds to values given in the Soviet standard. The technology and evaluation of welded joints equal for both Czechoslovak and Soviet steels. The manufacture was started of tempered wires with a high strength limit for prestressed wire reinforcement. All tests and comparisons showed that Czechoslovak reinforcing steels meet Soviet prescriptions, in some instances Czechoslovak standards are even more strict. (J.B.)

  15. Otimização dos parâmetros de tecimento para confecção de amanteigamento em chapas de aço ao carbono pelo processo TIG com arame AWS ER309L Weaving parameter optimization for buttering on carbon steel plates by TIG process with an AWS ER309L wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Queiroz Fratari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos parâmetros de tecimento e da velocidade de alimentação sobre a formação da primeira camada de amanteigamento com aço inoxidável austenítico, visando a otimização da operação no sentido de maximizar a relação entre espessura da camada e diluição. Os experimentos foram realizados pelo processo TIG com alimentação de arame, variando-se sistematicamente, e garantindo-se a ortogonalidade do planejamento experimental, a amplitude, o tempo de parada lateral e a velocidade de alimentação, permitindo se encontrar equações estocásticas de predições da geometria resultante do depósito. Através de um programa de otimização, procurou-se os parâmetros de regulagem que levassem a maior relação da área depositada pela área fundida. Escolheu-se como restritor a relação reforço por largura, evitando-se revestimentos com alta convexidade e possibilidade de formação de sobreposição lateral de cordão. Soldagens de validação mostraram a robustez e confirmaram a adequabilidade do método de otimização. Com a metodologia empregada foi possível demonstrar a necessidade, para a otimização do cordão de amanteigamento, de se usar a máxima velocidade de alimentação e o mínimo de tempo na parada lateral. A amplitude ideal é um balanço entre os efeitos sobre a área fundida e convexidade, mostrando uma tendência de adquirir um valor maior do que a faixa central.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the weaving parameters and of the wire feed speed on the formation of a stainless steel buttering layer, aiming the process optimization by the layer height and dilution maximization. The experiments were carried out by the TIG process with wire feeding. Weaving amplitude, lateral dwell time and wire feed speed were systematically varied, through an orthogonal experimental planning, allowing finding stochastic predictive equations of the

  16. Gamma spectrometry of 285-03 ILAS gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    In the frame work of their on-going sustain programme for the material development and characterization of fusion reactors, ECN is investigating the irradiation behaviour of ferritic/martensitic steels. In the third irradiation experiment 285-03, 55 vanadium (V-4Cr-4Ti) tensile samples have been irradiated up to 6 dpa. Four gamma scan wires from this experiment have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  17. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  18. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  19. Superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  20. Twisting wire scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-15

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  1. Twisting wire scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  2. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  3. Electron beam additive manufacturing with wire - Analysis of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglowski, Marek St.; Błacha, Sylwester; Pilarczyk, Jan; Dutkiewicz, Jan; Rogal, Łukasz

    2018-05-01

    The electron beam additive manufacturing process with wire is a part of global trend to find fast and efficient methods for producing complex shapes elements from costly metal alloys such as stainless steels, nickel alloys, titanium alloys etc. whose production by other conventional technologies is unprofitable or technically impossible. Demand for additive manufacturing is linked to the development of new technologies in the automotive, aerospace and machinery industries. The aim of the presented work was to carried out research on electron beam additive manufacturing with a wire as a deposited (filler) material. The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selected technological parameters such as: wire feed rate, beam current, travelling speed, acceleration voltage on stability of the deposition process and geometric dimensions of the padding welds. The research revealed that, at low beam currents, the deposition process is unstable. The padding weld reinforcement is non-uniform. Irregularity of the width, height and straightness of the padding welds can be observed. At too high acceleration voltage and beam current, burn-through of plate and excess penetration weld can be revealed. The achieved results and gained knowledge allowed to produce, based on EBAM with wire process, whole structure from stainless steel.

  4. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  5. Preparation, characterization, and applications of a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber by sol-gel technology on the surface of stainless steel wire for determination of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Es-haghi, Ali; Hosseininasab, Valiallah; Bagheri, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology. • Sol–gel coating was performed on stainless steel substrate. • The new fibers are robust and unbreakable with temperature stability. • The fibers were used for extraction of PAHs from aqueous samples. - Abstract: A novel solid-phase microextraction(SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology with ethoxylated nonylphenol as a fiber coating material. The fiber was employed to develop a headspace SPME–GC–MS method suitable for quantification of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. Surface characteristics of the fibers were inspected by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM measurements showed the presence of highly porous nano-sized particles in the coating. Important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature and time, desorption conditions as well as ionic strength have been evaluated and optimized. In the next step, the validation of the new method have been performed, finding it to be specific in the trace analysis of PAHs, with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg L −1 and the linear range from the respective LOD to 200 μg L −1 with RSD amounting to less than 8%. The thermal stability of the fibers was investigated as well and they were found to be durable at 280 °C for 345 min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of PAHs in real water samples

  6. Preparation, characterization, and applications of a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber by sol-gel technology on the surface of stainless steel wire for determination of poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es-haghi, Ali, E-mail: a.eshaghi@rvsri.ac.ir [Department of Physico Chemistry, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, PO Box 31975/148, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseininasab, Valiallah; Bagheri, Habib [Environmental and Bio-Analytical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology. • Sol–gel coating was performed on stainless steel substrate. • The new fibers are robust and unbreakable with temperature stability. • The fibers were used for extraction of PAHs from aqueous samples. Abstract: A novel solid-phase microextraction(SPME) fiber was prepared using sol–gel technology with ethoxylated nonylphenol as a fiber coating material. The fiber was employed to develop a headspace SPME–GC–MS method suitable for quantification of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. Surface characteristics of the fibers were inspected by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM measurements showed the presence of highly porous nano-sized particles in the coating. Important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature and time, desorption conditions as well as ionic strength have been evaluated and optimized. In the next step, the validation of the new method have been performed, finding it to be specific in the trace analysis of PAHs, with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg L⁻¹ and the linear range from the respective LOD to 200 μg L⁻¹with RSD amounting to less than 8%. The thermal stability of the fibers was investigated as well and they were found to be durable at 280 °C for 345 min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of PAHs in real water samples.

  7. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  8. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant

  9. Fatigue of orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in different fluids under constant mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M

    2003-07-25

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant.

  10. The role of oxide structure on copper wire to the rubber adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yea-Yang; Shemenski, Robert M.

    2000-07-01

    Most metals have an oxide layer on the surface. However, the structure of the oxide varies with the matrix composition, and depends upon the environmental conditions. A bronze coating, nominal composition of 98.5% Cu and balance of Sn, is applied to steel wire for reinforcing pneumatic tire beads and to provide adhesion to rubber. This work studied the influence of copper oxides on the bronze coating on adhesion during vulcanization. To emphasize the oxide structures, electrolytic tough pitch (ETP) copper wire was used instead of the traditional bronze-coated tire bead wire. Experimental results confirmed the hypothesis that cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) could significantly improve bonding between copper wire and rubber, and demonstrated that the interaction between rubber and oxide layer on wire is an electrochemical reaction.

  11. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  12. A força de atrito em braquetes plásticos e de aço inoxidável com a utilização de quatro diferentes tipos de amarração Frictional forces in stainless steel and plastic brackets using four types of wire ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nínia Correia Lima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a finalidade deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar e comparar a resistência friccional em braquetes de aço inoxidável e de policarbonato compósito amarrados com fio metálico e elastômeros. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados quatro braquetes de aço inoxidável e quatro de policarbonato compósito (PC para pré-molares levados à máquina universal de ensaio mecânico para a tração de um segmento de fio de aço inoxidável 0,019" x 0,025" na velocidade de 0,5mm/min, com 8mm de deslocamento total. A forma de amarração variou entre as seguintes possibilidades: amarração metálica com pinça de Steiner, metálica com pinça Mathieu, elastômero da marca Morelli e elastômero da marca TP Orthodontics. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os módulos elastoméricos geraram mais atrito do que os metálicos e a amarração com pinça Mathieu provocou menor atrito quando comparada a todas as situações avaliadas. Os braquetes de PC geraram menor atrito do que os metálicos, porém, na escolha do material a ser utilizado na clínica, outras variáveis - tais como a resistência ao cisalhamento e à fratura, a estabilidade de cor e a aderência por microrganismos - devem ser consideradas.OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated and compared the frictional resistance of stainless steel and polycarbonate (PC composite brackets tied with metal wire and elastomeric ligation. METHODS: Four stainless steel and four polycarbonate composite brackets for premolars were placed in a universal testing machine for the traction of a piece of 0.019 x 0.025-in wire at 0.5 mm/min and total displacement of 8 mm. Ligations were performed according to the following alternatives: metal ligation with Steiner tying pliers; metal ligation using Mathieu tying pliers; Morelli™ elastomeric ligation; and TP Orthodontics™ elastomeric ligation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Elastomeric modules generated more friction than the metal ligations, and the ligation with the Mathieu tying

  13. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  14. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  15. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  16. Stabilized superconductive wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.N.; Wong, J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable, high field, high current conductor is produced by packing multiple, multi-layer rods of a bronze core and niobium or vanadium inner jacket and copper outer jacket into a pure copper tube or other means for forming a pure copper matrix, sealing, working the packed tube to a wire, and by diffusion, heat treating to form a type II superconducting, Beta-Wolfram structure, intermetallic compound as a layer within each of several filaments derived from the rods. The layer of Beta-Wolfram structure compound may be formed in less than 2 h of diffusion heat treatment in a thickness of 0.5--2μ

  17. AC application of second generation HTS wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, C. L. H.; Gagnon, K.; Voccio, J.; Aized, D.; Claassen, J.

    2008-02-01

    For the production of Second Generation (2G) YBCO High Temperature Superconductor wire American Superconductor uses a wide-strip MOD-YBCO/RABiTSTM process, a low-cost approach for commercial manufacturing. It can be engineered with a high degree of flexibility to manufacture practical 2G conductors with architectures and properties tailored for specific applications and operating conditions. For ac applications conductor and coil design can be geared towards low hysteretic losses. For applications which experience high frequency ac fields, the stabilizer needs to be adjusted for low eddy current losses. For these applications a stainless-steel laminate is used. An example is a Low Pass Filter Inductor which was developed and built in this work.

  18. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  19. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Dagdelen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  20. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  1. The effect of surface treatment and clinical use on friction in NiTi orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelhaus, Andrea; Geserick, Marc; Hibst, Raimund; Sander, Franz G

    2005-10-01

    Since the low friction of NiTi wires allows a rapid and efficient orthodontic tooth movement, the aim of this research was to investigate the friction and surface roughness of different commercially available superelastic NiTi wires before and after clinical use. The surface of all of the wires had been pre-treated by the manufacturer. Forty superelastic wires (Titanol Low Force, Titanol Low Force River Finish Gold, Neo Sentalloy, Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) of diameter 0.016 x 0.022 in. were tested. The friction for each type of NiTi archwire ligated into a commercial stainless steel bracket was determined with a universal testing machine. Having ligated the wire into the bracket, it could then be moved forward and backwards along a fixed archwire whilst a torquing moment was applied. The surface roughness was investigated using a profilometric measuring device on defined areas of the wire. Statistical data analysis was conducted by means of the Wilcoxon test. The results showed that initially, the surface treated wires demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) less friction than the non-treated wires. The surface roughness showed no significant difference between the treated and the non-treated surfaces of the wires. All 40 wires however showed a significant increase in friction and surface roughness during clinical use. Whilst the Titanol Low Force River Finish Gold (Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany) wires showed the least friction of all the samples and consequently should be more conservative on anchorage, the increase in friction of all the surface treated wires during orthodontic treatment almost cancels out this initial effect on friction. It is therefore recommended that surface treated NiTi orthodontic archwires should only be used once.

  2. Vibration of signal wires in wire detectors under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, I.R.; Shelkov, G.A.; Dodonov, V.I.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Nikolenko, M.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation-induced vibration of signal wires in wire detectors is found and explained. The phenomenon is based on repulsion of a signal wire with a positive potential and a cloud of positive ions that remains after neutralization of the electron part of the avalanche formed in the course of gas amplification. Vibration with a noticeable amplitude may arise from fluctuations of repulsive forces, which act on the wire and whose sources are numerous ion clusters. A formula is obtained which allows wire oscillations to be estimated for all types of wire detectors. Calculation shows that oscillations of signal wires can be substantial for the coordinate accuracy of a detector working in the limited streamer mode at fluxes over 10 5 particles per second per wire. In the proportional mode an average oscillation amplitude can be as large as 20-30 μm at some detector parameters and external radiation fluxes over 10 5 . The experimental investigations show that the proposed model well describes the main features of the phenomenon. 6 refs., 8 figs

  3. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  4. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  5. Effects of irradiation on the fracture properties of stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Stainless steel weld overlay cladding was fabricated using the submerged arc, single-wire, oscillating-electrode, and the three-wire, series-arc methods. Three layers of cladding were applied to a pressure vessel plate to provide adequate thickness for fabrication of test specimens, and irradiations were conducted at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation. For the first single-wire method, the first layer was type 309, and the upper two layers were type 308 stainless steel. The type 309 was diluted considerably by excessive melting of the base plate. The three-wire method used various combinations of types 308, 309, and 304 stainless steel weld wires, and produced a highly controlled weld chemistry, microstructure, and fracture properties in all three layers of the weld. 14 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  7. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  8. Control wiring diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, T.M.; Eskinazi, M.; Henson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance

  9. Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, V.R.; Dykhno, I.S.; Deev, G.F.; Karikh, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of armco-iron and 12 Kh18N10T steel is studied. It is stated that in smelt aluminium and aluminium alloy contact with armco-iron the sample ductility is decreased. Corrosion effect of smelt alluminium on (18Kh15N5AM3) steel in the form of reinforced wire in aluminium-steel KAS-1A composite material is investigted. It is stated in experiment that during smelt alluminium-steel contact interaction of heterogeneous phases takes place

  10. Electroplated superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peger, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    A hard chromium solution has been considered the least efficient of all plating solutions. This is not exactly true if the correct plating conditions are used. The accepted efficiency is only 12% but that is only true for the parameters that were used long ago to make the determination. At 12% efficiency it would be impossible to plate Superconductor wire. The world's chromium plating shops have been plating at a .001 (.025u) per hour rate since the turn of the century. Shops in the Cleveland, Ohio area have been limiting their plating rate to .006 (152u) since 1935. A few have used .012 (304u) to .030 (762u) per hour for specialized jobs. These figures would indicate the apparent efficiency of the old 100 to 1 chromium, sulfate solution can be higher than 60%. The industry uses a 3 bus bar tank with wide spacing between anode and cathode. This results in high solution resistance and high heat generation and consequently slow plating rates. The Reversible Rack 2 Bus Bar System uses very close anode to cathode spacings. This results in the high plating rates with improved quality deposits. When first asked to chromium plate pure nickel wire reel to reel in long lengths, companies making reel to reel machines were asked if chromium plating was practical. In every case, the answer was it couldn't be done. Gold, tin and zinc plating was being done reel to reel. Using the same parameters that were used to determine a chromium solution efficiency was only 12%, these other metal solutions check out close to 100%

  11. Sliding mechanics of coated composite wires and the development of an engineering model for binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufall, S W; Kusy, R P

    2000-02-01

    A tribological (friction and wear) study, which was designed to simulate clinical sliding mechanics, was conducted as part of an effort to determine the suitability of poly(chloro-p-xylylene) coatings for composite orthodontic archwires. Prototype composite wires, having stiffnesses similar to those of current initial and intermediate alignment wires, were tested against stainless steel and ceramic brackets in the passive and active configurations (with and without angulation). Kinetic coefficient of friction values, which were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of ligation, had a mean that was 72% greater than uncoated wire couples at 0.43. To improve analysis of the active configuration, a mathematical model was developed that related bracket angulation, bracket width, interbracket distance, wire geometry, and wire elastic modulus to sliding resistance. From this model, kinetic coefficients of binding were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of binding. The mean binding coefficient was the same as that of uncoated wire couples at 0.42. Although penetrations through the coating were observed on many specimens, the glass-fiber reinforcement within the composite wires was undamaged for all conditions tested. This finding implies that the risk of glass fiber release during clinical use would be eliminated by the coating. In addition, the frictional and binding coefficients were still within the limits outlined by conventional orthodontic wire-bracket couples. Consequently, the coatings were regarded as an improvement to the clinical acceptability of composite orthodontic archwires.

  12. A study on direct alloying with molybdenum oxides by feed wire method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct alloying with molybdenum oxides has been regarded in years; the main addition methods are adding to the bottom of electric arc furnace (EAF with scrap, adding to the ladle during the converter tapping and mixing molybdenum oxide, lime and reductant to prepare pellet added to basic oxygen furnace (BOF. In this paper, a new method for direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide is proposed, adding molybdenum trioxide molten steel by feeding wire method in ladle furnace (LF refining process. The feasibility of molybdenum oxide reduction, the influence rules of bottom-blown on liquid steel fluidity and the yield of molybdenum by feeding wire method were analyzed. Results show that molybdenum oxide can be reduced by [Al], [Si], [C], and even [Fe] in molten steel. Bottom blowing position has a significant influence on the flow of molten steel when the permeable brick is located in 1/2 radius. The yields of Mo are higher than 97% for the experiments with feed wire method, the implementation of direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide by feed wire method works even better than that uses of ferromolybdenum in the traditional process.

  13. A biomechanical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging-compatible wire in cervical spine fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, G J; Greenberg, S S; Cohen, D S; Latta, L L; Eismont, F J

    1993-10-15

    In a bovine cervical spine model, the ultimate and fatigue strengths as well as relative magnetic resonance imaging artifact produced by titanium, cobalt chrome, and stainless-steel wires in various gauges were assessed. Single-cycle and fatigue strength of wire constructs were measured. Although larger wires generally had greater static strength, fatigue strength was mixed. Sixteen-gauge titanium, and all stainless-steel models (22-gauge braided, 18-gauge, and Songer cable) withstood 10,000 cycles without failure, whereas all other constructs rarely could withstand a similar 10,000 cycles. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on calf cervical spines instrumented with the various materials. Titanium exhibited the least artifact, stainless-steel showed the greatest artifact, and cobalt chrome an intermediate amount. Although titanium wire produces the least amount of magnetic resonance imaging artifact, it remains a poor choice for implant fixation because its notch sensitivity reduces its fatigue resistance compared with stainless steel, which remains the more dependable choice.

  14. Adverse effects of nickel in transosseous wires and surgical implants: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwashindi, A; Dim, E M

    2014-01-01

    Transosseous wires used in the management of fractures are stainless steel alloys which contain nickel 14.5%, chromium 17.6%, iron 62.5% and molybdenum 2.8%. Gradual disintegration of the transosseous wires release nickel into the blood leading to increase nickel concentration in the blood. Nickel has been found to have some adverse systemic effects on the body. The aim of this paper is to discuss the sources of Nickel in the body as well as the systemic adverse effects of Nickel as a degradation product of stainless steel surgical implants. A study of pertinent literature on nickel as a content of stainless steel alloy used in implant surgery was done, taking note also of other sources of nickel in the body, the toxicokinetics of nickel and the related adverse effects of this metal and its compound in humans. As outcome,the sources of human exposure to nickel,distribution and metabolism of nickel in the body, host responseto stainless steel wires and the adverse effects of nickel in the body are presented. It may be necessary to discourage the use of wires or implants containing nickel in the management of fractures.The need for removal of these implants after they have served their purposes is emphasized.

  15. Contributions for the modelling of submarine cables – current density and simplified modelling of wired layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Ebdrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    formulae. The substitution of round wires by equivalent solid layers is tested and tuned by changing the permeability of the insulation and the resistivity of the of the substitution layer. The tuning of these two parameters allows obtaining similar results for both cases even for materials with high...... permeabilities, like steel....

  16. PROJECT, MANUFACTURING AND QUALIFICATION OF MACHINE TO ROTARY BENDING OF NITI SUPERELASTIC WIRES IN FATIGUE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Marcos Muniz Menezes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work it was developed a rotating bending apparatus for fatigue tests of superelastic NiTi wires, and other materials with high elasticity. It was evaluated the performance, robustness, operability, and reliability through testing of 1 mm thick stainless steel wires. This device is mounted on a steel frame and features semiautomatic rotation speed control, time and testing bath temperature for sample immersion. The equipment qualification tests were performed controlling the following parameters: deformation of the wire, power level and ambient temperature. The results indicated lower discrepancies for the following parameters evaluated: number of cycles in fatigue life, rotation speed, the bath temperature and arc angle of rupture. Besides the reliability, the robustness and operability of the equipment also meet the purpose of the research as evidenced by the small number of failures in the qualification tests and calibration.

  17. Investigation on grain refinement and precipitation strengthening applied in high speed wire rod containing vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Da-yong; Xiao, Fu-ren, E-mail: frxiao@ysu.edu.cn; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jia-ling; Liao, Bo, E-mail: cyddjyjs@263.net

    2014-01-13

    To obtain necessary information for the simulation of high speed wire production process, the effect of grain refinement and precipitation strengthening on two high speed wire rod steels with different vanadium and nitrogen contents was investigated by continuous cooling transformation (CCT) characteristics. CCT curves were constructed by the dilatometer test and microscopic observation. Results showed that the formation of intra-granular ferrite (IGF) could refine grain remarkably and accelerate the ferrite transformation. Schedules for high speed wire production process focused on the effect of cooling rate. Ferrite grain was refined by increasing cooling rate and the formation of IGF. The microhardness calculation revealed that the steels were strengthened mostly by a combined effect of grain refinement and precipitation hardening. Degenerated pearlite was observed at lower transformation temperature and the fracture morphology changed from cementite lamellar to nanoscale cementite particle with increasing cooling rate. Based on the analysis above, an optimal schedule was applied and the microstructure and microhardness were improved.

  18. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  19. Application of wire sawing method to decommissioning of high level activated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Nishimura, Youichi [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Morishige; Yamashita Yoshitaka

    1999-07-01

    Wire sawing method is proposed as an effective cutting method for the dismantling of high level activated concrete of a nuclear power plant. The cutting test with wire sawing method discussed in this paper was carried out to obtain the data such as the cutting rate, the volume of concrete dust and the time of cutting and related work. The cutting test consisted of two parts; 'Fundamental test' and 'mock-up test.' In the fundamental test, we carried out the cutting test with small concrete blocks simulating the high level activated concrete of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Through the test, the following data were obtained: the cutting rate of wire sawing, the volume of generated concrete dust and the grading distribution of suspended particulate. We also studied the life of wire and the relations between the wire tension, the wire rotating speed, the steel ratio and the cutting rate. In the mock-up test, we carried out the test with large concrete blocks simulating the part of the reactor shield wall of BWR and the biological shield wall of PWR. Through the mock-up test, we made clear that it is possible that the large test blocks with high re-bar ratio and a steel plate (steel plates) were cut smoothly by the wire sawing method. In the test, the following data were obtained; the cutting rate, the time of the cutting and related work and the remote controllability of cutting machines. (author)

  20. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  2. Selection of replacement material for the failed surface level gauge wire in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Pitman, S.G.; Lund, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Surface level gauges fabricated from AISI Type 316 stainless steel (316) wire failed after only a few weeks of operation in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The wire failure was determined to be due to chloride ion assisted corrosion of the 316 wire. Radiation-induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the primary source of the chloride ions. An extensive literature search followed by expert concurrence was undertaken to select a replacement material for the wire. Platinum (Pt)-20 % Iridium (Ir) alloy was selected as the replacement material from tile candidate materials, P-20% Ir, Pt-1O% Rhodium (Rh), Pt-20%Rh and Hastelloy C-22. The selection was made on the basis of the alloy's immunity towards acidic and basic environments as well as its adequate tensile properties in the fully annealed state

  3. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  4. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  5. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  6. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  7. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  8. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  9. Simulation modeling for quality and productivity in steel cord manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Türkseven, Can Hulusi; Turkseven, Can Hulusi; Ertek, Gürdal; Ertek, Gurdal

    2003-01-01

    We describe the application of simulation modeling to estimate and improve quality and productivity performance of a steel cord manufacturing system. We describe the typical steel cord manufacturing plant, emphasize its distinguishing characteristics, identify various production settings and discuss applicability of simulation as a management decision support tool. Besides presenting the general structure of the developed simulation model, we focus on wire fractures, which can be an important...

  10. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    Ignition of electrical wires by external heating is investigated in order to gain a better understanding of the initiation of electrical-wire fires. An ignition-to- spread model is developed to systematically explain ignition and the following transition to spread. The model predicts that for a higher-conductance wire it is more difficult to achieve ignition and the weak flame may extinguish during the transition phase because of a large conductive heat loss along the wire core. Wires with tw...

  11. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash on the Frictional Resistance of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The friction between the brackets and orthodontic wire during sliding mechanics inflicts difficulties such as decreasing the applied force and tooth movement and also the loss of anchorage. Therefore, many studies have focused on the factors that affect the friction. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash on the friction between orthodontic brackets and wire.Materials and Methods: Four types of orthodontic wires including rectangular standard stainless steel (SS, titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA, nickel-titanium (NiTi and copper-nickel-titanium (Cu-NiTi were selected. In each group, half of the samples were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash and the others were immersed in artificial saliva for 10 hours. An elastomeric ligature was used for ligating the wires to brackets. The frictional test was performed in a universal testing machine at the speed of 10 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the friction rate.Results: The friction rate was significantly higher after immersion in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash in comparison with artificial saliva (P=0.00. Cu-NiTi wire showed the highest friction value followed by TMA, NiTi and SS wires.  Conclusions: According to the results of the current study, 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash increased the frictional characteristics of all the evaluated orthodontic wires.

  12. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 μm is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  13. Effect of wire size on maxillary arch force/couple systems for a simulated high canine malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Paul W; Toogood, Roger W; Badawi, Hisham M; Carey, Jason P; Seru, Surbhi

    2014-12-01

    To better understand the effects of copper nickel titanium (CuNiTi) archwire size on bracket-archwire mechanics through the analysis of force/couple distributions along the maxillary arch. The hypothesis is that wire size is linearly related to the forces and moments produced along the arch. An Orthodontic Simulator was utilized to study a simplified high canine malocclusion. Force/couple distributions produced by passive and elastic ligation using two wire sizes (Damon 0.014 and 0.018 inch) measured with a sample size of 144. The distribution and variation in force/couple loading around the arch is a complicated function of wire size. The use of a thicker wire increases the force/couple magnitudes regardless of ligation method. Owing to the non-linear material behaviour of CuNiTi, this increase is less than would occur based on linear theory as would apply for stainless steel wires. The results demonstrate that an increase in wire size does not result in a proportional increase of applied force/moment. This discrepancy is explained in terms of the non-linear properties of CuNiTi wires. This non-proportional force response in relation to increased wire size warrants careful consideration when selecting wires in a clinical setting. © 2014 British Orthodontic Society.

  14. The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Kyle

    Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2

  15. AC losses of single-core MgB{sub 2} wires with different metallic sheaths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kováč, J., E-mail: elekjkov@savba.sk; Šouc, J.; Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • AC losses in single-core MgB{sub 2} wires with different metallic sheaths have been measured. • It has been shown that metallic sheath can affect the measured AC loss considerably. • GlidCop and Stainless Steel have negligible effect to the overall loss. • Strong contribution of eddy currents has been found in the wire with well conductive copper sheath. • Due to Monel sheath AC loss of MgB{sub 2} core is not visible. - Abstract: AC losses of single-core MgB{sub 2} superconductors with different metallic sheaths (Cu, GlidCop, stainless steel and Monel) have been measured and analyzed. These wires were exposed to external magnetic field with frequencies 72 and 144 Hz and amplitudes up to 0.1 T at temperatures ranged from 18 to 40 K. The obtained results have shown that applied metallic sheath can affect the measured AC loss considerably. In the case of GlidCop and Stainless Steel a negligible small effect of metallic sheath was observed. Strong contribution of eddy currents has been found in the wire with well conductive copper sheath. In the case of Monel sheath, the hysteresis loss of magnetic sheath is dominated and AC loss of MgB{sub 2} core is practically not visible.

  16. Technical innovation: Wire guided ductography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Muhammad Ovais; Ramadan, Salwa; Al-Adwani, Muneera

    2012-01-01

    To introduce an easy and improved technique for performing ductography using inexpensive easily available intravenous cannula. Guide wire: Prolene/Surgipro 3-0 (Polypropylene mono filament non-absorbable surgical suture). A plastic 26 G intravenous cannula. Disposable syringe 2 ml. Non-ionic contrast (low density like Omnipaque 240 mg I/I). The guide wire (Prolene 3-0) is introduced into the orifice of the duct heaving discharge and 26 G intravenous plastic cannula is then passed over the guide wire. The cannula is advanced in the duct over guide wire by spinning around it. When the cannula is in place the guide wire is removed. Any air bubbles present in the hub of the cannula can be displaced by filling the hub from bottom upwards with needle attached to contrast filled syringe. 0.2–0.4 ml non-ionic contrast is gently injected. Injection is stopped if the patient has pain or burning. Magnified cranio-caudal view is obtained with cannula tapped in place and gentle compression is applied with the patient sitting. If duct filling is satisfactory a 90* lateral view is obtained. A successful adaptation of the technique for performing ductography is presented. The materials required for the technique are easily available in most radiology departments and are inexpensive, thus making the procedure comfortable for the patient and radiologist with considerable cost effectiveness.

  17. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  18. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's tests. Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces.

  19. Evaluation of surface roughness of orthodontic wires by means of atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antò, Vincenzo; Rongo, Roberto; Ametrano, Gianluca; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Manzo, Paolo; Martina, Roberto; Paduano, Sergio; Valletta, Rosa

    2012-09-01

    To compare the surface roughness of different orthodontic archwires. Four nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy(®), Sentalloy(®) High Aesthetic, Titanium Memory ThermaTi Lite(®), and Titanium Memory Esthetic(®)), three β-titanium wires (TMA(®), Colored TMA(®), and Beta Titanium(®)), and one stainless-steel wire (Stainless Steel(®)) were considered for this study. Three samples for each wire were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three-dimensional images were processed using Gwiddion software, and the roughness average (Ra), the root mean square (Rms), and the maximum height (Mh) values of the scanned surface profile were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test (P Sentalloy High Aesthetic was the roughest (Ra  =  133.5 ± 10.8; Rms  =  165.8 ± 9.8; Mh  =  949.6 ± 192.1) of the archwires. The surface quality of the wires investigated differed significantly. Ion implantation effectively reduced the roughness of TMA. Moreover, Teflon(®)-coated Titanium Memory Esthetic was less rough than was ion-implanted Sentalloy High Aesthetic.

  20. The Installation for Fatigue and Destruction Tests of Thin Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Prosvirin

    2015-01-01

    cycles to failure significantly improves the repeatability of results in fatigue tests.The paper estimates the efficiency of developed new technology as follows: analysis of quality measures allows to state the that the technical level of the new design becomes, on average, by 45% higher as compared to the base case.The paper presents research results of the cyclic strength of a brass-plated wire from steel 80. Comparison of fatigue curves shows that the new installation provides better repeatability of results and 1.5 - 1.6 times reduction of the performance variation.

  1. Perbedaan Pelepasan Ion Nikel Dan Kromium Pada Beberapa Merek Kawat Stainless Steel Yang Direndam Dalam Asam Cuka

    OpenAIRE

    Situmeang, Meri Angelia

    2016-01-01

    PERBEDAAN PELEPASAN ION NIKEL DAN KROMIUM PADA BEBERAPA MEREK KAWAT STAINLESS STEEL YANG DIRENDAM DALAM ASAM CUKA Meri Angelia Situmeang1), P. S. Anindita 1), Juliatri1) 1)Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Gigi Fakultas Kedokteran UNSRAT Manado, 95115 ABSTRACT Wire is one of the important components in the orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic wire inside the oral cavity can trigger the release of metal ions when contact with an environment that has an acidic pH. One type of wire used in ortho...

  2. 75 FR 1031 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from India: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... 0.40 percent of lead, or 1.25 percent of nickel, or 0.30 percent of tungsten, or 0.10 percent of... Circumstances: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55792, 55794-96 (August 30, 2002) (``Wire Rod from Brazil''). Because Essar did not submit the questionnaire response requested by the...

  3. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  4. Wetting Behavior of Molten AZ61 Magnesium Alloy on Two Different Steel Plates Under the Cold Metal Transfer Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZENG Cheng-zong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The wetting behavior and interfacial microstructures of molten magnesium AZ61 alloy on the surface of two different Q235 and galvanized steel plates under the condition of cold metal transfer were investigated by using dynamic sessile drop method. The results show that the wetting behavior is closely related to the wire feed speed. Al-Fe intermetallic layer was observed whether the substrate is Q235 steel or galvanized steel, and the formation of Al-Fe intermetallic layer should satisfy the thermodynamic condition of such Mg-Al/Fe system. The wettability of molten AZ61 magnesium alloy is improved with the increase of wire feed speed whether on Q235 steel surface or on galvanized steel surface, good wettability on Q235 steel surface is due to severe interface reaction when wire feed speed increases, good wettability on galvanized steel surface is attributed to the aggravating zinc volatilization. When the wire feed speed is ≤10.5m·min-1, the wettability of Mg alloy on Q235 steel plate is better than on galvanized steel plate. However, Zn vapor will result in instability for metal transfer process.

  5. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  6. A comparative study of the corrosion of wire used in urological treatment under sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Walke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the tests was to determine whether and how sterilization process of samples made of AISI 316L stainless steel with different strain impacts their corrosion resistance. Tests were made on steel samples that had been electrochemically polished in order to assure proper surface roughness. In order to evaluate the influence of sterilization on physical and chemical properties of steel surface, tests of corrosion resistance were made by means of potentiodynamical method. The tests were made in alternative solution simulating human urine. Recorded anodic polarization curves created the ground for determination of typical parameters describing pitting corrosion resistance, that enabled to evaluate steel wire corrosion behavior under sterilization conditions.

  7. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-03-28

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  8. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  9. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading

  10. [Mechanics analysis of fracture of orthodontic wires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeping; Sun, Xiaoye; Zhang, Longqi

    2003-03-01

    Fracture problem of orthodontic wires was discussed in this paper. The calculation formulae of bending stress and tensile stress were obtained. All main factors that affect bending stress and tensile stress of orthodontic wires were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the main causes of fracture of orthodontic wires were fatigue and static disruption. Some improving proposals for preventing fracture of orthodontic wires were put forward.

  11. The Way of Reducing Current Values in Optical Ground Wires at Asymmetrical Faults on Overhead Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egamnazarov Georgiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that the installing costs of an optical ground wire on overhead lines directly depend on its cross-section, which in turn depends on the level of fault current it should withstand, in order to reduce these current values in the optical ground wire, I suggested performing its isolated descents from the end towers of the line with its transition to an optical cable. The research was carried out on the example of a 500 kV overhead line in the National Electric Power Grid. The Method of Symmetrical Components for calculating asymmetrical fault currents was not used; therefore, calculations were carried out on the base of presenting the line as a multi-wire system for the considered case as a five-wire system (optical ground wire, steel ground wire, and three phase wires. Such approach allows taking into account the initial asymmetry of the line parameters and modeling any kind of asymmetrical faults. The analyses of calculated results were performed. The conclusive evidence that the optical ground wire isolated descents from the end towers of the line give the possibility of reducing the level of maximal fault current distribution values in it and therefore its cross section, is presented.

  12. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The...

  13. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical...

  14. Detection of a buried wire with two resistively loaded wire antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of two identical straight thin-wire antennas for the detection of a buried wire is analyzed with the aid of numerical calculations. The buried wire is located below an interface between two homogeneous half-spaces. The detection setup, which is formed by a transmitting and a receiving wire,

  15. One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques : A historical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Bas B. G. M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

    A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initiallly used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly

  16. Designing of CK45 carbon steel and AISI 304 stainless steel dissimilar welds

    OpenAIRE

    Pouraliakbar,Hesam; Hamedi,Mohsen; Kokabi,Amir Hossein; Nazari,Ali

    2014-01-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding of CK45 and AISI304 stainless steel was performed through preparation of different types of samples using ER308L and ERNi-1 wires. Welded samples were studied by different techniques including optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction, hardness measurements and impact test. It was observed that in the buttered specimen, the structure of the weld metal was completely austenitic wh...

  17. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  18. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  19. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and…

  20. Influence of surface defects on the fatigue crack initiation in pearlitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toribio Jesús

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tensile fatigue tests were performed under load control, with constant stress range Δσ on pearlitic steel wires, from the hot rolled bar to the commercial prestressing steel wire (which has undergone seven cold drawing steps. Results show that fatigue cracks in pearlitic steels initiate at the wire surface starting from small defects, whose size decreases with the drawing process. Fatigue cracks created from defects (initiation phase exhibit a fractographic appearance consisting of ductile microtearing events which can be classified as tearing topography surface or TTS, and exhibit a remarkably lower spacing in the prestressing steel wire than in the hot rolled bar. In addition, some S-N tests were performed in both material forms under a stress range of about half the yield strength. In these tests, the main part of the fatigue life corresponds to the propagation stage in the hot rolled bar whereas such a main part of the life is associated with the initiation stage in the case of the prestressing steel wire.

  1. Processing and properties of solid state nitrided stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennhard, C.A.P.

    1993-02-01

    The properties of austenitic steels and duplex-steels are significantly improved by nitrogen (N) addition. In the present investigation, new alloys were produced and characterized using the high solid N-solubility and diffusion alloying from the gas phase. Most suitable base materials are powder, wire or sheet because of the short diffusion distance. PM-materials were in-can nitrided or treated in a fluidized bed and compacted by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion. The impact toughness level of PM alloys at room temperature is about 120 to 200 J, compared to 250 to 300 J for steels with equal strength that are produced by ingot metallurgy (IM). The toughness can be improved by high temperature deformation such as forging, hot rolling or hot extrusion or by removing the oxide layer on the particle surface by hydrogen gas reduction. A duplex steel with 22 Cr, 5.6 Ni and 2.7 Mo was transformed to a fully austenitic steel with over 500 MPa yield strength by increasing the N content from 0.2 to 0.65 weight-percent. The expensive Ni can successfully be replaced by N. Nitrided wire material is the base material for cold deformed high-strength wire. The improved strain hardening rate of nitrogen alloyed steels helps to achieve ductile and corrosion resistant materials with strength up to 2200 MPa. Sheet materials were diffusion bonded in the HIP or compacted in a 5000 kN press immediately after in-can nitriding to form solid blocks. Nitrided powder, wire and sheet materials lead to near net shape products that cannot be produced by conventional ingot metallurgy or would require the expensive high-pressure metallurgy. (author) 67 figs., tabs., 70 refs

  2. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  3. Energy Deposition in a Septum Wire

    CERN Document Server

    Ferioli, G; Knaus, P; Koopman, J; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    The present note describes a machine development (MD) aimed to confirm experimentally the need for protection of the extraction wire septum ZS in SPS long straight section LSS6 during LHC operation. Single wires identical to the ones mounted on the extraction septum were fixed on a fast wire scanner and put into the beam path. The beam heated the wire until it broke after a measured number of turns. The maximum single shot intensity the septum wires could withstand was thus calculated and compared with simulation results.

  4. Irradiation of steel, molybdenum and tungsten - VISA-2f; Ozracivanje celika, molibdena i volframa - VISA-2f -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljkovic, S; Milasin, N [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-12-15

    The objective of the experiment is to study the radiation damage of steel, molybdenum and tungsten after irradiation under fast neutron flux. The sample wires of steel Mo and W will be irradiated, integral fast neutron flux should be higher than 10{sup 18} neutrons/cm{sup 2}, the temperature should be as low as possible.

  5. Production of diamond wire by Cu15 v-% Nb 'in situ' process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueira, M.; Pinatti, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond wires are cutting tools used in the slabbing of dimension stones, such as marbles and granites, as well as in cutting of concrete structures. This tool consists of a steel cable on which diamond annular segments (pearls) are mounted with spacing between them. This work has developed a new technological route to obtain the diamond wires, whose fabrication involves metal forming processes such as rotary forging and wire drawing, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments of sintering and recrystallization. It was idealized the use of Cu 15v% Nb composite wires as the high tensile strength cable, covered with an external cutting rope made of bronze 4wt% diamond composite, along the overall wire surface. Investigations were carried out on the mechanical behavior and on the microstructural evolution of the Cu 15 vol % Nb wires, which showed ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 960 MPa and deformation of approximately 3,0 %. The cutting external rope of 1.84 mm in diameter showed UTS = 230 MPa. On the microstructural side aspect it was observed that the diamond crystals were uniformly distributed throughout the tool bulk in the several processing steps. Cutting tests were carried out starting with an external diamond rope of 1.93 mm in diameter, which cut a marble sectional area of 1188 cm 2 , and the tool degraded to a final diameter of 1.23 mm. For marble the 'in situ' wire showed a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond saws, however their probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix and the low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond. (author)

  6. Differences in the Microbial Colonization Among Arch Wire Types, Gauges and Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Rafeeq

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of orthodontic materials in the oral cavity represent a unique surface that can interact with bacteria, leading to pathogenic plaque formation and subsequent enamel demineralization, Streptococcus mutans play an important role in the initiation and progression of dental caries and they are considered the primary cause of bacteriological caries. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multiple factors including the type of arch wire, salivary coating, cross section, and wire thickness on the levels of mutans streptococci adherence. Materials and Methods: Two types of arch wire stainless steel and nickel titanium were selected using the following criteria: round and rectangular with gauges 0.014, 0.018, 0.016 × 0.022 and 0.019 × 0.0 25 inches which were subdivided into eight groups. Bacterial adhesion was quantified by a microbial culture technique and the number of adhesive bacteria were analyzed and counted after growth in culture for each group with and without saliva coating at 15 and 60 minutes. Detection of mutans streptococci by saliva-check Mutans test. Results: There was a significant difference between arch wire types in each time interval and the highest bacterial adhesion on the NiTi arch wires with rectangular cross section in the absence of saliva with extended incubation time. Conclusions: The adherence of mutans streptococci in saliva coated wires seems to be low. At increased incubation time, rectangular cross section arch wire showed an increased number of adhering bacteria with less effect on different gauges of the arch wire.

  7. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  8. Processing, Structural Characterization and Comparative Studies on Uniaxial Tensile Properties of a New Type of Porous Twisted Wire Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A self-developed rotary multi-cutter device cuts stainless steel wire ropes into segments to fabricate twisted wires. Stainless steel porous twisted wire materials (PTWMs with a spatial composite intertexture structure are produced by the compaction and subsequent vacuum solid-phase sintering of twisted wires. The stainless steel PTWMs show two types of typical uniaxial tensile failure modes, i.e., a 45° angle fracture mode and an auxetic failure mode (the PTWMs expand along the direction perpendicular to the tension. The effects of the sintering parameters, porosities, wire diameters, and sampling direction on the tensile properties of the PTWMs are carefully investigated. By increasing the sintering temperature from 1130 °C to 1330 °C, the tensile strength of the PTWMs with 70% target porosity increased from 7.7 MPa to 28.6 MPa and the total failure goes down to 50%. When increasing the sintering time from 90 min to 150 min, the tensile strength increases from 12.4 MPa to 19.1 MPa and the total failure elongation drops to 78.6%. The tensile strength of the PTWMs increases from 28.9 MPa to 112.7 MPa with decreasing porosity from 69.5% to 46.0%, and the total failure elongation also increases from 14.8% to 40.7%. The tensile strength and the failure strain of the PTWMs with fine wires are higher than those of the PTWMs with coarse wires under the same porosity. Sampling direction has a small influence on the tensile properties of the PTWMs.

  9. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  10. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  11. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  12. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial of polymer cable ties versus standard wire closure of midline sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Silvana F; Fuller, Louise; Zimmet, Adam; McGiffin, David; Seitz, Michael; Ch'ng, Stephanie; Gangahanumaiah, Shivanand; Bailey, Michael

    2018-04-16

    Midline sternotomy remains the most common access incision for cardiac operations. Traditionally, the sternum is closed with stainless steel wires. Wires are well known to stretch and break, however, leading to pain, nonunion, and potential deep sternal wound infection. We hypothesized that biocompatible plastic cable ties would achieve a more rigid sternal fixation, reducing postoperative pain and analgesia requirements. A prospective, randomized study compared the ZIPFIX (De Puy Synthes, West Chester, Pa) sternal closure system (n = 58) with standard stainless steel wires (n = 60). Primary outcomes were pain and analgesia requirements in the early postoperative period. Secondary outcome was sternal movement, as assessed by ultrasound at the postoperative follow-up visit. Groups were well matched in demographic and operative variables. There were no significant differences between groups in postoperative pain, analgesia, or early ventilatory requirements. Patients in the ZIPFIX group had significantly more movement in the sternum and manubrium on ultrasound at 4 weeks. ZIPFIX sternal cable ties provide reliable closure but no demonstrable benefit in this study in pain or analgesic requirements relative to standard wire closure after median sternotomy. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of deflection forces of orthodontic wires with different ligation types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Castanha HENRIQUES

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate deflection forces of orthodontic wires of different alloys engaged into conventional brackets using several ligation types. Stainless steel, conventional superelastic nickel-titanium and thermally activated nickel-titanium archwires tied into conventional brackets by a ring-shaped elastomeric ligature (RSEL, a 8-shaped elastomeric ligature (8SEL and a metal ligature (ML were tested. A clinical simulation device was created especially for this study and forces were measured with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. For the testing procedure, the block representing the maxillary right central incisor was moved 0.5 and 1 mm bucco-lingually at a constant speed of 2 mm/min, and the forces released by the wires were recorded, in accordance with the ISO 15841 guidelines. In general, the RSEL showed lighter forces, while 8SEL and ML showed higher values. At the 0.5 mm deflection, the 8SEL presented the greatest force, but at the 1.0 mm deflection the ML had a statistically similar force. Based on our evaluations, to obtain lighter forces, the thermally activated nickel-titanium wire with the RSEL are recommended, while the steel wire with the 8SEL or the ML are recommended when larger forces are desired. The ML exhibited the highest force increase with increased deflections, compared with the elastomeric ligatures.

  14. Tensile Residual Stress Mitigation Using Low Temperature Phase Transformation Filler Wire in Welded Armor Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Bunn, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Tzelepis, Demetrios A [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) has been a persistent issue in welding of high-strength steels. Mitigating residual stresses is one of the most efficient ways to control HIC. The current study develops a proactive in-process weld residual stress mitigation technique, which manipulates the thermal expansion and contraction sequence in the weldments during welding process. When the steel weld is cooled after welding, martensitic transformation will occur at a temperature below 400 C. Volume expansion in the weld due to the martensitic transformation will reduce tensile stresses in the weld and heat affected zone and in some cases produce compressive residual stresses in the weld. Based on this concept, a customized filler wire which undergoes a martensitic phase transformation during cooling was developed. The new filler wire shows significant improvement in terms of reducing the tendency of HIC in high strength steels. Bulk residual stress mapping using neutron diffraction revealed reduced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the welds made by the new filler wire.

  15. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete – Potential Monitoring and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy during Corrosion Initiation and Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, Andre; Mason, Thomas O.; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    wires. The wires can act as both reference and counter electrode during EIS and, thus, no external electrode is required. The defined geometry solves reproducibility problems involved with application of an external reference electrode for EIS. Changes of the electromotive force (EMF) between rebar...... and titanium wires can be monitored immediately after preparation. The wire arrangement also allows investigation of local changes in the bulk mortar by EIS or by measuring the potential development of the titanium wires versus an external standard electrode. The specimen design was evaluated...... in an investigation on the effect of the steel quality and the steel surface properties on initiation and propagation of chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. Besides untreated (as received) carbon rebars and stainless rebars, selected surface treatments and galvanization were investigated. The surface treatments...

  16. Experimental analysis of residual stresses in pre-straightened SAE 1045 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Carla Adriana Theis Soares; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva, E-mail: carla.adriana@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Formacao de Metais; Epp, Jérémy; Zoch, Hans-Werner [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik IWT, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    This paper aims at analyzing the effects of the roller pre-straightening of wire-rods on residual stress distributions in SAE 1045 steel bars. The combined drawing process is used in industrial production of bars in order to obtain a good surface quality and improved mechanical properties complying with specifications of the final products. In this process, prior to the drawing step, a roller straightening of the steel wire-rod is essential, because it provides the minimum straightness necessary for drawing. Metallographic analysis and hardness test were done for selected samples after different processing steps. Also, residual stress analysis of pre-straightened wire-rods by X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction were carried out. The hardness tests show higher values near the surface and lower in the center of the wire-rod. Besides, the residual stresses results show a big inhomogeneity from one peripheral position to another and also in the evaluated cross section. (author)

  17. Experimental analysis of residual stresses in pre-straightened SAE 1045 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Carla Adriana Theis Soares; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the effects of the roller pre-straightening of wire-rods on residual stress distributions in SAE 1045 steel bars. The combined drawing process is used in industrial production of bars in order to obtain a good surface quality and improved mechanical properties complying with specifications of the final products. In this process, prior to the drawing step, a roller straightening of the steel wire-rod is essential, because it provides the minimum straightness necessary for drawing. Metallographic analysis and hardness test were done for selected samples after different processing steps. Also, residual stress analysis of pre-straightened wire-rods by X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction were carried out. The hardness tests show higher values near the surface and lower in the center of the wire-rod. Besides, the residual stresses results show a big inhomogeneity from one peripheral position to another and also in the evaluated cross section. (author)

  18. Galvanic Corrosion of and Ion Release from Various Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in a Fluoride-containing Mouthwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodeh Tahmasbi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. This study compared the galvanic corrosion of orthodontic wires and brackets from various man-ufacturers following exposure to a fluoride mouthwash. Materials and methods. This study was conducted on 24 lower central incisor 0.022” Roth brackets of four different commercially available brands (Dentaurum, American Orthodontics, ORJ, Shinye. These brackets along with stainless steel (SS or nickel-titanium (NiTi orthodontic wires (0.016", round were immersed in Oral-B mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride for 28 days. The electric potential (EP difference of each bracket-wire couple was measured with a Satu-rated Calomel Reference Electrode (Ag/AgCl saturated with KCl via a voltmeter. The ions released in the electrolyte weremeasured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. All the specimens were assessed under a stereomicroscope and speci-mens with corrosion were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results. The copper ions released from specimens with NiTi wire were greater than those of samples containing SS wire. ORJ brackets released more Cu ions than other samples. The Ni ions released from Shinye brackets were significantly more than those of other specimens (P < 0.05. Corrosion rate of brackets coupled with NiTi wires was higher than that of brack-ets coupled with SS wires. Light and electron microscopic observations showed greater corrosion of ORJ brackets. Conclusion. In fluoride mouthwash, Shinye and ORJ brackets exhibited greater corrosion than Dentaurum and American Orthodontics brackets. Stainless steel brackets used with NiTi wires showed greater corrosion and thus caution is recom-mended when using them.

  19. Galvanic Corrosion of and Ion Release from Various Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in a Fluoride-containing Mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Masudrad, Mahdis

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. This study compared the galvanic corrosion of orthodontic wires and brackets from various manufacturers following exposure to a fluoride mouthwash. Materials and methods. This study was conducted on 24 lower central incisor 0.022" Roth brackets of four different commercially available brands (Dentaurum, American Orthodontics, ORJ, Shinye). These brackets along with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wires (0.016", round) were immersed in Oral-B mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride for 28 days. The electric potential (EP) difference of each bracket-wire couple was measured with a Saturated Calomel Reference Electrode (Ag/AgCl saturated with KCl) via a voltmeter. The ions released in the electrolyte weremeasured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. All the specimens were assessed under a stereomicroscope and specimens with corrosion were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results. The copper ions released from specimens with NiTi wire were greater than those of samples containing SS wire. ORJ brackets released more Cu ions than other samples. The Ni ions released from Shinye brackets were significantly more than those of other specimens (P brackets coupled with NiTi wires was higher than that of brackets coupled with SS wires. Light and electron microscopic observations showed greater corrosion of ORJ brackets. Conclusion. In fluoride mouthwash, Shinye and ORJ brackets exhibited greater corrosion than Dentaurum and American Orthodontics brackets. Stainless steel brackets used with NiTi wires showed greater corrosion and thus caution is recommended when using them.

  20. The effect of ZnO nanoparticle coating on the frictional resistance between orthodontic wires and ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Any decrease in friction between orthodontic wire and bracket can accelerate tooth movement in the sliding technique and result in better control of anchorage. This study was carried out to evaluate frictional forces by coating orthodontic wires and porcelain brackets with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO. Methods. In this in vitro study, we evaluated a combination of 120 samples of 0.019×0.025 stainless steel (SS orthodontic wires and 22 mil system edgewise porcelain brackets with and without spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles. Spherical ZnO nanoparticles were deposited on wires and brackets by immersing them in ethanol solution and SEM (scanning electron microscope evaluation confirmed the presence of the ZnO coating. The frictional forces were calculated between the wires and brackets in four groups: group ZZ (coated wire and bracket, group OO (uncoated wire and bracket, group ZO (coated wire and uncoated bracket and group OZ (uncoated wire and coated bracket. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. Results. The frictional force in ZZ (3.07±0.4 N was the highest (P <0.05, and OZ (2.18±0.5 N had the lowest amount of friction (P <0.05 among the groups. There was no significant difference in frictional forces between the ZO and OO groups (2.65±0.2 and 2.70±0.2 N, respectively. Conclusion. Coating of porcelain bracket surfaces with ZnO nanoparticles can decrease friction in the sliding technique, and wire coating combined with bracket coating is not recommended due to its effect on friction.

  1. Analysis of X-ray iron and nickel radiation and jets from planar wire arrays and X-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronova, A S; Kantsyrev, V L; Esaulov, A A; Ouart, N D; Shlyaptseva, V; Williamson, K M; Shrestha, I; Osborne, G C; Weller, M E

    2010-01-01

    University-scale Z-pinch devices are able to produce plasmas with a broad range of sizes, temperatures, densities, their gradients, and opacity properties. Radiative properties of such plasmas depend on material, mass, and configuration of the wire array loads. Experiments with two different types of loads, double planar wire arrays (DPWA) and X-pinches, performed on the 1 MA Zebra generator at UNR are analyzed. X-pinches are made from Stainless Steel (69% Fe, 20% Cr, and 9% Ni) wires. Combined DPWAs consist of one plane from SS wires and another plane from Alumel (95% Ni, 2% Al, 2% Si) wires. The main focus of this work is on the analysis of plasma jets at the early phase of plasma formation and the K-and L-shell radiation generation at the implosion and stagnation phases in experiments with the two aforementioned wire loads. The relevant theoretical tools that guide the data analysis include non-LTE collisional-radiative and wire ablation dynamics models. The astrophysical relevance of the plasma jets as well as of spectroscopic and imaging studies are demonstrated.

  2. The effect of ligation on the load deflection characteristics of nickel titanium orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Shugo; Nagasaka, Satoshi; Hanyuda, Ai; Ishimura, Sadao; Hirashita, Ayao

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effect of ligation on the load-deflection characteristics of nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic wire. A modified three-point bending system was used for bending the NiTi round wire, which was inserted and ligated in the slots of three brackets, one of which was bonded to each of the three bender rods. Three different ligation methods, stainless steel ligature (SSL), slot lid (SL), and elastomeric ligature (EL), were employed, as well as a control with neither bracket nor ligation (NBL). The tests were repeated five times under each condition. Comparisons were made of load-deflection curve, load at maximum deflection of 2,000 microm, and load at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's test were conducted to determine method difference (alpha = 0.05). The interaction between deflection and ligation was tested, using repeated-measures ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The load values of the ligation groups were two to three times greater than the NBL group at a deflection of 1,500 microm during unloading: 4.37 N for EL, 3.90 N for SSL, 3.02 N for SL, and 1.49 N for NBL (P wire may make NiTi wire exhibit a significantly heavier load than that traditionally expected. NiTi wire exhibited the majority of its true superelasticity with SL, whereas EL may act as a restraint on its superelasticity.

  3. Compressive and Flexural Tests on Adobe Samples Reinforced with Wire Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, G. A.; Al-Tawil, Y. M. Y.; Syed Mohsin, S. M.; Gul, Y.; Ramli, N. I.

    2018-03-01

    Adobe is an economical, naturally available, and environment friendly construction material that offers excellent thermal and sound insulations as well as indoor air quality. It is important to understand and enhance the mechanical properties of this material, where a high degree of variation is reported in the literature owing to lack of research and standardization in this field. The present paper focuses first on the understanding of mechanical behaviour of adobe subjected to compressive stresses as well as flexure and then on enhancing the same with the help of steel wire mesh as reinforcement. A total of 22 samples were tested out of which, 12 cube samples were tested for compressive strength, whereas 10 beams samples were tested for modulus of rupture. Half of the samples in each category were control samples i.e. without wire mesh reinforcement, whereas the remaining half were reinforced with a single layer of wire mesh per sample. It has been found that the compressive strength of adobe increases by about 43% after adding a single layer of wire mesh reinforcement. The flexural response of adobe has also shown improvement with the addition of wire mesh reinforcement.

  4. Self-Catalyzed CdTe Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baines

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available CdTe wires have been fabricated via a catalyst free method using the industrially scalable physical vapor deposition technique close space sublimation. Wire growth was shown to be highly dependent on surface roughness and deposition pressure, with only low roughness surfaces being capable of producing wires. Growth of wires is highly (111 oriented and is inferred to occur via a vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism, wherein a CdTe seed particle acts to template the growth. Such seed particles are visible as wire caps and have been characterized via energy dispersive X-ray analysis to establish they are single phase CdTe, hence validating the self-catalysation route. Cathodoluminescence analysis demonstrates that CdTe wires exhibited a much lower level of recombination when compared to a planar CdTe film, which is highly beneficial for semiconductor applications.

  5. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  6. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  7. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  8. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.

  9. Ion Release and Galvanic Corrosion of Different Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in Artificial Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Sheikh, Tahereh; Hemmati, Yasamin B

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the galvanic corrosion of brackets manufactured by four different companies coupled with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in an artificial saliva solution. A total of 24 mandibular central incisor Roth brackets of four different manufacturers (American Orthodontics, Dentaurum, Shinye, ORJ) were used in this experimental study. These brackets were immersed in artificial saliva along with SS or NiTi orthodontic wires (0.016'', round) for 28 days. The electric potential difference of each bracket/ wire coupled with a saturated calomel reference electrode was measured via a voltmeter and recorded constantly. Corrosion rate (CR) was calculated, and release of ions was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Stereomicroscope was used to evaluate all samples. Then, samples with corrosion were further assessed by scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Among ions evaluated, release of nickel ions from Shinye brackets was significantly higher than that of other brackets. The mean potential difference was significantly lower in specimens containing a couple of Shinye brackets and SS wire compared with other specimens. No significant difference was observed in the mean CR of various groups (p > 0.05). Microscopic evaluation showed corrosion in two samples only: Shinye bracket coupled with SS wire and American Orthodontics bracket coupled with NiTi wire. Shinye brackets coupled with SS wire showed more susceptibility to galvanic corrosion. There were no significant differences among specimens in terms of the CR or released ions except the release of Ni ions, which was higher in Shinye brackets.

  10. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  11. Hot wire radicals and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wengang; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is used to measure radical (and stable gas) densities at the substrate of a tungsten hot wire (HW) reactor. We report measurements of the silane reaction probability on the HW and the probability of Si and H release from the HW. We describe a model for the atomic H release, based on the H 2 dissociation model. We note major variations in silicon-release, with dependence on prior silane exposure. Measured radical densities versus silane pressure yield silicon-silane and H-silane reaction rate coefficients, and the dominant radical fluxes to the substrate

  12. DETECTORS: Vienna - beyond the wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Manfred; Regler, Meinhard

    1995-01-01

    In 1986, at the fourth Vienna Wire Chamber Conference, Georges Charpak, the inventor of the multiwire proportional chamber, had confidently announced ''Les funérailles des chambres à fils''. Was this the writing on the wall for the conference series as well as this type of detector technology? The demand for detector innovation, coupled with imaginative thinking on the part of the organizers, have kept the Vienna venue at the forefront of the physics calendar. An additional boost to the success of the series was certainly the Nobel Prize awarded to Georges Charpak in 1992. While the major topic naturally is still wire chambers, alternative technologies are also covered. However in fields like calorimetry or ring imaging Cherenkovs, a sample of only a few prominent detectors were presented, giving some participants the impression of a biased selection. The fact that silicon detectors, electronics and track reconstruction strategies were, with the exception of the invited talks, restricted to poster presentations led to the same conclusion. As a result the organizing committee saw that it will have to revise its brief for the next conference. The conference opened with philosophical thoughts by Nobel Prizewinner Georges Charpak. The first day at Vienna is traditionally devoted to applications of gaseous detectors outside high energy physics. L. Shektman gave an overview of wire chambers for medical imaging. Further applications in medicine and in other fields like biology and space science were described by subsequent speakers. The exciting idea of flying a spectrometer on a balloon to study the fraction of electrons and positrons in cosmic rays attracted a lot of attention. The next day covered wire chambers in general. V. Polychronakos presented applications of cathode strip chambers in muon spectrometers for experiments at CERN's LHC proton-proton detector. Certainly the challenges of LHC for detector development dominated many

  13. Compressive behavior of wire reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Yub [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Lujan Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uestuendag, Ersan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail: ustundag@iastate.edu; Choi-Yim, Haein [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aydiner, C. Can [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) possess a unique set of mechanical properties that make them attractive structural materials. However, when loaded without constraint, BMGs fracture catastrophically due to formation of macroscopic shear bands and this behavior reduces their reliability. To address this issue, BMG matrix composites have been developed. In this investigation, neutron diffraction was used during uniaxial compressive loading to measure the internal strains in the second phases of various BMG composites reinforced with Ta, Mo, or stainless steel wires. The diffraction data were then employed to develop a finite element model that deduced the in situ constitutive behavior of each phase. It was found that the reinforcements yielded first and started transferring load to the matrix, which remained elastic during the whole experiment. While the present composites exhibited enhanced ductility, largely due to their ductile reinforcements, they yielded at applied stresses lower than those found in W reinforced composites.

  14. Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, H.; Takeda, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsui, T.

    1994-01-01

    A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)

  15. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  16. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  17. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  18. Behaviour of filamentary MgB2 wires subjected to tensile stress at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kováč, P; Kopera, L; Melišek, T; Hušek, I; Rindfleisch, M; Haessler, W

    2013-01-01

    Different filamentary MgB 2 wires have been subjected to tensile stress at 4.2 K. Stress–strain and critical current versus stress and strain characteristics of wires differing by filament architecture, sheath materials, deformation and heat treatment were measured and compared. It was found that the linear increase of critical current due to the pre-compression effect (ranging from 5% up to ≈20%) is affected by thermal expansion and the strength of used metallic sheaths. The values of irreversible strain ε irr and stress σ irr depend dominantly on the applied outer sheath and its final heat treatment conditions. Consequently, the strain-tolerance of MgB 2 wires is influenced by several parameters and it is difficult to see a clear relation between I c (ε) and σ(ε) characteristics. The lowest ε irr was measured for Monel sheathed wires (0.3–0.6%), medium for GlidCop ® sheath (0.48–0.6%), and the highest ε irr = 0.6–0.9% were obtained for MgB 2 wires reinforced by the stainless steel 316L annealed at temperature between 600 and 800 ° C. The highest ε irr = 0.9% and σ irr = 900 MPa were measured for the work-hardened steel, which is not considerably softened by the heat treatment at 600 ° C/2.5 h. (paper)

  19. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  20. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  1. Spin correlations in quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    2015-04-01

    We consider theoretically spin correlations in a one-dimensional quantum wire with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (RDI). The correlations of noninteracting electrons display electron spin resonance at a frequency proportional to the RDI coupling. Interacting electrons, upon varying the direction of the external magnetic field, transit from the state of Luttinger liquid (LL) to the spin-density wave (SDW) state. We show that the two-time total-spin correlations of these states are significantly different. In the LL, the projection of total spin to the direction of the RDI-induced field is conserved and the corresponding correlator is equal to zero. The correlators of two components perpendicular to the RDI field display a sharp electron-spin resonance driven by the RDI-induced intrinsic field. In contrast, in the SDW state, the longitudinal projection of spin dominates, whereas the transverse components are suppressed. This prediction indicates a simple way for an experimental diagnostic of the SDW in a quantum wire. We point out that the Luttinger model does not respect the spin conservation since it assumes the infinite Fermi sea. We propose a proper cutoff to correct this failure.

  2. Bird on a (live) wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  3. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  4. Additive manufacturing for steels: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, A.; Rohib, R.; Irawan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of steels involves the layer by layer consolidation of powder or wire feedstock using a heating beam to form near net shape products. For the past decades, the AM technique reaches the maturation of both research grade and commercial production due to significant research work from academic, government and industrial research organization worldwide. AM process has been implemented to replace the conventional process of steel fabrication due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing. This paper provides a review of previous research related to the AM methods followed by current challenges issues. The relationship between microstructure, mechanical properties, and process parameters will be discussed. Future trends and recommendation for further works are also provided.

  5. Mechanical properties of welded joints of duplex steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawiak, M.; Nowacki, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the study results of mechanical properties of duplex steels UNS S31803 welded joints as well as duplex and NV A36 steels welded joints. They have ben welded by FCAW method in CO 2 using FCW 2205-H flux-cored wire. The joints have been subjected: tensile tests, impact tests, bending tests, hardness tests and metallographic investigations. The influence of welding parameters and mechanical properties of the joints was appreciated. The welding method assured high tensile strength of the joints (approximately 770 MPa) and high impact strength of the welds (approximately 770 J). All samples were broken outside of welds. (author)

  6. Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the st......In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement...... displacement (opening/closing and sliding) of the helically wound wires. Moreover, the results are a step towards understanding the bending fatigue damage mechanisms of monostrand cables....

  7. Fluorescent silver nanoparticles via exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure silver nanoparticles in double distilled water were generated via simple physical method using pure (99.9%) silver wires with 0.2 mm diameter. These wires have been exploded in water by bringing them into sudden contact with pure (99.9%) silver plate when subjected to a potential difference of 36 V DC. High current.

  8. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  9. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final... subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for in subheadings 9403.90... China of wire decking, and that such [[Page 4585

  10. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F.D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  11. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  12. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  13. Steer-by-wire innovations and demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Zuurbier, J.; Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Willemsen, D.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Arguments for 'by-wire' systems include production costs, packaging and traffic safety. Innovations concern both product and development process e.g. combined virtual engineering and Hardware-in-the-loop testing. Three Steer-by-wire systems are discussed: a steering system simulator used as a

  14. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  15. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  16. Micro alloyed steel weldability and sensibility testing on the lamellar cracks appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stojadinović

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work are given the testing results of mechanical properties welded joints and microstructure of micro alloyed steel as well as its sensitivity to lamellar cracks appearance. The obtained results show that steel has good resistance to lamellar cracks appearance and with an appropriate wire choice for welding, a good combination of mechanical properties could be obtained at room (ambience temperatures as well as at low temperatures.

  17. Protection of Steel Corrosion in Concrete Members by the Combination of Galvanic Anode and Nitrite Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Aoyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloride induced-corrosion of steel bars in concrete can make cracks and exfoliation in near-surface regions in reinforced concrete structures. In this paper, we described the basic concept and practice of steel bars corrosion protection method by the combination of galvanic anode (zinc wire and the penetration of nitrite ions from mortar layers containing a large amount of lithium nitrite.

  18. Tensile Fracture Behavior of Progressively-Drawn Pearlitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Toribio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a study is presented of the tensile fracture behavior of progressively-drawn pearlitic steels obtained from five different cold-drawing chains, including each drawing step from the initial hot-rolled bar (not cold-drawn at all to the final commercial product (pre-stressing steel wire. To this end, samples of the different wires were tested up to fracture by means of standard tension tests, and later, all of the fracture surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Micro-fracture maps (MFMs were assembled to characterize the different fractographic modes and to study their evolution with the level of cumulative plastic strain during cold drawing.

  19. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Finnemore, D. K.; Gibson, E. D.; Ostenson, J. E.; Schmidt, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb 3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb 3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting

  20. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  1. Peculiarities of welding procedure for the 05Kh12K14N5M5T-VD maraging stainless steel with strength higher 1500 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of welding procedure of 05Kh12K14N5M5T-VD stainless steel on the properties of its welded joints is investigated. A new procedure of welding for pressure vessels made of this steel using Sv-03Kh15K14N5M3T-EL welding wire is suggested [ru

  2. Wiring of electronic evaluation circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Svoboda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The wiring is described of electronic evaluation circuits for the automatic viewing of photographic paper strip negatives on which line tracks with an angular scatter relative to the spectrograph longitudinal axis were recorded during the oblique flight of nuclear particles during exposure in the spectrograph. In coincidence evaluation, the size of the angular scatter eventually requires that evaluation dead time be increased. The equipment consists of minimally two fixed registers and a block of logic circuits whose output is designed such as will allow connection to equipment for recording signals corresponding to the number of tracks on the film. The connection may be implemented using integrated circuits guaranteeing high operating reliability and life. (J.B.)

  3. Single wire drift chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krider, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles

  4. Photoelastic analysis of stress generated by wires when conventional and self-ligating brackets are used: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Caiado Sobral

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: By means of a photoelastic model, this study analyzed the stress caused on conventional and self-ligating brackets with expanded arch wires. METHOD: Standard brackets were adhered to artificial teeth and a photoelastic model was prepared using the Interlandi 19/12 diagram as base. Successive activations were made with 0.014-in and 0.018-in rounded cross section Nickel-Titanium wires (NiTi and 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular stainless steel wires all of which made on 22/14 Interlandi diagram. The model was observed on a plane polariscope - in a dark field microscope configuration - and photographed at each exchange of wire. Then, they were replaced by self-ligating brackets and the process was repeated. Analysis was qualitative and observed stress location and pattern on both models analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Results identified greater stress on the region of the apex of premolars in both analyzed models. Upon comparing the stress between models, a greater amount of stress was found in the model with conventional brackets in all of its wires. Therefore, the present pilot study revealed that alignment of wires in self-ligating brackets produced lower stress in periodontal tissues in expansive mechanics.

  5. Quality Analysis of Welded and Soldered Joints of Cu-Nb Microcomposite Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj VIŠNIAKOV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality analysis of welded and soldered joints of Cu-Nb microcomposite wires has been performed. Quality and mechanical characteristics of joints as ultimate tensile stress limit and elongation at break were measured with an universal testing machine and controlled visually using an optical microscope. Two wires joints were soldered with silver and copper solders and put into steel and copper sleeve respectively. Another two wires joints were soldered with silver solder and welded without any reinforcement. Joints soldered with the silver solder and steel sleeve have demonstrated the best mechanical characteristics: ultimate tensile stress limit of 650 MPa and elongation at break of 0.85 %. Joints soldered with the copper sleeve have no advantages comparing with the soldered butt joint. Ultimate tensile stress limit and elongation at break were in 300 MPa - 350 MPa and in 0.35 % - 0.45 % ranges respectively. Two welded joints had ultimate tensile stress limit of 470 MPa and elongation at break of 0.71 %. In all joints the microstructure of Nb filaments was destroyed and mechanical properties have been specified by mechanical strength of copper and sleeve materials only.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.242

  6. Mesenteric artery contraction and relaxation studies using automated wire myography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Lakeesha E; Williams, Cicely L; Pointer, Mildred A; Awumey, Emmanuel M

    2011-09-22

    Proximal resistance vessels, such as the mesenteric arteries, contribute substantially to the peripheral resistance. These small vessels of between 100-400 μm in diameter function primarily in directing blood flow to various organs according to the overall requirements of the body. The rat mesenteric artery has a diameter greater than 100 μm. The myography technique, first described by Mulvay and Halpern(1), was based on the method proposed by Bevan and Osher(2). The technique provides information about small vessels under isometric conditions, where substantial shortening of the muscle preparation is prevented. Since force production and sensitivity of vessels to different agonists is dependent on the extent of stretch, according to active tension-length relation, it is essential to conduct contraction studies under isometric conditions to prevent compliance of the mounting wires. Stainless steel wires are preferred to tungsten wires because of oxidation of the latter, which affects recorded responses(3).The technique allows for the comparison of agonist-induced contractions of mounted vessels to obtain evidence for normal function of vascular smooth muscle cell receptors. We have shown in several studies that isolated mesenteric arteries that are contracted with phenylyephrine relax upon addition of cumulative concentrations of extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(e;)). The findings led us to conclude that perivascular sensory nerves, which express the G protein-coupled Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR), mediate this vasorelaxation response. Using an automated wire myography method, we show here that mesenteric arteries from Wistar, Dahl salt-sensitive(DS) and Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats respond differently to Ca(2+)(e;). Tissues from Wistar rats showed higher Ca(2+)-sensitivity compared to those from DR and DS. Reduced CaR expression in mesenteric arteries from DS rats correlates with reduced Ca(2+)(e;)-induced relaxation of isolated, pre-contracted arteries. The data

  7. Structure of steel reactor building and construction method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Toshikimi.

    1997-01-01

    The building of the present invention contains a reactor pressure vessel, and has double steel plate walls endurable to elevation of inner pressure and keeping airtightness, and shielding concretes are filled between the double steel plate walls. It also has empty double steel plate walls not filled with concretes and has pipelines, vent ducts, wirings and a support structures for attaching them between the double steel plate walls. It is endurable to a great inner pressure satisfactory and keeps airtightness by the two spaced steel plates. It can be greatly reduced in the weight, and can be manufactured efficiently with high quality in a plant by so called module construction, and the dimension of the entire of the reactor building can be reduced. It is constructed in a dock, transported on the sea while having the space between the two steel plate walls as a ballast tanks, placed in the site, and shielding concretes are filled between the double steel plate walls. The term for the construction can be reduced, and the cost for the construction can be saved. (N.H.)

  8. Optically pumped ultraviolet and infrared lasers driven by exploding metal films and wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.R.; Ware, K.D.

    1983-01-01

    The 342-nm molecular iodine and 1315-nm atomic iodine lasers have been optically pumped by intense light from exploding-metal-film and exploding-wire discharges. Brightness temperatures for the exploding-film discharges were approx. 25,000 K and for the wire discharges were approx. 30,000 K. For the I 2 laser the 3.5-cm-diameter by 40-cm-long pumped volume lies adjacent to the wire or film of the same length. Pressures of 1 to 6 torr I 2 and 1 to 3 atm SF, CF 4 , or Ar were used in the stainless-steel cell. Using 20-μF capacitance charged to 40 kV, a 0.25-mm tungsten wire, 3-torr I 2 , and a 2-atm SF 6 , an energy of 2 J was obtained from the laser in a pulse of 8-μs duration. The specific output energy was 7 J/l. Substitution of a cylindrical Al film for the wire, under otherwise similar conditions, led to a X10 output energies and efficiencies were obtained with similar input energy. An output pulse of 12 J and 12-μs duration was measured for a specific output energy of 18 J/l. A laser energy of 110 J in a 20-us-long pulse has been measured from atomic iodine using a wire discharge along the axis of a larger cell. The active volume available was 20 cm in diameter and 80 cm in length. Input energy was 32 kJ. In similar measurements using a cylindrical Al film for discharge initiation, the measured output energy was 40 J

  9. Release of nickel and chromium ions from orthodontic wires following the use of teeth whitening mouthwashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirHossein Mirhashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corrosion resistance is an important requirement for orthodontic appliances. Nickel and chromium may be released from orthodontic wires and can cause allergic reactions and cytotoxicity when patients use various mouthwashes to whiten their teeth. Our study aimed to assess the release of nickel and chromium ions from nickel titanium (NiTi and stainless steel (SS orthodontic wires following the use of four common mouthwashes available on the market. Methods This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 120 orthodontic appliances for one maxillary quadrant including five brackets, one band and half of the required length of SS, and NiTi wires. The samples were immersed in Oral B, Oral B 3D White Luxe, Listerine, and Listerine Advance White for 1, 6, 24, and 168 h. The samples immersed in distilled water served as the control group. Atomic absorption spectroscopy served to quantify the amount of released ions. Results Nickel ions were released from both wires at all time-points; the highest amount was in Listerine and the lowest in Oral B mouthwashes. The remaining two solutions were in-between this range. The process of release of chromium from the SS wire was the same as that of nickel. However, the release trend in NiTi wires was not uniform. Conclusions Listerine caused the highest release of ions. Listerine Advance White, Oral B 3D White Luxe, and distilled water were the same in terms of ion release. Oral B showed the lowest amount of ion release.

  10. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  11. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  12. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights

  13. Plastic deformation of 2D crumpled wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, M A F; Donato, C C; Brito, V P; Coelho, A S O

    2008-01-01

    When a single long piece of elastic wire is injected through channels into a confining two-dimensional cavity, a complex structure of hierarchical loops is formed. In the limit of maximum packing density, these structures are described by several scaling laws. In this paper this packing process is investigated but using plastic wires which give rise to completely irreversible structures of different morphology. In particular, the plastic deformation from circular to oblate configurations of crumpled wires is experimentally studied, obtained by the application of an axial strain. Among other things, it is shown that in spite of plasticity, irreversibility and very large deformations, scaling is still observed.

  14. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moore

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20  m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell’s high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  15. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  16. Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)

  17. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  18. Heat transfer experiments in a wire-inserted tube at supercritical pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Yoo, Tae Ho

    2009-07-15

    The hydraulic diameter of a subchannel in a core concept developed at KAERI is 6.5 mm. The sub-channel is much smaller than that of the conventional PWR, and naturally a helical wire was considered as one of the candidates for a spacer. For simplicity the subchannel is simulated by a commercially available Inconel 625 tube of 6.32 mm ID with a helically-coiled spring steel wire insert of 1.3 mm OD. The medium is CO{sub 2}. The test pressures are 7.75 and 8.12 MPa corresponding to 1.05 and 1.1 times the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, respectively. The mass flux and heat flux, which were in the range of 400 {approx} 1200 kg/m{sup 2}s and 30 {approx} 90 kW/m{sup 2} respectively, were varied at a given system pressure. The corresponding Reynolds numbers at the inlet spans between 2.5 x 10{sup 4} and 7.5 x 10{sup 4}. It was observed that the heat transfer was enhanced by almost twice in most of the tested enthalpy range except for in the the region far from the pseudocritical point. The test results revealed that the wire effect was sustained in the downstream up to 40-60 times the wire diameter. The temperature decreased in the first half of the span between contact points and it increased in the second half of the span.

  19. Initial arch wires for tooth alignment during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fan; Lai, Wenli; Furness, Susan; McIntyre, Grant T; Millett, Declan T; Hickman, Joy; Wang, Yan

    2013-04-30

    potentially confounding factor (such as bracket type, slot size, ligation method, extraction of teeth) which is likely to have influenced the outcome and was not controlled in the trial. None of the trials reported the important adverse outcome of root resorption.Three groups of comparisons were made.(1) Multistrand stainless steel initial arch wires compared to superelastic nickel titanium (NiTi) initial arch wires. There were four trials in this group, with different comparisons and outcomes reported at different times. No meta-analysis was possible. There is insufficient evidence from these trials to determine whether or not there is a difference in either rate of alignment or pain between stainless steel and NiTi initial arch wires.(2) Conventional (stabilised) NiTi initial arch wires compared to superelastic NiTi initial arch wires. There were two trials in this group, one reporting the outcome of alignment over 6 months and the other reporting pain over 1 week. There is insufficient evidence from these trials to determine whether or not there is any difference between conventional (stabilised) and superelastic NiTi initial arch wires with regard to either alignment or pain.(3) Single-strand superelastic NiTi initial arch wires compared to other NiTi (coaxial, copper NiTi (CuNiTi) or thermoelastic) initial arch wires. The three trials in this comparison each compared a different product against single-strand superelastic NiTi. There is very weak unreliable evidence, based on one very small study (n = 24) at high risk of bias, that coaxial superelastic NiTi may produce greater tooth movement over 12 weeks, but no information on associated pain or root resorption. This result should be interpreted with caution until further research evidence is available. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether or not there is a difference between either thermoelastic or CuNiTi and superelastic NiTi initial arch wires. There is no reliable evidence from the trials included in

  20. Stress distribution in delayed replanted teeth splinted with different orthodontic wires: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernando Isquierdo; Poi, Wilson Roberto; da Silva, Vanessa Ferreira; Martini, Ana Paula; Melo, Regis Alexandre da Cunha; Panzarini, Sonia Regina; Rocha, Eduardo Passos

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of the supporting bony structures of replanted teeth and the periodontal ligament (PDL) of adjacent teeth when orthodontic wires with different mechanical properties are applied, with three-dimensional finite element analysis. Based on tomographic and microtomographic data, a three-dimensional model of the anterior maxilla with the corresponding teeth (tooth 13-tooth 23) was generated to simulate avulsion and replantation of the tooth 21. The teeth were splinted with orthodontic wire (Ø 0.8 mm) and composite resin. The elastic modulus of the three orthodontic wires used, that is, steel wire (FA), titanium-molybdenum wire (FTM), and nitinol wire (FN) were 200 GPa, 84 GPa, and 52 GPa, respectively. An oblique load (100 N) was applied at an angle of 45° on the incisal edge of the replanted tooth and was analyzed using Ansys Workbench software. The maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stresses generated in the PDL, cortical and alveolar bones, and the modified von Mises (σvM) values for the orthodontic wires were obtained. With regard to the cortical bone and PDL, the highest σmin and σmax values for FTM, FN, and FA were checked. With regard to the alveolar bone, σmax and σmin values were highest for FA, followed by FTM and FN. The σvM values of the orthodontic wires followed the order of rigidity of the alloys, that is, FA > FTM > FN. The biomechanical behavior of the analyzed structures with regard to all the three patterns of flexibility was similar. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.