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Sample records for hyperaccumulator pteris vittata

  1. Sulfate and glutathione enhanced arsenic accumulation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Ma, Lena Q.; Saha, Uttam; Mathews, Shiny; Sundaram, Sabarinath; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Zhou Qixing

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of sulfate (S) and reduced glutathione (GSH) on arsenic uptake by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata after exposing to arsenate (0, 15 or 30 mg As L -1 ) with sulfate (6.4, 12.8 or 25.6 mg S L -1 ) or GSH (0, 0.4 or 0.8 mM) for 2-wk. Total arsenic, S and GSH concentrations in plant biomass and arsenic speciation in the growth media and plant biomass were determined. While both S (18-85%) and GSH (77-89%) significantly increased arsenic uptake in P. vittata, GSH also increased arsenic translocation by 61-85% at 0.4 mM (p < 0.05). Sulfate and GSH did not impact plant biomass or arsenic speciation in the media and biomass. The S-induced arsenic accumulation by P. vittata was partially attributed to increased plant GSH (21-31%), an important non-enzymatic antioxidant countering oxidative stress. This experiment demonstrated that S and GSH can effectively enhance arsenic uptake and translocation by P. vittata. - Sulfate and glutathione increased arsenic uptake and translocation in Pteris vittata.

  2. Phytate induced arsenic uptake and plant growth in arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Fu, Jing-Wei; Tang, Ni; da Silva, E B; Cao, Yue; Turner, Benjamin L; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-07-01

    Phytate is abundant in soils, which is stable and unavailable for plant uptake. However, it occurs in root exudates of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). To elucidate its effect on As uptake and growth, P. vittata were grown on agar media (63 μM P) containing 50 μM As and/or 50 or 500 μM phytate with non As-hyperaccumulator Pteris ensiformis (PE) as a congeneric control for 60 d. Phytate induced efficient As and P uptake, and enhanced growth in PV, but had little effects on PE. The As concentrations in PV fronds and roots were 157 and 31 mg kg -1 in As 50 +phytate 50 , 2.2- and 3.1-fold that of As 50 treatment. Phosphorus uptake by PV was reduced by 27% in As treatment than the control (P vs. P+As) but increased by 73% comparing phytate 500 to phytate 500 +As, indicating that PV effectively took up P from phytate. Neither As nor phytate affected Fe accumulation in PV, but phytate reduced root Fe concentration in PE (46-56%). As such, the increased As and P and the unsuppressed Fe uptake in PV probably promoted PV growth. Thus, supplying phytate to As-contaminated soils may promote As uptake and growth in PV and its phytoremediation ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic-induced nutrient uptake in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata and their potential role to enhance plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Feng, Hua-Yuan; Fu, Jing-Wei; Chen, Yanshan; Liu, Yungen; Ma, Lena Q

    2018-05-01

    It is known that arsenic (As) promotes growth of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV), however, the associated mechanisms are unclear. Here we examined As-induced nutrient uptake in P. vittata and their potential role to enhance plant growth in sterile agar by excluding microbial effects. As-hyperaccumulator P. multifida (PM) and non-hyperaccumulator P. ensiformis (PE) belonging to the Pteris genus were used as comparisons. The results showed that, after 40 d of growth, As induced biomass increase in hyperaccumulators PV and PM by 5.2-9.4 fold whereas it caused 63% decline in PE. The data suggested that As played a beneficial role in promoting hyperaccumulator growth. In addition, hyperaccumulators PV and PM accumulated 7.5-13, 1.4-3.6, and 1.8-4.4 fold more As, Fe, and P than the non-hyperaccumulator PE. In addition, nutrient contents such as K and Zn were also increased while Ca, Mg, and Mn decreased or unaffected under As treatment. This study demonstrated that As promoted growth in hyperaccumulators and enhanced Fe, P, K, and Zn uptake. Different plant growth responses to As among hyperaccumulators PV and PM and non-hyperaccumulator PE may help to better understand why hyperaccumulators grow better under As-stress. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Modelling phytoremediation by the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated with arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelmerdine, Paula A.; Black, Colin R.; McGrath, Steve P.; Young, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Pteris vittata plants were grown on twenty-one UK soils contaminated with arsenic (As) from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic concentration was measured in fern fronds, soil and soil pore water collected with Rhizon samplers. Isotopically exchangeable soil arsenate was determined by equilibration with 73 As V . Removal of As from the 21 soils by three sequential crops of P. vittata ranged between 0.1 and 13% of total soil As. Ferns grown on a soil subjected to long-term sewage sludge application showed reduced uptake of As because of high available phosphate concentrations. A combined solubility-uptake model was parameterised to enable prediction of phytoremediation success from estimates of soil As, 'As-lability' and soil pH. The model was used to demonstrate the remediation potential of P. vittata under different soil conditions and with contrasting assumptions regarding re-supply of the labile As pool from unavailable forms. - This paper presents a predictive model for phytoremediation of soils, historically contaminated with arsenic, by the hyperaccumulator P. vittata.

  5. Modelling phytoremediation by the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated with arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelmerdine, Paula A.; Black, Colin R. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); McGrath, Steve P. [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Young, Scott D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.u [School of Biosciences, Biology Building, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Pteris vittata plants were grown on twenty-one UK soils contaminated with arsenic (As) from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic concentration was measured in fern fronds, soil and soil pore water collected with Rhizon samplers. Isotopically exchangeable soil arsenate was determined by equilibration with {sup 73}As{sup V}. Removal of As from the 21 soils by three sequential crops of P. vittata ranged between 0.1 and 13% of total soil As. Ferns grown on a soil subjected to long-term sewage sludge application showed reduced uptake of As because of high available phosphate concentrations. A combined solubility-uptake model was parameterised to enable prediction of phytoremediation success from estimates of soil As, 'As-lability' and soil pH. The model was used to demonstrate the remediation potential of P. vittata under different soil conditions and with contrasting assumptions regarding re-supply of the labile As pool from unavailable forms. - This paper presents a predictive model for phytoremediation of soils, historically contaminated with arsenic, by the hyperaccumulator P. vittata.

  6. Effects of arsenic on concentration and distribution of nutrients in the fronds of the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Cong; Ma, Lena Q.

    2005-01-01

    Pteris vittata was the first terrestrial plant known to hyperaccumulate arsenic (As). However, it is unclear how As hyperaccumulation influences nutrient uptake by this plant. P. vittata fern was grown in soil spiked with 0-500 mg As kg -1 in the greenhouse for 24 weeks. The concentrations of essential macro- (P, K, Ca, and Mg) and micro- (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B and Mo) elements in the fronds of different age were examined. Both macro- and micronutrients in the fronds were found to be within the normal concentration ranges for non-hyperaccumulators. However, As hyperaccumulation did influence the elemental distribution among fronds of different age of P. vittata. Arsenic-induced P and K enhancements in the fronds contributed to the As-induced growth stimulation at low As levels. The frond P/As molar ratios of 1.0 can be used as the threshold value for normal growth of P. vittata. Potassium may function as a counter-cation for As in the fronds as shown by the As-induced K increases in the fronds. The present findings not only demonstrate that P. vittata has the ability to maintain adequate concentrations of essential nutrients while hyperaccumulating As from the soil, but also have implications for soil management (fertilization in particular) of P. vittata in As phytoextraction practice

  7. Interactions of mycorrhizal fungi with Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) in As-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, H.M.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse trial was conducted to investigate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) in aiding arsenic (As) uptake and tolerance by Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) and Cynodon dactylon (a multi-metal root accumulator). Plants inoculated with lived and killed native mycorrhizas isolated from an As mine site were grown in a sterile and slightly acidic soil. The infectious percentage of mycorrhizas (0 mg/kg As: 26.4%, 50 mg/kg As: 30.3%, 100 mg/kg As: 40.6%) and the average biomass of shoots in infected P. vittata increased (0 mg/kg As: 2.45 g/pot, 50 mg/kg As: 2.48 g/pot, 100 mg/kg As: 10.9 g/pot) according to the increase of As levels when compared to control. The indigenous mycorrhizas enhanced As accumulation (0 mg/kg As: 3.70 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg As: 58.3 mg/kg; 100 mg/kg As: 88.1 mg/kg) in the As mine populations of P. vittata and also sustained its growth by aiding P absorption. For C. dactylon, As was mainly accumulated in mycorrhizal roots and translocation to shoots was inhibited. - Indigenous mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in As tolerance

  8. Interactions of mycorrhizal fungi with Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) in As-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, H.M. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Z.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); School of Life Sciences, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2006-01-15

    A greenhouse trial was conducted to investigate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) in aiding arsenic (As) uptake and tolerance by Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) and Cynodon dactylon (a multi-metal root accumulator). Plants inoculated with lived and killed native mycorrhizas isolated from an As mine site were grown in a sterile and slightly acidic soil. The infectious percentage of mycorrhizas (0 mg/kg As: 26.4%, 50 mg/kg As: 30.3%, 100 mg/kg As: 40.6%) and the average biomass of shoots in infected P. vittata increased (0 mg/kg As: 2.45 g/pot, 50 mg/kg As: 2.48 g/pot, 100 mg/kg As: 10.9 g/pot) according to the increase of As levels when compared to control. The indigenous mycorrhizas enhanced As accumulation (0 mg/kg As: 3.70 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg As: 58.3 mg/kg; 100 mg/kg As: 88.1 mg/kg) in the As mine populations of P. vittata and also sustained its growth by aiding P absorption. For C. dactylon, As was mainly accumulated in mycorrhizal roots and translocation to shoots was inhibited. - Indigenous mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in As tolerance.

  9. PIXE study on absorption of arsenate and arsenite by arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2008-01-01

    Pytoremediation using an arsenic hyperaccumulator, Petris vittata L., has generated an increasing interest worldwide due to both environmentally sound and cost effectiveness. However the mechanism of arsenic accumulation by this fern is not clear at this time. This study examined the uptake of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) by a hydroponic culture of Pteris vittata using both in-air submilli-PIXE for different parts of the fern and in-air micro-PIXE for the tissue cells. These PIXE analysis systems used 3 MeV proton beams from a 4.5-MV single-ended Dynamitron accelerator at Tohoku University, Japan. The fern took up both arsenate and arsenite from hydroponic solutions which were spiked with 50 mg of arsenic per litter. Final amount of arsenic accumulation in the fern is 1,500 mg per kg (wet weight) of the plant biomass in arsenite treatment and 1,100 mg per kg in arsenate treatment. Arsenic accumulation was not observed at the root parts of the ferns. The in-vivo mapping of elements by submilli-PIXE analyses on the fern laminas showed the arsenic accumulation in the edges of a pinna. The micro-PIXE analyses revealed arsenic maps homogeneously distributed in cells of the lamina, stem and rhizome of the fern. These results indicate that arsenic, both arsenate and arsenite in a contaminated medium are translocated quickly from roots to fronds of Pteris vittata, and distributes homogeneously into tissue cells of the fern laminas. (author)

  10. Bacteria-mediated arsenic oxidation and reduction in the growth media of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; de Oliveira, Letuzia Maria; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Ma, Lena Q

    2012-10-16

    Microbes play an important role in arsenic transformation and cycling in the environment. Microbial arsenic oxidation and reduction were demonstrated in the growth media of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. All arsenite (AsIII) at 0.1 mM in the media was oxidized after 48 h incubation. Oxidation was largely inhibited by antibiotics, indicating that bacteria played a dominant role. To identify AsIII oxidizing bacteria, degenerate primers were used to amplify ∼500 bp of the AsIII oxidase gene aioA (aroA) using DNA extracted from the media. One aioA (aroA)-like sequence (MG-1, tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp.) was amplified, exhibiting 82% and 91% identity in terms of gene and deduced protein sequence to those from Acinetobacter sp. 33. In addition, four bacterial strains with different arsenic tolerance were isolated and identified as Comamonas sp.C-1, Flavobacterium sp. C-2, Staphylococcus sp. C-3, and Pseudomonas sp. C-4 using carbon utilization, fatty acid profiles, and/or sequencing 16s rRNA gene. These isolates exhibited dual capacity for both AsV reduction and AsIII oxidation under ambient conditions. Arsenic-resistant bacteria with strong AsIII oxidizing ability may have potential to improve bioremediation of AsIII-contaminated water using P. vittata and/or other biochemical strategies.

  11. Thiol synthesis and arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weihua; Cai Yong; Downum, Kelsey R.; Ma, Lena Q.

    2004-01-01

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) has potential for phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. In this study, the synthesis of total thiols and acid-soluble thiols in P. vittata was investigated under arsenic exposure. The strong and positive correlation between As concentration and acid-soluble thiols in plant leaflets suggests that acid-soluble thiols may play a role in As detoxification. A major As-induced thiol was purified and characterized. A molecular ion (M+1) of 540 m/z suggests that the thiol was a phytochelatin (PC) with two base units (PC 2 ). However, the ratios of acid-soluble thiols to As in leaflets exposed to As ranged from 0.012 to 0.026, suggesting that only a very small part of As is complexed by PC 2 . PCs could play a minor detoxification role in this hyperaccumulator. A PC-independent mechanism appears to be mainly involved in As tolerance, while PC-dependent detoxification seems to be a supplement

  12. Arsenic removal from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata biomass: Coupling extraction with precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evandro B; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Wilkie, Ann C; Liu, Yungen; Ma, Lena Q

    2018-02-01

    Proper disposal of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata biomass (Chinese brake fern) enhances its application in phytoremediation. The goal of this study was to optimize As removal from P. vittata (PV) biomass by testing different particle sizes, extractants, extraction times and solid-to-liquid ratios. PV biomass was extracted using different extractants followed by different Mg-salts to recover soluble As via precipitation. Water-soluble As in PV biomass varied from 6.8% to 61% of total As depending on extraction time, with 99% of As being arsenate (AsV). Extraction with 2.1% HCl, 2.1% H 3 PO 4 , 1 M NaOH and 50% ethanol recovered 81, 78, 47 and 14% of As from PV biomass. A follow-up extraction using HCl recovered 27-32% with ethanol recovering only 5%. Though ethanol showed the lowest extractable As, residual As in the biomass was also the lowest. Among the extractants, 35% ethanol was the best to remove As from PV biomass. Approximately 90% As was removed from PV biomass using particle size phytoremediation more feasible. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Thiol synthesis and arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weihua; Cai Yong; Downum, Kelsey R.; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-10-01

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) has potential for phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. In this study, the synthesis of total thiols and acid-soluble thiols in P. vittata was investigated under arsenic exposure. The strong and positive correlation between As concentration and acid-soluble thiols in plant leaflets suggests that acid-soluble thiols may play a role in As detoxification. A major As-induced thiol was purified and characterized. A molecular ion (M+1) of 540 m/z suggests that the thiol was a phytochelatin (PC) with two base units (PC{sub 2}). However, the ratios of acid-soluble thiols to As in leaflets exposed to As ranged from 0.012 to 0.026, suggesting that only a very small part of As is complexed by PC{sub 2}. PCs could play a minor detoxification role in this hyperaccumulator. A PC-independent mechanism appears to be mainly involved in As tolerance, while PC-dependent detoxification seems to be a supplement.

  14. Arsenic species and leachability in the fronds of the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake (Pteris vittata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu Cong; Ma, Lena Q.; Zhang Weihua; Cai Yong; Harris, Willie G

    2003-07-01

    Arsenic was predominantly present as inorganic arsenite in the fronds of the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake. - Arsenic speciation is important not only for understanding the mechanisms of arsenic accumulation and detoxification by hyperaccumulators, but also for designing disposal options of arsenic-rich biomass. The primary objective of this research was to understand the speciation and leachability of arsenic in the fronds of Chinese brake (Pteris vittata L.), an arsenic hyperaccumulator, with an emphasis on the implications for arsenic-rich biomass disposal. Chinese brake was grown for 18 weeks in a soil spiked with 50 mg As kg{sup -1} as arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}), arsenite (AsO{sub 3}{sup 3-}), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), or methylarsonic acid (MMA). Plant samples were extracted with methanol/water (1:1) and arsenic speciation was performed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The impacts of air-drying on arsenic species and leachability in the fronds were examined in the laboratory. After 18 weeks, water-soluble arsenic in soil was mainly present as arsenate with little detectable organic species or arsenite regardless of arsenic species added to the soil. However, arsenic in the fronds was primarily present as inorganic arsenite with an average of 94%. Arsenite re-oxidation occurred in the old fronds and the excised dried tissues. Arsenic species in the fronds were slightly influenced by arsenic forms added to the soil. Air-drying of the fronds resulted in leaching of substantial amounts of arsenic. These findings can be of significance when looking at disposal options of arsenic-rich biomass from the point of view of secondary contamination.

  15. Arsenic hyperaccumulation by Pteris vittata from arsenic contaminated soils and the effect of liming and phosphate fertilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caille, N.; Swanwick, S.; Zhao, F.J.; McGrath, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the potential of phytoremediation with the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata in a range of soils contaminated with As and other heavy metals, and the influence of phosphate and lime additions on As hyperaccumulation by P. vittata. The fern was grown in 5 soils collected from Cornwall (England) containing 67-4550 mg As kg -1 and different levels of metals. All soils showed a similar distribution pattern of As in different fractions in a sequential extraction, with more than 60% of the total As being associated with the fraction thought to represent amorphous and poorly-crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe and Al. The concentration of As in the fronds ranged from 84 to 3600 mg kg -1 , with 0.9-3.1% of the total soil As being taken up by P. vittata. In one soil which contained 5500 mg Cu kg -1 and 1242 mg Zn kg -1 , P. vittata suffered from phytotoxicity and accumulated little As (0.002% of total). In a separate experiment, neither phosphate addition (50 mg P kg -1 soil) nor liming (4.6 g CaCO 3 kg -1 soil) was found to affect the As concentration in the fronds of P. vittata, even though phosphate addition increased the As concentration in the soil pore water. Between 4 and 7% of the total soil As was taken up by P. vittata in 4 cuttings in this experiment. The results indicate that P. vittata can hyperaccumulate As from naturally contaminated soils, but may be suitable for phytoremediation only in the moderately contaminated soils

  16. Arsenic hyperaccumulation by Pteris vittata from arsenic contaminated soils and the effect of liming and phosphate fertilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, N.; Swanwick, S.; Zhao, F.J.; McGrath, S.P

    2004-11-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the potential of phytoremediation with the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata in a range of soils contaminated with As and other heavy metals, and the influence of phosphate and lime additions on As hyperaccumulation by P. vittata. The fern was grown in 5 soils collected from Cornwall (England) containing 67-4550 mg As kg{sup -1} and different levels of metals. All soils showed a similar distribution pattern of As in different fractions in a sequential extraction, with more than 60% of the total As being associated with the fraction thought to represent amorphous and poorly-crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe and Al. The concentration of As in the fronds ranged from 84 to 3600 mg kg{sup -1}, with 0.9-3.1% of the total soil As being taken up by P. vittata. In one soil which contained 5500 mg Cu kg{sup -1} and 1242 mg Zn kg{sup -1}, P. vittata suffered from phytotoxicity and accumulated little As (0.002% of total). In a separate experiment, neither phosphate addition (50 mg P kg{sup -1} soil) nor liming (4.6 g CaCO{sub 3} kg{sup -1} soil) was found to affect the As concentration in the fronds of P. vittata, even though phosphate addition increased the As concentration in the soil pore water. Between 4 and 7% of the total soil As was taken up by P. vittata in 4 cuttings in this experiment. The results indicate that P. vittata can hyperaccumulate As from naturally contaminated soils, but may be suitable for phytoremediation only in the moderately contaminated soils.

  17. [Effects of Soil Moisture on Phytoremediation of As-Containinated Soils Using As-Hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-xin; Yan, Xiu-lan; Liao, Xiao-yong; Lin, Long-yong; Yang, Jing

    2015-08-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of soil moisture on the growth and arsenic uptake of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. The results showed that the remediation efficiency of As was the highest when the soil moisture was between 35%-45%. P. vittata grew best under 45% water content, and its aboveground and underground plant dry weights were 2.95 g x plant(-1) and 11.95 g x plant(-1), respectively; the arsenic concentration in aboveground and roots was the highest under 35% water content, and 40% content was the best for accumulation of arsenic in P. vittata. Moreover, controlling the soil moisture to 35%-45% enhanced the conversion of As(V) to As(III) in aboveground plant, and promoted arsenic detoxification in P. vittata. These above results showed that soil moisture played an important role in the absorption and transport of arsenic by P. vittata. The results of this study can provide important guidance for the large-scale planting of P. vittata and the moisture management measures in engineering application.

  18. Antioxidative responses to arsenic in the arsenic-hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Ma, Lena Q.; Tu Cong

    2004-01-01

    This study measured antioxidative responses of Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) upon exposure to arsenic (As) of different concentrations. Chinese brake fern was grown in an artificially-contaminated soil containing 0 to 200 mg As kg -1 (Na 2 HAsO 4 ) for 12 weeks in a greenhouse. Soil As concentrations at ≤20 mg kg -1 enhanced plant growth, with 12-71% biomass increase compared to the control. Such beneficial effects were not observed at >20 mg As kg -1 . Plant As concentrations increased with soil As concentrations, with more As being accumulated in the fronds (aboveground biomass) than in the roots and with maximum frond As concentration being 4675 mg kg -1 . Arsenic uptake by Chinese brake enhanced uptake of nutrient elements K, P, Fe, Mn, and Zn except Ca and Mg, whose concentrations mostly decreased. The contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione, acid-soluble thiol) followed similar trends as plant As concentrations, increasing with soil As concentrations, with greater contents in the fronds than in the roots especially when exposed to high As concentrations (>50 mg kg -1 ). The activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase) in Chinese brake followed the same trends as plant biomass, increasing with soil As up to 20 mg kg -1 and then decreased. The results indicated though both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants played significant roles in As detoxification and hyperaccumulation in Chinese brake, the former is more important at low As exposure (≤20 mg kg -1 ), whereas the latter is more critical at high As exposure (50-200 mg kg -1 ). - At low levels of arsenic exposure, enzymatic antioxidants are important for arsenic detoxification and accumulation in Chinese brake fern, while non-enzymatic antioxidants were more important at high arsenic exposure

  19. Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondada, Bhaskar R.; Tu, Shuxin; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-10-01

    The fact that heavy metals can enter various domains of the plant system through foliar pathways spurred us to explore if the fronds of the Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid, was proficient in absorbing arsenic in the form of sprays. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the impact of frond age, form of arsenic, and time of application on the absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the brake fern; also examined were the effects of foliar sprays on surface ultrastructure and arsenic speciation in the frond following absorption. Foliar sprays of different arsenic concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm) were applied to young and fertile fronds. A positive linear relationship existed between arsenic concentration and absorption; the arsenic concentration of fronds increased from 50 to 200 ppm. Time-course analysis with excised pinnae indicated an initial linear increase followed by a plateau at 48 h. The young fronds with immature sori absorbed more arsenic (3100 ppm) than the fertile mature fronds (890 ppm). In the frond, the arsenic absorption was greatest in the lamina of the pinnae followed by the sori and the rachis. Applying arsenic during night (20:00-22:00 h) or afternoon (12:00-14:00 h) resulted in greater absorption of arsenic than the application in the morning (08:00-10:00 h). The arsenic absorption was greater through abaxial surfaces than through adaxial surfaces. The brake fern absorbed more arsenic when it was applied in the form of arsenite. Regardless of the form of arsenic and the surface it was applied to, arsenic occurred as arsenite, the reduced and the most toxic form of arsenic, after having been absorbed by the fronds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no surface morphological alterations following all arsenic sprays. The study unequivocally illustrated that the Chinese brake fern absorbed foliar-applied arsenic with great efficiency. Consequently, the

  20. Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondada, Bhaskar R.; Tu, Shuxin; Ma, Lena Q.

    2004-01-01

    The fact that heavy metals can enter various domains of the plant system through foliar pathways spurred us to explore if the fronds of the Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid, was proficient in absorbing arsenic in the form of sprays. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the impact of frond age, form of arsenic, and time of application on the absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the brake fern; also examined were the effects of foliar sprays on surface ultrastructure and arsenic speciation in the frond following absorption. Foliar sprays of different arsenic concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm) were applied to young and fertile fronds. A positive linear relationship existed between arsenic concentration and absorption; the arsenic concentration of fronds increased from 50 to 200 ppm. Time-course analysis with excised pinnae indicated an initial linear increase followed by a plateau at 48 h. The young fronds with immature sori absorbed more arsenic (3100 ppm) than the fertile mature fronds (890 ppm). In the frond, the arsenic absorption was greatest in the lamina of the pinnae followed by the sori and the rachis. Applying arsenic during night (20:00-22:00 h) or afternoon (12:00-14:00 h) resulted in greater absorption of arsenic than the application in the morning (08:00-10:00 h). The arsenic absorption was greater through abaxial surfaces than through adaxial surfaces. The brake fern absorbed more arsenic when it was applied in the form of arsenite. Regardless of the form of arsenic and the surface it was applied to, arsenic occurred as arsenite, the reduced and the most toxic form of arsenic, after having been absorbed by the fronds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no surface morphological alterations following all arsenic sprays. The study unequivocally illustrated that the Chinese brake fern absorbed foliar-applied arsenic with great efficiency. Consequently, the

  1. Modelling phytoremediation by the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated with arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelmerdine, Paula A; Black, Colin R; McGrath, Steve P; Young, Scott D

    2009-05-01

    Pteris vittata plants were grown on twenty-one UK soils contaminated with arsenic (As) from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic concentration was measured in fern fronds, soil and soil pore water collected with Rhizon samplers. Isotopically exchangeable soil arsenate was determined by equilibration with (73)As(V). Removal of As from the 21 soils by three sequential crops of P. vittata ranged between 0.1 and 13% of total soil As. Ferns grown on a soil subjected to long-term sewage sludge application showed reduced uptake of As because of high available phosphate concentrations. A combined solubility-uptake model was parameterised to enable prediction of phytoremediation success from estimates of soil As, 'As-lability' and soil pH. The model was used to demonstrate the remediation potential of P. vittata under different soil conditions and with contrasting assumptions regarding re-supply of the labile As pool from unavailable forms.

  2. Development of suitable hydroponics system for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water using an arsenic hyperaccumulator plant Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Inoue, Chihiro; Endo, Ginro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we found that high-performance hydroponics of arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata is possible without any mechanical aeration system, if rhizomes of the ferns are kept over the water surface level. It was also found that very low-nutrition condition is better for root elongation of P. vittata that is an important factor of the arsenic removal from contaminated water. By the non-aeration and low-nutrition hydroponics for four months, roots of P. vittata were elongated more than 500 mm. The results of arsenate phytofiltration experiments showed that arsenic concentrations in water declined from the initial concentrations (50 μg/L, 500 μg/L, and 1000 μg/L) to lower than the detection limit (0.1 μg/L) and about 80% of arsenic removed was accumulated in the fern fronds. The improved hydroponics method for P. vittata developed in this study enables low-cost phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water and high-affinity removal of arsenic from water.

  3. Chromate and phosphate inhibited each other's uptake and translocation in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Letúzia M. de; Lessl, Jason T.; Gress, Julia; Tisarum, Rujira; Guilherme, Luiz R.G.; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of chromate (CrVI) and phosphate (P) on their uptake and translocation in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). Plants were exposed to 1) 0.10 mM CrVI and 0, 0.25, 1.25, or 2.50 mM P or 2) 0.25 mM P and 0, 0.50, 2.5 or 5.0 mM CrVI for 24 h in hydroponics. PV accumulated 2919 mg/kg Cr in the roots at CrVI 0.10 , and 5100 and 3500 mg/kg P in the fronds and roots at P 0.25 . When co-present, CrVI and P inhibited each other's uptake in PV. Increasing P concentrations reduced Cr root concentrations by 62–82% whereas increasing CrVI concentrations reduced frond P concentrations by 52–59% but increased root P concentrations by 11–15%. Chromate reduced P transport, with more P being accumulated in PV roots. Though CrVI was supplied, 64−78% and 92−93% CrIII were in PV fronds and roots. Based on X-ray diffraction, Cr 2 O 3 was detected in the roots confirming CrVI reduction to CrIII by PV. In short, CrVI and P inhibited each other in uptake and translocation by PV, and CrVI reduction to CrIII in PV roots served as its detoxification mechanism. The finding helps to understand the interactions of P and Cr during their uptake in PV. - Highlights: • Phosphate and CrVI inhibited each other in uptake and translocation by Pteris vittata. • P. vittata was more efficient in CrVI uptake than CrIII, but little Cr being translocated to the fronds. • CrVI was provided in the media, but 64–78% and 92–93% CrIII were in the fronds and roots of P. vittata. • CrVI was taken up by P. vittata and reduced to CrIII in the roots possibly as Cr 2 O 3 . - Pteris vittata was efficient in CrVI uptake, concentrating in the roots after reducing to CrIII

  4. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Arsenic uptake, arsenite efflux and plant growth in hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Role of arsenic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-He; Fu, Jing-Wei; Chen, Yanshan; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria-mediated arsenic (As) transformation and their impacts on As and P uptake and plant growth in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) were investigated under sterile condition. All As-resistant bacteria (9 endophytic and 6 rhizospheric) were As-reducers except one As-oxidizer. After growing two months in media with 37.5 mg kg(-1) AsV, As concentrations in the fronds and roots were 3655-5389 (89-91% AsIII) and 971-1467 mg kg(-1) (41-73% AsIII), corresponding to 22-52% decrease in the As in the media. Bacterial inoculation enhanced As and P uptake by up to 47 and 69%, and PV growth by 20-74%, which may be related to elevated As and P in plants (r = 0.88-0.97, p bacteria-free media was AsIII, suggesting efficient efflux of AsIII by PV roots (120 µg g(-1) root fw). This was supported by the fact that no AsV was detected in media inoculated with As-reducers while 95% of AsV was detected with As-oxidizer. Our data showed that, under As-stress, PV reduced As toxicity by efficient AsIII efflux into media and AsIII translocation to the fronds, and bacteria benefited PV growth probably via enhanced As and P uptake. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Phytoextraction by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. from six arsenic-contaminated soils: Repeated harvests and arsenic redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Maria I.S.; Santos, Jorge A.G. [Department of Soil Chemistry, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, 44380000 (Brazil); Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, 2169 McCarty Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States)], E-mail: lqma@ifas.ufl.edu

    2008-07-15

    This greenhouse experiment evaluated arsenic removal by Pteris vittata and its effects on arsenic redistribution in soils. P. vittata grew in six arsenic-contaminated soils and its fronds were harvested and analyzed for arsenic in October, 2003, April, 2004, and October, 2004. The soil arsenic was separated into five fractions via sequential extraction. The ferns grew well and took up arsenic from all soils. Fern biomass ranged from 24.8 to 33.5 g plant{sup -1} after 4 months of growth but was reduced in the subsequent harvests. The frond arsenic concentrations ranged from 66 to 6,151 mg kg{sup -1}, 110 to 3,056 mg kg{sup -1}, and 162 to 2,139 mg kg{sup -1} from the first, second and third harvest, respectively. P. vittata reduced soil arsenic by 6.4-13% after three harvests. Arsenic in the soils was primarily associated with amorphous hydrous oxides (40-59%), which contributed the most to arsenic taken up by P. vittata (45-72%). It is possible to use P. vittata to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils by repeatedly harvesting its fronds. - Pteris vittata was effective in continuously removing arsenic from contaminated soils after three repeated harvests.

  7. Effects of compost and phosphate amendments on arsenic mobility in soils and arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Ma, Lena Q.; Shiralipour, Aziz

    2003-01-01

    Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), an arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate As-contaminated soils. This study investigated the effects of soil amendments on the leachability of As from soils and As uptake by Chinese brake fern. The ferns were grown for 12 weeks in a chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil or in As spiked contaminated (ASC) soil. Soils were treated with phosphate rock, municipal solid waste, or biosolid compost. Phosphate amendments significantly enhanced plant As uptake from the two tested soils with frond As concentrations increasing up to 265% relative to the control. After 12 weeks, plants grown in phosphate-amended soil removed >8% of soil As. Replacement of As by P from the soil binding sites was responsible for the enhanced mobility of As and subsequent increased plant uptake. Compost additions facilitated As uptake from the CCA soil, but decreased As uptake from the ASC soil. Elevated As uptake in the compost-treated CCA soil was related to the increase of soil water-soluble As and As(V) transformation into As(III). Reduced As uptake in the ASC soil may be attributed to As adsorption to the compost. Chinese brake fern took up As mainly from the iron-bound fraction in the CCA soil and from the water-soluble/exchangeable As in the ASC soil. Without ferns for As adsorption, compost and phosphate amendments increased As leaching from the CCA soil, but had decreased leaching with ferns when compared to the control. For the ASC soil, treatments reduced As leaching regardless of fern presence. This study suggest that growing Chinese brake fern in conjunction with phosphate amendments increases the effectiveness of remediating As-contaminated soils, by increasing As uptake and decreasing As leaching. - Phosphate amendment increases the effectiveness of Chinese brake fern to remediate As-contaminated soils, by increasing As uptake and decreasing As leaching

  8. Mixed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal application to improve growth and arsenic accumulation of Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) grown in As-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Ye, Z H; Cheung, K C; Yung, K K L

    2013-08-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of three types of single inoculum [indigenous mycorrhizas (IM) isolated from As mine, Glomus mosseae (GM) and Glomus intraradices (GI)] and two types of mixed inoculum (mixed with IM and either GM or GI) on the growth response of Pteris vittata (hyperaccumulator) and Cynodon dactylon (non-hyperaccumulator) at three levels of As concentrations (0, 100 and 200mgkg(-1)). Both mycorrhizal plants exhibited significantly higher biomass, and N and P accumulation in its tissue than the control. Among the mycorrhizal inoculum, the mixed inoculum IM/GM promoted substantially higher mycorrhizal colonization and arsenate reductase activity in P. vittata than C. dactylon, among all As levels. The portion of Paris arbuscular mycorrhizal structure (observed in colonized roots) together with the highest As translocation factor of 10.2 in P. vittata inoculated with IM/GM was also noted. It was deduced that IM/GM inoculum may be the best choice for field inoculation at any contaminated lands as the inoculum exhibited better adaptation to variable environmental conditions and hence benefited the host plants. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting arsenic bioavailability to hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata in arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Maria Isidória Silva; Ma, Lena Q; Pacheco, Edson Patto; dos Santos, Wallace Melo

    2012-12-01

    Using chemical extraction to evaluate plant arsenic availability in contaminated soils is important to estimate the time frame for site cleanup during phytoremediation. It is also of great value to assess As mobility in soil and its risk in environmental contamination. In this study, four conventional chemical extraction methods (water, ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphate, and Mehlich III) and a new root-exudate based method were used to evaluate As extractability and to correlate it with As accumulation in P. vittata growing in five As-contaminated soils under greenhouse condition. The relationship between different soil properties, and As extractability and plant As accumulation was also investigated. Arsenic extractability was 4.6%, 7.0%, 18%, 21%, and 46% for water, ammonium sulfate, organic acids, ammonium phosphate, and Mehlich III, respectively. Root exudate (organic acids) solution was suitable for assessing As bioavailability (81%) in the soils while Mehlich III (31%) overestimated the amount of As taken up by plants. Soil organic matter, P and Mg concentrations were positively correlated to plant As accumulation whereas Ca concentration was negatively correlated. Further investigation is needed on the effect of Ca and Mg on As uptake by P. vittata. Moreover, additional As contaminated soils with different properties should be tested.

  10. μ-XRF imaging and μ-XANES analysis of root of arsenic hyperaccumulator fern (Pteris vittata L.) by using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Nobuyuki; Onuma, Ryoko; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko

    2006-01-01

    Pteris vittata L. is known as a peculiar fern which have high performance to accumulate arsenic, a toxic heavy metal, in its plant body. This fern is expected as a strong candidate plant for a technology of phytoremediation due to its hyperaccumulation ability (over 2% arsenic concentration with dry weight basis). In this study, the distribution of arsenic in a horizontal cross-section of root was examined by μ-SR-XRF imaging, and a valence change from surface to centre of the root was revealed by the As-K edge μ-XANES spectra. All the measurements were carried out utilizing X-ray microbeam (1.1 μm x 1.3 μm) from the undulator source at BL37XU in SPring-8 (JASRI, Japan). Arsenic was detected on whole area of root tissue from surface to centre, and mainly distributed within the structure through a cell wall. A comparison of XANES spectra of the 8 points in the root tissue at high As level with those of the reference compounds (As 2 O 3 and H 3 AsO 4 ), revealed that As (V) uptaken by root was reduced to As (III) immediately, and existed as a mixture of As (III) and As (V). Furthermore, it was indicated that their ratios As (III)/As (V) increased remarkably at the boundary area between the cortex and the central cylinder. (author)

  11. Phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.: effects of frond harvesting regimes and arsenic levels in refill water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Seenivasan; Stamps, Robert H; Ma, Lena Q; Saha, Uttam K; Hernandez, Damaris; Cai, Yong; Zillioux, Edward J

    2011-01-30

    A large-scale hydroponic system to phytoremediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater using Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) was successfully tested in a field. In this 30-wk study, three frond-harvesting regimes (all, mature, and senescing fronds) and two water-refilling schemes to compensate for evapotranspiration (high-As water of 140-180 μg/L and low-As water of arsenic-contaminated groundwater and 32 ferns. During Cycle 1 and with initial As of 140 μg/L, As in tanks refilled with low-As water was reduced to phytoremediation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. PIXE study on arsenic accumulation by a fern. Pteris vittata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2010-01-01

    Pteris vittata is a fern reported to be an arsenic hyper-accumulator. To develop the practical application of the fern to a phytoremediation technique, it is necessary to explicate the effective accumulation mechanism. In this study, the arsenic distribution and the elemental correlation in the cellular level were examined in the fronds supplied with arsenate and arsenite separately via xylem vessel using an in-air micro-PIXE system at Tohoku University. The difference in transportation rate between arsenate and arsenite as well as the translocation of elements necessary for plant metabolism was revealed in different tissues of the fronds accumulating arsenic in high concentration. Hence, the in-air micro-PIXE analysis is an effective measure for undertaking phytoremediation research of hyper-accumulator plants. (author)

  13. A critical review of the arsenic uptake mechanisms and phytoremediation potential of Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Foster, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the arsenic hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern), has contributed to the promotion of its application as a means of phytoremediation for arsenic removal from contaminated soils and water. Understanding the mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance and accumulation of this plant provides valuable tools to improve the phytoremediation efficiency. In this review, the current knowledge about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of arsenic tolerance and accumulation in P. vittata is summarized, and an attempt has been made to clarify some of the unresolved questions related to these mechanisms. In addition, the capacity of P. vittata for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils is evaluated under field conditions for the first time, and possible solutions to improve the remediation capacity of Pteris vittata are also discussed.

  14. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated paddy soils with Pteris vittata markedly reduces arsenic uptake by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Wenling; Khan, M. Asaduzzaman; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao Fangjie

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in food crops such as rice is of major concern. To investigate whether phytoremediation can reduce As uptake by rice, the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was grown in five contaminated paddy soils in a pot experiment. Over a 9-month period P. vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total soil As, and decreased phosphate-extractable As and soil pore water As by 11-38% and 18-77%, respectively. Rice grown following P. vittata had significantly lower As concentrations in straw and grain, being 17-82% and 22-58% of those in the control, respectively. Phytoremediation also resulted in significant changes in As speciation in rice grain by greatly decreasing the concentration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In two soils the concentration of inorganic As in rice grain was decreased by 50-58%. The results demonstrate an effective stripping of bioavailable As from contaminated paddy soils thus reducing As uptake by rice. - Highlights: → Pteris vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total As from five contaminated paddy soils. → P. vittata decreased phosphate-extractable and soil solution As to a greater extent. → P. vittata reduced As concentration in rice grain by 18-83%. → P. vittata decreased methylated As in rice grain more than inorganic As. - Phytoremediation with P. vittata significantly reduced arsenic uptake by rice from contaminated paddy soils.

  15. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated paddy soils with Pteris vittata markedly reduces arsenic uptake by rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Wenling [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Khan, M. Asaduzzaman [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207 (Bangladesh); McGrath, Steve P. [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhao Fangjie, E-mail: Fangjie.Zhao@bbsrc.ac.uk [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in food crops such as rice is of major concern. To investigate whether phytoremediation can reduce As uptake by rice, the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was grown in five contaminated paddy soils in a pot experiment. Over a 9-month period P. vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total soil As, and decreased phosphate-extractable As and soil pore water As by 11-38% and 18-77%, respectively. Rice grown following P. vittata had significantly lower As concentrations in straw and grain, being 17-82% and 22-58% of those in the control, respectively. Phytoremediation also resulted in significant changes in As speciation in rice grain by greatly decreasing the concentration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In two soils the concentration of inorganic As in rice grain was decreased by 50-58%. The results demonstrate an effective stripping of bioavailable As from contaminated paddy soils thus reducing As uptake by rice. - Highlights: > Pteris vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total As from five contaminated paddy soils. > P. vittata decreased phosphate-extractable and soil solution As to a greater extent. > P. vittata reduced As concentration in rice grain by 18-83%. > P. vittata decreased methylated As in rice grain more than inorganic As. - Phytoremediation with P. vittata significantly reduced arsenic uptake by rice from contaminated paddy soils.

  16. Variation in arsenic, lead and zinc tolerance and accumulation in six populations of Pteris vittata L. from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, F.Y.; Leung, H.M.; Wu, S.C.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic, Pb and Zn tolerance and accumulation were investigated in six populations of Pteris vittata collected from As-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in southeast China compared with Pteris semipinnata (a non-As hyperaccumulator) in hydroponics and on As-contaminated soils. The results showed that both metallicolous and nonmetallicolous population of P. vittata possessed high-level As tolerance, and that the former exhibited higher As tolerance (but not Pb and Zn tolerance) than the latter. In hydroponic culture, nonmetallicolous population clearly showed significantly higher As concentrations in fronds than those in metallicolous populations. In pot trials, As concentrations in fronds of nonmetallicolous population ranged from 1060 to 1639 mg kg -1 , about 2.6- to 5.4-folds as those in metallicolous populations. It was concluded that As tolerance in P. vittata resulted from both constitutive and adaptive traits, Pb and Zn tolerances were constitutive properties, and that nonmetallicolous population possesses more effective As hyperaccumulation than metallicolous populations. - Nonmetallicolous population of Pteris vittata L. possesses more effective arsenic hyperaccumulation than the metallicolous populations.

  17. Variation in arsenic, lead and zinc tolerance and accumulation in six populations of Pteris vittata L. from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, F.Y.; Leung, H.M.; Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-08-15

    Arsenic, Pb and Zn tolerance and accumulation were investigated in six populations of Pteris vittata collected from As-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in southeast China compared with Pteris semipinnata (a non-As hyperaccumulator) in hydroponics and on As-contaminated soils. The results showed that both metallicolous and nonmetallicolous population of P. vittata possessed high-level As tolerance, and that the former exhibited higher As tolerance (but not Pb and Zn tolerance) than the latter. In hydroponic culture, nonmetallicolous population clearly showed significantly higher As concentrations in fronds than those in metallicolous populations. In pot trials, As concentrations in fronds of nonmetallicolous population ranged from 1060 to 1639 mg kg{sup -1}, about 2.6- to 5.4-folds as those in metallicolous populations. It was concluded that As tolerance in P. vittata resulted from both constitutive and adaptive traits, Pb and Zn tolerances were constitutive properties, and that nonmetallicolous population possesses more effective As hyperaccumulation than metallicolous populations. - Nonmetallicolous population of Pteris vittata L. possesses more effective arsenic hyperaccumulation than the metallicolous populations.

  18. Remediation of Arsenic contaminated soil using malposed intercropping of Pteris vittata L. and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Lei, En; Lei, Mei; Liu, Yanhong; Chen, Tongbin

    2018-03-01

    Intercropping of arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator and cash crops during remediation of contaminated soil has been applied in farmland remediation project. However, little is known about the fate of As fractions in the soil profile and As uptake within the intercropping plants under field condition. In this study, As removal, uptake, and translocation were investigated within an intercropping system of Pteris vittata L. (P. vittata) and maize (Zea mays). Results indicated that the concentration of As associated with amorphous Fe (hydr)oxides in the 10-20 cm soil layer was significantly lower under malposed intercropping of P. vittata and maize, and As accumulation in P. vittata and biomass of P. vittata were simultaneously higher under malposed intercropping than under coordinate intercropping, leading to a 2.4 times higher rate of As removal. Although maize roots absorbed over 13.4 mg kg -1 As and maize leaves and flowers accumulated over 21.5 mg kg -1 As (translocation factor higher than 1), grains produced in all intercropping modes accumulated lower levels of As, satisfying the standard for human consumption. Our results suggested that malposed intercropping of a hyperaccumulator and a low-accumulation cash crop was an ideal planting pattern for As remediation in soil. Furthermore, timely harvest of P. vittata, agronomic strategies during remediation, and appropriate management of the above ground parts of P. vittata and high-As tissues of cash crops may further improve remediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated paddy soils with Pteris vittata markedly reduces arsenic uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wen-Ling; Khan, M Asaduzzaman; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in food crops such as rice is of major concern. To investigate whether phytoremediation can reduce As uptake by rice, the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was grown in five contaminated paddy soils in a pot experiment. Over a 9-month period P. vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total soil As, and decreased phosphate-extractable As and soil pore water As by 11-38% and 18-77%, respectively. Rice grown following P. vittata had significantly lower As concentrations in straw and grain, being 17-82% and 22-58% of those in the control, respectively. Phytoremediation also resulted in significant changes in As speciation in rice grain by greatly decreasing the concentration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In two soils the concentration of inorganic As in rice grain was decreased by 50-58%. The results demonstrate an effective stripping of bioavailable As from contaminated paddy soils thus reducing As uptake by rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness and salt stress of Pteris vittata in the remediation of arsenic contamination caused by tsunami sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Endo, Ginro; Hatayama, Masayoshi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, one of the negative effects of the tsunami phenomenon that devastated the Pacific coast of the Tohoku district in Japan was the deposition of a wide range of arsenic (As) contamination to the soil. To remediate such a huge area of contamination, phytoremediation by Pteris vittata, an As-hyperaccumulator, was considered. To evaluate the efficacy of applying P. vittata to the area, the salt tolerance of P. vittata and the phytoextraction of As from soil samples were investigated. For the salt tolerance test, spore germination was considerably decreased at an NaCl level of more than 100 mM. At 200 mM, the gametophytes exhibited a morphological defect. Furthermore, the growth inhibition of P. vittata was observed with a salinity that corresponded to 66.2 mS/m of electric conductivity (EC) in the soil. A laboratory phytoremediation experiment was conducted using As-contaminated soils for 166 days. P. vittata grew and accumulated As at 264 mg/kg-DW into the shoots. Consequently, the soluble As in the soil was evidently decreased. These results showed that P. vittata was applicable to the phytoremediation of As-contaminated soil with low salinity as with the contamination caused by the 2011 tsunami.

  1. Timing of phosphate application affects arsenic phytoextraction by Pteris vittata L. of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jorge A.G.; Gonzaga, Maria I.S. [Department of Soil Chemistry, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, 44380000 (Brazil); Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States)], E-mail: lqma@ufl.edu; Srivastava, M. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The effects of timing in phosphate application on plant growth and arsenic removal by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. of different ages were evaluated. The hydroponic experiment consisted of three plant ages (A{sub 45d}, A{sub 90d} and A{sub 180d}) and three P feeding regimens (P{sub 200+0}, P{sub 134+66} and P{sub 66+134}) growing for 45 d in 0.2-strength Hoagland-Arnon solution containing 145 {mu}g L{sup -1} As. While all plants received 200 {mu}M P, P was added in two phases: during acclimation and after arsenic exposure. High initial P-supply (P{sub 200+0}) favored frond biomass production and plant P uptake, while split-P application (P{sub 134+66} and P{sub 66+134}) favored plant root production. Single P addition favored arsenic accumulation in the roots while split-P addition increased frond arsenic accumulation. Young ferns (A{sub 45d}) in treatment P{sub 134+66} were the most efficient in arsenic removal, reducing arsenic concentration to below 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} in 35 d. The results indicated that the use of young ferns, coupled with feeding of low initial P or split-P application, increased the efficiency of arsenic removal by P. vittata. - Young ferns coupled with split-P application were effective in arsenic removal by Pteris vittata.

  2. Phytoremediation potential of Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana and Pteris vittata L. grown at a highly variable arsenic contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Singh, Balwant; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Kachenko, Anthony George

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the phytoextraction potential of two arsenic (As) hyperaccumulators, Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana at a historical As-contaminated cattle dip site in northern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Total As concentration in the surface soil (0-20 cm) showed a better spatial structure than phosphate-extractable As in the surface and sub-surface soil at this site. P. calomelanos var. austroamericana produced greater frond dry biomass (mean = 130 g plant(-1)) than P. vittata (mean = 81 g plant(-1)) after 10 months of growth. Arsenic concentration and uptake in fronds were also significantly higher in P. calomelanos var. austroamericana (means = 887 mg kg(-1) and 124 mg plant(-1)) than in P. vittata (means = 674 mg kg(-1) and 57 mg plant(-1)). Our results showed that under the field conditions and highly variable soil As at the site, P. calomelanos var. austroamericana performed better than P. vittata. We predict that P. calomelanos var. austroamericana would take approximately 100 years to reduce the total As to below 20 mg kg(-1) at the site compared to > or =200 years estimated for P. vittata. However, long-term data are required to confirm these observations under field conditions.

  3. Catecholate-siderophore produced by As-resistant bacterium effectively dissolved FeAsO_4 and promoted Pteris vittata growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xue; Yang, Guang-Mei; Guan, Dong-Xing; Ghosh, Piyasa; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of siderophore produced by arsenic-resistant bacterium Pseudomonas PG12 on FeAsO_4 dissolution and plant growth were examined. Arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was grown for 7 d in 0.2-strength Fe-free Hoagland solution containing FeAsO_4 mineral and PG12-siderophore or fungal-siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB). Standard siderophore assays indicated that PG12-siderophore was catecholate-type. PG12-siderophore was more effective in promoting FeAsO_4 dissolution, and Fe and As plant uptake than DFOB. Media soluble Fe and As in PG12 treatment were 34.6 and 3.07 μM, 1.6- and 1.4-fold of that in DFOB. Plant Fe content increased from 2.93 to 6.24 g kg"−"1 in the roots and As content increased from 14.3 to 78.5 mg kg"−"1 in the fronds. Besides, P. vittata in PG12 treatment showed 2.6-times greater biomass than DFOB. While P. vittata fronds in PG12 treatment were dominated by AsIII, those in DFOB treatment were dominated by AsV (61–77%). This study showed that siderophore-producing arsenic-resistant rhizobacteria may have potential in enhancing phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils. - Graphical abstract: As-induced root exudate phytate enhanced FeAsO_4 dissolution, and As uptake and plant growth of Pteris vittata. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Arsenic-resistant rhizobacterium Pseudomonas PG12 was from rhizosphere of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. • PG12 was effective in producing catecholate-type siderophore with high affinity with Fe. • PG12-produced siderophore increased Fe and As uptake and growth in P. vittata. - Siderophores produced by arsenic-resistant bacteria were effective in solubilizing FeAsO_4 mineral and enhancing plant growth of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

  4. Arsenic speciation for the phytoremediation by the Chinese brake fern, Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, R; Yajima, R; Yano, Y

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic (As) speciation for the phytoremediation by the Chinese brake fern was studied. In particular, the mechanism of how plants induce compounds containing thiol (SH) and proteins by As exposure in terms of the relationship between As and phosphate uptaken into plant cells was examined. Pteris vittata callus could efficiently reduce As(V) to As(III) by the rapid introduction of reductase and synthesize thiols leading to phytochelatins production. Furthermore, Pteris vittata could control phosphate concentration in the cells corresponding to the concentration of arsenite and arsenate. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to show the mechanisms of such high As tolerance of Pteris vittata using their callus in terms of in vitro approach for the analysis of As speciation and metabolism route.

  5. Impact of metal stress on the production of secondary metabolites in Pteris vittata L. and associated rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoang Nam; Michalet, Serge; Bodillis, Josselin; Nguyen, Tien Dat; Nguyen, Thi Kieu Oanh; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Haddad, Mohamed; Nazaret, Sylvie; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève

    2017-07-01

    Plants adapt to metal stress by modifying their metabolism including the production of secondary metabolites in plant tissues. Such changes may impact the diversity and functions of plant associated microbial communities. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of metals on the secondary metabolism of plants and the indirect impact on rhizosphere bacterial communities. We then compared the secondary metabolites of the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. collected from a contaminated mining site to a non-contaminated site in Vietnam and identified the discriminant metabolites. Our data showed a significant increase in chlorogenic acid derivatives and A-type procyanidin in plant roots at the contaminated site. We hypothesized that the intensive production of these compounds could be part of the antioxidant defense mechanism in response to metals. In parallel, the structure and diversity of bulk soil and rhizosphere communities was studied using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed strong differences in bacterial composition, characterized by the dominance of Proteobacteria and Nitrospira in the contaminated bulk soil, and the enrichment of some potential human pathogens, i.e., Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium, and Cupriavidus in P. vittata's rhizosphere at the mining site. Overall, metal pollution modified the production of P. vittata secondary metabolites and altered the diversity and structure of bacterial communities. Further investigations are needed to understand whether the plant recruits specific bacteria to adapt to metal stress.

  6. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. II. Effect on arsenic uptake and rice yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asit; Purakayastha, T J; Patra, A K; Sanyal, S K

    2012-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment evaluated the effect of phytoextraction of arsenic from a contaminated soil by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) and its subsequent effects on growth and uptake of arsenic by rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop. Pteris vittata was grown for one or two growing cycles of four months each with two phosphate sources, using single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Rice was grown on phytoextracted soils followed by measurements of biomass yield (grain, straw, and root), arsenic concentration and, uptake by individual plant parts. The biomass yield (grain, straw and rice) of rice was highest in soil phytoextracted with Pteris vittata grown for two cycles and fertilized with diammonium phosphate (DAP). Total arsenic uptake in contaminated soil ranged from 8.2 to 16.9 mg pot(-1) in first growing cycle and 5.5 to 12.0 mg pot(-1) in second growing cycle of Pteris vittata. There was thus a mean reduction of 52% in arsenic content of rice grain after two growing cycle of Pteris vittata and 29% after the one growing cycle. The phytoextraction of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata was beneficial for growing rice resulted in decreased arsenic content in rice grain of <1 ppm. There was a mean improvement in rice grain yield 14% after two growing cycle and 8% after the one growing cycle of brake fern.

  7. Pteris vittata - Revisited: Uptake of As and its speciation, impact of P, role of phytochelatins and S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterlein, Doris; Wesenberg, Dirk; Nathan, Petra; Braeutigam, Anja; Schierhorn, Angelika; Mattusch, Juergen; Jahn, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    Pteris vittata is known to hyperaccumulate As but the mechanism is poorly understood. We found an increase of As concentration with increasing soil solution As concentrations, but P application had no impact, although plant P concentrations responded to different rates of P supply. As in fronds was dominantly (82-89%) present in the form of AsIII. In roots we detected 45% as AsIII which is higher than reported in previous studies and supports substantial As-reduction to take place in roots. We detected PC2/3GS-AsIII, PC2-GS-AsIII and (PC2)2-AsIII in increasing amounts with application of As. The total amount of PC was in the range reported previously and far too small to assign a significant role in As detoxification to PCs. The close correlation between S and As in fronds and the lack of data on sulphur uptake and metabolism indicates the need for a detailed investigation on sulphur nutritional status and As metabolism in P. vittata. - As-PC complexes were detected in increasing amounts with increasing As availability, but total amounts were small and do not explain the close correlation between S and As in fronds.

  8. Uptake and accumulation of arsenic by 11 Pteris taxa from southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.B. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lan, C.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Baker, A.J.M. [School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); Qin, Y.R. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Shu, W.S. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, G.Z. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: lsdyzhh@zsu.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    A field survey was conducted at a deserted arsenic (As) mine in Guangxi Province, China to explore new potential As hyperaccumulators. In addition, young plants of 11 Pteris taxa were grown in glasshouse conditions for 12 weeks on As-amended soils with 0, 50 and 200 mg As kg{sup -1}. Results of the field survey showed that the fern Pteris fauriei accumulated over 1000 mg As kg{sup -1} in its fronds. Of the 11 Pteris taxa, Pteris aspericaulis, Pteris cretica var. nervosa, P. fauriei, Pteris multifida, P. multifida f. serrulata, and Pteris oshimensis were all found to hyperaccumulate As in addition to P. cretica 'Albo-Lineata' and Pteris vittata (already reported as As hyperaccumulators). However, Pteris ensiformis, Pteris semipinnata and Pteris setuloso-costulata showed no evidence of As hyperaccumulation. Results also revealed a constitutive property of As hyperaccumulation in different populations of P. cretica var. nervosa, P. multifida, P. oshimensis and P. vittata. - Eight Pteris taxa show the ability to hyperaccumulate As under glasshouse conditions.

  9. Bio-oil production from hydrothermal liquefaction of Pteris vittata L.: Effects of operating temperatures and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinbo

    2018-06-14

    Hyper-accumulator biomass, Pteris vittata L., was hydrothermally converted into bio-oils via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in sub-supercritical water. The distributions and characterizations of various products as well as energy recovery under different temperatures (250-390 °C) were investigated. The highest bio-oil yield of 16.88% was obtained at 350 °C with the hydrothermal conversion of 61.79%, where the bio-oil was dominated by alcohols, esters, phenols, ketones and acidic compounds. The higher heating values of bio-oil were in the range of 19.93-35.45 MJ/kg with a H/C ratio of 1.26-1.46, illustrating its high energy density and potential for use as an ideal liquid fuel. The main gaseous products were CO 2 , H 2 , CO, and CH 4 with the H 2 yield peaking at 22.94%. The total energy recovery from bio-oils and solid residues fell within the range of 37.72-45.10%, highlighting the potential of HTL to convert hyper-accumulator biomass into valuable fuels with high conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cultivation conditions on the uptake of arsenite and arsenic chemical species accumulated by Pteris vittata in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Masayoshi; Sato, Takahiko; Shinoda, Kozo; Inoue, Chihiro

    2011-03-01

    The physiological responses of the arsenic-hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata, such as arsenic uptake and chemical transformation in the fern, have been investigated. However, a few questions remain regarding arsenic treatment in hydroponics. Incubation conditions such as aeration, arsenic concentration, and incubation period might affect those responses of P. vittata in hydroponics. Arsenite uptake was low under anaerobic conditions, as previously reported. However, in an arsenite uptake experiment, phosphorous (P) starvation-dependent uptake of arsenate was observed under aerobic conditions. Time course-dependent analysis of arsenite oxidation showed that arsenite was gradually oxidized to arsenate during incubation. Arsenite oxidation was not observed in any of the control conditions, such as exposure to a nutrient solution or to culture medium only, or with the use of dried root; arsenite oxidation was only observed when live root was used. This result suggests that sufficient aeration allows the rhizosphere system to oxidize arsenite and enables the fern to efficiently take up arsenite as arsenate. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses showed that long-duration exposure to arsenic using a hydroponic system led to the accumulation of arsenate as the dominant species in the root tips, but not in the whole roots, partly because up-regulation of arsenate uptake by P starvation of the fern was caused and retained by long-time incubation. Analysis of concentration-dependent arsenate uptake by P. vittata showed that the uptake switched from a high-affinity transport system to a low-affinity system at high arsenate concentrations, which partially explains the increased arsenate abundance in the whole root. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Fluoride on Arsenic Uptake from Arsenic-Contaminated Groundwater using Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junying; Guo, Huaming; Ma, Jie; Shen, Zhaoli

    2015-01-01

    High-arsenic groundwater in inland basins usually contains high concentrations of fluoride. In the present study, the effects of fluoride on arsenic uptake by Pteris vittata and on arsenic transformation in growth media were investigated under greenhouse conditions. After P. vittata was hydroponically exposed to 66.8 μM As (V) in the presence of 1.05 mM F- in the form of NaF, KF, or NaF+KF for 10 d, no visible toxicity symptoms were observed, and there were not significant differences in the dry biomass among the four treatments. The results showed that P. vittata tolerated F- concentrations as high as 1.05 mM but did not accumulate fluoride in their own tissues. Arsenic uptake was inhibited in the presence of 1.05 mM F-. However, in hydroponic batches with 60 μM As (III) or 65 μM As (V), it was found that 210.6 and 316.0 μM F(-) promoted arsenic uptake. As(III) was oxidized to As(V) in the growth media in the presence and absence of plants, and F- had no effect on the rate of As(III) transformation. These experiments demonstrated that P. vittata was a good candidate to remediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater in the presence of fluoride. Our results can be used to develop strategies to remediate As-F-contaminated water using P. vittata.

  12. Selecting appropriate forms of nitrogen fertilizer to enhance soil arsenic removal by Pteris vittata: a new approach in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chen, Tong-Bin; Xiao, Xi-Yuan; Xie, Hua; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhai, Li-Mei; Wu, Bin

    2007-01-01

    Certain plant species have been shown to vigorously accumulate some metals from soil, and thus represent promising and effective remediation alternatives. In order to select the optimum forms of nitrogen (N) fertilizers for the arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata L., to maximize As extraction, five forms of N were added individually to different treatments to study the effect of N forms on As uptake of the plants under soil culture in a greenhouse. Although shoot As concentration tended to decrease and As translocation from root to shoot was inhibited, overall As accumulation was greater due to higher biomass when N fertilizer was added. Arsenic accumulation in plants with N fertilization was 100-300% more than in the plants without N fertilization. There were obvious differences in plant biomass and As accumulation among the N forms, i.e., NH4HCO3, (NH4)2S04, Ca(NO3)2, KNO3, urea. The total As accumulation in the plants grown in As-supplied soil, under different forms of N fertilizer, decreased as NH4HCO3>(NH4)2S04 > urea > Ca(NO3)2 >KNO3>CK. The plants treated with N and As accumulated up to 5.3-7.97 mg As/pot and removed 3.7-5.5% As from the soils, compared to approximately 2.3% of As removal in the control. NH4+ -N was apparently more effective than other N fertilizers in stimulating As removal when soil was supplied with As at initiation. No significant differences in available As were found among different forms of N fertilizer after phytoremediation. It is concluded that NH4+ -N was the preferable fertilizer for P. vittata to maximize As removal.

  13. Phytoextraction of arsenic-contaminated soil with Pteris vittata in Henan Province, China: comprehensive evaluation of remediation efficiency correcting for atmospheric depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mei; Wan, Xiaoming; Guo, Guanghui; Yang, Junxing; Chen, Tongbin

    2018-01-01

    Research on the appropriate method for evaluating phytoremediation efficiency is limited. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate phytoremediation efficiency using the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata on an arsenic (As)-contaminated site. The remediation efficiency was evaluated through the removal rate of As in soils and extraction rate of heavy metals in plants. After 2 years of remediation, the concentration of total As in soils decreased from 16.27 mg kg -1 in 2012 to 14.58 mg kg -1 in 2014. The total remediation efficiency of As was 10.39% in terms of the removal rate of heavy metals calculated for soils, whereas the remediation efficiency calculated from As uptake by P. vittata was 16.09%. Such a discrepancy aroused further consideration on the potential input of As. A large amount of As was brought in by atmospheric emissions, which possibly biased the calculation of remediation efficiency. In fact, considering also the atmospheric depositions of As, the corrected removal rate of As from soil was 16.57%. Therefore, the results of this work suggest that (i) when evaluating the phytoextraction efficiency, the whole input and output cycle of the element of interest in the targeted ecosystem must be considered, and (ii) P. vittata has the potential to be used to remediate As-contaminated soils in Henan Province, China.

  14. Arsenic uptake by lettuce from As-contaminated soil remediated with Pteris vittata and organic amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Suchismita, Das; Gress, Julia; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-06-01

    Leaching of inorganic arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil As levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding As accumulation in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the ability of As-hyperaccumulator P. vittata and organic amendments in reducing As uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from a soil contaminated from CCA-treated wood (63.9 mg kg -1 As). P. vittata was grown for 150 d in a CCA-contaminated soil amended with biochar, activated carbon or coffee grounds at 1%, followed by lettuce for another 55 d. After harvest, plant biomass and As concentrations in plant and soil were determined. The presence of P. vittata reduced As content in lettuce by 21% from 27.3 to 21.5 mg kg -1 while amendment further reduced As in lettuce by 5.6-18%, with activated C being most effective. Our data showed that both P. vittata and organic amendments were effective in reducing As concentration in lettuce. Though no health-based standard for As in vegetables exists in USA, care should be taken when growing lettuce in contaminated soils. Our data showed that application of organic amendments with P. vittata reduced As hazards in CCA-contaminated soils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. I. Influence of phosphatic fertilizers and repeated harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asit; Purakayastha, T J; Patra, A K; Sanyal, S K

    2012-12-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of diammonium phosphate (DAP), single superphosphate (SSP) and two growing cycles on arsenic removal by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) from an arsenic contaminated Typic Haplustept of the Indian state of West Bengal. After harvest of Pteris vittata the total, Olsen's extractable and other five soil arsenic fractions were determined. The total biomass yield of P. vittata ranged from 10.7 to 16.2 g pot(-1) in first growing cycle and from 7.53 to 11.57 g pot(-1) in second growing cycle. The frond arsenic concentrations ranged from 990 to 1374 mg kg(-1) in first growing cycle and from 875 to 1371 mg kg(-1) in second growing cycle. DAP was most efficient in enhancing biomass yield, frond and root arsenic concentrations and total arsenic removal from soil. After first growing cycle, P. vittata reduced soil arsenic by 10 to 20%, while after two growing cycles Pteris reduced it by 18 to 34%. Among the different arsenic fractions, Fe-bound arsenic dominated over other fractions. Two successive harvests with DAP as the phosphate fertilizer emerged as the promising management strategy for amelioration of arsenic contaminated soil of West Bengal through phyotoextraction by P. vittata.

  16. Influence of amendments on soil arsenic fractionation and phytoavailability by Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiulan; Zhang, Min; Liao, Xiaoyong; Tu, Shuxin

    2012-06-01

    Increasing availability of soil arsenic is of significance for accelerating phytoremediation efficiency of As-polluted sites. The effects of seven amendments, i.e., citrate, oxalate, EDTA, sodium polyacrylate (SPA), phosphate rock (PR), single superphosphate (SSP), and compost on fractionation and phytoavailability of soil As were investigated in lab culture experiment. The results showed that the addition of PR, SPA, EDTA or compost to soils significantly increased the concentration of NaHCO(3)-extractable As over a 120 d incubation period compared with the control (amendment-free) soil. Then, the four amendments were selected to add to As-contaminated soil growing Pteris vittata. It was concluded that As accumulation by the fern increased significantly under the treatments of PR and SPA by 25% and 31%, respectively. For As fractionation in soil, SPA increased Fe-As significantly by 51% and PR increased Ca-As significantly by 18%, while both the two amendments reduced occluded-As by 16% and 19%, respectively. Adding PR and SPA in soil increased the activities of urease and neutral phosphatase resulting from the improvement the fertility and physical structure of the soil, which benefits plant growth and As absorption of P. vittata. The results of the research revealed that both PR and SPA were effective amendments for improving phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites by P. vittata. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of the dietary arsenic exposures from ingestion of contaminated soil and hyperaccumulating Pteris ferns used in a residential phytoremediation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen; Hatfield, Sarah; Nagarajan, Vinay; Blaylock, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) hyperaccumulating ferns are used to phytoremediate As-contaminated soils, including soils in residential areas. This use may pose a health risk if children were to ingest these plants. Spider brake (Pteris cretica L.) plants were grown in sand spiked with arsenate, to produce tissue As concentrations (2000-4500 mg kg DW(-1)) typical of those observed in plants deployed for As phytoremediation. The fronds were subjected to a physiologically-based extraction test to estimate As bioaccessibility, which ranged from 3.4-20.5%. A scenario for human dietary exposure to As in an urban setting was then estimated for a child consuming 0.25 g DW of tissue. The calculation of dietary exposure took into account the As concentration in the fern pinnae, the bioaccessibility of As in the tissue, and the typical absorption of inorganic As by the gastrointestinal tract. The pinnae As concentrations and the calculated dietary exposures were used to create a non-linear regression model relating tissue As concentration to dietary exposure. Data from a phytoremediation project in a residential area using Pteris cretica and Pteris vittata (L.) were input into this model to project dietary As exposure in a residential phytoremediation setting. These exposures were compared to estimates of dietary As exposure from the consumption of soil. The results showed that dietary exposures to As from consumption of soil or pinnae tissue were similar and that estimates of dietary exposure were below the LOAEL value of 14 microg As kg(-1) d(-1). The results suggest that the hyperaccumulation of As in Pteris ferns during growth in moderately contaminated residential soils (e.g., < or = 100 mg As kg DW(-1)) does not represent an inherent risk or a risk substantially different from that posed by accidental ingestion of contaminated soil.

  18. Phytoremediation of an arsenic-contaminated site using Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana: a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Singh, Balwant; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Kachenko, Anthony George

    2012-09-01

    This field study investigated the phytoremediation potential of two arsenic (As) hyperaccumulating fern species, Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana and Pteris vittata over 27-month duration at a disused As-contaminated cattle-dip site located at Wollongbar, NSW, Australia. Ferns planted in January 2009 were harvested following 10, 22 and 27 months of growth. A detailed soil sampling was undertaken in June 2009 (initial, n = 42 per plot) and limited sampling in April 2011 (after 27 months, n = 15 per plot) to measure total and phosphate-extractable As concentrations in soil at 0 - 20-, 20 - 40- and 40 - 60-cm depths. The choice of the limited number of samples was considered sufficient to estimate the changes in soil As concentration following phytoremediation based on a geostatistical model. The average frond dry biomass, As concentration and As uptake were significantly (P  0.05), respectively, by P. vittata. Our results show that phytoremediation time based on observed changes in soil As based on limited sampling is not reliable; hence, it is recommended that the frond As uptake should be considered in order to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of the two fern species at the experimental site. Using As uptake of the two fern species, we estimate that with P. calomelanos var. austroamericana it would take 55 - 125 years to decrease mean total As content below the ecological investigation level (20 mg kg(-1)) in the surface and subsurface soils, whereas with P. vittata 143 - 412 years would be required to achieve this target.

  19. Potential of Pteris vittata L. for phytoremediation of sites co-contaminated with cadmium and arsenic: the tolerance and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiyuan; Chen, Tongbin; An, Zhizhuang; Lei, Mei; Huang, Zechun; Liao, Xiaoyong; Liu, Yingru

    2008-01-01

    Field investigation and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the tolerance of Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake) to cadmium (Cd) and its feasibility for remediating sites co-contaminated with Cd and arsenic (As). The results showed that P. vittata could survive in pot soils spiked with 80 mg/kg of Cd and tolerated as great as 301 mg/kg of total Cd and 26.8 mg/kg of diethyltriaminepenta acetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd under field conditions. The highest concentration of Cd in fronds was 186 mg/kg under a total soil concentration of 920 mg As/kg and 98.6 mg Cd/kg in the field, whereas just 2.6 mg/kg under greenhouse conditions. Ecotypes of P. vittata were differentiated in tolerance and accumulation of Cd, and some of them could not only tolerate high concentrations of soil Cd, but also accumulated high concentrations of Cd in their fronds. Arsenic uptake and transportation by P. vittata was not inhibited at lower levels (< or = 20 mg/kg) of Cd addition. Compared to the treatment without addition of Cd, the frond As concentration was increased by 103.8% at 20 mg Cd/kg, with the highest level of 6434 mg/kg. The results suggested that the Cd-tolerant ecotype of P. vittata extracted effectively As and Cd from the site co-contaminated with Cd and As, and might be used to remediate and revegetate this type of site.

  20. Arsenic Accumulation by Pteris vittata L. in Two Chemically Variant Soils Treated with Arsenical Pesticides - Greenhouse Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapong, C.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic elements present in the environment. Over the years, arsenic has found its way to the environment due to its extensive use in agriculture and in industrial practices as pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes and coal combustion ash, all of which are of great environmental concern. Arsenic contamination affects biological activities because it is a carcinogen and a mutagen, which has detrimental effects on the immune system of animals. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils has become a major environmental issue in the recent years. Several physical and chemical treatment methods, such as soil washing, co-precipitation, and excavation, have used to remediate As, but all of these methods are rather expensive and can disturb soil physiology and ecology. Phytoremediation, a plant based technology for the removal of toxic contaminants from soil and water is an attractive approach. Of late, this technology has received a high degree of attention from the scientific community because it is environment-friendly and also because of its tremendous cost efficiency compared to the conventional methods. Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) is a known arsenic hyperaccumulator that is being used extensively at present to remove As from soils. However, the degree of efficiency of this plant in accumulating As is likely to be a function of the soil properties. The objective of the reported study was to investigate arsenic uptake by Chinese Brake Fern in As-contaminated soils from the Immokalee (acid sand with minimal As-retention potential) and Millhopper series (sandy loam with high Fe/Al content, hence, high As-retention potential). A greenhouse experiment was designed to evaluate the effects on As uptake by Chinese Brake Fern at two pesticide application rates: 225 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg As in two chemical forms, namely sodium arsenate (AsV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Each treatment was replicated three times in

  1. Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nandita [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Ma, Lena Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.ed [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Vu, Joseph C. [Chemistry Research Unit, CMAVE, USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL 32608-1069 and Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0500 (United States); Raj, Anshita [Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2009-08-15

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of four-month old Pteris vittata (arsenic - hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-arsenic--hyperaccumulator) plants. The arsenic treatments (0, 150, and 300 muM as sodium arsenate) in hydroponics had adverse effects on the root and frond dry weights, and this effect was more evident in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of arsenate-treated plants were reduced more in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. This effect was accompanied by similar decreases in tissue NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Therefore, this decrease is interpreted as being indirect, i.e., the consequence of the reduced NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake and translocation in the plants. The study shows the difference in the tolerance level of the two Pteris species with varying sensitivity to arsenic. - Arsenic reduced the activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase more in Pteris ensiformis than Pteris vittata.

  2. Interactions between Pteris vittata L. genotypes and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium (Alcaligenes sp.) in arsenic uptake and PAH-dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Zhu, Ganghui; Liao, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiulan

    2017-11-01

    The effects of two Pteris vittata L. accessions and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium (Alcaligenes sp.) on arsenic (As) uptake and phenanthrene dissipation were studied. The Alcaligenes sp. survived in the rhizosphere and improved soil As bioavailability with co-exposure. However, bacterial inoculation altered Pteris vittata L. stress tolerance, and substantially affected the As distribution in the rhizosphere of the two P. vittata accessions. Bacterial inoculation was beneficial to protect the Guangxi accession against the toxic effects, and significantly increased plant As and phenanthrene removal ratios by 27.8% and 2.89%, respectively. In contrast, As removal was reduced by 29.8% in the Hunan accession, when compared with corresponding non-inoculated treatments. We conclude that plant genotype selection is critically important for successful microorganism-assisted phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with As and PAHs, and appropriate genotype selection may enhance remediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of arsenic resistant endophytic bacteria from Pteris vittata roots and characterization for arsenic remediation application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sarita; Sarangi, Bijaya Ketan; Thul, Sanjog T

    2016-09-15

    Mitigation of arsenic (As) pollution is a topical environmental issue of high R&D priority. The present investigation was carried out to isolate As resistant endophytes from the roots of Indian ecotype Pteris vittata and characterize their As transformation and tolerance ability, plant growth promoting characteristics and their role to facilitate As uptake by the plant. A total of 8 root endophytes were isolated from plants grown in As amended soil (25 mg As kg(-1)). These isolates were studied for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), arsenite As(III) - arsenate As(V) transformation ability, plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics through siderophore, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphatase, ACC deaminase activity, and presence of arsenite oxidase (aox) and arsenite transporter (arsB) genes. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis, these isolates belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes families under the genera Bacillus, Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Rhizobium. All isolates were found As tolerant, of which one isolates showed highest tolerance up to 1000 mg L(-1) concentration in SLP medium. Five isolates were IAA positive with highest IAA production up to 60 mg/L and two isolates exhibited siderophore activity. Phosphatase activity was shown by only one isolate while ACC deaminase activity was absent in all the isolates. The As transformation study by silver nitrate test showed that only two strains had dual characteristics of As(III) oxidation and As (V) reduction, four strains exhibited either of the characteristics while other two didn't confirmed any of the two characteristics. Presence of aox gene was detected in two strains and arsB gene in six isolates. The strain with highest As tolerance also showed highest IAA production and occurrence of arsB gene. Present investigation may open up further scope of utilizing these endophytes for up gradation of phytoextraction process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. The extent of arsenic and of metal uptake by aboveground tissues of Pteris vittata and Cyperus involucratus growing in copper- and cobalt-rich tailings of the Zambian copperbelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříbek, Bohdan; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sracek, Ondra; Knésl, Ilja; Ettler, Vojtěch; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2011-08-01

    The extent of arsenic (As) and metal accumulation in fronds of the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) and in leaves of Cyperus involucratus, which grow on the surface of an old flotation tailings pond in the Zambian Copperbelt province, was studied. The tailings consist of two types of material with distinct chemical composition: (1) reddish-brown tailings rich in As, iron (Fe), and other metals, and (2) grey-green tailings with a lower content of As, Fe, and other metals, apart from manganese (Mn). P. vittata accumulates from 2350 to 5018 μg g(-1) As (total dry weight [dw]) in its fronds regardless of different total and plant-available As concentrations in both types of tailings. Concentrations of As in C. involucratus leaves are much lower (0.24-30.3 μg g(-1) dw). Contents of copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) in fronds of P. vittata (151-237 and 18-38 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) and in leaves of C. involucratus (96-151 and 9-14 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) are high, whereas concentrations of other metals (Fe, Mn, and zinc [Zn]) are low and comparable with contents of the given metals in common plants. Despite great differences in metal concentrations in the two types of deposited materials, concentrations of most metals in plant tissues are very similar. This indicates an exclusion or avoidance mechanism operating when concentrations of the metals in substrate are particularly high. The results of the investigation show that Chinese brake fern is not only a hyperaccumulator of As but has adapted itself to high concentrations of Cu and Co in flotation tailings of the Zambian Copperbelt.

  5. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lu; Yan Xiulan; Liao Xiaoyong; Wen Yi; Chong Zhongyi; Liang Tao

    2011-01-01

    The interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on plant uptake and antioxidative response of Pteris vitatta L. were studied hydroponically. The combination of arsenic and phenanthrene decreased arsenic contents in fronds by 30-51%, whereas increased arsenic concentrations 1.2-1.6 times in roots, demonstrating the suppression of arsenic translocation compared to the corresponding treatment without phenanthrene. Under the co-exposure, As(III) concentrations in fronds deceased by 12-73%, and at higher arsenic exposure level (≥10 mg/L), As(V) in fronds and As(III) in roots increased compared to the single arsenic treatment. Arsenic exposure elevated phenanthrene concentrations in root by 39-164%. The co-existence of arsenic and phenanthrene had little impact on plant arsenic accumulation, although synergistic effect on antioxidants was observed, suggesting the special physiological process of P. vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination. - Highlights: → Pteris vitatta L. show tolerance to the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure. → P. vitatta efficiently accumulate arsenic and simultaneously enhance phenanthrene dissipation. → Phenanthrene suppresses arsenic translocation from roots to fronds. → Phenanthrene causes As(III) elevation in roots while reduction in fronds. → Synergistic effect potentiates the toxicity and antioxidants in plant. - Pteris vitatta L. not only efficiently accumulate arsenic but also enhance phenanthrene dissipation under the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure.

  6. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lu [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan Xiulan [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Liao Xiaoyong, E-mail: liaoxy@igsnrr.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Wen Yi; Chong Zhongyi; Liang Tao [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on plant uptake and antioxidative response of Pteris vitatta L. were studied hydroponically. The combination of arsenic and phenanthrene decreased arsenic contents in fronds by 30-51%, whereas increased arsenic concentrations 1.2-1.6 times in roots, demonstrating the suppression of arsenic translocation compared to the corresponding treatment without phenanthrene. Under the co-exposure, As(III) concentrations in fronds deceased by 12-73%, and at higher arsenic exposure level ({>=}10 mg/L), As(V) in fronds and As(III) in roots increased compared to the single arsenic treatment. Arsenic exposure elevated phenanthrene concentrations in root by 39-164%. The co-existence of arsenic and phenanthrene had little impact on plant arsenic accumulation, although synergistic effect on antioxidants was observed, suggesting the special physiological process of P. vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination. - Highlights: > Pteris vitatta L. show tolerance to the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure. > P. vitatta efficiently accumulate arsenic and simultaneously enhance phenanthrene dissipation. > Phenanthrene suppresses arsenic translocation from roots to fronds. > Phenanthrene causes As(III) elevation in roots while reduction in fronds. > Synergistic effect potentiates the toxicity and antioxidants in plant. - Pteris vitatta L. not only efficiently accumulate arsenic but also enhance phenanthrene dissipation under the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure.

  7. The contents of free amino acids and elements in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica and non-hyperaccumulator Pteris straminea during reversible senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlík, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 10 (2017), s. 455-460 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-10591S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arsenic accumulation * vittata l. * stress * metabolism * responses * contamination * plants * ferns * metallophytes * anabolic and catabolic processes * stress metabolism plants * nitrogen assimilation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides OBOR OECD: Bioremediation, diagnostic biotechnologies (DNA chips and biosensing devices) in environmental management Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2016

  8. A significant positive correlation between endogenous trans-zeatin content and total arsenic in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica var. nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Qinchun; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Yanyan

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the content of endogenous trans-zeatin (Z), plant arsenic (As) uptake and physiological indices in the fronds of As-hyperaccumulator (Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and non-hyperaccumulator (Pteris ensiformis). Furthermore, a stepwise regression method was used to study the relationship among determined indices, and the time-course effect of main indices was also investigated under 100mg/kg As stress with time extension. In the 100-200mg/kg As treatments, plant height showed no significant difference and endogenous Z content significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa compared to the control, but a significant decrease of height and endogenous Z was observed in P. ensiformis. The concentrations of As (III) and As (V) increased significantly in the fronds of two plants, but this increase was much higher in P. cretica var. nervosa. Compared to the control, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein were significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa but decreased in P. ensiformis in the 200mg/kg As treatment, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the contents of endogenous Z and total As in P. cretica var. nervosa, but such a correlation was not found in P. ensiformis. Additionally, in the time-course effect experiment, a peak value of each index was appeared in the 43rd day in two plants, except for chlorophyll in P. ensiformis, but this value was significantly higher in P. cretica var. nervosa than that in P. ensiformis. In conclusion, a higher endogenous Z content contributed to As accumulation of P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Promotion of arsenic phytoextraction efficiency in the fern Pteris vittata by the inoculation of As-resistant bacteria: a soil bioremediation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampis, Silvia; Santi, Chiara; Ciurli, Adriana; Andreolli, Marco; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of arsenic phytoextraction by the fern Pteris vittata growing in arsenic-contaminated soil, with or without the addition of selected rhizobacteria isolated from the polluted site. The bacterial strains were selected for arsenic resistance, the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite, and the ability to promote plant growth. P. vittata plants were cultivated for 4 months in a contaminated substrate consisting of arsenopyrite cinders and mature compost. Four different experimental conditions were tested: (i) non-inoculated plants; (ii) plants inoculated with the siderophore-producing and arsenate-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. P1III2 and Delftia sp. P2III5 (A); (iii) plants inoculated with the siderophore and indoleacetic acid-producing bacteria Bacillus sp. MPV12, Variovorax sp. P4III4, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. P4V6 (B), and (iv) plants inoculated with all five bacterial strains (AB). The presence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria increased plant biomass by up to 45% and increased As removal efficiency from 13% without bacteria to 35% in the presence of the mixed inoculum. Molecular analysis confirmed the persistence of the introduced bacterial strains in the soil and resulted in a significant impact on the structure of the bacterial community.

  10. Promotion of arsenic phytoextraction efficiency in the fern Pteris vittata by the inoculation of As-resistant bacteria: a soil bioremediation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampis, Silvia; Santi, Chiara; Ciurli, Adriana; Andreolli, Marco; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of arsenic phytoextraction by the fern Pteris vittata growing in arsenic-contaminated soil, with or without the addition of selected rhizobacteria isolated from the polluted site. The bacterial strains were selected for arsenic resistance, the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite, and the ability to promote plant growth. P. vittata plants were cultivated for 4 months in a contaminated substrate consisting of arsenopyrite cinders and mature compost. Four different experimental conditions were tested: (i) non-inoculated plants; (ii) plants inoculated with the siderophore-producing and arsenate-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. P1III2 and Delftia sp. P2III5 (A); (iii) plants inoculated with the siderophore and indoleacetic acid-producing bacteria Bacillus sp. MPV12, Variovorax sp. P4III4, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. P4V6 (B), and (iv) plants inoculated with all five bacterial strains (AB). The presence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria increased plant biomass by up to 45% and increased As removal efficiency from 13% without bacteria to 35% in the presence of the mixed inoculum. Molecular analysis confirmed the persistence of the introduced bacterial strains in the soil and resulted in a significant impact on the structure of the bacterial community. PMID:25741356

  11. Promotion of arsenic phytoextraction efficiency in the fern Pteris vittata by the inoculation of As-resistant bacteria: a soil bioremediation perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eLampis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of arsenic phytoextraction by the fern Pteris vittata growing in arsenic-contaminated soil, with or without the addition of selected rhizobacteria isolated from the polluted site. The bacterial strains were selected for arsenic resistance, the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite, and the ability to promote plant growth. P. vittata plants were cultivated for 4 months in a contaminated substrate consisting of arsenopyrite cinders and mature compost. Four different experimental conditions were tested: i non-inoculated plants; ii plants inoculated with the siderophore-producing and arsenate-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. P1III2 and Delftia sp. P2III5 (A; iii plants inoculated with the siderophore and indoleacetic acid-producing bacteria Bacillus sp. MPV12, Variovorax sp. P4III4 and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. P4V6 (B, and iv plants inoculated with all five bacterial strains (AB. The presence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria increased plant biomass by up to 45% and increased As removal efficiency from 13% without bacteria to 35% in the presence of the mixed inoculum. Molecular analysis confirmed the persistence of the introduced bacterial strains in the soil and resulted in a significant impact on the structure of the bacterial community.

  12. Phytoextraction and accumulation of mercury in three plant species: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang X; Chen, Jian; Sridhar, B B Maruthi; Monts, David L

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to screen and search for suitable plant species to phytoextract mercury-contaminated soil. Our effort focused on using some of the known metal-accumulating wild-type plants since no natural plant species with mercury-hyperaccumulat ing properties has yet been identified. Three plant species were evaluated for their uptake efficiency for mercury: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata). Four sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of these three plant species: a pot study with potting mix where mercury was provided daily as HgCl2 solution; experiments with freshly mercury-spiked soil; and a study with aged soils contaminated with different mercury sources (HgCl2, Hg(NO3)2, and HgS). Homemade sunlit chambers were also used to study foliar uptake of Hg from ambient air. Among the three plant species, Chinese brake fern showed the least stress symptoms resulting from mercury exposure and had the highest mercury accumulation. Our results indicate that Chinese brake fern may be a potential candidate for mercury phytoextraction. We found that mercury contamination is biologically available for plant uptake and accumulation, even if the original and predominating mercury form is HgS, and also after multiple phytoremediation cycles.

  13. Increased ecological risk due to the hyperaccumulation of As in Pteris cretica during the phytoremediation of an As-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seulki; Moon, Hee Sun; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-03-01

    Ecological risk due to the hyperaccumulation of As in Pteris cretica during phytoremediation was evaluated at an abandoned As-contaminated site. Five receptor groups representing terrestrial invertebrates, avian insectivores, small mammals, herbivores, and omnivores were selected as potentially affected ecological receptors. Soil and food ingestion were considered as major exposure pathways. Phytoremediation was performed with P.cretica only and with both P.cretica and siderophores to enhance plant uptake of As. Ecological hazard index (EHI) values for the small mammal greatly exceeded 1.0 even after three weeks of growth regardless of siderophore application, probably due to its limited home range. For the mammalian herbivore, which mainly consumes plant foliage, the EHI values were greater than 5.73 after seven weeks without siderophore application, but the value increased sharply to 29.3 at seven weeks when siderophores were applied. This increased risk could be attributed to the facilitated translocation of As from roots to stems and leaves in P.cretica. Our results suggest that, when a phytoremediation strategy is considered for metals remediation, its ecological consequences should be taken into account to prevent the spread of hyperaccumulated heavy metals throughout the food chain of ecological receptors. Uncertainties involved in the ecological risk assessment process were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on accumulation mechanism for heavy metal in hyper-accumulating plants by synchrotron radiation x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokura, Akiko; Kitajima, Nobuyuki; Terada, Yasuko; Nakai, Izumi

    2010-01-01

    Some plants accumulate heavy metal elements such as As, Cd, and Pb, etc., and these plants have been focused on from the perspective of their application to phytoremediation. In order to understand the accumulation mechanism, the distribution and the chemical form of heavy metal should be revealed at cellular level. Here, we have introduced the recent works regarding arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.) and cadmium hyperaccumulating plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera). A combination of μ-XRF and μ-XANES techniques excited by high-energy X-ray microbeam with 1 μm resolution has proved to be an indispensable tool for the study of Cd accumulation in biological samples on a cellular scale. The sample-preparation techniques were also summarized. (author)

  15. Spectroscopic Analysis of Arsenic Uptake in Pteris Ferns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Slonecker

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two arsenic-accumulating Pteris ferns (Pteris cretica mayii and Pteris multifida, along with a non-accumulating control fern (Nephrolepis exaltata were grown in greenhouse conditions in clean sand spiked with 0, 20, 50, 100 and 200 ppm sodium arsenate. Spectral data were collected for each of five replicates prior to harvest at 4-week intervals. Fern samples were analyzed for total metals content and Partial Least Squares and Stepwise Linear Regression techniques were used to develop models from the spectral data. Results showed that Pteris cretica mayii and Pteris multifida are confirmed hyperaccumulators of inorganic arsenic and that reasonably accurate predictive models of arsenic concentration can be developed from the first derivative of spectral reflectance of the hyperaccumulating Pteris ferns. Both the arsenic uptake and spectral results indicate that there is some species-specific variability but the results compare favorably with previously published data and additional research is recommended.

  16. Engineering arsenic tolerance and hyperaccumulation in plants for phytoremediation by a PvACR3 transgenic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanshan; Xu, Wenzhong; Shen, Hongling; Yan, Huili; Xu, Wenxiu; He, Zhenyan; Ma, Mi

    2013-08-20

    Arsenic (As) pollution is a global problem, and the plant-based cleanup of contaminated soils, called phytoremediation, is therefore of great interest. Recently, transgenic approaches have been designed to develop As phytoremediation technologies. Here, we used a one-gene transgenic approach for As tolerance and accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana . PvACR3, a key arsenite [As(III)] antiporter in the As hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata , was expressed in Arabidopsis , driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. In response to As treatment, PvACR3 transgenic plants showed greatly enhanced tolerance. PvACR3 transgenic seeds could even germinate and grow in the presence of 80 μM As(III) or 1200 μM arsenate [As(V)] treatments that were lethal to wild-type seeds. PvACR3 localizes to the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis and increases arsenite efflux into external medium in short-term experiments. Arsenic determination showed that PvACR3 substantially reduced As concentrations in roots and simultaneously increased shoot As under 150 μM As(V). When cultivated in As(V)-containing soil (10 ppm As), transgenic plants accumulated approximately 7.5-fold more As in above-ground tissues than wild-type plants. This study provides important insights into the behavior of PvACR3 and the physiology of As metabolism in plants. Our work also provides a simple and practical PvACR3 transgenic approach for engineering As-tolerant and -hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation.

  17. Arsenic phytoextraction and hyperaccumulation by fern species Fitoextração e hiperacumulação de arsênio por espécies de samambaias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isidoria Silva Gonzaga

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is an ubiquitous trace metalloid found in all environmental media. Its presence at elevated concentrations in soils derives from both anthropogenic and natural inputs. Arsenic is a toxic and carcinogenic element, which has caused severe environmental and health problem worldwide. Technologies currently available for the remediation of arsenic-contaminated sites are expensive, environmentally disruptive, and potentially hazardous to workers. Phytoextraction, a strategy of phytoremediation, uses plants to clean up contaminated soils and has been successfully applied to arsenic contaminated soils. It has the advantage of being cost-effective and environmentally friendly. A major step towards the development of phytoextraction of arsenic-impacted soils is the discovery of the arsenic hyper accumulation in ferns, first in Pteris vittata, which presented an extraordinary capacity to accumulate 2.3% arsenic in its biomass. Another fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos was found to exhibit the same hyperaccumulating characteristics. After that, screening experiments have revealed that the Pteris genus is really unique in that many species have the potential to be used in phytoextraction of arsenic. In general, these plants seem to have both constitutive and adaptive mechanisms for accumulating or tolerating high arsenic concentration. In the past few years, much work has been done to understand and improve the hyperaccumulating capability of these amazing plants. In particular, the field of molecular biology seems to hold the key for the future of the phytoremediation.O arsênio e um metalóide traço encontrado basicamente em todos os ambientes. Elevadas concentrações de arsênio no solo podem acontecer naturalmente devido ao intemperismo de rochas ricas em arsênio, como também de atividades antropogênicas. O arsênio é um elemento tóxico e cancerígeno. Em muitas partes do mundo, a contaminação pelo arsênio tem causado problemas

  18. Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on arsenic uptake and antioxidative enzymes in Pteris cretica var. nervosa and Pteris ensiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shujuan; Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Qinchun

    2017-03-04

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on arsenic (As) uptake and antioxidative enzymes in fronds of Pteris cretica var. nervosa (As hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-hyperaccumulator). Plants were exposed to 2 mg L -1 As(III), As(V) or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and IAA concentrations for 14 d. The biomass and total As in the plants significantly increased at 30 mg L -1 IAA. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities significantly increased with IAA addition. Catalase (CAT) activities showed a significant increase in P. ensiformis exposed to three As species at 30 or 50 mg L -1 IAA but varied in P. cretica var. nervosa. Peroxidase (POD) activities were unchanged in P. ensiformis except for a significant decrease at 50 mg L -1 IAA under As(III) treatment. However, a significant increase was observed in P. cretica var. nervosa at 10 mg L -1 IAA under As(III) or DMA treatment and at 50 mg L -1 IAA under As(V) treatment. Under DMA stress, malondialdehyde contents in fronds of P. cretica var. nervosa showed a significant decrease at 10 mg L -1 IAA but remained unchanged in P. ensiformis. Therefore, IAA enhanced As uptake and frond POD activity in P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress.

  19. Gametophyte Morphology and Development of Six Species of Pteris ( Pteridaceae from Java Island Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sunarti Puspitasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of sporophyte, the type of reproduction, and cytology of Pteris had been reported, while the gametophyte morphology of Pteris in Java island has not been studied yet. The objective of this study was to describe the gametophyte morphology and development of P. biaurita, P. ensiformis, P. exelsa, P. longipinnula, P.tripartita, and P. vittata in Java island. Spores were obtained from fertile leaves of Pteris plants originated from several locations in Java island. The number of spores per sporangium was counted from fresh fertile leaves with mature sporangia. As much as 0.002 g spores was sown in a transparent box with sterile medium contain of vermiculite, sphagnum moss, and perlite with ratio 2:2:1. The gametophyte development of each species was observed under a microscope every 7 days. The spores of P. ensiformis were germinated faster, ten days after sowing, while the spores of P. longipinnula were germinated slower, 18 days after sowing. The pattern of spore germination is Vittaria-type. The development of gametophyte is Ceratopteris-type in common, but in a few cases is the Adiantum-type. The gametophyte development of observed Pteris species is varied in six characters including the number of filament cell, germinated time, the formation time of notch and gametangia, margin shape, and development type.

  20. Gametófitos y esporófitos jóvenes de cuatro especies de helechos del género Pteris (Pteridaceae naturalizadas en América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga G Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El género pantropical Pteris L. tiene 250 especies de la cuales 60 están en el continente Americano. Se estudió la morfogénesis de los gametófitos, y la morfología de los esporófitos jóvenes de cuatro especies: P. cretica, P. ensiformis, P. multifida y P.vittata, junto con un análisis palinológico que incluye la capacidad de las esporas de germinar. Los gametófitos se obtuvieron mediante técnicas de cultivo in vitro. Los esporófitos jóvenes se trasladaron a sustrato estéril de tierra y arena (3:1. Se usó el microscopio de luz y el de barrido (SEM. Se encontraron esporas con diferentes tipos de aperturas. La germinación ocurre entre 3-7 días y corresponde al tipo Vittaria. Se encontraron gametófitos filamentosos formados por 3-5 células en P. cretica, P. multifida y P. vittata y por 7-9 células en P. ensiformis. El desarrollo gametofítico ocurre de dos formas: tipo Adiantum y tipo Ceratopteris. Los gametófitos de P. ensiformis, P. multifida y P. vittata son monoicos y protándricos. P. cretica desarrolla gametófitos anteridiados. Los anteridios corresponden al tipo común de los helechos leptosporangiados, son cilíndricos en P. vittata y ovoides en las otras tres especies. Los cuellos de los arquegonios tienen 4 hileras con 4 células cada una. Los esporófitos se desarrollan después de los 3 meses de su siembra y su indumento es semejante a las plantas adultas. P. cretica presenta apogamia obligada.Gametophytes and young sporophytes of four species of the fern genus Pteris (Pteridaceae naturalized in the American continent. The pantropical fern genus Pteris L. has about 250 species of which 60 occur in the American continent. We studied the morphogenesis of the gametophyte, and the morphology of the young sporophytes of four species: P. cretica, P. ensiformis, P. multifida and P.vittata, together with a palynological analysis that includes the ability of spores to germinate. Gametophytes were obtained trough in vitro

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. PRIYANKA BEDI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 105-115 Article. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata · RASIKA M POTDUKHE PRIYANKA BEDI BIJAYA K SARANGI RAM A PANDEY ...

  2. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic Hyperaccumulation Strategies: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Souri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As pollution, which is on the increase around the world, poses a growing threat to the environment. Phytoremediation, an important green technology, uses different strategies, including As uptake, transport, translocation, and detoxification, to remediate this metalloid. Arsenic hyperaccumulator plants have developed various strategies to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of As. In these plants, the formation of AsIII complexes with GSH and phytochelatins and their transport into root and shoot vacuoles constitute important mechanisms for coping with As stress. The oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS production is one of the principal toxic effects of As; moreover, the strong antioxidative defenses in hyperaccumulator plants could constitute an important As detoxification strategy. On the other hand, nitric oxide activates antioxidant enzyme and phytochelatins biosynthesis which enhances As stress tolerance in plants. Although several studies have focused on transcription, metabolomics, and proteomic changes in plants induced by As, the mechanisms involved in As transport, translocation, and detoxification in hyperaccumulator plants need to be studied in greater depth. This review updates recent progress made in the study of As uptake, translocation, chelation, and detoxification in As hyperaccumulator plants.

  4. Copper uptake by Pteris melanocaulon Fée from a Copper-Gold mine in Surigao del Norte, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Joseph Benjamin B; Claveria, Rene Juna R; Perez, Rubee Ellaine C; Perez, Teresita R; Doronila, Augustine I

    2016-01-01

    The ability of some plants to take up metal contaminants in the soil has been of increasing interest as an environmental approach to pollution clean-up. This study aimed to assess the ability of Pteris melanocaulon for copper(Cu) uptake by determining the Cu levels in the fern vis-à-vis surrounding soil and the location of Cu accumulation within its biomass. It also aimed to add information to existing literature as P. melanocaulon are found to be less documented compared to other fern metal accumulators, such as P. vittata. The P. melanocaulon found in the Suyoc Pit of a Copper-Gold mine in Placer, Surigao del Norte, Philippines exhibited a high Bioaccumulation Factor(BF) of 4.04 and a low Translocation Factor(TF) of 0.01, suggesting more Cu accumulation in the roots (4590.22 ± 385.66 µg g(-1) Cu). Noteworthy was the Cu concentration in the rhizome which was also high (3539.44 ± 1696.35 µg g(-1) Cu). SEM/EDX analyses of the Cu content in the roots indicated high elemental %Cu in the xylem (6.95%) than in the cortex (2.68%). The high Cu content in the roots and rhizomes and the localization of Cu in the xylem manifested a potential utilization of the fern as a metallophyte for rhizofiltration and phytostabilization.

  5. Phytoremediation and Potency of Hyperaccumulator Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is defined as cleaning up of pollutants mediated primarily by plants. It is an emerging technology for environmental remediation that offers a low-cost technique suitable for use against different types of contaminants in a variety of media. Phytoremediation is potentially applicable to a diversity of substances, involving hyperaccumulators heavy metals and radionuclides. It is also applicable to other inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, various salts and nutrients, and a variety of organic contaminants, including explosives, petroleum hydrocarbons and pesticides. At least there are one taxon of plant as hyperaccumulator for Cd, 28 taxa for Co, 37 taxa for Cu, 9 taxa for Mg, 317 taxa for Ni, and 11 taxa for Zn. Extensive progress were done in characterizing physiology of plants which hyperaccumulate or hypertolerate metals. Hypertolerance is fundamental to hyperaccumulator, and high rates of uptake and translocation are observed in hyperaccumulator plants. Hyperaccumulator plants and agronomic technology were undertaken to improve the annual rate of phytoextraction and to allow recycling of soil toxic metals accumulated in plant biomass. These techniques are very likely to support commercial environmental remediation. Most phytoremediation systems are still in development, or in the stage of plant breeding to improve the cultivars for field use. However, application for commercial purposes has already been initiated. Many opportunities have also been identified for research and development to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation

  6. Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLeitenmaier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulators are being intensely investigated. They are not only interesting in scientific context due to their strange behaviour in terms of dealing with high concentrations of metals, but also because of their use in phytoremediation and phytomining, for which understanding the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation is crucial. Hyperaccumulators naturally use metal accumulation as a defence against herbivores and pathogens, and therefore deal with accumulated metals in very specific ways of complexation and compartmentation, different from non-hyperaccumulator plants and also non-hyperaccumulated metals. For example, in contrast to non-hyperaccumulators, in hyperaccumulators even the classical phytochelatin-inducing metal, cadmium, is predominantly not bound by such sulfur ligands, but only by weak oxygen ligands. This applies to all hyperaccumulated metals investigated so far, as well as hyperaccumulation of the metalloid arsenic. Stronger ligands, as they have been shown to complex metals in non-hyperaccumulators, are in hyperaccumulators used for transient binding during transport to the storage sites. This confirmed that enhanced active metal transport, and not metal complexation, is the key mechanism of hyperaccumulation. Hyperaccumulators tolerate the high amount of accumulated heavy metals by sequestering them into vacuoles, usually in large storage cells of the epidermis. This is mediated by strongly elevated expression of specific transport proteins in various tissues from metal uptake in the shoots up to the storage sites in the leaf epidermis. However, this mechanism seems to be very metal specific. Non-hyperaccumulated metals in hyperaccumulators seem to be dealt with like in non-hyperaccumulator plants, i.e. detoxified by binding to strong ligands such as metallothioneins.

  7. A study on the antitumour effect of total flavonoids from Pteris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the inhibitory effect of total flavonoids from Pteris multifida Poir on growth of transplanted H22 tumour in mice. H22 tumour-bearing mice model was established; the experimental animals were divide/d into the model group, Pteris multifida Poir total flavonoids high-, low-dose ...

  8. Model evaluation of the phytoextraction potential of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong-Ming; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2009-06-01

    Evaluation of the remediation ability of zinc/cadmium in hyper- and non-hyperaccumulator plant species through greenhouse studies is limited. To bridge the gap between greenhouse studies and field applications for phytoextraction, we used published data to examine the partitioning of heavy metals between plants and soil (defined as the bioconcentration factor). We compared the remediation ability of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri and the non-hyperaccumulators Nicotiana tabacum and Brassica juncea using a hierarchical linear model (HLM). A recursive algorithm was then used to evaluate how many harvest cycles were required to clean a contaminated site to meet Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Despite the high bioconcentration factor of both hyperaccumulators, metal removal was still limited because of the plants' small biomass. Simulation with N. tabacum and the Cadmium model suggests further study and development of plants with high biomass and improved phytoextraction potential for use in environmental cleanup.

  9. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator grey poplar (Populus × canescens) was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. Young Populus × canescens were grown and hydroponic experiments were conducted under four Cd2+ concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 70 μM) ...

  10. Model evaluation of the phytoextraction potential of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, H.-M. [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Section 2, Academia Road, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, Taiwan (China); Lin, T.-H. [Department of Statistics, National Taipei University, Taiwan (China); Chiou, J.-M. [Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Yeh, K.-C., E-mail: kcyeh@gate.sinica.edu.t [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Section 2, Academia Road, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2009-06-15

    Evaluation of the remediation ability of zinc/cadmium in hyper- and non-hyperaccumulator plant species through greenhouse studies is limited. To bridge the gap between greenhouse studies and field applications for phytoextraction, we used published data to examine the partitioning of heavy metals between plants and soil (defined as the bioconcentration factor). We compared the remediation ability of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri and the non-hyperaccumulators Nicotiana tabacum and Brassica juncea using a hierarchical linear model (HLM). A recursive algorithm was then used to evaluate how many harvest cycles were required to clean a contaminated site to meet Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Despite the high bioconcentration factor of both hyperaccumulators, metal removal was still limited because of the plants' small biomass. Simulation with N. tabacum and the Cadmium model suggests further study and development of plants with high biomass and improved phytoextraction potential for use in environmental cleanup. - A quantitative solution enables the evaluation of Zn/Cd phytoextraction.

  11. Model evaluation of the phytoextraction potential of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, H.-M.; Lin, T.-H.; Chiou, J.-M.; Yeh, K.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of the remediation ability of zinc/cadmium in hyper- and non-hyperaccumulator plant species through greenhouse studies is limited. To bridge the gap between greenhouse studies and field applications for phytoextraction, we used published data to examine the partitioning of heavy metals between plants and soil (defined as the bioconcentration factor). We compared the remediation ability of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri and the non-hyperaccumulators Nicotiana tabacum and Brassica juncea using a hierarchical linear model (HLM). A recursive algorithm was then used to evaluate how many harvest cycles were required to clean a contaminated site to meet Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Despite the high bioconcentration factor of both hyperaccumulators, metal removal was still limited because of the plants' small biomass. Simulation with N. tabacum and the Cadmium model suggests further study and development of plants with high biomass and improved phytoextraction potential for use in environmental cleanup. - A quantitative solution enables the evaluation of Zn/Cd phytoextraction.

  12. The Effects of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes on the Physiology, Morphology, and Rhizoshpere Microbial Community of Medicago Sative and Pteris Vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications of nanomaterials are increasing due to their noble physical structures. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most widely used carbon nanomaterial at present, however the fate, transport and toxicity of CNTs is still not well understood. Potential concern has been raised regarding fut...

  13. Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: facts and fiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ent, A.; Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.; Pollard, A.J.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants that accumulate metal and metalloid trace elements to extraordinarily high concentrations in their living biomass have inspired much research worldwide during the last decades. Hyperaccumulators have been recorded and experimentally confirmed for elements such as nickel, zinc,

  14. Hyperaccumulation of radioactive isotopes by marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Hirano, Shigeki; Watabe, Teruhisa

    2003-01-01

    Hyperaccumlators are effective indicator organisms for monitoring marine pollution by heavy metals and artificial radionuclides. We found a green algae, Bryopsis maxima that hyperaccumulate a stable and radioactive isotopes such as Sr-90, Tc-99, Ba-138, Re-187, and Ra-226. B. maxima showed high concentration factors for heavy alkali earth metals like Ba and Ra, compared with other marine algae in Japan. Furthermore, this species had the highest concentrations for Tc-99 and Re-187. The accumulation and excretion patterns of Sr-85 and Tc-95m were examined by tracer experiments. The chemical states of Sr and Re in living B. maxima were analyzed by HPLC-ICP/MS, LC/MS, and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis using synchrotron radiation. (author)

  15. Phylogeny and systematics of the brake fern genus Pteris (Pteridaceae) based on molecular (plastid and nuclear) and morphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Li-Bing

    2018-01-01

    The brake fern genus Pteris belongs to Pteridaceae subfamily Pteridoideae. It is one of the largest fern genera and has been estimated to contain 200-250 species distributed on all continents except Antarctica. Previous studies were either based on plastid data only or based on both plastid and nuclear data but the sampling was small. In addition, an infrageneric classification of Pteris based on morphological and molecular evidence has not been available yet. In the present study, based on molecular data of eight plastid markers and one nuclear marker (gapCp) of 256 accessions representing ca. 178 species of Pteris, we reconstruct a global phylogeny of Pteris. The 15 major clades identified earlier are recovered here and we further identified a new major clade. Our nuclear phylogeny recovered 11 of these 16 major clades, seven of which are strongly supported. The inclusion of Schizostege in Pteris is confirmed for the first time. Based on the newly reconstructed phylogeny and evidence from morphology, distribution and/or ecology, we classify Pteris into three subgenera: P. subg. Pteris, P. subg. Campteria, and P. subg. Platyzoma. The former two are further divided into three and 12 sections, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plant selenium hyperaccumulation- Ecological effects and potential implications for selenium cycling and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Jason B; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2018-04-25

    Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation occurs in ~50 plant taxa native to seleniferous soils in Western USA. Hyperaccumulator tissue Se levels, 1000-15,000 mg/kg dry weight, are typically 100 times higher than surrounding vegetation. Relative to other species, hyperaccumulators also transform Se more into organic forms. We review abiotic and biotic factors influencing soil Se distribution and bioavailability, soil being the source of the Se in hyperaccumulators. Next, we summarize the fate of Se in plants, particularly hyperaccumulators. We then extensively review the impact of plant Se accumulation on ecological interactions. Finally, we discuss the potential impact of Se hyperaccumulators on local community composition and Se cycling. Selenium (hyper)accumulation offers ecological advantages: protection from herbivores and pathogens and competitive advantage over other plants. The extreme Se levels in and around hyperaccumulators create a toxic environment for Se-sensitive ecological partners, while offering a niche for Se-resistant partners. Through these dual effects, hyperaccumulators may influence species composition in their local environment, as well as Se cycling. The implied effects of Se hyperaccumulation on community assembly and local Se cycling warrant further investigations into the contribution of hyperaccumulators and general terrestrial vegetation to global Se cycling and may serve as a case study for how trace elements influence ecological processes. Furthermore, understanding ecological implications of plant Se accumulation are vital for safe implementation of biofortification and phytoremediation, technologies increasingly implemented to battle Se deficiency and toxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Perspectives for genetic engineering for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated environments: from imagination to reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rosen, Barry P

    2009-04-01

    Phytoremediation to clean up arsenic-contaminated environments has been widely hailed as environmentally friendly and cost effective, and genetic engineering is believed to improve the efficiency and versatility of phytoremediation. Successful genetic engineering requires the thorough understanding of the mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance and accumulation by natural plant species. Key mechanisms include arsenate reduction, arsenic sequestration in vacuoles of root or shoot, arsenic loading to the xylem, and volatilization through the leaves. Key advances include the identification of arsenic (As) translocation from root to shoot in the As hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata, and the characterization of related key genes from hyperaccumulator and nonaccumulators. In this paper we have proposed three pathways for genetic engineering: arsenic sequestration in the root, hyperaccumulation of arsenic in aboveground tissues, and phytovolatilization.

  18. The potential of Thelypteris palustris and Asparagus sprengeri in phytoremediation of arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, LaShunda L; Walsh, Maud; Roy, Amitava; Bianchetti, Christopher M; Merchan, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    The potential of two plants, Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern) and Asparagus sprengeri (asparagus fern), for phytoremediation of arsenic contamination was evaluated. The plants were chosen for this study because of the discovery of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata (Ma et al., 2001) and previous research indicating asparagus fern's ability to tolerate > 1200 ppm soil arsenic. Objectives were (1) to assess if selected plants are arsenic hyperaccumulators; and (2) to assess changes in the species of arsenic upon accumulation in selected plants. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments arsenic treatment levels were established by adding potassium arsenate to solution. All plants were placed into the hydroponic experiments while still potted in their growth media. Marsh fern and Asparagus fern can both accumulate arsenic. Marsh fern bioaccumulation factors (> 10) are in the range of known hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata Therefore, Thelypteris palustris is may be a good candidate for remediation of arsenic soil contamination levels of arsenic. Total oxidation of As (III) to As (V) does not occur in asparagus fern. The asparagus fern is arsenic tolerant (bioaccumulation factors phytoremediation candidate.

  19. Effect of cadmium hyperaccumulation on antioxidative defense and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in cadmium (Cd) accumulation, the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll and free proline in Solanum nigrum, Cd-hyperaccumulator were examined and compared with a ...

  20. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Colin F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae. Results Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg-1 were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg-1. Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg-1 dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μXRF mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. Conclusions This is the first reported study investigating the

  1. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xiaofen; Yang Xiaoe; Islam, Ejazul; Liu Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide radical (O 2 · - ) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H

  2. The Enrichment and Transfer of Heavy Metals for Two Ferns in Pb-Zn Tailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Jiajie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The enrichment and transfer of 8 heavy metals of Equisetum ramosissimum and Pteris vittata growing naturally close to edge of the sewage pool in Bencun Pb-Zn Tailing, Eastern Guangdong were investigated. The results indicated that the pollution of Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn was very severe in this tailing, followed by Cu and Mn. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed to be very strong based on soil background values of Guangdong Province and at high risk according to criteria of the second grade State Soil Environmental Quality Standard, and Cd, Hg, Pb were the main factors leading to potential ecological risk. The content of 8 heavy metals in the two ferns did not reach critical content of hyperaccumulator, so neither of them was typical hyperaccumulator, but both had a certain tolerance to these heavy metal pollution. Underground parts of Pteris vittata had an enrichment coefficient above 1 and that of Equisetum ramosissimum had a value near 1, therefore the two ferns could be utilized as potential enrichment plants. The two ferns have strong adaptability to the tailing habitat and can be used as pioneers in ecological restoration of Pb-Zn tailings.

  3. Multivariate analysis of protein profiles of metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens accessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuomainen, M.H.; Nunan, N.; Lehesranta, S.J.; Tervahauta, A.I.; Hassinen, V.H.; Schat, H.; Koistinen, K.M.; Auriola, S.; McNicol, J.; Karenlampi, S.O.

    2006-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is increasingly acknowledged as one of the best models for studying metal hyperaccumulation in plants. In order to study the mechanisms underlying metal hyper-accumulation, we used proteomic profiling to identify differences in protein intensities among three T caerulescens

  4. Successful micropropagation of the cadmium hyperaccumulator Viola baoshanensis (Violaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tian; Deng, Dong-Mei; Peng, Guang-Tian; Deng, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Jun; Liao, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Viola baoshanensis is one of the most rare cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulators, however, it is hard to propagate. Micropropagation has been applied to solve the problems with propagation of a few heavy metal hyperaccumulators. Therefore there is a high likelihood that micropropagation may offer a suitable method for large-scale propagation of V. baoshanensis To test this hypothesis, three types of explants were used for shoot regeneration and various combinations of four plant growth regulators were used to improve shoot regeneration efficiency from leaflet of V. baoshanensis. Best shoot regeneration efficiency was obtained by incubating leaflet in a 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 2.5 oM BA + 2.5 microM IBA, therein shoot regeneration rate was 70.9% and the number of shoots formation per explant was 22.4. Rooting was achieved from almost all regenerated shoot growing on 1/2 MS medium without plant growth regulator. Micropropagated seedlings were acclimatized under greenhouse conditions and 95% of them survived and showed no visible morphological variation compared to their donor plant. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between regenerated and seed-germinated V. baoshanensis in Cd tolerance and accumulation. These results suggested that an efficient and rapid micropropogation system was successfully developed for V. baoshanensis.

  5. Tissue Fractions of Cadmium in Two Hyperaccumulating Jerusalem Artichoke Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms in two Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. genotypes that hyperaccumulate Cd, a sand-culture experiment was carried out to characterize fractionation of Cd in tissue of Cd-hyperaccumulating genotypes NY2 and NY5. The sequential extractants were: 80% v/v ethanol (FE, deionized water (FW, 1 M NaCl (FNaCl, 2% v/v acetic acid (FAcet, and 0.6 M HCl (FHCl. After 20 days of treatments, NY5 had greater plant biomass and greater Cd accumulation in tissues than NY2. In both genotypes the FNaCl fraction was the highest in roots and stems, whereas the FAcet and FHCl fractions were the highest in leaves. With an increase in Cd concentration in the culture solution, the content of every Cd fraction also increased. The FW and FNaCl ratios in roots were lower in NY5 than in NY2, while the amount of other Cd forms was higher. It implied that, in high accumulator, namely, NY5, the complex of insoluble phosphate tends to be shaped more easily which was much better for Cd accumulation. Besides, translocation from plasma to vacuole after combination with protein may be one of the main mechanisms in Cd-accumulator Jerusalem artichoke genotypes.

  6. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sano, Sakae; Nhuan, Mai Trong

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg -1 dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium).

  7. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sakakibara, Masayuki, E-mail: sakakiba@sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Department of Geology, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nhuan, Mai Trong [Department of Environmental Geology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-02-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium).

  8. Selenium hyperaccumulation by Astragalus (Fabaceae) does not inhibit root nodule symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Elan R; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Fakra, Sirine C; Paschke, Mark W

    2012-12-01

    A survey of the root-nodule symbiosis in Astragalus and its interaction with selenium (Se) has not been conducted before. Such studies can provide insight into how edaphic conditions modify symbiotic interactions and influence partner coevolution. In this paper plant-organ Se concentration ([Se]) was investigated to assess potential Se exposure to endophytes. • Selenium distribution and molecular speciation of root nodules from Se-hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus was determined by Se K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to characterize the response of root-nodule symbiosis in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators. • Nodules in three Se-hyperaccumulators (Astragalus crotalariae, A. praelongus, and A. preussii) are reported for the first time. Leaves, flowers, and fruits from Se-hyperaccumulators were routinely above the hyperaccumulator threshold (1,000 µg Se g(-1) DW), but root samples rarely contained that amount, and nodules never exceeded 110 µg Se g(-1) DW. Nodules from A. bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus had Se throughout, with a majority stored in C-Se-C form. Finally, an evaluation of nodulation in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators indicated that there was no nodulation inhibition because of plant Se tolerance. Rather, we found that in Se-hyperaccumulators higher levels of Se treatment (up to 100 µM Se) corresponded with higher nodule counts, indicating a potential role for dinitrogen fixation in Se-hyperaccumulation. The effect was not found in nonhyperaccumulators. • As the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation in Astragalus developed, root-nodule symbiosis may have played an integral role.

  9. Molecular Dissection of The Cellular Mechanisms Involved In Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Plants; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David E. Salt

    2002-01-01

    Hyperaccumulator plant species are able to accumulate between 1-5% of their biomass as metal. However, these plants are often small, slow growing, and do not produce a high biomass. Phytoextraction, a cost-effective, in situ, plant based approach to soil remediation takes advantage of the remarkable ability of hyperaccumulating plants to concentrate metals from the soil and accumulate them in their harvestable, above-ground tissues. However, to make use of the valuable genetic resources identified in metal hyperaccumulating species, it will be necessary to transfer this material to high biomass rapidly growing crop plants. These plants would then be ideally suited to the phytoremediation process, having the ability to produce large amount of metal-rich plant biomass for rapid harvest and soil cleanup. Although progress is being made in understanding the genetic basis of metal hyperaccumulation a more complete understanding will be necessary before we can take full advantage of the genetic potential of these plants

  10. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)]. E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Serrano, Helena Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Pinto, Manuel Joao [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal)

    2007-03-15

    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. - Revisiting plant hyperaccumulation criteria.

  11. Molecular Dissection of The Cellular Mechanisms Involved In Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Salt

    2002-04-08

    Hyperaccumulator plant species are able to accumulate between 1-5% of their biomass as metal. However, these plants are often small, slow growing, and do not produce a high biomass. Phytoextraction, a cost-effective, in situ, plant based approach to soil remediation takes advantage of the remarkable ability of hyperaccumulating plants to concentrate metals from the soil and accumulate them in their harvestable, above-ground tissues. However, to make use of the valuable genetic resources identified in metal hyperaccumulating species, it will be necessary to transfer this material to high biomass rapidly growing crop plants. These plants would then be ideally suited to the phytoremediation process, having the ability to produce large amount of metal-rich plant biomass for rapid harvest and soil cleanup. Although progress is being made in understanding the genetic basis of metal hyperaccumulation a more complete understanding will be necessary before we can take full advantage of the genetic potential of these plants.

  12. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branquinho, Cristina; Serrano, Helena Cristina; Pinto, Manuel Joao; Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia

    2007-01-01

    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. - Revisiting plant hyperaccumulation criteria

  13. Transport and detoxification of cadmium, copper and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Leitenmaier, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn this thesis, various aspects on heavy metal accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens have been investigated. T. caerulescens belongs to the family of Brassicaceae and hyperaccumulates zinc. Its ecotype Ganges, originating from Southern France, additionally takes up cadmium actively. It is known from previous studies that hyperaccumulators have highly overexpressed metal transporters and that most of them store the metal in the vacuole of large epidermal cells....

  14. Lead, zinc and cadmium accumulation from two metalliferous soils with contrasting calcium contents in hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and background: We previously compared metallicolous (M) and non-metallicolous (NM) populations of Noccaea (=Thlaspi) caerulescens, Silene vulgaris, and Matthiola flavida for their abilities to tolerate and (hyper)-accumulate lead (Pb) in hydroponics. In the present study we aimed 1) to check

  15. The bacterial rhizobiome of hyperaccumulators: future perspectives based on omics analysis and advanced microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulators are plants that can extract heavy metal ions from the soil and translocate those ions to the shoots, where they are sequestered and detoxified. Hyperaccumulation depends not only on the availability of mobilized metal ions in the soil, but also on the enhanced activity of metal transporters and metal chelators which may be provided by the plant or its associated microbes. The rhizobiome is captured by plant root exudates from the complex microbial community in the soil, and may colonize the root surface or infiltrate the root cortex. This community can increase the root surface area by inducing hairy root proliferation. It may also increase the solubility of metals in the rhizosphere and promote the uptake of soluble metals by the plant. The bacterial rhizobiome, a subset of specialized microorganisms that colonize the plant rhizosphere and endosphere, makes an important contribution to the hyperaccumulator phenotype. In this review, we discuss classic and more recent tools that are used to study the interactions between hyperaccumulators and the bacterial rhizobiome, and consider future perspectives based on the use of omics analysis and microscopy to study plant metabolism in the context of metal accumulation. Recent data suggest that metal-resistant bacteria isolated from the hyperaccumulator rhizosphere and endosphere could be useful in applications such as phytoextraction and phytoremediation, although more research is required to determine whether such properties can be transferred successfully to non-accumulator species.

  16. A nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals by the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xincheng; Lin, Li; Chen, Mingyue; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Bao; Yang, Xiaoe; An, Qianli

    2012-08-30

    Low biomass and shallow root systems limit the application of heavy metal phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators. Plant growth-promoting microbes may enhance hyperaccumulators'phytoextraction. A heavy metal-resistant fungus belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum complex was isolated from the Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance grown in a Pb/Zn mined area. This Fusarium fungus was not pathogenic to plants but promoted host growth. Hydroponic experiments showed that 500 μM Zn(2+) or 50 μM Cd(2+) combined with the fungus increased root length, branches, and surface areas, enhanced nutrient uptake and chlorophyll synthesis, leading to more vigorous hyperaccumulators with greater root systems. Soil experiments showed that the fungus increased root and shoot biomass and S. alfredii-mediated heavy metal availabilities, uptake, translocation or concentrations, and thus increased phytoextraction of Zn (144% and 44%), Cd (139% and 55%), Pb (84% and 85%) and Cu (63% and 77%) from the original Pb/Zn mined soil and a multi-metal contaminated paddy soil. Together, the nonpathogenic Fusarium fungus was able to increase S. alfredii root systems and function, metal availability and accumulation, plant biomass, and thus phytoextraction efficiency. This study showed a great application potential for culturable indigenous fungi other than symbiotic mycorrhizas to enhance the phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decrease of labile Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens with time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault-Rompre, Jacynthe, E-mail: dessureaultromj@agr.gc.c [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems (ITES), ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Luster, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.luster@wsl.c [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Schulin, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schulin@env.ethz.c [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems (ITES), ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou, E-mail: marie-louise.tercier@unige.c [CABE, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Sciences II, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.nowack@empa.c [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems (ITES), ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    By using a rhizobox micro-suction cup technique we studied in-situ mobilization and complexation of Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of non-hyperaccumulating Thlaspi perfoliatum and two different Thlaspi caerulescens ecotypes, one of them hyperaccumulating Zn, the other Zn and Cd. The dynamic fraction (free metal ions and small labile complexes) of Zn and Cd decreased with time in the rhizosphere solution of the respective hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, and at the end of the experiment, it was significantly smaller than in the other treatments. Furthermore, the rhizosphere solutions of the T. caerulescens ecotypes exhibited a higher UV absorptivity than the solution of the T. perfoliatum rhizosphere and the plant-free soil. Based on our findings we suggest that mobile and labile metal-dissolved soil organic matter complexes play a key role in the rapid replenishment of available metal pools in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, postulated earlier. - A mechanism that explains the rapid replenishment of metal pools accessible by hyperaccumulator plants for phytoextraction is proposed.

  18. Hyperaccumulator straw improves the cadmium phytoextraction efficiency of emergent plant Nasturtium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Lin, Lijin; Wang, Jin; Xia, Hui; Liang, Dong; Wang, Xun; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    With the development of economy, the heavy metal contamination has become an increasingly serious problem, especially the cadmium (Cd) contamination. The emergent plant Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is a Cd-accumulator with low phytoremediation ability. To improve Cd phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale, the straw from Cd-hyperaccumulator plants Youngia erythrocarpa, Galinsoga parviflora, Siegesbeckia orientalis, and Bidens pilosa was applied to Cd-contaminated soil and N. officinale was then planted; the study assessed the effect of hyperaccumulator straw on the growth and Cd accumulation of N. officinale. The results showed that application of hyperaccumulator species straws increased the biomass and photosynthetic pigment content and reduced the root/shoot ratio of N. officinale. All straw treatments significantly increased Cd content in roots, but significantly decreased Cd content in shoots of N. officinale. Applying hyperaccumulator straw significantly increased the total Cd accumulation in the roots, shoots, and whole plants of N. officinale. Therefore, application of straw from four hyperaccumulator species promoted the growth of N. officinale and improved the phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale in Cd-contaminated paddy field soil; the straw of Y. erythrocarpa provided the most improvement.

  19. Mechanisms of selenium hyperaccumulation in plants: A survey of molecular, biochemical and ecological cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo Warzea; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Schiavon, Michela

    2018-04-04

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient required for many life forms, but toxic at higher concentration. Plants do not have a Se requirement, but can benefit from Se via enhanced antioxidant activity. Some plant species can accumulate Se to concentrations above 0.1% of dry weight and seem to possess mechanisms that distinguish Se from its analog sulfur (S). Research on these so-called Se hyperaccumulators aims to identify key genes for this remarkable trait and to understand ecological implications. This review gives a broad overview of the current knowledge about Se uptake and metabolism in plants, with a special emphasis on hypothesized mechanisms of Se hyperaccumulation. The role of Se in plant defense responses and the associated ecological implications are discussed. Hyperaccumulators have enhanced expression of S transport and assimilation genes, and may possess transporters with higher specificity for selenate over sulfate. Genes involved in antioxidant reactions and biotic stress resistance are also upregulated. Key regulators in these processes appear to be the growth regulators jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene. Hyperaccumulation may have evolved owing to associated ecological benefits, particularly protection against pathogens and herbivores, and as a form of elemental allelopathy. Understanding plant Se uptake and metabolism in hyperaccumulators has broad relevance for the environment, agriculture and human and animal nutrition and may help generate crops with selenate-specific uptake and high capacity to convert selenate to less toxic, anticarcinogenic, organic Se compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  1. Selenium hyperaccumulation - Astragalus bisulcatus, Cardamine hupingshanensis and Stanleya pinnata - may be useful for agromining selenium-rich soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium hyperaccumulator plants like Stanleya pinnata, Astragalus bisulcatus and the newly discovered Se-accumulator Cardamine hupingshanensis may play an important role in the Se cycle from soil to plant to human in China. Se-hyperaccumulators can be used for agromining or for phytoremediation of ...

  2. Pyrolysis as a technique for separating heavy metals from hyperaccumulators. Part III: pilot-scale pyrolysis of synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppolu, Lakshmi; Prasad, Ramakrishna; Davis Clements, L.

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass (SHB) feed impregnated with Ni, Zn or Cu was used to conduct six experiments in a pilot-scale, spouted bed gasifier. Two runs each using corn stover with no metal added (blank runs) were also conducted. The reactor was operated in an entrained mode in an oxygen free (N 2 ) environment at 873 K and 1 atm. The apparent gas residence time in the heated zone of the pilot-scale reactor was 1.4 s at 873 K. The material balance closure for the eight experiments on an N 2 -free basis varied between 79% and 92%. Nearly 99% of the metal recovered in the product stream was concentrated in the char formed by pyrolyzing the SHB in the reactor. The metal concentration in the char varied between 6.6% and 16.6%, depending on the type of metal and whether the char was collected in the cyclone or ashbox. The metal component was concentrated by 3.2-6 times in the char, compared to the feed

  3. Pyrolysis as a technique for separating heavy metals from hyperaccumulators. Part II: Lab-scale pyrolysis of synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppolu, Lakshmi; Agblevor, F.A.; Clements, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass (SHB) impregnated with Ni, Zn, Cu, Co or Cr was used to conduct 11 experiments in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor. Two runs with blank corn stover, with no metal added, were also conducted. The reactor was operated in an entrained mode in a oxygen-free (N 2 ) environment at 873 K and 1 atm. The apparent gas residence time through the lab-scale reactor was 0.6 s at 873 K. The material balance for the lab-scale experiments on N 2 -free basis varied between 81% and 98%. The presence of a heavy metal in the SHB decreased the char yield and increased the tar yield, compared to the blank. The char and gas yields appeared to depend on the form of the metal salt used to prepare the SHB. However, the metal distribution in the product streams did not seem to be influenced by the chemical form of the metal salt used to prepare the SHB. Greater than 98.5% of the metal in the product stream was concentrated in the char formed by pyrolyzing and gasifying the SHB in the reactor. The metal concentration in the char varied between 0.7 and 15.3% depending on the type of metal in the SHB. However, the metal concentration was increased 4 to 6 times in the char compared to the feed

  4. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weliton D Silva

    Full Text Available We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard, a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini.

  5. The Distribution and Habitats of the Pteris fauriei Complex in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Moan Huang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is a significant mode of speciation in plants. Polyploids often occupy habitats different from those of their diploid parents. In Taiwan, two varieties of Pteris fauriei, one diploid and one triploid, have been identified. The number of spores per sporangium and the size of spores are reliable indicators of ploidy. Diploid P. fauriei have 64-spore sporangia and the spores are significantly smaller than spores of triploid plants, which have 32-spore sporangia. Based on these findings, the distribution and habitats of the two cytotypes in Taiwan are characterized from both living plants and herbarium specimens. Altogether, 516 live plants from 32 locations and 76 herbarium specimens were analyzed. In general, diploid plants occur in warmer habitats than triploid plants. Diploid plants are widely distributed in Taiwan and nearby islands, but do not occur in central Taiwan nor in the Matsu islands. In contrast, triploid plants are not found in southern tip of Taiwan nor on islands west of central Taiwan. In northern Taiwan and on the west-central islands, diploids grow most often in exposed sites and grasslands. However, in southern Taiwan and islands Lanyu and Lutao, diploids also occur in woodlands. Triploids are restricted to grassland and woodland habitats in Taiwan, but grow in exposed sites, grassland and woodland habitats in Matsu islands. In general, triploids grow at higher elevations than the diploids.

  6. The physiology and biochemistry of the Laminaria pallida/Carpoblepharis minima and Ecklonia maxima/Suhria vittata associations from south-western Cape waters, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, V.J.

    1984-01-01

    The two laminarian brown algae Laminaria pallida Grev. ex. J. Ag. and Ecklonia maxima were studied. The red algae, growing attached to the brown algae namely, Carpoblepharis minima Bart. and Suhria vittata (L.) J. Ag. Pallida/C. minima and E. maxima/S. vittata associations were studied. Carpoblepharis minima has only been observed on L. pallida, whereas S. vittata has been found attached to various substrates as well as to E. maxima. Physiological studies were undertaken on both brown and red algae. Translocation was found to occur in the brown algae at a velocity of 50-100mm h- 1 in L. pallida and 240-300mm h- 1 in E. maxima after incubation in seawater containing 14 C-sodium bicarbonate (1μCi ml- 1 ). Movement of 14 C-assimilates in L. pallida was slower than in E. maxima probably due to a difference in the medulla structure. The only 14 C-labelled assimilates in the brown/red algal association were the acyclic polyol mannitol and certain amino acids. Mannitol was the major translocant in L. pallida and E. maxima. The mannitol concentration varied seasonally. Studies using 15 N-potassium nitrate showed that the major 'free' amino acids in L. pallida were alanine, glutamic acid and histadine, whereas in E. maxima they were alanine, glutamic acid and glutamine. The red algae contained mannitol and the major 'free' aminoacids were alanine, glutamine and histadine in C. minima and glutamine, glutamic acid and glycine in S. vittata. Both red algae were found to possess photosynthetic pigments, undergo 14 C-assimilation and to incorporate exogenously supplied mannitol. There was transfer of the 14 C-labelled assimilates of photosynthesis from the brown to the red algal partner in the L. pallida/C. minima association, but this did not occur in th E. maxima/S. vittata relationship

  7. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D; Woodrow, Ian E; Baker, Alan J; Batianoff, George N

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for 'new' hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible 'new' subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be followed up by field studies.

  8. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R.; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D.; Woodrow, Ian E.; Baker, Alan J.; Batianoff, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for ‘new’ hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. Methods ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). Key Results The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Conclusions Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible ‘new’ subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be

  9. Rhizosphere characteristics of indigenously growing nickel hyperaccumulator and excluder plants on serpentine soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.W.; Bunkowski, M.; Puschenreiter, M.; Horak, O.

    2003-01-01

    Field study reinforces that root exudates may contribute to nickel hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense Halacsy. - The role of rhizosphere processes in metal hyperaccumulation is largely unexplored and a matter of debate, related field data are virtually not available. We conducted a field survey of rhizosphere characteristics beneath the Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense Halacsy and the metal-excluder species Silene vulgaris L. and Rumex acetosella L. growing natively on the same serpentine site. Relative to bulk soil and to the rhizosphere of the excluder species, we found significantly increased DOC and Ni concentrations in water extracts of T. goesingense rhizosphere, whereas exchangeable Ni was depleted due to excessive uptake of Ni. Chemical speciation analysis using the MINTEQA2 software package revealed that enhanced Ni solubility in Thlaspi rhizosphere is driven by the formation of Ni-organic complexes. Moreover, ligand-induced dissolution of Ni-bearing minerals is likely to contribute to enhanced Ni solubility. Increased Mg and Ca concentrations and pH in Thlaspi rhizosphere are consistent with ligand-induced dissolution of orthosilicates such as forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ). Our field data reinforce the hypothesis that exudation of organic ligands may contribute to enhanced solubility and replenishment of metals in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating species

  10. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuebing; Zhou Qixing; Wang Lin; Liu Weitao

    2009-01-01

    Recently, researchers are becoming interested in using hyperaccumulators for decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils, whereas few species that hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd) has been identified in the plant kingdom. In this study, the physiological mechanisms at the seedling stage and growth responses and Cd uptake and accumulation at flowering and mature stages of Bidens pilosa L. under Cd treatments were investigated. At the seedling stage, when soil Cd was lower than 16 mg kg -1 , the plant did not show obvious symptom of phytoxicity, and the alterations of chlorophyll (CHL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble protein (SP) did not have significant differences when compared with the control. At the flowering and mature stages, under low Cd treatments (≤16 mg kg -1 ), the application of Cd could facilitate plant growth, resulting in 3.9-11.0% and 5.9-13.8%, respectively, increase in shoots dry biomass compared with the control. The Cd concentrations in stems, leaves and shoots exceeded 100 mg kg -1 when soil Cd was at 8 mg kg -1 , and they were positively correlated with Cd concentration in soils, the bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) values were all greater than 1.0. Thus, it is clear that B. pilosa has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator. All the results elementarily indicated that B. pilosa is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulating plant

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of cadmium stress response in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gao

    Full Text Available The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd, as well as zinc (Zn and lead (Pb in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≥ 2.0 and down-regulated (Fold Change hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE. Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots.

  12. Use of non-hyperaccumulator plant species for the phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Anjos Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination by heavy metals is a challenge faced by many countries, and engineering technologies to solve this problem are expensive and can cause negative impacts on the environment. One way to minimise the levels of heavy metals in the soil is to use plants that can absorb and accumulate heavy metals into harvestable parts, a process called phytoextraction. Typical plant species used in research involving phytoextraction are heavy metal hyperaccumulators, but plants from this group are not good biomass producers and grow more slowly than most species; thus, they have an important role in helping scientists understand the mechanisms involved in accumulating high amounts of heavy metals without developing symptoms or dying. However, because of their slow growth, it is not practical to use these species for phytoextraction. An alternative approach is to use non-hyperaccumulator plants assisted by chelating agents, which may improve the ability of plants to accumulate more heavy metals than they would naturally. Chelating agents can be synthetic or organic acids, and the advantages and disadvantages of their use in improving the phytoextraction potential of non-hyperaccumulator plants are discussed in this article. We hope to draw attention to ways to improve the phytoextraction potential of non-hyperaccumulator plants that produce a large amount of biomass and to stimulate more research on phytoextraction-inducing substances.

  13. The leguminous species Anthyllis vulneraria as a Zn-hyperaccumulator and eco-Zn catalyst resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Mazel, Marine; Sellini, Amandine; Escande, Vincent; Biton, Jacques; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Anthyllis vulneraria was highlighted here as a Zn-hyperaccumulator for the development of a pilot phytoextraction process in the mine site of Les Avinières in the district of Saint-Laurent-Le-Minier. A. vulneraria appeared to hyperaccumulate the highest concentration of Zn in shoots with a better metal selectivity relative to Cd and Pb than the reference Zn-hyperaccumulator Noccea caerulescens. A bigger biomass production associated to a higher Zn concentration conducted A. vulneraria to the highest total zinc gain per hectare per year. As a legume, A. vulneraria was infected by rhizobia symbionts. Inoculation of A. vulneraria seeds showed a positive impact on Zn hyperaccumulation. A large-scale culture process of symbiotic rhizobia of A. vulneraria was investigated and optimized to allow large-scale inoculation process. Contaminated shoots of A. vulneraria were not considered as wastes and were recovered as Eco-Zn catalyst in particular, examples of organic synthesis, electrophilic aromatic substitution. Eco-Zn catalyst was much more efficient than conventional catalysts and allowed greener chemical processes.

  14. Plants as extreme environments? Ni-resistant bacteria and Ni-hyperaccumulators of serpentine flora.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengoni, A.; Schat, H.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest in the bacterial communities occurring in unusual, often extreme, environments. On serpentine outcrops around the world, a high diversity of plant species showing the peculiar features of metal hyperaccumulation is present. These metal

  15. Unique Rhizosphere Micro-characteristics Facilitate Phytoextraction of Multiple Metals in Soil by the Hyperaccumulating Plant Sedum alfredii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dandi; Wang, Kai; Liu, Ting; Wang, Haixin; Lin, Zhi; Qian, Jie; Lu, Lingli; Tian, Shengke

    2017-05-16

    Understanding the strategies that the roots of hyperaccumulating plants use to extract heavy metals from soils is important for optimizing phytoremediation. The rhizosphere characteristics of Sedum alfredii, a hyperaccumulator, were investigated 6 months after it had been planted in weathered field soils contaminated with 5.8 μg of Cd g -1 , 1985.1 μg of Zn g -1 , 667.5 μg of Pb g -1 , and 698.8 μg of Cu g -1 . In contrast with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE), the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of S. alfredii was more tolerant to the metals, and higher levels of Cd and Zn accumulated. The HE was characterized by a unique rhizosphere, including extensive root systems, a reduced soil pH, a higher metal bioavailability, and increased rhizomicrobial activity. The bioavailability of metals was significantly correlated with the HE's unique bacterial communities (P heavy metal phytoextraction.

  16. A locally funded Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata genome sequencing project increases avian data and advances young researcher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksyk Taras K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amazona vittata is a critically endangered Puerto Rican endemic bird, the only surviving native parrot species in the United States territory, and the first parrot in the large Neotropical genus Amazona, to be studied on a genomic scale. Findings In a unique community-based funded project, DNA from an A. vittata female was sequenced using a HiSeq Illumina platform, resulting in a total of ~42.5 billion nucleotide bases. This provided approximately 26.89x average coverage depth at the completion of this funding phase. Filtering followed by assembly resulted in 259,423 contigs (N50 = 6,983 bp, longest = 75,003 bp, which was further scaffolded into 148,255 fragments (N50 = 19,470, longest = 206,462 bp. This provided ~76% coverage of the genome based on an estimated size of 1.58 Gb. The assembled scaffolds allowed basic genomic annotation and comparative analyses with other available avian whole-genome sequences. Conclusions The current data represents the first genomic information from and work carried out with a unique source of funding. This analysis further provides a means for directed training of young researchers in genetic and bioinformatics analyses and will facilitate progress towards a full assembly and annotation of the Puerto Rican parrot genome. It also adds extensive genomic data to a new branch of the avian tree, making it useful for comparative analyses with other avian species. Ultimately, the knowledge acquired from these data will contribute to an improved understanding of the overall population health of this species and aid in ongoing and future conservation efforts.

  17. Arsenate and fluoride enhanced each other's uptake in As-sensitive plant Pteris ensiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suchismita; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; da Silva, Evandro; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of arsenate (AsV) and fluoride (F) on each other's uptake in an As-sensitive plant Pteris ensiformis. Plants were exposed to 1) 0.1 × Hoagland solution control, 2) 3.75 mg L -1 As and 1.9, 3.8, or 7.6 mg L -1 F, or 3) 1 mg L -1 F and 3.75 mg L -1 or 7.5 mg L -1 As for 7 d in hydroponics. P. ensiformis accumulated 14.7-32.6 mg kg -1 As at 3.75 mg L -1 AsV, and 99-145 mg kg -1 F at 1 mg L -1 F. Our study revealed that AsV and F increased each other's uptake when co-present. At 1.9 mg L -1 , F increased frond As uptake from 14.7 to 40.3 mg kg -1 , while 7.5 mg L -1 As increased frond F uptake from 99 to 371 mg kg -1 . Although, AsV was the predominant As species in all tissues, F enhanced AsIII levels in the rhizomes and fronds, while the reverse was observed in the roots. Increasing As concentrations also enhanced TBARS and H 2 O 2 in tissues, indicating oxidative stress. However, F alleviated As stress by lowering their levels in the fronds. Frond and root membrane leakage were also evident due to As or F exposure. The results may facilitate better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the co-uptake of As and F in plants. However, the mechanisms of how they enhance each other's uptake in P. ensiformis need further investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Enhancement of Cd phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii using electrical field and organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wendan; Li, Dan; Ye, Xuezhu; Xu, Haizhou; Yao, Guihua; Wang, Jingwen; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Jing; Gao, Na

    2017-02-01

    The combined use of organic amendment-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation to decontaminate Cd-polluted soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. The plant species selected was the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Prior to the pot experiment, the loamy soil was treated with 15 g kg -1 of pig manure compost, 10 g kg -1 of humic acid, or 5 mmol kg -1 of EDTA, and untreated soil without application of any amendment was the control. Two conditions were applied to each treatment: no voltage (without an electrical field) and a direct current (DC) electrical field (1 V cm -1 with switching polarity every day). Results indicated that Cd concentrations in S. alfredii were significantly (p phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator S. alfredii.

  19. The potential use of indigenous nickel hyperaccumulators for small-scale mining in The Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of nickel and three other heavy metals (copper, cobalt, and chromium was examined in 33 species of the common and rare native vascular plants growing in an ultramafic area currently subjected to mining in Zambales Province, Luzon, Philippines. Leaf tissue samples were initially screened in the field using filter paper impregnated with dimethylglyoxime (1% solution in 70% ethyl alcohol and later analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. One species was found to be a hypernickelophore (>10,000 µg/g, eight species were nickel hyperaccumulators (>1,000 µg/g, nineteen species were hemi-accumulators (>100-1,000 µg/g, and five species were non-accumulators (<100 µg/g. This paper significantly adds to the list of hyperaccumulator species first reported for the Philippines in 1992. The findings will be discussed in context of using indigenous species for post mining ecological restoration and nickel phytoextraction in small-scale mining in the Philippines

  20. Uptake, sequestration and tolerance of cadmium at cellular levels in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shengke; Xie, Ruohan; Wang, Haixin; Hu, Yan; Hou, Dandi; Liao, Xingcheng; Brown, Patrick H.; Yang, Hongxia; Lin, Xianyong; Labavitch, John M.; Lu, Lingli

    2017-04-01

    Sedum alfredii is one of a few plant species known to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd). Uptake, localization, and tolerance of Cd at cellular levels in shoots were compared in hyperaccumulating (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating (NHE) ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. X-ray fluorescence images of Cd in stems and leaves showed only a slight Cd signal restricted within vascular bundles in the NHEs, while enhanced localization of Cd, with significant tissue- and age-dependent variations, was detected in HEs. In contrast to the vascular-enriched Cd in young stems, parenchyma cells in leaf mesophyll, stem pith and cortex tissues served as terminal storage sites for Cd sequestration in HEs. Kinetics of Cd transport into individual leaf protoplasts of the two ecotypes showed little difference in Cd accumulation. However, far more efficient storage of Cd in vacuoles was apparent in HEs. Subsequent analysis of cell viability and hydrogen peroxide levels suggested that HE protoplasts exhibited higher resistance to Cd than those of NHE protoplasts. These results suggest that efficient sequestration into vacuoles, as opposed to rapid transport into parenchyma cells, is a pivotal process in Cd accumulation and homeostasis in shoots of HE S. alfredii. This is in addition to its efficient root-to-shoot translocation of Cd.

  1. 砒素を溶出する泥岩のモエジマシダによるファイトレメディエーションに関するポット実験

    OpenAIRE

    渡邉, 彩; 榊原, 正幸; 佐野, 栄; 近藤, 敏仁; 井上, 雅裕; 堀, 利栄; 鈴木, 哲也; 竹花, 大介

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants for the in situ cleanup of contaminated soils, sediments, and ground water. Pot-scale experiment evaluated phytoremediation by Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake fern) for mudstone containing arsenic (12.3 mg/kg-DW) of the Hakobuchi Group in the Yubari City, central Hokkaido, Japan. In this experiment, fronds of Pteris vittata L. were taken after 18 weeks growth in soil. The following properties became clear after examining the experimental results. (1) The...

  2. Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Zhou Qixing; Ding Lingling; Sun Yuebing

    2008-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are ideal plant species used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A full understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms of hyperaccumulators will facilitate enhancing their phytoremediation efficiency. However, how Cd affects N metabolism and which role plays the response of N metabolism to Cd toxicity in the tolerance of hyperaccumulators are still unknown. To clarify these questions, this study investigated the effects of various soil Cd levels on the concentrations of N forms and the activity of key enzymes involved in N metabolism in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. The results showed that its growth and all N metabolism indicators were normal at low Cd exposure (≤12 mg kg -1 ). At 24 mg Cd kg -1 soil, nitrate assimilation indicators (nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase) were reduced significantly, whereas most ammonia assimilation indicators (ammonium concentration and activity of glutamine synthetase) remained normal. However, when exposed to a higher Cd level (48 mg kg -1 ), growth and most N metabolism indicators were reduced significantly. Therefore, N metabolism in leaves of S. nigrum could be tolerant of Cd toxicity to a certain extent (soil Cd concentration ≤12 mg kg -1 ), and this might be involved in the Cd-tolerance of this Cd-hyperaccumulator

  3. Manganese uptake and accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, S.G.; Chen, Y.X.; Reeves, Roger D.; Baker, Alan J.M.; Lin, Q.; Fernando, Denise R.

    2004-01-01

    The perennial herb Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new manganese hyperaccumulator by means of field surveys on Mn-rich soils and by glasshouse experiments. This species not only has remarkable tolerance to Mn but also has extraordinary uptake and accumulation capacity for this element. The maximum Mn concentration in the leaf dry matter was 19,300 μg/g on Xiangtan Mn tailings wastelands, with a mean of 14,480 μg/g. Under nutrient solution culture conditions, P. acinosa could grow normally with Mn supplied at a concentration of 8000 μmol/l, although with less biomass than in control samples supplied with Mn at 5 μmol/l. Manganese concentration in the shoots increased with increasing external Mn levels, but the total mass of Mn accumulated in the shoots first increased and then decreased. At an Mn concentration of 5000 μmol/l in the culture solution, the Mn accumulation in the shoot dry matter was highest (258 mg/plant). However, the Mn concentration in the leaves reached its highest value (36,380 μg/g) at an Mn supply level of 12,000 μmol/l. These results confirm that P. acinosa is an Mn hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly, has substantial biomass, wide distribution and a broad ecological amplitude. This species provides a new plant resource for exploring the mechanism of Mn hyperaccumulation, and has potential for use in the phytoremediation of Mn-contaminated soils

  4. Fertilizer amendment for improving the phytoextraction of cadmium by a hyperaccumulator Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering; Zhu, Jiangong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate School; Zhan, Jie [Institute of Liaoning Basic Medicine, Shenyang (China)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Two main pathways of phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils are phytostabilization and phytoextraction. Some soil amendments can strengthen phytostabilization or phytoextraction through either reducing heavy metal bioavailability in soil or increasing the heavy metal accumulation capacity of the hyperaccumulator (enhancing heavy metal concentration or shoot biomass of the hyperaccumulator). Urea and chicken manure are often used as fertilizers. This research will explore their effects on a newly found hyperaccumulator, Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell., phytoremediating cadmium (Cd). Materials and methods: Pot culture experiment was conducted to study the accumulation characteristics of R. globosa at different Cd contamination concentrations under one fertilizer level (1 g kg{sup -1} for urea and 100 g kg{sup -1} for chicken manure), as well as the same Cd dose (20 mg kg{sup -1}) under different fertilizer doses. Cd was artificially spiked at 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg{sup -1}. Urea was amended at 0.5, 1, and 2 g kg{sup -1}, while chicken manure was supplemented at 50, 100, and 200 g kg{sup -1}. The heavy metal concentration in soil and plant samples was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. pH, N, P, K, and so on in soil samples were determined by normal method. Results and discussion: The results showed that urea application did not affect the Cd concentrations in root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, and shoot of R. globosa, but chicken manure significantly decreased (p < 0.05) them by 28.4%, 29.3%, 30.8%, 24.9%, and 28.3%, respectively, owing to decreased extractable Cd in soil. Thus, strengthening the capacity (Cd accumulation in plant shoot, micrograms per pot) of urea was higher than that of chicken manure, though both shoot biomasses increased by one to threefold. Furthermore, the addition of urea and chicken manure increased the organic material, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the microorganism count, urease, and the

  5. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of chromium in a cordgrass Cr-hyperaccumulator, Spartina argentinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Vecino-Bueno, Inmaculada; Feldman, Susana R.

    2011-01-01

    The cordgrass Spartina argentinensis, which occurs in inland marshes of the Chaco-Pampean regions of Argentina, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Cr 6+ from 0 to 20 mmol l -1 on growth and photosynthetic apparatus of S. argentinensis by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. Boron, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium and phosphorous concentrations were also determined. S. argentinensis showed phytotoxicity at tiller concentration of 4 mg g -1 Cr, and symptoms of stress at tiller concentration of 1.5 mg g -1 Cr, as well as reductions in leaf gas exchange, in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, in photosynthetic pigment contents and in the uptake of essential nutrients. Reductions in net photosynthetic rate could be accounted for by non-stomatal limitations. Moreover, the bioaccumulator factors exceeded greatly the critical value (1.0) for all Cr treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has a higher ability to transfer Cr from roots to tillers at higher Cr concentrations. These results confirmed that S. argentinensis is a chromium hyperaccumulator and that it may be useful for restoring Cr-contaminated sites.

  6. Molecular dissection of the role of histidine in nickel hyperaccumulation in Thalspi goesingense (Halacsy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persans, M.W.; Yan, X.; Patnoe, J.M.M.L.; Kraemer, U.; Salt, D.E.

    1999-12-01

    To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, the authors investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase, and histidinol dehydrogenase, were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His autotrophs. Northern analysis of THJG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. The authors were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi reverse revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. They therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni.

  7. Combined endophytic inoculants enhance nickel phytoextraction from serpentine soil in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Giovanna; Vamerali, Teofilo; Mattarozzi, Monica; Dramis, Lucia; Sanangelantoni, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of specific bacterial endophytes on the phytoextraction capacity of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, spontaneously growing in a serpentine soil environment. Five metal-tolerant endophytes had already been selected for their high Ni tolerance (6 mM) and plant growth promoting ability. Here we demonstrate that individual bacterial inoculation is ineffective in enhancing Ni translocation and growth of N. caerulescens in serpentine soil, except for specific strains Ncr-1 and Ncr-8, belonging to the Arthrobacter and Microbacterium genera, which showed the highest indole acetic acid production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-deaminase activity. Ncr-1 and Ncr-8 co-inoculation was even more efficient in promoting plant growth, soil Ni removal, and translocation of Ni, together with that of Fe, Co, and Cu. Bacteria of both strains densely colonized the root surfaces and intercellular spaces of leaf epidermal tissue. These two bacterial strains also turned out to stimulate root length, shoot biomass, and Ni uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in MS agar medium supplemented with Ni. It is concluded that adaptation of N. caerulescens in highly Ni-contaminated serpentine soil can be enhanced by an integrated community of bacterial endophytes rather than by single strains; of the former, Arthrobacter and Microbacterium may be useful candidates for future phytoremediation trials in multiple metal-contaminated sites, with possible extension to non-hyperaccumulator plants.

  8. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by Corydalis davidii in Zn-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenjie; Xiao, Tangfu; Wu, Yunying; Ao, Ziqiang; Ning, Zengping

    2012-02-01

    A field survey was conducted to identify potential Zn accumulators from an artisanal Zn smelting area in southwest China's Guizhou Province. Hydroponic and soil culture experiments were performed to investigate the accumulation ability of Zn in Corydalis davidii. Zn concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of C. davidii in the smelting site were 1.1-3.5, 1.2-11.2, and 3.3-14 mg g(-)(1), respectively, whereas Zn concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of C. davidii in the contaminated site impacted by the Zn smelting were 1.0-2.4, 1.9-6.5, and 3.0-1.1 mg g(-1), respectively. Zn concentrations in leaves and stems of C. davidii were observed at above 10 mg g(-1) that refers to the threshold of Zn hyperaccumulator. The concentration distribution of Zn in C. davidii was leaf>stem>root, and the Zn bioaccumulation factors of C. davidii were above 1. It is concluded that C. davidii has high tolerance to concentrate Zn stress, and that C. davidii is a newly discovered Zn-hyperaccumulator with high biomass in the aboveground parts. Based on the cultivation experiments, C. davidii could reduce Zn concentration by 26.6, 21.2, and 10.2 mg kg(-1)yr(-1) by phytoextraction from the smelting slag, Zn-contaminated soil, and background soil, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of chromium in a cordgrass Cr-hyperaccumulator, Spartina argentinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Vecino-Bueno, Inmaculada [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Feldman, Susana R. [Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y CIUNR, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    The cordgrass Spartina argentinensis, which occurs in inland marshes of the Chaco-Pampean regions of Argentina, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Cr{sup 6+} from 0 to 20 mmol l{sup -1} on growth and photosynthetic apparatus of S. argentinensis by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. Boron, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium and phosphorous concentrations were also determined. S. argentinensis showed phytotoxicity at tiller concentration of 4 mg g{sup -1} Cr, and symptoms of stress at tiller concentration of 1.5 mg g{sup -1} Cr, as well as reductions in leaf gas exchange, in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, in photosynthetic pigment contents and in the uptake of essential nutrients. Reductions in net photosynthetic rate could be accounted for by non-stomatal limitations. Moreover, the bioaccumulator factors exceeded greatly the critical value (1.0) for all Cr treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has a higher ability to transfer Cr from roots to tillers at higher Cr concentrations. These results confirmed that S. argentinensis is a chromium hyperaccumulator and that it may be useful for restoring Cr-contaminated sites.

  10. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhouli [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); He Xingyuan, E-mail: hexy@iae.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Chen Wei; Yuan Fenghui [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yan Kun [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Tao Dali [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-09-30

    Phytoremediation using hyperaccumulators is a promising technique of removing soil pollutants. In the study, growth responses, cadmium (Cd) accumulation capability and physiological mechanisms of Lonicera japonica Thunb. under Cd stress were investigated. Exposed to 5 and 10 mg L{sup -1} Cd, the plants did not show any visual symptoms, furthermore, the height, dry biomass of leaves, roots and total and the chlorophyll (CHL) content were obtained different grade increase. When the concentration of Cd was up to 50 mg L{sup -1}, the height, dry biomass of leaves and roots had not significant differences compared with the control. The indexes of tolerance (IT) were all above 0.8. The maintenance of high superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, suggesting strong internal detoxification mechanisms inside plant cells. After 21 days exposure to 25 mg L{sup -1} Cd, stem and shoot Cd concentrations reached 344.49 {+-} 0.71 and 286.12 {+-} 9.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively and the plant had higher bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF). According to these results, it was shown L. japonica had strong tolerance and accumulation capability to Cd, therefore it is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  11. Screening of a new cadmium hyperaccumulator, Galinsoga parviflora, from winter farmland weeds using the artificially high soil cadmium concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Jin, Qian; Liu, Yingjie; Ning, Bo; Liao, Ming'an; Luo, Li

    2014-11-01

    A new method, the artificially high soil cadmium (Cd) concentration method, was used to screen for Cd hyperaccumulators among winter farmland weeds. Galinsoga parviflora was the most promising remedial plant among 5 Cd accumulators or hyperaccumulators. In Cd concentration gradient experiments, as soil Cd concentration increased, root and shoot biomass decreased, and their Cd contents increased. In additional concentration gradient experiments, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities increased with soil Cd concentrations up to 75 mg kg(-1) , while expression of their isoenzymes strengthened. Catalase (CAT) activity declined and CAT isoenzyme expression weakened at soil Cd concentrations less than 50 mg kg(-1) . The maxima of Cd contents in shoots and roots were 137.63 mg kg(-1) and 105.70 mg kg(-1) , respectively, at 100 mg kg(-1) Cd in soil. The root and shoot bioconcentration factors exceeded 1.0, as did the translocation factor. In a field experiment, total extraction of Cd by shoots was 1.35 mg m(-2) to 1.43 mg m(-2) at soil Cd levels of 2.04 mg kg(-1) to 2.89 mg kg(-1) . Therefore, the artificially high soil Cd concentration method was effective for screening Cd hyperaccumulators. Galinsoga parviflora is a Cd hyperaccumulator that could be used to efficiently remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, Archana; Küpper, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 22 (2017), č. článku 835. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000336 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cellular compartmentation * zinc homeostasis * cadmium * metal hyperaccumulator plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  13. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study, we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with...

  14. Contrasted zinc hyperaccumulation levels between metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Arabidopsis halleri is driven by divergent selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst-Kostecka, Alicja; Waldmann, Patrik; Pauwels, Maxime; Schat, Henk; Bourceaux, Angélique; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Frérot, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 400 species that can survive and reproduce in metalliferous environments have developed "metal hyperaccumulation" capacity, allowing them to allocate large amounts of trace elements to their aerial parts without showing severe toxicity symptoms. The potential of hyperaccumulators to be applied in phytoremediation efforts is of great research and commercial interest. Yet, the genetic basis and evolutionary significance of this trait are to date insufficiently understood. This lack of knowledge limits the efficiency and large-scale use of such plants in reducing soil pollution through "green and clean technologies" (phytoremediation). In this context, the objective of this study was to find some evidence of selection acting on metal hyperaccumulation, thus supporting the existence of genetic adaptation for this trait. Here, we collected six metallicolous and five non-metallicolous populations of the pseudometallophyte model species Arabidopsis halleri in Poland that are genetically and geographically close. We asexually propagated genotypes that were sampled in natural populations to produce several clones of each individual. These were subsequently used in a soil culture experiment with artificially zinc-contaminated compost for accumulation assessment. The zinc content of shoots was determined after five weeks of culture using the colorimetric reagent zincon. The heritability and the genetic differentiation of the zinc accumulation trait were estimated (Qst statistic) and the latter was compared to the differentiation at neutral molecular markers (Fst statistic). Despite significantly (Pzinc concentrations in metallicolous compared to non-metallicolous plants, we observed a rather continuous range of zinc hyperaccumulation capacities with multiple genotypes from both edaphic types in between. Overall, zinc concentrations were high in most plants, with only a few metallicolous individuals not reaching the threshold concentration for zinc

  15. Changes in gametophyte physiology of Pteris multifida induced by the leaf leachate treatment of the invasive Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the response of fern gametophytes to environment has raised much attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion to fern gametophytes are scarce. Allelopathy plays an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathic effects of invasive plants on fern gametophytes and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on spermatophyte growth. Field investigation shows that many ferns are threatened by the invasion of B. pilosa. The distribution of Pteris multifida overlaps with that of B. pilosa in China. To examine the potential involvement of allelopathic mechanisms of B. pilosa leaves, changes in the physiology in P. multifida gametophytes are analyzed. We found that cell membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as photosynthesis pigment contents of the gametophytes were affected by B. pilosa leachates. Gametophytes of P. multifida exposed to B. pilosa had increased damages to cell membranes, expressed in thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (membrane permeability), and degree of injury. Enzyme activities, assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) enhanced with the increase in leachate concentration after 2-day exposure. Meanwhile, lower chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoid (Car), and the total chlorophyll were measured as leachate concentrations increased. At day 10, leaf leachates of B. pilosa exhibited the greatest inhibition. These results suggest that the observed inhibitory or stimulatory effects on the physiology studied can have an adverse effect on P. multifida and that allelopathic interference seems to have involved in this process.

  16. Identification of Glucosinolates in Seeds of Three Brassicaceae Species Known to Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaut, Sabine; Guido, Benjamin S; Grison, Claude; Rollin, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Plants from the Brassicaceae family are known to contain secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Our goal was to establish by LC/MS the glucosinolate profile of seeds of three Brassicaceae species known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. We investigated Alyssum fallacinum auct. non Hausskn., Iberis intermedia Guers., and Noccaea caerulescens (J. Presl & C. Presl) F. K. Mey. Our results indicate that A. fallacinum seeds contain glucoiberin and glucoibervirin, which had not been previously identified in this plant. Furthermore, we report for the first time the presence of glucoiberin, glucoibervirin, glucotropaeolin, and sinigrin in I. intermedia. We have detected for the first time glucoconringiin in N. caerulescens. In addition, glucosinalbin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and glucomoringin were also detected. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Evaluation of hyperaccumulator plant species grown in metalliferous sites in Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babani, F.; Civici, N.; Mullaj, A.; Kongjika, E.; Ylli, A.

    2007-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils causes serious problems to our society. A small number of interesting plant species have been identified that can grow in soils containing high levels of heavy metals, and can also accumulate these metals to high concentrations in the shoot. The heavy metal contents in root, shoot, leaves and flowers of spontaneous plants grown in metalliferous sites in Albania together with the elemental composition of the native soils were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus of analyzed ecotypes was evaluated via chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during induction kinetics. Response of plant root system to the presence of metals, the available pools of metals to plants, effect of plant biomass to phytoextraction, photosynthetic pigment metabolism and chlorophyll fluorescence signature of leaves allowed to characterize hyperaccumulator properties and to detect the variation between selected ecotypes to heavy metal accumulation.

  18. Manganese uptake and interactions with cadmium in the hyperaccumulator-Phytolacca Americana L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Kejian [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hunan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences Changsha 410004 (China); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); You Wuxin [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lian Chunlan [Asian Natural Environmental Science Center, University of Tokyo, 1-1-8 Midori-cho, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Shen Zhenguo [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: zgshen@njau.edu.cn

    2008-06-15

    In the present study, the accumulation of Mn and other metals by Phytolacca Americana L. from contaminated soils in Hunan Province, South China, was investigated. Results showed that the average concentrations of Mn in the leaves and roots reached 2198 and 80.4 mg kg{sup -1} (dry weight), respectively, with a maximum 13,400 mg kg{sup -1} in the leaves. A significant correlation was found between Mn concentrations in the plant leaves and those in the corresponding soils. Hydroponic experiments were also conducted to study the Cd uptake ability and interactions between Mn and Cd in the plant. It was found that P. americana hyperaccumulated not only Mn, but also Cd in the leaves. In the presence of Cd, adding Mn to the solution significantly improved the plant growth and reduced the concentrations of Cd in all organs of the plant.

  19. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YA-FEN eLIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species known to hyperaccumulate these metals to extremely high concentrations in their aboveground biomass. In order to provide additional molecular resources for this model metal hyperaccumulator species to study and understand the mechanism of heavy metal exposure adaptation, we aimed to provide a comprehensive database of transcript sequences for N. caerulescens. In this study, 23830 transcript sequences (isotigs with an average length of 1025 bps were determined for roots, shoots and inflorescences of N. caerulescens accession ‘Ganges’ by Roche GS-FLEX 454 pyrosequencing. These isotigs were grouped into 20,378 isogroups, representing potential genes. This is a large expansion of the existing N. caerulescens transcriptome set consisting of 3705 unigenes. When compared to a Brassicaceae proteome set, 22,232 (93.2% of the N. caerulescens isotigs (corresponding to 19191 isogroups had a significant match and could be annotated accordingly. Of the remaining sequences, 98 isotigs resembled non-plant sequences and 1386 had no significant similarity to any sequence in the GenBank database. Among the annotated set there were many isotigs with similarity to metal homeostasis genes or genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Only for transcripts similar to Metallothionein3 (MT3, clear evidence for an additional copy was found. This comprehensive set of transcripts is expected to further contribute to the discovery of mechanisms used by N. caerulescens to adapt to heavy metal exposure.

  20. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  1. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  2. Hydroponic phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Ni, As, and Fe: can Helianthus annuus hyperaccumulate multiple heavy metals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    January, Mary C; Cutright, Teresa J; Van Keulen, Harry; Wei, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Sundance sunflowers were subjected to contaminated solutions containing 3, 4, or 5 heavy metals, with and without EDTA. The sunflowers exhibited a metal uptake preference of Cd=Cr>Ni, Cr>Cd>Ni>As and Fe>As>Cd>Ni>Cr without EDTA and Cr>Cd>Ni, Fe>As>Cd>Cr>Ni with EDTA. As uptake was not affected by other metals, but it decreased Cd and Ni concentration in the stems. The presence of Fe improved the translocation of the other metals regardless of whether EDTA was present. In general, EDTA served as a hindrance to metal uptake. For the experiment with all five heavy metals, EDTA decreased Cd in the roots and stems from 2.11 to 1.36 and from 2.83 to 2.3 2mg g(-1) biomass, respectively. For the same conditions, Ni in the stems decreased from 1.98 to 0.94 mg g(-1) total metal uptake decreased from 14.95 mg to 13.89 mg, and total biomass decreased from 2.38 g to 1.99 g. These results showed an overall negative effect in addition of EDTA. However it is unknown whether the negative effect was due to toxicity posed by EDTA or the breaking of phytochelatin-metal bonds. The most important finding was the ability of Sundance sunflowers to achieve hyperaccumulator status for both As and Cd under all conditions studied. Ni hyperaccumulator status was only achieved in the presence of three metals without EDTA.

  3. Leaf-age and soil-plant relationships: key factors for reporting trace-elements hyperaccumulation by plants and design applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Mc Coy, Stéphane; Grison, Claude; Jaffré, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    Relationships between the trace-elements (TE) content of plants and associated soil have been widely investigated especially to understand the ecology of TE hyperaccumulating species to develop applications using TE phytoextraction. Many studies have focused on the possibility of quantifying the soil TE fraction available to plants, and used bioconcentration (BC) as a measure of the plants ability to absorb TE. However, BC only offers a static view of the dynamic phenomenon of TE accumulation. Accumulation kinetics are required to fully account for TE distributions in plants. They are also crucial to design applications where maximum TE concentrations in plant leaves are needed. This paper provides a review of studies of BC (i.e. soil-plant relationships) and leaf-age in relation to TE hyperaccumulation. The paper focuses of Ni and Mn accumulators and hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia who were previously overlooked until recent Ecocatalysis applications emerged for such species. Updated data on Mn hyperaccumulators and accumulators from New Caledonia are also presented and advocate further investigation of the hyperaccumulation of this element. Results show that leaf-age should be considered in the design of sample collection and allowed the reclassification of Grevillea meisneri known previously as a Mn accumulator to a Mn hyperaccumulator.

  4. Arsenic in the rhizosphere soil solution of ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chaoyang; Zheng, Huan; Yu, Jiangping

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the evidence of arsenic hyperaccumulation in plant rhizosphere solutions. Six common fern plants were selected and grown in three types of substrate: arsenic (As) -tailings, As-spiked soil, and soil-As-tailing composites. A rhizobox was designed with an in-situ collection of soil solutions to analyze changes in the As concentration and valence as well as the pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Arsenite composed less than 20% of the total As, and As depletion was consistent with N depletion in the rhizosphere solutions of the various treatments. The As concentrations in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere solutions in the presence of plants were lower than in the respective controls without plants, except for in the As-spiked soils. The DOC concentrations were invariably higher in the rhizosphere versus non-rhizosphere solutions from the various plants; however, no significant increase in the DOC content was observed in Pteris vittata, in which only a slight decrease in pH appeared in the rhizosphere compared to non-rhizosphere solutions. The results showed that As reduction by plant roots was limited, acidification-induced solubilization was not the mechanism for As hyperaccumulation.

  5. Remediation and Safe Production of cd Contaminated Soil Via Multiple Cropping Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and Low Accumulation Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingfen; Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Wang, Siqi; Ji, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple crop experiment of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Chinese cabbage Fenyuanxin 3 were conducted in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated vegetable field. In the first round, the average removal rate of S. nigrum to Cd was about 10% without assisted phytoextraction reagent addition for the top soil (0-20 cm) with Cd concentration at 0.53-0.97 mg kg(-1) after its grew 90 days. As for assisted phytoextraction reagent added plots, efficiency of Cd remediation might reach at 20%. However, in the second round, Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage was edible, even in the plots with assisted phytoextraction reagent added. Thus, multiple cropping hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit) in one year, which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future.

  6. The effect of mycorrhiza on the growth and elemental composition of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii Roessler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta, E-mail: elo@mb.au.dk [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Orlowski, Dariusz [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Turnau, Katarzyna [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and element uptake by Ni-hyperaccumulating plant, Berkheya coddii, was studied. Plants were grown under laboratory conditions on ultramafic soil without or with the AM fungi of different origin. The AM colonization, especially with the indigenous strain, significantly enhanced plants growth and their survival. AMF affected also the elemental concentrations that were studied with Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). AMF (i) increased K and Fe in shoots, Zn and Mn in roots, P and Ca both, in roots and shoots; (ii) decreased Mn in shoots, Co and Ni both, in shoots and roots. Due to higher biomass of mycorrhizal plants, total Ni content was up to 20 times higher in mycorrhizal plants compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones. The AMF enhancement of Ni uptake may therefore provide an improvement of a presently used technique of nickel phytomining. - Highlights: > The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Ni-hyperaccumulating plant was studied. > Growth of Berkheya coddii was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. > Mycorrhizal symbiosis increased Ni uptake to aboveground part of the plants. > Mycorrhizal colonization affected concentration and uptake of other elements. > Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could improve the techniques of nickel phytomining. - Inoculation of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly enhanced plant growth and increased Ni uptake.

  7. The effect of mycorrhiza on the growth and elemental composition of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii Roessler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Orlowski, Dariusz; Turnau, Katarzyna; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and element uptake by Ni-hyperaccumulating plant, Berkheya coddii, was studied. Plants were grown under laboratory conditions on ultramafic soil without or with the AM fungi of different origin. The AM colonization, especially with the indigenous strain, significantly enhanced plants growth and their survival. AMF affected also the elemental concentrations that were studied with Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). AMF (i) increased K and Fe in shoots, Zn and Mn in roots, P and Ca both, in roots and shoots; (ii) decreased Mn in shoots, Co and Ni both, in shoots and roots. Due to higher biomass of mycorrhizal plants, total Ni content was up to 20 times higher in mycorrhizal plants compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones. The AMF enhancement of Ni uptake may therefore provide an improvement of a presently used technique of nickel phytomining. - Highlights: → The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Ni-hyperaccumulating plant was studied. → Growth of Berkheya coddii was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. → Mycorrhizal symbiosis increased Ni uptake to aboveground part of the plants. → Mycorrhizal colonization affected concentration and uptake of other elements. → Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could improve the techniques of nickel phytomining. - Inoculation of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly enhanced plant growth and increased Ni uptake.

  8. La casside de la betterave (Cassida vittata Wild, Col., Chrysomelidae au Gharb: cycle de développement et stratégie de lutte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'Hamed HMIMINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Gharb and Loukkos regions, the Tortoise Beetle (Cassida vittata Vill develops a single annual generation due to obligatory imaginal dormancy induced by summer conditions. The weekly counts of the various stages of the insect made during two campaigns, reveal a homogeneous life cycle for all areas covered by the study: arrival of adults on fields of sugar beet from early January, feeding and spawning starting from late February to early March, straddling larval development, adult of the year generation and migration to sites of aestivation. The influence of these sites of aestivating on the infestation of adjacent beet crops has been sought. Depending on the method of analysis used, it seems not to be clear correlation. At their awakening, the Tortoise Beetle likely scatter freely on the fields.

  9. A class III chitinase without disulfide bonds from the fern, Pteris ryukyuensis: crystal structure and ligand-binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoku, Yoshihito; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Numata, Tomoyuki; Taira, Toki; Sakuda, Shohei; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2015-10-01

    We first solved the crystal structure of class III catalytic domain of a chitinase from fern (PrChiA-cat), and found a structural difference between PrChiA-cat and hevamine. PrChiA-cat was found to have reduced affinities to chitin oligosaccharides and allosamidin. Plant class III chitinases are subdivided into enzymes with three disulfide bonds and those without disulfide bonds. We here referred to the former enzymes as class IIIa chitinases and the latter as class IIIb chitinases. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of the class IIIb catalytic domain of a chitinase from the fern Pteris ryukyuensis (PrChiA-cat), and compared it with that of hevamine, a class IIIa chitinase from Hevea brasiliensis. PrChiA-cat was found to adopt an (α/β)8 fold typical of GH18 chitinases in a similar manner to that of hevamine. However, PrChiA-cat also had two large loops that extruded from the catalytic site, and the corresponding loops in hevamine were markedly smaller than those of PrChiA-cat. An HPLC analysis of the enzymatic products revealed that the mode of action of PrChiA-cat toward chitin oligosaccharides, (GlcNAc) n (n = 4-6), differed from those of hevamine and the other class IIIa chitinases. The binding affinities of (GlcNAc)3 and (GlcNAc)4 toward the inactive mutant of PrChiA-cat were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and were markedly lower than those toward other members of the GH18 family. The affinity and the inhibitory activity of allosamidin toward PrChiA-cat were also lower than those toward the GH18 chitinases investigated to date. Several hydrogen bonds found in the crystal structure of hevamine-allosamidin complex were missing in the modeled structure of PrChiA-cat-allosamidin complex. The structural findings for PrChiA-cat successfully interpreted the functional data presented.

  10. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-01-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  11. Biosynthesis, characterization, and evaluation of bioactivities of leaf extract-mediated biocompatible silver nanoparticles from an early tracheophyte, Pteris tripartita Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran XR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xavierravi Baskaran,1 Antony Varuvel Geo Vigila,2 Thangaraj Parimelazhagan,3 Doulathabad Muralidhara-Rao,4 Shouzhou Zhang1 1Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Southern Subtropical Plant Diversity, Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Zoology, St Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai, 3Department of Botany, Bioprospecting Laboratory, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 4Department of Biotechnology, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: The objective of the study was to characterize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs and their bioactivities in early tracheophytes (Pteridophyta. Aqueous leaf extract of a critically endangered fern, Pteris tripartita Sw., was used for one-step green synthesis of Ag-NPs. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Morphologically, the Ag-NPs showed hexagonal, spherical, and rod-shaped structures. Size distributions of Ag-NPs, calculated using Scherrer’s formula, showed an average size of 32 nm. Ag-NPs were studied for in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Ag-NPs exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw volume tests performed in female Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, Ag-NPs showed significant antimicrobial activity against 12 different microorganisms in three different assays (disk diffusion, time course growth, and minimum inhibitory concentration. This study reports that colloidal Ag-NPs can be synthesized by simple, nonhazardous methods, and that biosynthesized Ag-NPs have significant therapeutic properties.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Pteris tripartita, FTIR, HRTEM, antioxidant, antimicrobial

  12. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l -1 on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg -1 . The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l -1 Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P N ). Reductions in P N could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  13. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Luo

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd. S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress.

  14. Repeated phytoextraction of four metal-contaminated soils using the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hao; Christie, Peter

    2014-06-01

    A cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator extracted metals from four contaminated soils over three years in a glasshouse experiment. Changes in plant metal uptake and soil total (aqua regia-extractable) and available metals were investigated. Plant Cd concentrations in a high-Cd acid soil and plant Zn concentrations in two acid soils decreased during repeated phytoextraction and were predicted by soil available metal concentrations. However, on repeated phytoextraction, plant Cd concentrations remained constant in lightly Cd-polluted acid soils, as did plant Cd and Zn in alkaline soils, although soil available metal concentrations decreased markedly. After phytoextraction acid soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiencies, indicating possible suitability of phytoextraction for acid soils. However, DGT-testing, which takes soil metal re-supply into consideration, showed substantial removal of available metal and distinct decreases in metal supply capacity in alkaline soils after phytoextraction, suggesting that a strategy based on lowering the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined endophytic inoculants enhance nickel phytoextraction from serpentine soil in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effects of specific bacterial endophytes on the phytoextraction capacity of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, spontaneously growing in a serpentine soil environment. Five metal-tolerant endophytes had already been selected for their high Ni tolerance (6 mM and plant growth promoting ability. Here we demonstrate that individual bacterial inoculation is ineffective in enhancing Ni translocation and growth of N. caerulescens in serpentine soil, except for specific strains Ncr-1 and Ncr-8, belonging to the Arthrobacter and Microbacterium genera, which showed the highest IAA production and ACC-deaminase activity. Ncr-1 and Ncr-8 co-inoculation was even more efficient in promoting plant growth, soil Ni removal and translocation of Ni, together with that of Fe, Co and Cu. Bacteria of both strains densely colonised the root surfaces and intercellular spaces of leaf epidermal tissue. These two bacterial strains also turned out to stimulate root length, shoot biomass and Ni uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in MS agar medium supplemented with Ni. It is concluded that adaptation of N. caerulescens in highly Ni-contaminated serpentine soil can be enhanced by an integrated community of bacterial endophytes rather than by single strains; of the former, Arthrobacter and Microbacterium may be useful candidates for future phytoremediation trials

  16. Field evaluation of Cd and Zn phytoextraction potential by the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, S.P.; Lombi, E.; Gray, C.W.; Caille, N.; Dunham, S.J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Field trials were undertaken to investigate the effect of the application of metal mobilizing agents, different sowing strategies and length of growing season on the extraction of Cd and Zn from soils by Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri. None of the mobilizing agents used enhanced metal accumulation by T. caerulescens. Between 1998 and 2000, on average across plots where Cd or Zn exceeded allowable limits, T. caerulescens removed 1.3 and 0.3% of the total soil Cd and Zn. In one season when T. caerulescens was grown for 14 months, 21.7 and 4.4% of the total soil Cd and Zn was removed. This was larger than values found when T. caerulescens was grown for 4 months. A. halleri accumulated similar concentrations of Zn, but lower Cd concentrations than T. caerulescens. The results indicate that metal phytoextraction using T. caerulescens can be used to clean up soils moderately contaminated by Cd. - The hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) is more efficient at phytoextracting Cd than Zn from contaminated soil

  17. Field evaluation of Cd and Zn phytoextraction potential by the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.uk; Lombi, E. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Gray, C.W. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Caille, N. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Dunham, S.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhao, F.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    Field trials were undertaken to investigate the effect of the application of metal mobilizing agents, different sowing strategies and length of growing season on the extraction of Cd and Zn from soils by Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri. None of the mobilizing agents used enhanced metal accumulation by T. caerulescens. Between 1998 and 2000, on average across plots where Cd or Zn exceeded allowable limits, T. caerulescens removed 1.3 and 0.3% of the total soil Cd and Zn. In one season when T. caerulescens was grown for 14 months, 21.7 and 4.4% of the total soil Cd and Zn was removed. This was larger than values found when T. caerulescens was grown for 4 months. A. halleri accumulated similar concentrations of Zn, but lower Cd concentrations than T. caerulescens. The results indicate that metal phytoextraction using T. caerulescens can be used to clean up soils moderately contaminated by Cd. - The hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) is more efficient at phytoextracting Cd than Zn from contaminated soil.

  18. Formation of biomineral iron oxides compounds in a Fe hyperaccumulator plant: Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, V; Rufo, L; Juárez, B H; Menéndez, N; García-Hernández, M; Salas-Colera, E; Espinosa, A

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed work of composition and location of naturally formed iron biominerals in plant cells tissues grown in iron rich environments as Imperata cylindrica. This perennial grass grows on the Tinto River banks (Iberian Pyritic Belt) in an extreme acidic ecosystem (pH∼2.3) with high concentration of dissolved iron, sulphate and heavy metals. Iron biominerals were found at the cellular level in tissues of root, stem and leaf both in collected and laboratory-cultivated plants. Iron accumulated in this plant as a mix of iron compounds (mainly as jarosite, ferrihydrite, hematite and spinel phases) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetometry (SQUID), electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX; TEM-EDX; HRSTEM). A low fraction of phosphorous was detected in this iron hyperaccumulator plant. Root and rhizomes tissues present a high proportion of ferromagnetic iron oxide compounds. Iron oxides-rich zones are localized in electron dense intra and inter-cellular aggregates that appear as dark deposits covering the inner membrane and organelles of the cell. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of accumulation, transport, distribution of iron in Imperata cylindrica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Repeated phytoextraction of four metal-contaminated soils using the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hao; Christie, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator extracted metals from four contaminated soils over three years in a glasshouse experiment. Changes in plant metal uptake and soil total (aqua regia-extractable) and available metals were investigated. Plant Cd concentrations in a high-Cd acid soil and plant Zn concentrations in two acid soils decreased during repeated phytoextraction and were predicted by soil available metal concentrations. However, on repeated phytoextraction, plant Cd concentrations remained constant in lightly Cd-polluted acid soils, as did plant Cd and Zn in alkaline soils, although soil available metal concentrations decreased markedly. After phytoextraction acid soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiencies, indicating possible suitability of phytoextraction for acid soils. However, DGT-testing, which takes soil metal re-supply into consideration, showed substantial removal of available metal and distinct decreases in metal supply capacity in alkaline soils after phytoextraction, suggesting that a strategy based on lowering the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible. - Highlights: • Plant shoot Cd decreased in high-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in two acid soils. • Plant shoot Cd remained constant in low-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in alkaline soils. • Acidic soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiency than the alkaline soils. - Acid soil has high total metal phytoremediation efficiency while a strategy based on stripping of the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible for alkaline soil phytoremediation

  20. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg{sup -1}. The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P{sub N}). Reductions in P{sub N} could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  1. Soil geochemical factors regulate Cd accumulation by metal hyperaccumulating Noccaea caerulescens (J. Presl & C. Presl) F.K. Mey in field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Carla E; Chaney, Rufus L; Martínez, Carmen E

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium contamination in soil is a substantial global problem, and of significant concern due to high food-chain transfer. Cadmium hyperaccumulators are of particular interest because of their ability to tolerate and take up significant amounts of heavy metal pollution from soils. One particular plant, Noccaea caerulescens (formerly, Thlaspi caerulescens), has been extensively studied in terms of its capacity to accumulate heavy metals (specifically Zn and Cd), though these studies have primarily utilized hydroponic and metal-spiked model soil systems. We studied Cd and nutrient uptake by two N. caerulescens ecotypes, Prayon (Zn-only hyperaccumulator) and Ganges (Zn- and Cd-hyperaccumulator) in four long-term field-contaminated soils. Our data suggest that individual soil properties such as total soil Cd, Zn:Cd molar ratio, or soil pH do not accurately predict Cd uptake by hyperaccumulating plants. Additionally, total Cd uptake by the hyperaccumulating Ganges ecotype was substantially less than its physiological capacity, which is likely due to Cd-containing solid phases (primarily iron oxides) and pH that play an important role in regulating and limiting Cd solubility. Increased P accumulation in the Ganges leaves, and greater plant Fe accumulation from Cd-containing soils suggests that rhizosphere alterations via proton, and potentially organic acid, secretion may also play a role in nutrient and Cd acquisition by the plant roots. The current study highlights the role that soil geochemical factors play in influencing Cd uptake by hyperaccumulating plants. While these plants may have high physiological potential to accumulate metals from contaminated soils, individual soil geochemical factors and the plant-soil interactions in that soil will dictate the actual amount of phytoextractable metal. This underlines the need for site-specific understanding of metal-containing solid phases and geochemical properties of soils before undertaking phytoextraction efforts

  2. Endogenous jasmonic and salicylic acids levels in the Cd-hyperaccumulator Noccaea (Thlaspi) praecox exposed to fungal infection and/or mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llugany, M; Martin, S R; Barceló, J; Poschenrieder, C

    2013-08-01

    Sensitivity to Erysiphe in Noccaea praecox with low metal supply is related to the failure in enhancing SA. Cadmium protects against fungal-infection by direct toxicity and/or enhanced fungal-induced JA signaling. Metal-based defense against biotic stress is an attractive hypothesis on evolutionary advantages of plant metal hyperaccumulation. Metals may compensate for a defect in biotic stress signaling in hyperaccumulators (metal-therapy) by either or both direct toxicity to pathogens and by metal-induced alternative signaling pathways. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-established components of stress signaling pathways. However, few studies evaluate the influence of metals on endogenous concentrations of these defense-related hormones. Even less data are available for metal hyperaccumulators. To further test the metal-therapy hypothesis we analyzed endogenous SA and JA concentrations in Noccaea praecox, a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator. Plants treated or not with Cd, were exposed to mechanical wounding, expected to enhance JA signaling, and/or to infection by biotrophic fungus Erysiphe cruciferarum for triggering SA. JA and SA were analyzed in leaf extracts using LC-ESI(-)-MS/MS. Plants without Cd were more susceptible to fungal attack than plants receiving Cd. Cadmium alone tended to increase leaf SA but not JA. Either or both fungal attack and mechanical wounding decreased SA levels and enhanced JA in the Cd-rich leaves of plants exposed to Cd. High leaf Cd in N. praecox seems to hamper biotic-stress-induced SA, while triggering JA signaling in response to fungal attack and wounding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the endogenous JA and SA levels in a Cd-hyperaccumulator exposed to different biotic and abiotic stresses. Our results support the view of a defect in SA stress signaling in Cd hyperaccumulating N. praecox.

  3. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Longhua, E-mail: lhwu@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Pengjie [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai 264003 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola.

  4. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola

  5. Hyperaccumulators of mercury in the industrial area of a PVC factory in Vlora (Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehu Julian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals is one of the major threats to soil and water as well as human health. Much attention is being paid to metal-accumulating plants that may be used for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Some plants can accumulate remarkable levels of metals, 100-1000-fold the levels normally accumulated in most species. This study evaluated the potential of mercury accumulation of 17 plant species growing on contaminated sites in the ex-industrial area of the PVC Factory, Vlora, Albania. Plant roots, shoots and soil samples were collected and analyzed for the selected metal concentration values. The biological accumulation coefficient (BAC was calculated to evaluate the potential use of plant species for phytoremediation purposes. The concentration of Hg in soils inside the contaminated area varied from 45-301 mg/kg-1. The concentration of Hg in plant shoots and roots varied from 0.1 to 12.9 mg/kg-1 and 0.1 to 4.2 mg/kg-1, respectively. Species Medicago sativa L. and Dittrichia viscosa (L. W. Greuter were found to be the most suitable plants for phytoremediation of the site contaminated with mercury (BAC values varied from 30-10 percent, respectively. Considering the BAC values, none of the plant species was found to be a hyperaccumulator; however, plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to roots have the potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. The results of this study can be used for the management and decontamination of soils with mercury using plant species having phytoremediation potential/characteristics.

  6. Lewis acid catalysis and Green oxidations: sequential tandem oxidation processes induced by Mn-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Vincent; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Among the phytotechnologies used for the reclamation of degraded mining sites, phytoextraction aims to diminish the concentration of polluting elements in contaminated soils. However, the biomass resulting from the phytoextraction processes (highly enriched in polluting elements) is too often considered as a problematic waste. The manganese-enriched biomass derived from native Mn-hyperaccumulating plants of New Caledonia was presented here as a valuable source of metallic elements of high interest in chemical catalysis. The preparation of the catalyst Eco-Mn1 and reagent Eco-Mn2 derived from Grevillea exul exul and Grevillea exul rubiginosa was investigated. Their unusual polymetallic compositions allowed to explore new reactivity of low oxidative state of manganese-Mn(II) for Eco-Mn1 and Mn(IV) for Eco-Mn2. Eco-Mn1 was used as a Lewis acid to catalyze the acetalization/elimination of aldehydes into enol ethers with high yields; a new green and stereoselective synthesis of (-)-isopulegol via the carbonyl-ene cyclization of (+)-citronellal was also performed with Eco-Mn1. Eco-Mn2 was used as a mild oxidative reagent and controlled the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols into aldehydes with quantitative yields. Oxidative cleavage was interestingly noticed when Eco-Mn2 was used in the presence of a polyol. Eco-Mn2 allowed direct oxidative iodination of ketones without using iodine, which is strongly discouraged by new environmental legislations. Finally, the combination of the properties in the Eco-Mn catalysts and reagents gave them an unprecedented potential to perform sequential tandem oxidation processes through new green syntheses of p-cymene from (-)-isopulegol and (+)-citronellal; and a new green synthesis of functionalized pyridines by in situ oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines.

  7. Tonoplast- and plasma membrane-localized aquaporin-family transporters in blue hydrangea sepals of aluminum hyperaccumulating plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Negishi

    Full Text Available Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is tolerant of acidic soils in which toxicity generally arises from the presence of the soluble aluminum (Al ion. When hydrangea is cultivated in acidic soil, its resulting blue sepal color is caused by the Al complex formation of anthocyanin. The concentration of vacuolar Al in blue sepal cells can reach levels in excess of approximately 15 mM, suggesting the existence of an Al-transport and/or storage system. However, until now, no Al transporter has been identified in Al hyperaccumulating plants, animals or microorganisms. To identify the transporter being responsible for Al hyperaccumulation, we prepared a cDNA library from blue sepals according to the sepal maturation stage, and then selected candidate genes using a microarray analysis and an in silico study. Here, we identified the vacuolar and plasma membrane-localized Al transporters genes vacuolar Al transporter (VALT and plasma membrane Al transporter 1 (PALT1, respectively, which are both members of the aquaporin family. The localization of each protein was confirmed by the transient co-expression of the genes. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblotting results indicated that VALT and PALT1 are highly expressed in sepal tissue. The overexpression of VALT and PALT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana conferred Al-tolerance and Al-sensitivity, respectively.

  8. Interaction of Nickel and Manganese in Accumulation and Localization in Leaves of the Ni Hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhurst, C.; Tappero, R; Maugel, T; Erbe, E; Sparks, D; Chaney, R

    2009-01-01

    The genus Alyssum contains >50 Ni hyperaccumulator species; many can achieve >2.5% Ni in dry leaf. In soils with normal Mn levels, Alyssum trichome bases were previously observed to accumulate Ni and Mn to high levels. Here we report concentration and localization patterns in A. murale and A. corsicum grown in soils with nonphytotoxic factorial additions of Ni and Mn salts. Four leaf type subsets based on size and age accumulated Ni and Mn similarly. The greatest Mn accumulation (10 times control) was observed in A. corsicum with 40 mmol Mn kg-1 and 40 mmol Ni kg-1 added to potting soil. Whole leaf Ni concentrations decreased as Mn increased. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of whole fresh leaves showed localized in distinct high-concentration Mn spots associated with trichomes, Ni and Mn distributions were strongly spatially correlated. Standard X-ray fluorescence point analysis/mapping of cryofractured and freeze-dried samples found that Ni and Mn were co-located and strongly concentrated only in trichome bases and in cells adjacent to trichomes. Nickel concentration was also strongly spatially correlated with sulfur. Results indicate that maximum Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum may be reduced in soils with higher phytoavailable Mn, and suggest that Ni hyperaccumulation in Alyssum species may have developed from a Mn handling system.

  9. Characterization of Ni-tolerant methylobacteria associated with the hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense and description of Methylobacterium goesingense sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Rughia; Kuffner, Melanie; Bodrossy, Levente; Puschenreiter, Markus; Monchy, Sebastien; Wenzel, Walter W; Sessitsch, Angela

    2006-12-01

    Various pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria (strains iEII3, iEIV1, iEI6, iEII1, iEIII3 iEIII4, iEIII5, iRII1, iRII2, iRIII1, iRIV1 and iRIV2) were obtained from the rhizosphere and endosphere of hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense grown in Redschlag, Austria [R. Idris, R. Trifonova, M. Puschenreiter, W.W. Wenzel, A. Sessitsch, Bacterial communities associated with flowering plants of the Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (2004) 2667-2677]. Due to their unexpected diversity, abundance and nickel tolerance they were further characterized by detailed 16S rRNA gene analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, fatty acid analysis, heavy metal tolerance, screening for known Ni resistance genes and phenotypic analysis. These strains were found to exhibit different multiple heavy metal resistance characteristics to Ni, Cd, Co, Zn and Cr. On the basis of their physiological and genotypic properties, strains could be grouped with Methylobacterium extorquens and M. mesophilicum. One endophyte, strain iEII3, was found to belong to a novel species for which the name M. goesingense is proposed.

  10. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana

    2006-01-01

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake

  11. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kump, Peter [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: marjana.regvar@bf.uni-lj.si

    2006-01-15

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake.

  12. Changes in metal mobility assessed by EDTA kinetic extraction in three polluted soils after repeated phytoremediation using a cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the decontamination of metal-polluted agricultural soils. Effects of repeated phytoextraction by the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola on metal (Cd, Zn, copper (Cu) and lead (Pb)) mobility were investigated in three contaminated soils with contrasting properties. EDTA kinetic extraction and the two first-order reactions model showed advantages in the assessment of soil metal mobility and clearly discriminated changes in metal fractions induced by phytoextraction. Repeated phytoextraction led to large decreases in readily labile (Q 1 0 ) and less labile (Q 2 0 ) fractions of Cd and Zn in all three soils with the sole exception of an increase in the Q 2 0 of Zn in the highly polluted soil. However, Q 1 0 fractions of soil Cu and Pb showed apparent increases with the sole exception of Pb in the acid polluted soil but showed a higher desorption rate constant (k 1 ). Furthermore, S. plumbizincicola decreased the non-labile fraction (Q 3 0 ) of all metals tested, indicating that the hyperaccumulator can redistribute soil metals from non-labile to labile fractions. This suggests that phytoextraction decreased the mobility of the metals hyperaccumulated by the plant (Cd and Zn) but increased the mobility of the metals not hyperaccumulated (Cu and Pb). Thus, phytoextraction of soils contaminated with mixtures of metals must be performed carefully because of potential increases in the mobility of non-hyperaccumulated metals in the soil and the consequent environmental risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Leigh Broadhurst

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50, many of which can achieve 30 g kg-1 Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu and Mn uptake.We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg-1 Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg-1. A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient

  14. Biosynthesis, characterization, and evaluation of bioactivities of leaf extract-mediated biocompatible silver nanoparticles from an early tracheophyte, Pteris tripartita Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Xavierravi; Geo Vigila, Antony Varuvel; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj; Muralidhara-Rao, Doulathabad; Zhang, Shouzhou

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their bioactivities in early tracheophytes (Pteridophyta). Aqueous leaf extract of a critically endangered fern, Pteris tripartita Sw., was used for one-step green synthesis of Ag-NPs. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Morphologically, the Ag-NPs showed hexagonal, spherical, and rod-shaped structures. Size distributions of Ag-NPs, calculated using Scherrer’s formula, showed an average size of 32 nm. Ag-NPs were studied for in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Ag-NPs exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw volume tests performed in female Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, Ag-NPs showed significant antimicrobial activity against 12 different microorganisms in three different assays (disk diffusion, time course growth, and minimum inhibitory concentration). This study reports that colloidal Ag-NPs can be synthesized by simple, nonhazardous methods, and that biosynthesized Ag-NPs have significant therapeutic properties. PMID:27895478

  15. Effect of soil texture on phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallud, C. E.; Matzen, S. L.; Olson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil arsenic (As) contamination is a global problem, resulting in part from anthropogenic activities, including the use of arsenical pesticides and treated wood, mining, and irrigated agriculture. Phytoextraction using the hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata is a promising new technology to remediate soils with shallow arsenic contamination with minimal site disturbance. However, many challenges still lie ahead for a global application of phytoremediation. For example, remediation times using P. vittata are on the order of decades. In addition, most research on As phytoextraction with P. vittata has examined As removal from sandy soils, where As is more available, with little research focusing on As removal from clayey soils, where As is less available. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of soil texture and soil fertilization on As extraction by P. vittata, to optimize remediation efficiency and decrease remediation time under complex field conditions. A field study was established 2.5 years ago in an abandoned railroad grade contaminated with As (average 85.5 mg kg-1) with texture varying from sandy loam to silty clay loam. Organic N, inorganic N, organic P, inorganic P, and compost were applied to separate sub-plots; control ferns were grown in untreated soil. In a parallel greenhouse experiment, ferns were grown in sandy loam soil extracted from the field (180 mg As kg-1), with similar treatments as those used at the field site, plus a high phosphate treatment and treatments with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In the field study, fern mortality was 24% higher in clayey soil than in sandy soil due to waterlogging, while As was primarily associated with sandy soil. Results from the sandy loam soil indicate that soil treatments did not significantly increase As phytoextraction, which was lower in phosphate-treated ferns than in control ferns, both in the field and greenhouse study. Under greenhouse conditions, ferns treated with organic N were

  16. Environmental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzaga, Maria Isidória Silva; Santos, Jorge Antônio Gonzaga; Ma, Lena Q.

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 212-218 This greenhouse experiment evaluated arsenic removal by Pteris vittata and its effects on arsenic redistribution in soils. P. vittata grew in six arsenic-contaminated soils and its fronds were harvested and analyzed for arsenic in October, 2003, April, 2004, and October, 2004. The soil arsenic was separated into five fractions via sequential extraction. The ferns grew well and took up arsenic from all soils. Fern biomass ranged from 24.8 to 33...

  17. Effect of fertilizer amendments on phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by a newly discovered hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Li Yunmeng; Zhou Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Chiu Siuwai; Zhan Jie; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective, simple and sustainable beneficiary technique to purify the polluted environment. Solanum nigrum L., a newly found cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate Cd-contaminated soils. Present study investigated the effects of fertilizer amendments on the Cd uptake by S. nigrum. Chicken manure and urea are usual agricultural fertilizers and more environmental friendly. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoots of S. nigrum were significantly decreased (p -1 ) in shoot biomass of S. nigrum were significantly increased (p < 0.05) due to increased shoot biomass. In addition, available Cd concentration in soil significantly decreased due to addition of chicken manure. Thus, urea might be a better fertilizer for strengthening phytoextraction rate of S. nigrum to Cd, and chicken manure may be a better fertilizer for phytostabilization.

  18. Effects of zinc and cadmium interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in a hyperaccumulating species under hydroponic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tingqiang; Yang Xiaoe; Lu Lingli; Islam, Ejazul; He Zhenli

    2009-01-01

    Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Specific root lengths (SRL), specific root surface areas (SRA) and specific root volumes (SRV) of the HE increased significantly when plant were treated with 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn, whereas these root parameters were significantly decreased for the NHE when plant were treated with 100 μM Cd, 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn. SRL and SRA of the HE were mainly constituted by roots with diameter between 0.2-0.4 mm (diameter class 3 and 4) which were significantly increased in treatment of 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn, whereas in the NHE, metal treatments caused a significant decrease in SRL and SRA of the finest diameter class root (diameter between 0.1-0.3 mm). The HE of S. alfredii could maintain a fine, widely branched root system under contaminated conditions compared with the NHE. Relative root growth, net Cd uptake and translocation rate in the HE were significantly increased by adding 500 μM Zn, as compared with the second growth period, where 100 μM Cd was supplied alone. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the HE were 12-16 times and 22-27 times higher than those of the NHE under 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn combined treatment. These results indicate strong positive interactions of Zn and Cd occurred in the HE under 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn treatment and Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced by adding 500 μM Zn.

  19. Effects of zinc and cadmium interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in a hyperaccumulating species under hydroponic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tingqiang, E-mail: litq@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe; Lu Lingli [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Islam, Ejazul [Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam, 48800 Hyderabad (Pakistan); He Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945 (United States)

    2009-09-30

    Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Specific root lengths (SRL), specific root surface areas (SRA) and specific root volumes (SRV) of the HE increased significantly when plant were treated with 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas these root parameters were significantly decreased for the NHE when plant were treated with 100 {mu}M Cd, 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn. SRL and SRA of the HE were mainly constituted by roots with diameter between 0.2-0.4 mm (diameter class 3 and 4) which were significantly increased in treatment of 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas in the NHE, metal treatments caused a significant decrease in SRL and SRA of the finest diameter class root (diameter between 0.1-0.3 mm). The HE of S. alfredii could maintain a fine, widely branched root system under contaminated conditions compared with the NHE. Relative root growth, net Cd uptake and translocation rate in the HE were significantly increased by adding 500 {mu}M Zn, as compared with the second growth period, where 100 {mu}M Cd was supplied alone. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the HE were 12-16 times and 22-27 times higher than those of the NHE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn combined treatment. These results indicate strong positive interactions of Zn and Cd occurred in the HE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn treatment and Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced by adding 500 {mu}M Zn.

  20. Elucidating the selenium and arsenic metabolic pathways following exposure to the non-hyperaccumulating Chlorophytum comosum, spider plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afton, Scott E.; Catron, Brittany; Caruso, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the metabolism of selenium and arsenic in hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation purposes, few have explored non-hyperaccumulating plants as a model for general contaminant exposure to plants. In addition, the result of simultaneous supplementation with selenium and arsenic has not been investigated in plants. In this study, Chlorophytum comosum, commonly known as the spider plant, was used to investigate the metabolism of selenium and arsenic after single and simultaneous supplementation. Size exclusion and ion-pairing reversed phase liquid chromatography were coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to obtain putative metabolic information of the selenium and arsenic species in C. comosum after a mild aqueous extraction. The chromatographic results depict that selenium and arsenic species were sequestered in the roots and generally conserved upon translocation to the leaves. The data suggest that selenium was directly absorbed by C. comosum roots when supplemented with SeVI, but a combination of passive and direct absorption occurred when supplemented with SeIV due to the partial oxidation of SeIV to SeVI in the rhizosphere. Higher molecular weight selenium species were more prevalent in the roots of plants supplemented with SeIV, but in the leaves of plants supplemented with SeVI due to an increased translocation rate. When supplemented as AsIII, arsenic is proposed to be passively absorbed as AsIII and partially oxidized to AsV in the plant root. Although total elemental analysis demonstrates a selenium and arsenic antagonism, a compound containing selenium and arsenic was not present in the general aqueous extract of the plant. PMID:19273464

  1. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    observed in so-called hyperaccumulating metalophytes, which are studied for its suitability to be incorporated in metal recovery processes of elements that diffusely occur in different waste streams. In a systematic series of tests under laboratory conditions the accumulation behaviour for many different elements including rare earth metals of a selection of candidate plants growing on sewage sludge, incineration residues and industrial leftovers was assessed (quantitavely and qualitatively). Growth performance of these plants as well as the most suitable substrate properties were evaluated. The results of this project provided the groundwork for further research and development steps that might bring to practical implementation a technological option with potentially huge benefits: The recovery of valuable metal resources from sewage sludge, incineration ashes and metal rich wastewaters by environmentally friendly and low energy means. Simultaneous decontamination of the input substrates from heavy metals, opening the possibility for these nutrient streams to be redirected to biological regeneration processes (for example use as fertilizers in agriculture) without fear of polluting soils with heavy metal loads. Generation of biomass on contaminated substrates can yield usable energy surplus through incineration during or after processing.

  2. Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

    2014-05-01

    samples were taken at four locations (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4) with different levels of Pb. The Pb soil content (mean ± standard deviation) in mg•kg-1 is as follows: CA1 3992 ± 301; CA2 10128 ± 2247, CA3 14197 ± 895, CA4 16060 ± 810. The non-polluted value around the mine was Pb 124 mg•kg-1. Unusual elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and TF greater than one were detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens). The location CA4 has the maximum content of Pb in the shoots of Ageratina sp. (5045±77 mg•kg-1), C. apalothica (3367±188 mg•kg-1), E. denticulatum (13599±848 mg•kg-1), T. officinalis (2533±47 mg•kg-1) and T. repens (2839±231 mg•kg-1). However, the BF (Bioaccumulation Factor) was smaller than one. Despite the low BF index, the great TFs for Pb indicate that these plant species effectively translocate this metal (i.e., 2.4 for Ageratina sp., 2.3 for C. apalothica, 1.6 for T. repens, 1.5 for A. alata, 1.3 for T. officinalis and 1.2 for E. denticulatum). It seems that the BF is not a reliable index when the metal soil concentration is extremely large. Controlled-environment studies must be performed to definitively confirm the Pb hyperaccumulation character of cited plant species.

  3. Investigation of biomethylation of arsenic and tellurium during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Bone, Roland A.; Raabe, Maren; Awissus, Simone; Keuter, Bianca; Menzel, Bernd; Kueppers, Klaus; Widmann, Renatus; Hirner, Alfred V.

    2011-01-01

    Though the process of composting features a high microbiological activity, its potential to methylate metals and metalloids has been little investigated so far in spite of the high impact of this process on metal(loid) toxicity and mobility. Here, we studied the biotransformation of arsenic, tellurium, antimony, tin and germanium during composting. Time resolved investigation revealed a highly dynamic process during self-heated composting with markedly differing time patterns for arsenic and tellurium species. Extraordinary high concentrations of up to 150 mg kg -1 methylated arsenic species as well as conversion rates up to 50% for arsenic and 5% for tellurium were observed. In contrast, little to no conversion was observed for antimony, tin and germanium. In addition to experiments with metal(loid) salts, composting of arsenic hyperaccumulating ferns Pteris vittata and P. cretica grown on As-amended soils was studied. Arsenic accumulated in the fronds was efficiently methylated resulting in up to 8 mg kg -1 methylated arsenic species. Overall, these studies indicate that metal(loid)s can undergo intensive biomethylation during composting. Due to the high mobility of methylated species this process needs to be considered in organic waste treatment of metal(loid) contaminated waste materials.

  4. Phytoremediation potential of indigenous plants from Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Bui Thi Kim; Kim, Dang Dinh; Tua, Tran Van; Kien, Nguyen Trung; Anh, Do Tuan

    2011-03-01

    This study was focused on determining Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) in 33 indigenous plants and 12 soil in-situ plant samples in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. The results showed that the soils of surveyed mining areas contained 181.2- 6754.3 mg kg(-1) As, 235.5-4337.2 mg kg(-1) Pb, 0.8- 419 mg kg(-1) Cd and 361.8-17565.1 mg kg(-1) Zn depending on the characteristics of each mining site. These values are much higher than those typical for normal soil. The heavy metal uptake into shoots and roots of 33 indigenous plant species was also determined. Two species of the plants investigated, Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos L. were As hyperaccumulators, containing more than 0.1% heavy metals in their shoots. Eleusine indica L., Cynodon dactylon L., Cyperus rotundus L. and Equisetum ramosissimum (Vauch) accumulate very high Pb (0.15-0.65%) and Zn (0.22-1.56%) concentration in their roots. Additional experiments to clarify the potential of six these plants as good candidates for phytoremediation of heavy metal pollution soil are being carried out in our laboratory.

  5. Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Clemens; Giehren, Franziska; Krämer, Ute; Müller, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Plants that are able to hyperaccumulate heavy metals show increased concentrations of these metals in their leaf tissue. However, little is known about the concentrations of heavy metals and of organic defence metabolites in the phloem sap of these plants in response to either heavy metal-amendment of the soil or biotic challenges such as aphid-infestation. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metal-exposure and of aphid-infestation on phloem exudate composition of the metal hyperaccumulator species Arabidopsis halleri L. O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae). The concentrations of elements and of organic defence compounds, namely glucosinolates, were measured in phloem exudates of young and old (mature) leaves of plants challenged either by amendment of the soil with cadmium and zinc and/or by an infestation with the generalist aphid Myzus persicae. Metal-amendment of the soil led to increased concentrations of Cd and Zn, but also of two other elements and one indole glucosinolate, in phloem exudates. This enhanced defence in the phloem sap of heavy metal-hyperaccumulating plants can thus potentially act as effective protection against aphids, as predicted by the elemental defence hypothesis. Aphid-infestation also caused enhanced Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates. This result provides first evidence that metal-hyperaccumulating plants can increase heavy metal concentrations tissue-specifically in response to an attack by phloem-sucking herbivores. Overall, the concentrations of most elements, including the heavy metals, and glucosinolates were higher in phloem exudates of young leaves than in those of old leaves. This defence distribution highlights that the optimal defence theory, which predicts more valuable tissue to be better defended, is applicable for both inorganic and organic defences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactive effects of Cd and PAHs on contaminants removal from co-contaminated soil planted with hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Lab. of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Zhu, Zhiqiang [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Lab. of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Hainan Univ., Haikou (China). College of Agriculture; He, Zhenli [Florida Univ., Port Pierce, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Alva, Ashok [US Department of Agriculture, Prosser, WA (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Soil contamination by multiple organic and inorganic contaminants is common but its remediation by hyperaccumulator plants is rarely reported. The growth of a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and removal of contaminants from Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil were reported in this study. Materials and methods: Soil slightly contaminated by Cd (0.92 mg kg{sup -1} DW) was collected from a vegetable field in Hangzhou and was spiked with two levels (0 and 6 mg kg{sup -1} DW) of Cd and three levels (0, 25, and 150 mg kg{sup -1} DW) of phenanthrene (PHE) or pyrene (PYR). A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using S. alfredii with unplanted controls for 60 days. Shoot and root biomass of plants, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and microbial biomass carbon in the soil were measured. Concentrations of Cd and PAHs in the plant and soil were determined. Results and discussion: Elevated Cd level (6.38 mg kg{sup -1} DW) increased S. alfredii growth. The presence of PAHs decreased the stimulatory effects of Cd on plant biomass and Cd concentrations in shoots in Cd spiked soil, thus decreasing Cd phytoextraction efficiency. Cadmium removal by S. alfredii after 60 days of growth varied from 5.8% to 6.7% and from 5.7% to 9.6%, in Cd unspiked and spiked soils, respectively. Removal rate of PAHs in the soil was similar with or without the plants. Removal rate of PYR decreased at the elevated Cd level in the soil. This appears to be due to a decrease in soil microbial activity. This is confirmed by a decrease in DHA, which is a good indicator of soil microbial activity. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that S. alfredii could effectively extract Cd from Cd-contaminated soils in the presence of PHE or PYR; however, both PAHs exhibited negative effects on phytoextraction of Cd from Cd spiked soil (6.38 mg kg{sup -1} DW). S. alfredii is not suitable for remediation of PAHs. The effects of Cd and PAHs concentrations on the

  7. Neutron activation, k0-- method, as a tool for Phytoremediation studies and reclamation of degraded areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, George; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros C.

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that can be considered as a relatively recent one, although it is based on knowledge that has been gathered and accumulated for a long time. One advantage of phytoremediation is its relatively low cost, but, as it must rely on plant growth, its results might be quite slow to be achieved, specially in countries with temperate climate, which is not the case of vast areas of Brazilian territory. One of the aims of phytoremediation is the search of plants that are hyperaccumulators, i.e., that are capable of accumulating pollutants and/or contaminants in high concentrations, of which the fern Pteris vittata is a fine example, considering arsenic accumulation. The possibilities of exploring Brazilian native flora for this purpose demand no further comments. The reclamation of degraded areas demands might not necessarily rely only on species and/or varieties that are hyperaccumulators, but also on taxa that are resistant to a given pollutant or a mixture of pollutants. In this case, a precise analysis of the environment is fundamental, specially to ascertain, for sure, that some toxic element is not present. In this work, species known to accumulate arsenic from Brazilian native flora like Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and Mirabilis jalapa were grown and exposed to arsenic. After that, they were lyophilised and analysed by means of the k 0- standardization method using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor at CDTN/CNEN. Certified reference material were also analysed to verify the accuracy of the method. The advantages of neutron activation, k 0- method, a multi-elemental analysis technique, in phytoremediation and reclamation of degraded areas, are discussed in the present paper. (author)

  8. Neutron activation, k{sub 0-}- method, as a tool for Phytoremediation studies and reclamation of degraded areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: george@cdtn.br; menezes@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that can be considered as a relatively recent one, although it is based on knowledge that has been gathered and accumulated for a long time. One advantage of phytoremediation is its relatively low cost, but, as it must rely on plant growth, its results might be quite slow to be achieved, specially in countries with temperate climate, which is not the case of vast areas of Brazilian territory. One of the aims of phytoremediation is the search of plants that are hyperaccumulators, i.e., that are capable of accumulating pollutants and/or contaminants in high concentrations, of which the fern Pteris vittata is a fine example, considering arsenic accumulation. The possibilities of exploring Brazilian native flora for this purpose demand no further comments. The reclamation of degraded areas demands might not necessarily rely only on species and/or varieties that are hyperaccumulators, but also on taxa that are resistant to a given pollutant or a mixture of pollutants. In this case, a precise analysis of the environment is fundamental, specially to ascertain, for sure, that some toxic element is not present. In this work, species known to accumulate arsenic from Brazilian native flora like Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and Mirabilis jalapa were grown and exposed to arsenic. After that, they were lyophilised and analysed by means of the k{sub 0-} standardization method using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor at CDTN/CNEN. Certified reference material were also analysed to verify the accuracy of the method. The advantages of neutron activation, k{sub 0-}method, a multi-elemental analysis technique, in phytoremediation and reclamation of degraded areas, are discussed in the present paper. (author)

  9. Assisted phytoremediation of a multi-contaminated soil: Investigation on arsenic and lead combined mobilization and removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri; Pedron, Francesca; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Rosellini, Irene; Franchi, Elisabetta; Bagatin, Roberto; Vocciante, Marco

    2017-12-01

    The removal of contaminants from an earthy matrix by phytoremediation requires the selection of appropriate plant species and a suitable strategy to be effective. In order to set up an assisted phytoremediation intervention related to a disused industrial site affected by an arsenic and lead complex contamination, an extensive experimental investigation on micro and mesocosm scale has been conducted. Particular attention was given to the choice of plant species: using crop plants (Lupinus albus, Helianthus annuus and Brassica juncea) a series of parallel test campaigns have been realized to investigate different scenarios for the reclamation. With regard to the arsenic contamination, which is certainly the most worrying, the possibility of employing a hyper-accumulator species (Pteris vittata) has also been investigated, highlighting advantages and difficulties associated with such an approach. The application of various mobilizing agents in different concentrations was tested, in order to maximize the extraction efficiency of plants in respect of both contaminants, showing the necessity of a chemically assisted approach to promote their uptake and translocation in the shoots. Phosphate addition appears to produce the desired results, positively affecting As phyto-extraction for both hyper-accumulator and crop plants, while minimizing its toxic effects at the investigated concentrations. With regard to Pb, although tests with EDDS have been encouraging, EDTA should be preferred at present due to lower uncertainties about its effectiveness. The performed tests also improved the addition of mobilizing agents, allowing the simultaneous removal of the two metals despite their great diversity (which in general discourages such approach), with significant saving of time and an obvious improvement of the overall process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Supercritical water treatment of heavy metal and arsenic metalloid-bioaccumulating-biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianxin; Chen, Jinbo; Chen, Shan

    2018-08-15

    Hyperaccumulator biomass, as a promising resource for renewable energy that can be converted into valuable fuel productions with high conversion efficiency, must be considered as hazardous materials and be carefully treated before further reuse due to the high contents of heavy metals. In this study, Pteris vittata L., an As-hyperaccumulator biomass was treated by an effective and environmental friendly method-supercritical water gasification (SCWG) using a bench-scale batch reactor. The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) and arsenic metalloid in solid, liquid and gaseous products during SCWG process were thoroughly investigated. The speciation fractions including exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable and residual fractions of each heavy metal as the proportion of the total contents in solid residue were presented and the transformations trend of these heavy metals during the SCWG process was especially demonstrated. The significant operating parameters, including reaction temperature (395-445 °C), pressure (21-27 MPa) and residence time (0-40 min) were varied to explore their effects on the contents and forms. Moreover, the environmental risks of heavy metals in solid residues were evaluated based on risk assessment code, taking into consideration the speciation fractions and bioavailability. It was highlighted that although heavy metals particularly Pb and Zn tended to accumulate in solid residues with a maximum increment of about 50% in the total content, they were mostly converted to more stable oxidizable and residual fractions, and thus the ecotoxicity and bioavailability were greatly mitigated with no obvious increase in direct toxicity fractions. Each tested heavy metal presented no or low risk to the environments after SCWG treatments, meaning that the environmental pollution levels were markedly reduced with no or low risk to the environment. This study highlights the remarkable ability of SCWG for the heavy metal stabilization. Copyright

  11. Tolerance and hyperaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) by four aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hernández, Jorge Alberto; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; González-Rivas, Nelly; Balderas-Plata, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    In the present investigation, four macrophytes, namely Typha latifolia (L.), Lemna minor (L.), Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, and Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc, were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) hyperaccumulation potential under laboratory conditions. Tolerance analyses were performed for 7 days of exposure at five different treatments of the metals mixture (Cu +2 , Hg +2 , Pb +2 , and Zn +2 ). The production of chlorophyll and carotenoids was determined at the end of each treatment. L. minor revealed to be sensitive, because it did not survive in all the tested concentrations after 72 hours of exposure. E. crassipes and M. aquaticum displayed the highest tolerance to the metals mixture. For the most tolerant species of aquatic macrophytes, The removal kinetics of E. crassipes and M. aquaticum was carried out, using the following mixture of metals: Cu (0.5 mg/L) and Hg, Pb, and Zn 0.25 mg/L. The obtained results revealed that E. crassipes can remove 99.80% of Cu, 97.88% of Pb, 99.53% of Hg, and 94.37% of Zn. M. aquaticum withdraws 95.2% of Cu, 94.28% of Pb, 99.19% of Hg, and 91.91% of Zn. The obtained results suggest that these two species of macrophytes could be used for the phytoremediation of this mixture of heavy metals from the polluted water bodies.

  12. STUDIES REGARDING THE CHELATE-INDUCED HYPERACCUMULATION OF CU AND FE USING LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES IN MINING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-DIANA PRICOP

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant capacity to absorb high amounts of metal for a short period of time is the major factor that influences the efficiency of phytoextraction. The hyperaccumulating plants uptake high amounts in their tissues correlated to the metal concentrations in soil. Chelating agents have the capacity to induce the metal accumulation in biomass. They increase metal bioavailability for plants by releasing the metal in accessible forms. The present study emphasizes that in the case of EDTA use, the obtained biomass is smaller compared to the other variants, showing a lower tolerance to this chelating agent of Lolium perenne species. Cu and Fe phytoextraction by Lolium perenne species is higher in the case of EDTA use. Cu bioaccumulation has higher values in variants with compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:4 in comparison with Fe. In the case of the best compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:3 the highest biomass is obtained in all the variants, biosolids’ effect being stronger compared to the chelating agent.

  13. Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp. floribundus using micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G; Singh, Balwant; Bhatia, Naveen P; Siegele, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Hybanthusfloribundus (Lindl.) F.Muell. subsp. floribundus is a native Australian nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulating shrub and a promising species for rehabilitation and phytoremediation of Ni tailings. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus was studied using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg -1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis. Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of 7800 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis (10,000 mg kg -1 DW) and reached a maximum of up to 10,000 mg kg -1 DW in the leaf margin. Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues (1800 mg kg -1 versus 7800 mg kg -1 DW, respectively), however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus

  14. Effect of fertilizer amendments on phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by a newly discovered hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Shuhe, E-mail: shuhewei@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li Yunmeng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: zhouqx523@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Srivastava, Mrittunjai [North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Quincy, FL 32351-5677 (United States); Chiu Siuwai [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Zhan Jie [Department of Biotechnology, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang 110101 (China); Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective, simple and sustainable beneficiary technique to purify the polluted environment. Solanum nigrum L., a newly found cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate Cd-contaminated soils. Present study investigated the effects of fertilizer amendments on the Cd uptake by S. nigrum. Chicken manure and urea are usual agricultural fertilizers and more environmental friendly. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoots of S. nigrum were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by 28.2-34.6%, as compared to that of without the addition of chicken manure, but not the case for urea treatment. However, Cd extraction capacities ({mu}g pot{sup -1}) in shoot biomass of S. nigrum were significantly increased (p < 0.05) due to increased shoot biomass. In addition, available Cd concentration in soil significantly decreased due to addition of chicken manure. Thus, urea might be a better fertilizer for strengthening phytoextraction rate of S. nigrum to Cd, and chicken manure may be a better fertilizer for phytostabilization.

  15. Photosynthetic electron-transfer reactions in the gametophyte of Pteris multifida reveal the presence of allelopathic interference from the invasive plant species Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    To date, the response of the fern gametophyte to its environment has received considerable attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion on the fern gametophyte are fewer. Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathy of invasive plant species to the fern gametophyte and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on the gametophytic growth of Pteris multifida. The root exudate plays an important role among various allelochemical delivery mechanisms in B. pilosa. The effect invasive plant species has on photosynthesis in native species is poorly understood. To elucidate this effect, the changes in photosynthesis in the gametophytes of P. multifida are analyzed to examine the mechanisms of the root exudates of B. pilosa. Meanwhile, a non-invasive plant, Coreopsis basalis, was also applied to investigate the effects on fluorescence and pigments in P. multifida gametophytes. We found that gametophytes exposed to both B. pilosa and C. basalis had decreased fluorescence parameters in comparison with the control, except for non-photochemical quenching. Furthermore, it was found that these parameters were markedly affected from day 2 to day 10 in the presence of both exudates at a concentration of 25% or above. B. pilosa exudate had a negative dose-dependent effect on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, and the total chlorophyll in the gametophyte. The inhibitory effects increased with increasing exudate concentrations of both species, exhibiting the greatest inhibition at day 10. In conclusion, B. pilosa irreversibly affected the photosynthesis of P. multifida on both PS I and PS II. Root exudates caused the primary damage with respect to the decrease of the acceptors and donors of photon and electron in photosynthetic units and the production and

  16. Biología alimentaria y reproductiva de Farlowella vittata (Siluriformes: Loricariidae en la cuenca del río Güejar, Orinoquía, Colombia Food and reproductive biology of Farlowella vittata (Siluriformes: Loricariidae in Güejar River Basin, Orinoco, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. García-Alzate

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces de quebradas neotropicales conviven con una considerable variación espacial y temporal de sus alimentos. La disponibilidad de estos alimentos depende de diferentes factores tales como la morfología de los canales, la descarga, atributos físico-químicos y las interacciones con otras especies. Es así como estudios de los hábitos alimenticios contribuyen a la comprensión de las interacciones tróficas de las poblaciones de peces. En el presente trabajo se describen y evalúan los aspectos de la dieta y la reproducción de Farlowella vittata (Siluriformes: Loricariidae en el Arroyo Pringamosal, cuenca del río Güejar, cuenca del río Orinoco, Colombia. Se realizaron cinco expediciones de recolecta durante las temporadas de altas y bajas lluvias. Variables físicas y químicas del agua fueron medidas y los peces fueron capturados en varios puntos a lo largo de toda la cuenca. El arroyo Pringamosal es una corriente de primer orden con 3.5m de ancho y una profundidad media de 1m en el área de estudio. Valores de oxígeno disuelto son de 6.2mg/L durante bajas lluvias y 2.7mg/L durante altas lluvias, es oligotrófico con tendencia a la eutrofización. Ciento treinta ejemplares fueron analizados, 7 intervalos de tallas fueron recolectadas entre los 86.0 y 175.5mm de longitud estándar. La dieta de esta especie consiste principalmente de algas (Bacillariophyceae (84.6% AR, pero se observó una variación en la dieta de acuerdo a la temporada; en bajas lluvias se alimenta de fitoplancton (86.47% A.R. y en altas lluvias de zooplankton y material de origen vegetal y orgánico (0.685% A.R y 18.83% A.R. respectivamente, el ANDEVA de KruskalWallis mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas de los ítems alimenticios entre sexos. El factor de condición (K indicó que la especie se encontró bien alimentada. El índice gonadosomático (RGS mostró que este pez se reproduce en aguas altas (abril-mayo. La fecundidad fue 1 819 ovocitos

  17. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  18. Biología alimentaria y reproductiva de Farlowella vittata (Siluriformes: Loricariidae en la cuenca del río Güejar, Orinoquía, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. García-Alzate

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces de quebradas neotropicales conviven con una considerable variación espacial y temporal de sus alimentos. La disponibilidad de estos alimentos depende de diferentes factores tales como la morfología de los canales, la descarga, atributos físico-químicos y las interacciones con otras especies. Es así como estudios de los hábitos alimenticios contribuyen a la comprensión de las interacciones tróficas de las poblaciones de peces. En el presente trabajo se describen y evalúan los aspectos de la dieta y la reproducción de Farlowella vittata (Siluriformes: Loricariidae en el Arroyo Pringamosal, cuenca del río Güejar, cuenca del río Orinoco, Colombia. Se realizaron cinco expediciones de recolecta durante las temporadas de altas y bajas lluvias. Variables físicas y químicas del agua fueron medidas y los peces fueron capturados en varios puntos a lo largo de toda la cuenca. El arroyo Pringamosal es una corriente de primer orden con 3.5m de ancho y una profundidad media de 1m en el área de estudio. Valores de oxígeno disuelto son de 6.2mg/L durante bajas lluvias y 2.7mg/L durante altas lluvias, es oligotrófico con tendencia a la eutrofización. Ciento treinta ejemplares fueron analizados, 7 intervalos de tallas fueron recolectadas entre los 86.0 y 175.5mm de longitud estándar. La dieta de esta especie consiste principalmente de algas (Bacillariophyceae (84.6% AR, pero se observó una variación en la dieta de acuerdo a la temporada; en bajas lluvias se alimenta de fitoplancton (86.47% A.R. y en altas lluvias de zooplankton y material de origen vegetal y orgánico (0.685% A.R y 18.83% A.R. respectivamente, el ANDEVA de KruskalWallis mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas de los ítems alimenticios entre sexos. El factor de condición (K indicó que la especie se encontró bien alimentada. El índice gonadosomático (RGS mostró que este pez se reproduce en aguas altas (abril-mayo. La fecundidad fue 1 819 ovocitos

  19. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available P1B-ATPases are decisive for metal accumulation phenotypes, but mechanisms of their regulation are only partially understood. Here, we studied the Cd/Zn transporting ATPases NcHMA3 and NcHMA4 from Noccaea caerulescens as well as AhHMA3 and AhHMA4 from Arabidopsis halleri. Protein biochemistry was analyzed on HMA4 purified from roots of N. caerulescens in active state. Metal titration of NcHMA4 protein with an electrochromic dye as charge indicator suggested that HMA4 reaches maximal ATPase activity when all internal high-affinity Cd2+ binding sites are occupied. Although HMA4 was reported to be mainly responsible for xylem loading of heavy metals for root to shoot transport, the current study revealed high expression of NcHMA4 in shoots as well. Further, there were additional 20 and 40 kD fragments at replete Zn2+ and toxic Cd2+, but not at deficient Zn2+ concentrations. Altogether, the protein level expression analysis suggested a more multifunctional role of NcHMA4 than previously assumed. Organ-level transcription analysis through quantitative PCR of mRNA in N. caerulescens and A. halleri confirmed the strong shoot expression of both NcHMA4 and AhHMA4. Further, in shoots NcHMA4 was more abundant in 10 μM Zn2+ and AhHMA4 in Zn2+ deficiency. In roots, NcHMA4 was up-regulated in response to deficient Zn2+ when compared to replete Zn2+ and toxic Cd2+ treatment. In both species, HMA3 was much more expressed in shoots than in roots, and HMA3 transcript levels remained rather constant regardless of Zn2+ supply, but were up-regulated by 10 μM Cd2+. Analysis of cellular expression by quantitative mRNA in situ hybridisation showed that in A. halleri, both HMA3 and HMA4 mRNA levels were highest in the mesophyll, while in N. caerulescens they were highest in the bundle sheath of the vein. This is likely related to the different final storage sites for hyperaccumulated metals in both species: epidermis in N. caerulescens, mesophyll in A. halleri.

  20. Rhizobium metallidurans sp. nov., a symbiotic heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from the Anthyllis vulneraria Zn-hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Jackson, Stephen; Merlot, Sylvain; Dobson, Alan; Grison, Claude

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (ChimEc512(T)) was isolated from 56 host seedlings of the hyperaccumulating Anthyllis vulneraria legume, which was on an old zinc mining site at Les Avinières, Saint-Laurent-Le-Minier, Gard, South of France. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain ChimEc512(T) was shown to belong to the genus Rhizobium and to be most closely related to Rhizobium endophyticum CCGE 2052(T) (98.4%), Rhizobium tibeticum CCBAU 85039(T) (98.1%), Rhizobium grahamii CCGE 502(T) (98.0%) and Rhizobium mesoamericanum CCGE 501(T) (98.0%). The phylogenetic relationships of ChimEc512(T) were confirmed by sequencing and analyses of recA and atpD genes. DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain ChimEc512(T) with R. endophyticum CCGE 2052(T), R. tibeticum CCBAU 85039(T), R. mesoamericanum CCGE 52(T), Rhizobium grahamii CCGE 502(T), Rhizobium etli CCBAU 85039(T) and Rhizobium radiobacter KL09-16-8-2(T) were 27, 22, 16, 18, 19 and 11%, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain ChimEc512(T) was 58.9 mol%. The major cellular fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c, characteristic of the genus Rhizobium . The polar lipid profile included phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine and moderate amounts of aminolipids, phospholipid and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Although ChimEc512(T) was able to nodulate A. vulneraria, the nodC and nifH genes were not detected by PCR. The rhizobial strain was tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals: up to 35 mM Zn and up to 0.5 mM Cd and its growth kinetics was not impacted by Zn. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain ChimEc512(T) from species of the genus Rhizobium with validly published names. Strain ChimEc512(T), therefore, represents a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium metallidurans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain

  1. Changes in metal availability, desorption kinetics and speciation in contaminated soils during repeated phytoextraction with the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Jia, Mingyun; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the remediation of metal contaminated soils. Changes in soil metal availability during phytoremediation have direct effects on removal efficiency and can also illustrate the interactive mechanisms between hyperaccumulators and metal contaminated soils. In the present study the changes in metal availability, desorption kinetics and speciation in four metal-contaminated soils during repeated phytoextraction by the zinc/cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola (S. plumbizincicola) over three years were investigated by chemical extraction and the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The available metal fractions (i.e. metal in the soil solution extracted by CaCl_2 and by EDTA) decreased greatly by >84% after phytoextraction in acid soils and the deceases were dramatic at the initial stages of phytoextraction. However, the decreases in metal extractable by CaCl_2 and EDTA in calcareous soils were not significant or quite low. Large decreases in metal desorption rate constants evaluated by DIFS were found in calcareous soils. Sequential extraction indicated that the acid-soluble metal fraction was easily removed by S. plumbizincicola from acid soils but not from calcareous soils. Reducible and oxidisable metal fractions showed discernible decreases in acid and calcareous soils, indicating that S. plumbizincicola can mobilize non-labile metal for uptake but the residual metal cannot be removed. The results indicate that phytoextraction significantly decreases metal availability by reducing metal pool sizes and/or desorption rates and that S. plumbizincicola plays an important role in the mobilization of less active metal fractions during repeated phytoextraction. - Highlights: • Metal availability, desorption, and speciation were tested during phytoextraction. • Metal availability showed an initial sharp decline then a slight change in acid soils. • Metal availability changed little during

  2. The hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola harbors metal-resistant endophytic bacteria that improve its phytoextraction capacity in multi-metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Nai, Fengjiao; Rajkumar, Mani; Luo, Yongming; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-06-01

    Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation has recently been suggested as a successful approach for ecological restoration of metal contaminated soils, however little information is available on the influence of endophytic bacteria on the phytoextraction capacity of metal hyperaccumulating plants in multi-metal polluted soils. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize metal-resistant and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) utilizing endophytic bacteria from tissues of the newly discovered Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and to examine if these endophytic bacterial strains could improve the efficiency of phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils. Among a collection of 42 metal resistant bacterial strains isolated from the tissues of S. plumbizincicola grown on Pb/Zn mine tailings, five plant growth promoting endophytic bacterial strains (PGPE) were selected due to their ability to promote plant growth and to utilize ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus E2S2, Bacillus sp. E1S2, Bacillus sp. E4S1, Achromobacter sp. E4L5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. E1L and subsequent testing revealed that they all exhibited traits associated with plant growth promotion, such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores and solubilization of phosphorus. These five strains showed high resistance to heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Pb) and various antibiotics. Further, inoculation of these ACC utilizing strains significantly increased the concentrations of water extractable Cd and Zn in soil. Moreover, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating metal-resistant ACC utilizing strains on the growth of S. plumbizincicola and its uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb in multi-metal contaminated soils. Out of the five strains, B. pumilus E2S2 significantly increased root (146%) and shoot (17%) length, fresh (37%) and dry biomass (32%) of S. plumbizincicola as well as plant Cd uptake (43%), whereas

  3. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species, Quarterly technical progress report, December 20, 1995--March 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L.; Brady, D.; Last, M.; Ebbs, S.

    1995-12-01

    Although the period covered by this progress report began on December 20, 1994, which was the date that DOE approved the Interagency Agreement, the agreement was not approved by USDA until January 9, 1995 and the first scientists working on the project were not hired until February 1, 1995. The first goal of the research supported by the Interagency Agreement is to use hydroponic techniques to identify plant species and genotypes with potential for heavy metal hyperaccumulation for planting on a test site at Silverbow Creek and for radionuclide ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation on a test site at INEL, Idaho, later this year. The second goal of this research is to identify soil amendment procedures that will enhance the bioavailability of heavy metals and radionuclides in the soil without increasing the movement of the contaminants of concern (COC`s) into the groundwater. Our initial research covered in this report focuses on the first goal.

  4. Changes in metal availability, desorption kinetics and speciation in contaminated soils during repeated phytoextraction with the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Jia, Mingyun; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-02-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the remediation of metal contaminated soils. Changes in soil metal availability during phytoremediation have direct effects on removal efficiency and can also illustrate the interactive mechanisms between hyperaccumulators and metal contaminated soils. In the present study the changes in metal availability, desorption kinetics and speciation in four metal-contaminated soils during repeated phytoextraction by the zinc/cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola (S. plumbizincicola) over three years were investigated by chemical extraction and the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The available metal fractions (i.e. metal in the soil solution extracted by CaCl2 and by EDTA) decreased greatly by >84% after phytoextraction in acid soils and the deceases were dramatic at the initial stages of phytoextraction. However, the decreases in metal extractable by CaCl2 and EDTA in calcareous soils were not significant or quite low. Large decreases in metal desorption rate constants evaluated by DIFS were found in calcareous soils. Sequential extraction indicated that the acid-soluble metal fraction was easily removed by S. plumbizincicola from acid soils but not from calcareous soils. Reducible and oxidisable metal fractions showed discernible decreases in acid and calcareous soils, indicating that S. plumbizincicola can mobilize non-labile metal for uptake but the residual metal cannot be removed. The results indicate that phytoextraction significantly decreases metal availability by reducing metal pool sizes and/or desorption rates and that S. plumbizincicola plays an important role in the mobilization of less active metal fractions during repeated phytoextraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of up-regulated genes from the metal-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker, in response to lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, A; Calderón-Vázquez, C L; Uh-Ramos, D; Fuentes, G; Ramírez-Prado, J H; Sáenz-Carbonell, L; Santamaría, J M

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. The aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker is capable to hyper-accumulate Pb in their tissues. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its Pb accumulation and tolerance capacity are not fully understood. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are activated by S. minima in response to Pb, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization library (SSH) in response to an exposure to 40μM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 for 12h. 365 lead-related differentially expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were isolated and sequenced. Among these ESTs, 143 unique cDNA (97 were registered at the GenBank and 46 ESTs were not registered, because they did not meet the GenBank conditions). Those ESTs were identified and classified into 3 groups according to Blast2GO. In terms of metabolic pathways, they were grouped into 29 KEGG pathways. Among the ESTs, we identified some that might be part of the mechanism that this fern may have to deal with this metal, including abiotic-stress-related transcription factors, some that might be involved in tolerance mechanisms such as ROS scavenging, membrane protection, and those of cell homeostasis recovery. To validate the SSH library, 4 genes were randomly selected from the library and analyzed by qRT-PCR. These 4 genes were transcriptionally up-regulated in response to lead in at least one of the two tested tissues (roots and leaves). The present library is one of the few genomics approaches to study the response to metal stress in an aquatic fern, representing novel molecular information and tools to understand the molecular physiology of its Pb tolerance and hyperaccumulation capacity. Further research is required to elucidate the functions of the lead-induced genes that remain classified as unknown, to perhaps reveal novel molecular mechanisms of Pb tolerance and accumulation capacity in aquatic plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Micropropagation of Myriophyllum alterniflorum (Haloragaceae) for stream rehabilitation: first in vitro culture and reintroduction assays of a heavy-metal hyperaccumulator immersed macrophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Hourdin, Philippe; Larcher, Laure; Moesch, Christian; Botineau, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, submersed aquatic macrophytes play a key role in stream ecology and they are often used as biomonitors of freshwater quality. So, these plants appear as natural candidates to stream rehabilitation experiments. Among them, the stream macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum is used recently as biomonitor and is potentially useful for the restoration of heavy-metal contaminated localities. The best way to obtain a mass production of watermilfoil plants is micropropagation. We developed in vitro culture of M. alterniflorum and the effects of five media on the plant development were assessed. Five morphological and four physiological endpoints were examined leading to the recommendation of the Murashige and Skoog medium for ecotoxicological studies on chlorophyllous parts, and of the Gaudet medium for root cytotoxicity and phytoremediation studies. Micropropagated clones were acclimatized in a synthetic medium and in situ reintroduction was performed efficiently. This is the first report of micropropagated plants transplantation in streams. The successful establishment of watermilfoil beds even in polluted areas strongly suggested that ecological restoration using micropropagated watermilfoil is a promising biotechnology for phytoremediation and rehabilitation of degraded areas. Moreover, high bioconcentration factors evidenced that watermilfoil hyperaccumulates Cd and Cu, and could be potentially used in phytoremediation studies.

  7. Study on transportation and accumulation mechanism of cadmium in metal-hyperaccumulating fern, Athyrium yokoscense, by synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taoka, Hiroki; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko; Goto, Fumiyuki; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Abe, Tomoko; Terada, Yasuko

    2012-01-01

    High energy synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (HE-SR-μ-XRF) analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis were applied to reveal accumulation mechanism of Cd in a generated callus of Cd hyperaccumulator fern Athyrium yokoscense. The effects of plant age on the distributions and the chemical forms of Cd were examined using the plant grown in the 1/2 M Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 200 μM Cd. The callus grew vigorously with periodical medium change. The μ-XRF imaging of the mature and young root showed that Cd was located around the cell wall of the epidermis, cortex, endodermis and vascular bundles. It is estimated that Cd absorbed from the root was transported to the shoots via the apoplast. On the other hand, Cd was accumulated in the cell wall of the epidermis, cortex and vascular bundles in the stem. Furthermore, the concentration of Cd in the vascular bundles of the mature stem was higher than that of the young stem. On the other hand, Cd located in whole area in the leaf. The Cd K-edge XAFS analysis revealed that the majority of Cd in the roots of both mature and immature stages of A. yokoscense is bounded to the oxygen ligands. In contrast, it is found that Cd was bound to sulfur ligands as well as to oxygen ligands in the shoots. (author)

  8. Using elevated CO2 to increase the biomass of a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. and to trigger hyperaccumulation of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huibin; Tang Shirong; Zhang Ximei; Guo Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Tian Shuai; Smith, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    The most important challenge to use phytoremediation is how to improve its efficiency by increasing the accumulation of metals in plants, or by improving key plant biological traits that should enhance metal uptake. In this paper, we used open-top chambers to investigate the effects of elevated CO 2 (860 μL L -1 ) on biomass and Cs uptake by a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. growing on soils spiked with various levels of cesium (0, 300, 1500 and 3000 mg Cs kg -1 ). The results showed that elevated CO 2 not only increased aboveground biomass of the Sorghum and Trifolium species by 32-111%, and by 8-11%, respectively, compared to the ambient CO 2 treatment, but also caused more accumulation of Cs by Sorghum species (up to 73%) than Trifolium species (up to 43%). It was speculated that the increase in biomass and the improvement in Cs accumulation ability at elevated CO 2 could be related to lowered soil pH values, and changes in number and kind of microorganisms in the rhizospheres of the two tested species. This is the first report of a link among elevated CO 2 , increased biomass and hyperaccumulation of Cs by Sorghum and Trifolium species.

  9. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, A. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland)], E-mail: ababczyn@us.edu.pl; Przybylowicz, W. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Augustyniak, M.G. [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides.

  10. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M.; Babczynska, A.; Przybylowicz, W.; Augustyniak, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  11. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Andrew C.; Bell, Thomas; Heywood, Chloe A.; Smith, J.A.C.; Thompson, Ian P.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract

  12. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Andrew C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: acsi@ceh.ac.uk; Bell, Thomas [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom); Heywood, Chloe A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Smith, J.A.C. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian P. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract.

  13. Aluminium Uptake and Translocation in Al Hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius Is Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids Content and Soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. Methods We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Results Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of “oxalate plants.” The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. Conclusions In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids. PMID:25880431

  14. Effect of metal stress on photosynthetic pigments in the Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens Cladonia humilis and Stereocaulon japonicum growing in Cu-polluted sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Yoshitani, Azusa; Itoh, Kiminori

    2013-11-01

    To understand the ecology and physiology of metal-accumulating lichens growing in Cu-polluted sites, we investigated lichens near temple and shrine buildings with Cu roofs in Japan and found that Stereocaulon japonicum Th. Fr. and Cladonia humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon grow in Cu-polluted sites. Metal concentrations in the lichen samples collected at some of these sites were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). UV-vis absorption spectra of pigments extracted from the lichen samples were measured, and the pigment concentrations were estimated from the spectral data using equations from the literature. Secondary metabolites extracted from the lichen samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector. We found that S. japonicum and C. humilis are Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens. Differences in pigment concentrations and their absorption spectra were observed between the Cu-polluted and control samples of the 2 lichens. However, no correlation was found between Cu and pigment concentrations. We observed a positive correlation between Al and Fe concentrations and unexpectedly found high negative correlations between Al and pigment concentrations. This suggests that Al stress reduces pigment concentrations. The concentrations of secondary metabolites in C. humilis growing in the Cu-polluted sites agreed with those in C. humilis growing in the control sites. This indicates that the metabolite concentrations are independent of Cu stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadmium Sorption Characteristics of Soil Amendments and its Relationship with the Cadmium Uptake by Hyperaccumulator and Normal Plants in Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C.C.; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14–0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51–2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K ≥ 1.49 L/mg and n ≥ 3.59. PMID:24912231

  16. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae, a bacterial endophyte of hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata, is capable of efficient selenite reduction to elemental selenium under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, L C; Ackerson, C J; Cornelis, P; Ye, L; Berendsen, R L; Hunter, W J; Noblitt, S D; Henry, C S; Cappa, J J; Montenieri, R L; Wong, A O; Musilova, L; Sura-de Jong, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Lens, P N L; Reynolds, R J B; Pilon-Smits, E A H

    2015-08-01

    To identify bacteria with high selenium tolerance and reduction capacity for bioremediation of wastewater and nanoselenium particle production. A bacterial endophyte was isolated from the selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) growing on seleniferous soils in Colorado, USA. Based on fatty acid methyl ester analysis and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) using 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes, the isolate was identified as a subspecies of Pseudomonas moraviensis (97.3% nucleotide identity) and named P. moraviensis stanleyae. The isolate exhibited extreme tolerance to SeO3(2-) (up to 120 mmol l(-1)) and SeO4(2-) (>150 mmol l(-1)). Selenium oxyanion removal from growth medium was measured by microchip capillary electrophoresis (detection limit 95 nmol l(-1) for SeO3(2-) and 13 nmol l(-1) for SeO4(2-)). Within 48 h, P. moraviensis stanleyae aerobically reduced SeO3(2-) to red Se(0) from 10 mmol l(-1) to below the detection limit (removal rate 0.27 mmol h(-1) at 30 °C); anaerobic SeO3(2-) removal was slower. No SeO4(2-) removal was observed. Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae stimulated the growth of crop species Brassica juncea by 70% with no significant effect on Se accumulation. Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae can tolerate extreme levels of selenate and selenite and can deplete high levels of selenite under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae may be useful for stimulating plant growth and for the treatment of Se-laden wastewater. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhi-qiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Renmin Road 58, Haikou 570228 (China); Yang, Xiao-e, E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Kai; Huang, Hua-gang; Zhang, Xincheng [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Fang, Hua [Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Ting-qiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Alva, A.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Prosser, WA (United States); He, Zhen-li [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Planting of S. alfredii is an effective technique for phytoextraction of Cd and DDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 increases root biomass of S. alfredii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 improves the removal efficiency of DDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plant-microbe strategy is promising for remediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil. - Abstract: The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for fields co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its metabolites 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) (DDT, DDE, and DDD are collectively called DDs) using an identified Cd-hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii (SA) and DDT-degrading microbes (DDT-1). Initially, inoculation with DDT-1 was shown to increase SA root biomass in a pot experiment. When SA was applied together with DDT-1, the levels of Cd and DDs in the co-contaminated soil decreased by 32.1-40.3% and 33.9-37.6%, respectively, in a pot experiment over 18 months compared to 3.25% and 3.76% decreases in soil Cd and DDs, respectively, in unplanted, untreated controls. A subsequent field study (18-month duration) in which the levels of Cd and DDs decreased by 31.1% and 53.6%, respectively, confirmed the beneficial results of this approach. This study demonstrates that the integrated bioremediation strategy is effective for the remediation of Cd-DDs co-contaminated soils.

  18. Characterization of Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria from Mn-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana and their impact on Mn accumulation of hybrid penisetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Three hundred Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Mn-hyperaccumulator, Phytolacca americana, grown at different levels of Mn (0, 1, and 10mM) stress. Under no Mn stress, 90%, 92%, and 11% of the bacteria produced indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, respectively. Under Mn stress, 68-94%, 91-92%, and 21-81% of the bacteria produced IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, respectively. Greater percentages of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were found in the Mn-treated P. americana. Furthermore, the ratios of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria were significantly higher in the Mn treated plant leaves, while the ratio of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria was significantly higher in the Mn treated-roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, Mn-resistant bacteria were affiliated with 10 genera. In experiments involving hybrid penisetum grown in soils treated with 0 and 1000mgkg(-1) of Mn, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the root (ranging from 6.4% to 18.3%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 19.3% to 70.2%) mass and total Mn uptake of above-ground tissues (64%) compared to the control. Furthermore, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the ratio of IAA-producing bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of hybrid penisetum grown in Mn-added soils. The results showed the effect of Mn stress on the ratio of the plant growth-promoting factor-producing endophytic bacteria of P. americana and highlighted the potential of endophytic bacterium as an inoculum for enhanced phytoremediation of Mn-polluted soils by hybrid penisetum plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aluminium uptake and translocation in Al hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius is affected by low-molecular-weight organic acids content and soil pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Vondráčková

    Full Text Available High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8 and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism.We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs.Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of "oxalate plants." The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions.In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids.

  20. Cd induced redistribution of elements within leaves of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox as revealed by micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Vavpetic, Primoz; Tratnik, Janja; Regvar, Marjana; Simcic, Jurij; Grlj, Natasa; Pelicon, Primoz

    2010-01-01

    A detailed localisation of elements within leaf tissues of hydroponically grown Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox (Brassicaceae) was determined by micro-PIXE at Jozef Stefan Institute (Ljubljana, Slovenia) in order to study accumulation patterns of Cd and other elements in the case of a single metal (Cd) pollution. Plants were treated with increasing concentrations of Cd in the solution (0 (control), 1, 10 and 100 μM). As expected, concentration of Cd in the leaves gradually increased with Cd concentration in the solution. In order to reveal the main Cd storage compartment space within the leaves a relative element distribution (pool) was calculated based on concentrations of elements in specific leaf tissues and their weight portions. Where present at detectable levels, Cd accumulated in the epidermal tissues (at 10 μM), but the contribution of epidermal pool decreased with increasing Cd concentration in solution (at 100 μM). The opposite was observed for the mesophyll pool. In addition, in Cd treated plants, a significant decrease in mesophyll Fe pool and an increase in the epidermal Fe pool were observed. Similar effect was seen for Mn pool at 100 μM Cd treatment accompanied by increasing Zn epidermal pool with increasing Cd in nutrient solution. Altogether these results indicate repartitioning of essential mesophyll cation pools (e.g., Fe, Mn and possibly Zn) when increasing Cd contents, that are instead more intensively stored in the epidermal cells. These results confirmed micro-PIXE as effective and powerful technique providing essential information on metal localisation, repartitioning and major elemental stores in plants on the tissue levels that were not accessible using classical analytical techniques and thus complementing our current understanding of plant metal tolerance mechanisms as a whole.

  1. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Kai; Huang, Hua-gang; Zhang, Xincheng; Fang, Hua; Li, Ting-qiang; Alva, A.K.; He, Zhen-li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Planting of S. alfredii is an effective technique for phytoextraction of Cd and DDs. ► Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 increases root biomass of S. alfredii. ► Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 improves the removal efficiency of DDs. ► The plant-microbe strategy is promising for remediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil. - Abstract: The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for fields co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its metabolites 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) (DDT, DDE, and DDD are collectively called DDs) using an identified Cd-hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii (SA) and DDT-degrading microbes (DDT-1). Initially, inoculation with DDT-1 was shown to increase SA root biomass in a pot experiment. When SA was applied together with DDT-1, the levels of Cd and DDs in the co-contaminated soil decreased by 32.1–40.3% and 33.9–37.6%, respectively, in a pot experiment over 18 months compared to 3.25% and 3.76% decreases in soil Cd and DDs, respectively, in unplanted, untreated controls. A subsequent field study (18-month duration) in which the levels of Cd and DDs decreased by 31.1% and 53.6%, respectively, confirmed the beneficial results of this approach. This study demonstrates that the integrated bioremediation strategy is effective for the remediation of Cd-DDs co-contaminated soils.

  2. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: A potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yuebing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: Zhouqx@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu Weitao; An Jing; Xu Zhiqiang; Wang Lin [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd ({<=}25 mg kg{sup -1}) and As ({<=}50 mg kg{sup -1}) treatments could promote the growth of B. pilosa, resulting in 34.5-104.4% and 21.0-43.0%, respectively, increase in the dry biomass of shoots while compared with that under the control conditions. However, under the co-contamination of As and Cd, there was an antagonistic effect on the growth of the plant. The concentrations of As and Cd accumulated in tissues of the plant increased with an increase of As and Cd in soils. In particular, the levels of Cd in stems and leaves reached 103.0 and 110.0 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, when soil Cd was 10 mg kg{sup -1}. Furthermore, the BF and TF values of Cd were greater than 1.0. However, the highest content of As in roots of the plant was only 13.5 mg kg{sup -1} when soil As was at a high level, i.e. 125 mg kg{sup -1}, and the TF values of As were less than 0.1, indicating that B. pilosa can be considered as a potential Cd hyperaccumulator and As excluder. The presence of As had inhibitory effects on Cd absorption by the plant, in particular, the accumulation of Cd in stems, leaves and shoots decreased significantly, with 42.8-53.1, 49.3-66.4 and 37.6-59.5%, respectively, reduction when the level of soil As was up to 125 mg kg{sup -1} compared with that under no addition of As. Whereas, when Cd was added to soils, it could facilitate As accumulation in tissues of the plants and the As concentrations in shoots increased with increasing Cd spiked in soils. The interactive effects of Cd and As may be potential for phytoremediation of Cd and/or As contamination soils.

  3. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: A potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuebing; Zhou Qixing; Liu Weitao; An Jing; Xu Zhiqiang; Wang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (≤25 mg kg -1 ) and As (≤50 mg kg -1 ) treatments could promote the growth of B. pilosa, resulting in 34.5-104.4% and 21.0-43.0%, respectively, increase in the dry biomass of shoots while compared with that under the control conditions. However, under the co-contamination of As and Cd, there was an antagonistic effect on the growth of the plant. The concentrations of As and Cd accumulated in tissues of the plant increased with an increase of As and Cd in soils. In particular, the levels of Cd in stems and leaves reached 103.0 and 110.0 mg kg -1 , respectively, when soil Cd was 10 mg kg -1 . Furthermore, the BF and TF values of Cd were greater than 1.0. However, the highest content of As in roots of the plant was only 13.5 mg kg -1 when soil As was at a high level, i.e. 125 mg kg -1 , and the TF values of As were less than 0.1, indicating that B. pilosa can be considered as a potential Cd hyperaccumulator and As excluder. The presence of As had inhibitory effects on Cd absorption by the plant, in particular, the accumulation of Cd in stems, leaves and shoots decreased significantly, with 42.8-53.1, 49.3-66.4 and 37.6-59.5%, respectively, reduction when the level of soil As was up to 125 mg kg -1 compared with that under no addition of As. Whereas, when Cd was added to soils, it could facilitate As accumulation in tissues of the plants and the As concentrations in shoots increased with increasing Cd spiked in soils. The interactive effects of Cd and As may be potential for phytoremediation of Cd and/or As contamination soils.

  4. Using elevated CO{sub 2} to increase the biomass of a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. and to trigger hyperaccumulation of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huibin [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Agro-Environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Tang Shirong, E-mail: tangshir@hotmail.com [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Agro-Environmental Protection, The Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Zhang Ximei; Guo Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Tian Shuai [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Agro-Environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Smith, Donald L. [Plant Science Department, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2009-10-30

    The most important challenge to use phytoremediation is how to improve its efficiency by increasing the accumulation of metals in plants, or by improving key plant biological traits that should enhance metal uptake. In this paper, we used open-top chambers to investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} (860 {mu}L L{sup -1}) on biomass and Cs uptake by a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. growing on soils spiked with various levels of cesium (0, 300, 1500 and 3000 mg Cs kg{sup -1}). The results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} not only increased aboveground biomass of the Sorghum and Trifolium species by 32-111%, and by 8-11%, respectively, compared to the ambient CO{sub 2} treatment, but also caused more accumulation of Cs by Sorghum species (up to 73%) than Trifolium species (up to 43%). It was speculated that the increase in biomass and the improvement in Cs accumulation ability at elevated CO{sub 2} could be related to lowered soil pH values, and changes in number and kind of microorganisms in the rhizospheres of the two tested species. This is the first report of a link among elevated CO{sub 2}, increased biomass and hyperaccumulation of Cs by Sorghum and Trifolium species.

  5. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by arsenic accumulators: a three year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anshita; Singh, Nandita

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether phytoremediation can remove arsenic from the contaminated area, a study was conducted for three consecutive years to determine the efficiency of Pteris vittata, Adiantum capillus veneris, Christella dentata and Phragmites karka, on arsenic removal from the arsenic contaminated soil. Arsenic concentrations in the soil samples were analysed after harvesting in 2009, 2010 and 2011 at an interval of 6 months. Frond arsenic concentrations were also estimated in all the successive harvests. Fronds resulted in the greatest amount of arsenic removal. Root arsenic concentrations were analysed in the last harvest. Approximately 70 % of arsenic was removed by P. vittata which was recorded as the highest among the four plant species. However, 60 % of arsenic was removed by A. capillus veneris, 55.1 % by C. dentata and 56.1 % by P. karka of arsenic was removed from the contaminated soil in 3 years.

  6. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species have adapted on such stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviour of copper in plants and to assess its potential effect on the surrounding environment. To detect copper in biological samples electrochemical methods were employed particularly differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Copper gave signals at 0.02 V measured by DPV. The obtained calibration dependence was linear (R2 = 0.995). Further, this method was utilized for determination of copper in real soil samples obtained from previously mentioned heavy-metal-polluted mining area. The content varied within range from tens to hundreds of mg of copper per kg of the soil. Moreover, we focused on investigation of copper influence on seedlings of Norway spruce. The seedlings were treated with copper (0, 0.1, 10 and 100 mM) for four weeks. We observed anatomical-morphological changes and other biochemical parameters in plants. We determined that seedlings synthesized more than 48 % protective thiols (glutathione and phytochelatins) compared to control ones. We investigated copper distribution in plant tissues by diphenylcarbazide staining. We found out that copper is highly accumulated in parenchymal stalk cells. In needles, change in auto-fluorescence of parenchymal cells of mesoderm similarly to endodermis cells. Besides, we analyzed samples of plants from the polluted area (spruce, pin, birch). The data obtained well correlated with previously mentioned. Acknowledgement The work on this experiment was supported by grant: INCHEMBIOL MSM0021622412.

  7. A combined process coupling phytoremediation and in situ flushing for removal of arsenic in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiulan; Liu, Qiuxin; Wang, Jianyi; Liao, Xiaoyong

    2017-07-01

    Phytoremediation and soil washing are both potentially useful for remediating arsenic (As)-contaminated soils. We evaluated the effectiveness of a combined process coupling phytoremediation and in situ soil flushing for removal of As in contaminated soil through a pilot study. The results showed that growing Pteris vittata L. (P.v.) accompanied by soil flushing of phosphate (P.v./Flushing treatment) could significantly decrease the total As concentration of soil over a 37day flushing period compared with the single flushing (Flushing treatment). The P.v./Flushing treatment removed 54.04% of soil As from contaminated soil compared to 47.16% in Flushing treatment, suggesting that the growth of P. vittata was beneficial for promoting the removal efficiency. We analyzed the As fractionation in soil and As concentration in soil solution to reveal the mechanism behind this combined process. Results showed that comparing with the control treatment, the percent of labile arsenate fraction significantly increased by 17% under P.v./Flushing treatment. As concentration in soil solution remained a high lever during the middle and later periods (51.26-56.22mg/L), which was significantly higher than the Flushing treatment. Although soil flushing of phosphate for more than a month, P. vittata still had good accumulation and transfer capacity of As of the soil. The results of the research revealed that combination of phytoremediation and in situ soil flushing is available to remediate As-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Bioremediation studies of tailing ponds of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakar, G.; Muralidhar Rao, C.; Swaminathan, Siva Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken for three years to evaluate the potential of native plant species for the phytoremediation of tailing ponds of Uranium mines, Jaduguda, Jharkhand. Five sampling stations: three at Jaduguda (TP1, TP2, and TP3), one at Turamdih (TTP) and one at Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) were selected. pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), 12 metals (- AI, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb) and 3 radionuclides - Co, Sr and U) were analysed. From the analysis of sediment/soil/water/effluent of tailing ponds, 4 elements - U, Mn, AI and Fe were found to be significantly in higher concentrations in water, and 8-elements (U, Mn, V, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn) were found to be in higher concentrations in soils. U and Mn were found to be the predominant contaminants. 26 plant species were screened for their ability to accumulate and remediate the contaminated soils of which only four plant species - one fern (Pteris vittata - P. vittata), one terrestrial (Saccharum spontaneum - S. spontaneum ) and two aquatic species (Typha latifolia - T. latifolia, Cyperus compressus - C. compressus) were shortlisted for phytoremediation studies in laboratory condition and transfer factors were calculated. The results of the study under controlled conditions indicate that P. vittata, S. spontaneum, T. latifolia and C. compressus were found to be the candidate species for phytoremediation of Uranium mine tailings. (author)

  9. Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on growth and metal uptake by four plant species in copper mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.D.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Duan, J.; Xiao, X.Y.; Smith, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in encouraging revegetation of copper (Cu) mine tailings. Two native plant species, Coreopsis drummondii and Pteris vittata, together with a turf grass, Lolium perenne and a leguminous plant Trifolium repens associated with and without AMF Glomus mosseae were grown in Cu mine tailings to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition and metal uptake. Results indicated that symbiotic associations were successfully established between G. mosseae and all plants tested, and mycorrhizal colonization markedly increased plant dry matter yield except for L. perenne. The beneficial impacts of mycorrhizal colonization on plant growth could be largely explained by both improved P nutrition and decreased shoot Cu, As and Cd concentrations. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of local plant species in combination with AMF for ecological restoration of metalliferous mine tailings. - This study demonstrated that AM associations can encourage plant survival in Cu mine tailings

  10. In Vitro Conservation of Some Threatened and Economically Important Ferns Belonging to the Indian Subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shastri P. Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify methods of mass multiplication for five ornamental, economically important ferns (Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw. Schott., N. cordifolia cv. ‘‘duffii’’ (L. Presl., N. exaltata cv. bostoniensis (L. Schott., Pteris vittata L., and Cyclosorus dentatus Link., and three threatened ferns, namely, Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex. Hook, Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link., and Microsorum punctatum (L. Schott., through in vitro techniques. Collections were made from different biodiversity zones of India including Northeast Himalayas, Kumaon Himalayas, and Western Ghat and successfully introduced and grown in a fern-house. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. An optimized medium is described for each fern species. Plantlets were also produced from spore culture of Cyathea spinulosa and successfully hardened under fern house conditions.

  11. Arsenic accumulation by two brake ferns growing on an arsenic mine and their potential in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Yang; Chen, Tong-Bin

    2006-05-01

    In an area near an arsenic mine in Hunan Province of south China, soils were often found with elevated arsenic levels. A field survey was conducted to determine arsenic accumulation in 8 Cretan brake ferns (Pteris cretica) and 16 Chinese brake ferns (Pteris vittata) growing on these soils. Three factors were evaluated: arsenic concentration in above ground parts (fronds), arsenic bioaccumulation factor (BF; ratio of arsenic in fronds to soil) and arsenic translocation factor (TF; ratio of arsenic in fronds to roots). Arsenic concentrations in the fronds of Chinese brake fern were 3-704 mg kg-1, the BFs were 0.06-7.43 and the TFs were 0.17-3.98, while those in Cretan brake fern were 149-694 mg kg-1, 1.34-6.62 and 1.00-2.61, respectively. Our survey showed that both ferns were capable of arsenic accumulation under field conditions. With most of the arsenic being accumulated in the fronds, these ferns have potential for use in phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soils.

  12. Helechos y licofitos de la Reserva Natural Educativa Colonia Benítez (Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dematteis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Educativa Colonia Benítez cuenta con una superficie aproximada de ocho ha, está ubicada en el departamento Primero de Mayo, en la provincia del Chaco, Argentina. Desde el punto de vista fitogeográfico, esta área protegida se localiza dentro del Distrito Chaqueño Oriental de la Provincia Chaqueña. Como objetivos de este trabajo se planteó realizar un inventario de helechos y licofitos y una clave para el reconocimiento de los taxa que crecen en esta reserva. A tal fin, se examinaron las colecciones depositadas en CTES, y se realizaron nuevas recolecciones de especímenes. Se registraron 12 géneros con un total de 17 especies, siendo Doryopteris el género mejor representado con tres especies: D. concolor, D. lorentzii y D. pentagona. El género Adiantopsis presentó dos especies (A. chlorophylla y A. tweediana, al igual que Anemia con (A. simplicior y A. tomentosa var. anthriscifolia y Pteris (Pteris denticulata var. tristicula y Pteris vittata. Los demás géneros presentaron sólo una especie: Adiantum lorentzii, Anogramma chaerophylla, Azolla cristata, Hemionitis tomentosa, Microgramma vaccinifolia, Pityrogramma calomelanos var. calomelanos, Pleopeltis minima y Selaginella sellowii. El hábito terrícola fue el mejor representado con 12 especies, de las cuales una de ellas es rupícola y otras tres se pueden comportar como epífitos facultativos, en tanto que los estrictamente epífitos fueron representados por sólo dos especies. Azolla cristata fue la única especie acuática presente. Se presentan observaciones ecológicas y un análisis biogeográfico de las especies registradas

  13. a phosphorus hyperaccumulator to high phosphorus and poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    priya

    Priya Padmanabhan, Daniel L Starnes and Shivendra V Sahi*. Department of Biology ... squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo), and sunflower. (Helianthus annuus L.) ... well as from hydroponic media (Sharma et al., 2004;. Sharma and Sahi ...

  14. IN VIVO SYNCHROTRON INVESTIGATION OF THALLIUM HYPERACCUMULATION - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is a metal of great toxicological concern and its prevalence in the natural environment has steadily increased as a result of manufacturing and combustion practices. Due to its low natural abundance and the increasing demand, TI recovery and reuse could be a profita...

  15. Soil, climate and the environment - an indissociable threesome. Soil carbon and global changes: reciprocal impacts; Carbon in all its forms; Echomicadas, a new tool to analyse carbon 14; Biotransformation of metallic trace elements by soil micro-organisms; Absorption and distribution of metallic elements in plants; Dynamics of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems; Is photo-remediation for tomorrow? Hyper-accumulator plants; Sediments, tell me the Seine history... The complex history of plant feeding by the soil; The environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatte, Christine; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Ayrault, Sophie; Balesdent, Jerome; Chapon, Virginie; Bourguignon, Jacques; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stephane; Denaix, Laurence; Nguyen, Christophe; Vavasseur, Alain; Sarrobert, Catherine; Gasperi, Johnny; Latrille, Christelle; Savoye, Sebastien; Augusto, Laurent; Conan Labbe, Annie; Bernard Michel, Bruno; Douysset, Guilhem; Toqnelli, Antoine; Vailhen, Dominique; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The articles of this file on the relationships between soils, climate and the environment discuss the reciprocal impacts of soil carbon and global changes with the objective of reduction of greenhouse effect and of increase of carbon sequestration; the various forms of carbon are presented and their properties commented ; a compact radiocarbon system (ECHoMiCADAS) is presented, developed by the Laboratory of sciences of climate and environment (LSCE) and designed for the analysis of carbon 14; an article describes how micro-organisms can play a crucial role in the transformation of soil pollutants by modifying their chemical speciation and thus their toxicity; strategies based on the absorption of metallic trace elements present in the soil to control physiological processes in plants are discussed, with applications to agriculture, food supply and to the environment; researches related to the study of effects of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems are evoked, and the reasons for a slow development of phyto-technologies, notably phyto-remediation, for pollution control and decontamination of soils and liquid media, are explained. Other themes are presented : hyper-accumulator plants which present very high contents of non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) or essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni) elements, are slowly growing, and display a limited biomass, but could be used for a phyto-extraction of metals from contaminated soils; how analysis and dating of sediments can reveal the presence of contaminants, and therefore give an insight into human activities and regulations, and into their impact on the river; how plants are able to develop strategies in their search for nutrients in different types of soils, even poor ones, and presentation of the various disciplines, methods and techniques used for environmental analysis with their applications to installation and site control, or to the study of pollutant migration

  16. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  17. Arsenic content in pteridophytes from the Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, George; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros C.; Silva, Lucilene Guerra e; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos; Salino, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world and, in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities contributed to aggravate natural contamination of this area. The discovery that a fern, Pteris vitata, hyperaccumulates arsenic led to the search of other pteridophytes species with such capacity, due to their possible use for phytoremediation of contaminated areas. In the literature cited, arsenic amounts were measured by atomic absorption, using leaf and roots samples; and only one species (Pityrogramma calomelanos) had the arsenic content of its spores measured. In a preliminary study, ferns samples from the Iron Quadrangle region were collected, identified and had their leaves processed for measurement of their arsenic content through Neutron Activation Analysis - method k 0 ; also, spores of Pteris vitata had their arsenic content measured. The results showed that: spores of P. vitata present arsenic accumulation and another fern species was found to accumulate arsenic (Adiantum raddianum). Other species that were screened confirm that, among the families of ferns already studied, species from the family Pteridaceae seems the most promising for arsenic phytoremediation purposes. Considering that two species that showed arsenic accumulation in their leaves, also presented high arsenic content in their spores, it might fasten the selection if the spores of different fern species from contaminated sites are screened first, making the process of species selection for phytoremediation faster and more efficient. (author)

  18. Arsenic content in pteridophytes from the Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros C.; Silva, Lucilene Guerra e [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: george@cdtn.br; menezes@cdtn.br; leneguerra@bol.com.br; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos; Salino, Alexandre [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Botanica]. E-mail: rosy@icb.ufmg.br; salino@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2005-07-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world and, in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities contributed to aggravate natural contamination of this area. The discovery that a fern, Pteris vitata, hyperaccumulates arsenic led to the search of other pteridophytes species with such capacity, due to their possible use for phytoremediation of contaminated areas. In the literature cited, arsenic amounts were measured by atomic absorption, using leaf and roots samples; and only one species (Pityrogramma calomelanos) had the arsenic content of its spores measured. In a preliminary study, ferns samples from the Iron Quadrangle region were collected, identified and had their leaves processed for measurement of their arsenic content through Neutron Activation Analysis - method k{sub 0}; also, spores of Pteris vitata had their arsenic content measured. The results showed that: spores of P. vitata present arsenic accumulation and another fern species was found to accumulate arsenic (Adiantum raddianum). Other species that were screened confirm that, among the families of ferns already studied, species from the family Pteridaceae seems the most promising for arsenic phytoremediation purposes. Considering that two species that showed arsenic accumulation in their leaves, also presented high arsenic content in their spores, it might fasten the selection if the spores of different fern species from contaminated sites are screened first, making the process of species selection for phytoremediation faster and more efficient. (author)

  19. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites in the Venice lagoon and conterminous areas (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Maleci, Laura

    2013-04-01

    IPA was recorded, while groundwater proved to be contaminated by As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cu, Se, Ni, Mn, Sb, Fe. Restoration of the studied sites has been carried out by phytoremediation with native or exotic vegetation (Fragmites australis, Juncus lacustris,Puccinellia palustris, Limonium serotinum, Salicornia glauca, Spartina maritima, Pteris vittata) or cultivated plants (Heliantus annuus, Zea mais, Brassica napus, Brassica juncea). Results are somewhat contradictory. At S. Giuliano, the exotic fern (Pteris vittata), consistently with data from current literature, showed high ability to accumulate As, particularly in aerial parts. At Campalto, native vegetation proved ineffective for phytoextraction, but suitable for phytostabilization, owing to a root barrier effect. In the lagoon sediments from Marghera, Spartina proved more effective than Fragmites to uptake metals, while cultivated plants could not survive to high heavy metal concentrations. At Murano, Pteris vittata proved highly effective to accumulate As, but also resistant to elevated concentrations of co-existing metals (Cd, Pb, Se, Zn), with clear signals of growth sufference and a drastic reduction of sorption capacity only in the presence of very high Cd concentration. At Molo Serbatoi, phytoremediation could not be applied in absence of a chelating agent (e.g. EDTA), which could enhance metal mobilization: therefore, soil has been stored, selected and finally (the most contaminated part) delivered to a landfill, while groundwater will be remediated by bioremediation techniques.

  20. In-vivo elemental imaging of plants using in-air submilli-PIXE camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Ishii, Keizo; Kikuchi, Yohei; Kawamura, Yu; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Ryohei; Tashiro, Kumiko; Inoue, Chihiro

    2008-01-01

    We developed a PIXE analysis system which provides spatial distribution images of elements in a region of 3x3 cm 2 with a spatial resolution of ∼0.5 mm. We call this system a submilli-PIXE camera. For in-vivo imaging of plants, we combined the submilli-PIXE camera with an in-air analysis. The high-speed beam scanning and the in-air analysis also reduce the risk of damaging the plants, thus in-vivo imaging could be realized. We applied the in-air submilli-PIXE camera to phytoremediation research. Phytoremediation is a technology for cleaning metal-contaminated soils using plant physiology. To study accumulation mechanisms for heavy metals, elemental distribution in plant organ should be known as well as average concentration. Elemental images of fronds were obtained in-vivo without sample preparation. Elemental map of the fronds showed that arsenic was accumulated in the edges of Pteris vittata fronds. The in-air submilli-PIXE camera clearly shows the accumulation of arsenic in fronds. The in-air submilli-PIXE camera is an effective tool for undertaking phytoremediation research. (author)

  1. Screening for the next generation heavy metal hyperaccumulators for dryland decontamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravanbakhsh, Mohammadhossein; Ronaghi, Abdol Majid; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal removal by plants bears a great potential to decontaminate soils. A major challenge remains to find plant species that accumulate heavy metal, harbor a sufficient biomass and grow in the desired environmental conditions. Here we present candidate plants for phytoremediation in arid

  2. Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two major

  3. Microbial community dynamics in the rhizosphere of a cadmium hyper-accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. L.; Zhang, C.; Mathews, E. R.; Tang, C.; Franks, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Phytoextraction is influenced by the indigenous soil microbial communities during the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil microbial communities can affect plant growth, metal availability and the performance of phytoextraction-assisting inocula. Understanding the basic ecology of indigenous soil communities associated with the phytoextraction process, including the interplay between selective pressures upon the communities, is an important step towards phytoextraction optimization. This study investigated the impact of cadmium (Cd), and the presence of a Cd-accumulating plant, Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes, on the structure of soil-bacterial and fungal communities using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Whilst Cd had no detectable influence upon fungal communities, bacterial communities underwent significant structural changes with no reduction in 16S rRNA copy number. The presence of C. rossii influenced the structure of all communities and increased ITS copy number. Suites of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed in abundance in response to either Cd or C. rossii, however we found little evidence to suggest that the two selective pressures were acting synergistically. The Cd-induced turnover in bacterial OTUs suggests that Cd alters competition dynamics within the community. Further work to understand how competition is altered could provide a deeper understanding of the microbiome-plant-environment and aid phytoextraction optimization.

  4. Arsenic hyperaccumulation and speciation in the edible ink stain bolete (.i.Cyanoboletus pulverulentus./i.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braeuer, S.; Goessler, W.; Kameník, J.; Konvalinková, T.; Žigová, Anna; Borovička, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 242, 1 March (2018), s. 225-231 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : edible mushrooms * dimethylarsinic acid * soil * health risk * HPLC-ICPMS Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  5. Arsenic hyperaccumulation and speciation in the edible ink stain bolete (Cyanoboletus pulverulentus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braeuer, S.; Gössler, W.; Kameník, Jan; Konvalinková, Tereza; Žigová, A.; Borovička, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 242, č. 3 (2018), s. 225-231 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34839L; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Edible mushrooms * Dimethylarsinic acid * Soil * Health risk * HPLC-ICPMS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  6. Modeling phytoextraction of heavy metals at multiply contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdiloo, Habib

    2009-01-01

    Soils and waters contaminated with heavy metals pose a major environmental and human health problem that needs an effective and affordable technological solution. Phytoextraction offers a reasonable technology which uses plants to extract the heavy metals from soils. However, the effectiveness of this new method needs to be demonstrated by means of mathematical modeling. The phytoextraction models also are needed to manage the contaminated soils. A thorough literature review indic...

  7. Characterization of three distinct metallothionein genes of the Ag-hyperaccumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita strobiliformis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hložková, K.; Matěnová, M.; Žáčková, P.; Strnad, Hynek; Hršelová, Hana; Hroudová, Miluše; Kotrba, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2016), s. 358-369 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0484 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Ectomycorrhizal fungi * Gene expression * Metal binding * Metallothionein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2016

  8. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Pavlíková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 180, MAY 15 (2015), s. 27-34 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Heavy metals stress * Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl) * 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.971, year: 2015

  9. Insights into the mechanisms of Cd hyperaccumulation in S. kali, a desert plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Salsola kali, una planta desértica, ha sido propuesta como un potencial hiperacumulador de Cd. Estudios de espectroscopía de Rayos-X han mostrado que compuestos conteniendo oxígeno y grupos tiol están involucrados en la absorción de Cd en esta planta. Por ello se ha planteado que algunos ácidos orgánicos, pared celular, fitoquelatinas y otros compuestos conteniendo glutatión, pueden estar relacionados con los mecanismos de hiperacumulación de Cd en S. kali. En esta investigación se expusieron plantas silvestres a diferentes concentraciones de Cd para determinar el contenido de este metal en el xilema y floema, así como en fracciones proteínicas. Adicionalmente, extractos de las plantas se analizaron mediante cromatografía líquida a alta presión para identificar y cuantificar ácidos orgánicos. Las plantas se trataron con 0, 20, 200 y 400 mg Cd L-1 por 48 h en hidroponia. La incorporación de Cd se midió por separado en raíces, floema y xilema. Se encontró que en plantas tratadas con concentraciones de Cd por encima de los 200 mg Cd L-1, el contenido de Cd fue mayor en el floema que en el xilema. El perfil proteínico (SDS-PAGE mostró que en plantas tratadas con Cd se incrementa la presencia de dos péptidos y se expresa uno nuevo. Después de una filtración en gel G25 y codeterminación de Cd, se encontró que es muy probable que dos proteínas (de 29 kDa y 14 kDa estén asociadas al Cd. El uso de primers degenerados de la familia Brassica permitió la identificación de un posible gen de la fitoquelatin sintasa. Los ácidos cítrico y oxálico fueron identificados en los extractos de las plantas. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las concentraciones de ácido cítrico en plantas control y en aquellas tratadas con Cd. Por otro lado, la cantidad de ácido oxálico en plantas expuestas a Cd fue significativamente menor que en las plantas control. Estos datos pueden indicar que el Cd pudo haber precipitado como cristales de oxalato. Los resultados reportados aquí serán útiles para entender a mayor profundidad los mecanismos de hiperacumulación de Cd en S. kali.

  10. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  11. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  12. Silver release from decomposed hyperaccumulating Amanita solitaria fruit-body biomass strongly affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Soukupová, Lucie; Borovička, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2012), s. 987-993 ISSN 0966-0844 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0484 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : soil fungi * bacteria * microbiota * heavy metals * toxicity * T-RFLP Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M); DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S) Impact factor: 3.284, year: 2012

  13. Silver relase from decomposed hyperaccumulating Amanita solitaria fruit-body biomass strongly affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, M.; Hršelová, H.; Soukupová, L.; Borovička, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2012), s. 987-993 ISSN 0966-0844 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : soil fungi * bacteria * microbiota * heavy metals * toxicity * T-RFLP Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.284, year: 2012

  14. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Han, F.X.; Chen, J.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L.; Monts, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H 2 O 2 , resulting in lower H 2 O 2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian

  15. Erato polymnioides - A novel Hg hyperaccumulator plant in ecuadorian rainforest acid soils with potential of microbe-associated phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamba, Irene; Rosado, Daniel; Kalinhoff, Carolina; Thangaswamy, Selvaraj; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Gazquez, Manuel Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) accumulation capacity was assessed in three plant species (Axonopus compressus, Erato polymnioides, and Miconia zamorensis) that grow on soils polluted by artisanal small-scale gold mines in the Ecuadorian rainforest. Individuals of three species were collected at two sampling zones: i) an intensive zone (IZ, 4.8 mg Hg kg -1 of soil) where gold extraction continues to occur, and ii) a natural zone (NZ, 0.19 mg Hg kg -1 of soil). In addition, the percentage of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization was determined in plant roots and seven fungal morphotypes isolated from rhizospheric soil. Results suggest a facilitation role of native and pollution adapted AMF on Hg phytoaccumulation. E.g., E. polymnioides increased Hg accumulation when growing with greater AMF colonization. We concluded that E. polymnioides is a good candidate for the design of microbe-assisted strategies for Hg remediation at gold mining areas. The consortia between E. polymnioides and the AMF isolated in this study could be instrumental to get a deeper understanding of the AMF role in Hg phytoaccumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sura-de Jong, M.; Reynolds, R.B.J.; Richterová, K.; Musilová, L.; Staicu, L. C.; Chocholatá, I.; Cappa, J. J.; Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Frantík, Tomáš; Dolinová, I.; Strejček, M.; Cochran, A. T.; Lovecká, P.; Pilon-Smits, E. A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 113 (2015), s. 1-17 ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : endophyte * bacteria * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.495, year: 2015

  17. Rhizosphere Microbial Community Composition Affects Cadmium and Zinc Uptake by the Metal-Hyperaccumulating Plant Arabidopsis halleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E. Marie; Weigold, Pascal; Adaktylou, Irini J.; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction depends on plant growth and plant metal accessibility. Soil microorganisms can affect the accumulation of metals by plants either by directly or indirectly stimulating plant growth and activity or by (im)mobilizing and/or complexing metals. Understanding the intricate interplay of metal-accumulating plants with their rhizosphere microbiome is an important step toward the application and optimization of phytoremediation. We compared the effects of a “native” and a strongly disturbed (gamma-irradiated) soil microbial communities on cadmium and zinc accumulation by the plant Arabidopsis halleri in soil microcosm experiments. A. halleri accumulated 100% more cadmium and 15% more zinc when grown on the untreated than on the gamma-irradiated soil. Gamma irradiation affected neither plant growth nor the 1 M HCl-extractable metal content of the soil. However, it strongly altered the soil microbial community composition and overall cell numbers. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples of A. halleri identified microbial taxa (Lysobacter, Streptomyces, Agromyces, Nitrospira, “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium”) of higher relative sequence abundance in the rhizospheres of A. halleri plants grown on untreated than on gamma-irradiated soil, leading to hypotheses on their potential effect on plant metal uptake. However, further experimental evidence is required, and wherefore we discuss different mechanisms of interaction of A. halleri with its rhizosphere microbiome that might have directly or indirectly affected plant metal accumulation. Deciphering the complex interactions between A. halleri and individual microbial taxa will help to further develop soil metal phytoextraction as an efficient and sustainable remediation strategy. PMID:25595759

  18. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  19. Refeeding-induced brown adipose tissue glycogen hyper-accumulation in mice is mediated by insulin and catecholamines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Carmean

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT glycogen levels within 4-12 hours (hr of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT. Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology.

  20. The investigation of the possibility for using some wild and cultivated plants as hyperaccumulators of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Miroslava; Antonijevic, Milan; Alagic, Sladjana

    2013-02-01

    The copper production in Bor (East Serbia) during the last 100 years presents an important source of the pollution of environment. Dust, waste waters, tailing, and air pollutants influence the quality of soil, water, and air. Over 2,000 ha of fertile soil have been damaged by the flotation tailing from Bor's facilities. The goal of the present work has been to determine the content of Pb, Cu, and Fe in wild plants (17 species) naturally growing in the damaged soil and in fodder crops (nine species) planted at the same place. The content of Pb, Cu, and Fe has been analyzed in damaged soil as well. This study has also searched for native (wild) and cultivated plants which are able to grow in contaminated soil in the area of the intense industrial activity of copper production in Bor, which means that they can accumulate and tolerate heavy metals in their above-ground tissues. It has been found out that the content of all metals in contaminated soil decreases considerably at the end of the experiment. As it has been expected, all plant species could accumulate investigated metals. All tested plants, both wild-growing and cultivated plants, seem to be quite healthy on the substrate which contained extremely high concentrations of copper.

  1. Immunocytochemical analysis of the subcellular distribution of ferritin in Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel, an iron hyperaccumulator plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Vicenta; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2012-05-01

    Ferritin is of interest at the structural and functional level not only as storage for iron, a critical element, but also as a means to prevent cell damage produced by oxidative stress. The main objective of this work was to confirm by immunocytochemistry the presence and the subcellular distribution of the ferritin detected by Mösbauer spectroscopy in Imperata cylindrica, a plant which accumulates large amounts of iron. The localization of ferritin was performed in epidermal, parenchymal and vascular tissues of shoots and leaves of I. cylindrica. The highest density of immunolabeling in shoots appeared in the intracellular space of cell tissues, near the cell walls and in the cytoplasm. In leaves, ferritin was detected in the proximity of the dense network of the middle lamella of cell walls, following a similar path to that observed in shoots. Immunolabeling was also localized in chloroplasts. The abundance of immunogold labelling in mitochondria for I. cylindrica was rather low, probably because the study dealt with tissues from old plants. These results further expand the localization of ferritin in cell components other than chloroplasts and mitochondria in plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Refeeding-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Glycogen Hyper-Accumulation in Mice Is Mediated by Insulin and Catecholamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, Christopher M.; Bobe, Alexandria M.; Yu, Justin C.; Volden, Paul A.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT) glycogen levels within 4–12 hours (hr) of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT). Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology. PMID:23861810

  3. The selection of hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils and their uranium-accumulating characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Li; Ren Yamin; Xu Jun; Yao Zhongwei; Xia Chuanqin; Bo Yun; Deng Dachao

    2009-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the possibility for phytoremediation of U-contaminated soils. The plants of cruciferae (8 species), malvaceae or compositae were planted for 55 days in the U-contaminated soils (100 mg·kg -1 ). The samples were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The results showed that U concentration was the highest in shoots of Chinese mustard (var.Texuanzhacai, 1115 mg·kg -1 ), the highest U removal from U-contaminated soils to plants occurred in the shoots of Artemisia argyi(1113 μg per pot). For the Chinese mustard (var.Paoqingcai, var. Texuanzhacai), uranium concentration in shoots was higher than in roots, and bioaccumulation factors (BFs) and transfer factors (TFs) were more than one. They showed better suitability for phytoremediation of U than other plants due to their high U accumulation in the aboveground tissues. (authors)

  4. Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mortel, Judith E.; Schat, Henk; Moerland, Perry D.; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; van der Ent, Sjoerd; Blankestijn, Hetty; Ghandilyan, Artak; Tsiatsiani, Styliani; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd

  5. Large expression differences in genes for iron and zinc homeostasis, stress response, and lignin biosynthesis distinguish roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the related metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mortel, Judith E.; Almar Villanueva, Laia; Schat, Henk; Kwekkeboom, Jeroen; Coughlan, Sean; Moerland, Perry D.; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a

  6. The effects of pH and concentration on heavy metal speciation and mobility, and its relation to heavy metal hyperaccumulation and distribution in selected native Australian flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, D.D.; McPhail, D.C.; Hallam, N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this research is to establish a clearer understanding of the relations that exist between heavy metal activity, speciation, bioavailability and their uptake and spatial distribution into plants. A combination of experimental modeling and pot trials using toxic heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, chromium and zinc) will be carried out. In the experiments, selected native Australian flora (Eucalyptus, Acacia, Atriplex) adapted to adverse environmental conditions will be used. Varying external factors such as pH, and metal concentration altered the composition of heavy metal speciation in the soil solution. Mathematical and geochemical (PHREEQC) models were used to vary these factors and emulate the conditions under which experimentation will be taking place. These variations help determine the possible heavy metal speciation that would occur in both soil and hydroponic based experiments under given conditions. The rhizosphere, soil solution and the plant material will be analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS). Proton Ion X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry will help ascertain the distribution, concentration of heavy metal taken up into plant tissues. Information derived from these data will be used to determine and understand how varying such environmental conditions and hence heavy metal speciation affect their bioavailability in the medium, and how their acceptance, accumulation and storage within the selected flora. Preliminary experimentation showed that, for lead and cadmium, the variation in soil solution pH affected the quantity of heavy metal accumulated into selected native Australian flora. ICP-MS analysis of plants subjected to a known soil solution spiked with 200 μmol of lead and cadmium showed that the quantities of lead and cadmium accumulated into plant sections (roots, stems and leaves) varied in the selected woody species. A. heteroclita, A. saligna, and A. burbanyana also showed no or little signs of phytotoxicity upon accumulating the toxic heavy metals into their tissues under both acidic and alkaline pH conditions. It is possible that these species have the potential to phytoextract toxic heavy metals in high quantities. Preliminary analysis using PIXE indicated that leaf samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus and E. Iesouefii showed a different distribution pattern for lead accumulated in its tissues compared to other essential elements taken up by the plant along the length of the main and secondary veins

  7. Off-line separation and determination of rare earth elements associated with chloroplast pigments of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma by normal-phase liquid chromatography and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z G; Hong, F S; Yin, M; Li, H X; Hu, F; Zhao, G W; Wong, J W C

    2004-10-01

    An off-line normal-phase liquid chromatography-ICP-MS method has been used for separation and determination of the rare earth elements (REE) associated with chloroplast pigments of Dicranopteris dichotoma. The stability of REE-bound pigments was tested, and almost no destruction of REE-bound pigments occurred during the so-called normal-phase liquid chromatography. The accumulated free REE ions on the microcrystalline cellulose column were cleaned by elution with 5 mmol L(-1) 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (P507), to avoid exchange of these free ions with metals from the pigments. When these precautions were taken, the method was applied to the study of REE-bound pigments in D. dichotoma. ICP-MS results showed REE were present in chlorophylls and lutein, although REE concentrations in carotene and pheophytin were both below procedural blank levels. By careful analysis of the eluate fractions containing chlorophyll a it was found that REE-bound chlorophyll a in D. dichotoma was slightly enriched in the fractions with relatively short retention time. Results indicated that the retention time of REE-bound chlorophyll a might be slightly less than that of magnesium chlorophyll a, and REE-bound chlorophylls might be of relatively low polarity in comparison with magnesium bound chlorophylls. This phenomenon could be explained by the special double-decker sandwich-structure of REE-bound chlorophylls, as was reported by us and other authors. On the basis of these results we preferred to consider that REE can replace magnesium in chlorophyll a of D. dichotoma, and that the role of REE-bound chlorophylls in photosynthesis cannot be neglected. These data might be useful for understanding of both the properties of REE-bound pigments and the effect of REE on plant photosynthesis.

  8. Large Expression Differences in Genes for Iron and Zinc Homeostasis, Stress Response, and Lignin Biosynthesis Distinguish Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Related Metal Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Almar Villanueva, L.; Schat, H.; Kwekkeboom, J.; Coughlan, S.; Moerland, P.D.; Verloren van Themaat, E.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a

  9. Large expression differences in genes for iron and zinc homeostasis, stress response, and lignin biosynthesis distinguish roots of Arabidoposis thaliana and the related metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mortel, J.E.; Villanueva, L.A.; Schat, H.; Kwekkeboom, J.; Coughlan, S.; Moerland, P.D.; van Themaat, E.V.L.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a

  10. Regulation of odd-numbered fatty acid content plays an important part in the metabolism of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea spp. adapted to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlíková, D.; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Hlavsa, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 208, JAN (2017), s. 94-101 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane lipid-composition * amino-acids * gene-expression * salinity stress * leaf senescence * spartina-patens * low-temperature * cadmium stress * plants * tolerance * Environmental stress * Heavy metals * Phylogenetic profiling of fatty acids * Phytoremediation * Senescence * Thlaspi species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  11. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation ...

  12. Phytoremediation of Soil Trace Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation includes several distinct approaches to using plants to achieve soil remediation goals. Phytoextraction uses rare hyperaccumulator plants to accumulate in their shoots enough metals per year to achieve decontamination goals. Phytomining uses hyperaccumulators and biomass burn to pro...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF BIO-BASED MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMOVAL AND REAL-TIME MONITORING OF TOXIC METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformation of heavy-metal related genes from a hyper-accumulator to a high-biomass species is expected to promote a zinc hyper-accumulating phenotype in the normally non-hyper-accumulating poplar. Coupling fluorescence with heavy metal proteins is anticipated to allow ...

  14. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  15. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  16. In vitro spore germination and gametophytic growth development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of sucrose, pH and plant growth hormones on spore germination percentage and gametophyte growths of Pteris tripartita were studied. Various morphological structures of gametophytes were observed namely, filamentous, spatulate and heart stages in the MS culture medium with hormones. After 15 days, the ...

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 23 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Agrobacterium densities and inoculation times on gene transformation efficiency in rubber tree · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... In vitro spore germination and gametophytic growth development of a critically endangered fern Pteris tripartita Sw · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ...

  18. Short Communication Reduced seabird night strikes and mortality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds killed were broad-billed prions Pachyptila vittata (41%), common diving petrels Pelecanoides urinatrix (23%), and storm petrels (Pelagodroma marina and Fregetta grallaria/tropica 36%). All these species are listed as Least Concern globally, and the numbers killed per year are <0.1% of the island populations.

  19. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free ...

  20. SURVIVAL OF CAPTIVE-REARED PUERTO RICAN PARROTS RELEASED IN THE CARIBBEAN NATIONAL FOREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS H. WHITE; JAIME A. COLLAZO; FRANCISCO J. VILELLA

    2005-01-01

    We report first-year survival for 34 captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) released in the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico between 2000 and 2002. The purpose of the releases were to increase population size and the potential number of breeding individuals of the sole extant wild population, and to refine release protocols for eventual...

  1. Estimates of numbers of kelp gulls and Kerguelen and Antarctic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four species are regular breeders at the islands: Subantarctic skua Catharacta antarctica, kelp gull Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern Sterna vittata and Kerguelen tern S. virgata. The latter three species currently each have populations of below 150 breeding pairs at the islands. Kelp gull numbers appear to be relatively ...

  2. Anatomy of a bottleneck: diagnosing factors limiting population growth in the Puerto Rican Parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.R. Beissinger; Jr Wunderle; J.M. Meyers; B.E. Saether; S. Engen

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes that maintain population bottlenecks has received little consideration. We evaluate the role of these factors in maintaining the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) in a prolonged bottleneck from 1973 through 2000 despite intensive conservation efforts. We first conduct a risk...

  3. Impact of nest predators, competitors, and ectoparasites on Pearly-eyed Thrashers, with comments on the potential implications for Puerto Rican Parrot recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 17 years, research on a rain forest population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus), with additional observations on nesting Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) within the Sierra de Luquillo, Puerto Rico, has shown that reproductive success of thrashers and parrots is often greatly reduced as a result of the additive effects of a diverse...

  4. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    accumulated heavy metals around North Mara Gold Mine were not known. To study such ... heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for possible future remediation of the study area. ... mine is about 100 kilometers east of Lake. Victoria and 20 ...

  5. Mechanisms of metal toxicity in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Küpper, Hendrik; Andresen, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), s. 269-285 ISSN 1756-5901 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens * Induced oxidative stress * Iron toxicity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.975, year: 2016

  6. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspi

  7. Impact of metal pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on soil microbial communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epelde, L.; Becerril, J.M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Deng, Y.; Zhou, J.; Garbisu, C.

    2010-01-01

    been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses to metal phytoextraction using hyperaccumulators, a microcosm experiment was carried out to study the impacts

  8. Metallophytes for organic synthesis: towards new bio-based selective protection/deprotection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Velati, Alicia; Escande, Vincent; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    We propose for the first time using metal hyperaccumulating plants for the construction of a repertoire of protection and deprotection conditions in a concept of orthogonal sets. Protection of alcohol, carbonyl, carboxyl, and amino groups are considered. The ecocatalysts derived from metal-rich plants allow selective, mild, eco-friendly, and efficient protection or deprotection reactions. The selectivity is controlled by the choice of the metal, which is hyperaccumulated by the metallophyte.

  9. Fitoremediasi dan Potensi Tumbuhan Hiperakumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is defined as cleaning up of pollutants mediated primarily by plants. It is an emerging technology for environmental remediation that offers a low-cost technique suitable for use against different types of contaminants in a variety of media. Phytoremediation is potentially applicable to a diversity of substances, involving hyperaccumulators heavy metals and radionuclides. It is also applicable to other inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, various salts and nutrients, and a variety of organic contaminants, including explosives, petroleum hydrocarbons and pesticides. At least there are one taxon of plant as hyperaccumulator for Cd, 28 taxa for Co, 37 taxa for Cu, 9 taxa for Mg, 317 taxa for Ni, and 11 taxa for Zn. Extensive progress were done in characterizing physiology of plants which hyperaccumulate or hypertolerate metals. Hypertolerance is fundamental to hyperaccumulator, and high rates of uptake and translocation are observed in hyperaccumulator plants. Hyperaccumulator plants and agronomic technology were undertaken to improve the annual rate of phytoextraction and to allow recycling of soil toxic metals accumulated in plant biomass. These techniques are very likely to support commercial environmental remediation. Most phytoremediation systems are still in development, or in the stage of plant breeding to improve the cultivars for field use. However, application for commercial purposes has already been initiated. Many opportunities have also been identified for research and development to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation.

  10. Aportaciones a la flora de Galicia, VIII

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Vigide, F.; García Martínez, X.R.; Silva Pando, F.J.; González Domínguez, J.; Blanco Dios, J.B.; Rodríguez González, A.; Rial Pousa, S.; Álvarez Graña, D.; Caamaño Portela, J.L.; Pino Pérez, J.J.; Pino Pérez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Se citan 37 plantas de variado interés para la flora gallega. Se incluyen 8 novedades de carácter regional (Pteris incompleta Cav., Potentilla recta L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam., Knautia integrifolia (L.) Bertol., Senecio inaequidens DC. Melica arrecta G. Kunze y Stipa clausa Trab.), 17 novedades provinciales (Vandenboschia speciosa (Willd.) G. Kunkel, Ranunculus bupleuroides Brot., Silene niceensis All., Armeria transmontana (Samp.) Lawr., Alcea rosea...

  11. New pteridophyte species and combinations from the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lorence

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Intensive botanical exploration of the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia for the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands and Flore de la Polynésie française projects has resulted in numerous additional new collections from these islands. Study of these collections has brought to light 11 new species of pteridophytes (ferns and lycophytes which are described herein: Blechnum pacificum Lorence & A. R. Sm., sp. nov., Cyclosorus castaneus  A. R. Sm. & Lorence, sp. nov.,  Cyclosorus florencei A. R. Sm. & Lorence, sp. nov., Dryopteris macropholis Lorence & W. L. Wagner, sp. nov., Dryopteris sweetorum Lorence & W. L. Wagner, sp. nov., Polystichum kenwoodii Lorence & W. L. Wagner, sp. nov., Polystichum uahukaense Lorence & W. L. Wagner, sp. nov., Pteris hivaoaensis Lorence & K. Wood, sp. nov., Pteris marquesensis Lorence & K. R. Wood, sp. nov., Pteris tahuataensis Lorence & K. R. Wood, sp. nov., and Thelypteris marquesensis Lorence & K. R. Wood, sp. nov. One new combination is made: Cyclosorus marquesicus (Holttum Lorence & A. R. Sm., comb. nov. (based on Plesioneuron marquesicum Holttum.  An analysis of the conservation status of these new Marquesas Islands taxa reveals they are in need of inclusion in the IUCN Red List with conservation status ranging from vulnerable (one species, and endangered (four species, to critically endangered (five species.

  12. The accumulation and subcellular distribution of arsenic and antimony in four fern plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, R; Wang, X; Wei, C; Tu, S

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, Pteris cretica 'Albo-Lineata' (PC), Pteris fauriei (PF), Humata tyermanii Moore (HT), and Pteris ensiformis Burm (PE), were selected to explore additional plant materials for the phytoremediation of As and Sb co-contamination. To some extent, the addition of As and Sb enhanced the growth of HT, PE, and PF. Conversely, the addition of As and Sb negatively affected the growth of PC and was accompanied with the accumulation of high levels of As and Sb in the roots. The highest concentration of Sb was recorded as 6405 mg kg(-1) in the roots of PC, and that for As was 337 mg kg(-1) in the rhizome of PF. To some degree, As and Sb stimulated the uptake of each other in these ferns. Arsenic was mainly stored in the cytoplasmic supernatant (CS) fraction, followed by the cell wall (CW) fraction. In contrast, Sb was mainly found in the CW fraction and, to a lesser extent, in the CS fraction, suggesting that the cell wall and cytosol play different roles in As and Sb accumulation by fern plants. This study demonstrated that these fern plants show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of As and Sb co-contaminated environments.

  13. On a record of two alien fish species (Teleostei: Osphronemidae from the natural waters of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Marcus Knight

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquarium trade has been the source of many alien species being introduced into the natural waters of Chennai.  Trichopsis vittata and Macropodus opercularis are being reported for the first from Chennai. However,  contrary to the propagule pressure theory both these species are not common in the aquarium trade, raising speculations of inter-basin water transfer playing a role in introducing non-native species into an ecosystem.  

  14. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.D. Lindsey; W.J. Arendt; J. Kalina

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +_ 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fiedging.. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100%( n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledging. A major...

  15. Alpinia Essential Oils and Their Major Components against Rhodnius nasutus, a Vector of Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamiris de A. de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Alpinia are widely used by the population and have many described biological activities, including activity against insects. In this paper, we describe the bioactivity of the essential oil of two species of Alpinia genus, A. zerumbet and A. vittata, against Rhodnius nasutus, a vector of Chagas disease. The essential oils of these two species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituent of A. zerumbet essential oil (OLALPZER was terpinen-4-ol, which represented 19.7% of the total components identified. In the essential oil of A. vittata (OLALPVIT the monoterpene β-pinene (35.3% was the main constituent. The essential oils and their main constituents were topically applied on R. nasutus fifth-instar nymphs. In the first 10 min of application, OLALPVIT and OLALPZER at 125 μg/mL provoked 73.3% and 83.3% of mortality, respectively. Terpinen-4-ol at 25 μg/mL and β-pinene at 44 μg/mL provoked 100% of mortality. The monitoring of resistant insects showed that both essential oils exhibited antifeedant activity. These results suggest the potential use of A. zerumbet and A. vittata essential oils and their major constituents to control R. nasutus population.

  16. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Regvar, Marjana

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg -1 Zn, 5960 mg kg -1 Cd and 3500 mg kg -1 Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

  17. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: katarina.vogel@uni-lj.si; Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 5960 mg kg{sup -1} Cd and 3500 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  18. Lead uptake, tolerance, and accumulation exhibited by the plants Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile in contaminated soil without additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Milena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile collected from plants growing at uncontaminated sites were transplanted in Pb-contaminated soil without additives (EDTA, HEDTA to identify their natural potential for hyper-tolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead. The total content of Pb in the plants was determined by atomic spectroscopy. Our research showed that the concentrated toxic levels of lead (Pb in Sedum spectabile and Urtica dioica were about 100 or more times higher than those of non-accumulator plants. It can be concluded that these plants have a high natural potential for hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead, since they can hyperaccumulate it without addition of any chelating compounds (EDTA, HEDTA to enhance lead uptake. This makes them very promising plants for use in phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated sites.

  19. Analysis of arsenic in soil and vegetation of a contaminated area in Zarshuran, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, N.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Maroofi, H.; Schat, H.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the potential for arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation of native plant species, plant and soil samples were collected from the Zarshuran area (north-western Iran), which has a history of As pollution from mining. Total and water-soluble As in the soil ranged from 11.2 to 6525 and from 0.004 to

  20. The molecular mechanism of zinc and cadmium stress response in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.F.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    When plants are subjected to high metal exposure, different plant species take different strategies in response to metal-induced stress. Largely, plants can be distinguished in four groups: metal-sensitive species, metal-resistant excluder species, metal-tolerant non-hyperaccumulator species, and

  1. Gene expression differences between Noccaea caerulescens ecotypes help to identify candidate genes for metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimaa, Pauliina; Lin, Ya-Fen; Ahonen, Viivi H; Blande, Daniel; Clemens, Stephan; Gyenesei, Attila; Häikiö, Elina; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O; Laiho, Asta; Aarts, Mark G M; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Schat, Henk; Schmidt, Holger; Tuomainen, Marjo H; Tervahauta, Arja I

    2014-03-18

    Populations of Noccaea caerulescens show tremendous differences in their capacity to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. To explore the differences that could contribute to these traits, we undertook SOLiD high-throughput sequencing of the root transcriptomes of three phenotypically well-characterized N. caerulescens accessions, i.e., Ganges, La Calamine, and Monte Prinzera. Genes with possible contribution to zinc, cadmium, and nickel hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance were predicted. The most significant differences between the accessions were related to metal ion (di-, trivalent inorganic cation) transmembrane transporter activity, iron and calcium ion binding, (inorganic) anion transmembrane transporter activity, and antioxidant activity. Analysis of correlation between the expression profile of each gene and the metal-related characteristics of the accessions disclosed both previously characterized (HMA4, HMA3) and new candidate genes (e.g., for nickel IRT1, ZIP10, and PDF2.3) as possible contributors to the hyperaccumulation/tolerance phenotype. A number of unknown Noccaea-specific transcripts also showed correlation with Zn(2+), Cd(2+), or Ni(2+) hyperaccumulation/tolerance. This study shows that N. caerulescens populations have evolved great diversity in the expression of metal-related genes, facilitating adaptation to various metalliferous soils. The information will be helpful in the development of improved plants for metal phytoremediation.

  2. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 37 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7130 ... G Lu, Y Shen, W Qian, L Shen, Q Qiao, M Li, Z Wang, 7136-7142 ... LN Zhen, K Wang, YJ Zhang, H Zhou, 7161-7165 ... Effect of cadmium hyperaccumulation on antioxidative defense and proline accumulation of Solanum nigrumL.

  3. Gene Expression Differences between Noccaea caerulescens Ecotypes Help to Identify Candidate Genes for Metal Phytoremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Lin, Y.F.; Ahonen, V.H.; Blande, D.; Clemens, S.; Gyenesei, A.; Haikio, E.; Karenlampi, S.O.; Laiho, A.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Pursiheimo, J.P.; Schat, H.; Schmidt, H.; Tuomainen, M.H.; Tervahauta, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of Noccaea caerulescens show tremendous differences in their capacity to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. To explore the differences that could contribute to these traits, we undertook SOLiD high-throughput sequencing of the root transcriptomes of three phenotypically

  4. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Taraxacum mongolicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Mathews, Shiny

    2008-01-01

    Identification of hyperaccumulator and accumulator is still key step of phytoextracting-contaminated soils by heavy metals. In a former published experiment, Taraxacum mongolicum showed basic characteristics of hyperaccumulators. In order to confirm if this plant was a Cd-hyperaccumulator, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were designed and performed. The results showed that Cd enrichment factor and Cd transformation factor of T. mongolicum were all higher than 1 in concentration gradient experiment. The shoot biomasses did not reduced significantly (p -1 Cd spiked into soil. However, Cd concentration in shoot of T. mongolicum was not higher than 100 mg kg -1 the minimum a Cd-hyperaccumulator should have under the conditions of any concentration level of Cd spiked. Thus, T. mongolicum should be a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments settled in a Pb-Zn mine area and Shenyang wastewater irrigation region, T. mongolicum also showed that Cd-accumulator characteristics. Based on these results, T. mongolicum could be identified as a Cd-accumulator, which may have important implication in plant physiology and gene engineering

  5. Bioassisted Phytomining of Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluckov, Biljana S.

    2015-05-01

    Bioassisted phytomining implies targeted use of microorganisms and plants for the selective recovery of the metal. Metals from undissolved compounds are dissolved by applying specially chosen microorganisms and therefore become available to the hyperaccumulating plants. In the article, the selective extraction method of base metals and the precious metal gold by using microorganisms and plants is discussed.

  6. Responses to Cd Stress in Two Noccaea Species (Noccaea praecox and Noccaea caerulescens) Originating from Two Contaminated Sites in Mezica, Slovenia and Redlschlag, Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Hnilička, F.; Vondráčková, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2016), s. 464-474 ISSN 0090-4341 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : HYPERACCUMULATOR THLASPI-CAERULESCENS * CADMIUM STRESS * AMINO - ACIDS Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 2.467, year: 2016

  7. Use of woods at continual phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruskova, A.

    2007-01-01

    Phytoextraction that used natural hyper-accumulators for cleaning polluted soil has more advantages than induced phytoextraction. After all, using the tree species as hypo-accumulators is very rarely. This paper notes about few characteristics of tree species, especially birch (Betula pendula), which should encourage the research and next, their using in the process of phytoextraction. (author)

  8. The fascinating facets of plant selenium accumulation - biochemistry, physiology, evolution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2017-03-01

    Contents 1582 I. 1582 II. 1583 III. 1588 IV. 1590 V. 1592 1592 References 1592 SUMMARY: The importance of selenium (Se) for medicine, industry and the environment is increasingly apparent. Se is essential for many species, including humans, but toxic at elevated concentrations. Plant Se accumulation and volatilization may be applied in crop biofortification and phytoremediation. Topics covered here include beneficial and toxic effects of Se on plants, mechanisms of Se accumulation and tolerance in plants and algae, Se hyperaccumulation, and ecological and evolutionary aspects of these processes. Plant species differ in the concentration and forms of Se accumulated, Se partitioning at the whole-plant and tissue levels, and the capacity to distinguish Se from sulfur. Mechanisms of Se hyperaccumulation and its adaptive significance appear to involve constitutive up-regulation of sulfate/selenate uptake and assimilation, associated with elevated concentrations of defense-related hormones. Hyperaccumulation has evolved independently in at least three plant families, probably as an elemental defense mechanism and perhaps mediating elemental allelopathy. Elevated plant Se protects plants from generalist herbivores and pathogens, but also gives rise to the evolution of Se-resistant specialists. Plant Se accumulation affects ecological interactions with herbivores, pollinators, neighboring plants, and microbes. Hyperaccumulation tends to negatively affect Se-sensitive ecological partners while facilitating Se-resistant partners, potentially affecting species composition and Se cycling in seleniferous ecosystems. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Aquatic arsenic: Phytoremediation using floating macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur Rahman, Mohammad; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated ...

  10. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY ABSORPTION-EDGE COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF THALLIUM COMPARTMENTALIZATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as TI(I). Distribution and compartmentalization of TI in I. intermedia is highes...

  11. Expression of an "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter CAX1 variant in petunia enhances cadmium tolerance and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective and minimally invasive technology to cleanse soils contaminated with heavy metals. However, few plant species are suitable for phytoremediation of metals such as cadmium (Cd). Genetic engineering offers a powerful tool to generate plants that can hyperaccumulate ...

  12. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 16 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus × canescens · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HP Dai, C Shan, Y Wei, JG Liang, TX Yang, WQ Sa, AZ Wei, 3779-3787 ...

  13. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  14. Effect of intercropping of maize, bean, cabbage and toxicants on the population levels of some insect pests and associated predators in sugar beet plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.M. El-Fakharany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out at El-Riad district, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate in two successive growing seasons (2009/10 and 2010/11 to study the effect of intercropping of faba bean, maize and cabbage with sugar beet on the population density of Empoasca spp. (nymphs and adults, Aphis spp. (nymphs and adults, Bemisia tabaci (adults, Pegomyia mixta (eggs and larvae, Cassida vittata (larvae, pupae and adults and predators in sugar beet plantations compared with the non-intercropped plants and the resulting yield. The toxicity of certain compounds: fenitrothion, super misrona, sour orange oil, acidless orange oil, and Bermectine in reducing the population density of P. mixta and C. vittata larvae infesting sugar beet was evaluated. The rate of infestation was higher in the sole sugar beet plants than in those intercropped with faba bean, maize and cabbage plants which caused reduction of sucking pests and P. mixta eggs in the two seasons. The intercropping of faba bean plants led to higher infestation rate of P. mixta larvae in the two seasons and C. vittata (larvae, pupae and adults in the first season. The intercropping with maize led to a higher population density of Chrysoperla carnea, Paederus alfierii and Scymnus spp. in the two seasons. Low population density of true spiders was observed in sole sugar beet (control when compared with faba bean, maize and cabbage plants intercropped in the two seasons. Concerning the obtained root yield, the intercropping with maize and cabbage plants reduced the resultant yield of sugar beet roots in the two seasons. Bermectine and fenitrothion were the most effective toxicants followed by super misrona and then, sour orange that induced the lowest reduction in P. mixta larvae. Also, fenitrothion and Bermectine were the most potent compounds in reducing the population density of C. vittata larvae followed by super misrona and then, plant oil extracts. Concerning the side effects of these compounds on

  15. Sistema radicular do fórmio, sisal e bambu imperial Root systems of new zealand flax, sisal, and imperial bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem os resultados de estudos preliminares sôbre o sistema radicular do fórmio (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine e bambu .imperial (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. ,& C, Riv.. Concluem, que o sistema radicular do fórmio é relativamente raso, o do sisal bastante superficial é o do bambu imperial se limitada às primeiras carnadas do solo.Results of preliminary studies on root-systems of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine, and imperial bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. & C. Riv. plants by the method of soil block, are apresented and discussed by the authors. According to local soil conditions, it is concluded that the root-system of New Zealand flax is relatively superficial, with the main concentration of roots in the 12 in. soil top layer. In sisal, the root-systems of the three plants investigated were found to occur in the soil surface layer, with more of 90% of the roots in the top 6 in. Finally, in the imperial bamboo clump atudied, the main concentration of roots was found in the layer 6-12 in. deep.

  16. Nereididae (Annelida, Polychaeta colectados en las campañas “Fauna II, III, IV” (Proyecto “Fauna Ibérica” y catálogo de las especies conocidas para el ámbito ibérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez, Jorge

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of 19 polychaetes species belonging to the family Nereididae is made, from the material collected during the Cruises “Fauna Ibérica II, III and IV”. Of these, data on the sampling stations are given. As a result of the identification of nereidid specimens, three new records for the Iberian Peninsula were found, Ceratonereis vittata Langerhans, 1884, Neanthes rubicunda (Ehlers, 1864 and Nereis perivisceralis Claparède, 1864. An updated catalogue is also presented, with the 36 nereidid species known for the Iberian Peninsula.

    Se confecciona una lista de 19 especies de poliquetos pertenecientes a la familia Nereididae, a partir del material colectado en las campañas oceanográficas “Fauna Ibérica II, III y IV”. De éstas, se aportan datos sobre las estaciones de muestreo. De todo el material identificado son nuevas citas para la Península Ibérica tres especies: Ceratonereis vittata Langerhans, 1884, Neanthes rubicunda (Ehlers, 1864 y Nereis perivisceralis Claparède, 1864. También se aporta un catálogo actualizado de los neréididos conocidos para la Península Ibérica compuesto por 36 especies.

  17. Impact of heavy metal toxicity and constructed wetland system as a tool in remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, B; Vasudevan, N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to throw light upon the global concern of heavy metal-contaminated sites and their remediation through an ecofriendly approach. Accumulated heavy metals in soil and water bodies gain entry through the food chain and pose serious threat to all forms of life. This has engendered interest in phytoremediation techniques where hyperaccumulators are used. Constructed wetland has a pivotal role and is a cost-effective technique in the remediation of heavy metals. Metal availability and mobility are influenced by the addition of chelating agents, which enhance the availability of metal uptake. This review helps in identifying the critical knowledge gaps and areas to enhance research in the future to develop strategies such as genetically engineered hyperaccumulators to attain an environment devoid of heavy metal contamination.

  18. Enhancement of Phosphate Absorption by Garden Plants by Genetic Engineering: A New Tool for Phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Matsui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although phosphorus is an essential factor for proper plant growth in natural environments, an excess of phosphate in water sources causes serious pollution. In this paper we describe transgenic plants which hyperaccumulate inorganic phosphate (Pi and which may be used to reduce environmental water pollution by phytoremediation. AtPHR1, a transcription factor for a key regulator of the Pi starvation response in Arabidopsis thaliana, was overexpressed in the ornamental garden plants Torenia, Petunia, and Verbena. The transgenic plants showed hyperaccumulation of Pi in leaves and accelerated Pi absorption rates from hydroponic solutions. Large-scale hydroponic experiments indicated that the enhanced ability to absorb Pi in transgenic torenia (AtPHR1 was comparable to water hyacinth a plant that though is used for phytoremediation causes overgrowth problems.

  19. Bidens tripartite L.: A Cd-accumulator confirmed by pot culture and site sampling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Niu Rongcheng; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou Qixing; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng; Hu Yahu; Li Yunmeng

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in Bidens tripartite L. were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating properties. In this study, pot culture experiment and site sampling experiments were conducted to assess whether this plant is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator or accumulator. The results indicated that the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of B. tripartite was principally >1 in pot culture and concentration gradient experiments. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the site sampling experiment, B. tripartite also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, B. tripartite could be identified as a Cd-accumulator. Thus, B. tripartite should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator.

  20. Phytoremediation of ionic and methylmercury pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Genetics

    2010-04-28

    Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and sequester the toxic elemental pollutants, like the heavy metal mercury. Our current working hypothesis is that transgenic plants controlling the transport, chemical speciation, electrochemical state. volatilization, and aboveground binding of mercury will: a) tolerate mercury and grow rapidly in mercury contaminated environments; b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain; c) remove mercury from polluted soil and water; and d) hyperaccumulate mercury in aboveground tissues for later harvest. Progress toward these specific aims is reported: to increase the transport of mercury into roots and to aboveground vegetative organs; to increase biochemical sinks and storage for mercury in leaves; to increase leaf cell vacuolar storage of mercury; and to demonstrate that several stacked transgenes, when functioning in concert, enhance mercury resistance and hyperaccumulation to high levels.

  1. Nitrates and Glucosinolates as Strong Determinants of the Nutritional Quality in Rocket Leafy Salads

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human di...

  2. Phytoextraction and estimating optimal time for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils by Spinach

    OpenAIRE

    Somayyeh Eisazadeh Lazarjan; safoora asadi kapourchal; Mehdi Homaee

    2016-01-01

    The so-called phytoextraction in which hyperaccumulator plants are used to remediate the contaminated soils is proven to be an efficient method. The objective of this study was to investigate the capability of Spinach for phytoremediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils and determine the efficiency extent of spinach for phytoremediation. For this purpose, a randomized block experimental design whit five treatments including 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 mg Cd/ kg soil and three replications was...

  3. EDTA-assisted Pb phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah; Meers, E; Qadir, M; de Caritat, P; Tack, F M G; Du Laing, G; Zia, M H

    2009-03-01

    Pb is one of the most widespread and metal pollutants in soil. It is generally concentrated in surface layers with only a minor portion of the total metal found in soil solution. Phytoextraction has been proposed as an inexpensive, sustainable, in situ plant-based technology that makes use of natural hyperaccumulators as well as high biomass producing crops to help rehabilitate soils contaminated with heavy metals without destructive effects on soil properties. The success of phytoextraction is determined by the amount of biomass, concentration of heavy metals in plant, and bioavailable fraction of heavy metals in the rooting medium. In general, metal hyperaccumulators are low biomass, slow growing plant species that are highly metal specific. For some metals such as Pb, there are no hyperaccumulator plant species known to date. Although high biomass-yielding non-hyperaccumulator plants lack an inherent ability to accumulate unusual concentrations of Pb, soil application of chelating agents such as EDTA has been proposed to enhance the metal concentration in above-ground harvestable plant parts through enhancing the metal solubility and translocation from roots to shoots. Leaching of metals due to enhanced mobility during EDTA-assisted phytoextraction has been demonstrated as one of the potential hazards associated with this technology. Due to environmental persistence of EDTA in combination with its strong chelating abilities, the scientific community is moving away from the use of EDTA in phytoextraction and is turning to less aggressive alternative strategies such as the use of organic acids or more degradable APCAs (aminopolycarboxylic acids). We have therefore arrived at a point in phytoremediation research history in which we need to distance ourselves from EDTA as a proposed soil amendment within the context of phytoextraction. However, valuable lessons are to be learned from over a decade of EDTA-assisted phytoremediation research when considering the

  4. Developing Sustainable Agromining Systems in Agricultural Ultramafic Soils for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Susan Kidd

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultramafic soils are typically enriched in nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr, and cobalt (Co and deficient in essential nutrients, making them unattractive for traditional agriculture. Implementing agromining systems in ultramafic agricultural soils represent an ecological option for the sustainable management and re-valorisation of these low-productivity landscapes. These novel agroecosystems cultivate Ni-hyperaccumulating plants which are able to bioaccumulate this metal in their aerial plant parts; harvested biomass can be incinerated to produce Ni-enriched ash or “bio-ore” from which Ni metal, Ni ecocatalysts or pure Ni salts can be recovered. Nickel hyperaccumulation has been documented in ~450 species, and in temperate latitudes these mainly belong to the family Brassicaceae and particularly to the genus Odontarrhena (syn. Alyssum pro parte. Agromining allows for sustainable metal recovery without causing the environmental impacts associated with conventional mining activities, and at the same time, can improve soil fertility and quality and provide essential ecosystem services. Parallel reductions in Ni phytotoxicity over time would also permit cultivation of conventional agricultural crops. Field studies in Europe have been restricted to Mediterranean areas and these only evaluated the Ni-hyperaccumulator Odontarrhena muralis s.l. Two recent EU projects (Agronickel and LIFE-Agromine have established a network of agromining field sites in ultramafic regions with different edapho-climatic characteristics across Albania, Austria, Greece and Spain. Soil and crop management practices are being developed so as to optimize the Ni agromining process; field studies are evaluating the potential benefits of fertilization regimes, crop selection and cropping patterns, and bioaugmentation with plant-associated microorganisms. Hydrometallurgical processes are being up-scaled to produce nickel compounds and energy from hyperaccumulator biomass. Exploratory

  5. Ecological risks of novel environmental crop technologies using phytoremediation as an example:

    OpenAIRE

    Angle, J. Scott; Linacre, Nicholas A.

    2005-01-01

    "Phytoremediation is the use of living plants, known as hyperaccumulators which absorb unusually large amounts of metals in comparison to other plants. The use of classical plant breeding and new molecular techniques offers great potential to develop crops with the ability to clean up polluted sites. While these technologies have gained widespread attention, prior to commercial development, there are risks that must be considered – only a few of which have received even modest examination. Th...

  6. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P.; Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Vega, Andrea; Handford, Michael; Bonilla, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  7. Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC.: An accumulator of Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Xiao Hong; Yang Chuanjie; Zhang Qianru

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a traditional technique that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil and sediments. This is a solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective technology. In a former published article, Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC. indicated some basic properties of hyperaccumulators for cadmium (Cd). In this study, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were used to assess whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The results showed the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of K. integrifolia was basically >1 in concentration gradient experiment. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. Thus, K. integrifolia should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments conducted in a Pb-Zn mine area and a wastewater irrigation region, K. integrifolia also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, K. integrifolia could be identified as a Cd-accumulator

  8. Low-cost bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyamoorthy, P.; Golan-Goldhrish, A.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental pollution by toxic metals, especially lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr) and radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 226 Ra) is a potential hazard to health and welfare of mankind. Rapid industrial revolution has left an international legacy of soil and water contaminated with a combination of toxic and potentially carcinogenic compounds and heavy metals. Many of the contaminated sites were abandoned due to high cost of traditional clean-up approaches. Various approaches are being practiced to decontaminate heavy metals and radionuclides from polluted-soil. Remediation of heavy metal and radionuclides contaminated soils poses a significant expense to many industries and government organizations. Remediation cost in the United States and European Union alone is expected to exceed US$20 billion annually. Bioremediation strategy depends on the limitations of technology, cost and nature of the contaminant in the soil. Certain higher plants are capable of accumulation of heavy metals (2-5 %) in roots and shoots to the level far exceeding those present in the soils, these are called hyper-accumulators. Using heavy metal hyper-accumulating higher plants for environmental clean-up of contaminated soil is a recently emerged technology known as 'phytoremediation'. Genetically engineered (Transgenic) plants have a remarkable potential to absorb heavy metals and show a new avenue for biotechnology technique in Phytoremediation. The cost-effective approach of using heavy metal and radionuclide hyper-accumulators in phytoremediation is discussed. (author)

  9. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shirong; Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji

    2010-01-01

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg -1 ) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg -1 , respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg -1 . The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 μg pot -1 , respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  10. Nickel and other metal uptake and accumulation by species of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) from the ultramafics of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderian, S.M.; Mohtadi, A.; Rahiminejad, M.R.; Baker, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Some plants growing on serpentine (ultramafic) soils are able to hyperaccumulate nickel in their above-ground parts. The genus Alyssum L. contains the greatest number of Ni-hyperaccumulator plants so far reported. There are substantial areas of serpentine soils at many locations in Iran. This paper presents the analyses for Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca in soils and Alyssum species from the ultramafics of west and northwest Iran. Soil analysis for total elements in these areas indicates that typical concentrations of Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca are up to about 1240, 365, 800, 51,150, 152,390 and 11,790 μg g -1 , respectively. During this study, seven Alyssum species were collected. Analysis of leaf dry matter shows that Alyssum bracteatum can contain up to 2300 μg Ni g -1 , while the other species contain much lower concentrations of Ni and other elements. A. bracteatum is endemic to Iran and the first Ni hyperaccumulator reported from this species. - Analysis of leaf dry matter shows that Alyssum bracteatum, endemic to Iran, can contain up to 2300 μg Ni g -1 , while other species contain much lower concentrations of Ni and other elements

  11. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg{sup -1}) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg{sup -1}. The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 {mu}g pot{sup -1}, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  12. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. [Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca (Chile); Vega, Andrea [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Handford, Michael [Departmento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Las Palmeras 3425, 7800024 Santiago (Chile); Bonilla, Carlos A. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); and others

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  13. Fern inventorization in Laiwangi-Wanggameti National Park, East Sumba, Waingapu, NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN PENENG

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The inventory and the collection of the ferns in Laiwangi-Wanggameti National Park will be plamted as collection plants in Bali Botanical Garden. In this research used the explorative method. The result of the research has collected 70 numbers of the ferns and 229 speciment. They consist of 21 family, 30 genus.and 70 species. From 70 species. There are 3 species such as Licopodium sernuum, Lygodium javanicum (Tumb. Sw. and Ophioglossum pendulum L. are predicted as new collection for the Bali Botanic Garden. The dominant genus in Laiwangi- Wanggameti National Park was Cyclosorus, Asplenium, Athyrium, and Pteris. Which are growing to cover the basic of the forest in damp places at the river bank.

  14. Los Pteridófitos de un bosque subandino en el municipio de Albán, Cundinamarca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Amparo Triana Moreno

    2004-07-01

    Selaginella y Huperzia con tres. De las especies encontradas Blechnum divergens, Blechnum lherminieri, Diplazium ambiguum, Elaphoglossum piloselloides, Huperzia amentacea, Hypolepis repens, Polybotrya caudata, Pteris altissima, Thelypteris grandis y Trichomanes reptans son nuevos registros para Cundinamarca. La mayoría de las especies (46% son exclusivamente terrestres y dentro de éstas las más abundantes son Asplenium flabellulatum en el bosque, Equisetum bogotense, Thelypteris rudis y Pityrogramma ebenea en el borde de las quebradas y Thelypteris rudis y Pteridium arachnoideum en los pastizales. En cuanto a las epífitas (20% la más común es  Loxoscaphe theciferum y solo Polybotrya caudata es hemiepífita.

  15. Two New and Four Unrecorded Species of Chironomidae (Diptera in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Il Ree

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid adults attracted to the light were collected at Dangsan-ri, Muju-eup, Muju-gun, Jeollabuk-do in 2008-2009. Two new species, Lymnophyes parakitanaides sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella mujuensis sp. nov., and four unrecorded species, Cardiolcladius capusinus, Thienemanniella vittata, Conchapelopia pallidula, and Nilotanypus dubius were found and are described with illustrations. The genera Thienemanniella and Nilotanypus have not been previously reported in Korea. The genus Thienemanniella which belongs to Orthocladiinae is characterized by the radial sector retracted and apically fused with the costa, and the genus Nilotanypus which belongs to Tanypodinae is characterized by the absence of R2+3, pubescent eyes and lack of the gonocoxal lobes.

  16. O gênero Billbergia Thunb. (Bromeliaceae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The genus Billbergia Thunb. (Bromeliaceae in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Viana de Barros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Billbergia Thunb. é atualmente constituído por 64 espécies distribuídos em dois centros de diversidade: a Mata Atlântica e a Floresta Amazônica. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, o gênero é representado por 14 espécies ocorrentes em ecossistemas florestais e nas restingas: B. amoena (Lodd. Lindl., B. brasiliensis L.B. Sm., B. distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. iridifolia (Nees & Mart. Lindl., B. lymanii E. Pereira & Leme, B. macracantha E. Pereira, B. pyramidalis (Sims Lindl., B. sanderiana E.Morren, B. tweediana Baker, B. vittata Brongn. ex C.Morel e B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl. O trabalho consta de descrições, ilustrações e comentários taxonômicos e fitogeográficos das espécies.The genus Billbergia Thunb. comprises 64 species occurring in two centers of diversity: Atlantic Forest and Amazon Forest. In Rio de Janeiro State, the genus is represented by 14 species found in Atlantic forest and restinga: B. amoena (Lodd. Lindl., B. brasiliensis L.B. Sm., B. distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. iridifolia (Nees & Mart. Lindl., B. lymanii E. Pereira & Leme, B. macracantha E. Pereira, B. pyramidalis (Sims Lindl., B. sanderiana E. Morren, B. tweediana Baker, B. vittata Brongn. ex C.Morel and B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl. Here we present descriptions, figures and notes on taxonomy and geographic distribution of the species.

  17. Iktiofauna Sungai Sangkir Kabupaten Rokan Hulu Provinsi Riau (Ichthyofauna of Sangkir River, Rokan Hulu District Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunuk Dian Pranata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri river Sangkir village, Rokan Hulu district, Riau Province from May of July 2016. The aim of this study was to inventory the fish species in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri River with direct observation (survey. Five sampling locations were determined purposely based on the environmental condition that could be represented by the river condition. A total of 288 individuals of fish belonging to 3 orders, 7 families, 13 genera and 16 species were recorded in this study, namely Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis, Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus and Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae was the most abundance fish in this study. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di sungai Sangkir, anak sungai Rokan Kiri, desa Sangkir, Kabupaten Rokan Hulu, Provinsi Riau pada bulan Mei sampai Juli 2016. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis ikan di sungai Sangkir anak Sungai Rokan Kiri dengan metode pengamatan langsung (survei dengan penetapan stasiun pengambilan sampel secara purposive sampling. Penetapan stasiun berdasarkan kondisi lingkungan yang terdiri dari 5 stasiun penelitian. Hasil penelitian  didapatkan sebanyak 288 individu ikan yang terdiri dari 3 ordo, 7 famili 13 genus dan 16 spesies. Spesies yang didapatkan yaitu Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus dan Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae merupakan kelompok ikan yang paling banyak dalam penelitian ini.

  18. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  19. Utilization of a Model for Uptake of Cadmium by Plants as a Phytoremediation Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Furbish, D. J.; Clarke, J.

    2008-12-01

    Some traditional methods of environmental remediation, such as removal and disposal of contaminated soil, are loosing economic favor and public acceptance, while others, such as in situ phytoremediation, are being carefully examined because of their attractiveness as environmentally friendly, low-cost solutions to site clean-up. The success of phytoremediation strategies, however, hinges on the ability of selected plants, or plant communities, to effectively uptake, accumulate and tolerate targeted contaminants. Heavy metals, specifically cadmium (Cd), are not essential nutrients to plants. However, chemically similar zinc (Zn) is a micronutrient and is actively taken up by hyperaccumulators. For this reason, the mechanisms involved in uptake of Cd parallel those of Zn. Ideally, Cd would be allocated to the stem, leaf, and/or flower, where it becomes harvestable. Our modeling work simulates the uptake and the storage of Cd in a growing hyperaccumulator. After uptake, Cd is partitioned between adsorption to plant tissue and upward movement to leaves driven by transpiration. Uptake, adsorption and transport are also regulated by phytotoxicity. Simulations suggest that a young plant with small biomass can quickly reach phytotoxicity, which shuts down the normal operation of the plant. Conversely, mature plants on a mildly contaminated site, if harvested before the plants die due to phytotoxicity or natural cause, not only survive but may occasionally thrive. The immediate aim is to estimate the effectiveness and limitations of Cd uptake by hyperaccumulators. The eventual goal of this study is to expand the model in spatial and temporal scales, from individual plants to the community scale, and from one harvest interval to several generations. Understanding the interface between physical and biological processes, specifically the uptake and release of contaminants, provides scientists and engineers tools to assess whether phytoremediation is a reasonable strategy for a

  20. [Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Wei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the strong ability to immobilize and hyperaccumulate some toxic heavy metals in contaminated soils, the biochar, lime and such as hyperaccumulator ramie received increasing interests from crops and environment safety in recent years. Outdoor pot experiment was conducted to compare the impacts of lime and biochar addition in paddy rice treatment, hyperaccumulator ramie and ramie combined with EDTA of plant Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0.3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period , water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with

  1. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sudha Dhiman

    Full Text Available Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil. The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4% was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt, whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (% as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7% from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.

  2. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jinglin; Kim, Dongwook; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil). The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4%) was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt), whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt) was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (%) as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7%) from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.

  3. Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)'s uranium bioconcentration and tolerance attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Hong; Luo, Xue-Gang; Liu, Lai; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Hao-Zhou

    2018-04-01

    The authors sampled and analyzed 15 species of dominant wild plants in Huanan uranium tailings pond in China, whose tailings' uranium contents were 3.21-120.52 μg/g. Among the 15 species of wild plants, ramie (Boehmeria nivea) had the strongest uranium bioconcentration and transfer capacities. In order to study the uranium bioconcentration and tolerance attributes of ramie in detail, and provide a reference for the screening remediation plants to phytoremedy on a large scale in uranium tailings pond, a ramie cultivar Xiangzhu No. 7 pot experiment was carried out. We found that both wild ramie and Xiangzhu No. 7 could bioconcentrate uranium, but there were two differences. One was wild ramie's shoots bioconcentrated uranium up to 20 μg/g (which can be regarded as the critical content value of the shoot of uranium hyperaccumulator) even the soil uranium content was as low as 5.874 μg/g while Xiangzhu No. 7's shoots could reach 20 μg/g only when the uranium treatment concentrations were 275 μg/g or more; the other was that all the transfer factors of 3 wild samples were >1, and the transfer factors of 27 out of 28 pot experiment samples were uranium hyperaccumulator. Xiangzhu No. 7 satisfied the needs of uranium hyperaccumulator on accumulation capability, tolerance capability, bioconcentration factor, but not transfer capability, so Xiangzhu No. 7 was not a uranium hyperaccumulator. We analyzed the possible reasons why there were differences in the uranium bioconcentration and transfer attributes between wild ramie and Xiangzhu No. 7., and proposed the direction for further research. In our opinion, both the plants which bioconcentrate contaminants in the shoots and roots can act as phytoextractors. Although Xiangzhu No. 7's biomass and accumulation of uranium were concentrated on the roots, the roots were small in volume and easy to harvest. And Xiangzhu No. 7's cultivating skills and protection measures had been developed very well. Xiangzhu No. 7's

  4. Review in Strengthening Technology for Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated by Heavy Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chishan; Zhang, Xingfeng; Deng, Yang

    2017-07-01

    In view of current problems of phytoremediation technology, this paper summarizes research progress for phytoremediation technology of heavy metal contaminated soil. When the efficiency of phytoremediation may not meet the demand in practice of contaminated soil or water. Effective measures should be taken to improve the plant uptake and translocation. This paper focuses on strengthening technology mechanism, which can not only increase the biomass of plant and hyperaccumulators, but also enhance the tolerance and resistance to heavy metals, and application effect of phytoremediation, including agronomic methods, earthworm bioremediation and chemical induction technology. In the end of paper, deficiencies of each methods also be discussed, methods of strengthening technology for phytoremediation need further research.

  5. Phytoremediation of radioactive contaminated soil research and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianguo; Han Baohua; Ma Binghui; Wang Huijuan; Liang Yong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging environmental control technology with economic, environmental friendliness, etc., but also constrained by a variety of factors, such as difficulties of Hyperaccumulator screening, poor adaptability of plants, longer growing season and low biomass, which greatly limited the development and application of phytoremediation technology. This paper decribed the principles of phytoremediation for U, Sr and Cs contaminated soil, introduced research status involved, briefly nanlyzed the feasibility of phytoremediation techniques combined with the nuclear environmental remediation standards, and proposed suggestions for further researches. (authors)

  6. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  7. Phytoremediation of Toxic Elemental and Organic Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to extract, sequester, and/or detoxify pollutants. Phytoremediation is widely viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to the environmentally destructive physical remediation methods currently practiced. Plants have many endogenous genetic, biochemical, and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for soil and water remediation. Significant progress has been made in recent years in developing native or genetically modified plants for the remediation of environmental contaminants. Because elements are immutable, phytoremediation strategies for radionuclide and heavy metal pollutants focus on hyperaccumulation above-ground. In contrast, organic pollutants can potentially be completely mineralized by plants

  8. [Effects of illumination and seed-soaking reagent on seed germination of Solanum nigrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Jie; Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Hu, Ya-Hu; Niu, Rong-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    To explore a rapid seed germination method for hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, a germination experiment with different illumination and seed-soaking treatments was conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse, with filter as burgeon base. Under illumination, the germination rate was about 5 times high of that without illumination (P seed germination of S. nigrum. All test seed-soaking reagents could significantly improve the germination rate of S. nigrum (P seeds treated with H2O2 had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds soaked but without cleaning was 2-3 times as high as that of seeds soaked and cleaned with water.

  9. Influence of Sulfur on the Arsenic Phytoremediation Using Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Feng, Tao; Li, Zhixian; Chen, Zhang; Chen, Yuanqi; Wang, Haihua; Xiang, Yanci

    2017-09-01

    Influences of sulfur (S) on the accumulation and detoxification of arsenic (As) in Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, an arsenic hyperaccumulating submerged aquatic plant, were investigated. At low sulfur levels (75%) present in the plant after exposure to As(V). Sulfur plays an important role in the arsenic translocation and detoxification, possibly through stimulating the synthesis of thiols and complexation of arsenite-phytochelatins. This suggests that addition of sulfur to the arsenic-contaminated water may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plants for phytoremediation of arsenic pollution.

  10. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  11. Composition, speciation and distribution of iron minerals in Imperata cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, Ricardo; de la Fuente, Vicenta; Rodríguez, Nuria; Zuluaga, Javier; Menéndez, Nieves; Tornero, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    A comparative study of the roots, rhizomes and leaves of an iron hyperaccumulator plant, Imperata cylindrica, isolated from the banks of an extreme acidic environment, using complementary techniques: Mösbauer spectroscopy (MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), has shown that two main biominerals, jarosite and ferrihydrate-ferritin, accumulate in the different tissues. Jarosite accumulates mainly in roots and rhizomes, while ferritin has been detected in all the structures. A model of iron management in I. cylindrica is presented.

  12. Effects of cadmium stress on growth and amino acid metabolism in two Compositae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangxu; Xiao, Huayun; Guo, Qingjun; Zhang, Zhongyi; Zhao, Jingjing; Yang, Dan

    2018-08-30

    Cadmium, a high toxic heavy metal, is one of the most serious contaminants in soil and a potential threat to plant growth and human health. Amino acid metabolism has the central role in heavy metal stress resistance of plants. In this paper, a pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 3, 6, 12, 30 mg kg -1 ) on the growth, Cd accumulation and amino acid metabolism in two Compositae plants (Ageratum conyzoides L. and Crassocephalum crepidioides). The results showed that under cadmium stress, C. crepidioides accumulated more Cd in its shoot and was tolerant to Cd, whereas its low Cd-accumulating relative, A. conyzoides, suffered reduced growth. The Cd content in the aerial part of C. crepidioides exceeded the threshold of Cd-hyperaccumulator. Furthermore, the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and biological transfer factor (BTF) values for Cd in C. crepidioides were > 1. Thus, C. crepidioides can be regarded as Cd-hyperaccumulator. The comparison between both studied plants indicated that Cd stress resulted in a differential but coordinated response of amino acid levels, which are playing a significant role in plant adaptation to Cd stress. Glu, Gln, Asp, Asn, Gaba, Val and Ala dominated the major amino acids. Higher Cd tolerance and Cd accumulation in C. crepidioides was associated with greater accumulation of free amino acids, especially for Gln and Asn, in C. crepidioides than in A. conyzoides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance both absorption and stabilization of Cd by Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in a Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wu, Fuyong; Leung, Ho Man; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the phytoextraction efficiencies of Cd by hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and fast-growing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from a Cd-contaminated (1.6 mg kg(-1)) acidic soil, and their responses to the inoculations of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal strains, Glomus caledonium 90036 (Gc) and Glomus mosseae M47V (Gm). Ryegrass and stonecrop were harvested after growing for 9 and 27 wk, respectively. Without AM fungal inoculation, the weekly Cd extraction by stonecrop (8.0 μg pot(-1)) was 4.3 times higher than that by ryegrass (1.5 μg pot(-1)). Both Gc and Gm significantly increased (P soil acid phosphatase activities, and available P concentrations, and thereby plant P absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated ryegrass), shoot biomasses, and Cd absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated stonecrop), while only Gc-inoculated stonecrop significantly accelerated (P soil pH. The results suggested the potential application of hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop associated with AM fungi (notably Gc) for both extraction and stabilization of Cd in the in situ treatment of Cd-contaminated acidic soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential for phytoextraction of copper, lead, and zinc by rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaharu; Ae, Noriharu

    2009-03-15

    Phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators has been proposed for decreasing toxic-metal concentrations of contaminated soils. However, hyperaccumulators have several shortcomings to introduce these species into Asian Monsoon's agricultural fields contaminated with low to moderate toxic-metals. To evaluate the phytoextraction potential, maize (Gold Dent), soybean (Enrei and Suzuyutaka), and rice (Nipponbare and Milyang 23) were pot-grown under aerobic soil conditions for 60d on the Andosol or Fluvisol with low to moderate copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contamination. After 2 months cultivation, the Gold Dent maize and Milyang 23 rice shoots took up 20.2-29.5% and 18.5-20.2% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Cu, 10.0-37.3% and 8.5-34.3% of the DTPA-extractable Cu, and 2.4-6.5% and 2.1-5.9% of the total Cu, respectively, in the two soils. Suzuyutaka soybean shoot took up 23.0-29.4% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Zn, 35.1-52.6% of the DTPA-extractable Zn, and 3.8-5.3% of the total Zn in the two soils. Therefore, there is a great potential for Cu phytoextraction by the Gold Dent maize and the Milyang 23 rice and for Zn phytoextraction by the Suzuyutaka soybean from paddy soils with low to moderate contamination under aerobic soil conditions.

  15. Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebeau, Thierry; Braud, Armelle; Jezequel, Karine

    2008-01-01

    Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction is a promising method for the cleaning-up of soils contaminated by metals. Bacteria mainly Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and fungi mainly Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) associated with hyperaccumulating or non-hyperaccumulating plants were analyzed on the basis of a bioprocess engineering approach (concentration and amount of metals extracted by plants, translocation and bioconcentration factor, and plant biomass). In average bioaugmentation increased metals accumulated by shoots by a factor of about 2 (metal concentration) and 5 (amount) without any obvious differences between bacteria and fungi. To optimize this process, new relevant microorganism-plant associations and field scale experiments are needed along with a common methodology for the comparison of all experiments on the same basis. Recommendations were suggested concerning both the microbial-plant selection and the implementation of bioaugmentation to enhance the microbial survival. The use of microbial consortia associated with plant was discussed notably for multi-contaminated soils. - Bioaugmentation-assisted plant improves the phytoextraction performances for soils contaminated by metals

  16. Zinc and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in populations of Sedum alfredii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, D.M.; Shu, W.S.; Zhang, J.; Zou, H.L.; Lin, Z.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the variation of Zn and Cd accumulation and tolerance of Sedum alfredii (a newly reported Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator), field surveys and hydroponic experiments were conducted among three populations of this species: two originating from old Pb/Zn mines in Zhejiang (ZJ) and Hunan (HN) Provinces and one from a 'clean' site in Guangdong (GD) Province, China. Under field conditions, up to 12,524 and 12,253 mg kg -1 Zn, and 1400 and 97 mg kg -1 Cd in shoots of ZJ and HN plants were recorded respectively. Under hydroponic conditions, ZJ and HN plants accumulated significantly higher Zn and Cd in their leaves and stems, and possessed significantly higher Zn and Cd tolerance than GD plants. Among the two contaminated populations, ZJ plants showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation (in leaves) than HN plants. The present results indicate that significant differences in Zn and Cd accumulation and tolerance exist in populations of S. alfredii. - Marked variation of Zn and Cd tolerance and accumulation exist in populations of Sedum alfredii, a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator

  17. Zinc tolerance and accumulation in stable cell suspension cultures and in vitro regenerated plants of the emerging model plant Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Miranda-Vergara, Maria Cristina; Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2009-03-01

    Arabidopsis halleri is increasingly employed as a model plant for studying heavy metal hyperaccumulation. With the aim of providing valuable tools for studies on cellular physiology and molecular biology of metal tolerance and transport, this study reports the development of successful and highly efficient methods for the in vitro regeneration of A. halleri plants and production of stable cell suspension lines. Plants were regenerated from leaf explants of A. halleri via a three-step procedure: callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and shoot development. Efficiency of callus proliferation and regeneration depended on the initial callus induction media and was optimal in the presence of 1 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 0.05 mg L(-1) benzylaminopurine. Subsequent shoot and root regeneration from callus initiated under these conditions reached levels of 100% efficiency. High friability of the callus supported the development of cell suspension cultures with minimal cellular aggregates. Characterization of regenerated plants and cell cultures determined that they maintained not only the zinc tolerance and requirement of the whole plant but also the ability to accumulate zinc; with plants accumulating up to 50.0 micromoles zinc g(-1) FW, and cell suspension cultures 30.9 micromoles zinc g(-1) DW. Together this work will provide the experimental basis for furthering our knowledge of A. halleri as a model heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant.

  18. Heavy metal contamination in soil, food crops and associated health risks for residents of Ropar wetland, Punjab, India and its environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2018-07-30

    In the present study, an assessment of heavy metal content in soil and food crops (wheat, rice, maize grains and mustard seeds) and associated health risks was carried out for residents of Ropar wetland and its environs. All the soil samples had high cadmium and cobalt contents, whereas, all crop samples had high contents of cobalt and lead. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) analysis indicated that rice grains act as hyper-accumulators of chromium (BCF = 17.98) and copper (BCF = 10.91), whereas, maize grains act as hyper-accumulators of copper (BCF = 30.43). One-way ANOVA suggested that heavy metal content in food crops varied significantly at p ≤ 0.05 for different sites, indicating anthropogenic contribution of heavy metals in agricultural fields. Dietary intake of cobalt via all food crops posed higher non-cancer health risk to residents in comparison to other heavy metals. Chromium posed highest cancer risk through consumption of wheat grains, being staple diet in study area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rámila, Consuelo D P; Contreras, Samuel A; Di Domenico, Camila; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Vega, Andrea; Handford, Michael; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pizarro, Gonzalo E

    2016-11-05

    Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil by co-cropping with chelator application and assessment of associated leaching risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z B; Guo, X F; Wu, Q T; Long, X X; Penn, C J

    2011-08-01

    Phytoextraction using hyperaccumulating plants is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. We coupled chelators and a co-cropping system to enhance phytoextraction rates, while allowing for agricultural production. An experiment on I m3 lysimeter beds was conducted with a co-cropping system consisting of the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and low-accumulating corn (Zea Mays, cv. Huidan-4), with addition ofa mixture of chelators (MC), to assess the efficiency of chelator enhanced co-crop phytoextraction and the leaching risk caused by the chelator. The results showed that the addition of MC promoted the growth of S. alfredii in the first crop (spring-summer season) and significantly increased the metal phytoextraction. The DTPA-extractable and total metal concentrations in the topsoil were also reduced more significantly with the addition of MC compared with the control treatments. However, mono-cropped S. alfredii without MC was more suitable for maximizing S. alfredii growth and therefore phytoextraction of Zn and Cd during the autumn-winter seasons. No adverse impact to groundwater due to MC application was observed during the experiments with three crops and three MC applications. But elevated total Cd and Pb concentrations among subsoils compared to the initial subsoil concentrations were found for the co-crop + MC treatment after the third crop.

  1. Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebeau, Thierry [Equipe Depollution Biologique des Sols (EDBS), University of Haute-Alsace, 28, rue de Herrlisheim, BP 50 568, 68 008 Colmar Cedex (France)], E-mail: thierry.lebeau@uha.fr; Braud, Armelle; Jezequel, Karine [Equipe Depollution Biologique des Sols (EDBS), University of Haute-Alsace, 28, rue de Herrlisheim, BP 50 568, 68 008 Colmar Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction is a promising method for the cleaning-up of soils contaminated by metals. Bacteria mainly Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and fungi mainly Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) associated with hyperaccumulating or non-hyperaccumulating plants were analyzed on the basis of a bioprocess engineering approach (concentration and amount of metals extracted by plants, translocation and bioconcentration factor, and plant biomass). In average bioaugmentation increased metals accumulated by shoots by a factor of about 2 (metal concentration) and 5 (amount) without any obvious differences between bacteria and fungi. To optimize this process, new relevant microorganism-plant associations and field scale experiments are needed along with a common methodology for the comparison of all experiments on the same basis. Recommendations were suggested concerning both the microbial-plant selection and the implementation of bioaugmentation to enhance the microbial survival. The use of microbial consortia associated with plant was discussed notably for multi-contaminated soils. - Bioaugmentation-assisted plant improves the phytoextraction performances for soils contaminated by metals.

  2. [Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soils Using Sedum alfredii Hance with Biodegradable Chelate GLDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ze-bin; Chen, Xiao-hong; Wu, Qi-tang; Tan, Meng

    2015-05-01

    Chemically enhanced phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator has been proposed as an effective approach to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of application of the biodegradable chelate GLDA (L glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid) at different doses or the combination of GLDA with EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) or CIT (citric acid) on the uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by Sedum alfredii Hance (a Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator). Experimental results showed that GLDA addition to soil significantly increased the concentrations of Cd and Zn in Sedum alfredii Hance and its Cd and Zn phytoextraction compared to the control. Additionally, GLDA at 2.5 mmol · kg(-1) resulted in the highest phytoextraction, being 2.5 and 2.6 folds of the control for Cd and Zn, respectively. However, the combined application of GLDA + EDTA (1:1) and GLDA + CIT (1 :1 and 1:3) at a total dose of 5 mmol · kg(-1) did not increase the phytoextraction of Zn and Cd, compared to the GLDA only treatment. Therefore, the biodegradable chelate GLDA could be regarded as a good chelate candidate for the phytoextraction of heavy metals of heavy metals from contaminated soils, particularly for Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

  3. Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Islam, Ejazul; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Jin, Xiaofen; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-05-01

    Lab scale and pot experiments were conducted to compare the effects of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) on the phytoextraction of multi-contaminated soils by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Through lab scale experiments, the treatment dosage of 5 and 10 mM for synthetic chelators and LMWOA, respectively, and the treatment time of 10 days were selected for pot experiment. In pot experiment, the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) was found more tolerant to the metal toxicity compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). EDTA for Pb, EDDS for Cu, and DTPA for Cu and Cd were found more effective to enhance heavy metal accumulation in the shoots of S. alfredii Hance. Compared with synthetic chelators, the phytoextraction ability of LMWOA was lesser. Considering the strong post-harvest effects of synthetic chelators, it is suggested that higher dosage of LMWOA could be practiced during phytoextraction, and some additional measures could also be taken to lower the potential environmental risks of synthetic chelators in the future studies.

  4. Screening the phytoremediation potential of desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) growing on mine tailings in Arizona, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Nazmul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Jones, Gary L.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    The metal concentrations in a copper mine tailings and desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) plants were investigated. The metal concentrations in plants, soil cover, and tailings were determined using ICP-OES. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in tailings was 526.4, 207.4, 89.1, 84.5, 51.7, 49.6, 39.7, and 35.6 mg kg -1 , respectively. The concentration of all elements in soil cover was 10-15% higher than that of the tailings, except for molybdenum. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in roots was 818.3, 151.9, 73.9, 57.1, 40.1, 44.6, 96.8, and 26.7 mg kg -1 and 1214.1, 107.3, 105.8, 105.5, 55.2, 36.9, 30.9, and 10.9 mg kg -1 for shoots, respectively. Considering the translocation factor, enrichment coefficient, and the accumulation factor, desert broom could be a potential hyperaccumulator of Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Ni. - Desert broom, a potential hyperaccumulating plant to clean up Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, Ni and Co from the mine tailings in AZ, USA

  5. Vitamin B2 as a virulence factor in Pseudogymnoascus destructans skin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, Miroslav; Bandouchova, Hana; Cerny, Jan; Chudíčková, Milada; Kolarik, Miroslav; Kovacova, Veronika; Martínková, Natália; Novák, Petr; Šebesta, Ondřej; Stodůlková, Eva; Pikula, Jiri

    2016-09-13

    Pathogenic and non-pathogenic related microorganisms differ in secondary metabolite production. Here we show that riboflavin overproduction by a fungal pathogen and its hyperaccumulation in affected host tissue exacerbates a skin infection to necrosis. In white-nose syndrome (WNS) skin lesions caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, maximum riboflavin concentrations reached up to 815 μg ml(-1), indicating bioaccumulation and lack of excretion. We found that high riboflavin concentrations are cytotoxic under conditions specific for hibernation, affect bats' primary fibroblasts and induce cell detachment, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, polymerization of cortical actin, and cell necrosis. Our results explain molecular pathology of WNS, where a skin infection becomes fatal. Hyperaccumulation of vitamin B2 coupled with reduced metabolism and low tissue oxygen saturation during hibernation prevents removal of excess riboflavin in infected bats. Upon reperfusion, oxygen reacts with riboflavin resulting in dramatic pathology after arousal. While multiple molecules enable invasive infection, riboflavin-associated extensive necrosis likely contributes to pathophysiology and altered arousal pattern in infected bats. Bioaccumulation of a vitamin under natural infection represents a novel condition in a complex host-pathogen interplay.

  6. A comparison of phytoremediation capability of selected plant species for given trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischerova, Zuzana; Tlustos, Pavel; Jirina Szakova; Kornelie Sichorova

    2006-01-01

    In our experiment, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn remediation possibilities on medium contaminated soil were investigated. Seven plant species with a different trace element accumulation capacity and remediation potential were compared. We found good accumulation capabilities and remediation effectiveness of Salix dasyclados similar to studied hyperaccumulators (Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens). We have noticed better remediation capability in willow compared to poplar for most of the elements considered in this experiment. On the contrary, poplar species were able to remove a larger portion of Pb as opposed to other species. Nevertheless, the removed volume was very small. The elements found in plant biomass depend substantially on the availability of these elements in the soil. Different element concentrations were determined in natural soil solution and by inorganic salt solution extraction (0.01 mol L -1 CaCl 2 ). Extracted content almost exceeded the element concentration in the soil solution. Element concentrations in soil solution were not significantly affected by sampling time. - Selected accumulator trees grown on medium contaminated soil may have remediation capacity similar to hyperaccumulator species

  7. Soil solution Zn and pH dynamics in non-rhizosphere soil and in the rhizosphere of Thlaspi caerulescens grown in a Zn/Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y M; Christie, P; Baker, A J

    2000-07-01

    Temporal changes in soil solution properties and metal speciation were studied in non-rhizosphere soil and in the rhizosphere of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens J. & C. Presl (population from Prayon, Belgium) grown in a Zn- and Cd-contaminated soil. This paper focuses on soil solution Zn and pH dynamics during phytoextraction. The concentration of Zn in both non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soil solutions decreased from 23 mg/l at the beginning to 2 mg/l at the end of the experiment (84 days after transplanting of seedlings), mainly due to chemical sorption. There was no significant difference in overall Zn concentration between the planted and the unplanted soil solutions (P > 0.05). Soil solution pH decreased initially and then increased slightly in both planted and unplanted soil zones. From 60 to 84 days after transplanting, the pH of the rhizosphere soil solution was higher than that of non-rhizosphere soil solution (P<0.05). Zn uptake by the hyperaccumulator plants was 8.8 mg per pot (each containing 1 kg oven-dry soil) on average. The data indicate that the potential of T. caerulescens to remove Zn from contaminated soil may not be related to acidification of the rhizosphere.

  8. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance in native plant species from soils contaminated with electroplating effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainger, Poonam Ahlawat; Dhankhar, Rajesh; Sainger, Manish; Kaushik, Anubha; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals concentrations of (Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni) were determined in plants and soils contaminated with electroplating industrial effluent. The ranges of total soil Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni concentrations were found to be 1443-3240, 1376-3112, 683-2228, 263-374 and 234-335 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Metal accumulation, along with hyperaccumulative characteristics of the screened plants was investigated. Present study highlighted that metal accumulation in different plants varied with species, tissues and metals. Only one plant (Amaranthus viridis) accumulated Fe concentrations over 1000 mg kg⁻¹. On the basis of TF, eight plant species for Zn and Fe, three plant species for Cu and two plant species for Ni, could be used in phytoextraction technology. Although BAF of all plant species was lesser than one, these species exhibited high metal adaptability and could be considered as potential hyperaccumulators. Phytoremediation potential of these plants can be used to remediate metal contaminated soils, though further investigation is still needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Selenium uptake, translocation, assimilation and metabolic fate in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sors, T G; Ellis, D R; Salt, D E

    2005-12-01

    The chemical and physical resemblance between selenium (Se) and sulfur (S) establishes that both these elements share common metabolic pathways in plants. The presence of isologous Se and S compounds indicates that these elements compete in biochemical processes that affect uptake, translocation and assimilation throughout plant development. Yet, minor but crucial differences in reactivity and other metabolic interactions infer that some biochemical processes involving Se may be excluded from those relating to S. This review examines the current understanding of physiological and biochemical relationships between S and Se metabolism by highlighting their similarities and differences in relation to uptake, transport and assimilation pathways as observed in Se hyperaccumulator and non-accumulator plant species. The exploitation of genetic resources used in bioengineering strategies of plants is illuminating the function of sulfate transporters and key enzymes of the S assimilatory pathway in relation to Se accumulation and final metabolic fate. These strategies are providing the basic framework by which to resolve questions relating to the essentiality of Se in plants and the mechanisms utilized by Se hyperaccumulators to circumvent toxicity. In addition, such approaches may assist in the future application of genetically engineered Se accumulating plants for environmental renewal and human health objectives.

  10. On the formation and extent of uptake of silver nanoparticles by live plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Andrew T., E-mail: a.harris@usyd.edu.au; Bali, Roza [University of Sydney, Laboratory for Sustainable Technology, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    In this work we investigate the limits of uptake of metallic silver by two common metallophytes, Brassica juncea (BJ) and Medicago sativa (MS) and assess the form and distribution of the metal once sequestered by the plants. BJ accumulated up to 12.4 wt.% silver when exposed to an aqueous substrate containing 1,000 ppm AgNO{sub 3} for 72 h, however silver uptake was largely independent of exposure time and substrate silver concentration. MS accumulated up to 13.6 wt.% silver when exposed to an aqueous substrate containing 10,000 ppm AgNO{sub 3} for 24 h. In contrast to BJ there was a general trend for MS showing an increase in metal uptake with a corresponding increase in the substrate metal concentration and exposure time. In both cases the silver was stored as discrete nanoparticles, with a mean size of {approx}50 nm. According to the hyperaccumulation definition of Brooks et al. (Brooks RR, Chambers MF, Nicks LJ, Robinson BH (1998) Phytomining. Trends Plant Sci 3:359-362), this is the first report of the hyperaccumulation of silver in any plant species.

  11. Screening the phytoremediation potential of desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) growing on mine tailings in Arizona, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Nazmul [Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Jones, Gary L. [Phelps Dodge Miami Inc, P.O. Box 4444, Claypool, AZ 85532 (United States); Gill, Thomas E. [Department of Geological Science, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)], E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu

    2008-05-15

    The metal concentrations in a copper mine tailings and desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) plants were investigated. The metal concentrations in plants, soil cover, and tailings were determined using ICP-OES. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in tailings was 526.4, 207.4, 89.1, 84.5, 51.7, 49.6, 39.7, and 35.6 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. The concentration of all elements in soil cover was 10-15% higher than that of the tailings, except for molybdenum. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in roots was 818.3, 151.9, 73.9, 57.1, 40.1, 44.6, 96.8, and 26.7 mg kg{sup -1} and 1214.1, 107.3, 105.8, 105.5, 55.2, 36.9, 30.9, and 10.9 mg kg{sup -1} for shoots, respectively. Considering the translocation factor, enrichment coefficient, and the accumulation factor, desert broom could be a potential hyperaccumulator of Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Ni. - Desert broom, a potential hyperaccumulating plant to clean up Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, Ni and Co from the mine tailings in AZ, USA.

  12. Foliar manganese accumulation by Maytenus founieri (Celastraceae) in its native New Caledonian habitats: populational variation and localization by X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, D R; Woodrow, I E; Jaffré, T; Dumontet, V; Marshall, A T; Baker, A J M

    2008-01-01

    Hyperaccumulation by plants is a rare phenomenon that has potential practical benefits. The majority of manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulators discovered to date occur in New Caledonia, and little is known about their ecophysiology. This study reports on natural populations of one such species, the endemic shrub Maytenus founieri. Mean foliar Mn concentrations of two populations growing on ultramafic substrates with varying soil pHs were obtained. Leaf anatomies were examined by light microscopy, while the spatial distributions of foliar Mn in both populations were examined by qualitative scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Plants growing on two different substrates were found to have very different mean dry weight (DW) foliar Mn concentrations. Light microscopy showed that the leaves had very distinct thick dermal structures, consisting of multiple layers of large cells in the hypodermis. In vivo X-ray microprobe analyses revealed that, in both populations, Mn sequestration occurred primarily in these dermal tissues. The finding here that foliar Mn is most highly localized in the nonphotosynthetic tissues of M. founieri contrasts with results from similar studies on other woody species that accumulate high Mn concentrations in their shoots.

  13. Molecular Genetics of Metal Detoxification: Prospects for Phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow, David W. ow@pgec.ams.usda.gov

    2000-09-01

    Unlike compounds that can be broken down, the remediation of most heavy metals and radionuclides requires physical extraction from contaminated sources. Plants can extract inorganics, but effective phytoextraction requires plants that produce high biomass, grow rapidly and possess high capacity-uptake for the inorganic substance. Either hyperaccumulator plants must be bred for increased growth and biomass or hyperaccumulation traits must be engineered into fast growing, high biomass plants. This latter approach requires fundamental knowledge of the molecular mechanisms in the uptake and storage of inorganics. Much has been learned in recent years on how plants and certain fungi chelate and transport selected heavy metals. This progress has been facilitated by the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model system. The use of a model organism for study permits rapid characterization of the molecular process. As target genes are identified in a model organism, their sequences can be modified for expression in a heterologous host or aid in the search of homologous genes in more complex organisms. Moreover, as plant nutrient uptake is intrinsically linked to the association with rhizospheric fungi, elucidating metal sequestration in this fungus permits additional opportunities for engineering rhizospheric microbes to assist in phytoextraction.

  14. Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated water and sediment by eleocharis acicularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Masayuki; Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Ohmori, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Taisei Kiso Sekkei Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Faculty of Education, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Sera, Koichiro [Cyclotron Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa-mura (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Phytoremediation is an environmental remediation technique that takes advantage of plant physiology and metabolism. The unique property of heavy metal hyperaccumulation by the macrophyte Eleocharis acicularis is of great significance in the phytoremediation of water and sediments contaminated by heavy metals at mine sites. In this study, a field cultivation experiment was performed to examine the applicability of E. acicularis to the remediation of water contaminated by heavy metals. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in the shoots of E. acicularis were 20 200 mg Cu/kg, 14 200 mg Zn/kg, 1740 mg As/kg, 894 mg Pb/kg, and 239 mg Cd/kg. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the shoots correlate with their concentrations in the soil in a log-linear fashion. The bioconcentration factor for these elements decreases log-linearly with increasing concentration in the soil. The results indicate the ability of E. acicularis to hyperaccumulate Cu, Zn, As, and Cd under natural conditions, making it a good candidate species for the phytoremediation of water contaminated by heavy metals. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Remote sensing investigations of fugitive soil arsenic and its effects on vegetation reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence

    2007-12-01

    Three different remote sensing technologies were evaluated in support of the remediation of fugitive arsenic and other hazardous waste-related risks to human and ecological health at the Spring Valley Formerly Used Defense Site in northwest Washington D.C., an area of widespread soil arsenic contamination as a result of World War I research and development of chemical weapons. The first evaluation involved the value of information derived from the interpretation of historical aerial photographs. Historical aerial photographs dating back as far as 1918 provided a wealth of information about chemical weapons testing, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials. When analyzed by a trained photo-analyst, the 1918 aerial photographs resulted in 42 features of potential interest. When compared with current remedial activities and known areas of contamination, 33 of 42 or 78.5 % of the features were spatially correlated with current areas of contamination or remedial activity. The second investigation involved the phytoremediation of arsenic through the use of Pteris ferns and the evaluation of the spectral properties of these ferns. Three hundred ferns were grown in controlled laboratory conditions in soils amended with five levels (0, 20, 50, 100 and 200 parts per million) of sodium arsenate. After 20 weeks, the Pteris ferns were shown to have an average uptake concentration of over 4,000 parts per million each. Additionally, statistical analysis of the spectral signature from each fern showed that the frond arsenic concentration could be reasonably predicted with a linear model when the concentration was equal or greater than 500 parts per million. Third, hyperspectral imagery of Spring Valley was obtained and analyzed with a suite of spectral analysis software tools. Results showed the grasses growing in areas of known high soil arsenic could be identified and mapped at an approximate 85% level of accuracy when the hyperspectral image was processed

  16. Weathering and vegetation controls on nickel isotope fractionation in surface ultramafic environments (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, Nicolas; Cloquet, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Sterckeman, Thibault; Deng, Tenghaobo; Tang, YeTao; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2015-08-01

    The dissolved nickel (Ni) isotopic composition of rivers and oceans presents an apparent paradox. Even though rivers represent a major source of Ni in the oceans, seawater is more enriched in the heavier isotopes than river-water. Additional sources or processes must therefore be invoked to account for the isotopic budget of dissolved Ni in seawater. Weathering of continental rocks is thought to play a major role in determining the magnitude and sign of isotopic fractionation of metals between a rock and the dissolved product. We present a study of Ni isotopes in the rock-soil-plant systems of several ultramafic environments. The results reveal key insights into the magnitude and the control of isotopic fractionation during the weathering of continental ultramafic rocks. This study introduces new constraints on the influence of vegetation during the weathering process, which should be taken into account in interpretations of the variability of Ni isotopes in rivers. The study area is located in a temperate climate zone within the ophiolitic belt area of Albania. The serpentinized peridotites sampled present a narrow range of heavy Ni isotopic compositions (δ60Ni = 0.25 ± 0.16 ‰, 2SD n = 2). At two locations, horizons within two soil profiles affected by different degrees of weathering all presented light isotopic compositions compared to the parent rock (Δ60Nisoil-rock up to - 0.63 ‰). This suggests that the soil pool takes up the light isotopes, while the heavier isotopes remain in the dissolved phase. By combining elemental and mineralogical analyses with the isotope compositions determined for the soils, the extent of fractionation was found to be controlled by the secondary minerals formed in the soil. The types of vegetation growing on ultramafic-derived soils are highly adapted and include both Ni-hyperaccumulating species, which can accumulate several percent per weight of Ni, and non-accumulating species. Whole-plant isotopic compositions were found

  17. Revisão sistemática, análise cladística e biogeografia dos gêneros Tribotropis e Hypselotropis (Coleoptera, Anthribidae, Anthribinae, Ptychoderini Systematic revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genera Tribotropis and Hypselotropis (Coleoptera, Anthribidae, Anthribinae, Ptychoderini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo M. Mermudes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os gêneros Tribotropis Jekel, 1855 e Hypselotropis Jekel, 1855 são revisados. Com base nos resultados da análise cladística que incluiu 41caracteres e 22 táxons, o gênero Tribotropis é parafilético com relação a Hypselotropis, desta forma apresenta-se a proposta de sinonímia de Tribotropis syn. nov., sinônimo júnior. O gênero Hypselotropis, sinônimo sênior, e 17 espécies são redescritos, incluindo as espécies anteriormente alocadas em Tribotropis: Hypselotropis apollinaris (Jordan, 1939 comb. nov.; H. colombiana (Mermudes, 2004 comb. nov.; H. compressicornis (Jordan, 1895 comb. nov.; H. conicollis (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. limodes (Jordan, 1939 com. nov.; H. prasinata (Fahraeus, 1839 comb. nov.; H. punctulata (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. pustulata (Fabricius, 1801 comb. nov; H. speciosa (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. subvittata (Jordan, 1937 comb. nov.; H. suffusa (Jordan, 1895 comb. nov.; e H. vittata (Kirsch, 1889 comb. nov. Chave para identificação das espécies, ilustrações e mapas de distribuição são fornecidos. A biogeografia baseada nos padrões de distribuição das espécies é discutida.The genera Tribotropis Jekel, 1855 and Hypselotropis Jekel, 1855 are revised. Based on results of cladistic analysis that included 41 characters and 22 taxa, the genus Tribotropis resulted paraphyletic in relation to Hypselotropis, thus the former is proposed as a synonym of the latter. The genus Hypselotropis and 17 species are redescribed, including the species previously allocated in Tribotropis: Hypselotropis apollinaris (Jordan, 1939 comb. nov.; H. colombiana (Mermudes, 2004 comb. nov.; H. compressicornis (Jordan, 1895 comb. nov.; H. conicollis (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. limodes (Jordan, 1939 com. nov.; H. prasinata (Fahraeus, 1839 comb. nov.; H. punctulata (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. pustulata (Fabricius, 1801 comb. nov; H. speciosa (Jekel, 1855 comb. nov.; H. subvittata (Jordan, 1937 comb. nov.; H. suffusa (Jordan, 1895

  18. New records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR A. MIR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. New Records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 131-136. During the recent field survey of district Shopian four species of Pteridophytes are reported for the first time that constitutes new records for Kashmir valley. These species are Hypolepis polypodioides (Blume Hook, Pteris stenophylla Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Dryopteris subimpressa Loyal and Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng. Hylander. The diagnostic features of H. polypodioides are presence of long-creeping slender rhizome and eglandular, colorless or brown tinged hairs throughout the frond. P. stenophylla is characterized by having dimorphic fronds and 3 to 5 pinnae clustered at stipe apex. D. subimpressa is marked by pale-green lamina and the largest basiscopic basal pinnule in the lowest pair of pinnae. Similarly, the characteristic features of D. wallichiana are presence of huge frond size, glossier and dark-green lamina and dense browner scales in stipe and rachis. In present communication taxonomic description, synonyms, ecology and photographs are provided for each of these newly recorded species.

  19. Botanical Survey in Moyo Island, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia: Inventory of Flora Collection at Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimanto Trimanto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nusa Tenggara consists of some small islands, one of them is Moyo Island. The diversity of plant species in this island is not really known for certain. This research was determined to observe the diversity of plant spe-cies in Moyo Island forest. The research was conducted in April 2013 by using floristic analysis method. The characteristic of Moyo Island forest is lowland evergreen rain forest. The results showed there were 60 tree species recorded in Moyo Island forest. There were many fruiting trees and seedling from the trees which show healthy growth, indicated that the plant regeneration in this forest is went well. The diversity of Pteri-dophytes and orchids were not high. Epiphytic fern which often found in the forest were Drynaria quersifolia and Platycerium bifurcatum and terrestrial orchid that dominated in the forest was Nervilia aragoana. Tuber plant was often found in this forest and grew prolifically were Tacca, Dioscorea and Amorphophallus. In coastal area lived a population of Pandanus tectorius. There were three new record plants found. The first was epiphytic orchid: Pteroceras javanica, the second was the epiphytic plant: Hoya verticillata and wild tuber plant: Tacca leontopetaloides.

  20. Pteridofitas indicadoras de alteración ambiental en el bosque templado de San Jerónimo Amanalco, Texcoco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Rodríguez Romero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pteridophytes that indicate environmental alteration in the temperate forest of San Jerónimo Amanalco, Texcoco, México. Pteridophytes that indicate environmental alteration in the San Jerónimo Amanalco temperate forest, Texcoco, Mexico. The patterns of distribution of 26 pteridophyte species were studied as possible indicators of environmental alteration in the temperate forest of San Jerónimo Amanalco, Texcoco, State of Mexico. The presence and abundance of the pteridoflora was studied in relation to edaphic, topographic and vegetation variables in 100 sampling locations within an area of 494 hectares. The relationship between these variables was studied using Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Five landscapes were recognized in the study zone according to the degree of deterioration: severe erosion, erosion, mountain with moderate reversible deterioration, mountain with no evident deterioration, and canyon with no evident deterioration. Cheilanthes bonariensis and Pellaea ternifolia are indicators of environmental degradation. The taxa that only grow in landscapes without apparent alteration are Adiantum andicola, Adiantum poiretii, Argyrochosma incana, Asplenium blepharophorum, Dryopteris pseudo filix-mas, Equisetum hyemale and Pteris cretica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 641-656. Epub 2008 June 30.

  1. Plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica: Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hodelín Tablada

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron de forma retrospectiva 10 niños con craneosinostosis tipo plagiocefalia frontal sinostósica, operados en el Servicio de Neurocirugía Infantil del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía. Como técnica quirúrgica se empleó la craniectomía lineal en el sitio de la hemisura coronal sinostosada, ampliada hasta la región del pterión. La totalidad de los infantes evolucionaron con hipoplasia orbitaria y abombamiento frontal y a más de la mitad se les realizó operación en los primeros 6 meses de la vida. Hubo importante variación del índice cefálico, así como mejoría estética comparativamente, antes de la operación y después de éstaA retrospective study of 10 children with frontal synostotic plagiocephaly like craniosynostosis operated on at the Children's Neurosurgery Department of the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery was carried out. It was used the surgical technique of linear craniectomy in the site of the coronal synostotic fissure extended to the pterion region. All children evoluted with orbital hypoplasia and frontal convexity. More than a half underwent surgery during the first six months of life. There was an important cephalic index variation, as well as anaesthetic improvement after the operation

  2. Recovery of the endangered Chatham petrel (Pterodroma axillaris: A review of conservation management techniques from 1990 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Gummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of gadfly petrels, some of the most threatened seabirds, is frequently dependent on long-term research and management. We review 20 years of a program preventing the extinction of the Chatham petrel (Pterodroma axillaris, a New Zealand endemic once declining due to intense burrow competition from another native seabird. Breeding success in the early 1990s was unsustainably low (10–30%. Recovery measures started in 1992 when Chatham petrel burrows were converted and artificial entrances blockaded to exclude broad-billed prions (Pachyptila vittata. Pair and burrow fidelity were enhanced, though prions still posed a threat during Chatham petrel chick-rearing. Breeding success improved when prions were culled, however a less intensive and contentious solution was to introduce burrow flaps in 2001 which reduced interference from prospecting prions. Subsequently, breeding success increased to a mean 80% per annum. Finding burrows, primarily using radio-telemetry, increased those under management from eight in 1990 to 217 in 2010 when spotlight surveys indicated 72% of juvenile birds had fledged from managed burrows. Chick translocations to two other islands and increasing population size (from 200–400 birds in 1990 to an estimated 1400 birds by 2010 has improved the species IUCN status from Critically Endangered in 1990 to Endangered in 2013.

  3. Polonium-210 activity concentration, transfer and dose to certain invertebrates found in the vicinity of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, J.; Wesley, S.G.; Rajan, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates are significant reference organisms, and some of them tend to accumulate certain radionuclides in increased levels. It is imperative that the levels of radionuclides are measured in certain organism in the vicinity of any major nuclear power project before its commissioning; hence, this study was carried out in the surroundings of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project site. The natural radionuclide polonium-210 having affinity to the organic matter in the soil and to the protein content of the animals, is very significant as it delivers a high internal dose to the organisms. The activity concentration of this radionuclide, its transfer and dose were assessed in two terrestrial (earthworm, Pheretima posthuma and land snail, Trachea vittata) and two aquatic (apple snail, Pila globosa and bivalve mollusc, Lamellidens marginalis) invertebrates. The activity concentration of 210 Po was found to be the highest in the earthworm and the lowest in the land snail. The per-animal dose due to 210 Po was the highest for the apple snail and the lowest for the earthworm. The results indicate that 210 Po does not constitute a significant radiological threat to the organisms. (author)

  4. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  5. Multifragment alleles in DNA fingerprints of the parrot, Amazona ventralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Human DNA probes that identify variable numbers of tandem repeat loci are being used to generate DNA fingerprints in many animal and plant species. In most species the majority of the sc rable autoradiographic bands of the DNA fingerprint represent alleles from numerous unlinked loci. This study was initiated to use DNA fingerprints to determine the amount of band-sharing among captive Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with known genetic relationships. This would form the data base to examine DNA fingerprints of the closely related and endangered Puerto Rican parrot (A. vittata) and to estimate the degree of inbreeding in the relic population. We found by segregation analysis of the bands scored in the DNA fingerprints of the Hispaniolan parrots that there may be as few as two to five loci identified by the human 33.15 probe. Furthermore, at one locus we identified seven alleles, one of which is represented by as many as 19 cosegregating bands. It is unknown how common multiband alleles might be in natural populations, and their existence will cause problems in the assessment of relatedness by band-sharing analysis. We believe, therefore, that a pedigree analysis should be included in all DNA fingerprinting studies, where possible, in order to estimate the number of loci identified by a minisatellite DNA probe and to examine the nature of their alleles.

  6. Review of Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) inhabiting Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Asia, with descriptions of a new subgenus and thirteen new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Paul; Xu, Guang; Tang, William; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Thomas; Khuraijam, Jibankumar Singh; Singh, Rita; Radha, P; Rich, Stephen

    2017-05-12

    The genus Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) associated with Cycas L. (Cycadacaeae) in Asia is reviewed. Strobilophila, new subgenus, with five species is described: Cycadophila (Strobilophila) assamensis new species, C. (S.) hiepi new species, C. (S.) kwaiensis new species, C. (S.) tansachai new species and C. (S.) yangi new species, all associated with Cycas. For the nominate subgenus Cycadophila eight new species are described, Cycadophila (Cycadophila) abyssa new species, C. (C.) collina new species,C. (C.) samara new species, C. (C.) convexa new species, C. (C.) cyclochasma new species, C. (C.) eurynota new species, C. (C.) papua new species, and C. (C.) torquata new species and four new generic combinations are proposed: C. (C.) vittata (Arrow) new combination, C. (C.) discimaculata (Mader) new combination, C. (C.) intermedia (Chûjô) new combination, and C. (C.) lata (Grouvelle) new combination. Only the first three listed species of the nominate subgenus have known associations with Cycas. Species are distinguished on the basis of morphology and/or by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The larva of subgenus Strobilophila is described based on individuals collected together with adults and matched with analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Keys to subgenera and species of known adults and larvae are provided.

  7. Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G

    2008-08-01

    I compare plastic ingested by five species of seabirds sampled in the 1980s and again in 1999-2006. The numbers of ingested plastic particles have not changed significantly, but the proportion of virgin pellets has decreased 44-79% in all five species: great shearwater Puffinus gravis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata, white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina and white-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria. The populations sampled range widely in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. The most marked reduction occurred in great shearwaters, where the average number of pellets per bird decreased from 10.5 to 1.6. This species migrates between the South and North Atlantic each year. Similar decreases in virgin pellets have been recorded in short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris in the Pacific Ocean and northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. More data are needed on the relationship between plastic loads in seabirds and the density of plastic at sea in their foraging areas, but the consistent decrease in pellets in birds suggests there has been a global change in the composition of small plastic debris at sea over the last two decades.

  8. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  9. Betula pendula: A Promising Candidate for Phytoremediation of TCE in Northern Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Qvarfort, Ulf; Sjöström, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Betula pendula (Silver birch) trees growing on two contaminated sites were evaluated to assess their capacity to phytoscreen and phytoremediate chlorinated aliphatic compounds and heavy metals. Both locations are industrially-contaminated properties in central Sweden. The first was the site of a trichloroethylene (TCE) spill in the 1980s while the second was polluted with heavy metals by burning industrial wastes. In both cases, sap and sapwood from Silver birch trees were collected and analyzed for either chlorinated aliphatic compounds or heavy metals. These results were compared to analyses of the surface soil, vadose zone pore air and groundwater. Silver birch demonstrated the potential to phytoscreen and possibly phytoremediate TCE and related compounds, but it did not demonstrate the ability to effectively phytoextract heavy metals when compared with hyperaccumulator plants. The capacity of Silver birch to phytoremediate TCE appears comparable to tree species that have been employed in field-scale TCE phytoremediation efforts, such as Populus spp. and Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea.

  10. Phytoremediation potential of Eichornia crassipes in metal-contaminated coastal water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Foluso O; Olu-Owolabi, Bamidele I; Adebowale, Kayode O

    2009-10-01

    The potential of Eichornia crassipes to serve as a phytoremediation plant in the cleaning up of metals from contaminated coastal areas was evaluated in this study. Ten metals, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were assessed in water and the plant roots and shoots from the coastal area of Ondo State, Nigeria and the values were used to evaluate the enrichment factor (EF) and translocation factor (TF) in the plant. The critical concentrations of the metals were lower than those specified for hyperaccumulators thus classifying the plant as an accumulator but the EF and TF revealed that the plant accumulated toxic metals such as Cr, Cd, Pb and As both at the root and at the shoot in high degree, which indicates that the plant that forms a large biomass on the water surface and is not fed upon by animals can serve as a plant for both phytoextraction and rhizofiltration in phytoremediation technology.

  11. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C [Athens, GA

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  12. Nitrates and Glucosinolates as Strong Determinants of the Nutritional Quality in Rocket Leafy Salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavaiuolo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Nitrates and glucosinolates as strong determinants of the nutritional quality in rocket leafy salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio

    2014-04-14

    Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Efficiency of repeated phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an agricultural soil contaminated with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Longhua; Ren, Jing; Nai, Fengjiao; Li, Rui; Chen, Like; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of sewage sludge resulted in soil cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination in a pot experiment conducted to phytoextract Cd/Zn repeatedly using Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens in monoculture or intercropping mode eight times. Shoot yields and soil physicochemical properties changed markedly with increasing number of remediation crops when the two plant species were intercropped compared with the unplanted control soil and the two monoculture treatments. Changes in soil microbial indices such as average well colour development, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial counts were also significantly affected by the growth of the remediation plants, especially intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and A. graveolens. The higher yields and amounts of Cd taken up indicated that intercropping of the hyperaccumulator and the vegetable species may be suitable for simultaneous agricultural production and soil remediation, with larger crop yields and higher phytoremediation efficiencies than under monoculture conditions.

  15. Tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora to individual and combined application of Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, N; Andrejić, G; Dželetović, Ž

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metal accumulation capacity and tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora were investigated. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots on soil amended with Ni, Pb and Zn to the final concentration of 2 mmol kg(-1) for each metal. Results show considerable accumulating capacity and translocation of Ni and Zn, as well as significant accumulation of Pb in roots. A slight decrease of biomass with Zn and of chlorophyll content with Zn and Ni were observed, as well as an increase of proline content with each of the metals. Combinations of metals revealed mutual interference affecting both the uptake and translocation of the metals and their impact on physiological parameters. Results suggest that Portulaca grandiflora, although not a hyperaccumulator, shows a good tolerance and accumulation capacity for Ni, Pb and Zn, but, for the purposes of remediation, interference of the metals must be taken into account.

  16. CCPG1, a cargo receptor required for reticulophagy and endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew D; Wilkinson, Simon

    2018-06-19

    The importance of selective macroautophagy/autophagy in cellular health is increasingly evident. The selective degradation of portions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or reticulophagy, is an emerging example but requires further mechanistic detail and broad evidence of physiological relevance. In a recent study, we identified CCPG1, an ER-resident transmembrane protein that can bind to Atg8-family proteins and, independently and discretely, to RB1CC1/FIP200. Both of these interactions are required to facilitate CCPG1's function as a reticulophagy cargo receptor. CCPG1 transcripts are inducible by ER stress, providing a direct link between ER stress and reticulophagy. In vivo, CCPG1 prevents the hyper-accumulation of insoluble protein within the ER lumen of pancreatic acinar cells and alleviates ER stress. Accordingly, CCPG1 loss sensitizes the exocrine pancreas to tissue injury.

  17. Combined toxicity of mercury and plastic wastes to crustacean and gastropod inhabiting the waters in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu-Olayan, A H; Thomas, B V

    2015-11-01

    The present study determined total mercury (T-Hg) in crustacean Portunus pelagicus (blue crab) and mollusc Tapes sulcarius (Furrowed Venus: Cockle) following suspected rise in beach plastic wastes and their effect on marine organisms. Live samples were collected from beaches representing six Kuwait Governorate areas and exposed to toxicity (96hr) and bio accumulation tests for 180 d with inclusion of plastic wastes and environmental conditions simulated in laboratory. Results revealed high T-Hg concentrations in T sulcarius (1.44ng l(-1)) compared to P. pelagicus (1.03ng l(-1)) during winter than summer, with bio accumulation factor (BAF) > 1 labelled these species as hyper-accumulators. Significantly, combination of T-Hg concentrations from plastic wastes and in seawater validated the possibilities of detrimental effects of other marine lives besides deteriorating the aesthetic values of scenic beaches and likelihood of invasive species in such coastal areas.

  18. Adsorption, Bioaccumulation and Kinetics Parameters of the Phytoremediation of Cobalt from Wastewater Using Elodea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoarca, Giannin; Vancea, Cosmin; Popa, Simona; Boran, Sorina

    2018-05-01

    Present paper investigates the phytoremediation of cobalt from wastewaters using Elodea canadensis. Bioaccumulation tests were conducted at various concentrations of cobalt ranging from 1 to 15 mg/L. Final concentrations of cobalt in wastewaters, after phytoremediation, were less than 1 mg/L. E. canadensis' hyperaccumulator character with regard to cobalt is emphasised by the amount of cobalt retained: 0.39% ± 0.02% of dry mass at an initial concentration in wastewater of 15 mg/L. After 14 days of exposure to contaminant, the biomass as well as the relative growth rate has increased with the amount of cobalt in wastewaters, the plant manifesting an excellent tolerance to cobalt exposure. Adsorption of cobalt ions by E. canadensis can be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second-order model equation.

  19. Pengujian Kompos dan Inokulan Mikroba terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sengon Buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Willd Pada Lahan Bekas Tailing Pond di Cikotok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Imamuddin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has been so attracting considerable public attentions over the last decades. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to clean up pollutant soils. The study was carried out in gold mining Cikotok, Banten. Sengon buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, (Willd which is used as cyanogenic plant, compost and microbes inoculant is as stimulator to growththis plant. The experiment consist of K0 as control (plant without compost, K1 as plant + compost and K2 as plant+compost + microbe inoculant, with 3 replicated. The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the potential for phytoremediation of cyanide contaminated soils using hyperaccumulator/cyanogenic plants and to assess the fate and transport of cyanide compounds in soils.The results showed that compost and microbe were able to stimulate growth of Sengon Buto after 7 months planting and to reduce cyanide until 66% Total bacteria in the study was relatively stable but NFB bacteria was decline.

  20. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation.

  1. Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mgṡkg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

  2. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  3. Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration.

  4. Silicon in Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv: content, distribution, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo, Lourdes; Franco, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Vicenta

    2014-07-01

    Silicon concentration, distribution, and ultrastructure of silicon deposits in the Poaceae Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. have been studied. This grass, known for its medicinal uses and also for Fe hyperaccumulation and biomineralization capacities, showed a concentration of silicon of 13,705 ± 9,607 mg/kg dry weight. Silicon was found as an important constituent of cell walls of the epidermis of the whole plant. Silica deposits were found in silica bodies, endodermis, and different cells with silicon-collapsed lumen as bulliforms, cortical, and sclerenchyma cells. Transmission electron microscope observations of these deposits revealed an amorphous material of an ultrastructure similar to that previously reported in silica bodies of other Poaceae.

  5. Remediation of Cu in the Contaminated Soil by Using Equisetum debile (Horsetail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Rahmaniar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paddy fields in the Rancaekek area, Bandung Regency-Indonesia, has been contaminated by textile wastewater. The area needs to recover back to its normal condition and function. Several compounds were found in the soil, such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, and Cr. Phytoremediation was selected as a site remediation strategy, which employs plants to remove non-volatile and immiscible soil contents. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of Equisetum debile to absorb Cu from the contaminated soil. Cu measurement was conducted by using the AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. The study has shown that Equisetum debile can absorb Cu concentrations of up to 25.3 ppm in 60 days after initial planting. However, the Enrichment Coefficient value (0.392 indicated that Equisetum debile was not efficient as a hyperaccumulator plant.

  6. The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method.

  7. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  8. Distribution of lead in lead-accumulating pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, measured by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodera, Hirofumi; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Terada, Yasuko

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of lead (Pb) accumulated in the pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, a Pb-hyperaccumulator, was measured using synchrotron-radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) at BL37XU of SPring-8. From two dimensional (2D) imagings of Pb at the root, petiole, leaf vein, pinna epidermis and sorus in the Blechnum niponicum, the mechanism for the transportation and accumulation of Pb can be suggested to be as follows: Lead is accumulated in conductive tissues. Most of the Pb solubilized in the rhizosphere is fixed in the conductive tissue, with the remainder being transported with the transpiration stream to the above-ground parts of the plant. Lead transported to the upper parts of the plant ultimately remains at the terminal points of the transpiration stream, including the stomatal apparatus and water pores; it was shown that these sections contain high concentrations of Pb. (author)

  9. The effect of EDDS and citrate on the uptake of lead in hydroponically grown Matthiola flavida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Ahmad; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Schat, Henk

    2013-10-01

    Root and shoot lead concentrations and the impact of chelating agents on these were investigated in two populations of the novel metallophyte Matthiola flavida. Plants were exposed in hydroponics to Pb(NO3)2, supplied alone, or in combination with citric acid, or EDDS. When supplied at concentrations expected to bind about 95% of the Pb in a solution containing 1-μM Pb (1000 μM citrate or 3.1 μM EDDS, respectively), the root and shoot Pb concentrations were dramatically lowered, in comparison with a 1-μM free ionic Pb control exposure. A 1-mM EDDS+1-μM Pb treatment decreased the plants' Pb concentrations further, even to undetectable levels in one population. At 100 μM Pb in a 1-mM EDDS-amended solution the Pb concentration increased strongly in shoots, but barely in roots, in comparison with the 1-μM Pb+1-mM EDDS treatment, without causing toxicity symptoms. Further increments of the Pb concentration in the 1-mM EDDS-amended solution, i.e. to 800 and 990 μM, caused Pb hyperaccumulation, both in roots and in shoots, associated with a complete arrest of root growth and foliar necrosis. M. flavida seemed to be devoid of constitutive mechanisms for uptake of Pb-citrate or Pb-EDDS complexes. Hyperaccumulation of Pb-EDDS occurred only at high exposure levels. Pb-EDDS was toxic, but is much less so than free Pb. Free EDDS did not seem to be toxic at the concentrations tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzanti, R.; Colzi, I.; Arnetoli, M.; Gallo, A.; Pignattelli, S.; Gabbrielli, R.; Gonnelli, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. ► Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. ► Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. ► As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K m value. ► The V max values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO 4 for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K m value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V max values were not significantly different among the plants. Present data revealed metallicolous plants are also suitable for the phytoremediation of metals underrepresented in the environment of their

  11. Translocation of heavy metals from soils into floral organs and rewards of Cucurbita pepo: Implications for plant reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Erna; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jimin; Guo, Jixun

    2017-11-01

    Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction. The results showed that metals taken up by squash did translocate into its floral organs and rewards, although metal accumulation varied depending on different metal types and concentrations as well as floral organ/reward types. Mean foraging time of honey bees to each male and female flower of squash grown in metal-supplemented soils was shorter relative to that of plants grown in control soils, although the visitation rate of honeybees to both male and female flowers was not affected by metal treatments. Pollen viability, pollen removal and deposition as well as mean mass per seed produced by metal-treated squash that received pollen from plants grown in control soils decreased with elevated soil-supplemented metal concentrations. The fact that squash could translocate soil-supplemented heavy metals into floral organs and rewards indicated possible reproductive consequences caused either directly (i.e., decreasing pollen viability or seed mass) or indirectly (i.e., affecting pollinators' visitation behavior to flowers) to plant fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    2001-01-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable methodology. (author)

  13. Phytoextraction and estimating optimal time for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils by Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Eisazadeh Lazarjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The so-called phytoextraction in which hyperaccumulator plants are used to remediate the contaminated soils is proven to be an efficient method. The objective of this study was to investigate the capability of Spinach for phytoremediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils and determine the efficiency extent of spinach for phytoremediation. For this purpose, a randomized block experimental design whit five treatments including 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 mg Cd/ kg soil and three replications was established in the greenhouse. After contamination the soils with different levels of cadmium, spinach seeds were planted. When plants were fully developed, plants were harvested and their cadmium contents in shoot and roots as well as the soil-cadmium were measured. The results indicated that by increasing Cd concentration in soil, the major Cd accumulation was occurred in the roots rather than shoots. Maximum cadmium concentration within the shoots and roots was 73.7 and 75.86 mg/kg soil, respectively. According to Spinach ability to absorb high concentration of cadmium in the root zone and its high biomass and capability of Cadmium accumulation in shoots, Spinach can be used as hyperaccumulator plant to remediate cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils. But, according to minimum remediation time and maximum dry matter for the 30 mg Cd/ kg soil, maximum Cd extracted by shoots in hectare/year was in 30 mg Cd/ kg soil. It can be concluded that Spinach is a suitable plant for phytoremediation of slightly and to moderately cadmium contaminated soils.

  14. Evaluation of three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea for Phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Amer, Nasser; Bitar, Lina Al; Mondelli, Donato; Dumontet, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The success of phytoremediation depends upon the identification of suitable plants species that hyperaccumulate/tolerate heavy metals and produce large amounts of biomass. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea, were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn and biomass production. The objective of this research is to improve phytoremediation procedures by searching for a new endemic Mediterranean plant species which can be used for phytoremediation of low/moderate contamination in the Mediterranean arid and semiarid conditions and bioenergy production. The hydroponics experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solution as control (CTR) and 5 concentrations for Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) and 3 concentrations for Ni (1, 2, and 5 mg L-1). Complete randomized design with five replications was adopted. Main growth parameters (shoot and root dry weight, shoot and root length and chlorophyll content) were determined. Shoots and roots were analyzed for their metals contents. Some interesting contributions of this research are: (i) plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows: A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea, whereas heavy metal toxicity ranked as follows: Ni > Zn > Pb, (ii) none of the plant species was identified as hyperaccumulator, (iii) Atriplex halimus and Medicago lupulina can accumulate Ni, Pb and Zn in their roots, (iv) translocate small fraction to their above ground biomass, and (v) indicate moderate pollution levels of the environment. In addition, as they are a good biomass producer, they can be used in phytostabilisation of marginal lands and their above ground biomass can be used for livestock feeding as well for bioenergy production.

  15. Metal availability and soil toxicity after repeated croppings of Thlaspi caerulescens in metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Catherine; Hammer, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Metal phytoextraction with hyperaccumulating plants could be a useful method to decontaminate soils, but it is not fully validated yet. In order to quantify the efficiency of Cd and Zn extraction from a calcareous soil with and without Fe amendment and an acidic soil, we performed a pot experiment with three successive croppings of Thlaspi caerulescens followed by 3 months without plant and 7 weeks with lettuce. We used a combined approach to assess total extraction efficiency (2 M HNO 3 -extractable metals), changes in metal bio/availability (0.1 M NaNO 3 -extractable metals and lettuce uptake) and toxicity (lettuce biomass and the BIOMETreg] biosensor). The soil solution was monitored over the whole experiment. In the calcareous soil large Cu concentrations were probably responsible for chlorosis symptoms observed on T. caerulescens. When this soil was treated with Fe, the amount of extracted metal by T. caerulescens increased and metal availability and soil toxicity decreased when compared to the untreated soil. In the acidic soil, T. caerulescens was most efficient: Cd and Zn concentrations in plants were in the range of hyperaccumulation and HNO 3 -extractable Cd and Zn, metal bio/availability, soil toxicity, and Cd and Zn concentrations in the soil solution decreased significantly. However, a reduced Cd concentration measured in the third T. caerulescens cropping indicated a decrease in metal availability below a critical threshold, whereas the increase of dissolved Cd and Zn concentrations after the third cropping may be the early sign of soil re-equilibration. This indicates that phytoextraction efficiency must be assessed by different approaches in order not to overlook any potential hazard and that an efficient phytoextraction scheme will have to take into account the different dynamics of the soil-plant system

  16. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology] [and others

    2001-12-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable

  17. Phytoremediation potential of some halophytic species for soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S; Nandwal, A S; Angrish, R; Arya, S S; Kumar, N; Sharma, S K

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of six halophytic species i.e. Suaeda nudiflora, Suaeda fruticosa, Portulaca oleracea, Atriplex lentiformis, Parkinsonia aculeata and Xanthium strumarium was assessed under screen house conditions. Plants were raised at 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, and 20.0 dSm(-1) of chloride-dominated salinity. The control plants were irrigated with canal water. Sampling was done at vegetative stage (60-75 DAS). About 95 percent seed germination occurred up to 12 dSm(-1) and thereafter declined slightly. Mean plant height and dry weight plant(-1) were significantly decreased from 48.71 to 32.44 cm and from 1.73 to 0.61g plant(-1) respectively upon salinization. Na(+)/K(+) ratio (0.87 to 2.72), Na(+)/ Ca(2+) + Mg(2+) (0.48 to 1.54) and Cl(-)/SO4(2-) (0.94 to 5.04) ratio showed increasing trend. Salinity susceptibility index was found minimum in Suaeda fruticosa (0.72) and maximum in Parkinsonia aculeata (1.17). Total ionic content also declined and magnitude of decline varied from 8.51 to 18.91% at 8 dSm(-1) and 1.85 to 7.12% at 20 dSm(-1) of salinity. On the basis of phytoremediation potential Suaeda fruticosa (1170.02 mg plant(-1)), Atriplex lentiformis (777.87 mg plant(-1)) were the best salt hyperaccumulator plants whereas Xanthium strumarium (349.61 mg plant(-1)) and Parkinsonia aculeata (310.59 mg plant(-1)) were the least hyperaccumulator plants.

  18. Cadmium and zinc activate adaptive mechanisms in Nicotiana tabacum similar to those observed in metal tolerant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Gómez-Méndez, María F; Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Pantoja, Omar

    2017-09-01

    Tobacco germinated and grew in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium and zinc without toxic symptoms. Evidence suggests that these ions are sequestered into the vacuole by heavy metal/H + exchanger mechanisms. Heavy metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance are traits shared by a small set of plants which show specialized physiological and molecular adaptations allowing them to accumulate and sequester toxic metal ions. Nicotiana tabacum was used to test its potential as a metal-accumulator in a glass house experiment. Seed germination was not affected in the presence of increasing concentrations of zinc and cadmium. Juvenile and adult plants could concentrate CdCl 2 and ZnSO 4 to levels exceeding those in the hydroponic growth medium and maintained or increased their leaf dry weight when treated with 0.5- or 1-mM CdCl 2 or 1-mM ZnSO 4 for 5 days. Accumulation of heavy metals did not affect the chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, while variable effects were observed in cell sap osmolarity. Heavy metal-dependent H + transport across the vacuole membrane was monitored using quinacrine fluorescence quenching. Cadmium- or zinc-dependent fluorescence recovery revealed that increasing concentrations of heavy metals stimulated the activities of the tonoplast Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ /H + exchangers. Immunodetection of the V-ATPase subunits showed that the increased proton transport by zinc was not due to changes in protein amount. MTP1 and MTP4 immunodetection and semiquantitative RT-PCR of NtMTP1, NtNRAMP1, and NtZIP1 helped to identify the genes that are likely involved in sequestration of cadmium and zinc in the leaf and root tissue. Finally, we demonstrated that cadmium and zinc treatments induced an accumulation of zinc in leaf tissues. This study shows that N. tabacum possesses a hyperaccumulation response, and thus could be used for phytoremediation purposes.

  19. The Evaluation of Alkali Grass (Puccinellia ciliata Bor Populations in Aydin Province of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Yavaş

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkali grass grows in waterlogged, saline and alaline soils. The main problem in these soils is minerals at toxic level. The toxic ions are chloride, sodium and boron. A number of techniques have been investigated for removing toxic metals from the soil. Today, the cost-effective and environmentally technique is phytoremediation, using hyperaccumulator plants. Alkali grass (Puccinellia ciliata Bor is suggested as a hyperaccumulator plant by the combination of more favourable characteristics with salt and waterlogging tolerance, high biomass value and convincing nutritive value for adverse environmental conditions. For this reason, we collected alkali grass and soil samples from five different locations in Aydın-Muğla highway, Turanlar and Sınırteke villages in Germencik-Aydın. In the soil analysis, we observed that K accumulation varies between root, shoot and panicle at least whereas Na and B shows more variation on whole plant portions among locations. Intense aerenchyma development on the root tips of Puccinellia plant was observed and it is determined as radial lysogenic aerenchyma formation. Average plant height and dry matter values were between 47.2-74.4 cm and 15.61-80.85 g/plant according to locations. The highest plant height value was obtained from the first location whereas the highest dry matter yield was detected in the fifth location. In conclusion, plants from fifth location can be regarded as fodder plants in these areas. Our results indicated that alkali grass can be effective for phytoextraction of sodium and boron from contaminated sites.

  20. Bacterially Induced Weathering of Ultramafic Rock and Its Implications for Phytoextraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Petra; Kuffner, Melanie; Prieto-Fernández, Ángeles; Hann, Stephan; Monterroso, Carmela; Sessitsch, Angela; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The bioavailability of metals in soil is often cited as a limiting factor of phytoextraction (or phytomining). Bacterial metabolites, such as organic acids, siderophores, or biosurfactants, have been shown to mobilize metals, and their use to improve metal extraction has been proposed. In this study, the weathering capacities of, and Ni mobilization by, bacterial strains were evaluated. Minimal medium containing ground ultramafic rock was inoculated with either of two Arthrobacter strains: LA44 (indole acetic acid [IAA] producer) or SBA82 (siderophore producer, PO4 solubilizer, and IAA producer). Trace elements and organic compounds were determined in aliquots taken at different time intervals after inoculation. Trace metal fractionation was carried out on the remaining rock at the end of the experiment. The results suggest that the strains act upon different mineral phases. LA44 is a more efficient Ni mobilizer, apparently solubilizing Ni associated with Mn oxides, and this appeared to be related to oxalate production. SBA82 also leads to release of Ni and Mn, albeit to a much lower extent. In this case, the concurrent mobilization of Fe and Si indicates preferential weathering of Fe oxides and serpentine minerals, possibly related to the siderophore production capacity of the strain. The same bacterial strains were tested in a soil-plant system: the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. malacitanum was grown in ultramafic soil in a rhizobox system and inoculated with each bacterial strain. At harvest, biomass production and shoot Ni concentrations were higher in plants from inoculated pots than from noninoculated pots. Ni yield was significantly enhanced in plants inoculated with LA44. These results suggest that Ni-mobilizing inoculants could be useful for improving Ni uptake by hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:23793627

  1. Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Davis, Allen P; Cox, Albert; Kumar, Kuldip; Reeves, Roger D; Green, Carrie E

    2015-01-01

    Past applications of biosolids to soils at some locations added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction would alleviate current land use constraints. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm and mine soils were obtained from a Fulton Co., IL biosolids management facility. Soils contained 0.16, 22.8, 45.3 mg Cd kg(-1) and 43.1, 482, 812 mg Zn kg(-1) respectively with initial pH 6.0, 6.1, 6.4. In greenhouse studies, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), a Cd-accumulator maize (inbred B37 Zea mays) and a southern France Cd-hyperaccumulator genotype of Noccaea caerulescens were tested for Cd accumulation and phytoextraction. Soil pH was adjusted from ∼5.5-7.0. Additionally 100 rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale were screened for potential phytoextraction use. Chard suffered phytotoxicity at low pH and accumulated up to 90 mg Cd kg(-1) on the biosolids amended mine soil. The maize inbred accumulated up to 45 mg Cd kg(-1) with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms during early growth at pH>6.0. N. caerulescens did not exhibit phytotoxicity symptoms at any pH, and accumulated up to 235 mg Cd kg(-1) in 3 months. Reharvested N. caerulescens accumulated up to 900 mg Cd kg(-1) after 10 months. Neither Alyssum nor 90% of rice genotypes survived acceptably. Both N. caerulescens and B37 maize show promise for Cd phytoextraction in IL and require field evaluation; both plants could be utilized for nearly continuous Cd removal. Other maize inbreds may offer higher Cd phytoextraction at lower pH, and mono-cross hybrids higher shoot biomass yields. Further, maize grown only for biomass Cd maximum removal could be double-cropped.

  2. Improvement in phytoremediation potential of Solanum nigrum under cadmium contamination through endophytic-assisted Serratia sp. RSC-14 inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdul Latif; Park, Gun-Seok; Waqas, Muhammad; Hong, Sung-Jun; Jung, Byung Kwon; Kwak, Yunyoung; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The growth of hyperaccumulator plants is often compromised by increased toxicity of metals like cadmium (Cd). However, extraction of such metals from the soil can be enhanced by endophytic microbial association. Present study was aimed to elucidate the potential of microbe-assisted Cd phytoextraction in hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum plants and their interactions under varied Cd concentrations. An endophytic bacteria Serratia sp. RSC-14 was isolated from the roots of S. nigrum. In addition to Cd tolerance up to 4 mM, the RSC-14 exhibited phosphate solubilization and secreted plant growth-promoting phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (54 μg/mL). S. nigrum plants were inoculated with RSC-14 and were grown in different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, and 30 mg Cd kg(-1) sand). Results revealed that Cd treatment caused significant cessation in plant growth, biomass, and chlorophyll content, whereas significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte production in leaves were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, RSC-14 inoculation relived the toxic effects of Cd-induced stress by significantly increasing root/shoot growth, biomass production, and chlorophyll content and decreasing MDA and electrolytes contents. Ameliorative effects on host growth were also observed by the regulation of metal-induced oxidative stress enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenol peroxidase. Activities of these enzymes were significantly reduced in RSC-14 inoculated plants as compared to control plants under Cd treatments. The lower activities of stress responsive enzymes suggest modulation of Cd stress by RSC-14. The current findings support the beneficial uses of Serratia sp. RSC-14 in improving the phytoextraction abilities of S. nigrum plants in Cd contamination.

  3. Enhanced cadmium accumulation and tolerance in transgenic tobacco overexpressing rice metal tolerance protein gene OsMTP1 is promising for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Surajit; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-08-01

    One of the most grievous heavy metal pollutants in the environment is cadmium (Cd), which is not only responsible for the crop yield loss owing to its phytotoxicity, but also for the human health hazards as the toxic elements usually accumulate in the consumable parts of crop plants. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and functionally characterize the OsMTP1 gene from indica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) to study its potential application for efficient phytoremediation of Cd. The 1257 bp coding DNA sequence (CDS) of OsMTP1 encodes a ∼46 kDa protein belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) or metal tolerance/transport protein (MTP) family. The OsMTP1 transcript in rice plant was found to respond during external Cd stress. Heterologous expression of OsMTP1 in tobacco resulted in the reduction of Cd stress-induced phytotoxic effects, including growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Compared to untransformed control, the transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced vacuolar thiol content, indicating vacuolar localization of the sequestered Cd. The transgenic tobacco plants exhibited significantly higher biomass growth (2.2-2.8-folds) and hyperaccumulation of Cd (1.96-2.22-folds) compared to untransformed control under Cd exposure. The transgenic plants also showed moderate tolerance and accumulation of arsenic (As) upon exogenous As stress, signifying broad substrate specificity of OsMTP1. Together, findings of our research suggest that the transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsMTP1 with its hyperaccumulating activity and increased growth rate could be useful for future phytoremediation applications to clean up the Cd-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Two facets of world arsenic problem solution: crop poisoning restriction and enforcement of phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofroňová, Monika; Mašková, Petra; Lipavská, Helena

    2018-05-07

    This review provides insights into As toxicity in plants with focus on photosynthesis and sugar metabolism as important arsenic targets and simultaneously defence tools against accompanying oxidative stress. Heavy metal contamination is a great problem all over the world. Arsenic, a metalloid occurring naturally in the Earth's crust, also massively spreads out in the environment by human activities. Its accumulation in crops poses a severe health risk to humans and animals. Besides the restriction of human-caused contamination, there are two basic ways how to cope with the problem: first, to limit arsenic accumulation in harvestable parts of the crops; second, to make use of some arsenic hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters. Progress in the use of both strategies depends strongly on the level of our knowledge on the physiological and morphological processes resulting from arsenic exposure. Arsenic uptake is mediated preferentially by P and Si transporters and its accumulation substantially impairs plant metabolism at numerous levels including damages through oxidative stress. Rice is a predominantly studied crop where substantial progress has been made in understanding of the mechanisms of arsenic uptake, distribution, and detoxification, though many questions still remain. Full exploitation of plant potential for soil and water phytoremediations also requires deep understanding of the plant response to this toxic metalloid. The aim of this review is to summarize data regarding the effect of arsenic on plant physiology with a focus on mechanisms providing increased arsenic tolerance and/or hyperaccumulation. The emphasis is placed on the topic unjustifiably neglected in the previous reviews - i.e., carbohydrate metabolism, tightly connected to photosynthesis, and beside others involved in plant ability to cope with arsenic-induced oxidative and nitrosative stresses.

  5. Literature review: Phytoaccumulation of chromium, uranium, and plutonium in plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossner, L.R.; Loeppert, R.H.; Newton, R.J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Szaniszlo, P.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Phytoremediation is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the cleanup of contaminated soils, which combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology. Metal hyperaccumulator plants are attracting increasing attention because of their potential application in decontamination of metal-polluted soils. Traditional engineering technologies may be too expensive for the remediation of most sites. Removal of metals from these soils using accumulator plants is the goal of phytoremediation. The emphasis of this review has been placed on chromium (Cr), plutonium (Pu), and uranium (U). With the exception of Cr, these metals and their decay products exhibit two problems, specifically, radiation dose hazards and their chemical toxicity. The radiation hazard introduces the need for special precautions in reclamation beyond that associated with non-radioactive metals. The uptake of beneficial metals by plants occurs predominantly by way of channels, pores, and transporters in the root plasma membrane. Plants characteristically exhibit a remarkable capacity to absorb what they need and exclude what they don`t need. But most vascular plants absorb toxic and heavy metals through their roots to some extent, though to varying degrees, from negligible to substantial. Sometimes absorption occurs because of the chemical similarity between beneficial and toxic metals. Some plants utilize exclusion mechanisms, where there is a reduced uptake by the roots or a restricted transport of the metal from root to shoot. At the other extreme, hyperaccumulator plants absorb and concentrate metals in both roots and shoots. Some plant species endemic to metalliferous soils accumulate metals in percent concentrations in the leaf dry matter.

  6. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  7. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  8. Dissolution of different zinc salts and zn uptake by Sedum alfredii and maize in mono- and co-cropping under hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng'ai; Wu, Qitang; Zeng, Shucai; Chen, Xian; Wei, Zebin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-09-01

    Previous soil pot and field experiments demonstrated that co-cropping the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii with maize increased Zn phytoextraction by S. alfredii and decreased Zn uptake by maize shoots. This hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate whether the facilitation of Zn phytoextraction by S. alfredii resulted from improved dissolution in this co-cropping system and its relation to root exudates. S. alfredii and maize were mono- and co-cropped (without a root barrier) in nutrient solution spiked with four Zn compounds, ZnS, ZnO, Zn3(PO4)2 and 5ZnO x 2CO3-4H2O (represented as ZnCO3) at 1000 mg/L Zn for 15 days without renewal of nutrient solution after pre-culture. The root exudates were collected under incomplete sterilization and analyzed. The results indicated that the difference in Zn salts had a greater influence on the Zn concentration in maize than for S. alfredii, varying from 210-2603 mg/kg for maize shoots and 6445-12476 mg/kg for S. alfredii in the same order: ZnCO3 > ZnO > Zn3(PO4)2 > ZnS. For the four kinds of Zn sources in this experiment, co-cropping with maize did not improve Zn phytoextraction by S. alfredii. In most cases, compared to co-cropped and mono-cropped maize, mono-cropped S. alfredii resulted in the highest Zn2+ concentration in the remaining nutrient solution, and also had a higher total concentration of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) and lower pH of root exudation. Root exudates did partly influence Zn hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii.

  9. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, cv. Hermes: Contribution of the basal stem compared to the root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douchiche, Olfa, E-mail: olfa.douchiche@hotmail.fr [Laboratory Glyco-MEV EA 4358, IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaiebi, Wided [Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Morvan, Claudine, E-mail: claudine.morvan@univ-rouen.fr [Laboratory PBS-UMR 6270 CNRS, FR 3038, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd accumulated in stem bottom part exceeded the defined hyperaccumulator threshold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No toxic symptoms occurred and TI of all growth parameters ranged between 0.7 and 1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high level of Zn, Mn and Cu may contribute to the absence of chlorosis in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd/Ca synergistic effect observed in the stem may alleviate Cd toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hermes variety accumulated more Cd than the other flax varieties ever described. - Abstract: The potential of mature flax plants (cv. Hermes) to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) was studied to determine which part of the plant would be the key organ for phytoremediation purposes. After 4 month-growth on sand substrate containing 0.1 mM Cd in a greenhouse, the roots and stems were separated and the stems were divided into three parts. The effects of Cd were studied on growth parameters, histology and mineral nutrition. No visible toxic symptoms were observed. Tolerance-index values calculated from growth parameters and nutrients remained relatively high, allowing the development of the plant until maturity and formation of seeds. The roots and bottom stem accumulated the highest quantity of Cd (750 and 360 mg/kg dry matter), values which largely exceeded the threshold defined for hyperaccumulators. On the other hand, basal stem had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = 32) and translocation factor TF Prime (2.5) but a low TF (0.5), indicating that this basal part would play a major role in phytoremediation (phytostabilization rather than phytorextraction). Therefore, the high tolerance to Cd and accumulation capacity make possible to grow Hermes flax on Cd-polluted soils.

  10. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  11. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  12. Pteridófitas de um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica em São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, Brasil: Pteridaceae Pteridophytes of a remainder of Atlantic Forest in São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, Brazil: Pteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Pietrobom

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento florístico da pteridoflora da Mata do Estado, localizada no município de São Vicente Férrer, Zona da Mata Norte do Estado de Pernambuco. O estudo foi desenvolvido nesta área, devido a sua grande extensão, ca. 600ha, e também pela existência de uma grande diversidade de pteridófitas, resultado de um gradiente de umidade onde os fatores ambientais e físicos como os níveis de altitude, as precipitações pluviométricas, bem como a distribuição dessas precipitações têm importância fundamental para a vegetação da área. Foram empregados métodos tradicionais para o levantamento florístico, no período de um ano. Para a análise e identificação taxonômica dos exemplares coletados, foram utilizadas técnicas usuais e literaturas especializadas. São apresentadas ilustrações e distribuição geográfica das espécies, bem como, descrição da espécie nova referência e comentários da família, gêneros e espécies. O trabalho contribui para um maior conhecimento florístico e ecológico da pteridoflora de Reservas de Floresta Atlântica Serrana no Nordeste do Brasil. A família Pteridaceae está representada na área estudada por 20 espécies, distribuídas em sete gêneros (Pityrogramma Link, Adiantopsis Fée, Hemionitis L. e Acrostichum L. uma espécie cada; Doryopteris J. Sm. quatro espécies; Adiantum L. nove espécies e Pteris L. três espécies e uma variedade. Foi registrada uma nova referência para o estado de Pernambuco: Adiantum humile Kunze.A floristic survey of the pteridoflora at the Mata do Estado, located in the Municipality of São Vicente Férrer, Mata Norte (Atlantic Forest Zone in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, was performed. The study was developed in this area, due to its great extension of ca. 600ha, and also because of a great of diversity pteridophytes , result of a humidity gradient where the environmental and physical factors such as the altitude levels and the

  13. Pteridófitas do Parque Estadual da Vassununga, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro (SP, Brasil. Glebas Capetinga Leste e Capetinga Oeste. Pteridophytes from Vassununga State Park, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil. Glebas Capetinga Leste and Capetinga Oeste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Maria Therezinha COLLI

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizado umlevantamento de pteridófitas nas Glebas CapetingaLeste e Capetinga Oeste do Parque Estadual daVassununga, localizado no município de Santa Rita doPassa Quatro, sob as coordenadas 21º41’00’’ –21º41’21’’S e 47º34’37’’ – 47º39’39’’W. As coletasforam realizadas em quatro trilhas, denominadasTrilha da Mina, Trilha do Ribeirão Bebedouro,Trilha dos Jequitibás e Trilha do Córrego da Gruta.Foram reconhecidas 34 espécies de pteridófitaspertencentes a 10 famílias. Destas, as maisrepresentativas foram Polypodiaceae e Thelypteridaceaecom seis espécies cada e Aspleniaceae e Pteridaceaeque apresentaram cinco espécies cada. Das 34espécies registradas 10 apresentam distribuiçãobastante restrita, ocorrendo apenas na Trilha da Mina.Por outro lado, Polypodium polypodioides (L. Watt,Pteris denticulata var. denticulata Sw eThelypteris dentata (Forssk. E. St. John são asespécies de ocorrência mais ampla. Em todas astrilhas há pteridófitas, sendo que a Trilha da Minaé a mais rica e a Trilha do Ribeirão Bebedouro amais pobre em número de espécies. As pteridófitasocorrem na floresta estacional semidecidual e namata ciliar. A maior diversidade de espécies foiencontrada na floresta estacional semidecidual.This work presents a pteridophyticalsurvey carried out at Glebas Capetinga Leste andCapetinga Oeste at Vassununga State Park,Santa Rita do Passa Quatro county, (21º41’00’’ –21º41’21’’S and 47º34’37’’ – 47º39’39’’W.Collections were done at four places called “Trilhada Mina”, “Trilha do Ribeirão Bebedouro”, “Trilhados Jequitibás” and “Trilha do Córrego da Gruta.”Thirty-four species of pteridophytes pertaining to10 families were recognized. Among them, themost representative ones were Polypodiaceaeand Thelypteridaceae, with six species each,and Aspleniaceae and Pteridaceae, with fivespecies each. Considering the 34 species registered,10

  14. A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

    A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

  15. Rice planted along with accumulators in arsenic amended plots reduced arsenic uptake in grains and shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Ashish; Mehrotra, Sonali; Singh, Nandita

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was designed using phytoremadiation technology to obtain grains of rice safe for consumption. Sixteen plots of size 2 × 2 m were prepared (8 plots were treated with 50 mg kg -1 of sodium arsenate and rest 8 without any treatment). The study was done for two plantations (1st and 2nd plantation). Rice was planted with three accumulators (Phragmites australis, Vetiveria zizanioides and Pteris vitatta) in treated and untreated plot. Arsenic in grains of Actr (R + Pt, R + Ph and R + Vt) for 1st plantation was 0.4, 0.2 and 0.2 mg kg -1 where as in the case of wActr (Ras) it was 3 mg kg -1 . In 2nd plantation the concentration of arsenic in grain of Actr (R + Pt, R + Ph and R + Vt) was 0.1, 0.1 and 0.1 mg kg -1 where as in the case of wActr (Ras) it was 2 mg kg -1 . Significant differences in growth and yield parameters of rice between Actr and wActr in 1st plantation, while for 2nd plantation the activity was reduced in combinations except R + Pt and no significant difference was observed between Actr, Acntr and wActr. The study concluded that combinations of accumulators with crops could be useful for the survival and safe grains in As-contaminated soils but with some amendments in long-term remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Masterplan to safeguard Venice and to restore the lagoon and conterminous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Gallo, Alba; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    ). PAH and metals, in particular, present wide diffusion, both horizontal and vertical (until 5 m below the sea level), with As, Zn, Cd and Hg being the elements more represented in all the soil strata considered. The lagoon sediments inside industrial channels is higher than the other parts of the lagoon; major contaminants are metals (As, Cd, Hg, Pb) and organic micro-pollutants (PCB, PAH); ammonia and phosphate too are present with conspicuous concentrations, contributing to lagoon eutrophication. Groundwater contamination is diffused and complex, with As prevailing over Pb and Cr(VI). The primary objective of the Master Plan was to reduce/eliminate the risk associated to the contamination sources of past activities, and the consequent environmental and human health hazard. Restoration is still in progress, and concerns different intervention strategies: • Channel overbank containment to prevent contaminant migration to water; • Excavation, physical removal and re-distribution of channel sediments (A and B classes); • Landfilling of heavily contaminated sediments (C class); • Soil containment to impede contact with people and the environment; • Restoration of contaminated agricultural land with phytoremediation techniques. Concerning in particular the last item, restoration has been carried out with native or exotic vegetation (e.g. Fragmites australis, Juncus lacustris, Pterix vittata, Spartina maritima), or cultivated plants (e.g. Heliantus annuus, Zea mays, Brassica napus), with contrasting results. The exotic fern (Pterix vittata) proved highly effective to accumulate As, consistently with data from literature; Spartina maritima proved more effective than Fragmites australis to uptake metals, while cultivated plants could not survive to high heavy metal concentrations. At some sites, soil has been stored, selected and finally (the most contaminated part) delivered to landfill, while groundwater was remediated by bioremediation techniques.

  17. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  18. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  19. Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Barboza Pedrini

    Full Text Available Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati, Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned, Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush, Cavia aperea (restless cavy, Didelphis albiventris (skunk, Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog, and Gallictis vittata (ferret showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state.

  20. Acumulación de cobre en una comunidad vegetal afectada por contaminación minera en el valle de Puchuncaví, Chile central Copper accumulation in a plant community affected by mining contamination in Puchuncaví valley, central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL GONZÁLEZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las especies hiperacumuladoras son capaces de acumular más de 1.000 mg kg-1 de metal en su biomasa aérea y son útiles en procesos de fitoextracción de metales en suelos contaminados por actividades mineras. Con el fin de identificar especies hiperacumuladoras representativas de las condiciones chilenas, se realizó una prospección dentro de la diversidad vegetal en el área afectada por las emisiones de la Fundición Ventanas (90-900 mg kg-1 de Cu total en suelos, así como en un área cercana a una pila de escorias de fundición (500-3.000 mg kg-1 de Cu total en suelos. Se determinaron las concentraciones de Cu en la biomasa aérea de las plantas. Los resultados indican que dentro de la diversidad del sitio existen al menos veintidós especies pseudometalofitas, es decir, ecotipos de especies comunes que son capaces de tolerar concentraciones de cobre en el suelo que para una planta normal serían tóxicas. Las especies fueron clasificadas según su concentración de cobre y mostraron en su mayoría media (200-600 mg kg-1 o baja (Hyperaccumulator plants species are capable of accumulating more than 1,000 mg Cu kg-1 in their shoots and are useful for metal phytoextraction in soils contaminated by mining activities. To identify the hyperaccumulator plants representative of the Chilean conditions, we carried out a survey of plant diversity in the área affected by the emissions of the Ventanas smelter (90-900 mg kg-1 of total Cu in soils and in a nearby área cióse to a smelter slug pile (500-3,000 mg kg-1 of total Cu in soils. Copper concentrations in the shoots of the studied plants were determined. Results indicate that there were at least twenty-two pseudometallophyte species, i.e., ecotypes of common species capable to tolérate concentrations of Cu in the soil that would be toxic for a normal plant. The species were classified by their copper accumulation and nearly all exhibited médium (200-600 mg kg-1 or low (< 200 mg kg-1

  1. Advances in Phytoremediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil%镉污染土壤的植物修复研究进展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏慧; 魏树和; 周启星

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,more attention has been paid to cadmium (Cd) and its combine pollution problems.In order to solve these intractable problems,phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil has become a promising technology to be widely applied due to some advantages such as low cost,compatibility of the environmental aesthetics and its adaptability in situ.In this review,domestic and overseas progresses in the identification of Cd hyperaccumulators,and the enduring mechanisms and potential of the reported plants hyperaccumulating Cd were overviewed.Some relevant important work on phytoremediation of combined contaminated soil with Cd and other heavy metals or organic pollutants were summarized,focused on some enhanced remediation techniques,such as chemical-enhanced remediation,agro-ecological strengthening remediation and other approaches.At the last,the key researching contents and the important developing directions of the future study on phytoremediation was also prospected.%近年来,重金属镉(Cd)及其复合污染问题越来越受到人们的关注.Cd污染土壤的植物修复技术因其具有治理成本的低廉性、环境美学的兼容性和治理过程的原位性等优势,随之成为具有广泛应用前景的技术.本文概述了Cd超积累植物的筛选及耐性机理与修复潜力的评价等方面的国内外进展,总结了Cd-重金属复合污染土壤、Cd-有机物复合污染土壤的植物修复相关的重要工作,着重评述了Cd复合污染土壤的化学强化、农业生态强化及其它方法的研发现状,展望了这一领域今后的重点研究内容和重要发展方向.

  2. Metallophytes in Latin America: a remarkable biological and genetic resource scarcely known and studied in the region Metalófitas en América Latina: un recurso biológico y genético único poco conocido y estudiado en la región

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, metallic ores are abundant and diverse. However, few metal-tolerant and metal hyperaccumulator plants have been reported in the region in comparison with other areas of the world. This may be largely explained by the scarcity of scientific studies of the native vegetation growing on natural mineralized or metal-contaminated areas and the unfrequent use of biogeochemical prospecting techniques by the local mining industry, rather than the proven absence of these plants. Latin America is, however, an area where metal-tolerant and hyperaccumulator plants (metallophytes should be found, not only because of the wealth of ore deposits and associated metal polluted areas, but also due to its high and unique plant diversity. If plant formations developed over natural mineral outcrops are not evaluated before ore extraction, we can loose key metal tolerant species and/or genotypes (ecotypes forever which may be useful for the mitigation of environmental problems generated by the mining industry itself (e.g., phytoextraction, phytostabilization, and phytominingAmérica Latina posee una gran abundancia y diversidad de yacimientos minerales metálicos. Sin embargo, se han descrito pocas especies tolerantes e hiperacumuladoras de metales en comparación con otras regiones del mundo. Esto podría deberse tanto a la escasez de estudios científicos sobre la vegetación nativa que se ha desarrollado sobre mineralizaciones superficiales o en suelos enriquecidos antrópicamente con metales como a la falta de métodos biogeoquímicos para la prospección de minerales, más bien que a la ausencia real de este tipo de especies vegetales en la región. Latinoamérica es, sin embargo, un área con gran potencial para la presencia de este tipo de especies vegetales, no solo por el gran número de mineralizaciones y áreas contaminadas con metales presentes, sino que por su variada y única diversidad vegetal. Si las comunidades vegetales presentes

  3. A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground

  4. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochuan; Zhang Shirong; Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting; Gong Guoshu; Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji

    2010-01-01

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg -1 ) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L -1 ) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations ≤ 90 mg kg -1 and ≤ 20 mg L -1 in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg -1 and 1006.95 μg pot -1 in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg -1 and 668.42 μg pot -1 in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  5. Platinum bioaccumulation by mustard plants (Sinapis alba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawienczyk, M.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.; Kowalska, J.; Asztemborska, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of hydroponically cultivated Indian mustard plants (Sinapis alba L.) to accumulate platinum was investigated. The Pt-bioaccumulation in leaves, stem and shoots of plants growing for 2 and 4 weeks at Pt-concentration of 50 and 500 μg/L was compared. The relation between dry and fresh weight was also estimated. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) were applied for determination of Pt. Increasing Pt-concentration from 50 to 500 μg/L in the medium causes: (1) reduction of the root tissue hydration level at unchanged modification in aboveground parts of the plants and (2) decrease of the Pt transfer factor (TF) for roots and increase for leaves and stem. Duration of the culture influenced on Pt-accumulation in roots and in aboveground organs of mustard plants. Transfer factor for Pt between 560 and 1600 makes Indian mustard plants one at Pt-hyperaccumulators. Distribution of Pt-bioaccumulation in the plant organs may be useful for biomonitoring of platinum in the environment. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the cadmium and lead phytoextraction by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z. X.; Sun, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction has been considered as an innovative method to remove toxic metals from soil; higher biomass plants such as castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) have already been considered as a hyperaccumulating candidate. In the present study, castor bean was used to accumulate the cadmium and lead in hydroponic culture, and the root exudates and biomass changes were analyzed. Results demonstrated that ratios of aerial biomass/ root biomass (AW/RW) in treatments declined with concentrations of Cd or Pb. Optical density (OD) at 190 nm and 280 nm of root exudates observed in Cd and Pb treatments were lower than the control. In single Cd or Pb treatments, bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cd or Pb increased with time and decreased with concentrations, the highest BCFs appeared in Cd5 (14.36) and Pb50 (6.48), respectively. Cd-BCF or Pb-BCF showed positive correlations with AW/RW ratios and OD values, and they were negative correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. Results in this study may supply useful information for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and lead in situ.

  7. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi origining from a zinc/lead mining site - a hydroponics experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siliang; Wang, Fengping; Ru, Mei; Ni, Wuzhong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a hydroponics experiment was conducted to investigate the characteristics of Cd tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi natively growing on the soil with high levels of heavy metals in a Zn/Pb mining site. Seedlings of E. argyi grown for 4 weeks and then were treated with 0(CK), 5,10,15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50,100 umM Cd for 21 days. Each treatment had three replications. No visual toxic symptoms on shoots of E. argyi were observed at Cd level < or = 50 muM. The results indicated that the dry biomass of each tissue and the whole plants of the treatments with < or =40 umM cadmium were similar to that of the control, implying that E. argyi was a cadmium tolerant plant. The results also showed that the shoot Cd concentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the increase in the Cd level in nutrient solution. The shoot Cd concentration of the treatment with 40 umM Cd was as high as 237.9 mg kg(-1), which was higher than 100 mg kg(-1), normally used as the threshold concentration for identifying the Cd hyperaccumulating plant. It could be concluded that E. argyi was a Cd tolerant and accumulating plant species.

  8. Arogenate Dehydratase Isoforms Differentially Regulate Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingbo; Man, Cong; Li, Danning; Tan, Huijuan; Xie, Ye; Huang, Jirong

    2016-12-05

    Anthocyanins, a group of L-phenylalanine (Phe)-derived flavonoids, have been demonstrated to play important roles in plant stress resistance and interactions between plants and insects. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory mechanisms have been extensively studied, it remains unclear whether the level of Phe supply affects anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we investigated the roles of arogenate dehydratases (ADTs), the key enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arogenate into Phe, in sucrose-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Genetic analysis showed that all six ADT isoforms function redundantly in anthocyanin biosynthesis but have differential contributions. ADT2 contributes the most to anthocyanin accumulation, followed by ADT1 and ADT3, and ADT4-ADT6. We found that anthocyanin content is positively correlated with the levels of Phe and sucrose-induced ADT transcripts in seedlings. Consistently, addition of Phe to the medium could dramatically increase anthocyanin content in the wild-type plants and rescue the phenotype of the adt1 adt3 double mutant regarding the anthocyanin accumulation. Moreover, transgenic plants overexpressing ADT4, which appears to be less sensitive to Phe than overexpression of ADT2, hyperaccumulate Phe and produce elevated level of anthocyanins. Taken together, our results suggest that the level of Phe is an important regulatory factor for sustaining anthocyanin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Reclamation of Tailing Area Reclamation in The Mining Area with Forages, is it Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Purwantari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailings are what’s left over from mining. The rock where copper, gold, silver and other minerals found is ground up into fine particles so that the valuable material can be taken out and refined. The solid waste would affect the environment physically and biologically. Characteristics of tailing are high porosity with low water holding capacity, poor organic matter, poor macro and micro nutrients and no microorganism activity. Therefore, it takes time and requires strategy to manage and change them to a more productive area. Many technologies have been applied to rehabilitate tailing for agriculture. The technologies including the use of manure, compost, mulch, biosolid, chemical fertilizer, microorganism (bacteria, mycorhiza and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate selected contaminants in the contaminated soil, sludge, sediment, water (ground, surface, waste water. Phytoremediation encompasses a number of different methods that can lead to contaminant degradation, removal or immobilization. Those methods including phytodegradation/rhizodegradation, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization and phytostabilization. The phytoextraction is inexpensive compared with the conventional technology. Some forages have been used for phytoremediation such as Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass, Vetiveria zizonoides (Vetiver grass, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, since they have been known as heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant.

  10. The MTP1 promoters from Arabidopsis halleri reveal cis-regulating elements for the evolution of metal tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasani, Elisa; DalCorso, Giovanni; Varotto, Claudio; Li, Mingai; Visioli, Giovanna; Mattarozzi, Monica; Furini, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    In the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri, the zinc (Zn) vacuolar transporter MTP1 is a key component of hypertolerance. Because protein sequences and functions are highly conserved between A. halleri and Arabidopsis thaliana, Zn tolerance in A. halleri may reflect the constitutively higher MTP1 expression compared with A. thaliana, based on copy number expansion and different cis regulation. Three MTP1 promoters were characterized in A. halleri ecotype I16. The comparison with the A. thaliana MTP1 promoter revealed different expression profiles correlated with specific cis-acting regulatory elements. The MTP1 5' untranslated region, highly conserved among A. thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata and A. halleri, contains a dimer of MYB-binding motifs in the A. halleri promoters absent in the A. thaliana and A. lyrata sequences. Site-directed mutagenesis of these motifs revealed their role for expression in trichomes. A. thaliana mtp1 transgenic lines expressing AtMTP1 controlled by the native A. halleri promoter were more Zn-tolerant than lines carrying mutations on MYB-binding motifs. Differences in Zn tolerance were associated with different distribution of Zn among plant organs and in trichomes. The different cis-acting elements in the MTP1 promoters of A. halleri, particularly the MYB-binding sites, are probably involved in the evolution of Zn tolerance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  12. Thallium contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a steel plant-A newly-found significant source of Tl pollution in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Xuwen; Wang, Jin; Xiao, Tangfu; Chen, Diyun; Sheng, Guodong; Yin, Meiling; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng

    2017-05-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1.34 mg/kg. The Tl levels in most vegetables (such as leaf lettuce, chard and pak choy) surpassed the maximum permissible level (0.5 mg/kg) according to the environmental quality standards for food in Germany. Vegetables like leaf lettuce, chard, pak choy, romaine lettuce and Indian beans all exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) for Tl higher than 1, indicating a hyperaccumulation of Tl in these plants. Although the elevated Tl levels in the vegetables at present will not immediately pose significant non-carcinogenic health risks to residents, it highlights the necessity of a permanent monitoring of Tl contamination in the steel-making areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles to bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, and toxicity to crop plant Zea mays and beneficial B. subtilis-inoculated Z. mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doody, Michael A.; Wang, Dengjun; Bais, Harsh P.; Jin, Yan, E-mail: yjin@udel.edu [University of Delaware, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences (United States)

    2016-10-15

    As silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have become increasingly used in commercial antimicrobial agents and industrial and military products, concerns are increasing over their broad environmental and health impacts and risks because they are finding their way to the environment. This study was designed to quantify the antimicrobial activity of citrate-coated AgNPs (c-AgNPs; transmission electron microscope size of 44.9 ± 7.2 nm) to two species of bacteria, i.e., Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and toxicity to a major crop plant Zea mays and beneficial bacteria-inoculated plant (i.e., B. subtilis-inoculated Z. mays symbiont). Our results reveal that the exposure of c-AgNPs significantly inhibited bacteria growth and altered their growth kinetics. Z. mays experienced significant sublethal effects including reduced root length and biomass, and hyper-accumulation of Ag in roots. The beneficial interactions between B. subtilis and Z. mays were weakened as well because both species suffered sublethal effects. Potential mechanisms leading to the antimicrobial activity and toxicity of c-AgNPs to the bacteria, plant, and plant–bacteria symbiont examined in this study were discussed. Taken together, our findings advance the current knowledge of AgNPs antimicrobial property or toxicity to bacteria, crop plant, and beneficial plant–bacteria symbiotic interaction, which is a critical component for NPs environmental impact and risk assessment.Graphical Abstract.

  14. Integration of the Pokeweed miRNA and mRNA Transcriptomes Reveals Targeting of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira C. M. Neller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, displays broad-spectrum resistance to plant viruses and is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator. However, little is known about the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in this non-model plant. To investigate the control of miRNAs in gene expression, we sequenced the small RNA transcriptome of pokeweed treated with jasmonic acid (JA, a hormone that mediates pathogen defense and stress tolerance. We predicted 145 miRNAs responsive to JA, most of which were unique to pokeweed. These miRNAs were low in abundance and condition-specific, with discrete expression change. Integration of paired mRNA-Seq expression data enabled us to identify correlated, novel JA-responsive targets that mediate hormone biosynthesis, signal transduction, and pathogen defense. The expression of approximately half the pairs was positively correlated, an uncommon finding that we functionally validated by mRNA cleavage. Importantly, we report that a pokeweed-specific miRNA targets the transcript of OPR3, novel evidence that a miRNA regulates a JA biosynthesis enzyme. This first large-scale small RNA study of a Phytolaccaceae family member shows that miRNA-mediated control is a significant component of the JA response, associated with widespread changes in expression of genes required for stress adaptation.

  15. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food webs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Jillian E; Boyd, Robert S; Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal accumulation in animals including behavior, physiology, and diet. Biotic effects of heavy metals are often quite different for essential and non-essential heavy metals, and vary depending on the specific metal involved. They also differ for adapted organisms, including metallophyte plants and heavy metal-tolerant insects, which occur in naturally high-metal habitats (such as serpentine soils) and have adaptations that allow them to tolerate exposure to relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals. Some metallophyte plants are hyperaccumulators of certain heavy metals and new technologies using them to clean metal-contaminated soil (phytoextraction) may offer economically attractive solutions to some metal pollution challenges. These new technologies provide incentive to catalog and protect the unique biodiversity of habitats that have naturally high levels of heavy metals.

  16. Aluminium stress disrupts metabolic performance of Plantago almogravensis plantlets transiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevenstuk, Tomás; Moing, Annick; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Romano, Anabela

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how tolerant plants cope with internalized aluminium (Al). Tolerant plants are known to deploy efficient detoxification mechanisms, however it is not known to what extent the primary and secondary metabolism is affected by Al. The aim of this work was to study the metabolic repercussions of Al stress in the tolerant plant Plantago almogravensis. P. almogravensis is well adapted to acid soils where high concentrations of free Al are found and has been classified as a hyperaccumulator. In vitro reared plantlets were used for this purpose in order to control Al exposure rigorously. The metabolome of P. almogravensis plantlets as well as its metabolic response to the supply of sucrose was characterized. The supply of sucrose leads to an accumulation of amino acids and secondary metabolites and consumption of carbohydrates that result from increased metabolic activity. In Al-treated plantlets the synthesis of amino acids and secondary metabolites is transiently impaired, suggesting that P. almogravensis is able to recover from the Al treatment within the duration of the trials. In the presence of Al the consumption of carbohydrate resources is accelerated. The content of some metabolic stress markers also demonstrates that P. almogravensis is highly adapted to Al stress.

  17. Toxic element profiles in selected medicinal plants growing on serpentines in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Dolja; Karadjova, Irina

    2013-12-01

    Populations of medicinal plants growing on serpentines and their respective soils were analyzed for Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Aqua regia extraction and 0.43 M acetic acid extraction were used for the quantification of pseudototal and bioavailable fractions, respectively, of elements in soil and nitric acid digestion for determination of total element content in plants. Screening was performed to (1) document levels of toxic metals in herbs extensively used in preparation of products and standardized extracts, (2) compare accumulation abilities of ferns and seed plants, and (3) estimate correlations between metal content in plants and their soils. The toxic element content of plants varied from site to site on a large scale. The concentrations of Fe and Ni were elevated while those of Cu, Zn, and Pb were close to average values usually found in plants. The highest concentrations for almost all elements were measured in both Teucrium species. Specific differences in metal accumulation between ferns and seed plants were not recorded. The investigated species are not hyperaccumulators but can accumulate toxic elements, in some cases exceeding permissible levels proposed by the World Health Organization and European Pharmacopoeia. The harvesting of medicinal plants from serpentines could be hazardous to humans.

  18. Selenium Cycling Across Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Interfaces: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny H.E. Winkel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential element for humans and animals, which occurs ubiquitously in the environment. It is present in trace amounts in both organic and inorganic forms in marine and freshwater systems, soils, biomass and in the atmosphere. Low Se levels in certain terrestrial environments have resulted in Se deficiency in humans, while elevated Se levels in waters and soils can be toxic and result in the death of aquatic wildlife and other animals. Human dietary Se intake is largely governed by Se concentrations in plants, which are controlled by root uptake of Se as a function of soil Se concentrations, speciation and bioavailability. In addition, plants and microorganisms can biomethylate Se, which can result in a loss of Se to the atmosphere. The mobilization of Se across soil-plant-atmosphere interfaces is thus of crucial importance for human Se status. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on Se cycling with a specific focus on soil-plant-atmosphere interfaces. Sources, speciation and mobility of Se in soils and plants will be discussed as well as Se hyperaccumulation by plants, biofortification and biomethylation. Future research on Se cycling in the environment is essential to minimize the adverse health effects associated with unsafe environmental Se levels.

  19. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.H.; Chuang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the 22