WorldWideScience

Sample records for hyperaccumulator alyssum murale

  1. Interaction of Nickel and Manganese in Accumulation and Localization in Leaves of the Ni Hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhurst, C.; Tappero, R; Maugel, T; Erbe, E; Sparks, D; Chaney, R

    2009-01-01

    The genus Alyssum contains >50 Ni hyperaccumulator species; many can achieve >2.5% Ni in dry leaf. In soils with normal Mn levels, Alyssum trichome bases were previously observed to accumulate Ni and Mn to high levels. Here we report concentration and localization patterns in A. murale and A. corsicum grown in soils with nonphytotoxic factorial additions of Ni and Mn salts. Four leaf type subsets based on size and age accumulated Ni and Mn similarly. The greatest Mn accumulation (10 times control) was observed in A. corsicum with 40 mmol Mn kg-1 and 40 mmol Ni kg-1 added to potting soil. Whole leaf Ni concentrations decreased as Mn increased. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of whole fresh leaves showed localized in distinct high-concentration Mn spots associated with trichomes, Ni and Mn distributions were strongly spatially correlated. Standard X-ray fluorescence point analysis/mapping of cryofractured and freeze-dried samples found that Ni and Mn were co-located and strongly concentrated only in trichome bases and in cells adjacent to trichomes. Nickel concentration was also strongly spatially correlated with sulfur. Results indicate that maximum Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum may be reduced in soils with higher phytoavailable Mn, and suggest that Ni hyperaccumulation in Alyssum species may have developed from a Mn handling system.

  2. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Leigh Broadhurst

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50, many of which can achieve 30 g kg-1 Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu and Mn uptake.We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg-1 Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg-1. A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient

  3. Exogenous cytokinin treatments of a Ni hyper-accumulator, Alyssum murale, grown in a serpentine soil: Implications for phytoextraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of exogenous plant growth regulators was examined as a viable technique to increase the efficiency of plant metal phytoextraction from contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to investigate the alteration of Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum murale, a Ni hyperaccumulator, following the...

  4. Growth and metal accumulation of an Alyssum murale nickel hyperaccumulator ecotype co-cropped with Alyssum montanum or perennial ryegrass in serpentine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 400 plant species naturally accumulate high levels of metals such as Cd, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) contains the greatest number of reported Ni hyperaccumulators (50), many of which can achieve 3 wt% Ni in dry leaves. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viabl...

  5. Improving the Agronomy of Alyssum murale for Extensive Phytomining: A Five-Year Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Aida; Echevarria, Guillaume; Sulçe, Sulejman; Morel, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Large ultramafic areas exist in Albania, which could be suitable for phytomining with native Alyssum murale. We undertook a five-year field experiment on an ultramafic Vertisol, aimed at optimizing a low-cost Ni-phytoextraction crop of A. murale which is adapted to the Balkans. The following aspects were studied on 18-m2 plots in natural conditions: the effect of (i) plant phenology and element distribution, (ii) plant nutrition and fertilization, (iii) plant cover and weed control and (iv), planting technique (natural cover vs. sown crop). The optimal harvest time was set at the mid-flowering stage when Ni concentration and biomass yield were highest. The application of N, P, and K fertilizers, and especially a split 100-kg ha(-1) N application, increased the density of A. murale against all other species. It significantly increased shoot yield, without reducing Ni concentration. In natural stands, the control of graminaceous weeds required the use of an anti-monocots herbicide. However, after the optimization of fertilization and harvest time, weed control procured little benefit. Finally, cropping sown A. murale was more efficient than enhancing native stands and gave higher biomass and phytoextraction yields; biomass yields progressively improved from 0.3 to 9.0 t ha(-1) and phytoextracted Ni increased from 1.7 to 105 kg ha(-1).

  6. Intra-specific variation in Ni tolerance, accumulation and translocation patterns in the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum lesbiacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamidis, G C; Aloupi, M; Kazakou, E; Dimitrakopoulos, P G

    2014-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate inter-population variation in Ni tolerance, accumulation and translocation patterns in Alyssum lesbiacum. The in vitro results were compared to field data (soil bioavailable and leaf Ni concentrations) so as to examine any potential relationship between hydroponic and natural conditions. Seeds from the four major existing populations of A. lesbiacum were used for the cultivation of plantlets in solution cultures with incrementally increasing Ni concentrations (ranging from 0 to 250 μmol L(-1) NiSO4). Ni accumulation and tolerance of shoots and roots, along with initial seed Ni concentration for each population were measured. The ratio of root or shoot length of plantlets grown in NiSO4 solutions to root or shoot lengths of plantlets grown in the control solution was used as tolerance index. For the range of metal concentrations used, A. lesbiacum presented significant inter-population variation in Ni tolerance, accumulation and translocation patterns. Initial seed Ni concentration was positively correlated to shoot Ni accumulation. A significant positive relationship between tolerance and accumulation was demonstrated. Initial seed Ni concentration along with physiological differences in xylem loading and Ni translocation of each population, appear to be the determining factors of the significant inter-population variation in Ni tolerance and accumulation. Our results highlight the inter-population variation in Ni tolerance and accumulation patterns in the Ni-hyperaccumulator A. lesbiacum and give support to the suggestion that the selection of metal hyperaccumulator species with enhanced phytoremediation efficiency should be considered at the population level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Andrew C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: acsi@ceh.ac.uk; Bell, Thomas [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom); Heywood, Chloe A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Smith, J.A.C. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian P. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract.

  8. Evaluation of plant growth regulators to increase nickel phytoextraction by Alyssum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Conejo, M I; Centofanti, T; Kidd, P S; Prieto-Fernández, A; Chaney, R L

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that application of phytohormones to shoots of Alyssum murale increased biomass production but did not increase Ni shoot concentration. Increased biomass and Ni phytoextraction efficiency is useful to achieve economically viable phytomining. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of phytohormones on the Ni phytoextraction capacity of four Alyssum species. Two different commercially available phytohormones (Cytokin and Promalin) based on cytokinins and/or gibberellins were applied on shoot biomass of four Ni hyperaccumulating Alyssum species (A. corsicum, A. malacitanum, A. murale, and A. pintodasilvae). Cytokin was applied in two concentrations and promalin in one concentration. The application of phytohormones had no clear positive effect on biomass production, Ni accumulation and Ni phytoextraction efficiency in the studied Alyssum species. A. malacitanum was the only species in which a significantly negative effect of these treatments was observed (in Ni uptake). A slightly positive response to promalin treatment was observed in the biomass production and Ni phytoextraction efficiency of A. corsicum. Although this effect was not significant it does indicate a potential application of these approaches to improve phytoextraction ability. Further studies will be needed to identify the most adequate phytohormone treatment as well as the appropriate concentrations and application times.

  9. Nickel and zinc isotope fractionation in hyperaccumulating and nonaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Cloquet, Christophe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Estrade, Nicolas; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-10-21

    Until now, there has been little data on the isotope fractionation of nickel (Ni) in higher plants and how this can be affected by plant Ni and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. A hydroponic cultivation was conducted to investigate the isotope fractionation of Ni and Zn during plant uptake and translocation processes. The nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense, the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale and the Ni and Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens were grown in low (2 μM) and high (50 μM) Ni and Zn solutions. Results showed that plants were inclined to absorb light Ni isotopes, presumably due to the functioning of low-affinity transport systems across root cell membrane. The Ni isotope fractionation between plant and solution was greater in the hyperaccumulators grown in low Zn treatments (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.90 to -0.63‰) than that in the nonaccumulator T. arvense (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.21‰), thus indicating a greater permeability of the low-affinity transport system in hyperaccumulators. Light isotope enrichment of Zn was observed in most of the plants (Δ(66)Zn(plant-solution) = -0.23 to -0.10‰), but to a lesser extent than for Ni. The rapid uptake of Zn on the root surfaces caused concentration gradients, which induced ion diffusion in the rhizosphere and could result in light Zn isotope enrichment in the hyperaccumulator N. caerulescens. In high Zn treatment, Zn could compete with Ni during the uptake process, which reduced Ni concentration in plants and decreased the extent of Ni isotope fractionation (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.11 to -0.07‰), indicating that plants might take up Ni through a low-affinity transport system of Zn. We propose that isotope composition analysis for transition elements could become an empirical tool to study plant physiological processes.

  10. Evaluation of plant growth regulators to increase Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that application of phytohormones to shoots of Alyssum murale increased biomass production but did not increase Ni shoot concentration. Increased biomass and Ni phytoextraction efficiency is useful to achieve economically viable phytomining. The objective of this study wa...

  11. Critical Muralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  12. Norbury Park Murals

    OpenAIRE

    Barret, George, the elder (Irish landscapist, 1728 or 1732-1784)

    2007-01-01

    Norbury Park, near Box Hill was built by William Lock (1732-1810) in 1770. Lock commissioned Barret to paint the continuous mural. Cipriani did the figures estruary for the murals. Images courtesy of the Courtauld Institute of Art.

  13. Magnificent Clay Murals

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    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2007-01-01

    Each August, third grade artists at Apple Glen Elementary in Bentonville, Arkansas, start the school year planning, creating, and exhibiting a clay relief mural. These mural projects have helped students to acquire not only art knowledge and techniques, but an even more important kind of knowledge: what it means to plan and successfully complete a…

  14. Murals as Storytellers

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    Fradella, Laura

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes murals as visual storytelling. In times before most people could read or write, pictures were used to tell stories and to teach people. Visual storytelling is most often seen in the form of drawing, painting, collage, printmaking, quilts, stained-glass windows, and murals. The concept of visual storytelling…

  15. Is it worth hyperaccumulating Ni on non-serpentine soils? Decomposition dynamics of mixed-species litters containing hyperaccumulated Ni across serpentine and non-serpentine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamidis, George C; Kazakou, Elena; Aloupi, Maria; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni)-hyperaccumulating species produce high-Ni litters and may potentially influence important ecosystem processes such as decomposition. Although litters resembling the natural community conditions are essential in order to predict decomposition dynamics, decomposition of mixed-species litters containing hyperaccumulated Ni has never been studied. This study aims to test the effect of different litter mixtures containing hyperaccumulated Ni on decomposition and Ni release across serpentine and non-serpentine soils. Three different litter mixtures were prepared based on the relative abundance of the dominant species in three serpentine soils in the island of Lesbos, Greece where the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum lesbiacum is present. Each litter mixture decomposed on its original serpentine habitat and on an adjacent non-serpentine habitat, in order to investigate whether the decomposition rates differ across the contrasted soils. In order to make comparisons across litter mixtures and to investigate whether additive or non-additive patterns of mass loss occur, a control non-serpentine site was used. Mass loss and Ni release were measured after 90, 180 and 270 d of field exposure. The decomposition rates and Ni release had higher values on serpentine soils after all periods of field exposure. The recorded rapid release of hyperaccumulated Ni is positively related to the initial litter Ni concentration. No differences were found in the decomposition of the three different litter mixtures at the control non-serpentine site, while their patterns of mass loss were additive. Our results: (1) demonstrate the rapid decomposition of litters containing hyperaccumulated Ni on serpentine soils, indicating the presence of metal-tolerant decomposers; and (2) imply the selective decomposition of low-Ni parts of litters by the decomposers on non-serpentine soils. This study provides support for the elemental allelopathy hypothesis of hyperaccumulation, presenting the

  16. Left ventricular mural thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.V.

    1983-08-01

    The identification of mural thrombus in patients with left ventricular aneurysm and mural thrombus probably warrants consideration of long-term anticoagulation. In patients with acute, large, anterior or anteroapical, transmural myocardial infarctions, serial noninvasive examinations are warranted to define a group of patients at high risk for the development of left ventricular aneurysm and/or mural thrombus. Anticoagulants should be considered in patients in whom mural thrombi develop as a complication of their infarction. Patients with congestive cardiomyopathy should be considered for long-term anticoagulation. These recommendations are all tempered by the realization that the use of anticoagulant therapy is not without its own risks. The decision to anticoagulate must be balanced against each individual patient's suitability for such therapy and the individual likelihood of the development of side effects.

  17. Interactive chalk murals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muzzillo, Sarah; Santos, John

    2013-01-01

      Muzzillo and Santos discuss interactive chalk murals. Last summer, Apex High School art teacher Ian Sands was scrolling through his Twitter feed when he saw a tweet describing an interactive art park...

  18. The Jigsaw Mural Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Caleb; Crawford, Jodi

    2004-01-01

    The Jigsaw Mural Project provides a way for young children to work on a large-scale and permanent mural, in a manner that allows them to work on the floor and without the use of ladders. It is also a chance for art educators to work with students as teacher and collaborator in one. This project took place with preschool children ages two through…

  19. Community-based Mural: The People's Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history and reasons for community-based mural art in North America. Describes the steps involved in a community-based mural project for students in which they work in groups to develop a mural theme and a sketch of the mural, paint the mural, document the process, and then present the mural to the class. (CMK)

  20. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular data suggested the diversification of Alyssum in Mediterranean areas and wide-ranging distribution such as North Africa, eastward into Central Asia and immigration into North America. Climatic aridification and arid/semiarid areas established in the Pliocene/Pleistocene could have provided favourable conditions ...

  1. Rain Forest Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  2. Sticky-Note Murals

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    Sands, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a sticky-note mural project that originated from his desire to incorporate contemporary materials into his assignments as well as to inspire collaboration between students. The process takes much more than sticking sticky notes to the wall. It takes critical thinking skills and teamwork to design and complete…

  3. School Safety Mural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esher, Jodi

    2005-01-01

    Jodi Esher, an art teacher at teach at a very large kindergarten through second grade school, finished a continuing ed course entitled Preparing a School Community to Cope with Crisis, and came away completely inspired to make a difference in her school. The object of her new project would be to design, then ultimately create, a mural to become a…

  4. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

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    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  5. Ecological Mural as Community Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang Song, Young Imm; Gammel, Jo Ann

    2011-01-01

    Murals are particularly visually captivating forms of public art due to their size and accessibility. Mural images also capture public attention and provoke viewers to explore layers of meaning and find hidden stories. They are often in places that people come to visit, study, play, congregate and discuss matters that may relate to the content of…

  6. A Democratic Art: Community Murals as Educator.

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    Conrad, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the community mural movement as an educational activity, reviewing the history of the modern mural movement, noting its democratic direction, and concluding that community murals can potentially educate artists and nonartists. Modern murals have demonstrated a vast capacity to expand awareness of the struggles of oppressed people. (SM)

  7. Han Mural Tombs: Reflection of Correlative Cosmology through Mural Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vampelj Suhadolnik

    2011-12-01

    cosmologic concepts in the iconographic design of Han mural paintings. A thorough analysis of the iconographic design of murals shows that they possessed not only a decorative function, but together with the architectural structure and other burial objects reflected the entire cosmic image. The analysis of tomb paintings reveals a developed correlative cosmology yin-yang wuxing which manifests its concrete image in symbolic codes of individual iconographic motifs. The article first displays a general review of tombs with murals, and then focuses on depictions in Han tomb murals, discussing representation of the images of celestial bodies, the symbolic polarity of the cosmical forces yin and yang, the symbolism of the four directions and the four seasons and the symbolic circling of the five xings.

  8. Arsenic Hyperaccumulation Strategies: An Overview

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    Zahra Souri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As pollution, which is on the increase around the world, poses a growing threat to the environment. Phytoremediation, an important green technology, uses different strategies, including As uptake, transport, translocation, and detoxification, to remediate this metalloid. Arsenic hyperaccumulator plants have developed various strategies to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of As. In these plants, the formation of AsIII complexes with GSH and phytochelatins and their transport into root and shoot vacuoles constitute important mechanisms for coping with As stress. The oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS production is one of the principal toxic effects of As; moreover, the strong antioxidative defenses in hyperaccumulator plants could constitute an important As detoxification strategy. On the other hand, nitric oxide activates antioxidant enzyme and phytochelatins biosynthesis which enhances As stress tolerance in plants. Although several studies have focused on transcription, metabolomics, and proteomic changes in plants induced by As, the mechanisms involved in As transport, translocation, and detoxification in hyperaccumulator plants need to be studied in greater depth. This review updates recent progress made in the study of As uptake, translocation, chelation, and detoxification in As hyperaccumulator plants.

  9. Technique murale picturale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Coupry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Après des études remarquables publiées, entre autres, dans Peindre à Auxerre au Moyen Âge, IXe-XIVe siècles, l’étude technique et analytique des peintures murales n’avait pas donné lieu à de nouvelles recherches méthodologiques en dépit des travaux de terrain (Souvigny, Stavelot… où l’archéologie du bâti avait permis des rencontres entre archéologues, historiens de l’art et restaurateurs particulièrement impliqués pour la période qui nous intéresse, de la basse Antiquité au haut Moyen Âge.Ce...

  10. Agronomy of strip intercropping broccoli with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic broccoli growers in California typically control aphids by intercropping broccoli with strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) which attracts hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) that are important predators of aphids. A three year study with transplanted organic broccoli in Salinas, ...

  11. Seni Mural Ruang Publik dalam Konteks Konservasi

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    Muhammad Gazali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seni mural merupakan salah satu seni gambar yang menggunakan tembok sebagai medianya. Seni mural merupakan media komunikasi antara seniman dan khalayak umum, menjadi alternatif untuk penyampain nilai-nilai estetis dan etis. Mural menjadi sentral peranannya ketika berada pada ruang publik, karena ruang publik menjadi salah satu sentral interaksi sosial bagi masyarakat khususnya perkotaan. Keberadaaan mural di ruang publik tentunya mempunyai fungsi sebagai media penyampaian aspirasi, sebagai fungsi estetik, ekonomi dan endidikan. Gagasan seniman pada penciptaan mural yaitu agar lingkungan kota dapat dijaga dan dilestarikan bersama.

  12. From Mission Statement to Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Brian Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an after-school project he reactivated at RHAM Middle School. The author embarked on the Mural Project, which he hoped would engaged students in a year-long cycle to depict just what the seven pillars mean to the social and academic well-being of the school community. What emerged from the project was a…

  13. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum: Dilute solution and some physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesarinejad, M A; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various temperatures (25-65°C) on some dilute solution properties of Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) as a novel potential source of hydrocolloid. Monosaccharide composition, FTIR analysis and molecular parameters were determined to provide more structural information. The results indicated that AHSG had a low molecular weight (3.66×10(5)Da), medium intrinsic viscosity (18.34dl/g) at 25°C, relatively flexible chain with a chain flexibility parameter of 618.54, and activation energy of 0.51×10(7)J/kgmol. With rise in temperature from 25 to 55°C, the intrinsic viscosity decreased as well as coil radius and volume of AHSG. The shape factor of AHSG macromolecule was spherical at all temperatures. The electrostatic interaction and particle size of AHSG solution were -25.81mV (at neutral pH) and 225.36nm, respectively. The results revealed that AHSG had high total sugar content (85.33%), small amount of uronic acids (5.63%) and it is likely a galactan-type polysaccharide. The FTIR spectra showed that AHSG behaved like a typical polyelectrolyte because of the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Phytoremediation and Potency of Hyperaccumulator Plants

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    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is defined as cleaning up of pollutants mediated primarily by plants. It is an emerging technology for environmental remediation that offers a low-cost technique suitable for use against different types of contaminants in a variety of media. Phytoremediation is potentially applicable to a diversity of substances, involving hyperaccumulators heavy metals and radionuclides. It is also applicable to other inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, various salts and nutrients, and a variety of organic contaminants, including explosives, petroleum hydrocarbons and pesticides. At least there are one taxon of plant as hyperaccumulator for Cd, 28 taxa for Co, 37 taxa for Cu, 9 taxa for Mg, 317 taxa for Ni, and 11 taxa for Zn. Extensive progress were done in characterizing physiology of plants which hyperaccumulate or hypertolerate metals. Hypertolerance is fundamental to hyperaccumulator, and high rates of uptake and translocation are observed in hyperaccumulator plants. Hyperaccumulator plants and agronomic technology were undertaken to improve the annual rate of phytoextraction and to allow recycling of soil toxic metals accumulated in plant biomass. These techniques are very likely to support commercial environmental remediation. Most phytoremediation systems are still in development, or in the stage of plant breeding to improve the cultivars for field use. However, application for commercial purposes has already been initiated. Many opportunities have also been identified for research and development to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation

  15. A comparison of lead accumulation and tolerance among heavy metal hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare lead accumulation and tolerance among heavy metal hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes. Methods: To this purpose, we compared Pb tolerance and accumulation in hydroponics among calamine and non-calamine populations of Silene

  16. We All Belong! The Tecumseh Mural Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukawecky, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    The author of this article describes how as the visual-arts teacher of Tecumseh Public School, she brought the entire school and community together by creating a mural that promoted belonging. The mural involved tapping into the the creativity of all 400 students from kindergarten through eighth grade at Tecumseh while creating a work of art with…

  17. Murals at the Children's Clinic in Skopje

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Five artists, among which myself, painted murals at the department of cystic fibrosis and psycho-physiology at the Children's clinic in Skopje. The murals were done on the walls of a 35-meter hallway, which means that we have painted a surface of around 70 meters.

  18. Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLeitenmaier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulators are being intensely investigated. They are not only interesting in scientific context due to their strange behaviour in terms of dealing with high concentrations of metals, but also because of their use in phytoremediation and phytomining, for which understanding the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation is crucial. Hyperaccumulators naturally use metal accumulation as a defence against herbivores and pathogens, and therefore deal with accumulated metals in very specific ways of complexation and compartmentation, different from non-hyperaccumulator plants and also non-hyperaccumulated metals. For example, in contrast to non-hyperaccumulators, in hyperaccumulators even the classical phytochelatin-inducing metal, cadmium, is predominantly not bound by such sulfur ligands, but only by weak oxygen ligands. This applies to all hyperaccumulated metals investigated so far, as well as hyperaccumulation of the metalloid arsenic. Stronger ligands, as they have been shown to complex metals in non-hyperaccumulators, are in hyperaccumulators used for transient binding during transport to the storage sites. This confirmed that enhanced active metal transport, and not metal complexation, is the key mechanism of hyperaccumulation. Hyperaccumulators tolerate the high amount of accumulated heavy metals by sequestering them into vacuoles, usually in large storage cells of the epidermis. This is mediated by strongly elevated expression of specific transport proteins in various tissues from metal uptake in the shoots up to the storage sites in the leaf epidermis. However, this mechanism seems to be very metal specific. Non-hyperaccumulated metals in hyperaccumulators seem to be dealt with like in non-hyperaccumulator plants, i.e. detoxified by binding to strong ligands such as metallothioneins.

  19. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of damage to organs of grey poplar was as follows: root > stem> leaves. It was suggested that the Populus × canescens as a renewable resource has the potential to decontaminate cadmium stress development, accumulation and distribution. Key words: Cadmium, phytoremediation, hyperaccumulator, grey poplar, organ.

  20. Allelopathic Effect of Leaf Water Extract of Hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. at Rosette Stage on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of leaves at rosette stage of the hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. against some associated grasses like, prairie June grass (Koeleria macrantha, Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis, blue-bunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata and cheat grass (Bromus tectorum and its own were investigated. The experiment al materials used were the leaf extracts and its allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling emergence of the abave mentioned grasses in Petri dishes. According to our study, leaves of hoary alyssum rosettes at stage have the potential to reduce germination rate, root and shoot growth of pasture grasses and hoary alyssum itself due to its allelopathic effect. The leaf leachate solution bioassays also showed that the germination of cheat grass was more susceptible to 4% solution of allelopathic extract of leaves. Hoary alyssum leaf extract also exhibited allelopathic self-inhibition, in both seedling root and shoot growth at 2 and 4% concentrations. Self- inhibitory allelopathic effects of hoary alyssum could also be important in preventing seed germination and seedling establishment of neighboring plant.

  1. Investigating murals with terahertz reflective tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technology has been proposed to be used in the non-invasive detection of murals. THz-TDS images provide structural data of the sample that cannot be obtained with other complementary techniques. In this paper, two types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by the terahertz reflected time domain spectroscopy imaging system. These preset defects include a leaf slice and a slit built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. With this THz tomography, different defects with the changes of optical thickness and their relative refractive index have been identified. The application of reflective pulsed terahertz imaging has been extended to the defect detection of the murals.

  2. MURALS WITH A ViBe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    The ViBe District in Virginia Beach is a hub for the local arts community. There is a fenced area in the ViBe District that features a whole row of murals created by professional artists, amateurs, and student groups from all over...

  3. Mural Painting Retouching Challenges; A Ghanaian Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of importance must enjoy a prolonged lifetime of aesthetic and functional benefit to society. Unfortunately, the life span of outdoor murals displayed on public buildings in Ghana have been shortened by the ravages of weather, public interaction with them as well as deterioration over years of neglect. Many of such works ...

  4. El mural de mami y papi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norailys Pérez Navarro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un mural educativo con el fin de dar orientaciones de prevención y promoción de salud acerca de la caries dental, los hábitos adecuados de dieta, de higiene bucal y para la salud en general mediante un contacto previo con los padres y el niño, con el objetivo de lograr modificaciones de comportamiento entre estos y poder realizar la educación de un valor: el cuidado dental preventivo. Se comprobó la eficacia de un mural como técnica de promoción y prevención de salud. Se observó que en el grupo control, donde la técnica de prevención no fue aplicada, existió un número mayor de niños que volvieron a desarrollar caries, lo contrario a lo ocurrido en el grupo de estudio, donde se aplicó dicha técnica. El porcentaje de incidencia de las caries dental un año después de aplicado el mural fue mayor en el grupo control que en el grupo de estudio al que se le aplicó el mural de prevención. El porcentaje de reducción de la caries dental fue mayor en el grupo de estudio al cual se le aplicó la técnica educativa del mural que en el grupo control, al cual no se le aplicó ninguna técnica.Summary An educative mural was made to give instructions in relation to health promotion and the prevention of dental caries, adequate food habits, oral hygiene and health in general. To this end, there was a previous contact with the parents and the child aimed at attaining behavior modifications among them. With all this, it was possible to teach them the value of preventive dental care. It was proved the efficiency of a mural as a technique for promoting health and preventing caries. It was observed that in the control group, where the preventive technique was not used, there was a higher number of children that developed caries again, whereas in the study group that was applied the prevention mural, the amount of children that did not develop caries again was larger. A year after implementing this technique, the percentage of

  5. A compound containing substituted indole ligand from a hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance under Zn exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hongyun; Gao, Lingling; Luo, Ancheng; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance is a fast-growing and high-biomass zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator native to China. A compound containing substituted indole ligand was isolated from this Zn hyperaccumulator plants by sonication/ethanol extraction, macroporous resin column as well as preparative HPLC (P-HPLC). Hydroponic experiment showed that the concentrations of both Zn and the compound containing substituted indole ligand were remarkably increased in stems and leaves of both hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator as Zn rising from 0.5 to 50 micromol L(-1), with much more in the stems of hyperaccumulator than non-hyperaccumulator. At 50 micromol L(-1) Zn, hyperaccumulator grew normally but its non-hyperaccumulator suffered from strongly Zn-induced toxicity. This suggested that there was a positive correlation between the compound containing substituted indole ligand and Zn concentration in shoots of hyperaccumulator S. alfredii.

  6. A new mural for the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    A 53 metre long and 6 metre high mural has graced the ramp of the Globe since 21 June. Containing life-size photos of the CMS experiment and an event in the ATLAS detector, its visual impact cannot fail to rouse visitors' curiosity.   The new mural installed in the Globe Visitors ascending from the ground-floor to the first floor of the Globe are now greeted by a huge visual record of what's going on below ground at CERN and is no longer accessible on guided tours of the Laboratory. "The mural contains full-scale photos that give you a real feel of how the CMS detector is constructed and of the degree of precision of the particle tracks in the ATLAS event", explains Rolf Landua, Head of the Education Group, who came up with the project in conjunction with Bernard Pellequer. Several people were instrumental in bringing the project to life. The collage of 250 photographs of the CMS detector was retouched and assembled by Maximilien Brice, CERN's photographer, with the assistance o...

  7. Arabis gemmifera is a hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Chisato

    2003-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are essential for phytoremediation of heavy metals. In Europe and North America, many studies have been conducted to find more effective plants for phytoremediation of various pollutants. In Japan, this field of research has just recently come more into focus. A type of fern in Japan, Athyrium yokoscense, is well known as a hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn. However, it is not suitable for phytoremediation because it is a summer green and grows slowly. Therefore, in order to find hyperaccumulators other than from A. yokoscense, we surveyed plants growing at polluted sites in Japan. We found that the Brassicae Arabis gemmifera is a hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn, with phytoextraction capacities almost equal to Thlaspi caerulescens.

  8. Response of hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. to UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stokłosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This greenhouse experiment evaluated the response of hoary alyssum plants, up to the rosette phase, to different levels of UV-B radiation. The experiment was carried out in the chambers, equipped with UV-B lamps, emitting biologically effective UV-B radiation of 0 (control, 4, 6 or 8 kJ. As a result, specific traits of the plants such as: leaf number, lamina length, leaf area, specific leaf weight, relative chlorophyll content and shoot biomass were unaffected by any of the UV-B treatments. Significant reductions in the share of large leaves, leaf stalk length and root biomass were noted for plants growing under 8 kJ UV-BBE.

  9. Preparation and characterization of a novel edible film based on Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Olfat, Ali; Bagheri, Mina; Nouri, Leila; Karim, A A; Ariffin, Fazilah

    2017-05-01

    In this study a novel biodegradable edible film based on Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) was fabricated and characterized. Glycerol at three levels (25, 35, and 45% based on dried AHSG) as plasticizer were added. The microstructure and barrier, electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal properties of the film were characterized. Results showed that permeability to both oxygen and water vapor, increased as the plasticizer content increased from 25 to 45%. The mechanical properties of AHSG films were comparable to those of polysaccharide films. Results showed that the glycerol content significantly decreased the glass-transition temperature of the film. The color measurement indicated that increasing the plasticizer content augmented the b* and L* values. Results of the field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a uniform and smooth surface morphology and an absence of phase separation among the film compositions. The findings demonstrated that AHSG has the potential to fabricate edible films with enhanced quality characteristics.

  10. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum-polyvinyl alcohol biodegradable composite film: Physicochemical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjazeb Marvdashti, Leila; Koocheki, Arash; Yavarmanesh, Masoud

    2017-01-02

    Films made from Alyssum homolocarpum seeds gum (AHSG) have poor mechanical and barrier (to oxygen) properties. In the present study poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) was used to improve the physicochemical properties of AHSG films. Results indicated that the addition of PVA significantly increased the moisture content, solubility, elongation at break (EB) and transparency while it decreased the density, oxygen permeability, chroma, water contact angle and Young modulus of AHSG based films. Films with higher AHSG to PVA ratios had lower water vapor permeability (WVP). The light barrier measurements presented low values of transparency at 600nm for PVA/AHSG films, indicating that films were very transparent while they had excellent barrier properties against UV light. Results for FTIR, DSC and SEM showed a clear interaction between PVA and AHSG, forming a new material. These results indicated that PVA/AHSG blend films had good compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards a durable alternative medium in mural painting: the auto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the traditional parlance of mural painting among Nigerian artists, the use of emulsion paint has become universal. After years of professional practice, the observation is that these emulsion-paint murals do not last on the walls. The reason is that the emulsion paint made in Nigeria is of very poor quality. Under the ...

  12. Out of America: Exploring Collaborative Mural Teaching in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, the author arrived in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, to teach mural painting at the National Academy of Art for his five-month Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program lecturing award. He targeted Bulgaria as his host country in his 2009-2010 Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program application because of its rich mural painting culture. He…

  13. Building 549 Becomes the Backdrop for an Updated Mural | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next time you walk through Building 549 at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick campus, make sure you check out the bright new mural adorning the walls outside the auditorium. A collaboration between the Office of Scientific Operations and Scientific Publications, Graphics and Media, the mural evokes the goals and efforts of the Frederick National Lab and NCI at Frederick.

  14. Experiencing the "Community" in Community College Teaching through Mural Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Uses the five stages of creativity designed by psychologist Jacob Getzel--first insight, saturation, incubation, illumination, and verification--to describe a mural project in a rural community college. Reports that the project successfully paired students with community members to paint two local murals. (NB)

  15. All Together Now: A District-Wide Mural Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densel, Shari

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the development and implementation of a district-wide mural project that would highlight the strength of the arts and encourage collaboration between all the art teachers, students of multiple ages, and the community. Over 350 students, exhibited their talents and skills by collaborating on a three-paneled ceramic mural that…

  16. Effects of selenium hyperaccumulation on plant-plant interactions: evidence for elemental allelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mehdawi, Ali F; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-07-01

    • Few studies have investigated plant-plant interactions involving hyperaccumulator plants. Here, we investigated the effect of selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation on neighboring plants. • Soil and litter Se concentrations were determined around the hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata and around the nonhyperaccumulators Medicago sativa and Helianthus pumilus. We also compared surrounding vegetative cover, species composition and Se concentration in two plant species (Artemisia ludoviciana and Symphyotrichum ericoides) growing either close to or far from Se hyperaccumulators. Then, Arabidopsis thaliana germination and growth were compared on soils collected next to the hyperaccumulators and the nonhyperaccumulators. • Soil collected around hyperaccumulators contained more Se (up to 266 mg Se kg(-1) ) than soil collected around nonhyperaccumulators. Vegetative ground cover was 10% lower around Se hyperaccumulators compared with nonhyperaccumulators. The Se concentration was higher in neighboring species A. ludoviciana and S. ericoides when growing close to, compared with far from, Se hyperaccumulators. A. thaliana showed reduced germination and growth, and higher Se accumulation, when grown on soil collected around Se hyperaccumulators compared with soil collected around nonaccumulators. • In conclusion, Se hyperaccumulators may increase the surrounding soil Se concentration (phytoenrichment). The enhanced soil Se contents around hyperaccumulators can impair the growth of Se-sensitive plant species, pointing to a possible role of Se hyperaccumulation in elemental allelopathy. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nandita [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Ma, Lena Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.ed [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Vu, Joseph C. [Chemistry Research Unit, CMAVE, USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL 32608-1069 and Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0500 (United States); Raj, Anshita [Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2009-08-15

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of four-month old Pteris vittata (arsenic - hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-arsenic--hyperaccumulator) plants. The arsenic treatments (0, 150, and 300 muM as sodium arsenate) in hydroponics had adverse effects on the root and frond dry weights, and this effect was more evident in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of arsenate-treated plants were reduced more in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. This effect was accompanied by similar decreases in tissue NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Therefore, this decrease is interpreted as being indirect, i.e., the consequence of the reduced NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake and translocation in the plants. The study shows the difference in the tolerance level of the two Pteris species with varying sensitivity to arsenic. - Arsenic reduced the activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase more in Pteris ensiformis than Pteris vittata.

  18. Unicystic ameloblastoma with diverse mural proliferation - a hybrid lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadesh, Jyothi [Sri Siddhartha Dental College and Hospital, (India); Rayapati, Dilip Kumar; Maligi, Prathima M; Ramachandra, Prashanth [Dayananda Sagar College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru (India)

    2011-03-15

    A 46-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment, complaining of swelling on the right mandibular molar region. Radiographic examination revealed a well defined multilocular radiolucent lesion with root resorption of right lower anteriors and molars. Following biopsy, a diagnosis of unicystic ameloblastoma of mural type was made and hemimandibulectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen exhibited a unicystic ameloblastoma of luminal, intraluminal, and mural type. Intraluminal proliferation was of plexiform pattern and mural proliferation showed unusual histopathological findings, which revealed follicular, acanthomatous areas coexisted with desmoplastic areas. This mural picture was similar to the so-called 'hybrid lesion of ameloblastoma', whose biological profile is not elicited due to the lack of adequate published reports. Two years follow up till date has not revealed any signs of recurrence.

  19. Development and characterization of electrosprayed Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum nanoparticles for encapsulation of d-limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshakhlagh, Khadije; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Allafchian, Alireza

    2017-03-15

    In this study, the feasibility of developing Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) nanocapsules containing d-limonene by electrospraying has been investigated. d-limonene emulsions with constant AHSG (0.5% w/w) and various flavor concentrations (10-30% based on gum weight) with 0.1% Tween 20 were electrosprayed at 20kV and 0.1ml/h of flow rate. The effects of key parameters of emulsions (rheological properties, droplet size, surface tension and electrical conductivity) on the morphology of structures have been studied. The morphology of nanocapsules had strong dependency on solution properties. The aggregated irregular shaped nanoparticles were obtained from electrospraying of AHSG solution. After incorporation of 10 and 20% d-limonene, spherical nanocapsules were yielded. However, morphology of nanocapsules changed to nanofibers by increasing the flavor content to 30%. The encapsulation efficiency for 10 and 20% d-limonene loaded nanocapsules was around 87-93%. Attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also employed to study the physicochemical characteristics of nanocapsules. These experiments provided evidences that electrosprayed AHSG nanoparticles introduce a novel and efficient carrier for encapsulation of bioactive ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Colin F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae. Results Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg-1 were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg-1. Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg-1 dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μXRF mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. Conclusions This is the first reported study investigating the

  1. 76 FR 63701 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Diego Rivera: Murals for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Diego Rivera: Murals for the Museum of Modern Art'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Diego Rivera: Murals for The Museum of Modern Art,'' imported...

  2. An Intercultural Peace Mural Project: Let's Make a Peaceful World Hand in Hand!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2012-01-01

    Murals have become a powerful art form for portraying antiwar, human rights, social justice, and human dignity issues. Educators and artists have conducted mural workshops with adolescents in international settings to educate them about peace, human rights, and cultural tolerance. Learning with murals has been shown to be pedagogically meaningful…

  3. Recipe for Working Together: Gen. Colin Powell and the Baker's Dough Mural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Describes the process for creating a baker's-dough mural that would become a permanent part of the community and relates a visit made to the Sacramento (California) Boys & Girls Club by General Colin Powell. Discusses Powell's part in creating the mural. Includes the steps for how to make a Baker's-dough mural. (CMK)

  4. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  5. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  6. 4D Visualization of Painted Sculpture and Murals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Ai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most cultural heritage applications address visualization with using various media or platforms: desktop-based multimedia presentations, museum kiosks, or videos produced with computer animation. However, these techniques can not directly reveal or show the course that the colorful surface of painted sculpture and murals becomes faint along with the change of the climate and time. Most current techniques just preserve the current appearance and disseminate the current situation of the painted sculpture and murals. The course how these forms of cultural heritage change along the time has not been visualized. In this paper we developed an approach to modelling of painted sculpture and murals that has undergone changes over the years. Different hypotheses has also be given if there is uncertainty. A painted sculpture of Mogao Grottoes is used to demonstate this approach.

  7. 4D Visualization of Painted Sculpture and Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, M. Y.; Tong, H.; Shen, L.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Z. C.; Hu, Q. W.; Zhu, Y. X.; Zhang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Most cultural heritage applications address visualization with using various media or platforms: desktop-based multimedia presentations, museum kiosks, or videos produced with computer animation. However, these techniques can not directly reveal or show the course that the colorful surface of painted sculpture and murals becomes faint along with the change of the climate and time. Most current techniques just preserve the current appearance and disseminate the current situation of the painted sculpture and murals. The course how these forms of cultural heritage change along the time has not been visualized. In this paper we developed an approach to modelling of painted sculpture and murals that has undergone changes over the years. Different hypotheses has also be given if there is uncertainty. A painted sculpture of Mogao Grottoes is used to demonstate this approach.

  8. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  9. Pintura mural. Búsqueda de un arte social y comprometido

    OpenAIRE

    CALVO PELLICER, GONZALO

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una realización práctica del tipo pintura mural, acompañada de una serie de ilustraciones y un cuadro. La temática gira entorno a la lucha anticapitalista, y el desarrollo conceptual se ha centrado en la función social de las obras de arte. Diferentes casos históricos donde la pintura ha significado algo más que simples cuadros en galerías. Todos los referentes estudiados tienen alguna realción con la responsabilidad social del arte o con el mural. ...

  10. Multivariate analysis of protein profiles of metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens accessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuomainen, M.H.; Nunan, N.; Lehesranta, S.J.; Tervahauta, A.I.; Hassinen, V.H.; Schat, H.; Koistinen, K.M.; Auriola, S.; McNicol, J.; Karenlampi, S.O.

    2006-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is increasingly acknowledged as one of the best models for studying metal hyperaccumulation in plants. In order to study the mechanisms underlying metal hyper-accumulation, we used proteomic profiling to identify differences in protein intensities among three T caerulescens

  11. University Extra-Mural Studies and Extension Outreach: Incompatibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The argument of this paper is that--within a wide range of university responses to the challenge of outreach--there grew up in the extra-mural or adult education departments of many UK universities an alternative epistemological paradigm to the older and more traditional extension programmes. This paradigm threatened the extension approach and has…

  12. A Postcolonial reading of Mural Art in South Africa | Marschall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Postcolonial reading of Mural Art in South Africa. Sabine Marschall. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals ...

  13. Beautiful Walls: Reclaiming Urban Space through Mural Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bethany J.

    2016-01-01

    During the nearly sixteen years she has lived and worked in inner city neighborhoods in New York, Delaware, and Philadelphia, Bethany Welch has seen communities reclaim these spaces by tackling the most visible things first. This includes clearing trash strewn vacant lots and creating murals on expansive exterior walls stained with marks of time.…

  14. Mat board vs. murals: tips on producing scientific poster displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B A

    1996-01-01

    Poster displays provide a convenient method for exchanging information at medical and scientific meetings. This article presents guidelines for developing effective posters and compares the advantages and disadvantages of two production methods: (1) manual pasteup of material onto mat board and (2) direct imaging of murals that are created using computers and page layout software.

  15. On the Wall: Art Students Learn to Paint a Mural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Mississippi University for Women's studio art course that teaches students the ins and outs of mural making from inception and design to application of the final glaze. While students in other courses may spend the semester working toward a final exam or paper, this four-and-a-half-week summer course…

  16. Microstructural analysis of two pre hispanic murals of the Cholula, Puebla archaeological zone; Analisis microestructural de dos murales prehispanicos de la zona arqueologica de Cholula, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe C, M.D. [Instituto Nacional de Astroffsica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, 72840, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Tenorio, D.; Carapia, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. Mexico-Toluca S/N La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico C. P. 52750 (Mexico); Cruz S, M.; Avila, E. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Centro INAH-Puebla, Av. Ejercitos de Oriente, Centro Civico 5 de mayo, Los Fuertes, 72270 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The archaeological site Cholula, state Puebla, in Mexico is famous for its huge pyramid and polychromatic ceramic. In this site there are important traces of mural painting, which were elaborated in the classic period. In this research, we study the pigments of two of these murals. One of the murals is 'Los Bebedores' and other is 'Los Insectos' or 'Chapulines'. The first is 56 m long and 2.5 m high and was painted around year 200 A.D. The second is 30 m long and 0.5 m high and was painted around the same period of time. Both murals have different deterioration problems. In order to obtain information about the raw material used in the manufacture of the pigments some samples were taken from different regions of the mural and they were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). (Author)

  17. Tissue Fractions of Cadmium in Two Hyperaccumulating Jerusalem Artichoke Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms in two Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. genotypes that hyperaccumulate Cd, a sand-culture experiment was carried out to characterize fractionation of Cd in tissue of Cd-hyperaccumulating genotypes NY2 and NY5. The sequential extractants were: 80% v/v ethanol (FE, deionized water (FW, 1 M NaCl (FNaCl, 2% v/v acetic acid (FAcet, and 0.6 M HCl (FHCl. After 20 days of treatments, NY5 had greater plant biomass and greater Cd accumulation in tissues than NY2. In both genotypes the FNaCl fraction was the highest in roots and stems, whereas the FAcet and FHCl fractions were the highest in leaves. With an increase in Cd concentration in the culture solution, the content of every Cd fraction also increased. The FW and FNaCl ratios in roots were lower in NY5 than in NY2, while the amount of other Cd forms was higher. It implied that, in high accumulator, namely, NY5, the complex of insoluble phosphate tends to be shaped more easily which was much better for Cd accumulation. Besides, translocation from plasma to vacuole after combination with protein may be one of the main mechanisms in Cd-accumulator Jerusalem artichoke genotypes.

  18. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L.; Noller, Barry N.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H.

    2017-02-01

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves - in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni2+ does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni2+ chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants.

  19. Genetic and Molecular Dissection of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation in the fern Pteris vittata.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo Ann Banks; David Salt

    2008-04-04

    Pteris vittata is a fern that is extraordinary in its ability to tolerate hyperaccumulate high levels of arsenic (As). The goals of the proposed research, to identify the genes that are necessary for As hyperaccumulation in P. vittata using molecular and genetic approaches and to understand the physiology of arsenic uptake and distribution in the living plant, were accomplished during the funding period. The genes that have been identified may ultimately enable the engineering or selection of other plants capable of As hyperaccumulation. This is important for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils in areas where P. vittata cannot grow.

  20. Propuesta de conservación documental de murales urbanos en el Barrio del Carmen

    OpenAIRE

    LOPEZ RODRIGUEZ, ESTER

    2015-01-01

    The mural art was born with humanity and it accompanies it since the beginning, when the first demonstrations of prehistoric cave paintings occurred. However, it is not until the second half of the twentieth century when it appears what we know today as street art, and within this the urban mural art. Urban murals are artistic manifestations, namely paintings, with some esthetic quality which develops on street walls and which have an ephemeral and illegal nature. They...

  1. Characterizing microbial diversity and damage in mural paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Tânia; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Mural paintings are some of the oldest and most important cultural expressions of mankind and play an important role for the understanding of societies and civilizations. These cultural assets have high economic and cultural value and therefore their degradation has social and economic impact. The present work presents a novel microanalytical approach to understand the damages caused by microbial communities in mural paintings. This comprises the characterization and identification of microbial diversity and evaluation of damage promoted by their biological activity. Culture-dependent methods and DNA-based approaches like denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing are important tools in the isolation and identification of the microbial communities allowing characterization of the biota involved in the biodeterioration phenomena. Raman microspectrometry, infrared spectrometry, and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry are also useful tools for evaluation of the presence of microbial contamination and detection of the alteration products resulting from metabolic activity of the microorganisms. This study shows that the degradation status of mural paintings can be correlated to the presence of metabolically active microorganisms.

  2. Revolutionary landscapes: the PCTP/MRPP mural paintings in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Carmo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the mural paintings made by the PCTP/MRPP in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, in the aftermath of the 1974 Portuguese revolution. Drawing on Erwin Panofsky’s iconographic method of interpretation, murals are explored from an integrated landscape approach that combines two perspectives: landscapes as representations and landscapes as material artifacts. Findings suggest that the PCTP/MRPP mural paintings translated the visual ideology of social transformation and revolution underlying its politics. Furthermore, they also crystallized performative revolutionary landscapes, in the sense that they materialized acts of collective artistic citizenship, in which the social space of mural production played a fundamental role.

  3. Molecular Dissection of The Cellular Mechanisms Involved In Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Salt

    2002-04-08

    Hyperaccumulator plant species are able to accumulate between 1-5% of their biomass as metal. However, these plants are often small, slow growing, and do not produce a high biomass. Phytoextraction, a cost-effective, in situ, plant based approach to soil remediation takes advantage of the remarkable ability of hyperaccumulating plants to concentrate metals from the soil and accumulate them in their harvestable, above-ground tissues. However, to make use of the valuable genetic resources identified in metal hyperaccumulating species, it will be necessary to transfer this material to high biomass rapidly growing crop plants. These plants would then be ideally suited to the phytoremediation process, having the ability to produce large amount of metal-rich plant biomass for rapid harvest and soil cleanup. Although progress is being made in understanding the genetic basis of metal hyperaccumulation a more complete understanding will be necessary before we can take full advantage of the genetic potential of these plants.

  4. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)]. E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Serrano, Helena Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Pinto, Manuel Joao [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal)

    2007-03-15

    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. - Revisiting plant hyperaccumulation criteria.

  5. Using hyperaccumulator plants to phytoextract soil Ni and Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, R.L. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Animal Manure and By-Products Lab, Beltsville, MD (United States); Scott Angle, J.; McIntosh, M.S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Phytoextraction Associates LLC, Baltimore, MD (United States); Reeves, R.D. [Inst. of Fundamental Science-Chemistry, Massey Univ., Palmerston North, NZ (United States); Li Yin-Ming; Brewer, E.P. [Viridian LLC, Houston, TX (United States); Chen Kuang-Yu; Synkowski, E.C.; Leigh Broadhurst, C.; Wang, S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roseberg, R.J. [Oregon State Univ., Central Point, OR (United States); Perner, H. [Inst. for Plant Nutrition, Hohenheim Univ. (Germany); Baker, A.J.M. [Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Two strategies of phytoextraction have been shown to have promise for practical soil remediation: domestication of natural hyperaccumulators and bioengineering plants with the genes that allow natural hyperaccumulators to achieve useful phytoextraction. Because different elements have different value, some can be phytomined for profit and others can be phytoremediated at lower cost than soil removal and replacement. Ni phytoextraction from contaminated or mineralized soils offers economic return greater than producing most crops, especially when considering the low fertility or phytotoxicity of Ni rich soils. Only soils that require remediation based on risk assessment will comprise the market for phytoremediation. Improved risk assessment has indicated that most Zn + Cd contaminated soils will not require Cd phytoextraction because the Zn limits practical risk from soil Cd. But rice and tobacco, and foods grown on soils with Cd contamination without corresponding 100-fold greater Zn contamination, allow Cd to readily enter food plants and diets. Clear evidence of human renal tubular dysfunction from soil Cd has only been obtained for subsistence rice farm families in Asia. Because of historic metal mining and smelting, Zn + Cd contaminated rice soils have been found in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand. Phytoextraction using southern France populations of Thlaspi caerulescens appears to be the only practical method to alleviate Cd risk without soil removal and replacement. The southern France plants accumulate 10-20-fold higher Cd in shoots than most T. caerulescens populations such as those from Belgium and the UK. Addition of fertilizers to maximize yield does not reduce Cd concentration in shoots; and soil management promotes annual Cd removal. The value of Cd in the plants is low, so the remediation service must pay the costs of Cd phytoextraction plus profits to the parties who conduct phytoextraction. Some other plants have been studied for Cd

  6. New water-soluble amine-reactive reagents for labeling microbial cells: application to mural paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Sérgio; Rosado, Tânia; Caldeira, Ana; Pereira, António

    2013-01-01

    Mural paintings are continuously exposed to physical, chemical and biological degradation, however, among the biological agents that cause deterioration, microorganisms are of critical importance, due to their metabolic versatility and flexibility, and their ability to tolerate unfavourable conditions. Thereby, microorganisms can cause damages in mural paintings surfaces through a variety of mechanisms, including biofilm formation, chemical reactions, physical penetration into the substrate a...

  7. Photos of the massive ATLAS art mural at point 01 at CERN by Josef Kristofoletti, completed.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2010-01-01

    Photos of the massive mural of the ATLAS detector at CERN Point 1 painted by artist Josef Kristofoletti. The mural is located at the ATLAS Experiment site, and it shows on two walls the detector with a collision event superimposed. The event on the large wall shows a depiction of how a Higgs boson may look like in ATLAS.

  8. Teaching with Murals at a Post Office: A Community's Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2009-01-01

    Murals in a post office can be an important way to explore how public art functions in a community because they represent stories about history, culture, people, and lives. In this lesson, middle school students will investigate murals at a local post office in Sheboygan, Wisconsin to learn about the function of public art and the social role…

  9. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  10. Pre-Columbian mural paintings from Mesoamerica as geomagnetic field recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, A.; Soler, A. M.; Zanella, E.; Chiari, G.; Lanza, R.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Gonzalez, T.

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance archeomagnetic study of mural paintings in various pre-Columbian sites in Mexico. The magnetic measurements of the pigments show that at least four murals (sites: Cacaxtla, Cholula and Templo Mayor) retain a remanent magnetization carried by a mixture of magnetite and minor hematite grains. In most specimens, a characteristic remanent magnetization is successfully isolated by alternating field demagnetization. The mean directions are reasonably well determined for each mural and within the range of secular variation during the last centuries. Studied Mesoamerican murals apparently retain the direction of the magnetic field at the time they were painted and therefore are an invaluable source of information concerning its secular variation. The archeomagnetic study of pre-Columbian mural paintings opens new alternatives to drawing a reliable reference master curve for the region and may largely contribute to the Mesoamerican absolute chronology.

  11. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  12. Mural art therapy for young offenders hospitalised with a mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Oleen; Kasinathan, John

    2015-02-01

    To describe a mural art therapy project completed within an adolescent unit of a secure forensic psychiatric hospital. The planning, implementation and consecutive stages of the mural art therapy project are described. Pertinent themes are identified. A cohort of adolescent forensic inpatients was engaged in a group therapeutic process involving collaboration, design and the completion of an art mural. The participants generally approved of the project and identified themes of gaining a sense of achievement, empowerment, teamwork, involvement and ownership. The art mural transformed and improved the visual and spatial environment of the Adolescent unit courtyard. Mural art therapy was acceptable to young offenders hospitalised with mental illness, which has relevance for adolescent psychiatric units and youth detention centres. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  13. Grossesse intra murale à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tové, Kofi-Mensa Savi; Salifou, Kabibou; Imorou, Rachidi Sidi; Biaou, Olivier; Boco, Vicentia

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse intra-murale est la variété la plus rare de grossesse extra-utérine. Il s'agit de la localisation de l’œuf dans l’épaisseur du myomètre. En cas de retard diagnostic, l’évolution peut être catastrophique avec rupture utérine et hémorragie cataclysmique. L’échographie permet dans certains cas un diagnostic pré opératoire. Les auteurs rapportent un cas survenu chez une patiente aux antécédents de curetage. PMID:26448812

  14. Gestures in Passion Cycles in Central European Mural Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kliś

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In medieval Passion cycles represented in Czech, Slovak (former Hungary, and Polish murals dating from the fourteenth to the fifteenth centuries one may observe a number of-gestures which appear in respective scenes starting from the Entry into Jerusalem and ending with the Entombment (laying in the sepulchre. The most significant gesture in the entry scene is the outstretched hand of Christ riding a donkey. It is the language of gesture used since antiquity, transmitted through Byzantine and Italian art (including Giotto’s Entry into Jerusalem in his Arena Chapel frescoes, and transferred into art north of the Alps.

  15. Unicystic Ameloblastoma with Mural Proliferation Managed by Conservative Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Galvão Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicystic ameloblastoma is a distinguishable entity of ameloblastomas, characterized by slow growth and being relatively locally aggressive. Three histological types are recognized according to the degree of ameloblastomatous epithelial extension, namely, luminal, intraluminal, and mural types. This classification has a direct bearing on their biological behavior, treatment, and prognosis. However, there is difficulty in determining the most appropriate form of treatment for unicystic ameloblastoma. We present a case of unicystic ameloblastoma that occurred in the right posterior mandible of 19-year-old girl, which was enucleated and did not recur after 12-month follow-up.

  16. PRIMER INTENTO DE DATACIÓN DE PINTURAS MURALES MESOAMERICANAS (First Attempt to Date Mesoamerican Mural Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avto Goguitchaichvili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta, por vez primera, el intento de datación de cuatro pinturas murales del centro de México: Templo de Venus (Cacaxtla, Templo Rojo (Templo Mayor, Tenochtitlan, Chapulines y Estrellas (Cholula. Estos sitios corresponden al periodo Clásico y Posclásico Temprano de la cronología mesoamericana. Las edades obtenidas para Chapulines (1105-1194 A. D., Templo de Venus (1002-1308 A. D. y Estrellas (340-649 A. D. están dentro de la cronología y contexto arqueológico de los sitios estudiados. Sin embargo, la edad de Templo Rojo (1829-1888 A. D. señala a una edad demasiado tardía no compatible con la cronología reportada. Por tanto, cabe la posibilidad de que la magnetización pudiera haber sufrido alguna alteración después de haber sido aplicada. ENGLISH: We report the results of the first attempt to date four mural paintings from sites in Central Mexico: the Temple of Venus (Cacaxtla, the Red Temple (part of the Templo Mayor complex in Tenochtitlan, and the Chapulines and Estrellas temples (Cholula. These sites correspond to the Classic and Early Postclassic period of the Mesoamerican chronology. The ages obtained for the Chapulines (1105-1194 AD, Temple of Venus (1002-1308 AD and Estrellas (340-649 AD murals are within the accepted chronology and archaeological context of their respective sites. However, the date range that we obtained for the Red Temple (1829-1888 AD points to a time period incompatible with Tenochtitlan’s established chronology. It is possible that the mural’s pictorial magnetization suffered some alteration over time.

  17. Lead, zinc and cadmium accumulation from two metalliferous soils with contrasting calcium contents in hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and background: We previously compared metallicolous (M) and non-metallicolous (NM) populations of Noccaea (=Thlaspi) caerulescens, Silene vulgaris, and Matthiola flavida for their abilities to tolerate and (hyper)-accumulate lead (Pb) in hydroponics. In the present study we aimed 1) to check

  18. Pneumatic distension of ventricular mural architecture validated histologically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, M.C.; Heindel, W. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Lunkenheimer, P. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Thoraco-vascular Surgery; Niederer, P. [ETH and University of Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. for Biomedical Engineering; Brune, C. [Twente Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Redmann, K. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Center for Reproductive Medicine and Andrology; Smerup, M. [Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery; Spiegel, U.; Becker, F. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. Surgical Research; Maintz, D. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Cologne Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Anderson, R.H. [Newcastle Univ., London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Genetic Medicine

    2016-11-15

    There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes. We prepared the remaining 2 hearts for histology by perfusion with formaldehyde. Increasing pressures of pneumatic distension elongated the ventricular walls, but produced insignificant changes in mural thickness. The distension exaggerated the spaces between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, compartmenting the walls into epicardial, central, and endocardial regions, with a feathered arrangement of transitions between them. Marked variation was noted in the thicknesses of the parts in the different ventricular segments, with no visible anatomical boundaries between them. Measurements of angulations revealed intruding and extruding populations of cardiomyocytes that deviated from a surface-parallel alignment. Scrolling through the stacks of tomographic images revealed marked spiraling of the aggregated cardiomyocytes when traced from base to apex. Our findings call into question the current assumption that cardiomyocytes are uniformly aggregated together in a tangential fashion. There is marked heterogeneity in the architecture of the different ventricular segments, with the aggregated units never extending in a fully transmural fashion.

  19. The Urewera Mural: Becoming Gift and the Hau of Disappearence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel McIntosh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss the seeming 'theft' of the Urewera Mural in 1997, using the term ‘cultural activism’ to describe the mural’s removal, because it acted as a catalyst to refocus the spotlight on specific Maori land claim issues. The Urewera Mural was targeted because it was portrayed as an object of white cultural value with significant representations for Pakeha. Te Kaha’s intention was for Pakeha to lose something of value and to experience how Maori have felt since colonisation when their land, their cultural value, was taken. Stephen Muecke writes that ‘cultural activism can have the same result as political activism, but it doesn’t look the same ... It is a tactical “bringing out” of culture as a valuable and scarce “statement” ’. I suggest cultural activism is, thus, ‘performative’ political activism; for when protestors dress up and ‘perform’ their protest, a media identity is created that is beyond the political message, and so more memorable.

  20. The bacterial rhizobiome of hyperaccumulators: future perspectives based on omics analysis and advanced microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulators are plants that can extract heavy metal ions from the soil and translocate those ions to the shoots, where they are sequestered and detoxified. Hyperaccumulation depends not only on the availability of mobilized metal ions in the soil, but also on the enhanced activity of metal transporters and metal chelators which may be provided by the plant or its associated microbes. The rhizobiome is captured by plant root exudates from the complex microbial community in the soil, and may colonize the root surface or infiltrate the root cortex. This community can increase the root surface area by inducing hairy root proliferation. It may also increase the solubility of metals in the rhizosphere and promote the uptake of soluble metals by the plant. The bacterial rhizobiome, a subset of specialized microorganisms that colonize the plant rhizosphere and endosphere, makes an important contribution to the hyperaccumulator phenotype. In this review, we discuss classic and more recent tools that are used to study the interactions between hyperaccumulators and the bacterial rhizobiome, and consider future perspectives based on the use of omics analysis and microscopy to study plant metabolism in the context of metal accumulation. Recent data suggest that metal-resistant bacteria isolated from the hyperaccumulator rhizosphere and endosphere could be useful in applications such as phytoextraction and phytoremediation, although more research is required to determine whether such properties can be transferred successfully to non-accumulator species.

  1. Hyperaccumulator straw improves the cadmium phytoextraction efficiency of emergent plant Nasturtium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Lin, Lijin; Wang, Jin; Xia, Hui; Liang, Dong; Wang, Xun; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    With the development of economy, the heavy metal contamination has become an increasingly serious problem, especially the cadmium (Cd) contamination. The emergent plant Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is a Cd-accumulator with low phytoremediation ability. To improve Cd phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale, the straw from Cd-hyperaccumulator plants Youngia erythrocarpa, Galinsoga parviflora, Siegesbeckia orientalis, and Bidens pilosa was applied to Cd-contaminated soil and N. officinale was then planted; the study assessed the effect of hyperaccumulator straw on the growth and Cd accumulation of N. officinale. The results showed that application of hyperaccumulator species straws increased the biomass and photosynthetic pigment content and reduced the root/shoot ratio of N. officinale. All straw treatments significantly increased Cd content in roots, but significantly decreased Cd content in shoots of N. officinale. Applying hyperaccumulator straw significantly increased the total Cd accumulation in the roots, shoots, and whole plants of N. officinale. Therefore, application of straw from four hyperaccumulator species promoted the growth of N. officinale and improved the phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale in Cd-contaminated paddy field soil; the straw of Y. erythrocarpa provided the most improvement.

  2. Estimation of shear stress by using a myocardial bridge-mural coronary artery simulating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Yang, Qian; Shang, Kun; Lan, Hailian; Lv, Jie; Liu, Zhilin; Liu, Yang; Sheng, Lixing; Zeng, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a myocardial bridge-mural coronary artery simulative device and analyzing the relationship between shear stress on the mural coronary artery and atherosclerosis. A myocardial bridge-mural coronary artery simulative device was used to simulate experiments in vitro. In the condition of maintaining any related parameters such as system temperature, average flow rate, and heart rate, we calculated and observed changes in proximal and distal mean values, and oscillatory value of shear stress on the mural coronary artery by regulating the compression level of the myocardial bridge to the mural coronary artery. Under 0% compression, no significant differences were observed in distal and proximal mean values and oscillatory value of the shear stress on the mural coronary artery. With the increase in the degree of compression, the mean shear stress at the distal end was greater than that at the proximal end, but the oscillatory value of the shear stress at the proximal end was greater than that at the distal end. The experimental results of this study indicate that myocardial bridge compression leads to abnormal hemodynamics at the proximal end of the mural coronary artery. This abnormal phenomenon is of great significance in the study of atherosclerosis hemodynamic pathogenesis, which has potential clinical value for pathological effects and treatments of myocardial bridge.

  3. Selenium hyperaccumulation - Astragalus bisulcatus, Cardamine hupingshanensis and Stanleya pinnata - may be useful for agromining selenium-rich soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium hyperaccumulator plants like Stanleya pinnata, Astragalus bisulcatus and the newly discovered Se-accumulator Cardamine hupingshanensis may play an important role in the Se cycle from soil to plant to human in China. Se-hyperaccumulators can be used for agromining or for phytoremediation of ...

  4. Archaeomagnetism of some pre-Columbian mural paintings in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogichaishvili, A.; Soler, A.; Zanella, E.; Lanza, R.; Chiari, G.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2003-12-01

    This work investigates the magnetic remanence associated with the mural paintings at three archeological sites in Central Mexico dated between 200 AD and 1450 AD (Cholula, Cacaxtla and Templo Mayor). The remanence of the murals is shown, using X-ray analyses and rock-magnetic measurements, to be carried by both magnetite and hematite. In most specimens, a characteristic magnetization is successfully isolated by alternating field demagnetization. The mean site directions are consistent with the available master curve for Mesoamerica. This work shows that murals from Central Mexico can retain their remanent magnetization for centuries and demonstrates the viability in principle of pictorial remanence as an archeomagnetic tool.

  5. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by submerged macrophytes: looking for hyperaccumulators in eutrophic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Huang, Wenmin; Liu, Guihua

    2013-05-07

    To directly select submerged macrophytes with high accumulation capability from the field, 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were investigated in the study. These eutrophic lakes have large amounts of heavy metals in both water and sediments because of human activities. The results showed that Najas marina is a hyperaccumulator of As and Cd, Ceratophyllum demersum is a hyperaccumulator of Co, Cr, and Fe, and Vallisneria natans is a hyperaccumulator of Pb. Strong positive correlations were found between concentrations of heavy metals in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of coaccumulation of heavy metals. However, for most heavy metals, no significant correlations were found between submerged macrophytes and their surrounding environments. In conclusion, N. marina, C. demersum, and V. natans are good candidate species for removing heavy metals from eutrophic lakes.

  6. Cilia Control Vascular Mural Cell Recruitment in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular mural cells (vMCs are essential components of the vertebrate vascular system, controlling blood vessel maturation and homeostasis. Discrete molecular mechanisms have been associated with vMC development and differentiation. The function of hemodynamic forces in controlling vMC recruitment is unclear. Using transgenic lines marking developing vMCs in zebrafish embryos, we find that vMCs are recruited by arterial-fated vessels and that the process is flow dependent. We take advantage of tissue-specific CRISPR gene targeting to demonstrate that hemodynamic-dependent Notch activation and the ensuing arterial genetic program is driven by endothelial primary cilia. We also identify zebrafish foxc1b as a cilia-dependent Notch-specific target that is required within endothelial cells to drive vMC recruitment. In summary, we have identified a hemodynamic-dependent mechanism in the developing vasculature that controls vMC recruitment.

  7. La danza de los murales de Bonampak, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Noemí Martínez González

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentaré procedimientos metodológicos y resultados del estudio que llevé a cabo sobre las “figuras de danza” en los murales de Bonampak. Intentaré abordar la metodología de análisis del movimiento de las escenas de danza en la cámara 1 y 3 de la Estructura 1, tomando en cuenta la descripción y análisis de las figuras de “danza” por grupos, en cada cámara, y un ejemplo particular de uno de los danzadores de la cámara 3, y el contexto de representación en el que se encuentran los grupos de figuras de danza dentro de la totalidad pictórica y arquitectónica.

  8. ‘Marx on the Wall’: Muralism and Anglo-American Exchange during the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Patterson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores English artists’ support for socially engaged public mural painting during the 1930s in relation to international developments, particularly those in the United States.

  9. Mural folliculitis and alopecia with cutaneous candidiasis in a beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Choe, Ohmok; Kim, Okjin

    2011-03-01

    A one-year-old male Beagle dog showed dermatitis, alopecia and scales. Examination of the affected dog revealed generalized alopecia, patchy erythema, and superficial erosions with histological evidence of mural folliculitis. External tests for parasites in scraped skin samples were negative. However, fungal culture tests and polymerase chain reaction revealed the existence of Candida in the lesion. These results suggest that cutaneous candidiasis may induce mural folliculitis and alopecia in dogs.

  10. Mural Folliculitis and Alopecia with Cutaneous Candidiasis in a Beagle Dog

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, HYUN-A; Hong, SunHwa; Choe, Ohmok; Kim, Okjin

    2011-01-01

    A one-year-old male Beagle dog showed dermatitis, alopecia and scales. Examination of the affected dog revealed generalized alopecia, patchy erythema, and superficial erosions with histological evidence of mural folliculitis. External tests for parasites in scraped skin samples were negative. However, fungal culture tests and polymerase chain reaction revealed the existence of Candida in the lesion. These results suggest that cutaneous candidiasis may induce mural folliculitis and alopecia in...

  11. Alyssum homolocarpum seeds: phytochemical analysis and effects of the seed oil on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Ghanbari, Amir; Razavipour, Razieh; Saeidi, Vahid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Azari, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacognostic evaluation of medicinal plants may assess their current applications and possibly results in finding new active components. In this study, ash and extractive values and high performance thin layer chromatography fingerprints of Alyssum homolocarpum (Brassicaceae) seed extracts were investigated to elucidate its composition. Differential scanning calorimetry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were employed to determine the components of A. homolocarpum seed oil (AHO). Neurosphere assay, in vitro differentiation and immunofluorescence analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of AHO (0.5 or 1 g/kg/day for 14 days) on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult male BALB/c mice. Total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values were determined as 45.83 ± 5.85, 6.67 ± 2.89 and 28.33 ± 2.89 mg/g, respectively. The extractive values were 4.90, 0.43 and 0.56 % (w/w) for n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Interestingly, AHO was mainly composed of α-linolenic acid (89.71 %), β-sitosterol (3.3 mg/g) and campesterol (0.86 mg/g). Administration of AHO at 1 g/kg/day significantly increased proliferation of NSCs, as evidenced by an increase in mean neurosphere-forming frequency per brain (872.7 ± 15.17) and neurosphere diameter (101 ± 2.48 µm) compared to the control group (424.3 ± 59.29 and 78.63 ± 1.7 µm, respectively; P < 0.05). AHO treatment did not affect in vitro differentiation of the harvested NSCs. Our data show that A. homolocarpum seed oil is a rich source of α-linolenic acid and β-sitosterol with potential therapeutic application to enhance NSC proliferation and recruitment in neurological diseases.

  12. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R.; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D.; Woodrow, Ian E.; Baker, Alan J.; Batianoff, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for ‘new’ hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. Methods ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). Key Results The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Conclusions Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible ‘new’ subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be

  13. A cosegregation analysis of zinc (Zn) accumulation and Zn tolerance in the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assunção, A.G.L.; ten Bookum, W.M.; Nelissen, H.J.M.; Vooijs, H.; Schat, H.; Ernst, W.H.O.

    2003-01-01

    • To analyse the relation between zinc (Zn) accumulation and Zn tolerance in the Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, a cross was made between a plant from a nonmetallicolous population (LE: high accumulation, low tolerance) and one from a calamine population (LC: low accumulation, high

  14. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in Excluder Thlaspi arvense and various accessions of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seregin, I.V.; Kozhevnikova, A.D.; Zhukovskaya, V.; Schat, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation and tolerance were analyzed in hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens F.K. Mey and excluder Thlaspi arvense L. Five accessions of N. caerulescens (La Calamine (LC, Belgium), Saint Félix de Palliéres (SF, France), Col du Mas de l’Aire (CMA, France), Ganges (GA, France) from

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of cadmium stress response in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gao

    Full Text Available The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd, as well as zinc (Zn and lead (Pb in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≥ 2.0 and down-regulated (Fold Change hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE. Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots.

  16. Role of sulfur assimilation pathway in cadmium hyperaccumulation by Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Shohag, M J I; Yang, Xiaoe; Tian, Shengke; Zhang, Yibin; Feng, Ying; He, Zhenli

    2014-02-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance is a promising cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant recently identified in China. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation, which differentiate hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) from non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) has not been elucidated yet. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the role of sulfur assimilation pathway in Cd hyperaccumulation by the S. alfredii Hance, by analyzing gene expression pattern in sulfur assimilation pathway and the concentration of some sulfur containing compounds. The results show that, sulfur assimilation pathway was affected by Cd differently in HE and NHE S. alfredii Hance. The gene expression pattern of sulfur assimilation pathway was regulated differently in HE and NHE plants, especially the nicotianamine synthase (NAS). NAS transcript levels in root of HE was 141-fold higher than NHE, while in shoots of HE only 0.31-fold higher than NHE. In HE roots, NAS expression level was maximum 3171-fold higher than shoots, while in NHE plants roots NAS expression level was maximum 45.3-fold higher than shoots. In HE plant roots, sulfur, cysteine and methionine concentrations increased 30%, 46% and 835% respectively, by Cd treatment, but in NHE plants roots, sulfur concentration increased less than 1%, cysteine and methionine concentrations decreased 78.5% and 13.3% respectively, by Cd. Cd exposure increased glutathione levels by 142% in HE but less than 10% in NHE plant roots. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Plants as extreme environments? Ni-resistant bacteria and Ni-hyperaccumulators of serpentine flora.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengoni, A.; Schat, H.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest in the bacterial communities occurring in unusual, often extreme, environments. On serpentine outcrops around the world, a high diversity of plant species showing the peculiar features of metal hyperaccumulation is present. These metal

  18. Photos of the massive ATLAS art mural at point 01 at CERN by Josef Kristofoletti, nearing completion.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni; Point 1 - CERN

    2010-01-01

    Photos of the massive mural of the ATLAS detector at CERN Point 1 nearing completion. The mural is being painted by artist Josef Kristofoletti, who appears in some of the photos. The mural is located at the ATLAS Experiment site and it shows on two walls the detector with a collision event superimposed. The event on the large wall shows a depiction of how a Higgs boson may look like in ATLAS.

  19. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdan, R. Elmitwalli; Fatma, Helmi M.; Rizk, Mohammed A.; Hagrassy, Abeer F.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  20. Mural granulosa cell gene expression associated with oocyte developmental competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jin-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian follicle development is a complex process. Paracrine interactions between somatic and germ cells are critical for normal follicular development and oocyte maturation. Studies have suggested that the health and function of the granulosa and cumulus cells may be reflective of the health status of the enclosed oocyte. The objective of the present study is to assess, using an in vivo immature rat model, gene expression profile in granulosa cells, which may be linked to the developmental competence of the oocyte. We hypothesized that expression of specific genes in granulosa cells may be correlated with the developmental competence of the oocyte. Methods Immature rats were injected with eCG and 24 h thereafter with anti-eCG antibody to induce follicular atresia or with pre-immune serum to stimulate follicle development. A high percentage (30-50%, normal developmental competence, NDC of oocytes from eCG/pre-immune serum group developed to term after embryo transfer compared to those from eCG/anti-eCG (0%, poor developmental competence, PDC. Gene expression profiles of mural granulosa cells from the above oocyte-collected follicles were assessed by Affymetrix rat whole genome array. Results The result showed that twelve genes were up-regulated, while one gene was down-regulated more than 1.5 folds in the NDC group compared with those in the PDC group. Gene ontology classification showed that the up-regulated genes included lysyl oxidase (Lox and nerve growth factor receptor associated protein 1 (Ngfrap1, which are important in the regulation of protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity, and in apoptosis induction, respectively. The down-regulated genes included glycoprotein-4-beta galactosyltransferase 2 (Ggbt2, which is involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis. Conclusions The data in the present study demonstrate a close association between specific gene expression in mural granulosa cells and

  1. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of

  2. Effect of organic fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk.) clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L.), qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L.) and dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Koocheki; S. Amirmoradi; J. Shabahng; S. Kalantari Khandani

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2010. The design was split plot with three replications. Main plots were the medicinal plant species consist of: blond psyllium (Plantago ovate Forssk.), clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L.), qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L.) dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.) and subplots were various organic fertilizer consist of cow manure, vermicompost (based on c...

  3. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  4. Microbacterium murale sp. nov., isolated from an indoor wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, P; Schäfer, J; Lodders, N; Martin, K

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-positive rod, designated 01-Gi-001(T), was isolated from a wall colonized with moulds. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis clearly showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Microbacterium. On the basis of pairwise comparisons of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain 01-Gi-001(T) was most closely related to Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans DSM 16089(T) (98.9% sequence similarity), Microbacterium profundi Shh49(T) (98.7%), Microbacterium phyllosphaerae DSM 13468(T) (98.3%) and Microbacterium foliorum DSM 12966(T) (98.1%). The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was ornithine. The major menaquinones detected were MK-13 and MK-12. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown glycolipid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(16:0) and anteiso-C(17:0), which were in agreement with those reported for other members of the genus Microbacterium. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 01-Gi-001(T) and the type strains of its closest phylogenetic neighbours showed clear differences. For this reason, strain 01-Gi-001(T) (=DSM 22178(T)=CCM 7640(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Microbacterium murale sp. nov.

  5. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Fones, HN; McCurrach, H; Mithani, A.; Smith, JAC; Preston, GM

    2016-01-01

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant–pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based ...

  6. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural’s many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc. reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect

  7. The Possible Interpretation of a Mural in a Sixth Century Koguryo Tumulus as an AD 555 Solar Eclipse Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il-Seong, Nha; Nha, Sarah L.

    Large numbers of tumuli are a feature of the Koguryo Kingdom (37 BC to AD 668), one of the Three Kingdoms in ancient Korea, and their interiors contain an extremely diverse range of murals. Quite a number of these murals include astronomical motifs, including the stars, the Sun and the Moon.

  8. Preservation of murals with electrokinetic - with focus on desalination of single bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2009-01-01

    with the study was to obtain an accelerated and more efficient ion transport of the polluting dissolved salts out of church vault constructions to reduce future deteriation of murals. A major part of the work was related to optimization of the electrochemical ion transport effect. A special poultice......Salt induced deterioration of murals is in several cases ongoing in Danish churches. The murals are one of the main objects of our Danish Cultural Heritage. Existing applied methods for desalination of salt contaminated church vaults are based on indirect affection of the dissolved salts (ions......) through physical properties of the materials and are unfortunately only limited efficient. The purpose with this Ph.D. project was to clarify the effect and possible use of an electrochemical method termed electrokinetic (application of an electric DC field)as transport mechanism. The overall aim...

  9. From graffiti to murals and back again: Philadelphia’s spectacular streetscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dickinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Philadelphia’s contemporary streetscape is remarkably varied and colorful with thousands of municipal murals and extensive graffiti competing for attention on city walls. It is the result of a longstanding contestation between a vigorous tradition of transgressive street art and an ambitious municipal program aimed at controlling urban visual space by means of officially approved and sponsored public art. Philadelphia’s role as a center of graffiti innovation is discussed as are the city’s Anti-Graffiti Network and Mural Arts Program which aim to control graffiti by means of civic murals. Other efforts to beautify neighborhoods by means of public art as well as newer forms of illicit street art such as poster and stencil graffiti contributing to the graphic embellishment of public space are discussed.

  10. The potential use of indigenous nickel hyperaccumulators for small-scale mining in The Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of nickel and three other heavy metals (copper, cobalt, and chromium was examined in 33 species of the common and rare native vascular plants growing in an ultramafic area currently subjected to mining in Zambales Province, Luzon, Philippines. Leaf tissue samples were initially screened in the field using filter paper impregnated with dimethylglyoxime (1% solution in 70% ethyl alcohol and later analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. One species was found to be a hypernickelophore (>10,000 µg/g, eight species were nickel hyperaccumulators (>1,000 µg/g, nineteen species were hemi-accumulators (>100-1,000 µg/g, and five species were non-accumulators (<100 µg/g. This paper significantly adds to the list of hyperaccumulator species first reported for the Philippines in 1992. The findings will be discussed in context of using indigenous species for post mining ecological restoration and nickel phytoextraction in small-scale mining in the Philippines

  11. Effect of hyperaccumulator plants and associated rhizobacteria on the efficiency of nickel extraction

    OpenAIRE

    RUE, Marie; Echevarria, Guillaume; Benizri, Émile

    2014-01-01

    Many works have attempted to relate the association of different plants on the efficiency of inorganic pollutants extraction, with the hypothesis that these multi-species covers promoted the development and the activity of rhizosphere microorganisms, such as PGPR. Up to now, the focus has been on crop associations (maize, tabacco, Brassica species). Only few studies have concerned the effect of the combination of metal hyperaccumulator plants with other species non-hyperaccumulato...

  12. Murales et rayados de Valparaíso : entre institutionnalisation et vandalisme

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvier, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    La ville portuaire de Valparaíso abrite une activité graffitique intense : elle est devenue un point névralgique incontournable du graffiti chilien. La diversité des inscriptions urbaines renvoie à des rapports à l’autorité distincts, et le clivage mural/rayado cristallise le débat politique et médiatique autour des inscriptions urbaines porteñas. L’opposition radicale entre mural et rayado, largement construite par le discours politique de la municipalité, résulte des critères d’acceptation ...

  13. [Damage to ancient mural paintings and petroglyphs caused by Pseudonocardia sp. - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoxuan; Ge, Qinya; Pan, Jiao

    2015-07-04

    The historical relics exposed to the natural environment during the long-term were vulnerable to microbial invasion. According to some new studies, microorganism of Pseudonocardia may is one of the main groups on the surface of mural paintings and petroglyphs, causing damage to the paints. Based on recent research progress, we reviewed the phenomenon according to the relationship between the ancient paintings and the growth conditions of Pseudonocardia, which could provide a new theory basis for the protection of cultural relics especially mural paintings and petroglyphs.

  14. PIXE analysis on Maya blue in Prehispanic and colonial mural paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, DF 09340 (Mexico); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, F-30842 Grenoble (France); Solis, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx; Reyes-Valerio, C. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologi' a e Historia, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) experiments have been carried out at the AGLAE facility (Paris) on several mural samples containing Maya blue from different Prehispanic archaeological sites (Cacaxtla, El Tajin, Tamuin, Santa Cecilia Acatitlan) and from several colonial convents in the Mexican plateau (Jiutepec, Totimehuacan, Tezontepec and Cuauhtinchan). The analysis of the concentration of several elements permitted to extract some information on the technique used for painting the mural, usually fresco. Principal component analysis permitted to classify the samples into groups. This grouping is discussed in relation to geographic and historic data.

  15. Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

    2014-02-28

    Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of Cu, Pb, Fe, and Zn in plant component polymers of a hyperaccumulating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Maki, Teruya; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi; Ueda, Kazumasa

    2005-12-01

    Phytoremediation is an innovative technology that utilizes the natural properties of plants to remediate hazardous waste sites. For more cost-effective phytoremediation, it is important to utilize a hyperaccumulating plant after phytoremediation, i.e. the recovery of valuable metals and the production of useful materials. In this work, the determination of metals in plant component polymers in a fern, Athyrium yokoscense, as a hyper-accumulating plant was established using steam explosion, Wayman's extraction method, and ICP emission spectrometry. After A. yokoscense plants were treated by steam explosion, the steam-exploded A. yokoscense were separated into four plant component polymers, ie. water-soluble material fraction, holocellulose fraction, methanol-soluble lignin fraction, and residual lignin fraction. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Fe, and Zn in these plant component polymers and the dry weights of plant component polymers were measured. These analytical process determining metals in the plants will contribute to not only the evaluation and the efforts of phytoremediation using a hyperaccumulating plant, but also to the development of more effective phytoremediation.

  17. A more complete picture of metal hyperaccumulation through next-generation sequencing technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eVerbruggen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanistic understanding of metal hyperaccumulation has benefitted immensely from the use of molecular genetics tools developed for Arabidopsis thaliana. The revolution in DNA sequencing will enable even greater strides in the near future, this time not restricted to the family Brassicaceae. Reference genomes are within reach for many ecologically interesting species including heterozygous outbreeders. They will allow deep RNA-seq transcriptome studies and the re-sequencing of contrasting individuals to unravel the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. Cell-type specific transcriptome analyses, which will be essential for the dissection of metal translocation pathways in hyperaccumulators, can be achieved through the combination of RNA-seq and translatome approaches. Affordable high-resolution genotyping of many individuals enables the elucidation of quantitative trait loci in intra- and interspecific crosses as well as through genome-wide association mapping across large panels of accessions. Furthermore, genome-wide scans have the power to detect loci under recent selection. Together these approaches will lead to a detailed understanding of the evolutionary path towards the emergence of hyperaccumulation traits.

  18. Thermal Characteristics of Hyperaccumulator and Fate of Heavy Metals during Thermal Treatment of Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daoxu; Zhong, Zhaoping; Wu, Longhua; Xue, Hui; Song, Zuwei; Luo, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Thermal treatment is one of the most promising disposal techniques for heavy metal- (HM)-enriched hyperaccumulators. However, the thermal characteristics and fate of HMs during thermal treatment of hyperaccumulator biomass need to be known in detail. A horizontal tube furnace was used to analyze the disposal process of hyperaccumulator biomass derived from a phyto-extracted field in which the soil was moderately contaminated with heavy metals. Different operational conditions regarding temperature and gas composition were tested. A thermo-dynamic analysis by advanced system for process engineering was performed to predict HM speciation during thermal disposal and SEM-EDS, XRD and sequential chemical extraction were used to characterize the heavy metals. The recovery of Zn, Pb and Cd in bottom ash decreased with increasing temperature but recovery increased in the fly ash. Recovery of Zn, Pb and Cd fluctuated with increasing air flow rate and the metal recovery rates were higher in the fly ash than the bottom ash. Most Cl, S, Fe, Al and SiO2 were found as alkali oxides, SO2, Fe2(SO4)3, iron oxide, Ca3Al2O6, K2SiO3 and SiO2 instead of reacting with HMs. Thus, the HMs were found to occur as the pure metals and their oxides during the combustion process and as the sulfides during the reducing process.

  19. Uptake, sequestration and tolerance of cadmium at cellular levels in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shengke; Xie, Ruohan; Wang, Haixin; Hu, Yan; Hou, Dandi; Liao, Xingcheng; Brown, Patrick H.; Yang, Hongxia; Lin, Xianyong; Labavitch, John M.; Lu, Lingli

    2017-04-01

    Sedum alfredii is one of a few plant species known to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd). Uptake, localization, and tolerance of Cd at cellular levels in shoots were compared in hyperaccumulating (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating (NHE) ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. X-ray fluorescence images of Cd in stems and leaves showed only a slight Cd signal restricted within vascular bundles in the NHEs, while enhanced localization of Cd, with significant tissue- and age-dependent variations, was detected in HEs. In contrast to the vascular-enriched Cd in young stems, parenchyma cells in leaf mesophyll, stem pith and cortex tissues served as terminal storage sites for Cd sequestration in HEs. Kinetics of Cd transport into individual leaf protoplasts of the two ecotypes showed little difference in Cd accumulation. However, far more efficient storage of Cd in vacuoles was apparent in HEs. Subsequent analysis of cell viability and hydrogen peroxide levels suggested that HE protoplasts exhibited higher resistance to Cd than those of NHE protoplasts. These results suggest that efficient sequestration into vacuoles, as opposed to rapid transport into parenchyma cells, is a pivotal process in Cd accumulation and homeostasis in shoots of HE S. alfredii. This is in addition to its efficient root-to-shoot translocation of Cd.

  20. Les peintures murales de la chapelle du château de Montreuil-Bellay / The Murals of the Chapel of Montreuil-Bellay Castle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gras

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The castle of Montreuil-Bellay was rebuilt by Guillaume d’Harcourt († 1487 and his wife Yolande de Laval († 1487. It contains in one of the chapels a rare testimony of murals dating from the last quarter of the fifteenth century in the Loire Valley, in France. Based on a widespread iconography, images however respond to specific expectations of the owners. Several complementary readings can be made in the representation of the six saints painted in the chapel. Individual devotions combine collective concerns of several members of the Harcourt and Laval families. Also, this short introduction on the murals also leads us to take a new look at the painter in charge of it. The artist, who was familiar with Flemish painting innovations during the fifteenth century. He probably can be identified with Coppin Delf. From an artistic standpoint, the murals of Montreuil-Bellay put on display an entanglement of different influences and iconographic sources. Indeed, they emphasize the extent and complexity in artistic transfers away from political divisions or distant geographical areas.

  1. The Matter of Chinese Painting, Case studies of 8th century murals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valen, Lucien van

    2005-01-01

    In the first part of this study a context is set for the research, and translations of classic and modern Chinese written sources are included. In the second part I have explored the technical and material aspects of Chinese painting, starting with a set of murals in three Tang tombs all dating to

  2. Agentes de deterioro y alteraciones de las pinturas murales “in situ”

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez García-Otero, Silvia Patricia

    2001-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se trata de analizar e identificar los principales tipos de deterioro que presentan las pinturas murales atendiendo a las causas o agentes de deterioro naturales, físicos, químicos y biológicos.

  3. Archaeomagnetic results from mural paintings and pyroclastic rocks in Pompeii and Herculaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, E.; Gurioli, L.; Chiari, G.; Ciarallo, A.; Cioni, R.; De Carolis, E.; Lanza, R.

    2000-03-01

    This work investigates the magnetic remanence associated with red pigments from murals at Pompeii and compares their directions to those of the pyroclastic rocks from the Vesuvius AD 79 eruption. The remanence of the murals is shown, using X-ray analyses, to be carried by haematite. Murals in Thermae Stabianae, known to have been painted a few years before AD 79, yield an archaeomagnetic direction ( D=1.2°, I=58.0°; α95=5.5°) indistinguishable from that of a nearby kiln ( D=358.0°, I=59.1°; α95=1.7°) ( Evans and Mareschal, 1989) probably last used immediately prior to the eruption. The directions are also consistent with those of fine-grained pyroclastic rocks from the eruption ( D=351.2°, I=57.9°; α95=3.4°) and lithic and tile fragments embedded within them ( D=358.5°, I=60.4°; α95=8.5°). Other paintings of the 1st century AD yield similar directions, with a lower statistical definition. This study shows that murals can retain their remanent magnetization for centuries and demonstrates the viability in principle of pictorial remanence as an archaeomagnetic tool.

  4. Public Art Education in Brunei Darussalam: The Cultural Language of Community Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2014-01-01

    Two mural projects in Brunei offer insight into the specific and universal aspects of public art education and community art making. This article describes how the author used his initiative and experience as a muralist to plan and implement two community art research projects in Bandar Seri Begwan, the capital of Brunei Darussalam. A premise of…

  5. What's Wrong with the Murals at the Mogao Grottoes: A Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meijun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Jinchang; Chai, Bolong; Sun, Jizhou

    2015-09-23

    Although a significant amount of work has been performed to preserve the ancient murals in the Mogao Grottoes by Dunhuang Cultural Research, non-contact methods need to be developed to effectively evaluate the degree of flaking of the murals. In this study, we propose to evaluate the flaking by automatically analyzing hyperspectral images that were scanned at the site. Murals with various degrees of flaking were scanned in the 126th cave using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral camera with a spectral range of approximately 900 to 1700 nm. The regions of interest (ROIs) of the murals were manually labeled and grouped into four levels: normal, slight, moderate, and severe. The average spectral data from each ROI and its group label were used to train our classification model. To predict the degree of flaking, we adopted four algorithms: deep belief networks (DBNs), partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component analysis with a support vector machine (PCA + SVM) and principal component analysis with an artificial neural network (PCA + ANN). The experimental results show the effectiveness of our method. In particular, better results are obtained using DBNs when the training data contain a significant amount of striping noise.

  6. Murals as Text: A Social-Cultural Perspective on Family Literacy Events in US Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, William

    2011-01-01

    Literacy and parenting programmes in US prisons tend to be generic and skills-oriented, insensitive to pressing personal needs of parents and their distant children. This study reports on a prison-based family/art/literacy programme that attended to the local needs and interests of participants through a mural project. The article describes some…

  7. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Community Mural Making and Social Action Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Through a hermeneutic phenomenological study of interview data from 8 community artists, the author sought to discover commonalities and differences in the worldviews and philosophies of self that underlie community mural making as they relate to art therapy as social action and art therapy practice within a traditional Western cultural framework.…

  8. Mexican Muralism: Its Social-Educative Roles in Latin America and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Shifra M.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history of Mexican muralism (1920s to 1970s) as an art of advocacy intended to change consciousness and promote political action; shows how it can still be used in an educative manner in schools. Emphasizes the effects of three great muralists (Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros). (LC)

  9. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lallemand, Yvan; Cumano, Ana; Robert, Benoît

    2011-07-01

    Vessels are primarily formed from an inner endothelial layer that is secondarily covered by mural cells, namely vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arteries and veins and pericytes in capillaries and veinules. We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells. To unravel the role of Msx genes in vascular development, we have inactivated the two Msx genes specifically in mural cells by combining the Msx1(lacZ), Msx2(lox) and Sm22α-Cre alleles. Optical projection tomography demonstrated abnormal branching of the cephalic vessels in E11.5 mutant embryos. The carotid and vertebral arteries showed an increase in caliber that was related to reduced vascular smooth muscle coverage. Taking advantage of a newly constructed Msx1(CreERT2) allele, we demonstrated by lineage tracing that the primary defect lies in a population of VSMC precursors. The abnormal phenotype that ensues is a consequence of impaired BMP signaling in the VSMC precursors that leads to downregulation of the metalloprotease 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9 genes, which are essential for cell migration and integration into the mural layer. Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs.

  10. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, H N; McCurrach, H; Mithani, A; Smith, J A C; Preston, G M

    2016-05-11

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant-pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based defences in N. caerulescens and zinc tolerance in pathogens might have driven the development of the hyperaccumulation phenotype. Here, we investigate the possibility of local adaptation by bacteria to the zinc-rich environment of N. caerulescens leaves and show that leaves sampled from the contaminated surroundings of a former mine site harboured endophytes with greater zinc tolerance than those within plants of an artificially created hyperaccumulating population. Experimental manipulation of zinc concentrations in plants of this artificial population influenced the zinc tolerance of recovered endophytes. In laboratory experiments, only endophytic bacteria isolated from plants of the natural population were able to grow to high population densities in any N. caerulescens plants. These findings suggest that long-term coexistence with zinc-hyperaccumulating plants leads to local adaptation by endophytic bacteria to the environment within their leaves. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. A Cytogenetical Study on Some Plants Taxa in Nizip Region (Aksaray, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Meryem; MARTİN, Esra; DİNÇ, Muhittin; DURAN, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    This cytological study was performed in 19 taxa grown naturally in Nizip region (Aksaray). These taxa are Conringia perfoliata (C.A.Mey.) Busch, Alyssum strigosum Banks & Sol. subsp. strigosum, Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit. subsp. murale var. murale, Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC. subsp. bicornis (Sibth. & Sm.) P.W.Ball., Erysimum thyrsoideum Boiss. subsp. thyrsoideum (Brassicaceae), Silene alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause subsp. divaricata (Reichb.) Walters, Silene conoidea L., Sile...

  12. A Cytogenetical Study on Some Plants Taxa in Nizip Region (Aksaray, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Meryem; MARTİN, Esra; DİNÇ, Muhittin; DURAN, Ahmet; ÖZDEMİR, Ayşe; ÇETİN, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    This cytological study was performed in 19 taxa grown naturally in Nizip region (Aksaray). These taxa are Conringia perfoliata (C.A.Mey.) Busch, Alyssum strigosum Banks & Sol. subsp. strigosum, Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit. subsp. murale var. murale, Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC. subsp. bicornis (Sibth. & Sm.) P.W.Ball., Erysimum thyrsoideum Boiss. subsp. thyrsoideum (Brassicaceae), Silene alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause subsp. divaricata (Reichb.) Walters, Silene conoi...

  13. Analysis of materials of the mural painting 'Los Prometeos' of Arnold Belkin, Managua, Nicaragua; Analisis de materiales de la pintura mural 'Los Prometeos' de Arnold Belkin, Managua, Nicaragua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, M.E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado De Mexico (Mexico); Tapia, M. [INAH, 04000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Arnold Belkin was one of the most important exponents of the new muralism, in his paintings topics like war, dead, injustice, as well as hope, peace, society transformation and science benefits to the humankind were always related. One of these murals is the 'Los Prometeos' located at Managua, Nicaragua. This mural painting actually is suffering a localized deterioration by weather conditions (humidity) and manufacture techniques. Samples were collected from different spots of mural which shows the deterioration problem, in order to characterized them scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyzed the soluble salts influences (sulfates and chlorides) in the deterioration mechanism problem. (Author) 9 refs., 10 tabs., 17 figs.

  14. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eSura - de Jong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se-rich plants may be used to provide dietary Se to humans and livestock, and also to clean up Se-polluted soils or waters. This study focused on endophytic bacteria of plants that hyperaccumulate selenium (Se to 0.5-1% of dry weight. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis was used to compare the diversity of endophytic bacteria of hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae and Astragalus bisulcatus (Fabaceae with those from related non-accumulators Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae collected on the same, seleniferous site. Hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators showed equal T-RF diversity. Parsimony analysis showed that T-RFs from individuals of the same species were more similar to each other than to those from other species, regardless of plant Se content or spatial proximity. Cultivable endophytes from hyperaccumulators S. pinnata and A. bisulcatus were further identified and characterized. The 66 bacterial morphotypes were shown by MS MALDI-TOF Biotyper analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to include strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Paenibacillus, Advenella, Arthrobacter and Variovorax. Most isolates were highly resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM and all could reduce selenite to red elemental Se, reduce nitrite and produce siderophores. Seven isolates were selected for plant inoculation and found to have plant growth promoting properties, both in pure culture and when co-cultivated with crop species Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae or M. sativa. There were no effects on plant Se accumulation. We conclude that Se hyperaccumulators harbor an endophytic bacterial community in their natural seleniferous habitat that is equally diverse to that of comparable non-accumulators. The hyperaccumulator endophytes are characterized by high Se resistance, capacity to produce elemental Se and plant growth promoting properties.

  15. Extraction and isolation of the salidroside-type metabolite from zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Meng-xi; Gao, Ling-ling; Yang, Xiao-e

    2012-01-01

    The active metabolite in the post-harvested biomass of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance from phytoextraction is of great interest in China. The current study demonstrates that a salidroside-type metabolite can be yielded from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator S. alfredii biomass by means of sonication/ethanol extraction and macroporous resin column (AB-8 type) isolation. The concentrations of Zn and Cd in the salidroside-type metabolite were below the limitation of the national standards. PMID:23024051

  16. Study of the painting methods of mural paintings in ancient tombs of Goguryeo using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Hwasoo

    2013-08-01

    Disputes on the painting methods of Goguryeo murals can mainly be categorized into whether the murals adapted eastern secco or western fresco; however, the murals have their own unique methods as well. There are different viewpoints among experts on interpreting the painting methods. This study involved the creation of research samples to discover the painting methods under dispute and may help discover the methods based on scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) studies. Goguryeo murals introduced pseudo-fresco rather than buon fresco methods. Unlike fresco techniques in the West, Goguryeo painters mixed traditional soft binders and adapted typical secco painting techniques for paintings, borders, and corrections after drying. The disputed issues may be resolved by these techniques, and samples may be produced based on the analyzed data. Therefore, many questions can finally be answered through SEM-EDX elemental mapping.

  17. Microbial communities analysis assessed by pyrosequencing - a new approach applied to conservation state studies of mural paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, T.; Mirão, J; A. Candeias; Caldeira, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the microbial communities present in mural paintings is of utmost importance to develop effective conservation and mitigation strategies. The present paper describes a methodological approach for the detailed characterisation of microorganisms thriving in mural paintings by combining culture-dependent methods that allow the identification of microorganisms capable of growing in the laboratory conditions and to obtain high cell densities for further ...

  18. Non-invasive detection of murals with pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed terahertz reflected imaging technology has been expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. In this paper, three types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by a pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system. These preset defects include a circular groove, a cross-shaped slit and a piece of "Y-type" metal plate built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. Additionally, three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of defects. Terahertz reflective imaging can be applied to the defect investigation of the murals.

  19. Non-invasive NMR stratigraphy of a multi-layered artefact: an ancient detached mural painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Valeria; Capitani, Donatella; Presciutti, Federica; Gentile, Gennaro; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Proietti, Noemi

    2013-10-01

    NMR stratigraphy was used to investigate in situ, non-destructively and non-invasively, the stratigraphy of hydrogen-rich layers of an ancient Nubian detached mural painting. Because of the detachment procedure, a complex multi-layered artefact was obtained, where, besides layers of the original mural painting, also the materials used during the procedure all became constitutive parts of the artefact. NMR measurements in situ enabled monitoring of the state of conservation of the artefact and planning of minimum representative sampling to validate results obtained in situ by solid-state NMR analysis of the samples. This analysis enabled chemical characterization of all organic materials. Use of reference compounds and prepared specimens assisted data interpretation.

  20. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of chromium in a cordgrass Cr-hyperaccumulator, Spartina argentinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Vecino-Bueno, Inmaculada [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Feldman, Susana R. [Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y CIUNR, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    The cordgrass Spartina argentinensis, which occurs in inland marshes of the Chaco-Pampean regions of Argentina, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Cr{sup 6+} from 0 to 20 mmol l{sup -1} on growth and photosynthetic apparatus of S. argentinensis by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. Boron, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium and phosphorous concentrations were also determined. S. argentinensis showed phytotoxicity at tiller concentration of 4 mg g{sup -1} Cr, and symptoms of stress at tiller concentration of 1.5 mg g{sup -1} Cr, as well as reductions in leaf gas exchange, in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, in photosynthetic pigment contents and in the uptake of essential nutrients. Reductions in net photosynthetic rate could be accounted for by non-stomatal limitations. Moreover, the bioaccumulator factors exceeded greatly the critical value (1.0) for all Cr treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has a higher ability to transfer Cr from roots to tillers at higher Cr concentrations. These results confirmed that S. argentinensis is a chromium hyperaccumulator and that it may be useful for restoring Cr-contaminated sites.

  1. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhouli [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); He Xingyuan, E-mail: hexy@iae.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Chen Wei; Yuan Fenghui [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yan Kun [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Tao Dali [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-09-30

    Phytoremediation using hyperaccumulators is a promising technique of removing soil pollutants. In the study, growth responses, cadmium (Cd) accumulation capability and physiological mechanisms of Lonicera japonica Thunb. under Cd stress were investigated. Exposed to 5 and 10 mg L{sup -1} Cd, the plants did not show any visual symptoms, furthermore, the height, dry biomass of leaves, roots and total and the chlorophyll (CHL) content were obtained different grade increase. When the concentration of Cd was up to 50 mg L{sup -1}, the height, dry biomass of leaves and roots had not significant differences compared with the control. The indexes of tolerance (IT) were all above 0.8. The maintenance of high superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, suggesting strong internal detoxification mechanisms inside plant cells. After 21 days exposure to 25 mg L{sup -1} Cd, stem and shoot Cd concentrations reached 344.49 {+-} 0.71 and 286.12 {+-} 9.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively and the plant had higher bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF). According to these results, it was shown L. japonica had strong tolerance and accumulation capability to Cd, therefore it is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  2. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  3. Cellular Sequestration of Cadmium in the Hyperaccumulator Plant Species Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Labavitch, John M.; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli; Hu, Hening; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Newville, Matt; Commisso, Joel; Brown, Patrick Hugh (UCD); (SLAC); (Zhejiang); (FSU); (UC)

    2012-07-23

    Spatial imaging of cadmium (Cd) in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in vivo by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray microfluorescence imaging. Preferential Cd accumulation in the pith and cortex was observed in stems of the Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE), whereas Cd was restricted to the vascular bundles in its contrasting nonhyperaccumulating ecotype. Cd concentrations of up to 15,000 {micro}g g{sup -1} were measured in the pith cells, which was many fold higher than the concentrations in the stem epidermis and vascular bundles in the HE plants. In the leaves of the HE, Cd was mainly localized to the mesophyll and vascular cells rather than the epidermis. The distribution pattern of Cd in both stems and leaves of the HE was very similar to calcium but not zinc, irrespective of Cd exposure levels. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis showed that Cd in the stems and leaves of the HE was mainly associated with oxygen ligands, and a larger proportion (about 70% in leaves and 47% in stems) of Cd was bound with malic acid, which was the major organic acid in the shoots of the plants. These results indicate that a majority of Cd in HE accumulates in the parenchyma cells, especially in stems, and is likely associated with calcium pathways and bound with organic acid (malate), which is indicative of a critical role of vacuolar sequestration of Cd in the HE S. alfredii.

  4. Steady and dynamic shear rheological behavior of semi dilute Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum solutions: influence of concentration, temperature and heating-cooling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddini, Behzad; Koocheki, Arash; Mohammadzadeh Milani, Jafar; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak

    2017-10-30

    Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) solution exhibits high viscosity at low shear rates and has anionic features. However there is no information regarding the flow and dynamic properties of this gum in semi-dilute solutions. The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic and steady shear behavior of AHSG in the semi-dilute region. The viscosity profile demonestrated a shear thinning behavior at all temperatures and concentrations. An increase in the AHSG concentration was acompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity degree, whereas, by increasing the temperature, the pseudoplasticity of AHSG decreased. At low gum concentration, solutions had more viscosity dependence on temperature. The mechanical spectra obtained from the frequency sweep experiment demonstrated viscoelastic properties for gum solutions. AHSG solutions showed typical weak gel-like behavior, revealing G' greater than G' within the experimental range of frequency (Hz), with slight frequency dependency. The influence of temperature on viscoelastic properties of AHSG solutions was studied during both heating (5-85 °C) and cooling (85-5 °C) processes. The complex viscosity of AHSG was greater compared to the apparent viscosity, indicating the disruption of AHSG network structure under continuous shear rates and deviation from the Cox-Merz rule. During the initial heating, the storage modulus showed a decreasing trend and, with a further increase in temperature, the magnitude of storage modulus increased. The influence of temperature on the storage modulus was considerable when a higher heating rate was applied. AHSG can be applied as a thickening and stabilizing agents in food products that require good stability against temperature. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Investigation of Layer Structure of the Takamatsuzuka Mural Paintings by Terahertz Imaging Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuzuka, M.; Kouzuma, Y.; Sugioka, N.; Fukunaga, K.; Tateishi, T.

    2017-04-01

    Terahertz imaging can be a powerful tool in conservation science for cultural heritages. In this study, a new terahertz imaging system was applied to the Takamatsuzuka mural painting of a blue dragon, and the condition of the plaster layer was diagnosed. As a result, the locations where the plaster layer appears solid on the surface but in actuality may have peeled off the underlying tuff stone were revealed and viewed as two-dimensional images.

  6. Propuesta de estudio semiótico para los murales de Bonampak, Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Pincemin Deliberos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe y analiza la escena representada en los muros este, sur y oeste del cuarto 1 de los murales de Bonampak, llamada “la presentación del heredero,” utilizando las calcas hechas en 1988 y revisadas en los dos últimos años, así como elementos teóricos y metodologías de la semiótica visual.

  7. Ultrasonic and pathological characteristics of ovarian mucinous cystic tumors with malignant mural nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; YUAN, ZHENG; Sun, Kai; Li, Peifeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Sarcomatous or anaplastic carcinoma mural nodules presenting in ovarian mucinous cystic tumors are very rare. Here, we reported the ultrasonic and pathological features of 2 such cases. Patient concerns: A 60-year-old woman presented with a complaint of lower abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed a hard, palpable mass in her right lower abdomen with mild tenderness. In addition, a 48-year-old woman presented with left abdominal pain and abdominal fullness. Physical...

  8. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, Archana; Küpper, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 22 (2017), č. článku 835. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000336 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cellular compartmentation * zinc homeostasis * cadmium * metal hyperaccumulator plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  9. Addition of straw from hyperaccumulator plants to cadmium-contaminated soil increases cadmium uptake by loquat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming'an; Lv, Xiulan; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Jin; Wang, Xun

    2017-05-01

    The straw from three different cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulators (Galinsoga parviflora, Youngia erythrocarpa, and Solanum photeinocarpum) was added to Cd-contaminated soil, and its effects on plant growth and Cd accumulation in loquat seedlings were evaluated. Straw from each of G. parviflora, Y. erythrocarpa, and S. photeinocarpum was added to Cd-contaminated soil before planting seedlings of two varieties of loquat (Dawuxing and Chuanzao). Addition of straw from G. parviflora and S. photeinocarpum increased the root and shoot biomasses of both loquat varieties, compared with that in the control. Addition of straw also increased Cd uptake by loquat seedlings. The treatments could be ranked, from highest Cd contents in roots and shoots of loquat seedlings to lowest, as follows: S. photeinocarpum straw > Y. erythrocarpa straw > G. parviflora straw > control. All three types of hyperaccumulator straw increased the amount of Cd extracted by shoots of two loquat seedlings, with the maximum effect in the S. photeinocarpum straw treatment. Addition of hyperaccumulator straw also resulted in increased soil invertase, urease, and catalase activities to varying degrees. Among the three types of hyperaccumulator straw, S. photeinocarpum straw was the most effective to increase Cd accumulation in loquat seedlings. Therefore, this material has the potential to increase the phytoremediation capacity of loquat seedlings in Cd-contaminated orchards.

  10. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study, we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with...

  11. Prototype of a pigments color chart for the digital conservation of ancient murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinxing; Wan, Xiaoxia

    2017-03-01

    Digital imaging has become a very important technique in the conservation of cultural art relics because it can nondestructively acquire the color and spectral image of cultural art relics for different applications. Imaging accuracy is one of the key factors in digital protection of cultural art relics. In order to improve the color and spectral accuracy for digital imaging of cultural art relics, the idea of making the specific color charts for different kinds of artworks is presented. Taking ancient Chinese Dunhuang murals as the specific object of study, a prototype pigments color chart of the Dunhuang murals (DCC), containing a six-step grayscale and 30 colored pigment samples, is made to investigate its pigment types and painting techniques. Under the premise of considering the difference in the number of samples in color charts, the DCC is tested and compared with the classic and widely used standard Macbeth colorchecker (CC) in two aspects: color correction for RGB imaging and spectral reconstruction for spectral imaging. The results show that the prototype pigments color chart is more effective and exhibits superior performance to the CC in both aspects for digital conservation of the Dunhuang murals.

  12. Mural art as a media on making urban kampung's public space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Dalhar; Widyarko, Widyarko; Nadia Ilmiani, Ajeng

    2017-12-01

    The lack of public space is one of the main problems in the big cities in Indonesia. Urban kampungas part of the city is also no exception. Rapid growth on population sparks uncontrollable physical development that erode open space inside urbankampung. Sometimes, what is left is just neglected space which don‟t „live‟ and far from the definition of public space. Mural art has been existed since the beginning of human civilization. Now, it has evolved into one of the popular urban art. The previous research has proven that the process of urban art making through participatory approach could trigger community interaction in a space. Interaction itself is a main factor that may trigger the establishmentof a public space. With the same method, this research attempts to build mural in a neglected space inside urbankampung named Palsigunung. After all of the process done, the space still haven‟t changed from the previous condition, which is still a neglected space. Together with facilitator, kampung‟s residents need to be involved identifying the problem and also the solution to the lack of public space in their kampung. Particularly for urban kampungPalsigunung, the needed solution might not be mural.

  13. Biodeterioration of Pompeian mural paintings: fungal colonization favoured by the presence of volcanic material residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, Marco; Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Hector; Marcaida, Iker; Castro, Kepa; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Osanna, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    This work was focused on the study of the biodegradation processes jeopardizing a mural painting conserved in the basement of Ariadne House (archaeological site of Pompeii, Italy). The fresco stood out for its peculiar state of preservation: the upper part, recovered in 1988, was just barely colonized by microorganisms. On the contrary, the lower part (excavated in 2005) was almost completely covered by extensive biological patinas. The genomic characterization carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) highlighted the presence of seven different fungi strains on the mural surface. Beside, in situ and laboratory analyses were performed with the purpose of identifying the causes of the heterogeneous spatial distribution of the biopatinas. The in situ Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy measurements excluded any link between the heterogeneous colonization and the original materials present in the wall. On the other side, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on microsamples proved the presence of a thin volcanic material layer overlying the lower part of the fresco. Considering that most of the biofilms of the studied mural painting only growth over these residues, it was confirmed the role of volcanic material as a suitable support for biological colonization. Thanks to the obtained results, this research helped to understand more in depth an important degradation pathway threatening the artworks from one of the most important archaeological sites in the world.

  14. LINE-DRAWING ENHANCED INTERACTIVE MURAL RESTORATION FOR DUNHUANG MOGAO GROTTOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Fu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes in western China is one of the most famous World Cultural Heritage Sites, known for its glorious Chinese Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. However, it has been suffering from damage and degradation caused by man-made and natural factors. In this article, we present a novel line-drawing enhanced interactive system for digital restoration of damaged murals in Mogao Grottoes. Our system consists of four components, namely data pre-processing, damaged area selection, line-drawing segmentation, and mural restoration. Each component is a hybrid of efficient algorithms and user interactions. We introduce the infrastructure and process of using our system, from data capture and collection, database establishment, to interactive restoration. We conduct a user study with 15 participants who have varied experiences with and skills on repairing murals and editing images. Results and feedback suggest that our system can achieve satisfactory restoration results without overburdening the users. It can benefit both experts trained in restoration and amateurs interested in cultural heritage conservation.

  15. Development of a portable ESPI system for the analysis in situ of mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaglio, E.; Lamas, J.; López, Ana J.; Ramil, A.; Pereira, L.; Prieto, B.; Silva, B.

    2012-10-01

    The use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is well documented in the literature as a non-destructive technique for structural diagnostics in the field of cultural heritage.. In the case of mural paintings the lack of adhesion between the plaster and the mural support is one of the most important risk factors that threaten their conservation. With this non-invasive method it is possible to detect detachments and cracks in the paintings before they become visible The objective of this work is the development of ESPI portable equipment based on a fibre interferometer for in situ qualitative analysis of mural paintings. The novelty of the presented set up is the use of a variable ratio coupler which makes the system more immune to vibrations and allows for better use of available light compared with the equivalent of free air guided. This configuration simplifies the arrangement and makes it possible to obtain ESPI interferograms with high contrast; moreover, the use of a ceramic heater as excitation source enables the analysis during the heating. Preliminary results obtained in laboratory conditions have shown that detachments and cracks can be successfully detected on model samples of the wall paintings.

  16. Line-Drawing Enhanced Interactive Mural Restoration for Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. Y.; Han, Y.; Sun, Z. J.; Ma, X. J.; Xu, Y. Q.

    2017-08-01

    Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes in western China is one of the most famous World Cultural Heritage Sites, known for its glorious Chinese Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. However, it has been suffering from damage and degradation caused by man-made and natural factors. In this article, we present a novel line-drawing enhanced interactive system for digital restoration of damaged murals in Mogao Grottoes. Our system consists of four components, namely data pre-processing, damaged area selection, line-drawing segmentation, and mural restoration. Each component is a hybrid of efficient algorithms and user interactions. We introduce the infrastructure and process of using our system, from data capture and collection, database establishment, to interactive restoration. We conduct a user study with 15 participants who have varied experiences with and skills on repairing murals and editing images. Results and feedback suggest that our system can achieve satisfactory restoration results without overburdening the users. It can benefit both experts trained in restoration and amateurs interested in cultural heritage conservation.

  17. Dedication of the massive ATLAS art mural painted by Josef Kristofoletti directly above the cavern of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni, Michael Barnett

    2010-01-01

    Ceremony to celebrate the massive mural of the ATLAS detector at CERN painted by artist Josef Kristofoletti. The mural is located at the ATLAS Experiment site, and it shows on two perpendicular walls the detector with a collision event superimposed. The event on the large wall shows a simulation of an event that would be recorded in ATLAS if a Higgs boson was produced. The cavern of the ATLAS Experiment with the detector is 100 meters directly below the mural. The height of the mural is about 12 meters (40 feet). The actual ATLAS detector is more than twice as big.

  18. Spatial Imaging, Speciation, and Quantification of Selenium in theHyperaccumulator Plants Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.L.; Zhang, L.H.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; McGrath,S.P.; Pilon-Smits, E.A.H.

    2006-09-01

    Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) up to 1% of plant dry weight. In the field, Se was mostly present in the young leaves and reproductive tissues of both hyperaccumulators. Microfocused scanning x-ray fluorescence mapping revealed that Se was hyperaccumulated in trichomes in young leaves of A. bisulcatus. None of 10 other elements tested were accumulated in trichomes. Micro x-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that Se in trichomes was present in the organic forms methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys; 53%) and {gamma}-glutamyl-MeSeCys (47%). In the young leaf itself, there was 30% inorganic Se (selenate and selenite) in addition to 70% MeSeCys. In young S. pinnata leaves, Se was highly concentrated near the leaf edge and surface in globular structures that were shown by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to be mainly in epidermal cells. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed both MeSeCys (88%) and selenocystathionine (12%) inside leaf edges. In contrast, both the Se accumulator Brassica juncea and the nonaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana accumulated Se in their leaf vascular tissues and mesophyll cells. Se in hyperaccumulators appears to be mobile in both the xylem and phloem because Se-treated S. pinnata was found to be highly toxic to phloem-feeding aphids, and MeSeCys was present in the vascular tissues of a S. pinnata young leaf petiole as well as in guttation fluid. The compartmentation of organic selenocompounds in specific storage areas in the plant periphery appears to be a unique property of Se hyperaccumulators. The high concentration of Se in the plant periphery may contribute to Se tolerance and may also serve as an elemental plant defense mechanism.

  19. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae, a bacterial endophyte of hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata, is capable of efficient selenite reduction to elemental selenium under aerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staicu, L. C.; Ackerson, C. J.; Cornelis, P.; Ye, L.; Berendsen, R. L.; Hunter, W. J.; Noblitt, S. D.; Henry, C. S.; Cappa, J. J.; Montenieri, R. L.; Wong, A. O.; Musilova, L.; Sura-de Jong, M.; van Hullebusch, E. D.; Lens, P. N L; Reynolds, R. J B; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To identify bacteria with high selenium tolerance and reduction capacity for bioremediation of wastewater and nanoselenium particle production. Methods and Results: A bacterial endophyte was isolated from the selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) growing on seleniferous

  20. Aberrant mural cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels and impaired lymphatic drainage in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinecke, Anna-Katharina; Nagy, Nadine; Lago, Gabriela D'Amico; Kirmse, Santina; Klose, Ralph; Schrödter, Katrin; Zimmermann, Annika; Helfrich, Iris; Rundqvist, Helene; Theegarten, Dirk; Anhenn, Olaf; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique; Johnson, Randall S; Alitalo, Kari; Fischer, Jens W; Fandrey, Joachim; Stockmann, Christian

    2012-06-14

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease with unknown etiology that is characterized by extensive remodeling of the lung parenchyma, ultimately resulting in respiratory failure. Lymphatic vessels have been implicated with the development of pulmonary fibrosis, but the role of the lymphatic vasculature in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis remains enigmatic. Here we show in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis that lymphatic vessels exhibit ectopic mural coverage and that this occurs early during the disease. The abnormal lymphatic vascular patterning in fibrotic lungs was driven by expression of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) in lymphatic endothelial cells and signaling through platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-β in associated mural cells. Because of impaired lymphatic drainage, aberrant mural cell coverage fostered the accumulation of fibrogenic molecules and the attraction of fibroblasts to the perilymphatic space. Pharmacologic inhibition of the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β signaling axis disrupted the association of mural cells and lymphatic vessels, improved lymphatic drainage of the lung, and prevented the attraction of fibroblasts to the perilymphatic space. Our results implicate aberrant mural cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and that the drainage capacity of pulmonary lymphatics is a critical mediator of fibroproliferative changes.

  1. Adaptative evolution of metallothionein 3 in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, N.H.; Bernard, C.; Verbruggen, N. [Lab. de Physiologie et Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Leplae, R. [Service de Conformation des Macromolecules Biologiques et Bioinformatique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-04-01

    A functional screening in yeast allowed to identify various cDNAs from the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. TcMT3 displayed high identity with its closest homologue in Arabidopsis thaliana but variation in its Cys residues. Functional analysis in yeast supported a higher binding capacity for Cu, but not for Cd or Zn, of TcMT3 compared to AtMT3. Expression analysis in plants indicated that metallothionein 3 (MT3) like all the other T. caerulescens genes from the screen studied is overexpressed in all studied populations of T. caerulescens compared to A. thaliana. TcMT3 was induced by Cu, but not by Cd. Moreover significant variation in expression within T. caerulescens populations that have contrasting tolerance and accumulation capacities indicated a possible local adaptation of MT3. (orig.)

  2. Chelator effects on bioconcentration and translocation of cadmium by hyperaccumulators, Tagetes patula and Impatiens walleriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jhen-Lian; Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2012-10-01

    French marigold (Tagetes patula) and impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) can act as hyperaccumulator plants for removal of cadmium (Cd) from contaminated sites. In this study, an exponential decay model was used to predict the maximum removal of Cd from artificially spiked soils by impatiens. Application of a chelator, EDTA, was also assessed for effects on the bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation (TF) factors of the two species with four replicates. Exposure to Cd significantly decreased the biomass of two plant species. Impatiens and French marigold accumulated Cd at a rate of 200-1200 mg Cd kg(-1) in shoots, with BCFs and TFs of 8.5-15 and 1.7-2.6, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Manganese uptake and interactions with cadmium in the hyperaccumulator-Phytolacca Americana L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Kejian [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hunan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences Changsha 410004 (China); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); You Wuxin [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lian Chunlan [Asian Natural Environmental Science Center, University of Tokyo, 1-1-8 Midori-cho, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Shen Zhenguo [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: zgshen@njau.edu.cn

    2008-06-15

    In the present study, the accumulation of Mn and other metals by Phytolacca Americana L. from contaminated soils in Hunan Province, South China, was investigated. Results showed that the average concentrations of Mn in the leaves and roots reached 2198 and 80.4 mg kg{sup -1} (dry weight), respectively, with a maximum 13,400 mg kg{sup -1} in the leaves. A significant correlation was found between Mn concentrations in the plant leaves and those in the corresponding soils. Hydroponic experiments were also conducted to study the Cd uptake ability and interactions between Mn and Cd in the plant. It was found that P. americana hyperaccumulated not only Mn, but also Cd in the leaves. In the presence of Cd, adding Mn to the solution significantly improved the plant growth and reduced the concentrations of Cd in all organs of the plant.

  4. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YA-FEN eLIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species known to hyperaccumulate these metals to extremely high concentrations in their aboveground biomass. In order to provide additional molecular resources for this model metal hyperaccumulator species to study and understand the mechanism of heavy metal exposure adaptation, we aimed to provide a comprehensive database of transcript sequences for N. caerulescens. In this study, 23830 transcript sequences (isotigs with an average length of 1025 bps were determined for roots, shoots and inflorescences of N. caerulescens accession ‘Ganges’ by Roche GS-FLEX 454 pyrosequencing. These isotigs were grouped into 20,378 isogroups, representing potential genes. This is a large expansion of the existing N. caerulescens transcriptome set consisting of 3705 unigenes. When compared to a Brassicaceae proteome set, 22,232 (93.2% of the N. caerulescens isotigs (corresponding to 19191 isogroups had a significant match and could be annotated accordingly. Of the remaining sequences, 98 isotigs resembled non-plant sequences and 1386 had no significant similarity to any sequence in the GenBank database. Among the annotated set there were many isotigs with similarity to metal homeostasis genes or genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Only for transcripts similar to Metallothionein3 (MT3, clear evidence for an additional copy was found. This comprehensive set of transcripts is expected to further contribute to the discovery of mechanisms used by N. caerulescens to adapt to heavy metal exposure.

  5. Enhancement of Cd phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii using electrical field and organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wendan; Li, Dan; Ye, Xuezhu; Xu, Haizhou; Yao, Guihua; Wang, Jingwen; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Jing; Gao, Na

    2017-02-01

    The combined use of organic amendment-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation to decontaminate Cd-polluted soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. The plant species selected was the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Prior to the pot experiment, the loamy soil was treated with 15 g kg-1 of pig manure compost, 10 g kg-1 of humic acid, or 5 mmol kg-1 of EDTA, and untreated soil without application of any amendment was the control. Two conditions were applied to each treatment: no voltage (without an electrical field) and a direct current (DC) electrical field (1 V cm-1 with switching polarity every day). Results indicated that Cd concentrations in S. alfredii were significantly (p electrical field and soil amendments (pig manure compost, humic acid, and EDTA). By switching the polarity of the DC electrical field, significant pH variation from anode to cathode can be avoided, and no significant impact was observed on shoot biomass production. Electrical field application increased DTPA-extractable Cd in soils and the Cd accumulation in shoots by 6.06-15.64 and 24.53-52.31%, respectively. The addition of pig manure compost and humic acid enhanced shoot Cd accumulation by 1.54- to 1.92- and 1.38- to 1.64-fold because of their simultaneous enhancement of Cd concentration in shoots and biomass production. However, no enhancement of Cd accumulation was found in the EDTA treatment, which can be ascribed to the inhibition of plant growth caused by EDTA. In conclusion, pig manure compost or humic acid addition in combination with the application of a switched-polarity DC electrical field could significantly enhance Cd phytoextraction by hyperaccumulator S. alfredii.

  6. Genome assembly and annotation of Arabidopsis halleri, a model for heavy metal hyperaccumulation and evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskine, Roman V; Paape, Timothy; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Akama, Satoru; Sese, Jun; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2017-09-01

    The self-incompatible species Arabidopsis halleri is a close relative of the self-compatible model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The broad European and Asian distribution and heavy metal hyperaccumulation ability make A. halleri a useful model for ecological genomics studies. We used long-insert mate-pair libraries to improve the genome assembly of the A. halleri ssp. gemmifera Tada mine genotype (W302) collected from a site with high contamination by heavy metals in Japan. After five rounds of forced selfing, heterozygosity was reduced to 0.04%, which facilitated subsequent genome assembly. Our assembly now covers 196 Mb or 78% of the estimated genome size and achieved scaffold N50 length of 712 kb. To validate assembly and annotation, we used synteny of A. halleri Tada mine with a previously published high-quality reference assembly of a closely related species, Arabidopsis lyrata. Further validation of the assembly quality comes from synteny and phylogenetic analysis of the HEAVY METAL ATPASE4 (HMA4) and METAL TOLERANCE PROTEIN1 (MTP1) regions using published sequences from European A. halleri for comparison. Three tandemly duplicated copies of HMA4, key gene involved in cadmium and zinc hyperaccumulation, were assembled on a single scaffold. The assembly will enhance the genomewide studies of A. halleri as well as the allopolyploid Arabidopsis kamchatica derived from A. lyrata and A. halleri. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Intra-aortic mural thrombosis and splenic infarction in association with ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kok, H K

    2010-03-04

    BACKGROUND: Arterial thrombosis is a very rare, but recognised complication of inflammatory bowel disease that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 48-year-old female with previously well-controlled ulcerative colitis who presented with severe left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Imaging investigations subsequently revealed a large intra-aortic mural thrombus extending into the coeliac axis complicated by splenic infarction. This occurred in the absence of other prothrombotic states such as thrombophilias or vasculitis. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the frequently overlooked association between inflammatory bowel disease and arterial thrombosis.

  8. Exaggerated venous mural hypertrophy in association with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, W.L.; Dellers, E.A.; Putong, P.B. (Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    A 61-year-old black man presented with metastases to the right groin 5 years after 125iodine treatment for a well differentiated primary prostatic adenocarcinoma. Medium sized veins within and immediately adjacent to the neoplasm showed marked mural thickening due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscles. There was no histological evidence of radiation effect in the stroma or in the tumor cells. We could find no report in the literature of such changes associated with metastatic carcinoma.

  9. Stimulated infrared thermography applied to thermophysical characterization of cultural heritage mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to approach stimulated infrared thermography possibilities in terms of measuring longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings in situ. The measuring method principle is first submitted. It is based on temporal analysis of changes in the characteristic radius beams of spatial profiles of the photothermal signal, measured on the spot of the laser excitation. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated, thanks to a series of simulations. Lastly, the method enables to correctly estimate longitudinal thermal diffusivity in a test sample, and further in a fragment copy of "Saint Christophe" belonging to the Campana collection in the Louvre.

  10. Daily life of the ancient Maya recorded on murals at Calakmul, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Vargas, Ramón; López, Verónica A Vázquez; Martin, Simon

    2009-11-17

    Research into ancient societies frequently faces a major challenge in accessing the lives of those who made up the majority of their populations, since the available evidence so often concerns only the ruling elite. Our excavations at the ancient Maya site of Calakmul, Mexico, have uncovered a "painted pyramid:" a structure decorated with murals depicting scenes of its inhabitants giving, receiving, and consuming diverse foods, as well as displaying and transporting other goods. Many are accompanied by hieroglyphic captions that describe the participants, and include spellings of key subsistence items. Collectively, they offer insights into the social mechanisms by which goods were circulated within major Maya centers.

  11. More than a Mural: The Intersection of Public Art, Immigrant Youth, and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa A. Gutiérrez-Vicario

    2016-02-01

    • In efforts for communities to construct more democratic public spaces, one often finds that these spaces manifest themselves as murals or similar forms of public art. What are more creative ways of building a more democratic form of community art? What are more creative ways for young immigrant youth to develop a sense of belonging through the arts?   Overall, this proposal seeks to explore the intersection between public art, human rights education/global competency, and immigrant youth empowerment. The proposal will discuss the involvement of immigrant youth, predominately from Latin America, in various art projects, as they explore their own sense of identity and belonging in New York City.

  12. Ciudad Universitaria, Rectoría : UNAM, Mural "El regreso de Quetzalcóatl".

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Zamora

    2015-01-01

    El retorno de Quetzalcóatl fue concebido por Chávez Morado como una suerte de mascarón de proa- porque esto era lo primero que veía todo aquel que se aproximaba a la Facultad de Ciencias. Además- se trataba de una propuesta que- para ser apreciada- debía contemplarse desde lejos- pues fue elaborada sobre un espejo de agua que- en el ángulo correcto y en lontananza- exhibía el reflejo invertido del mural. “En este trabajo- el pintor representó a la serpiente emplumada transformada en balsa- ...

  13. Moessbauer Spectroscopic Study of a Mural Painting from Morgadal Grande, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, A.; Matsuo, M. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Soto, A. Pascual [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Esteticas (Mexico); Tsukamoto, K. [Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico)

    2004-12-15

    In this study, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been applied to fragments of a mural painting excavated at Morgadal Grande, Mexico, to characterize the pigments used. A sextet attributable to hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was clearly detected in the red fragments. The spectra of orange fragments showed a doublet attributable to paramagnetic high-spin Fe{sup 3+}, which presumably originates from goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) exhibiting superparamagnetic relaxation due to its small particle size. The blue fragments contained little iron. The scattered X-ray Moessbauer spectra revealed that the thickness of the pigments was larger than 20 {mu}m.

  14. Las expresiones murales : narrativa para construir el diálogo

    OpenAIRE

    Tangarife Bedoya, Cesar Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Los sentidos y criterios pedagógicos que subyacen en las expresiones murales, en tanto territorios grabados por los lenguajes de la memoria, tienen como horizonte de interpretación las narrativas y silencios, desde donde el diálogo emerge como verificación de la trascendentalidad intersubjetiva asumida como arista metodológica que logra ubicar la experiencia de encuentro con la imagen del muro en su vitalidad narrativa, dentro de la investigación fenomenológica , en la cual la epistemología e...

  15. Las pinturas murales de S. Cebrián de Mudá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Manzarbeitia Valle

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Al norte de la provincia de Falencia, lindando con Cantabria, en un reducido espacio geográfico en torno a la comarca del Alto Campeo y a algunos de sus pequeños valles adyacentes, existe un amplio conjunto de iglesias que tienen en común, además de su tipología arquitectónica románica de transición al gótico, el estar decoradas con pinturas murales realizadas en las dos últimas décadas del siglo XV, y posiblemente por un mismo taller ambulante de origen local.

  16. Contrasted zinc hyperaccumulation levels between metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Arabidopsis halleri is driven by divergent selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst-Kostecka, Alicja; Waldmann, Patrik; Pauwels, Maxime; Schat, Henk; Bourceaux, Angélique; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Frérot, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 400 species that can survive and reproduce in metalliferous environments have developed "metal hyperaccumulation" capacity, allowing them to allocate large amounts of trace elements to their aerial parts without showing severe toxicity symptoms. The potential of hyperaccumulators to be applied in phytoremediation efforts is of great research and commercial interest. Yet, the genetic basis and evolutionary significance of this trait are to date insufficiently understood. This lack of knowledge limits the efficiency and large-scale use of such plants in reducing soil pollution through "green and clean technologies" (phytoremediation). In this context, the objective of this study was to find some evidence of selection acting on metal hyperaccumulation, thus supporting the existence of genetic adaptation for this trait. Here, we collected six metallicolous and five non-metallicolous populations of the pseudometallophyte model species Arabidopsis halleri in Poland that are genetically and geographically close. We asexually propagated genotypes that were sampled in natural populations to produce several clones of each individual. These were subsequently used in a soil culture experiment with artificially zinc-contaminated compost for accumulation assessment. The zinc content of shoots was determined after five weeks of culture using the colorimetric reagent zincon. The heritability and the genetic differentiation of the zinc accumulation trait were estimated (Qst statistic) and the latter was compared to the differentiation at neutral molecular markers (Fst statistic). Despite significantly (Pselection, supporting the occurrence of local adaptation. These findings encourage further genetic and genomic research to uncover the genetic basis of local adaptation of A. halleri to contaminated environments. In particular, due to their enhanced zinc hyperaccumulation capacities non-metallicolous populations may be particularly promising for phytoremediation

  17. The effect of mycorrhiza on the growth and elemental composition of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii Roessler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta, E-mail: elo@mb.au.dk [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Orlowski, Dariusz [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Turnau, Katarzyna [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and element uptake by Ni-hyperaccumulating plant, Berkheya coddii, was studied. Plants were grown under laboratory conditions on ultramafic soil without or with the AM fungi of different origin. The AM colonization, especially with the indigenous strain, significantly enhanced plants growth and their survival. AMF affected also the elemental concentrations that were studied with Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). AMF (i) increased K and Fe in shoots, Zn and Mn in roots, P and Ca both, in roots and shoots; (ii) decreased Mn in shoots, Co and Ni both, in shoots and roots. Due to higher biomass of mycorrhizal plants, total Ni content was up to 20 times higher in mycorrhizal plants compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones. The AMF enhancement of Ni uptake may therefore provide an improvement of a presently used technique of nickel phytomining. - Highlights: > The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Ni-hyperaccumulating plant was studied. > Growth of Berkheya coddii was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. > Mycorrhizal symbiosis increased Ni uptake to aboveground part of the plants. > Mycorrhizal colonization affected concentration and uptake of other elements. > Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could improve the techniques of nickel phytomining. - Inoculation of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly enhanced plant growth and increased Ni uptake.

  18. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium Hyperaccumulation in Three Noccaea (Brassicaceae) Populations from Non-metalliferous Sites in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Sáez, Llorenç; López-Alvarado, Javier; Cabot, Catalina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of several Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions) were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analyzed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord.) F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord.) F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd. PMID:26904085

  19. Effect of Gamma-irradiation on biosynthesized gold nanoparticles using Chenopodium murale leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Abdelghany

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eco-friendly synthesized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs were successfully prepared via facile biosynthesis of Chenopodium murale (C. murale leaf extract. Biosynthesized Au NPs were characterized by Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy (UV/vis., Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. The study was extended to retrace the effect of different gamma irradiation doses on the size of prepared NPs. UV/vis. spectra showed a single peak at 531 nm attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR peak of Au NPs. The blue shift of SPR peak after irradiation process indicated that gamma irradiation could be utilized as size control partner. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM showed a decrease in the size of Au NPs and a narrow size distribution with an increase in the gamma irradiation dose. Results of TEM were coinciding with those obtained from UV/vis. spectra. Bragg reflections in X-ray diffraction analysis and diffraction pattern of TEM confirmed the presence of face-centered cubic (FCC Au NPs with (111, (200, (220, and (311 reflection planes. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR analysis revealed the physical and chemical complexation of gold with extract. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDAX confirmed the presence and biosynthesis of Au NPs.

  20. An Improved Saliency Detection Approach for Flying Apsaras in the Dunhuang Grotto Murals, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliency can be described as the ability of an item to be detected from its background in any particular scene, and it aims to estimate the probable location of the salient objects. Due to the salient map that computed by local contrast features can extract and highlight the edge parts including painting lines of Flying Apsaras, in this paper, we proposed an improved approach based on a frequency-tuned method for visual saliency detection of Flying Apsaras in the Dunhuang Grotto Murals, China. This improved saliency detection approach comprises three important steps: (1 image color and gray channel decomposition; (2 gray feature value computation and color channel convolution; (3 visual saliency definition based on normalization of previous visual saliency and spatial attention function. Unlike existing approaches that rely on many complex image features, this proposed approach only used local contrast and spatial attention information to simulate human’s visual attention stimuli. This improved approach resulted in a much more efficient salient map in the aspect of computing performance. Furthermore, experimental results on the dataset of Flying Apsaras in the Dunhuang Grotto Murals showed that the proposed visual saliency detection approach is very effective when compared with five other state-of-the-art approaches.

  1. Haemophilus parainfluenzae Mural Endocarditis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca T. Giurgea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus parainfluenzae, which uncommonly causes endocarditis, has never been documented to cause mural involvement. A 62-year-old immunocompetent female without predisposing risk factors for endocarditis except for poor dentition presented with fever, emesis, and dysmetria. Echocardiography found a mass attached to the left ventricular wall with finger-like projections. Computed tomography showed evidence of embolic phenomena to the brain, kidneys, spleen, and colon. Cardiac MRI revealed involvement of the chordae tendineae of the anterior papillary muscles. Blood cultures grew Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The patient was treated successfully with ceftriaxone with resolution of symptoms, including neurologic deficits. After eleven days of antibiotics a worsening holosystolic murmur was discovered. Worsening mitral regurgitation on echocardiography was only found three weeks later. Nine weeks after presentation, intraoperative evaluation revealed chord rupture but no residual vegetation and mitral repair was performed. Four weeks after surgery, the patient was back to her baseline. This case illustrates the ability of Haemophilus parainfluenzae to form large mural vegetations with high propensity of embolization in otherwise normal cardiac tissue among patients with dental risk factors. It also underscores the importance of physical examination in establishing a diagnosis of endocarditis and monitoring for progression of disease.

  2. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachenko, Anthony G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)], E-mail: a.kachenko@usyd.edu.au; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Singh, Balwant [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the {mu}-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, {mu}-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, {mu}-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue

  3. An α-smooth muscle actin (acta2/αsma zebrafish transgenic line marking vascular mural cells and visceral smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Whitesell

    Full Text Available Mural cells of the vascular system include vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs and pericytes whose role is to stabilize and/or provide contractility to blood vessels. One of the earliest markers of mural cell development in vertebrates is α smooth muscle actin (acta2; αsma, which is expressed by pericytes and SMCs. In vivo models of vascular mural cell development in zebrafish are currently lacking, therefore we developed two transgenic zebrafish lines driving expression of GFP or mCherry in acta2-expressing cells. These transgenic fish were used to trace the live development of mural cells in embryonic and larval transgenic zebrafish. acta2:EGFP transgenic animals show expression that largely mirrors native acta2 expression, with early pan-muscle expression starting at 24 hpf in the heart muscle, followed by skeletal and visceral muscle. At 3.5 dpf, expression in the bulbus arteriosus and ventral aorta marks the first expression in vascular smooth muscle. Over the next 10 days of development, the number of acta2:EGFP positive cells and the number of types of blood vessels associated with mural cells increases. Interestingly, the mural cells are not motile and remain in the same position once they express the acta2:EGFP transgene. Taken together, our data suggests that zebrafish mural cells develop relatively late, and have little mobility once they associate with vessels.

  4. The Use of Murals in Preadolescent Inpatient Groups: An Art Therapy Approach to Cumulative Trauma. Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Nicole; McCarthy, James B.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a small group of preadolescent, psychiatric inpatients and their collaborative painting of a memorial mural about the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. Through an immersion in the group experience, the group members became increasingly introspective about their feelings of loss and their…

  5. A Cross-Cultural Collaboration: Using Visual Culture for the Creation of a Socially Relevant Mural in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how high school and university students in Georgia and members of a small weaving pueblo in Oaxaca, Mexico, collaborated in designing and creating a mural in the central market ("mercado") of the pueblo. A number of lessons emerged from this multi-cultural collaboration. First they learned that using…

  6. What’s Wrong with the Murals at the Mogao Grottoes: A Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meijun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Jinchang; Chai, Bolong; Sun, Jizhou

    2015-09-01

    Although a significant amount of work has been performed to preserve the ancient murals in the Mogao Grottoes by Dunhuang Cultural Research, non-contact methods need to be developed to effectively evaluate the degree of flaking of the murals. In this study, we propose to evaluate the flaking by automatically analyzing hyperspectral images that were scanned at the site. Murals with various degrees of flaking were scanned in the 126th cave using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral camera with a spectral range of approximately 900 to 1700 nm. The regions of interest (ROIs) of the murals were manually labeled and grouped into four levels: normal, slight, moderate, and severe. The average spectral data from each ROI and its group label were used to train our classification model. To predict the degree of flaking, we adopted four algorithms: deep belief networks (DBNs), partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component analysis with a support vector machine (PCA + SVM) and principal component analysis with an artificial neural network (PCA + ANN). The experimental results show the effectiveness of our method. In particular, better results are obtained using DBNs when the training data contain a significant amount of striping noise.

  7. Active 3'-5' cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases are present in detergent-resistant membranes of mural granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Annick; Guillemette, Christine; Sirard, Marc-André; Richard, François J

    2016-01-04

    Lipids rafts are specialised membrane microdomains involved in cell signalling that can be isolated as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) has a central role in cell signalling in the ovary and its degradation is carried out by the phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme family. We hypothesised that PDEs could be functionally present in the lipid rafts of porcine mural granulosa cell membranes. PDE6C, PDE8A and PDE11A were detected by dot blot in the DRMs and the Triton-soluble fraction of the mural granulosa cells membrane and the cytosol. As shown by immunocytochemistry, PDEs showed clear immunostaining in mural granulosa cell membranes and the cytosol. Interestingly, cAMP-PDE activity was 18 times higher in the DRMs than in the Triton-soluble fraction of cell membranes and was 7.7 times higher in the cytosol than in the DRMs. cAMP-PDE activity in mural granulosa cells was mainly contributed by the PDE8 and PDE11 families. This study shows that PDEs from the PDE8 and PDE11 families are present in mural granulosa cells and that the cAMP-PDE activity is mainly contributed by the cytosol. In the cell membrane, the cAMP-PDE activity is mainly contributed by the DRMs. In addition, receptors for prostaglandin E2 and LH, two G-protein-coupled receptors, are present in lipid rafts and absent from the non-raft fraction of the granulosa cell membrane. These results suggest that in these cells, the lipid rafts exist as a cell-signalling platform and PDEs are one of the key enzyme families present in the raft.

  8. Physicochemical characterization of pigments and supports in mural paints: Mayapan, Yucatan case; Caracterizacion fisicoquimica de pigmentos y soportes en pinturas murales: caso Mayapan, Yucatan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva V, Y. [FIME-UANL, Pedro A. del Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Peraza L, C.A. [Centro INAH Yucatan (Mexico); Bautista M, J.P. [DRPMZA/INAH. Direccion de Registro Publico de Monumentos y Zonas Arqueologicas, Victoria 110, Copilco El Bajo, 04340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arenas A, J. [IFUNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The present work is focused in the study of pigments and supports located in mural paintings belonging to the archaeological site of Mayapan. The raw materials utilized by the pre hispanic are revealed by means of the use of different techniques of characterization such as Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The pigments analyzed cover the following colors: yellow, blue, white, orange, black, red, olive and aqua green. In general, the elements O, Ca and C were the main elements present, as well as quantities of Si and Fe were very significant in all the cases. The manufacture techniques for the production of pigments and supports coincided with all those reported in literature for the Maya culture; however, influence from the Central Altiplane could be appreciated. The results obtained by XRD show the phases of calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) and dolomite ferroan (Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}) in all the support. The analyses by FTIR indicated the presence of some agglutinating, but it has not been identified yet. (Author)

  9. Accumulation and distribution characteristics of zinc and cadmium in the hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dong; Zhang, Hongzheng; Wang, Yaodong; Zheng, Leina

    2014-08-01

    Accumulation and distribution of Zn and Cd in the hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola were investigated in a hydroponic experiment. Mean Cd and Zn concentrations in shoots (7,010 and 18,400 mg kg(-1)) were about sevenfold and fivefold higher than those in roots (840 and 3,000 mg kg(-1)) after exposure to 100 μM CdSO4 and 600 μM ZnSO4, respectively. Cd and Zn concentrations in young leaves (4,330 and 9,820 mg kg(-1)) were about sixfold and twofold higher than those in mature leaves (636 and 2,620 mg kg(-1)), respectively. MicroPIXE analysis showed that Zn was predominantly localized in epidermal cells in both young and mature leaves, but large amounts of Zn occurred in mesophyll cells in young leaves. Leaf tissue fractionation showed that soluble and cell wall fractions were different at the two stages of leaf growth. Young and mature leaves of S. plumbizincicola also showed different accumulation and distribution characteristics for Zn and Cd.

  10. Characterization of As efflux from the roots of As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Hatayama, Masayoshi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2011-12-01

    In some plant species, various arsenic (As) species have been reported to efflux from the roots. However, the details of As efflux by the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata remain unknown. In this study, root As efflux was investigated for different phosphorus (P) supply conditions during or after a 24-h arsenate uptake experiment under hydroponic growth conditions. During an 8-h arsenate uptake experiment, P-supplied (P+) P. vittata exhibited much greater arsenite efflux relative to arsenate uptake when compared with P-deprived (P-) P. vittata, indicating that arsenite efflux was not proportional to arsenate uptake. In the As efflux experiment following 24 h of arsenate uptake, arsenate efflux was also observed with arsenite efflux in the external solution. All the results showed relatively low rates of arsenate efflux, ranging from 5.4 to 16.1% of the previously absorbed As, indicating that a low rate of arsenate efflux to the external solution is also a characteristic of P. vittata, as was reported with arsenite efflux. In conclusion, after 24 h of arsenate uptake, both P+ and P- P. vittata loaded/effluxed similar amounts of arsenite to the fronds and the external solution, indicating a similar process of xylem loading and efflux for arsenite, with the order of the arsenite concentrations being solution ≪ roots ≪ fronds.

  11. Sulfate and glutathione enhanced arsenic accumulation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Shuhe [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Processes, Institute of Applied Ecology, Shenyang 110116 (China); Ma, Lena Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.ed [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Processes, Institute of Applied Ecology, Shenyang 110116 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States); Saha, Uttam; Mathews, Shiny [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0290 (United States); Sundaram, Sabarinath; Rathinasabapathi, Bala [Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0690 (United States); Zhou Qixing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Processes, Institute of Applied Ecology, Shenyang 110116 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This experiment examined the effects of sulfate (S) and reduced glutathione (GSH) on arsenic uptake by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata after exposing to arsenate (0, 15 or 30 mg As L{sup -1}) with sulfate (6.4, 12.8 or 25.6 mg S L{sup -1}) or GSH (0, 0.4 or 0.8 mM) for 2-wk. Total arsenic, S and GSH concentrations in plant biomass and arsenic speciation in the growth media and plant biomass were determined. While both S (18-85%) and GSH (77-89%) significantly increased arsenic uptake in P. vittata, GSH also increased arsenic translocation by 61-85% at 0.4 mM (p < 0.05). Sulfate and GSH did not impact plant biomass or arsenic speciation in the media and biomass. The S-induced arsenic accumulation by P. vittata was partially attributed to increased plant GSH (21-31%), an important non-enzymatic antioxidant countering oxidative stress. This experiment demonstrated that S and GSH can effectively enhance arsenic uptake and translocation by P. vittata. - Sulfate and glutathione increased arsenic uptake and translocation in Pteris vittata.

  12. Combined endophytic inoculants enhance nickel phytoextraction from serpentine soil in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effects of specific bacterial endophytes on the phytoextraction capacity of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, spontaneously growing in a serpentine soil environment. Five metal-tolerant endophytes had already been selected for their high Ni tolerance (6 mM and plant growth promoting ability. Here we demonstrate that individual bacterial inoculation is ineffective in enhancing Ni translocation and growth of N. caerulescens in serpentine soil, except for specific strains Ncr-1 and Ncr-8, belonging to the Arthrobacter and Microbacterium genera, which showed the highest IAA production and ACC-deaminase activity. Ncr-1 and Ncr-8 co-inoculation was even more efficient in promoting plant growth, soil Ni removal and translocation of Ni, together with that of Fe, Co and Cu. Bacteria of both strains densely colonised the root surfaces and intercellular spaces of leaf epidermal tissue. These two bacterial strains also turned out to stimulate root length, shoot biomass and Ni uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in MS agar medium supplemented with Ni. It is concluded that adaptation of N. caerulescens in highly Ni-contaminated serpentine soil can be enhanced by an integrated community of bacterial endophytes rather than by single strains; of the former, Arthrobacter and Microbacterium may be useful candidates for future phytoremediation trials

  13. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg{sup -1}. The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P{sub N}). Reductions in P{sub N} could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  14. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Luo

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd. S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress.

  15. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthetic characteristics of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingqiang; Tao, Qi; Di, Zhenzhen; Lu, Fan; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-07-01

    The combined effects of elevated CO2 and cadmium (Cd) on photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and Cd accumulation in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance were investigated to predict plant growth under Cd stress with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Both pot and hydroponic experiments were conducted and the plants were grown under ambient (350 µL L(-1)) or elevated (800 µL L(-1)) CO2 . Elevated CO2 significantly (P < 0.05) increased Pn (105%-149%), Pnmax (38.8%-63.0%) and AQY (20.0%-34.8%) of S. alfredii in all the Cd treatments, but reduced chlorophyll concentration, dark respiration and photorespiration. After 10 days growth in medium with 50 µM Cd under elevated CO2 , PSII activities were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) with Pm, Fv/Fm, Φ(II) and qP increased by 66.1%, 7.5%, 19.5% and 16.4%, respectively, as compared with ambient-grown plants. Total Cd uptake in shoot of S. alfredii grown under elevated CO2 was increased by 44.1%-48.5%, which was positively correlated with the increase in Pn. These results indicate that elevated CO2 promoted the growth of S. alfredii due to increased photosynthetic carbon uptake rate and photosynthetic light-use efficiency, and showed great potential to improve the phytoextraction of Cd by S. alfredii. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Root responses to soil Ni heterogeneity in a hyperaccumulator and a non-accumulator species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Ahmad B., E-mail: ahmad.moradi@ufz.d [Hydrogeology Department, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Conesa, Hector M.; Robinson, Brett H. [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland); Lehmann, Eberhard; Kaestner, Anders [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    We compared root responses of the Ni-hyperaccumulator plant Berkheya coddii Rossler with the non-accumulator plant Cicer arietinum L. to Ni heterogeneity in soil. We grew plants in growth containers filled with control soil, homogeneously spiked, and heterogeneously spiked soil with Ni concentrations of 62 and 125 mg kg{sup -1}. Neutron radiography (NR) was used to observe the root distribution and the obtained images were analysed to reveal the root volumes in the spiked and unspiked segments of the growth container. There was no significant difference in root distribution pattern of B. coddii among different concentrations of Ni. Unlike B. coddii, the roots of C. arietinum initially grew into the spiked segments. However, the later developing roots did not penetrate the spiked segment suggesting an avoidance strategy. Our results indicate that, B. coddii does not forage towards the Ni-rich patches, although presence of Ni in soil changes its root morphology. - Ni heterogeneity in soil affects the morphology and root distribution patterns of Berkheya coddii and Cicer arietinum.

  17. Distribution of rare earth elements among chloroplast components of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Shu-Zhen; Wen, Bei

    2003-07-01

    A rare earth element (REE) hyperaccumulator, Dicranopteris dichotoma, that accumulates more than 0.1% REEs dry leaf mass has been discovered in southern China. The different components of chloroplast were isolated and the concentration of REEs in each component was determined by ICP-MS. The experimental data indicated that about 8% of total leaf REEs was present in the chloroplast of Dicranopteris dichotoma. In order to thoroughly study the distribution of REEs among different components of chloroplast, the membrane of chloroplast, the intact thylakoid and the photosystem II (PS II system) of D. dichotoma were isolated from the chloroplast. It was found that half of total chloroplast REEs was stored at the membrane of the chloroplast and another half was in the thylakoid. And 25% of total chloroplast REEs was bound with PS II system of D.dichotoma. The concentration of REEs in chlorophyll a was only at the level of microg/g on the bases of chlorophylls. These data are useful for understanding of both the storage of REEs in chloroplast and the effect of REEs on the photosynthesis of plants.

  18. Mycorrhizae increase arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Agely, Abid; Sylvia, David M; Ma, Lena Q

    2005-01-01

    Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) is a hyperaccumulator of arsenic (As) that grows naturally on soils in the southern United States. It is reasonable to expect that mycorrhizal symbiosis may be involved in As uptake by this fern. This is because arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have a well-documented role in increasing plant phosphorus (P) uptake, P and As have similar chemical properties, and ferns are known to be colonized by AM fungi. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment with three levels of As (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1)) and P (0, 25, and 50 mg kg(-1)) and with and without Chinese brake fern colonized by a community of AM fungi from an As-contaminated site. We found that the AM fungi not only tolerated As amendment, but their presence increased frond dry mass at the highest As application rate. Furthermore, the AM fungi increased As uptake across a range of P levels, while P uptake was generally increased only when there was no As amendment. These data indicate that AM fungi have an important role in arsenic accumulation by Chinese brake fern. Therefore, to effectively phytoremediate As-contaminated soils, the mycorrhizal status of ferns needs to be taken into account.

  19. Characterization of Streptomyces isolates causing colour changes of mural paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haliem, M E F; Sakr, A A; Ali, M F; Ghaly, M F; Sohlenkamp, C

    2013-08-25

    Paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs often suffer colour changes due to microbial growth and colonization. Streptomyces strains were isolated from mural paintings of Tell Basta and Tanis tombs (East of Nile Delta, Egypt) and were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. The16S rDNA sequences data indicated that isolated strains were closely related to S. coelicolor, S. albidofuscus, S. ambofaciens, S. canarius, S. parvullus, S. corchorusii, S. albidofuscus and S. nigrifaciens. It could be shown that Streptomyces strains are involved on a large scale in the colour changes of paintings and stone support by producing a wide range of metabolites such as acids (oxalic, citric and sulphuric acids), biopigments of melanin, carotenoids, and hydrogen sulphide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. [Facial Expression and gestures in the murals of the church in Bojana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimov, N

    1982-07-01

    The study is an attempt to analyse mimicry and gestures in six of the portraits of Christ and in another four figures of laymen in the mural paintings of the church in Bojana which were created by an unknown artist called Master of Bojana in 1259. Besides his excellent performances as an innovator in this art, we are also surprised by his talent to express the various mental conditions and interrelations of the individual figures by the play of their features and their gestures. The portraits of laymen completely convey the mental characteristics of these people while the figures of Christ may be considered as examples of high human values and virtues. This characteristic feature of the works of the Master of Bojana makes his artistic creation stand out in a more plastic and qualitative manner, permits a deeper insight into his master works and explains their irresistible effect on the viewers.

  1. Contribution to the improvement of heritage mural painting non-destructive testing by stimulated infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Di Pallo, Luigi; Detalle, Vincent; Vallet, Jean-Marc; Duvaut, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    Non-destructive testing of heritage mural paintings by means of stimulated infrared thermography has now become rather efficient [1-14]. However, pigments, which form a pictorial layer, have contrasting radiative properties possibly leading to artifact detection. In this paper, attempts to alleviate this difficulty are presented. Based on the spectroscopic study of different paint layers, one can argue that, in the medium infrared field, this radiative disparity decreases significantly. Then, with similar settings, it can be shown that ceramic radiative sources allow reaching this wavelength band. Finally, on the basis of a study carried out on an academic sample and a partial copy of a fresco from the cathedral of Angers, combining ceramic heat sources with a laboratory SAMMTHIR experimental setup enables to make real headway in terms of defects' detection.

  2. Purification and characterization of thermostable monomeric chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Chenopodium murale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Sabarinath; Khanna, Sunil; Khanna-Chopra, Renu

    2009-07-01

    Superoxide dismutase is the first line of defense against oxidative stress and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Chenopodium murale, a weed species adapted to widely varying climatic conditions faces extremes of temperatures ranging from 4 °C to 45 °C (Tmax) during growth and development. From this plant, we have purified a thermostable chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Chl Cu/Zn SOD) to homogeneity using minimal steps. Incubation of lysed chloroplasts at 70 °C for 1h reduced the interference of cytosolic SOD isoforms and reduced the protein content by 75 %. Chloroplastic SOD was purified from the heat stable fraction by gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme had a native molecular weight of 24 kDa, a half-life of 47.9 min at 80 °C and showed a single band at 24 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The N-terminus contained the conserved amino acids of chl Cu-Zn SOD. The Chl Cu/Zn SOD protein and its activity were enhanced under very high temperatures, high light intensities and in water stress/recovered C. murale plants under controlled environment conditions. Chl Cu/Zn SOD was also one of the predominant isoforms throughout growing period in field grown plants and declined during senescence. The Chl Cu/Zn SOD activity increased with the increase in ambient temperature and peaked in April with a 45 °C Tmax. These results clearly indicate that the chloroplastic Cu/Zn SOD is stably expressed at extreme environmental conditions. The presence of stable monomeric chloroplastic Cu/Zn SOD might help the plants to maintain the cellular homeostatis against adverse environmental conditions.

  3. Digital non-metric image-based documentation for the preservation and restoration of mural paintings: the case of the Üzümlü Rock-hewn Church, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Higuchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital photography is a valuable documentation technique for the preservation of a cultural heritage site because highresolution photography presents both general and detailed views of mural paintings and mural condition in a single image. Advanced digital technology is particularly helpful for preserving and restoring mural paintings given that the painting condition is recorded on high-resolution base maps shows how mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, mechanical damages and inappropriate treatments, among others. In addition, photogrammetric software technology is rapidly advancing and being applied to the digital documentation of mural paintings or rock art. Nevertheless, human experience and investigation of mural paintings is indispensable for recording the condition of mural paintings, and this highlights that every step of documentation conducted in situ is desirable. However, images by photogrammetric software do not show sufficient resolution because most normal portable computers used on-site are not usually sufficient. Based on our experience at the Üzümlü Church in Cappadocia, Turkey, we propose a new approach to document mural conditions in situ for preservation and restoration. Our method is based on a comparison of a non-metric but approximate high-resolution image with the actual mural paintings. The method does not require special instruments and enables digital documentation of the mural condition in situ at a low cost, in a short time frame and using minimal human resources.

  4. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Longhua, E-mail: lhwu@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Pengjie [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai 264003 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola.

  5. In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-05-01

    Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs.

  6. Effects of Cu on the content of chlorophylls and secondary metabolites in the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen Stereocaulon japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Hara, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Kiminori

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Cu and Cu-hyperaccumulator lichens is important for their application in monitoring and assessing heavy metal pollution. We investigated the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen Stereocaulon japonicum at several Cu-polluted and control sites in Japan, and found the lichen to be widely distributed. Its concentrations of Cu, chlorophylls, and secondary metabolites, chlorophyll-related indices, and absorption spectra were measured, and we observed negative effects of Cu on these concentrations and indices. For highly Cu-polluted samples (>100ppm dry weight), however, we found significant linear correlations between Cu and chlorophyll concentrations. This can be considered as the response of the photobiont in S. japonicum to Cu stress. In highly Cu-polluted samples the chlorophyll-related indices and concentration of total secondary metabolites were almost constant regardless of Cu concentration. This suggests that the increase in chlorophyll concentration with the increase in Cu concentration enhances photosynthetic productivity per unit biomass, which will allow the production of extra structure and energy for maintaining the chlorophyll-related indices under Cu stress. The relationship between the increase in chlorophyll concentration of S. japonicum and the decrease in secondary metabolite concentration of the lichen can be explained by considering the balance of carbohydrates in the lichen. We found that a spectral index A372-A394 can be a useful index of the concentrations of Cu and total secondary metabolites in S. japonicum. These findings show the adjustment of the content of chlorophylls and secondary metabolites in S. japonicum to Cu stress, and provide a better understanding of the relationship between Cu and the Cu-hyperaccumulator lichen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression in mural nodules of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasunori; Aishima, Shinichi; Shindo, Koji; Fujino, Minoru; Mizuuchi, Yusuke; Hattori, Masami; Miyazaki, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Masao; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-07-01

    In intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), the presence of a mural nodule showing a papillary or nodular proliferation of tumor cells in the dilated pancreatic duct is an indication for resection of IPMN. Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1, known as glucose transporter type 1 (SLC2A1/GLUT1) mediates cellular glucose uptake in many carcinomas and is correlated with increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake. We examined SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression in the mural nodules of 180 IPMN specimens to distinguish malignant/benign tumors. A mural nodule was detected in 80 (44.4%) of the IPMNs, and was detected in 18.6% (13/70) of the IPMN-low (dysplasia) specimens, 36.1% (13/36) of the IPMN-int, 93.3% (28/30) of the IPMN-high, and 59.1% (26/44) of the IPMN-inv (with an associated invasive carcinoma) specimens. The sensitivity for detecting mural nodules was 81.7% by endoscopic ultrasonography, 70% by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and 54% by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression in the mural nodules was recognized in the basal and basolateral cytomembrane of tumor cells and was expressed in 15.4% (2/13) of the IPMN-low, 15.4% (2/13) of the IPMN-int, 71.4% (20/28) of the IPMN-high and 84.6% (22/26) of the IPMN-inv groups. The SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression was significantly higher in the IPMN-high and IPMN-inv mural nodules than in those of the IPMN-low and IPMN-int groups. Our findings suggest that SLC2A1/GLUT1 is expressed late in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence during carcinogenesis in IPMN, and SLC2A1/GLUT1 act as therapeutic target for malignant IPMN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Mural-graffiti as a way of national self-preservation:…because there is no way back!: Serbian Gernika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Radomir D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Main theme in this paper are mural graffiti as specific group of graffiti which emerges in last decade of 20th century and which remain to this day. Author deals with their theoretical research and generalization, in order to pay attention towards domestic mural - graffitism in further elaboration. A specific movement in domestic mural - graffitism originates in the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica which is designated by author as national-cohesive. It is based on mural-graffiti which is known by sentence written in the upper part of picture: 'jer, odavde nema nazad!' ('..because there is no way back!'. This mural-graffiti express all of the dilemmas of the Serbs in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohia, and it originated as the result of desperate aspirations to save the Serbian part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica, but as well the wider territory, from Albanian (Shqiptar territorial pretensions and secessionism from the Serbian state. Greater (southern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica hold Albanian population. With its text and message this graffiti could be only compared with only one masterpiece in Europe - 'Gernika' that was painted by Spanish artist Picasso. Hence, author theoretically and competently explicate, believing that mural - graffiti in Kosovska Mitrovica, according to many factors, has that particularly value which has 'Gernika' for the Europe and the World. While 'Gernika' express global protest in order not to repeat the suffering of innocent civils in a war, thus 'Serbian Gernika' reflexes in itself 'roar and cry', strength and dedication of one part of the Serbian people to remain on theirs homeland, no matter how can that be hazardous for them. In days that will come and in days that preceded to the, so called 'Bruxelles Agreement' (in according to, Serbian population must fall under the jurisdiction of the self-proclaimed 'establishment of Republic of Kosovo', this kind of message and picture on

  9. Characterization of the Teotihuacan mural painting: application of the external particle beam as non destructive technique; Caracterizacion de la pintura mural Teotihuacana: aplicacion de haz de particulas externo como tecnica no destructiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, C.; Manzanilla, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ruvalcaba, J.L. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ontalba, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The characterization of technical indicators contained in the painting mural should follow a minim methodology from their discovery in the archaeological excavations until their analysis in the laboratory, with the purpose of rescuing diagnostic elements that mark the stages of socio cultural development in the towns. With this spirit it was carried out the present study analyzing some fragments of the Teotihuacan mural painting. The analysis consisted on applying some of the analytical techniques with particle beams used for archaeometry like the Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the particle elastic backscattering (RBS), due to it is treated of complementary techniques, very sensitive, of multielemental character, but mainly because its are non destructive analytical techniques. (Author)

  10. Daclatasvir inhibits hepatitis C virus NS5A motility and hyper-accumulation of phosphoinositides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukkapalli, Vineela; Berger, Kristi L.; Kelly, Sean M.; Thomas, Meryl; Deiters, Alexander; Randall, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have the potential to revolutionize the HCV therapeutic regime. An integral component of DAA combination therapies are HCV NS5A inhibitors. It has previously been proposed that NS5A DAAs inhibit two functions of NS5A: RNA replication and virion assembly. In this study, we characterize the impact of a prototype NS5A DAA, daclatasvir (DCV), on HCV replication compartment formation. DCV impaired HCV replicase localization and NS5A motility. In order to characterize the mechanism behind altered HCV replicase localization, we examined the impact of DCV on the interaction of NS5A with its essential cellular cofactor, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III α (PI4KA). We observed that DCV does not inhibit PI4KA directly, nor does it impair early events of the NS5A-PI4KA interaction that can occur when NS5A is expressed alone. NS5A functions that are unaffected by DCV include PI4KA binding, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation, and a basal accumulation of the PI4KA product, PI4P. However, DCV impairs late steps in PI4KA activation that requires NS5A expressed in the context of the HCV polyprotein. These NS5A functions include hyper-stimulation of PI4P levels and appropriate replication compartment formation. The data are most consistent with a model wherein DCV inhibits conformational changes in the NS5A protein or protein complex formations that occur in the context of HCV polyprotein expression and stimulate PI4P hyper-accumulation and replication compartment formation. PMID:25546252

  11. Cadmium tolerance of carbon assimilation enzymes and chloroplast in Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Rong-Rong; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Tang, Ye-Tao; Hu, Peng-Jie; Qiu, Hao; Chen, Hong-Ru; Shi, Tai-Hong; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-15

    To better understand the photosynthesis under stress, the effect of cadmium on carbon assimilation and chloroplast ultrastructure of a newly found Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata in China was investigated in solution culture. The shoot and root Cd concentrations increased with increase in Cd supply, reaching maxima of 1109 and 5604mgkg(-1) dry weight at 75microM Cd, respectively. As Cd supply to P. divaricata increased, the shoot and root dry weight, leaf water content (except 75microM Cd), concentrations of chlorophyll a and b, chlorophyll a/b ratio and the concentration of carotenoids were not depressed at high Cd. However, the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate and intercellular CO(2) concentration were significantly affected when the Cd concentration reached 10, 10, 25 and 75microM, respectively. Meanwhile, carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) activity and Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) content reached maxima in the presence of 50 and 5microM Cd, respectively. In addition, CA activity correlated positively with shoot Cd in plants treated with Cd at a range of 0-50microM. Moreover, the activities of NADP(+)-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13), Rubisco and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) were not significantly suppressed by increased Cd supply. Although the mesophyll cell size was reduced, chloroplast ultrastructure remained intact at the highest Cd treatment. Our finding revealed that P. divaricata chloroplast and the enzymes of carbon assimilation tolerate high levels of Cd, demonstrating its potential in possible application in phytoremediation.

  12. Lewis acid catalysis and Green oxidations: sequential tandem oxidation processes induced by Mn-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Vincent; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Among the phytotechnologies used for the reclamation of degraded mining sites, phytoextraction aims to diminish the concentration of polluting elements in contaminated soils. However, the biomass resulting from the phytoextraction processes (highly enriched in polluting elements) is too often considered as a problematic waste. The manganese-enriched biomass derived from native Mn-hyperaccumulating plants of New Caledonia was presented here as a valuable source of metallic elements of high interest in chemical catalysis. The preparation of the catalyst Eco-Mn1 and reagent Eco-Mn2 derived from Grevillea exul exul and Grevillea exul rubiginosa was investigated. Their unusual polymetallic compositions allowed to explore new reactivity of low oxidative state of manganese-Mn(II) for Eco-Mn1 and Mn(IV) for Eco-Mn2. Eco-Mn1 was used as a Lewis acid to catalyze the acetalization/elimination of aldehydes into enol ethers with high yields; a new green and stereoselective synthesis of (-)-isopulegol via the carbonyl-ene cyclization of (+)-citronellal was also performed with Eco-Mn1. Eco-Mn2 was used as a mild oxidative reagent and controlled the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols into aldehydes with quantitative yields. Oxidative cleavage was interestingly noticed when Eco-Mn2 was used in the presence of a polyol. Eco-Mn2 allowed direct oxidative iodination of ketones without using iodine, which is strongly discouraged by new environmental legislations. Finally, the combination of the properties in the Eco-Mn catalysts and reagents gave them an unprecedented potential to perform sequential tandem oxidation processes through new green syntheses of p-cymene from (-)-isopulegol and (+)-citronellal; and a new green synthesis of functionalized pyridines by in situ oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines.

  13. Soil pollution assessment and identification of hyperaccumulating plants in chromated copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated sites, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Awad, Yasser M; Lim, Kyoung Jae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-05-01

    In recent decades, heavy metal contamination in soil adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has received increasing attention. This study was conducted to determine the pollution level (PL) based on the concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in soils and to evaluate the remediative capacity of native plant species grown in the CCA contaminated site, Gangwon Province, Korea. The pollution index (PI), integrated pollution index (IPI), bioaccumulation factors (BAF(shoots) and BAF(roots)) and translocation factor (TF) were determined to ensure soil contamination and phytoremediation availability. The 19 soil samples from 10 locations possibly contaminated with Cr, Cu and As were collected. The concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in the soil samples ranged from 50.56-94.13 mg kg(-1), 27.78-120.83 mg kg(-1), and 0.13-9.43 mg kg(-1), respectively. Generally, the metal concentrations decreased as the distance between the CCA-treated wood structure and sampling point increased. For investigating phytoremediative capacity, the 19 native plant species were also collected in the same area with soil samples. Our results showed that only one plant species of Iris ensata, which presented the highest accumulations of Cr (1120 mg kg(-1)) in its shoot, was identified as a hyperaccumulator. Moreover, the relatively higher values of BAF(shoot) (3.23-22.10) were observed for Typha orientalis, Iris ensata and Scirpus radicans Schk, suggesting that these plant species might be applicable for selective metal extraction from the soils. For phytostabilization, the 15 plant species with BAF(root) values>1 and TF values<1 were suitable; however, Typha orientalis was the best for Cr. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analytical Study of the Materials Used in Mural Paintings in the Love Chamber of El Sakakeny Palace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholod Khairy Salama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a comprehensive investigation has been undertaken into mural paintings dating to the 19 th century and painted by Italian students. They were initially located in El Sakakeny Palace in El Sakakeny Square in Egypt. The analytical instruments used for investigation were Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy with EDX, X-Ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR. The analysis revealed that the pigments used in the mural paintings were hematite, litharge, zincate, gold oxide, Goethite (brown ochre and malachite mixed with linseed oil or animal glue. The original ground layer comprises zincate with gypsum. The medium used in the ground layer is animal glue and the support is limestone.

  15. Conservation State of Mural Paintings from a Historic House in Florianópolis-SC, Brazil. A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina ESCORTEGANHA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific approach to conservation and monitoring of mural paintings executed in a historic house with an eclectic style of the twentieth century, located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, is an example of interdisciplinary collaboration between conservators, historians, and scientists in planning and development actions for preventive maintenance as well as interventions of restoration. The mural paintings are recognized worldwide as an architectural element and property, which records the representations of the cultural landscape of an age. In this context, the painting technique found in this house and its state of conservation were investigated by evaluation of pigmented surfaces and then by optical and spectroscopic (IR and EDX techniques. These results were crucial for the record of the characteristic painting present in this building, showing a period marked by intense urban renewal in Brazilian cities.

  16. Une nouvelle approche spatio-temporelle et analytique pour la conservation des peintures murales sur le long terme

    OpenAIRE

    Vallet, Jean-Marc; De Luca, Livio; Feillou, Marie

    2012-01-01

    La conservation des peintures murales nécessite de comprendre la nature des désordres les affectant, d’évaluer la qualité dans le temps des restaurations et des mesures conservatoires. Pour ce faire et du fait d’une documentation importante, hétérogène, du caractère multicouches et multimatériaux des peintures murales, de leur environnement, un nouvel outil est développé. Cette base de données interactive et prévisionnelle, intégrant données spatiales et temporelles est expérimentée sur les f...

  17. Recurrent unicystic mural type ameloblastoma in a 9-year-old boy, 8 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Sengüven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicystic ameloblastoma is not a rare odontogenic tumor in the pediatric population. A significant care should be given to unicystic ameloblastoma if it has mural invasions due to its local aggressiveness, high recurrence rates and radical management options as in conventional ameloblastoma. Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a rapid, non-traumatic diagnostic method that provides a required attention prior to surgery. We present an excisionsl biopsy proved FNA diagnosed mural type unicystic ameloblastoma in a 9-year-old child recurred as a solid ameloblastoma after 8 years. When distinctive features of ameloblastoma are known, an accurate diagnosis can be made by FNA cytology, in combination with clinicoradiological findings. This method gives benefit to the patients especially the younger ones both for the pre-operative surgical planning and the post-operative follow-up.

  18. Evaluation of bowel distension and mural visualisation using neutral oral contrast agents for multidetector-row computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee Kuan; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Rahmat, Kartini; Lam, Sze Yin; Liew, Yew Wai

    2012-11-01

    We compared the effectiveness of different types of non-commercial neutral oral contrast agents for bowel distension and mural visualisation in computed tomographic (CT) enterography. 90 consecutive patients from a group of 108 were randomly assigned to receive water (n = 30), 3.8% milk (n = 30) or 0.1% gastrografin (n = 30) as oral contrast agent. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists who were blinded to the contrast agents used. The degree of bowel distension was qualitatively scored on a four-point scale. The discrimination of bowel loops, mural visualisation and visualisation of mucosal folds were evaluated on a 'yes' or 'no' basis. Side effects of the various agents were also recorded. 3.8% milk was significantly superior to water for bowel distension (jejunum, ileum and terminal ileum), discrimination of bowel loops (jejunum and ileum), mural visualisation and visualisation of mucosal folds (ileum and terminal ileum). It was also significantly superior to 0.1% gastrografin for bowel distension, discrimination of bowel loops, mural visualisation and visualisation of mucosal folds (jejunum, ileum and terminal ileum). However, 10% of patients who received 3.8% milk reported immediate post-test diarrhoea. No side effects were documented for patients who received water and 0.1% gastrografin. 3.8% milk is an effective and superior neutral oral contrast agent for the assessment of the jejunum, ileum and terminal ileum in CT enterography. However, further studies are needed to explore other suitable oral contrast agents for CT enterography in lactose- or cow's milk-intolerant patients.

  19. Biofortification of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit with the anticancer compound methylselenocysteine using a selenocysteine methyltransferase from a selenium hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummell, David A; Watson, Lyn M; Pathirana, Ranjith; Joyce, Nigel I; West, Phillip J; Hunter, Donald A; McKenzie, Marian J

    2011-10-26

    Methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) is an amino acid derivative that possesses potent anticancer activity in animals. Plants that can tolerate growth on soils with high Se content, known as Se hyperaccumulators, do so by converting inorganic Se to MeSeCys by the enzyme selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT). A cDNA encoding the SMT from a Se hyperaccumulator was overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Transgenic plants were provided with selenite or selenate to the roots during fruit development, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to show that MeSeCys accumulated in the fruit but not in the leaves. Depending on the transgenic line and Se treatment, up to 16% of the total Se in the fruit was present as MeSeCys. MeSeCys was produced more effectively from selenite on a percentage conversion basis, but greater accumulation of MeSeCys could be achieved from selenate due to its better translocation from the roots. MeSeCys was heat stable and survived processing of the fruit to tomato juice.

  20. Characterization of a Selenium-Tolerant Rhizosphere Strain from a Novel Se-Hyperaccumulating Plant Cardamine hupingshanesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhao Tong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel selenium- (Se- hyperaccumulating plant, Cardamine hupingshanesis, accumulating Se as a form of SeCys2, was discovered in Enshi, Hubei, China, which could not be explained by present selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT theory. However, it is interesting to investigate if rhizosphere bacteria play some roles during SeCys2 accumulation. Here, one Se-tolerant rhizosphere strain, Microbacterium oxydans, was isolated from C. hupingshanesis. Phylogenetic analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined the strain as a kind of Gram positive bacillus and belonged to the family Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. Furthermore, Se tolerance test indicated the strain could grow in extreme high Se level of 15.0 mg Se L−1. When exposed to 1.5 mg Se L−1, SeCys2 was the predominant Se species in the bacteria, consistent with the Se species in C. hupingshanesis. This coincidence might reveal that this strain played some positive effect in SeCys2 accumulation of C. hupingshanesis. Moreover, when exposed to 1.5 mg Se L−1 or 15.0 mg Se L−1, As absorption diminished in the logarithmic phase. In contrast, As absorption increased when exposed to 7.5 mg Se L−1, indicating As metabolism processes could be affected by Se on this strain. The present study provided a sight on the role of rhizosphere bacteria during Se accumulation for Se-hyperaccumulating plant.

  1. Microbial communities analysis assessed by pyrosequencing--a new approach applied to conservation state studies of mural paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, T; Mirão, J; Candeias, A; Caldeira, A T

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the microbial communities present in mural paintings is of utmost importance to develop effective conservation and mitigation strategies. The present paper describes a methodological approach for the detailed characterisation of microorganisms thriving in mural paintings by combining culture-dependent methods that allow the identification of microorganisms capable of growing in the laboratory conditions and to obtain high cell densities for further studies, and culture independent methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The coupled use of culture-dependent methods and DGGE does not give enough information to investigate the diversity and abundance of microorganisms present in wall paintings. Pyrosequencing, a novel molecular technique, used here for the first time in this area of research, allowed the identification of a large number of microorganisms, confirming some already identified by the cultivation-dependent methods such as fungi of the genera Penicillium and Cladosporium, but also providing a great contribution in the identification of several genera and species, not previously identified in these artworks, giving also a detailed overview of contaminants which was not possible with the other approaches. The results obtained on several mural painting samples show a strong relationship between the most deteriorated areas of the paintings and higher microbial contamination.

  2. Expression of the Znt1 zinc transporter from the metal hyperaccumulator noccaea caerulescens confers enhanced zinc and cadmium tolerance and accumulation to arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ya Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, S.; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis.

  3. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kump, Peter [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: marjana.regvar@bf.uni-lj.si

    2006-01-15

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake.

  4. La pintura mural hispano-musulmana. ¿Tradición o innovación?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rallo Gruss, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally thought that in Western Europe and at the end of the medieval period, tempera paint with oil as a medium was applied to dry plaster walls because the Roman technique for painting on wet plaster (al fresco had been forgotten. Texts such as the Libro dell'Arte by Cennino Cennini discuss the recovery of the fresco technique by some of the founding painters of the Italian Renaissance, such as Giotto. From Renaissance Italy, it is argued, the technique expanded to the rest of Europe. However, in medieval Hispanic monuments with Islamic iconography there is evidence of painted fresco decoration dated prior to the fifteenth century. This paper studies the sources of this technical tradition by analysing examples of Iberian, Roman, Islamic, Mudéjar and Morisco mural painting.

    El convencimiento de que a finales de la Edad Media las paredes eran decoradas con pintura al seco, realizada con temple, más o menos graso, olvidando la técnica de pintura al fresco utilizada habitualmente por los romanos, es algo admitido para toda la Europa Occidental. Textos como el Libro dell´Arte de Cennino Cennini nos hablan de su recuperación por los iniciadores del Renacimiento italiano como el Giotto; desde allí se expandirá la técnica a todos los países europeos. Sin embargo, en los monumentos hispanos con iconografía de tradición islámica se siguen realizando decoraciones al fresco hasta el siglo XV. En busca de explicaciones a esta excepción, en este artículo se buscan las fuentes de esa tradición técnica, analizando ejemplos de pintura mural ibera, romana, islámica y «de lo morisco» o mudéjar. El estudio se centra en los materiales utilizados, incluso con analítica de laboratorio, en paralelo con los motivos estilísticos que se encuentran en cada época.

  5. Guacamaya: símbolo de temporalidad y fertilidad en dos ejemplos de pintura mural The Macaw: a Symbol of Temporality and Fertility in Two Examples from Mural Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Navarijo Ornelas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el pensamiento prehispánico, la guacamaya (Ara macao y Ara militaris ocupó un lugar preferente, como lo atestigua su imagen plasmada en los murales creados por diferentes pueblos, como el maya, el zapoteca, el teotihuacano, o como se ve en Cacaxtla. Esto no es una coincidencia, por lo que este estudio tiene por objeto analizar y reconocer la identidad taxonómica de los individuos recreados, además de argumentar su presencia en el lenguaje pictórico como un medio de expresión gráfica irrefutable. Para este fin se trabaja con la pintura mural de dos sitios arqueológicos: el mural 1, Los pájaros, de la Estructura 86 en Xelhá, situado en la zona norte de Quintana Roo; y el mural oriente del Templo Rojo en Cacaxtla, Tlaxcala. De acuerdo con las modalidades de representación gráfica y bajo los criterios de integración temática se aborda la lectura de las escenas considerando a los otros elementos iconográficos que las integran. El resultado es una propuesta de participación simbólica de las guacamayas enfocada en la abstracción del tiempo a partir de la conducta diaria y estacional de esta especie de psitácido ruidosa (y de plumaje llamativo y sugerente; también se considera la asociación de estos animales con los conceptos de vida, movimiento y temporalidad, y con el Sol y el agua (este último como el elemento primordial vinculado con la fertilidad.In pre-Hispanic thought, Macaw (Ara macao and Ara militaris occupy a place of honour, as witness its image captured in the murals created by different peoples, such as the Maya, the Zapotec, the ancient inhabitants of Teotihuacan and Cacaxtla. This is not a coincidence, which is why this study aims to analyze and recognize the taxonomic identity of recreated individuals, as well as argue their presence in the pictorial language as a mean of irrefutable graphic expression. To this end works with mural paintings from two archaeological sites are analyzed: the mural 1 "The birds" of

  6. Effect of organic fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk. clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. and dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2010. The design was split plot with three replications. Main plots were the medicinal plant species consist of: blond psyllium (Plantago ovate Forssk., clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L. and subplots were various organic fertilizer consist of cow manure, vermicompost (based on cow manure, coffee compost and spent mushroom compost. Results showed that medicinal plants had significant difference for number of seeds per plant, shoot dry matter, seed yield, plant height and mucilage percentage. Effect of various organic matter on all traits except for 1000-seed weight was significant. Interaction of organic fertilizers and plant was significant for dry matter. Lalementia had the most mucilage percentage (27.75% and cow manure was the best fertilizer because it had the highest amounts of dry matter (1816 kg.ha-1, seed yield (467.5 kg.ha-1, number seed per plant (550 seeds.plant-1, plant height (23.17 cm and mucilage percentage (20.75%.

  7. A PROJEÇÃO IDENTITÁRIA NO "MURAL DE HISTÓRIAS" DE MAYSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Moreira Fernandes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, fazemos uma breve reflexão sobre os mecanismos de projeção e formação identitárias presentes no espaço "Mural de Histórias", do portal da minissérie Maysa: quando fala o coração, exibida em 2009 pela TV Globo. A metodologia da análise de conteúdo nos permitiu categorizar as várias facetas da cantora comentadas pelos internautas. Utilizando os estudos de Aluizio Trinta sobre os mecanismos de projeção-identificação, pudemos inferir que parcela dos internautas se dispôs a refletir sobre a identidade deles. Também percebemos que as múltiplas plataformas criadas pela emissora permitem uma aproximação maior do público e um espaço para manifestações de alegrias e angústias.

  8. ATP bioluminescence method: tool for rapid screening of organic and microbial contaminants on deteriorated mural paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unković, Nikola; Ljaljević Grbić, Milica; Stupar, Miloš; Vukojević, Jelena; Subakov-Simić, Gordana; Jelikić, Aleksa; Stanojević, Dragan

    2015-11-24

    The extent of the microbial contamination of the seventeenth-century wall paintings in the nave of the old Church of the Holy Ascension (Veliki Krčimir, Serbia) was evaluated via newly implemented ATP bioluminescence method, and traditional cultivation-based method, utilising commercially available dip slides. To assess the validity of ATP, as a biomarker for rapid detection of mural surface contamination, obtained zones of cleanliness values, in range from 1.0 to 5.3, were compared to documented total microbial counts, ranging between seven and 247 CFU/cm 2 . Small coefficients of determination, 0.0106-0.0385, suggest poor correlation between microbial counts and surface ATP levels; however, zones of cleanliness values are of great help in determining the high points of contamination, aka 'hotspots', which should be given special attention during sampling and investigation using other methods. In addition, various aspects of the possible implementation of the ATP bioluminescence method in an integrated system of wall painting conservation are discussed.

  9. Chemical, morphological and chromatic behavior of mural paintings under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striova, J.; Camaiti, M.; Castellucci, E. M.; Sansonetti, A.

    2011-08-01

    Several pigments (malachite CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, azurite 2CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, yellow ochre (goethite α-FeOOH, gypsum CaSO4ṡ2H2O), St. John's white CaCO3 formed from slaked lime) and respective mural paintings specimens were subjected to the free-running Er:YAG laser radiation in order to study their damage thresholds, in a broad range of laser fluences, both in dry and wet conditions. The specimens' damage thresholds were evaluated by spectroscopic methods, colorimetric measurements and microscopic observation. The pigments containing -OH groups were found to be more sensitive than St. John's white; hence the most sensitive paint layers in dry conditions are those containing malachite, azurite (both 1.3 J/cm2) and yellow ochre (2.5 J/cm2) as compared to the ones containing St. John's white (15.2 J/cm2). The presence of wetting agents (w.a.) attenuated the pigments chemical alteration. The damage thresholds of all the paint layers, in presence of w.a., were found to be around 2.5 J/cm2. The alteration was caused by thermo-mechanical damage and by binding medium ablation of a fresco and a secco prepared specimens, respectively.

  10. The Case of Capogrossi in Rome: Collecting Data with Different Technologies on a Contemporary Mural Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzadri, P.; Russo, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the presentation of a part of the main thematic data documenting the pathologies and the degradation problems of a contemporary mural painting, which was designed and carried out by the italian artist Giuseppe Capogrossi in 1954. This forgotten masterpiece is developed on the ceilings of the main double stairscase at the entrance of the Airone, an ex-cinema-theatre in Rome (Italy). In time, the original project was completely damaged and now the Airone cinema is abandoned since 1999; the decoration, strictly connected to the function of the original project, has been completely covered by synthetic coatings. The documentation of the observed pathologies and the original materials of the lower ceiling takes place during a restoration project in 2015-2016 and was accomplished by utilizing different technologies in order to facilitate the collecting of the main data within several graphic thematic tables. The challenge of this documentation was to create a contact point, and perhaps also a contamination, between the practices of CAD graphic documentation, restoration and GIS technology.

  11. Pulmonary cavitary mass containing a mural nodule: differential diagnosis between intracavitary aspergilloma and cavitating lung cancer on contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.S. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: tskim.kim@samsung.com; Yi, C.A. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, E.Y. [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y.S. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Aim: The objective of this study was to identify whether there were any significant differences in the computed tomography (CT) findings of an intracavitary aspergilloma and a cavitating lung cancer containing a mural nodule. Materials and methods: The CT and histopathological findings of 12 patients (male:female ratio 3:9; aged 51-76 years) with cavitating lung cancer containing a mural nodule and 26 patients (male:female ratio 14:12; aged 29-72 years) with intracavitary aspergilloma were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The mural nodules within cavitating lung cancer were more enhanced (p < 0.001) and showed a nondependent location more frequently (p = 0.012) than those of intracavitary aspergillomas. The cavitary walls were thicker in cavitating lung cancer (mean 5.8 mm thick) than those in intracavitary aspergillomas (mean 2.6 mm thick; p = 0.035). Adjacent bronchiectasis and volume decrease of the involved lobe were observed more frequently in intracavitary aspergillomas than in cavitating lung cancers (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: Whether a mural nodule within a cavitary lesion is contrast-enhanced or not is one of the most important features in making a differential diagnosis between an intracavitary aspergilloma and a cavitating lung cancer. Assessment of dependent location of a mural nodule within the cavity and wall thickness of the cavity itself can also be helpful for differentiation.

  12. The effect of mycorrhiza on the growth and elemental composition of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii Roessler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska, Elżbieta; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Orlowski, Dariusz; Turnau, Katarzyna; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta

    2011-12-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and element uptake by Ni-hyperaccumulating plant, Berkheya coddii, was studied. Plants were grown under laboratory conditions on ultramafic soil without or with the AM fungi of different origin. The AM colonization, especially with the indigenous strain, significantly enhanced plants growth and their survival. AMF affected also the elemental concentrations that were studied with Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). AMF (i) increased K and Fe in shoots, Zn and Mn in roots, P and Ca both, in roots and shoots; (ii) decreased Mn in shoots, Co and Ni both, in shoots and roots. Due to higher biomass of mycorrhizal plants, total Ni content was up to 20 times higher in mycorrhizal plants compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones. The AMF enhancement of Ni uptake may therefore provide an improvement of a presently used technique of nickel phytomining. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Infarto cerebral hemorrágico por embolización de un trombo mural cardíaco Hemorrhagic cerebral infarction due to embolization of a mural thrombus within the right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    R. Marín; Rico, A.; Blanco, M.; E. Barrero; I. Manresa; Santos, M; J. Lucena

    2008-01-01

    Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares son consecuencia de una alteración en la circulación cerebral. Su forma más distintiva de presentación es el ictus, entendido como un déficit neurológico focal de instauración brusca y evolución rápida. Un infarto cerebral de origen oclusivo puede deberse bien a una trombosis in situ o bien a una embolia procedente de un foco distante. En las embolias cerebrales la causa principal son los trombos murales cardiacos y el área encefálica afectada con mayor frec...

  14. Effect of microbial siderophore DFO-B on Cd accumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens hyperaccumulator in the presence of zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Lotfollah; Heilmeier, Hermann; Merkel, Broder J

    2012-07-01

    Hyperaccumulators are grown in contaminated soil and water in order that contaminants are taken up and accumulated. Transport of metals from soil to plant is initially dependent on the solubility and mobility of metals in soil solution which is controlled by soil and metal properties and plant physiology. Complexation with organic and inorganic ligands may increase mobility and availability of metals for plants. In this work the influence of desferrioxamine-B (DFO-B), which naturally is produced in the rhizosphere, and zeolite on Cd accumulation in root and shoot of Thlaspi caerulescens (Cd hyperaccumulator) was investigated. Plants were grown in pots with clean quartz sand, amended with 1% zeolite; treatment solutions included 0, 10, and 100 μM Cd and 70 μM DFO-B. Addition of zeolite to the quartz sand significantly reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues and translocation from root to shoot. On contrary, DFO-B considerably enhanced Cd sorption by roots and translocation to aerial part of plants. Treating the plants with zeolite and DFO-B together at 10 μM Cd resulted in reduction of the bioaccumulation factor but enhancement of Cd translocation from root to shoot at the rate of 13%. In contrast, at 100 μM Cd in the solution both bioaccumulation and translocation factors decreased. Total metal accumulation as a key factor for evaluating the efficiency of phytoremediation was highly influenced by treatments. Presence of zeolite in pots significantly decreased total Cd accumulation by plants, whereas, DFO-B clearly enhanced it. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of zinc and cadmium interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in a hyperaccumulating species under hydroponic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tingqiang, E-mail: litq@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe; Lu Lingli [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Islam, Ejazul [Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam, 48800 Hyderabad (Pakistan); He Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945 (United States)

    2009-09-30

    Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Specific root lengths (SRL), specific root surface areas (SRA) and specific root volumes (SRV) of the HE increased significantly when plant were treated with 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas these root parameters were significantly decreased for the NHE when plant were treated with 100 {mu}M Cd, 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn. SRL and SRA of the HE were mainly constituted by roots with diameter between 0.2-0.4 mm (diameter class 3 and 4) which were significantly increased in treatment of 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas in the NHE, metal treatments caused a significant decrease in SRL and SRA of the finest diameter class root (diameter between 0.1-0.3 mm). The HE of S. alfredii could maintain a fine, widely branched root system under contaminated conditions compared with the NHE. Relative root growth, net Cd uptake and translocation rate in the HE were significantly increased by adding 500 {mu}M Zn, as compared with the second growth period, where 100 {mu}M Cd was supplied alone. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the HE were 12-16 times and 22-27 times higher than those of the NHE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn combined treatment. These results indicate strong positive interactions of Zn and Cd occurred in the HE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn treatment and Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced by adding 500 {mu}M Zn.

  16. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    observed in so-called hyperaccumulating metalophytes, which are studied for its suitability to be incorporated in metal recovery processes of elements that diffusely occur in different waste streams. In a systematic series of tests under laboratory conditions the accumulation behaviour for many different elements including rare earth metals of a selection of candidate plants growing on sewage sludge, incineration residues and industrial leftovers was assessed (quantitavely and qualitatively). Growth performance of these plants as well as the most suitable substrate properties were evaluated. The results of this project provided the groundwork for further research and development steps that might bring to practical implementation a technological option with potentially huge benefits: The recovery of valuable metal resources from sewage sludge, incineration ashes and metal rich wastewaters by environmentally friendly and low energy means. Simultaneous decontamination of the input substrates from heavy metals, opening the possibility for these nutrient streams to be redirected to biological regeneration processes (for example use as fertilizers in agriculture) without fear of polluting soils with heavy metal loads. Generation of biomass on contaminated substrates can yield usable energy surplus through incineration during or after processing.

  17. Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

    2014-05-01

    samples were taken at four locations (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4) with different levels of Pb. The Pb soil content (mean ± standard deviation) in mg•kg-1 is as follows: CA1 3992 ± 301; CA2 10128 ± 2247, CA3 14197 ± 895, CA4 16060 ± 810. The non-polluted value around the mine was Pb 124 mg•kg-1. Unusual elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and TF greater than one were detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens). The location CA4 has the maximum content of Pb in the shoots of Ageratina sp. (5045±77 mg•kg-1), C. apalothica (3367±188 mg•kg-1), E. denticulatum (13599±848 mg•kg-1), T. officinalis (2533±47 mg•kg-1) and T. repens (2839±231 mg•kg-1). However, the BF (Bioaccumulation Factor) was smaller than one. Despite the low BF index, the great TFs for Pb indicate that these plant species effectively translocate this metal (i.e., 2.4 for Ageratina sp., 2.3 for C. apalothica, 1.6 for T. repens, 1.5 for A. alata, 1.3 for T. officinalis and 1.2 for E. denticulatum). It seems that the BF is not a reliable index when the metal soil concentration is extremely large. Controlled-environment studies must be performed to definitively confirm the Pb hyperaccumulation character of cited plant species.

  18. Study of mural paintings by Fulvio Pennacchi in São Paulo City by mineralogical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A. Del Lama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research deals with two mural paintings made in 1947 with the fresco technique by Fulvio Pennacchi in the Catholic Chapel of the Hospital das Clínicas (São Paulo City, Brazil, namely the Virgin Annunciation and the Supper at Emmaus. This study regards the materials and painting techniques used by the artist, based on historical research,on in situ observations and laboratory analytical techniques (stereomicroscopy,scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffractometry, electron microprobe, images obtained with UV-light, aiming to improve the methods of characterization of objects of our cultural heritage, and to enhance its preservation accordingly. The results lead to the identification of the plaster components and of distinct layers in the frescoes, besides further information on grain size, impurities and textures, composition of pigments, and features of deterioration, such as efflorescences. The degree of degradation of the murals painting was assessed by this way. Our data suggest that a single layer of plaster was used by Pennacchi, as a common mortar with fine- and medium-grained aggregates. Differences in texture were obtained by adding gypsum to the plaster.A presente pesquisa trata de duas pinturas murais feitas em 1947 por Fulvio Pennacchi com a técnica do afresco na Capela Católica do Hospital das Clínicas (São Paulo, Brasil, intituladas Anunciação da Virgem e Ceia de Emaús. Este estudo considera os materiais e as técnicas de pintura usadas pelo artista, baseado na pesquisa histórica, observações in situ e técnicas analíticas de laboratório (estereomicroscopia, microscopia eletrônica de varredura com detector de espectro de energia dispersiva, difração de raios X, microssonda eletrônica, imagens obtidas com luz ultravioleta, visando aperfeiçoar os métodos de caracterização de objetos do nosso patrimônio cultural, e otimizar sua preservação adequadamente. Os

  19. Use of energy crops for domestic heating with a mural boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan F.; Gonzalez-Garcia, Carmen M.; Ramiro, Antonio; Ganan, Jose [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Ayuso, Antonio [Dpto. de Cultivos Intensivos, Servicio de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Junta de Extremadura, Finca La Orden, 06187, Guadajira (Badajoz) (Spain); Turegano, Joao [Dpto. de Expresion Grafica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    The combustion process of two residues from energy crops in a 12 kW mural boiler for domestic heating was studied. The fuels used were common reed (Arundo donax L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and forest pellet recommended by the boiler manufacturer. A comparison with the combustion process of two industrial residues (tomato residue and almond pruning) and other energy crop (Cynara cardunculus L.) has been established. The experimental tests carried out in 'La Orden' farm on common reed and sorghum cultivation revealed a production of dry biomass of 35 and 30 t/ha, respectively. Previously, the fuels were characterised by means of the higher heating value, proximate and ultimate analyses. The influence of the residue type, fuel mass flow, draught and residues mixture on the combustion parameters has been studied. A TESTO 300 M-I analyzer was employed to determinate the principal parameters of the combustion process (CO{sub 2}, CO, and O{sub 2} contents, fumes temperature, not-burnt gaseous and sensitive heat losses in the fumes, air excess coefficient, flow rate and velocity of the fumes, and efficiency). The behaviour shown by the two studied residues was similar to that of the forest pellet. The boiler efficiencies obtained with the maximum fuel mass flow (100%) and minimum draught (0%) were 84% and 85.3% for reed and sorghum pellets, respectively. The obtained efficiency with the forest pellet was 90.5%. The optimum residue mixture assayed was almond pruning (75%) and sorghum (25%), with a boiler efficiency of 87.2% for a mass flow and draught of 100% and 0%, respectively. (author)

  20. Des figures et des lettres. Note méthodologique sur les inscriptions dans la peinture murale romane de Catalogne

    OpenAIRE

    Debiais, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Les inscriptions dans le corpus de la peinture murale catalane sont très nombreuses. Il constitue un vaste laboratoire d’étude pour comprendre comment l’inscription prend place dans le décor peint et comment les signes iconiques et alphabétiques interagissent à l’échelle du bâtiment, éventuellement dans la mise en scène du rituel liturgique. Cet article n’entend pas dresser le corpus complet des inscriptions peintes romanes de Catalogne ; il envisage plutôt de comment les relations texte/imag...

  1. ST Elevation Infarction after Heart Transplantation Induced by Coronary Spasms and Mural Thrombus Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Eiskjær, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The case illustrates the possible link between coronary spasms, intraluminal thrombus formation, and widespread organized and layered thrombi in HTx patients. Furthermore, the case underlines the clinical value of OCT as a novel method for high-resolution vessel imaging in heart-transplanted (HTx......, and the left anterior descending coronary artery. The patient was stabilized after percutaneous coronary intervention. As a mural thrombus often goes undetected by coronary angiography, OCT may prove benefit in HTx patients with myocardial infarction or suspected coronary spasms....

  2. Arte per il popolo. I murales di David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974 e di Roberto S. Matta (1911-2002 in Cile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Borri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The democratic governments of Chile have taken care of the restoration of these murales by revaluing what the dictatorship tried to wipe out. The Author aims at investigating their origin as well their meaning, with reference to both the society and the political ideologies that inspired the painters during the governments of Frente Popular (1938-1941 and of Unidad Popular (1970-1973. In this perspective, the two murales represent meaningful clues for the widening of an inquiry about the relationship between the intellectuals and the political power, within the scope of a specific artistic production, originated as a tool for the class struggle.

  3. El pixoy como material de conservación de pintura mural y relieves policromos en el área maya The Pixoy Gum as a Conservation Material for Mural Painting and Color Stucco Reliefs in Mayan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Cristina Ruiz Martín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante la problemática que se ha enfrentado en sitios arqueológicos del área maya en la conservación de pintura mural y relieves en estuco policromos que se preservan in situ, se ha buscado en nuevos materiales contrarrestar efectos de deterioro que pueden generar la pérdida de estos bienes. Dentro de los productos utilizados están los extractos vegetales, empleados principalmente como aditivos a morteros de cal y en el caso de Ek'Balam, como consolidante de capas de color. Se ha desarrollado una investigación para evaluar uno de estos materiales, el pixoy (Guazuma ulmifolia, y determinar su efectividad en la conservación arqueológica.Because of the conservation problems of the mural paintings and color stucco reliefs from the archaeological sites of the Mayan area which are preserved in situ, the investigation of new materials that resist deterioration effects have been a very important goal for restorers. One of these products are the vegetables extracts, used like additives for the lime, and in the case of Ek'Balam as fixatives of pictorial layer. This investigation has been developed to evaluate one of these materials, pixoy gum (Guazuma ulmifolia, and to determine its effectiveness in the archaeological conservation.

  4. Elemental distribution in reproductive and neural organs of the Epilachna nylanderi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a phytophage of nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asterales: Asteraceae) by micro-PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Augustyniak, Maria; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Tarnawska, Monika; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Migula, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal hyperaccumulation by plants is often explained by a pathogen or herbivore defense hypothesis. However, some insects feeding on metal hyperaccumulating plants are adapted to the high level of metals in plant tissues. Former studies on species that feed on the leaves of Berkheya coddii Roessler 1958 (Asteraceae), a nickel-hyperaccumulating plant, demonstrated several protective mechanisms involved in internal distribution, immobilization, and elimination of Ni from the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These species are mainly coleopterans, including the lady beetle, Epilachna nylanderi (Mulsant 1850) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), collected from the ultramafic ecosystem near Barberton in South Africa. By performing particle-induced X-ray emission microanalysis elemental microanalysis (PIXE), this study examined whether Ni may be harmful to internal body systems that decide on insect reactivity (central nervous system [CNS]), their reproduction, and the relationships between Ni and other micronutrients. Data on elemental distribution of nine selected elements in target organs of E. nylanderi were compared with the existing data for other insect species adapted to the excess of metals. Micro-PIXE maps of seven regions of the CNS showed Ni mainly in the neural connectives, while cerebral ganglia were better protected. Concentrations of other bivalent metals were lower than those of Ni. Testis, compared with other reproductive organs, showed low amounts of Ni. Zn was effectively regulated at physiological dietary levels. In insects exposed to excess dietary Zn, it was also accumulated in the reproductive organs. Comparison of E. nylanderii with other insects that ingest hyperaccumulating plants, especially chrysomelid Chrysolina clathrata (Clark) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), showed lower protection of the CNS and reproductive organs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Clemens; Giehren, Franziska; Krämer, Ute; Müller, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Plants that are able to hyperaccumulate heavy metals show increased concentrations of these metals in their leaf tissue. However, little is known about the concentrations of heavy metals and of organic defence metabolites in the phloem sap of these plants in response to either heavy metal-amendment of the soil or biotic challenges such as aphid-infestation. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metal-exposure and of aphid-infestation on phloem exudate composition of the metal hyperaccumulator species Arabidopsis halleri L. O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae). The concentrations of elements and of organic defence compounds, namely glucosinolates, were measured in phloem exudates of young and old (mature) leaves of plants challenged either by amendment of the soil with cadmium and zinc and/or by an infestation with the generalist aphid Myzus persicae. Metal-amendment of the soil led to increased concentrations of Cd and Zn, but also of two other elements and one indole glucosinolate, in phloem exudates. This enhanced defence in the phloem sap of heavy metal-hyperaccumulating plants can thus potentially act as effective protection against aphids, as predicted by the elemental defence hypothesis. Aphid-infestation also caused enhanced Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates. This result provides first evidence that metal-hyperaccumulating plants can increase heavy metal concentrations tissue-specifically in response to an attack by phloem-sucking herbivores. Overall, the concentrations of most elements, including the heavy metals, and glucosinolates were higher in phloem exudates of young leaves than in those of old leaves. This defence distribution highlights that the optimal defence theory, which predicts more valuable tissue to be better defended, is applicable for both inorganic and organic defences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. La documentation des peintures murales de la Chapelle des fresques de Villeneuve-lès Avignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Feillou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La documentation réalisée en vue de la conservation - restauration des peintures murales de la Chapelle des fresques de Villeneuve-lès-Avignon est liée à la constitution d’une base de données fondée sur la représentation 3D de l’intérieur peint de la chapelle. L’intégration et la spatialisation des données de la documentation dans cette base engendrent alors le questionnement des outils de réalisation de la documentation et la formulation d'une méthode de travail s'appuyant sur l'usage de nouvelles technologies numériques.The documentation led for the conservation restauration of the mural paintings of the Chaterhouse of Villeneuve lès Avignon is linked with the constitution of a data base based on the 3D representation of the painted interior’s chapel. Thus the integration and spatialisation of the documentation’s datas in this database engender the wondering about documentation tools and the establishment of a work’s methodology based on new digital technology’s.

  7. Les murs ont la parole. Un exemple de prise de parole sur le mur. Les peintures murales d’Orgosolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cozzolino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Souvent les murs ont été le support où se jouent la visibilité et la prise de parole d’un groupe ou d’individus d’un milieu social précis. La matérialisation de cette prise de parole peut se présenter sous forme de tag, de graffiti, ou encore sous forme de peinture murale, ou mieux toute forme d’écriture exposée1. Toutes ces formes ne sont pas que le résultat écrit d’un énoncé linguistique ou visuel (dans le cas d’un dessin, il s’agit bien sur d’actes d’écriture, dont bien souvent le but est l’affirmation d’une identité, d’un individu dans le cas d’un tag, plus souvent d’un groupe dans le cas de la peinture murale.

  8. Halophilic microorganisms are responsible for the rosy discolouration of saline environments in three historical buildings with mural paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenauer, Jörg D; Jurado, Valme; Piñar, Guadalupe; Miller, Ana Z; Santner, Markus; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    A number of mural paintings and building materials from monuments located in central and south Europe are characterized by the presence of an intriguing rosy discolouration phenomenon. Although some similarities were observed among the bacterial and archaeal microbiota detected in these monuments, their origin and nature is still unknown. In order to get a complete overview of this biodeterioration process, we investigated the microbial communities in saline environments causing the rosy discolouration of mural paintings in three Austrian historical buildings using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent techniques as well as microscopic techniques. The bacterial communities were dominated by halophilic members of Actinobacteria, mainly of the genus Rubrobacter. Representatives of the Archaea were also detected with the predominating genera Halobacterium, Halococcus and Halalkalicoccus. Furthermore, halophilic bacterial strains, mainly of the phylum Firmicutes, could be retrieved from two monuments using special culture media. Inoculation of building materials (limestone and gypsum plaster) with selected isolates reproduced the unaesthetic rosy effect and biodeterioration in the laboratory.

  9. Halophilic Microorganisms Are Responsible for the Rosy Discolouration of Saline Environments in Three Historical Buildings with Mural Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenauer, Jörg D.; Jurado, Valme; Piñar, Guadalupe; Miller, Ana Z.; Santner, Markus; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    A number of mural paintings and building materials from monuments located in central and south Europe are characterized by the presence of an intriguing rosy discolouration phenomenon. Although some similarities were observed among the bacterial and archaeal microbiota detected in these monuments, their origin and nature is still unknown. In order to get a complete overview of this biodeterioration process, we investigated the microbial communities in saline environments causing the rosy discolouration of mural paintings in three Austrian historical buildings using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent techniques as well as microscopic techniques. The bacterial communities were dominated by halophilic members of Actinobacteria, mainly of the genus Rubrobacter. Representatives of the Archaea were also detected with the predominating genera Halobacterium, Halococcus and Halalkalicoccus. Furthermore, halophilic bacterial strains, mainly of the phylum Firmicutes, could be retrieved from two monuments using special culture media. Inoculation of building materials (limestone and gypsum plaster) with selected isolates reproduced the unaesthetic rosy effect and biodeterioration in the laboratory. PMID:25084531

  10. Brevibacterium picturae sp. nov., isolated from a damaged mural painting at the Saint-Catherine chapel (Castle Herberstein, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Verbeeren, Jens; Schumann, Peter; Devos, Joke; Swings, Jean; De Vos, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Three strains showing highly similar (GTG)5-PCR patterns were isolated from a heavily damaged mural painting at the Saint-Catherine chapel (Castle Herberstein, Austria). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains were attributed to Brevibacterium, with Brevibacterium casei (96.7 %), Brevibacterium iodinum (96.7 %) and Brevibacterium linens (96.6 %) as the closest related species. Chemotaxonomic data [peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; mycolic acids absent; MK-8(H2) as the major menaquinone; polar lipids phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol present; anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as major fatty acids] supported the affiliation of the strains to the genus Brevibacterium. Additional physiological and biochemical tests confirmed the taxonomic position of the strains and allowed phenotypic differentiation from Brevibacterium species with validly published names. The isolates from the mural painting, therefore, represent a novel species, for which the name Brevibacterium picturae sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 22061T (= DSM 16132T) as the type strain.

  11. Conservación de una obra efímera de arte urbano: El Mural dels Gats en el centro de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Senserrich Espuñes, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo refleja un claro ejemplo de respeto y conservación de una obra mural efímera por parte de diferentes profesionales indirectamente relacionados con el mundo del arte urbano que han intervenido en la consolidación y rehabilitación de la pared que lo sustenta.

  12. La pintura mural contemporánea de Julieta.xlf en Valencia. Exámen técnico, y análisis del estado de conservación de una pintura mural por encargo

    OpenAIRE

    VALLE BARCELÓ, LAURA

    2015-01-01

    El graffiti aparece como nueva forma de expresión gráfico-plástica y efímera dentro de la práctica artística de la pintura mural. A nivel común es conocido por ser un acto vandálico, próximo a la ilegalidad y no relacionado con una práctica artística. Poco a poco empieza a presentarse en otras formas, persiguiendo una intencionalidad artística y estética, muy valorada por el público en general. Alejándose de la ilegalidad que lo marca, los nuevos escritores de graffiti intentan aportar un cam...

  13. Development of suitable hydroponics system for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water using an arsenic hyperaccumulator plant Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Inoue, Chihiro; Endo, Ginro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we found that high-performance hydroponics of arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata is possible without any mechanical aeration system, if rhizomes of the ferns are kept over the water surface level. It was also found that very low-nutrition condition is better for root elongation of P. vittata that is an important factor of the arsenic removal from contaminated water. By the non-aeration and low-nutrition hydroponics for four months, roots of P. vittata were elongated more than 500 mm. The results of arsenate phytofiltration experiments showed that arsenic concentrations in water declined from the initial concentrations (50 μg/L, 500 μg/L, and 1000 μg/L) to lower than the detection limit (0.1 μg/L) and about 80% of arsenic removed was accumulated in the fern fronds. The improved hydroponics method for P. vittata developed in this study enables low-cost phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water and high-affinity removal of arsenic from water.

  14. Effects of arsenate, chromate, and sulfate on arsenic and chromium uptake and translocation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Letúzia Maria; Ma, Lena Q; Santos, Jorge A G; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Lessl, Jason T

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effects of arsenate (AsV), chromate (CrVI) and sulfate on As and Cr uptake and translocation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV), which was exposed to AsV, CrVI and sulfate at 0, 0.05, 0.25 or 1.25 mM for 2-wk in hydroponic system. PV was effective in accumulating large amounts of As (4598 and 1160 mg/kg in the fronds and roots at 0.05 mM AsV) and Cr (234 and 12,630 mg/kg in the fronds and roots at 0.05 mM CrVI). However, when co-present, AsV and CrVI acted as inhibitors, negatively impacting their accumulation in PV. Arsenic accumulation in the fronds was reduced by 92% and Cr by 26%, indicating reduced As and Cr translocation. However, addition of sulfate increased uptake and translocation of As by 26-28% and Cr by 1.63 fold. This experiment demonstrated that As and Cr inhibited each other in uptake and translocation by PV but sulfate enhanced As and Cr uptake and translocation by PV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Arsenic-induced plant growth of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Impact of arsenic and phosphate rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-He; Yang, Guang-Mei; Fu, Jing-Wei; Guan, Dong-Xing; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) has been shown to promote plant growth and arsenic (As) uptake by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). However, little is known about its behaviors in agricultural soils. In this study, impact of 50 mg kg(-1) As and/or 1.5% PR amendment on plant As accumulation and growth was investigated by growing PV for 90 d in three agricultural soils. While As amendment significantly increased plant As uptake and substantially promoted PV growth, the opposite was observed with PR amendment. Arsenic amendment increased plant frond As from 16.9-265 to 961-6017 mg kg(-1),whereas PR amendment lowered frond As to 10.2-216 mg kg(-1). The As-induced plant growth stimulation was 69-71%. While PR amendment increased plant Ca and P uptake, As amendment showed opposite results. The PV biomass was highly correlated with plant As at r = 0.82, but with weak correlations with plant Ca or P at r PV growth, probably independent of Ca or P uptake, 2) PR amendment didn't enhance plant growth or As uptake by PV in agricultural soils with adequate available P, and 3) PV effluxed arsenite (AsIII) growing in agricultural soils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A kinetic analysis of cadmium accumulation in a Cd hyper-accumulator fern, Athyrium yokoscense and tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishii, Satomi; Kitazaki, Mayu; Yamazaki, Haruaki; Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Kawachi, Naoki; Yin, Yong-Gen; Ito-Tanabata, Sayuri; Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Shoji, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Hiroaki; Goto, Fumiyuki; Fujimaki, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulations in a Cd hyper-accumulator fern, Athyrium yokoscense (Ay), and tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Nt), were kinetically analysed using the positron-emitting tracer imaging system under two medium conditions (basal and no-nutrient). In Ay, maximumly 50% and 15% of the total Cd accumulated in the distal roots and the shoots under the basal condition, respectively. Interestingly, a portion of the Cd in the distal roots returned to the medium. In comparison with Ay, a little fewer Cd accumulations in the distal roots and clearly higher Cd migration to the shoots were observed in Nt under the basal condition (maximumly 40% and 70% of the total Cd, respectively). The no-nutrient condition down-regulated the Cd migration in both species, although the regulation was highly stricter in Ay than in Nt (almost no migration in Ay and around 20% migration in Nt). In addition, the present work enabled to estimate physical and physiological Cd accumulation capacities in the distal roots, and demonstrated condition-dependent changes especially in Ay. These results clearly suggested occurrences of species-/condition-specific regulations in each observed parts. It is probable that integration of these properties govern the specific Cd tolerance/accumulation in Ay and Nt. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. STUDIES REGARDING THE CHELATE-INDUCED HYPERACCUMULATION OF CU AND FE USING LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES IN MINING AREAS

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    ANCA-DIANA PRICOP

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant capacity to absorb high amounts of metal for a short period of time is the major factor that influences the efficiency of phytoextraction. The hyperaccumulating plants uptake high amounts in their tissues correlated to the metal concentrations in soil. Chelating agents have the capacity to induce the metal accumulation in biomass. They increase metal bioavailability for plants by releasing the metal in accessible forms. The present study emphasizes that in the case of EDTA use, the obtained biomass is smaller compared to the other variants, showing a lower tolerance to this chelating agent of Lolium perenne species. Cu and Fe phytoextraction by Lolium perenne species is higher in the case of EDTA use. Cu bioaccumulation has higher values in variants with compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:4 in comparison with Fe. In the case of the best compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:3 the highest biomass is obtained in all the variants, biosolids’ effect being stronger compared to the chelating agent.

  19. Impaired leaf CO2 diffusion mediates Cd-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Ying, Rong-Rong; Jiang, Dan; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Morel, Jean-Louis; Tang, Ye-Tao; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms of cadmium (Cd)-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata were investigated using photosynthesis limitation analysis. P. divaricata seedlings were grown in nutrient solution containing 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, or 75 μM Cd for 2 weeks. Total limitations to photosynthesis (TL) increased from 0% at 5 μM Cd to 68.8% at 75 μM Cd. CO2 diffusional limitation (DL) made the largest contribution to TL, accounting for 93-98% of TL in the three highest Cd treatments, compared to just 2-7% of TL attributable to biochemical limitation (BL). Microscopic imaging revealed significantly decreased stomatal density and mesophyll thickness in the three highest Cd treatments. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters related to photosynthetic biochemistry (Fv/Fm, NPQ, ΦPSII, and qP) were not significantly decreased by increased Cd supply. Our results suggest that increased DL in leaves is the main cause of Cd-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in P. divaricata, possibly due to suppressed function of mesophyll and stomata. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that Cd supply had little effect on photochemistry parameters, suggesting that the PSII reaction centers are not a main target of Cd inhibition of photosynthesis in P. divaricata. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Tolerance and hyperaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) by four aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hernández, Jorge Alberto; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; González-Rivas, Nelly; Balderas-Plata, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    In the present investigation, four macrophytes, namely Typha latifolia (L.), Lemna minor (L.), Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, and Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc, were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) hyperaccumulation potential under laboratory conditions. Tolerance analyses were performed for 7 days of exposure at five different treatments of the metals mixture (Cu(+2), Hg(+2), Pb(+2), and Zn(+2)). The production of chlorophyll and carotenoids was determined at the end of each treatment. L. minor revealed to be sensitive, because it did not survive in all the tested concentrations after 72 hours of exposure. E. crassipes and M. aquaticum displayed the highest tolerance to the metals mixture. For the most tolerant species of aquatic macrophytes, The removal kinetics of E. crassipes and M. aquaticum was carried out, using the following mixture of metals: Cu (0.5 mg/L) and Hg, Pb, and Zn 0.25 mg/L. The obtained results revealed that E. crassipes can remove 99.80% of Cu, 97.88% of Pb, 99.53% of Hg, and 94.37% of Zn. M. aquaticum withdraws 95.2% of Cu, 94.28% of Pb, 99.19% of Hg, and 91.91% of Zn. The obtained results suggest that these two species of macrophytes could be used for the phytoremediation of this mixture of heavy metals from the polluted water bodies.

  1. Couleur de temps, fragments d’histoires, XIIe-XXe s. : peintures murales en Bourgogne et d’ailleurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Russo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avec la présentation de l’exposition sur les peintures murales en Bourgogne, depuis le XIIe siècle jusqu’aux dernières années du XXe siècle, il nous a paru nécessaire de faire le point sur les recherches actuellement menées. Loin des manifestations commémoratives et des réunions convenues sur des sujets attendus, nous avons regroupé et fait se rencontrer historiens de l’art, archéologues et historiens qui, tous, prennent en compte les observations directes effectuées sur les différents sites ...

  2. Giovanni Battista Morgagni in the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo R

    2014-07-01

    The Italian physician Giovanni Battista Morgagni was the founder of the clinico-anatomical method. His masterpiece De sedibus, et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis represented a major breakthrough in the history of medicine. In the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology, Morgagni appears at the center of the fresco. With his left index finger points to the chest of a dying patient with a bulging pulsating aortic aneurysm below the left clavicle, and with his right hand, that holds a scalpel, shows the aneurysm found at the autopsy table. With this striking image the clinico-anatomical method is succinctly depicted. Professor Ignacio Chávez, the founder of the National Institute of Cardiology, gave the artist the elements to draw Morgagni, but the disposition and the importance of Morgagni in the fresco were due to the talent of Rivera.

  3. Peintures murales en Irlande du Nord et au Pays basque : mobilisation populaire et création d’identité nationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Pragnère

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article explore les différentes fonctions des peintures murales en Irlande du Nord et au Pays basque. Il montre comment les peintures murales, particulièrement visibles, ont la capacité de diffuser un message en permanence. En ce sens, comme les avancées conceptuelles sur la question de l’identification nationale permettent de le définir, elles constituent un support des processus de définition et de redéfinition des références identificatoires, et elles permettent de maintenir les dynamiques de polarisation communautaire comme éléments dominants de la structuration de l’espace public. Il n’y a que peu voire pas d’espace pour d’autres représentations de la vie sociale. Les peintures murales sont un outil de légitimation de la lutte, ce qui peut provoquer adhésion, soutien, ou mobilisation. Elles actualisent et élargissent le champ des références disponibles pour les processus d’identification, et rendent ce corpus de références toujours accessible à la population. Ainsi, elles participent activement à la dynamique du conflit.This article explores the several functions of mural paintings in Northern Ireland and in the Basque Country. It shows how the murals (which are particularly visible have the capacity to broadcast a message on a permanent basis. Recent conceptual progress on the question of national identification allows defining them as a basis for processes of definitions and re-definitions of identity references; they are also a means of keeping community polarization dynamics as the dominant elements in structuring the public space. Little or no space is left for other representations of social life. Murals are a tool for legitimising the struggle, which can stimulate adhesion, support or mobilization. They update and widen the field of references available for the identification processes, and make this corpus of references ready for use at any time for the population. Thus, they play an active part

  4. Selection and validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR in hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii under different heavy metals stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sang

    Full Text Available Real-time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR has become an effective method for accurate analysis of gene expression in several biological systems as well as under different experimental conditions. Although with high sensitivity, specificity and broad dynamic range, this method requires suitable reference genes for transcript normalization in order to guarantee reproducible and meaningful results. In the present study, we evaluated five traditional housekeeping genes and five novel reference genes in Hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii, a well known hyperaccumulator for heavy metals phytoremediation, under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses of seven different durations. The expression stability of these ten candidates were determined with three programs--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that all the selected reference genes except for SAND could be used for RT-qPCR normalization. Among them UBC9 and TUB were ranked as the most stable candidates across all samples by three programs together. For the least stable reference genes, however, BestKeeper produced different results compared with geNorm and NormFinder. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of PCS under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses were assessed using UBC9 and TUB respectively, and similar trends were obtained from the results of the two groups. The distinct expression patterns of PCS indicated that various strategies could be taken by plants in adaption to different heavy metals stresses. This study will provide appropriate reference genes for further gene expression quantification using RT-qPCR in Hyperaccumulator S. alfredii.

  5. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  6. Microbial siderophores and root exudates enhanced goethite dissolution and Fe/As uptake by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Fu, Jing-Wei; Da Silva, Evandro; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Cao, Yue; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) in soils is often adsorbed on Fe-(hydro)oxides surface, rendering them more resistant to dissolution, which is undesirable for phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata prefers to grow in calcareous soils where available Fe and As are low. To elucidate its mechanisms of acquiring Fe and As from insoluble sources in soils, we investigated dissolution of goethite with pre-adsorbed arsenate (AsV; As-goethite) in presence of four organic ligands, including two root exudates (oxalate and phytate, dominant in P. vittata) and two microbial siderophores (PG12-siderophore and desferrioxamine B). Their presence increased As solubilization from As-goethite from 0.03 to 0.27-5.33 mg L-1 compared to the control. The siderophore/phytate bi-ligand treatment released 7.42 mg L-1 soluble Fe, which was 1.2-fold that of the sum of siderophore and phytate, showing a synergy in promoting As-goethite dissolution. In the ligand-mineral-plant system, siderophore/phytate was most effective in releasing As and Fe from As-goethite. Moreover, the continuous plant uptake induced more As-goethite dissolution. The continued release of As and Fe significantly enhanced their plant uptake (from 0.01 to 0.43 mg plant-1 As and 2.7-14.8 mg plant-1 Fe) and plant growth (from 1.2 to 3.1 g plant-1 fw) in P. vittata. Since microbial siderophores and root exudates often coexist in soil rhizosphere, their synergy in enhancing dissolution of insoluble As-Fe minerals may play an important role in efficient phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc hyperaccumulation substitutes for defense failures beyond salicylate and jasmonate signaling pathways of Alternaria brassicicola attack in Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Berta; Martos, Soledad; Cabot, Catalina; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis of metal defense as a substitute for a defective biotic stress signaling system in metal hyperaccumulators was tested using the pathosystem Alternaria brassicicola-Noccaea caerulescens under low (2 µM), medium (12 µM) and high (102 µM) Zn supply. Regardless the Zn supply, N. caerulescens responded to fungal attack with the activation of both HMA4 coding for a Zn transporter, and biotic stress signaling pathways. Salicylate, jasmonate, abscisic acid and indoleacetic acid concentrations, as well as biotic stress marker genes (PDF1.2, CHIB, LOX2, PR1 and BGL2) were activated 24 h upon inoculation. Based on the activation of defense genes 24 h after the inoculation an incompatible fungal-plant interaction could be predicted. Nonetheless, in the longer term (7 days) no effective protection against A. brassicicola was achieved in plants exposed to low and medium Zn supply. After 1 week the biotic stress markers were even further increased in these plants, and this compatible interaction was apparently not caused by a failure in the signaling of the fungal attack, but due to the lack of specificity in the type of the activated defense mechanisms. Only plants receiving high Zn exhibited an incompatible fungal interaction. High Zn accumulation in these plants, possibly in cooperation with high glucosinolate concentrations, substituted for the ineffective defense system and the interaction turned into incompatible. In a threshold-type response, these joint effects efficiently hampered fungal spread and, consequently decreased the biotic stress signaling. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Rhizobium metallidurans sp. nov., a symbiotic heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from the Anthyllis vulneraria Zn-hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Jackson, Stephen; Merlot, Sylvain; Dobson, Alan; Grison, Claude

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (ChimEc512(T)) was isolated from 56 host seedlings of the hyperaccumulating Anthyllis vulneraria legume, which was on an old zinc mining site at Les Avinières, Saint-Laurent-Le-Minier, Gard, South of France. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain ChimEc512(T) was shown to belong to the genus Rhizobium and to be most closely related to Rhizobium endophyticum CCGE 2052(T) (98.4%), Rhizobium tibeticum CCBAU 85039(T) (98.1%), Rhizobium grahamii CCGE 502(T) (98.0%) and Rhizobium mesoamericanum CCGE 501(T) (98.0%). The phylogenetic relationships of ChimEc512(T) were confirmed by sequencing and analyses of recA and atpD genes. DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain ChimEc512(T) with R. endophyticum CCGE 2052(T), R. tibeticum CCBAU 85039(T), R. mesoamericanum CCGE 52(T), Rhizobium grahamii CCGE 502(T), Rhizobium etli CCBAU 85039(T) and Rhizobium radiobacter KL09-16-8-2(T) were 27, 22, 16, 18, 19 and 11%, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain ChimEc512(T) was 58.9 mol%. The major cellular fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c, characteristic of the genus Rhizobium . The polar lipid profile included phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine and moderate amounts of aminolipids, phospholipid and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Although ChimEc512(T) was able to nodulate A. vulneraria, the nodC and nifH genes were not detected by PCR. The rhizobial strain was tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals: up to 35 mM Zn and up to 0.5 mM Cd and its growth kinetics was not impacted by Zn. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain ChimEc512(T) from species of the genus Rhizobium with validly published names. Strain ChimEc512(T), therefore, represents a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium metallidurans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain

  9. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available P1B-ATPases are decisive for metal accumulation phenotypes, but mechanisms of their regulation are only partially understood. Here, we studied the Cd/Zn transporting ATPases NcHMA3 and NcHMA4 from Noccaea caerulescens as well as AhHMA3 and AhHMA4 from Arabidopsis halleri. Protein biochemistry was analyzed on HMA4 purified from roots of N. caerulescens in active state. Metal titration of NcHMA4 protein with an electrochromic dye as charge indicator suggested that HMA4 reaches maximal ATPase activity when all internal high-affinity Cd2+ binding sites are occupied. Although HMA4 was reported to be mainly responsible for xylem loading of heavy metals for root to shoot transport, the current study revealed high expression of NcHMA4 in shoots as well. Further, there were additional 20 and 40 kD fragments at replete Zn2+ and toxic Cd2+, but not at deficient Zn2+ concentrations. Altogether, the protein level expression analysis suggested a more multifunctional role of NcHMA4 than previously assumed. Organ-level transcription analysis through quantitative PCR of mRNA in N. caerulescens and A. halleri confirmed the strong shoot expression of both NcHMA4 and AhHMA4. Further, in shoots NcHMA4 was more abundant in 10 μM Zn2+ and AhHMA4 in Zn2+ deficiency. In roots, NcHMA4 was up-regulated in response to deficient Zn2+ when compared to replete Zn2+ and toxic Cd2+ treatment. In both species, HMA3 was much more expressed in shoots than in roots, and HMA3 transcript levels remained rather constant regardless of Zn2+ supply, but were up-regulated by 10 μM Cd2+. Analysis of cellular expression by quantitative mRNA in situ hybridisation showed that in A. halleri, both HMA3 and HMA4 mRNA levels were highest in the mesophyll, while in N. caerulescens they were highest in the bundle sheath of the vein. This is likely related to the different final storage sites for hyperaccumulated metals in both species: epidermis in N. caerulescens, mesophyll in A. halleri.

  10. Right atrial mural thrombi: An autopsy study of an under-diagnosed complication at an unusual site

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    P Vaideeswar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right atrial mural thrombi (RAMT are often seen in association with cardiac diseases or foreign bodies. Unusual locations at the flutter isthmus and the atrial appendage prompted us to evaluate our 2-year autopsy data on such thrombi. Materials and Methods: In the 2-year retrospective autopsy, the clinical and autopsy records of patients with RAMT were reviewed, with particular reference to the presence of central venous catheter (CVC, its site of insertion, its type, material and size, its duration of placement, and the drugs infused through the catheter. Results: Of the 940 autopsies performed in 2 years, RAMT was seen in 24 hearts and was related to an insertion of a CVC in 23 patients (95.8%. The risk and/or associated factors for this complication were tunneled and polyethylene catheters, Intensive Care Unit admission, infused drugs, underlying cardiac diseases, and pregnancy. A noteworthy feature was the location of the thrombi in the flutter isthmus in 16 hearts (66.7% and atrial appendage in another six hearts. Localized endocarditis/myocarditis and pulmonary thromboembolism were observed in six and four patients, respectively.Conclusions: This autopsy study, which has a high incidence of catheter-related RAMT, does not reflect the true incidence but reiterates the importance of guided insertion of central venous and prompt recognition of thrombus formation.

  11. ST Elevation Infarction after Heart Transplantation Induced by Coronary Spasms and Mural Thrombus Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Skibsted Clemmensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The case illustrates the possible link between coronary spasms, intraluminal thrombus formation, and widespread organized and layered thrombi in HTx patients. Furthermore, the case underlines the clinical value of OCT as a novel method for high-resolution vessel imaging in heart-transplanted (HTx patients with coronary spasms and suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary spasms and sudden death are frequent complications after HTx. The underlying mechanisms leading to these complications are unknown. The present case displays the clinical course of a 19-year-old HTx patient who was hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction induced by severe coronary spasms. The patients remained unstable on conservative therapy. Therefore, an optical coherence tomography (OCT was performed and revealed massive, organized thrombi in the left main coronary artery, the circumflex coronary artery, and the left anterior descending coronary artery. The patient was stabilized after percutaneous coronary intervention. As a mural thrombus often goes undetected by coronary angiography, OCT may prove benefit in HTx patients with myocardial infarction or suspected coronary spasms.

  12. Iliac artery mural thrombus formation. Effect of antiplatelet therapy on 111In-platelet deposition in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, S.R.; Paxton, L.D.; Harker, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    To measure the rate, extent, and time course of arterial mural thrombus formation in vivo and to assess the effects of antiplatelet therapy in that setting, we have studied autologous /sup 111/In-platelet deposition induced by experimental iliac artery aneurysms in baboons. Scintillation camera imaging analyses were performed at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after implantation of the device. Correction for tissue attenuation was determined by using a small, comparably located /sup 111/In source implanted at the time of surgery. In five animals, /sup 111/In-platelet activity accumulated progressively after device implantation, reaching a maximum after the third day. Repeat image analysis carried out 2 weeks after the surgical procedure also showed progressive accumulation of /sup 111/In-platelets over 3 days but at markedly reduced amounts as compared with the initial study. In five additional animals, treatment with a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole begun 1 hour after surgical implantation reduced /sup 111/In-platelet deposition to negligible levels by the third day. Although platelet survival time was shortened and platelet turnover was reciprocally increased in all operated animals, platelet survival and turnover were not affected by antiplatelet therapy. We conclude that, in contrast to platelet survival and turnover measurements, /sup 111/In-platelet imaging is a reliable and sensitive method for localizing and quantifying focal arterial thrombi and for assessing the effects of antiplatelet therapy.

  13. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1997--June 19, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L.

    1997-11-01

    This laboratory has been involved in a collaborative project focusing on a range of issues related to the phytoremediation of heavy metal-and radionuclide- contaminated soils. While much of the research has been fundamental in nature, involving physiological and molecular characterizations of the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in plants, the laboratory is also investigating more practical issues related to phytoremediation. A central issue in this latter research has been the identification of amendments capable of increasing the bioavailability and subsequent phytoextraction of radionuclides. The results described here detail these efforts for uranium and Cs-137. A study was also conducted on a Cs-137 contaminated site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which allowed application of the laboratory and greenhouse results to a field setting.

  14. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species, Quarterly technical progress report, December 20, 1995--March 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L.; Brady, D.; Last, M.; Ebbs, S.

    1995-12-01

    Although the period covered by this progress report began on December 20, 1994, which was the date that DOE approved the Interagency Agreement, the agreement was not approved by USDA until January 9, 1995 and the first scientists working on the project were not hired until February 1, 1995. The first goal of the research supported by the Interagency Agreement is to use hydroponic techniques to identify plant species and genotypes with potential for heavy metal hyperaccumulation for planting on a test site at Silverbow Creek and for radionuclide ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation on a test site at INEL, Idaho, later this year. The second goal of this research is to identify soil amendment procedures that will enhance the bioavailability of heavy metals and radionuclides in the soil without increasing the movement of the contaminants of concern (COC`s) into the groundwater. Our initial research covered in this report focuses on the first goal.

  15. Installation of a Rudist Biostrome after the Late Aptian - Early Albian OAE1B (mural Formation, Southeastern Arizona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, A.; Helfrich-Dennis, M. M.; Suarez, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Mesozoic climate change has been extensively studied in the Tethys, while their expression in the proto Gulf of Mexico can still be precised, especially for the time period straddling the Aptian-Albian boundary. During this time period, significant climatic events may correlate between the proto-Atlantic and the Tethys, amongst which the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b that corresponds to a period of marine anoxia across this stage boundary. We hypothesized that this event may have impacted the shallow-marine carbonate factory that is now preserved near the town of Bisbee (Mule Mountains, southern Arizona). This sedimentary succession has been chosen because it documents a switch from a siliclastic- to carbonate-dominated sedimentation during the targeted time interval. Using carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, we were able to refine the stratigraphic framework of the Mural Formation, which was previously based on benthic organisms such as rudist bivalves and orbitolinids, such as Mesorbitolina texana. The OAE1b has been identified based on its peculiar δ13C signature supported by biostratigraphic data. Concurrently, microfacies analysis helped in reconstructing variations in sea levels. In southern Arizona, the OAE1b equivalent belongs to a third-order transgressive systems tract, and extends into the following highstand systems track. The maximum flooding surface is defined within a thick rudist biostrome with chondrodonts. It thus seems that the OAE1b did not strongly affected the carbonate factory in this region of the proto Gulf of Mexico. As a conclusion, limestone rocks now preserved in southeastern Arizona were deposited during the Late Aptian to Early Albian time period, during which the OAE1b developed. This paleoceanographic perturbation is expressed in the sedimentary record by its unique carbon isotope signature, with no significant impact on benthic ecosystems.

  16. Identification of up-regulated genes from the metal-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker, in response to lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, A; Calderón-Vázquez, C L; Uh-Ramos, D; Fuentes, G; Ramírez-Prado, J H; Sáenz-Carbonell, L; Santamaría, J M

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. The aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker is capable to hyper-accumulate Pb in their tissues. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its Pb accumulation and tolerance capacity are not fully understood. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are activated by S. minima in response to Pb, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization library (SSH) in response to an exposure to 40μM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 for 12h. 365 lead-related differentially expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were isolated and sequenced. Among these ESTs, 143 unique cDNA (97 were registered at the GenBank and 46 ESTs were not registered, because they did not meet the GenBank conditions). Those ESTs were identified and classified into 3 groups according to Blast2GO. In terms of metabolic pathways, they were grouped into 29 KEGG pathways. Among the ESTs, we identified some that might be part of the mechanism that this fern may have to deal with this metal, including abiotic-stress-related transcription factors, some that might be involved in tolerance mechanisms such as ROS scavenging, membrane protection, and those of cell homeostasis recovery. To validate the SSH library, 4 genes were randomly selected from the library and analyzed by qRT-PCR. These 4 genes were transcriptionally up-regulated in response to lead in at least one of the two tested tissues (roots and leaves). The present library is one of the few genomics approaches to study the response to metal stress in an aquatic fern, representing novel molecular information and tools to understand the molecular physiology of its Pb tolerance and hyperaccumulation capacity. Further research is required to elucidate the functions of the lead-induced genes that remain classified as unknown, to perhaps reveal novel molecular mechanisms of Pb tolerance and accumulation capacity in aquatic plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptional up-regulation of genes involved in photosynthesis of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii in response to zinc and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Yao, Aijun; Ming Yuan; Tang, Yetao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Xi; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are two closely related chemical elements with very different biological roles in photosynthesis. Zinc plays unique biochemical functions in photosynthesis. Previous studies suggested that in some Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, many steps in photosynthesis may be Cd tolerant or even Cd stimulated. Using RNA-seq data, we found not only that Cd and Zn both up-regulated the CA1 gene, which encodes a β class carbonic anhydrase (CA) in chloroplasts, but that a large number of other Zn up-regulated genes in the photosynthetic pathway were also significantly up-regulated by Cd in leaves of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. These genes also include chloroplast genes involved in transcription and translation (rps18 and rps14), electron transport and ATP synthesis (atpF and ccsA), Photosystem II (PSBI, PSBM, PSBK, PSBZ/YCF9, PSBO-1, PSBQ, LHCB1.1, LHCB1.4, LHCB2.1, LHCB4.3 and LHCB6) and Photosystem I (PSAE-1, PSAF, PSAH2, LHCA1 and LHCA4). Cadmium and Zn also up-regulated the VAR1 gene, which encodes the ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease FTSH 5 (a member of the FtsH family), and the DAG gene, which influences chloroplast differentiation and plastid development, and the CP29 gene, which supports RNA processing in chloroplasts and has a potential role in signal-dependent co-regulation of chloroplast genes. Further morphological parameters (dry biomass, cross-sectional thickness, chloroplast size, chlorophyll content) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters confirmed that leaf photosynthesis of S. alfredii responded to Cd much as it did to Zn, which will contribute to our understanding of the positive effects of Zn and Cd on growth of this plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Devoções maiores e devoções menores na pintura mural portuguesa dos séculos XV e XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Luís Urbano

    2013-01-01

    Existem perto de 140 monumentos portugueses que ainda conservam pintura mural realizada entre os finais do século XV e os meados do século XVI. Por vicissitudes históricas diversas, a distribuição destes monumentos pelo território nacional é muito desigual, verificando-se uma concentração em templos rurais situados sobretudo no território de Entre-Douro-e- -Minho (c. 30%), em Trás-os-Montes (c. 25%) e na Beira Interior (c. 20%).A análise da iconografia destas pinturas permite tirar várias con...

  19. Diagnosis of left atrial masses with computed tomography. With special reference to comparison of computed tomographic findings between mural thrombi and myxomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, Minoru; Amemiya, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Matsuoka, Ken; Okubo, Shinichi (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomographic findings between left atrial mural thrombi associated with valvular disease (especially mitral stenosis) and left atrial myxomas were compared. Differential diagnosis might be possible by comprehensive evaluation on the shape and inside structure of the left pulmonary atrium, CT values, the presence of calcification and the movement of mitral valve. It is recommended that CT and postoperative findings should be compared and evaluated to determine the presence of thrombi in cases of valvular disease associated with hypervascularity in the left cardiac auricle detected by coronary arteriography.

  20. ESTUDIO Y PROPUESTA DE INTERVENCIÓN DE LAS PINTURAS MURALES DE LAS MARIPOSAS DE LA CASA DE MARIANO AMIGÓ DE PUÇOL

    OpenAIRE

    MARCO FERRANDO, MARÍA DEL CARMEN

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The next work is based on the state of conservation of the mural paintings on the future house-museum of Mariano Amigó situated on the village in Puçol, near of Valencia. The paintings "al secco" executed with temper are in a good state of conservation but had offers some damages. For that, had realised an study about the state and a purpose of intervention with that the students to the career of Conservation and Restauration of immovable item of the next course, will e...

  1. Los murales y carteles como recurso didáctico para enseñar ciencias en Educación Primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosario Díaz Perea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la era de las nuevas tecnologías, siguen siendo necesarios los recursos educativos más tradicionales que motiven a los alumnos y les ayuden en su proceso de enseñanza – aprendizaje. Estos recursos, contextualizados en una metodología activa y globalizada, fomentan el desarrollo de las diferentes competencias básicas y promueven que los alumnos interactúen y cooperen para aprender. En este artículo se describen y analizan varias actividades relacionadas con la elaboración y el rendimiento didáctico de murales y carteles en la enseñanza de las ciencias en Educación Primaria. Además, se describe y evalúa una experiencia didáctica que hemos llevado a cabo en un colegio de Educación Primaria de la Comunidad de Madrid, durante dos cursos académicos consecutivos 2009-2010 y 2010-2011, cuyo eje principal fue la elaboración de murales y carteles científicos con alumnos de primer ciclo. Con esta experiencia, resaltamos la conveniencia de orientar la formación inicial y permanente del profesorado hacia la introducción de estrategias organizativas y metodologías cooperativas, que aseguren aprendizajes científicos significativos y funcionales, orientados también a la atención de la diversidad de nuestras aulas.

  2. Problema textului şi a imaginii în pictura murală ortodoxă: o abordare structural-semiotică (partea a 3-a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ion Ciobanu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The third part of the study The problem of text and image... is devoted to the typological classification of the inscriptions in the Romanian medieval art. Specialists in paleography observed non-compliance – extremely common – dating between actual painting of icons and the inscriptions dating from the same icons. One of the reasons for failure of traditional palaeographical methods in the research of epigraphic texts is related to the ineffectiveness of nomenclature types of characters taken from writing on parchment or paper and applied to hard materials such as wood, stone or metal. The difficulties, mentioned above, in the second half of the Twentieth century have pushed forward taxonomic investigations of medieval inscriptions. The methodological principles of epigraphical classification have been substantially clarified and finalized. Inscriptions on Orthodox icons and mural paintings were grouped according to various criteria: material and technical execution, location, language, content, form, time and so on. Thus, it was built the general typology of the texts and the inscriptions of the Ancient Orthodox Art. A second issue mentioned in the study is referring to morphological and grammatical structure of the names (theonyms, hagionyms, anthroponyms, names of places, eortonyms, ekklesionyms, icononyms present in medieval icons and mural painting. The end of the study is addressed to issue of hierotopy’s genesis – seen in close connection with the acting-pragmatic aspect of the relationship between the work of Christian art and its users.

  3. Mid-infrared thermal imaging for an effective mapping of surface materials and sub-surface detachments in mural paintings: integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, C.; Parisotto, S.; Mariotti, P. I.

    2015-06-01

    Cultural Heritage is discovering how precious is thermal analysis as a tool to improve the restoration, thanks to its ability to inspect hidden details. In this work a novel dual mode imaging approach, based on the integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography (TQR) in the mid-IR is demonstrated for an effective mapping of surface materials and of sub-surface detachments in mural painting. The tool was validated through a unique application: the "Monocromo" by Leonardo da Vinci in Italy. The dual mode acquisition provided two spatially aligned dataset: the TQR image and the thermal sequence. Main steps of the workflow included: 1) TQR analysis to map surface features and 2) to estimate the emissivity; 3) projection of the TQR frame on reference orthophoto and TQR mosaicking; 4) thermography analysis to map detachments; 5) use TQR to solve spatial referencing and mosaicking for the thermal-processed frames. Referencing of thermal images in the visible is a difficult aspect of the thermography technique that the dual mode approach allows to solve in effective way. We finally obtained the TQR and the thermal maps spatially referenced to the mural painting, thus providing the restorer a valuable tool for the restoration of the detachments.

  4. Relationship between clinical findings and the extent of mural involvement based on Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI patterns in acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Emiko; Kondo, Takeshi; Kurokawa, Hiroshi [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1997-10-01

    To clarify the utilities of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating the precise location and extent of mural involvement in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ECG gated Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI was performed within 3 weeks following the onset of the acute event in 145 patients with AMI using 1.5 T MRI system. The images thus obtained were classified into 1 of 4 patterns based on the extent of mural enhancement: pattern O-no enhancement; pattern 1-subendocardial enhancement only; pattern 2-intramural are enhancement narrower than half of the subendocardial enhancement; and pattern 3-transmural enhancement. All patients with pattern O and 78% of patients with pattern 1 showed non-Q MI, whereas all patients with patterns 2 and 3 demonstrated Q MI. The patients with pattern O and pattern 1 showed lower peak CK and CK-MB, values and greater LVEF than patients with pattern 2 and 3. In addition, the patients with pattern O or 1 had a significantly greater frequency of spontaneous reperfusion than patients with pattern 3. We therefore conclude, that Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI is very useful for diagnosing subendocardial (non-Q) MI. (author)

  5. Βιβλιοκρισία:A. WEYL CARR - A. NICOLAIDES (eds., Asinou across Time: Studies in the Architecture and Murals of the Panagia Phorbiotissa, Cyprus. Dumbarton Oaks Studies, 43. Washington, DC:, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bασιλική ΦΩΣΚΟΛΟΥ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bιβλιοκρισία:Annemarie Weyl Carr -Andréas Nicolaïdès (eds., Asinou across Time: Studies in the Architecture and Murals of the Panagia Phorbiotissa, Cyprus. Dumbarton Oaks Studies, 43. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2012. Pp. xii, 431.  ISBN 9780884023494.

  6. Community Friendship Fence Mural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurny, Helen Graham

    2008-01-01

    The author had just begun Ann Johnson's "Friendship Fence" lesson from the February 2007 issue of "SchoolArts" with her third graders. In this lesson, students created self-portraits on individual fence pickets that were then combined to make a fence. In this article, the author describes how this idea was applied to the wall…

  7. An Integrated Mural Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilman, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article is an art teacher at William H. English Middle School in Scottsburg, Indiana. She and the science teacher, decided they wanted their units on integration and teaching responsibility to the environment to mesh and create a lasting memory for students. The science component consisted of an ecology unit that led students to…

  8. Placas and Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)

  9. Les peintures murales de l’église de Mălâncrav. Notes avant la restauration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Jenei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The two distinct ensembles of mural paintings of the church, from the nave and sanctuary have permanently been in the attention of the researchers, but their study cannot be considered completed, because thorough parament studies and archaeological investigations, indispensable to clarify the phases of the monument, have not yet been achieved. However, the research works in the years 2001-2002 and 2013 brought to light new data that substantially enrich the information and contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of the monument. In 2001, the investigations showed, among others, that except the frescoes on the north, there are no other painted zones inside the nave, while in 2013 the restorers have revealed the existence of the register VI of paintings on the pillars, which mostly are under the lime. The art historian’s research contributes with the identification of several scenes and details unknown so far, such as the figures of Saints James, Sebastian, Anthony and Peter, or the jesters next to Herod and Pilate in the Christological Cycle. There was also detected the contribution of three distinct teams who have worked, “soon after 1350”. The paintings in the nave illustrate, along with the ensemble in the sanctuary, the various artistic trends subsumed to the Gothic painting from the fourteenth century and due to the munificence of successive generations of the noble family Apa, lords at Mălâncrav since 1258. The graffiti on the painted surface of the apse, transcribed by Victor Roth in several versions, contains the year 1404/1405, considered as a terminus ante quem for the achievement of the painting, and the name Nicolaus, the most important representative of the family and the presumptive donor of the paintings. Gernot Nussbächer “shows” that the inscription is not of “Hic fuit” type and the script is a few decades later, presumably recording an event that took place that year. The obvious difference of the

  10. Calcium carbonate crystallizations on hypogean mural paintings: a pilot study of monitoring and diagnostics in Roman catacombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapete, D.; Fratini, F.; Mazzei, B.; Camaiti, M.; Cantisani, E.; Riminesi, C.; Manganelli Del Fà, R.; Cuzman, O.; Tiano, P.

    2012-04-01

    One of the deterioration processes affecting mural paintings and rock surfaces within manmade hypogea consists in the formation of calcium carbonate crystallizations, which can create thick coverage and incrustations, even in some cases speleothems. These chemical reactions necessarily require the availability of calcium sources, which can be also of anthropogenic origin (e.g., lime-based mortars). Microclimate parameters also represent environmental forcing factors, on which the morphology and the degree of crystallinity of the precipitated carbonates depend. Understanding past/recent dynamics of carbonate precipitation implies a deep knowledge of the relationships between the exposed surfaces and the microclimate conditions, the impacts of external factors (e.g., groundwater infiltration and percolation from the overlying soil) and how they change over time. This is particularly fundamental for the preservation of hypogean sites which have not comparison with other typologies of environment due to their uniqueness, such as the ancient catacombs carved underneath the suburbs of Rome (Italy), since the 2nd century AD. In this paper we present the multidisciplinary methodological approach designed for the instrumental monitoring of the microphysical environment of the Catacombs of Saints Mark, Marcellian and Damasus, in the framework of the co-operation between the Institute for the Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage and Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology, Vatican, on the project HYPOGEA. Temperature inside the catacomb and on the surfaces, air relative humidity and CO2 concentration are the main of the parameters continuously measured by means of data loggers installed within the cubicles. Contemporarily, standardized methods of photographic documentation and digital micro-photogrammetry are used for change detection analysis of the painted surfaces and ancient plasters, as well as of the test areas purposely realized by applying fresh

  11. Enhanced Cd extraction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fengshan; Meng, Qian; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Chen, Bao; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Japenga, Jan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-03-04

    Four plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were used as study materials, among them two heavy metal-tolerant rhizosphere strains SrN1 (Arthrobacter sp.) and SrN9 (Bacillus altitudinis) were isolated from rhizosphere soil, while two endophytic strains SaN1 (Bacillus megaterium) and SaMR12 (Sphingomonas) were identified from roots of the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of these PGPB on plant growth and Cd accumulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants grown on aged Cd-spiked soil. The results showed that the four PGPB significantly boosted oilseed rape shoot biomass production, improved soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value, enhanced Cd uptake of plant and Cd translocation to the leaves. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), we demonstrated the studied S. alfredii endophytic bacterium SaMR12 were able to colonize successfully in the B. napus roots. However, all four PGPB could increase seed Cd accumulation. Due to its potential to enhance Cd uptake by the plant and to restrict Cd accumulation in the seeds, SaMR12 was selected as the most promising microbial partner of B. napus when setting up a plant-microbe fortified remediation system.

  12. Phytofiltration of arsenic and cadmium from the water environment using Micranthemum umbrosum (J.F. Gmel) S.F Blake as a hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shariful; Ueno, Yasuyuki; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) pollution in water is an important global issue. Phytofiltration is an eco-friendly technology that helps clean up pollutants using ornamental plants, such as Micranthemum umbrosum (J.F. Gmel) S.F. Blake. After a seven-day hydroponic experiment, M. umbrosum removed 79.3-89.5% As and 60-73.1% Cd from 0 to 1.0 microg As mL(-1) and 0.3 to 30.0 microg Cd mL(-1) solutions, respectively. For As treatment, root to stem and stem to leaf translocation factors greater than 1.0 indicated that accumulation of As in leaves was large compared to that in stem and roots. However, the accumulation of Cd in roots was higher than that in the leaves and stem. In addition, M. umbrosum completely removed Cd within three days from 0.38 to around 0 microg mL(-1) Cd in the solution when the plant was exchanged daily. Bio-concentration factors (2350 for As and 3027 for Cd) for M. umbrosum were higher than for other As and Cd phytoremediators. The results show that M. umbrosum can be an effective accumulator of Cd and a hyper-accumulator of As, as it can lower As toxicity to a level close to the limit recommended by the World Health Organization (0.01 microg As mL(-1)).

  13. Effect of CO, NOx and SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway to induce Fragaria×annasa as a hyperaccumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of carbon monoxide (CO, nitroxide (NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway in strawberry plants. The results showed that both singlet oxygen (O2−1 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content increased in CO, NOx and SO2 treated strawberry leaves. A drastic reduction of primary metabolism of plants (photosynthesis, with the closure of stomata, resulted in a reduction of protein, carbohydrate and sucrose content due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS under prolonged exposure of gas stress. The resulting antioxidant enzymes were increased under a low dose of gas stress, whereas they were decreased due to a high dose of gas stress. Our results indicate that increased ROS may act as a signal to induce defense responses to CO, NOx and SO2 gas stress. The increased level of antioxidant enzymes plays a significant role in plant protection due to which strawberry plants can be used as a hyperaccumulator to maintain environmental pollution, however, the defense capacity cannot sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage under prolonged exposure of CO, NOx and SO2 stress.

  14. Disruption of a rice gene for α-glucan water dikinase, OsGWD1, leads to hyperaccumulation of starch in leaves but exhibits limited effects on growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro eHirose

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To identify potential regulators of photoassimilate partitioning, we screened for rice mutant plants that accumulate high levels of starch in the leaf blades, and a mutant line Leaf Starch Excess 1 (LSE1 was obtained and characterized. The starch content in the leaf blades of LSE1 was more than 10-fold higher than that in wild-type plants throughout the day, while the sucrose content was unaffected. The gene responsible for the LSE1 phenotype was identified by gene mapping to be a gene encoding α-glucan water dikinase, OsGWD1 (Os06g0498400, and a 3.4-kbp deletion of the gene was found in the mutant plant. Despite the hyperaccumulation of starch in their leaf blades, LSE1 plants exhibited no significant change in vegetative growth, presenting a clear contrast to the reported mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lotus japonicus in which disruption of the genes for α-glucan water dikinase leads to marked inhibition of vegetative growth. In reproductive growth, however, LSE1 exhibited fewer panicles per plant, lower percentage of ripened grains and smaller grains; consequently, the grain yield was lower in LSE1 plants than in wild-type plants by 20~40 %. Collectively, although α-glucan water dikinase was suggested to have universal importance in leaf starch degradation in higher plants, the physiological priority of leaf starch in photoassimilate allocation may vary among plant species.

  15. Découverte et restauration de peintures murales gothiques du XIIIe siècle à la Cathédrale de Chartres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Reille-Taillefert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En octobre 2010, à l'occasion des travaux de nettoyage des premières travées de la nef de la cathédrale de Chartres, des peintures murales ont été découvertes dans les baies hautes. L'article décrit des opérations de nettoyage et consolidation qui ont converti les contraintes du chantier en atouts, et offre un aperçu des résultats.In October 2010, gothics wall paintings have been discovered in the high windows of the Chartres’s cathedral. This article describes the stapes of this archeological restoration

  16. Étude des enduits et peintures murales du prieuré Saint-Martin de Mesvres (Saône-et-Loire

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    Agathe Foullon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available L’ancien prieuré Saint-Martin de Mesvres (Saône-et-Loire occupe une place intéressante dans le réseau religieux bourguignon au Moyen Âge : ses liens avec Autun, Flavigny, mais également Cluny, sont autant d’axes de recherches pour les études historiques et archéologiques en cours . L’étude des enduits et peintures murales du prieuré a débuté en 2009 par une analyse archéologique, menée dans le cadre d’un master 1 de l’université de Paris 4 Panthéon-Sorbonne . À la suite des premières observa...

  17. Remarques sur certains archaïsmes iconographiques dans les peintures murales byzantinisantes de la Pologne au XVe siècle

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    Semoglou Athanassios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski L'étude des certains rarissimes archaïsmes iconographiques dans les peintures murales de style byzantin en Pologne de l'époque du roi Ladislas Jagiello (fin du XIVe - début du XVe siècle a révélé la pénétration d'une tradition riche et originale qui remonte au milieu syro-palestinien des premiers siècles du christianisme. Ce langage pictural conservateur traduit le phénomène du retour à des formules archaïques et s'inscrit dans l'effort, de la part du roi, d'harmoniser les tensions politiques et religieuses des deux communautés du pays (orthodoxe et catholique, grandi après l'union du grand Duché de Lituanie au royaume de Pologne en 1386. .

  18. Halomonas muralis sp. nov., isolated from microbial biofilms colonizing the walls and murals of the Saint-Catherine chapel (Castle Herberstein, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Balcaen, An; De Vos, Paul; Swings, Jean

    2002-11-01

    A group of seven halophilic strains (optimal growth at 2.5-10.0% NaCl) was isolated from samples of a wall and a mural painting, both heavily contaminated by microbial growth, inside the Saint-Catherine chapel of Castle Herberstein (Austria). The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study that included DNA-DNA relatedness studies, DNA base-ratio determinations, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting, fatty acid analysis and phenotypic and biochemical characterization. The data obtained indicate that the strains belong to the genus Halomonas and represent a novel species, for which the name Halomonas muralis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain LMG 20969(T) ( = DSM 14789(T)).

  19. Recuperación de pinturas murales en la iglesia del Monasterio de San Pedro de Cardeña (Burgos. Policromía : ornamento y simbolismo

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    Concepción Bengoechea Agustino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de las pinturas murales recuperadas en la capilla de los Mártires del Monasterio Benedictino de Cárdena, se hace una aproximación a la iconografía y el simbolismo de los colores y las formas. Los elementos arquitectónicos se transforman, por medio de la policromía en volúmenes escultóricos con significado propio.Throughout the wall paintings recovered at the Chapel of the Martyrs in the Benedictine Monastery of Cárdena, an approach is held to the iconography and symbolism of colours and shapes. The architectural ítems are changed by polychrome inte sculptural volumes with a meaningful significance.

  20. A multi-analytical study of the fifteenth century mural paintings of the Batalha Monastery (Portugal) in view of their conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, S.; Candeias, A.; Dias, C.; Schiavon, N.; Cotovio, M.; Pestana, J.; Gil, M.; Mirão, J.

    2013-12-01

    The systematic characterization of the painting's palette and technique applied on the execution of the mural paintings of the Batalha Monastery (Batalha, Leiria, Portugal) is presented. These are the oldest mural paintings known in Portugal (apart from Roman frescoes) and represent the beginning of an artistic Portuguese tradition that continues until the nineteenth century. The aim of the study was to identify for the first time by adopting a multi-analytical physico-chemical approach of the pigments, binder, and alteration products (white veils, crusts, and pigment alteration) of these unique works of arts in order not only to better understand the painting technique, but also to support a conservation-restoration intervention that took place from April to August 2010. Micro-sampling of paint layers was performed on representative areas of the paintings. The characterization of the pigments and binders was carried out by microscopy and microanalysis of cross sections using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), micro-FTIR, and micro X-ray diffraction. The combined analysis of the paintings allowed the identification of the painting's palette: Vermillion (HgS) and red ochre for the reds, yellow ochres for the yellows, green earths and malachite for the greens, azurite for the blues, and carbon for the blacks. The use of the pigment is dependent of the motive painted while the most expensive materials were used in the most important iconographic motives. Alteration of malachite was identified in darkened layers in green areas of the paintings. White veil areas on the surface of the paintings were identified as calcite from precipitation/dissolution processes due to water run-off on the sacristy dome ceiling and walls.

  1. Morphological aspects of mural thrombi deposition residual lumen route in infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurisms Morfologia da deposição de trombos murais: trajeto da luz residual em aneurismas de aorta abdominal infra-renal

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    Thiago Adriano Silva Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the most frequent deposition site of mural thrombi in infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurisms, as well as the route of the residual lumen. METHODS: Assessment of CT scan images from 100 patients presenting asymptomatic abdominal aorta aneurism, and followed at HC-FMRP-USP. RESULTS: In 53% of the cases the mural thrombus was deposited on the anterior wall; from these, in 22%, the residual lumen described a predominantly right sided route; in 22%, a left sided route; on the mid line in 5%; and crossing over the mid line in 1%. In 23%, the deposition of thrombi was concentric. In 11% it occured on the posterior wall; from these, in 5%, the route of the residual anterior lumen was predominantly right sided; in 5%, left sided; and crossed over the mid line in 1%. In 13% complex morfological deposition patterns were found. CONCLUSION: Mural thrombi formation was predominantly found on the anterior wall of the aneurismatic mass, with the route of the residual lumen projecting towards the posterior wall.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o local mais freqüente de deposição do trombo mural em aneurismas de aorta abdominal infrarenal, bem como o trajeto da luz residual. MÉTODOS: Avaliação de tomografias de 100 pacientes do HC-FMRP-USP apresentando aneurisma de aorta abdominal assintomático. RESULTADOS: O trombo mural se deposita na parede anterior em 53% dos casos, sendo que a luz residual posterior descreveu um trajeto predominantemente à direita em 22% dos casos, à esquerda em 22%, na linha mediana em 5% e cruzando da direita para a esquerda em 4%. 23% dos casos apresentaram deposição concêntrica do trombo e 11% apresentaram deposição na parede posterior, sendo o trajeto da luz residual anterior predominante a direita em 5% dos casos, a esquerda em 5% e cruzando a linha mediana em 1%. Padrões morfológicos complexos de deposição do trombo foram encontrados em 13% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A formação do trombo mural predominou na parede

  2. Characterization of constitutive materials and technology of the mural painting of the acropolis of the archaeological zone of Ek Balam, Yucatan, Mexico; Caracterizacion de materiales constitutivos y tecnologia de la pintura mural de la acropolis de la zona arquelogica de Ek Balam, Yucatan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso O, A.; Vazquez N, J.; Ruiz M, C. [INAH, 11000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza A, D.; Espinosa P, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ruvalcaba, J.L. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Vandenabeele, P. [Universidad de Ghent, Belgica (Belgium)]. e-mail: alealonsolvera@yahoo.com

    2005-07-01

    The conservation project of Ek'Balam is one of the few experiences of systematic conservation applied in an archaeological Maya site at the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. The project started in the year 2001 when important stone, stucco and painting decorations were discovered during archaeological excavations. Being a recently discovered site, the conservation program includes a research program based on particular conservation issues detected as potential risk of archaeological data losses. One of the research topics is based on deter- mining the ancient painting technology used in mural and stucco decorations through the characterization of building and decorative composite materials. Archaeometric techniques have been used to fulfil the proposed goal. Raman, X-ray Fluorescence, Light and Electron Microscopy were practiced on a set of 35 wall painting samples. Preliminary results obtained on pigments characterization have partially revealed general features of wall painting technique at Ek'Balam during the late Classic period. Some particular pigments, not reported ever for mural paintings, have been identified in Ek'Balam samples. (Author)

  3. Les peintures murales dans les anciens territoires de Bourgogne (xie-xiie siècles. De Berzé-la-Ville à Rome et d’Auxerre à Compostelle

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    Juliette Rollier-Hanselmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available L'étude des peintures murales de Bourgogne est complexe et doit être mise en relation avec le contexte historique et géopolitique de l’époque. Le duché de Bourgogne se trouvait dans une position stratégique entre le royaume de France et l’empire germanique. L’implantation de Cluny à la frontière de ces deux grands territoires marqua d’une façon particulière la région et eut des implications fortes dans toute la chrétienté occidentale. Nous avons réuni un corpus de peintures murales des xie et...

  4. Characterization of Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria from Mn-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana and their impact on Mn accumulation of hybrid penisetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Three hundred Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Mn-hyperaccumulator, Phytolacca americana, grown at different levels of Mn (0, 1, and 10mM) stress. Under no Mn stress, 90%, 92%, and 11% of the bacteria produced indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, respectively. Under Mn stress, 68-94%, 91-92%, and 21-81% of the bacteria produced IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, respectively. Greater percentages of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were found in the Mn-treated P. americana. Furthermore, the ratios of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria were significantly higher in the Mn treated plant leaves, while the ratio of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria was significantly higher in the Mn treated-roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, Mn-resistant bacteria were affiliated with 10 genera. In experiments involving hybrid penisetum grown in soils treated with 0 and 1000mgkg(-1) of Mn, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the root (ranging from 6.4% to 18.3%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 19.3% to 70.2%) mass and total Mn uptake of above-ground tissues (64%) compared to the control. Furthermore, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the ratio of IAA-producing bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of hybrid penisetum grown in Mn-added soils. The results showed the effect of Mn stress on the ratio of the plant growth-promoting factor-producing endophytic bacteria of P. americana and highlighted the potential of endophytic bacterium as an inoculum for enhanced phytoremediation of Mn-polluted soils by hybrid penisetum plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Hyun [Department of Environment Landscape Architecture-Design, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Keuk-Soo [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan, E-mail: kannan@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung-Taek, E-mail: btoh@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endophytic Bacillus spp. have reduced the lead toxicity in Alnus firma plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bacteria have sequestered the Pb molecules extracellularly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bacteria have increased the growth rate of plants in the presence of Pb. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants.

  6. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity.

  7. Aluminium uptake and translocation in Al hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius is affected by low-molecular-weight organic acids content and soil pH.

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    Stanislava Vondráčková

    Full Text Available High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8 and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism.We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs.Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of "oxalate plants." The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions.In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids.

  8. San Adrián de Moneixas. Evolución de la iglesia y estudio de su singular pintura mural

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    del Castillo Fondevila, Mª Estghr

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The church of Saint Adrian of Moneixas (Lalín – Pontevedra was originally a Romanic factory dated about 1170. From that time, it only keeps the arch leading to the High Chapel and the columns on which the arch rests. The columns end in decorated capitals. Between the second and third quarter of the eighteenth century the church suffered several reparations, and it was provided with a sacristy, a window in the apse, two new chapels, the main altarpiece and other three retables and the bell gable -all of them in baroque style. In 1960 the church is completely transformed - a Sanctuary-Chapel was built as if it was a second nave, and it was dedicated to the Third Carmelite Order. Inside the wall of the apse epistle and because of some works, there appeared an original mural painting, unknown up to now. We think that it can be dated as belonging to the late fifteenth century or very early in the sixteenth. It represents the Flagellation of Christ, with the particularity that it follows an unusual pattern in Spain taken from the Speculum Humanae Salvationis, in which Christ appears tied to a palm tree while two men belonging to the brotherhood of the “executioners” “sayones” are whipping him.

    La iglesia de San Adrián de Moneixas (Lalín- Pontevedra de fábrica románica en origen con fecha próxima a 1170, conserva de aquel momento poco más que el arco de acceso a la capilla mayor y las columnas sobre las que descansa, rematadas por capiteles decorados. Muy reformada en el segundo y tercer cuarto del siglo XVIII, la dotan de una sacristía, una ventana en el ábside, dos nuevas capillas, el retablo mayor, otros tres retablos y la espadaña, todo ello de factura barroca. En 1960 una gran transformación la desfigura completamente, ya que construyen una Capilla- Santuario a modo de segunda nave, dedicada a la Tercera Orden Carmelitana. En el interior del muro de la Epístola del ábside, apareció con motivo de unas

  9. Toxic effects of the mycotoxin zearalenone and its derivatives on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes and 17 beta-estradiol levels in mural granulosa cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, F; Dell'Aquila, M E; Maritato, F; Minoia, P; Visconti, A

    2001-01-01

    Moulds parasites of livestock foodstuffs alter the quality of grains by synthesizing mycotoxins. Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives (alpha- and beta-zearalenol, zeranol, taleranol and zearalanone) are produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium and, after ingestion via contaminated cereals, may lead to fertility disturbances and other reproductive pathologies. Zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol and zearalanone were tested, at levels ranging from 0.3 to 30 microg/ml, in order to evaluate the effect on the in vitro maturation (IVM) rate of bovine oocytes and on the formation of 17 beta-estradiol in supernatants of mural granulosa cells (GC) cultures. These compounds induced dose-dependent oocyte maturation delay and chromatin abnormalities. Maturation of oocytes to metaphase II (M II) was inhibited in oocytes cultured in the presence of 30 microg/ml ZEA, alpha-zearalenol or zearalanone, with a significant increase in chromatin abnormalities occurring in the presence of ZEA (Pzearalenol (Pzearalenol (mean value 1.6 ng/ml) with respect to ZEA and zearalanone (mean estradiol concentrations of 0.06 and 0.5 ng/ml, respectively). These data demonstrate a negative effect of ZEA and its derivatives on meiotic progression of bovine oocytes, possibly attributable to a toxic mechanism not related to the binding affinity of these compounds to estrogen receptor sites, and support previous observations that alpha-zearalenol acts as a stronger estrogenic inducer than the original molecule (ZEA).

  10. Description of Naumannella cuiyingiana sp. nov., isolated from a ca. 1500-year-old mural painting, and emended description of the genus Naumannella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Wu, Fasi; Ma, Yantian; Xiang, Ting; Ma, Wenxia; Hu, Weigang; Wu, Guangwen; An, Lizhe; Wang, Wanfu; Feng, Huyuan

    2017-08-01

    Strain AFT2T was isolated from a mural painting sample from a ca. 1500-year-old tomb located in Shanxi Province, China. The isolate was a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic and oval to short-rod-shaped bacterium that formed white-pigmented colonies. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain AFT2T was most closely (97.01 %) correlated and formed a monophyletic clade with Naumannella halotolerans WS4616T (=DSM 24323T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.97 mol%, and the strain showed 37.27 % DNA-DNA relatedness to N. halotolerans DSM 24323T. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0 (55.32 %), and MK-9(H4) was the only respiratory quinone. The polar lipids comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unknown phospholipids and five unknown glycolipids. ll-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the cell-wall peptidoglycan (type A3γ), and the whole-cell sugars consisted of ribose, mannose, arabinose and galactose. On the basis of its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is proposed that strain AFT2T should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Naumannella, for which the name Naumannella cuiyingiana sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFT2T (=CCTCC AB 2015428T=DSM 103164T).

  11. Colonial Scopic Regimen: A Cultural Critique Of The Mural “La Medicina En El Cauca” By Belisario Gómez

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    Felipe García Quintero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una reflexión crítica acerca del estatuto colonial contemporáneo en Popayán (Colombia. Mediante un acercamiento al dispositivo artístico de una obra mural de reciente creación, se indaga por el sentido de la representación icónica en la construcción de la identidad cultural urbana, más allá de la valoración estética o el propósito curatorial del arte, que no constituyen los problemas tratados en este ejercicio de interpretación visual. El propósito es abrir un diálogo crítico con la obra respecto al sentido político de la representación del ser cultural. En esta tentativa, el sensorium popular y la percepción experta se suspenden, puesto que el ejercicio de valoración es de orden subjetivo, y no compromete más que el juicio propio, con el cual la discusión estética se desplaza al horizonte político de determinar los caminos queemprende la identidad, y los significados de la misma en el contexto urbano, al pensar el estatuto colonial contemporáneo como dispositivo de poder cultural.

  12. John Barclay (1758-1826) extra-mural teacher of anatomy in Edinburgh: Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M H

    2006-04-01

    John Barclay (1758-1826) was one of the most distinguished, respected and enthusiastic teachers of anatomy in Edinburgh during the first decades of the 19th century. He taught this subject in the extra-mural school from 1797 until 1825. He initially studied divinity at St Andrews University, intending entering the Church. After acting as a minister of the Church for about 10 years and tutoring for most of these years, he decided to study medicine in Edinburgh, and was particularly attracted to anatomy. After he qualified with the MD degree, he proceeded to London where he attended the anatomical classes of Dr Marshall for about a year. On his return to Edinburgh he taught anatomy to a small class for three years in High School Yards. He then acquired a property at Number 10 Surgeons' Square where he taught from 1800 until 1825, when he was forced to withdraw due to poor health. His lectures were meticulously prepared, and his illustrations clear and copious. In 1804, his class was recognised by the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh as fulfilling their requirements for students who wished to take the College's examinations. During the winter sessions he taught anatomy, physiology and surgery, while in the summer sessions he taught comparative anatomy, a subject in which he was particularly interested. He was elected an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1821. His classes were taken over by his partner Robert Knox, at that time Conservator of the College's Museum.

  13. Identification of target genes of the bZIP transcription factor OsTGAP1, whose overexpression causes elicitor-induced hyperaccumulation of diterpenoid phytoalexins in rice cells.

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    Koji Miyamoto

    Full Text Available Phytoalexins are specialised antimicrobial metabolites that are produced by plants in response to pathogen attack. Momilactones and phytocassanes are the major diterpenoid phytoalexins in rice and are synthesised from geranylgeranyl diphosphate, which is derived from the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway. The hyperaccumulation of momilactones and phytocassanes due to the hyperinductive expression of the relevant biosynthetic genes and the MEP pathway gene OsDXS3 in OsTGAP1-overexpressing (OsTGAP1ox rice cells has previously been shown to be stimulated by the chitin oligosaccharide elicitor. In this study, to clarify the mechanisms of the elicitor-stimulated coordinated hyperinduction of these phytoalexin biosynthetic genes in OsTGAP1ox cells, transcriptome analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing were performed, resulting in the identification of 122 OsTGAP1 target genes. Transcriptome analysis revealed that nearly all of the momilactone and phytocassane biosynthetic genes, which are clustered on chromosomes 4 and 2, respectively, and the MEP pathway genes were hyperinductively expressed in the elicitor-stimulated OsTGAP1ox cells. Unexpectedly, none of the clustered genes was included among the OsTGAP1 target genes, suggesting that OsTGAP1 did not directly regulate the expression of these biosynthetic genes through binding to each promoter region. Interestingly, however, several OsTGAP1-binding regions were found in the intergenic regions among and near the cluster regions. Concerning the MEP pathway genes, only OsDXS3, which encodes a key enzyme of the MEP pathway, possessed an OsTGAP1-binding region in its upstream region. A subsequent transactivation assay further confirmed the direct regulation of OsDXS3 expression by OsTGAP1, but other MEP pathway genes were not included among the OsTGAP1 target genes. Collectively, these results suggest that OsTGAP1 participates in the enhanced accumulation of

  14. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques applied to the noninvasive investigation of mural paintings: a feasibility study carried out on a wall painting by Beato Angelico in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, Costanza; Picollo, Marcello; Chiarantini, Leandro; Sereni, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays hyperspectral imaging is a well-established methodology for the non-invasive diagnostics of polychrome surfaces, and is increasingly utilized in museums and conservation laboratories for documentation purposes and in support of restoration procedures. However, so far the applications of hyperspectral imaging have been mainly limited to easel paintings or paper-based artifacts. Indeed, specifically designed hyperspectral imagers, are usually used for applications in museum context. These devices work at short-distances from the targets and cover limited size surfaces. Instead, almost still unexplored remain the applications of hyperspectral imaging to the investigations of frescoes and large size mural paintings. For this type of artworks a remote sensing approach, based on sensors capable of acquiring hyperspectral data from distances of the order of tens of meters, is needed. This paper illustrates an application of hyperspectral remote sensing to an important wall-painting by Beato Angelico, located in the San Marco Museum in Florence. Measurements were carried out using a re-adapted version of the Galileo Avionica Multisensor Hyperspectral System (SIM-GA), an avionic hyperspectral imager originally designed for applications from mobile platforms. This system operates in the 400-2500 nm range with over 700 channels, thus guaranteeing acquisition of high resolution hyperspectral data exploitable for materials identification and mapping. In the present application, the SIM-GA device was mounted on a static scanning platform for ground-based applications. The preliminary results obtained on the Angelico's wall-painting are discussed, with highlights on the main technical issues addressed to optimize the SIM-GA system for new applications on cultural assets.

  15. Caracterización arqueométrica de pigmentos y soportes procedentes de pinturas murales góticas (S. XIII-XV

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    Kriznar, A.

    2007-04-01

    mortar as support were used in these Gothic wall paintings. Moreover, this feature, besides of cinnabar application, allows to establish the 1400-1410 wall paintings in the artistic Italian current named Trecento. The second procedure to paint is a typical of North Europe: one or two layer of mortar with a fine layer of lime. This is used to improve the strenght of lime as an aglutinant in the mortar. With this study, it is concluded that the Italian and North-European artistic currents met in Slovenian territory, which is appraisable as much stilistic (Art History as scientific (Chemical and Physical analysis point of views. This kind of investigation allows to know better the Central European Art and the Slovenian Art in the Adriatic zone, as well as the general map of European Art in the Middle Age.

    El presente trabajo forma parte de una investigación más amplia sobre pinturas murales góticas (S. XIII-XV. En concreto, se han estudiado las que se encuentran en el interior de varias iglesias de Eslovenia y que no habían sido estudiadas, hasta la fecha, por medio de técnicas instrumentales de análisis de materiales. Una de ellas está situada en la ciudad de Crngrob (Eslovenia y se ha seleccionado como objeto de este estudio (Iglesia de la Anunciación de María. El estudio científico de las muestras en el ICMSE se basó, principalmente, en la preparación de una serie de secciones estratigráficas a partir de los fragmentos pequeños de las mismas para analizar las diferentes capas de mortero soporte y de la propia pintura. Se examinaron dichas preparaciones por varias técnicas, como son fotografía digital, microscopías óptica y electrónica (MEB, espectroscopía IR (reflexión y EDX. Una información adicional sobre pigmentos y morteros se obtuvo mediante IR (transmisión, preparando pastillas con KBr, además de DRX. Las muestras estudiadas pueden clasificarse en dos grupos que, a su vez, permiten apreciar dos formas de pintura mural. La primera es t

  16. «Ad faciendum et distrenpandum colores». Giorgio da Firenze e la pittura murale a olio in Piemonte nel Trecento / «Ad faciendum et distrenpandum colores». Giorgio da Firenze and the oil mural painting in Piemonte in the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Oderzo Gabrieli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Il periferico Piemonte ospita dalla fine del Settecento un erudito dibattito su di una serie di documenti che testimoniano l’uso dell’olio in pittura murale da parte di un pittore toscano, Giorgio degli Agli, artista di corte dei Savoia tra il 1314 ed il 1348. L’analisi dei ricettari e dei trattati di tecnica artistica medievale rivela quanto fosse nota la possibilità di una pittura a olio o totalmente a tempera su muro, dalla Schedula di Teophilus fino al Manoscritto di Strasburgo. I documenti d’archivio inglesi trecenteschi confermano le quantità e i prezzi pagati nelle attestazioni piemontesi, sia per i pigmenti che per i leganti, dove uova, colla e olio sono ad faciendum et distrenpandum colores. Recenti campagne analitiche infine hanno permesso di riconoscere la presenza di leganti di natura organica tra i diversi strati della pellicola pittorica, rivelando una tradizione tecnica tutta oltralpina (a partire dal cantiere assisiate; fra questi, Jean de Grandson, collaboratore e allievo di Giorgio, nel ciclo della Camera Domini del Castello di Chillon (1342-1343 dipinge su muro proprio come se si trattasse di una tavola.   To the late eighteenth century, the peripheral Piedmont hosts a scholarly debate on a series of documents which demonstrate the use of oil in mural painting by a Tuscan painter, Giorgio degli Agli, court artist of the Savoy between 1314 and 1348. The analysis of medieval technique treaties reveals how was known the use of oil or tempera on wall painting, from the Schedule of Theophilus to the Manuscript in Strasbourg. The English fourteenth archive documents confirm the quantities and prices paid claims in Piedmont, both for the pigments to the medium, where eggs, glue and oil are used at faciendum et distrenpandum colores. Recent analytical campaigns finally made it possible to recognize the presence of organic media between the different film layers of paintings, revealing a whole transalpine technical tradition

  17. Estudio de materiales y técnica de ejecución de los restos de pintura mural romana hallados en una excavación arqueológica de Guadix (Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana García Bueno

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo da a conocer unos restos de pintura mural romana encontrados en Guadix, tanto desde el punto de vista arqueológico como analítico. Estos fragmentos de pintura mural constituían parte del material de relleno de una canalización romana, cuya cronología pudo precisarse con exactitud, que posiblemente formaría parte de la red hidráulica de la antigua ACCIS. Ateniéndonos a las características de los fragmentos, se seleccionaron muestras de los colores más frecuentes para determinar los pigmentos utilizados y la técnica de ejecución empleada en su construcción.This article makes Known the remains of Román wall painting found in Guadix, botti fron au archaeological and analytical point of view. These fragments of wall painting constituted part of ttie filling material used in a Román channelling, whose chronology was accurately established, which would probably be part of the hydraulic system in ancient ACCIS. Keeping in mind the characteristics of the fragments, samples of the most frecuent colours were chosen to determine the pigments used and the execution technique employed in its construction.

  18. Découvrir » la peinture murale au XIXe siècle : le rôle pionnier du Comité historique des Arts et Monuments dans la connaissance, la diffusion et la conservation du décor peint (1835-1852)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeannest, Élodie

    2013-01-01

    Le Comité des Arts et Monuments institué par F. Guizot en 1835 a joué un rôle primordial dans la valorisation de la peinture murale en France, domaine de recherches encore balbutiant dans ce premier tiers d’un XIXe siècle...

  19. <書評> Cockcroft, Eva Sperling and Holly Barnet-Sanchez eds., Signs from the Heart : California Chicano Murals., Social and Public Art Resource Center and University of New Mexico Press. 1990, (サインズ・フロム・ザ・ハート:カリフォルニアのチカーノ壁画)

    OpenAIRE

    熊谷, 高秋

    2006-01-01

    Cockcroft, Eva Sperling and Holly Barnet-Sanchez eds., Signs from the Heart : California Chicano Murals., Social and Public Art Resource Center and University of New Mexico Press. 1990, (サインズ・フロム・ザ・ハート:カリフォルニアのチカーノ壁画)

  20. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  1. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Turkey. Odontarrhena. AY237952.1. A. chalcidicum. Elbasan Perrenjas, Albania. Odontarrhena. GQ284869.1. Macedonia Drosia. A. chalcidicum. Central, Greece. Odontarrhena. GQ284876.1. A. condensatum. Syria. Odontarrhena. AY237951.1. A. corsicum. Corsica, France. Odontarrhena. AY237949.1. A. corymbosoides.

  2. Journey: A Service Learning Mural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Winthrop Middle School's cafeteria had three paintings on the wall in which the paint was fading and the plaster was falling off. Many students wanted a change since the paintings had been there for over 15 years. This situation seemed appropriate for a service learning project for this Winthrop, Maine middle school. After the students reviewed…

  3. "Largo de São Mamede" and "Rua de Alconchel" Fountains, in Évora: methodological notes on their recovery and the unveiling, conservation and restoration of mural painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to protect the hydraulic heritage of Évora, a restoration project was carried on eighteen structures with different typologies (wall fountains, free standing fountains, drinking fountains characterized by their diversity in historical value and state of conservation. The main objectives of this work promoted by the Municipality of Évora and developed by the company Nova Conservação, Lda. were the conservation, restoration and reactivation of these structures in order to give them back to the public. This paper presents the methodologies for their recovering. A particular emphasis was given to the fountains of "Largo de São Mamede" and, specially, of "Rua de Alconchel" due to the discovery of decorative mural paintings made using fresco techniques (feigned marbles underneath layers of lime wash.

  4. Recomponiendo un puzle. Disquisiciones acerca de la restauración e interpretación de unas pinturas murales de estilo gótico lineal en la iglesia de Santa María la Nueva de Zamora

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Pérez Martín; Marco Antonio Martín Bailón; Luciana Macedo Coelho

    2011-01-01

    La iglesia de Santa María la Nueva de Zamora, de origen románico, se ha revelado como un puzle enigmático de difícil interpretación en su evolución constructiva. Dentro de un programa de intervenciones y estudios mucho más amplio, se exponen aquí los avances en su conocimiento surgidos con motivo de la restauración de las pinturas murales situadas en la sacristía sur, lugar especialmente sensible por ser la unión de varias fases del templo de los siglos XII, XIV y XVIII. Algunos de estos elem...

  5. Recomponiendo un puzle. Disquisiciones acerca de la restauración e interpretación de unas pinturas murales de estilo gótico lineal en la iglesia de Santa María la Nueva de Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pérez Martín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La iglesia de Santa María la Nueva de Zamora, de origen románico, se ha revelado como un puzle enigmático de difícil interpretación en su evolución constructiva. Dentro de un programa de intervenciones y estudios mucho más amplio, se exponen aquí los avances en su conocimiento surgidos con motivo de la restauración de las pinturas murales situadas en la sacristía sur, lugar especialmente sensible por ser la unión de varias fases del templo de los siglos XII, XIV y XVIII. Algunos de estos elementos -incluidas varias escenas del ciclo pictórico- fueron tratados al descubrirse a mediados del siglo XX como piezas de un rompecabezas que debía rehacerse

  6. Innovació docent: gestió i desenvolupament d’activitats extracurriculars en l’àrea de la conservació-restauració de pintura mural. Capella de San Andrés (Sevilla-Espanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Prado-Campos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓ. Aquest article descriu una experiència pràctica d’innovació docent duta a terme en el grau universitari de Conservació i Restauració de Béns Culturals de la Universitat de Sevilla. MÈTODE. Les pràctiques acadèmiques descrites tenien com a objectiu fonamental contribuir activament a la formació dels alumnes i aportar-los una experiència pràctica professional real en traslladar-los del seu àmbit habitual, l’aula, a un entorn professional. RESULTATS. L’aplicació de la metodologia específica de conservació-restauració en projectes d’intervenció de pintura mural, concretament a la cúpula de l’església de San Andrés (Sevilla, va permetre que l’alumnat prengués contacte amb una realitat professional concreta, on el gran format de les pintures murals i l’aplicació de les mesures de seguretat laboral van tenir com a resultat la millora les seves destreses i habilitats pel que fa als processos propis de la seva professió. A més, va suposar una experiència d’interès per a la seva inserció laboral. DISCUSSIÓ. Es demostra, amb això, que utilitzant els recursos didàctics apropiats en el procés d’ensenyament i aprenentatge es pot ampliar la qualitat de la docència.

  7. Inoculation with endophytic Bacillus megaterium 1Y31 increases Mn accumulation and induces the growth and energy metabolism-related differentially-expressed proteome in Mn hyperaccumulator hybrid pennisetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-hui; He, Lin-yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to investigate the molecular and microbial mechanisms involved in the endophytic Bacillus megaterium 1Y31-enhanced Mn tolerance and accumulation in Mn hyperaccumulator hybrid pennisetum. Strain 1Y31 significantly increased the dry weights (ranging from 28% to 94%) and total Mn uptake (ranging from 23% to 112%) of hybrid pennisetum treated with 0, 2, and 10mM Mn compared to the control. Total 98 leaf differentially expressed proteins were identified between the live and dead bacterial inoculated hybrid pennisetum. The major leaf differentially expressed proteins were involved in energy generation, photosynthesis, response to stimulus, metabolisms, and unknown function. Furthermore, most of the energy generation and photosynthesis-related proteins were up-regulated, whereas most of the response to stimulus and metabolism-related proteins were down-regulated under Mn stress. Notably, the proportion of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing endophytic bacteria was significantly higher in the bacterial inoculated plants under Mn stress. The results suggested that strain 1Y31 increased the growth and Mn uptake of hybrid pennisetum through increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis and energy metabolism as well as the proportion of plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria in the plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. OPTIMITZACIÓ DE MÈTODES MULTITÉCNICA PER A LA CARACTERITZACIÓ DE COMPONENTS ORGÀNICS I MORTERS DE CALÇ TRADICIONALS DE L'ANTIGUITAT. DESENVOLUPAMENT DE METODOLOGIES EXPERIMENTALS PER A LA SEVA CONSERVACIÓ I RESTAURACIÓ. APLICACIÓ A UN CAS D'ESTUDI: ELS ESTUCS DE LA PINTURA MURAL DE LA CULTURA MAIA (ANTIGA MESOAMÈRICA)

    OpenAIRE

    GUASCH FERRÉ, NÚRIA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The present research suggests, on one hand, optimizing a multi-technical method for the characterization of organic compounds and traditional lime mortars to use in monumental buildings of antiquity. To illustrate the effectiveness of this methodology it has been applied to a study case, the stucco from mural painting of Maya culture (Ancient Mesoamerica), which has been chosen by the need to continue studying the composition of preparation layers of these stuccos. There are two reasons ...

  9. Arsenic phytoextraction and hyperaccumulation by fern species Fitoextração e hiperacumulação de arsênio por espécies de samambaias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isidoria Silva Gonzaga

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is an ubiquitous trace metalloid found in all environmental media. Its presence at elevated concentrations in soils derives from both anthropogenic and natural inputs. Arsenic is a toxic and carcinogenic element, which has caused severe environmental and health problem worldwide. Technologies currently available for the remediation of arsenic-contaminated sites are expensive, environmentally disruptive, and potentially hazardous to workers. Phytoextraction, a strategy of phytoremediation, uses plants to clean up contaminated soils and has been successfully applied to arsenic contaminated soils. It has the advantage of being cost-effective and environmentally friendly. A major step towards the development of phytoextraction of arsenic-impacted soils is the discovery of the arsenic hyper accumulation in ferns, first in Pteris vittata, which presented an extraordinary capacity to accumulate 2.3% arsenic in its biomass. Another fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos was found to exhibit the same hyperaccumulating characteristics. After that, screening experiments have revealed that the Pteris genus is really unique in that many species have the potential to be used in phytoextraction of arsenic. In general, these plants seem to have both constitutive and adaptive mechanisms for accumulating or tolerating high arsenic concentration. In the past few years, much work has been done to understand and improve the hyperaccumulating capability of these amazing plants. In particular, the field of molecular biology seems to hold the key for the future of the phytoremediation.O arsênio e um metalóide traço encontrado basicamente em todos os ambientes. Elevadas concentrações de arsênio no solo podem acontecer naturalmente devido ao intemperismo de rochas ricas em arsênio, como também de atividades antropogênicas. O arsênio é um elemento tóxico e cancerígeno. Em muitas partes do mundo, a contaminação pelo arsênio tem causado problemas

  10. Expression of HMA4 cDNAs of the zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens from endogenous NcHMA4 promoters does not complement the zinc-deficiency phenotype of the Arabidopsis thaliana hma2hma4 double mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar eIqbal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Noccaea caerulescens (Nc exhibits a very high constitutive expression of the heavy metal transporting ATPase, HMA4, as compared to the non-hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana (At, due to copy number expansion and altered cis-regulation. We screened a BAC library for HMA4 and found that HMA4 is triplicated in the genome of a N. caerulescens accession from a former Zn mine near La Calamine (LC, Belgium. We amplified multiple HMA4 promoter sequences from three calamine N. caerulescens accessions, and expressed AtHMA4 and different NcHMA4 cDNAs under At and Nc HMA4 promoters in the A. thaliana (Col hma2hma4 double mutant. Transgenic lines expressing HMA4 under the At promoter were always fully complemented for root-to-shoot Zn translocation and developed normally at a 2- µM Zn supply, whereas the lines expressing HMA4 under Nc promoters usually showed only slightly enhanced root to shoot Zn translocation rates in comparison with the double mutant, probably owing to ectopic expression in the roots, respectively. When expression of the Zn deficiency responsive marker gene ZIP4 was tested, the transgenic lines expressing AtHMA4 under an NcHMA4-1-LC promoter showed on average a 7-fold higher expression in the leaves, in comparison with the double hma2hma4 mutant, showing that this construct aggravated, rather than alleviated the severity of foliar Zn deficiency in the mutant, possible owing to expression in the leaf mesophyll.

  11. De nuevo sobre la Compassio Mariae: A propósito de las pinturas murales del sepulcro de don Alfonso Vidal en la catedral vieja de Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Baños, Fernando

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available En el verano de 1999 quedaron al descubierto tras su restauración las pinturas murales de estilo gótico lineal de los siglos XIII y XIV que se encontraron en noviembre de 1997 en el brazo meridional del crucero de la catedral vieja de Salamanca. Por su cantidad, por su calidad y por la riqueza de su iconografía estos descubrimientos consolidan la importancia de Salamanca en el panorama de la pintura de estilo gótico lineal. No pretendo abordar en este momento un estudio de conjunto acerca de estas pinturas, que reservo para otra ocasión, sino estudiar un aspecto iconográfico relevante de estos descubrimientos que entronca con el objeto de interés de la profesora Domínguez Rodríguez en un artículo publicado no hace mucho tiempo en las páginas de esta revista.…

  12. Primary Intra-aortic Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Large B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Aortic Mural Thrombosis: An Entity Distinct From Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Ryuta; Sakashita, Aki; Omoto, Atsushi; Sato, Osamu; Hino, Yoko; Yanagisawa, Akio; Urata, Yoji

    2017-12-01

    Intravascular selective growth of neoplastic B lymphocytes is a characteristic finding of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL). However, because neoplastic B cells of IVLBCL grow merely in the lumina of capillaries or small vessels, primary IVLBCL of the great vessels is considered exceptional. To our knowledge, only 2 primary B-cell lymphomas in the lumina of the vena cava have been reported. However, there has been no report of primary B-cell lymphoma with intra-aortic growth. We describe a novel manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus-positive large B-cell lymphoma mainly affecting the lumina of the aorta and its major branches in a 76-year-old man. He had a long-term fever that was refractory to antibiotics and aortic mural thrombosis with visceral embolization. Because he had no detectable mass suggesting a malignancy, it was difficult to diagnose while he was alive. He died without anticancer treatment, and the confirmed diagnosis was made at autopsy.

  13. Novel environmental species isolated from the plaster wall surface of mural paintings in the Takamatsuzuka tumulus: Bordetella muralis sp. nov., Bordetella tumulicola sp. nov. and Bordetella tumbae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazato, Nozomi; Handa, Yutaka; Nishijima, Miyuki; Kigawa, Rika; Sano, Chie; Sugiyama, Junta

    2015-12-01

    Ten strains of Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile coccobacilli were isolated from the plaster wall surface of 1300-year-old mural paintings inside the stone chamber of the Takamatsuzuka tumulus in Asuka village (Asuka-mura), Nara Prefecture, Japan. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolates, they belonged to the proteobacterial genus Bordetella (class Betaproteobacteria) and could be separated into three groups representing novel lineages within the genus Bordetella. Three isolates were selected, one from each group, and identified carefully using a polyphasic approach. The isolates were characterized by the presence of Q-8 as their major ubiquinone system and C16 : 0 (30.0-41.8 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c; 10.1-27.0 %) and C17 : 0 cyclo (10.8-23.8 %) as the predominant fatty acids. The major hydroxy fatty acids were C12 : 0 2-OH and C14 : 0 2-OH. The DNA G+C content was 59.6-60.0 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization tests confirmed that the isolates represented three separate novel species, for which the names Bordetella muralis sp. nov. (type strain T6220-3-2bT = JCM 30931T = NCIMB 15006T), Bordetella tumulicola sp. nov. (type strain T6517-1-4bT = JCM 30935T = NCIMB 15007T) and Bordetella tumbae sp. nov. (type strain T6713-1-3bT = JCM 30934T = NCIMB 15008T) are proposed. These results support previous evidence that members of the genus Bordetella exist in the environment and may be ubiquitous in soil and/or water.

  14. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... 3College of Mechanical and Electric Engineering, Northwest A&F University, 712100 Yangling, China. 4College of Science ... processes, such as respiration, transpiration, photo- synthesis .... with a uniform shape in all parts.

  15. Arnavutluk’taki Osmanlı Dönemi Mimarisinde İstanbul Tasvirli Duvar Resimleri İstanbul Depiction Mural Paintings in Architecture of Ottoman Period in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin UÇAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate the Istanbul depictionsmural paintings in Ottoman period within the borders of Albania, one ofBalkan countries. Within the scope of our research, the Istanbuldepictions found in research region were described according to theircontents by classifying them according to painting dates and locations.Also by analyzing style characteristics in paintings and the effects ofperiod, we tried to compare them with their likes in Anatolia in terms oftechnic and arrangement.The mural paintings which started to be used in religious and civilarchitecture of Ottoman Empire (in Istanbul the Capital City and inAnatolia since middle of 18th century has started to be seen in wallsurfaces in Albania. Those mural paintings, which have nowadayssamples on scarce number of structures, are located in medallions,boards, springer and frames on inner and outer wall surfaces ofbuildings. The themes of paintings are generally still-life, landscape andcity depictions. Among city depictions chosen as theme, Istanbul hasprimary place because it was capital city in that era. The Istanbulfigurations, which have generally been handled fictionally, are locatedon wall surfaces of Akçahisar (Kruje Toptaniler Mansion, BeratBekarlar Mosque, Berat Cako (Xhaxhi Qako House and Görice (KorçeMirahor İlyas Bey Mosque.Although the Istanbul-themed paintings, which are now locatedwithin the borders of other countries, have been made by local artists oftheir region, they show important similarities with their contemporariesin especially Aegean and Marmara regions from the aspects of technic,style and arrangement. Bu çalışmada, Balkan ülkelerinden Arnavutluk’ta Osmanlı döneminde yapılmış olan duvar resimlerindeki İstanbul tasvirlerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda bölgede yaptığımız araştırmada tespit edilen İstanbul tasvirleri, yapıldıkları tarihlere ve bulundukları yere göre tasnif edilerek, içeriklerine g

  16. Murals as Documents of Social History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Mary Jane

    2004-01-01

    This instructional resource is the third in a series that explores the narrative role of art in public places. In two recent issues of "Art Education," Susan Goetz Zwirn ("Men and Women at Work: The Portrayal of American Workers by Three Artists of the 1930s and 1940s" 57(2), pp. 25-32) and Carol Argiro ("Teaching with Public Art" 57(4), pp.…

  17. WRITERS MURAL PROJECTS AT LES CORTS (BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Aco

    2015-06-01

    A first analysis of the wall, its location and context, clearly show that no intervention should be based on the language of street art, and required a project aiming to permanence, and that could become a work of public art. We assess, too, that an Urban Design international and interdisciplinary, was not suitable to perform a graffiti preformance, because of skills and abilities, could raise an artistic solution complementing the urban design of the area. The Association of Residents of the area when knowing the idea of the District reported a total rejection of this intervention, especially if carried out in the style of those made in previous years. So the project was paralyzed, but the Research Centre and Coordination of the Master in Urban Design, understood that it was a good team project exercise to develop in the framework of the course in Public Art Theory.

  18. Establishing Collective-Based Mural in Husby, Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    of the targeted groups as well as the symbolic limitation of agency. This allows us to follow the process by which the initiative attempts to re-symbolize the body and the neighborhood identified through the category of ‘the immigrant’. The article suggests that efforts to overcome the problem of interpellation...

  19. Murals and graffiti as symbolic expressions of the class struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Vivero Arriagada, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To interpret the political meanings of walls and graffiti as symbolic expressions of class struggle in public spaces.Methodology: An interpretive perspective study was addressed from making observation and photographic record of a series of walls located at different places in the city of Temuco, Araucania Region, Chile. Theoretical elements were used to support the analysis and the context within the expression called art-politics expression.Results: The wall, as a public space, b...

  20. What is the clinical significance of ventricular mural antagonism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunkenheimer, Paul P; Niederer, Peter; Stephenson, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    Recent morphological studies provide evidence that the ventricular walls are arranged as a 3D meshwork of aggregated cardiomyocyte chains, exhibiting marked local structural variations. In contrary to previous findings, up to two-fifths of the chains are found to have a partially transmural align...... disease, such as hypertrophy and fibrosis. ß-blockade at low dosage acts selectively to temper the auxotonic forces....

  1. The Solar Eclipse Mural Series by Howard Russell Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich trove of astronomical phenomena in works of art by artists from the greater New York area, a trend that is even more pronounced in the oeuvres of New York City residents through the present day. A case in point is the trio of oil paintings by artist (and former physics professor) Howard Russell Butler depicting total solar eclipses in 1918, 1923, and 1925 that are based on his own observations. They were long displayed in the former art-deco building of the Hayden Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History, the location of this conference. (The Museum also has nine other Butler paintings, none of which are currently exhibited.) Since the eclipse paintings have been in storage for many years, these once famous works are now virtually forgotten. Based on our research as an astronomer who has seen sixty-two solar eclipses and an art historian who has written extensively about astronomical imagery, we will discuss Butler's Solar Eclipse Triptych to explore its place in the history of astronomical imaging.

  2. Collaboration, Inclusion, and Empowerment: A Life Skills Mural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    Making the visual arts program meaningful in public education can be a challenge when one considers how little instructional time is devoted to the visual arts. A challenge for art educators is to seek opportunities outside the classroom for real-life inquiry-based projects. This form of systematic inquiry done by teachers for themselves is called…

  3. The Media Mural Project: Empowering Youth in New Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsen, Jess

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the pedagogy, practice and outcomes of a digital art program developed to enable high school and middle school students to become active participants in new forms of grassroots public media. Students and their teachers become producers and controllers of art-based videos and associated digital dialogue which is distributed…

  4. Connecting Classrooms and Communities through Chicano Mural Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher educators can use community art and arts learning strategies to help secondary preservice teachers gain insight into disciplinary understanding that is important to the humanities and relevant to the communities in which they teach. Such insight can then inform teachers' rationales for why and how they teach principles of social justice.…

  5. Regional differences in the mural structure of the human coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a descriptive cross-sectional study on coronary sinuses from fifteen hearts obtained during autopsy on adult black Kenyans at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. Five-millimeter-long specimens were taken from the proximal, middle and terminal segments of the coronary sinus and processed ...

  6. Polilinguismo nella scrittura murale urbana: Note sulla lingua spagnola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELena Landone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – In this paper I focus on the polylinguistic and polycultural landscape of Milan on the theoretical basis of daily life studies, the sociolinguistics of globalization, and intercultural pragmatics. The relevance of this field is determined by the need for urban anthropology to semiotize the urban spaces as an interpretative bridge between the microsystem (the individual level and the macrosystem (the social level. More concretely, I investigate the presence of the Spanish language in the superdiversity of Milan and, methodologically, I collect ethnographically and interpret qualitatively a corpus of 700 daily life texts of various types of street writing. The results show the significant presence of Spanish in the urban landscape and a high level of hybridism which is, nevertheless, totally functional in communication. I also detect the emergence of linguistic, pragmatic and intercultural awareness in the writers. Finally, with some precautions, I confirm the scientific potential of the daily life documents to investigate complex urban dynamics.Resumen – El tema de este estudio es el panorama polilingüe y policultural de Milán y se plantea a partir de las bases teóricas de los everyday life studies, de la sociolingüistica de la globalización y de la pragmática intercultural. La relevancia del estudio descansa en la necesidad de la antropología urbana de elaborar una interpretación semiótica de los espacios urbanos, puesto que pueden constituir un puente interpretativo entre el microsistema (individuo y el macrosistema (sociedad. Concretamente, el objetivo es investigar el papel del idioma español en la supediversidad milanesa; la metodología es de etnografía urbana con la formación e interpretación cualitativa de un corpus fotográfico de setecientos textos cotidianos de escritura callejera (pintadas, avisos, grafiti, ecc.. Los datos relevan una presencia significativa del español en el landscape milanés, con un alto nivel de hibridismo que, de todas formas, es funcionalmente adecuado y denota el emerger de la conciencia  lingüística, pragmática e intercultural de los hablantes-escritores. Además, se confirma, con alguna precaución, el aporte científico de los documentos de la cotidianidad para interpretar la complejidad urbana. 

  7. Thèmes iconographiques et images dévotionelles dans la peinture murale médiévale tardive de Transylvanie (deuxième partie du XVe siècle-premier quart du XVIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Jenei

    2014-12-01

    – was also painted on the exterior at Delniţa and Mediaş chapel, with the donor, while individual Passion scenes, inspired by the “Seven Falls” of Christ, are preserved at Târgu Mureş and Sântimbru-Alba. The main themes of the late Transylvania murals show that beyond the changes of the artistic means of expression contamined by the Renaissance, the art of the voivodate remains even after 1500 faithful to the traditional iconography, reflecting the medieval thinking and mentality.

  8. A phytogeochemical study of the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal): possible species for plant-based soil remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez Lázaro, J; Kidd, P S; Monterroso Martínez, C

    2006-02-01

    Phytoremediation techniques are now considered to be promising alternatives to conventional techniques for the remediation of diffused or moderately contaminated soils. Despite their growing acceptance relatively few plant species have been studied for phytoremediation purposes. Further geobotanical surveys and plant screenings are necessary since these could lead to the identification of additional species with potential value for such applications. Serpentine areas could prove valuable sources of such plants. In this study heavy metal accumulation was determined in the flora associated with ultramafic and non-ultramafic soils of the Trás-os-Montes region of NE Portugal. Study sites were selected to represent a wide range of soil-forming rocks (serpentinized (S), ultrabasic (UB), basic (B) and acid (migmatite, M and schists, SC) rocks) and plant metal accumulation was related to soil metal bioavailability. Nine plant species (representing 7 families) were sampled including the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum. The greatest metal accumulation, transport (leaf[metal]:root[metal]) and bioaccumulation (leaf[metal]/soil[metal]) was found in four of the non metal-hyperaccumulating species: Cistus ladanifer, Lavandula stoechas, Plantago subulata subsp. radicata and Thymus mastichina. Metal accumulation depended on both the plant species and the edaphic conditions at its provenance. While P. subulata is of less interest due to its low biomass the remaining three species could be of use in phytoremediation technologies such as phytoextraction, and particularly in soils contaminated with Cr, Mn and Zn. These three species are also of economic interest due to their oil and fragrance producing biomass.

  9. Aplicación de plantas hiperacumuladoras de níquel en la fitoextracción natural: el género Alyssum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Petra Susan; Becerra Castro, Cristina; García Lestón, María Dolores; Monterroso Martínez, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Las plantas metalofitas han desarrollado mecanismos biológicos que les permiten sobrevivir en suelos ricos en metales, tanto naturales (suelos serpentiníticos o ultramáficos) como antropogénicos. La mayoría consigue su tolerancia restringiendo fisiológicamente la entrada de metales a las raíces y/o el transporte hacia las hojas. Algunas especies, sin embargo, presentan mecanismos extremadamente especializados que les permiten acumular o "hiperacumular" metales (como Cd, Co, Ni y Z...

  10. Aplicación de plantas hiperacumuladoras de níquel en la fitoextracción natural: el género Alyssum L.

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Kidd; C. Becerra Castro; M. García Lestón; C. Monterroso

    2007-01-01

    Las plantas metalofitas han desarrollado mecanismos biológicos que les permiten sobrevivir en suelos ricos en metales, tanto naturales (suelos serpentiníticos o ultramáficos) como antropogénicos. La mayoría consigue su tolerancia restringiendo fisiológicamente la entrada de metales a las raíces y/o el transporte hacia las hojas. Algunas especies, sin embargo, presentan mecanismos extremadamente especializados que les permiten acumular o "hiperacumular" metales (como Cd, Co, Ni y Zn) en sus ...

  11. Herbolaria y pintura mural: plantas medicinales en los murales del convento del Divino Salvador de Malinalco, Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Zepeda G.

    2008-01-01

    En la época prehispánica Malinalco fue un centro ceremonial importante, probablemente de control ideológico y económico. Para reforzar el proceso de evangelización después de la conquista, se fundó en 1540 el convento agustino de San Cristóbal ahora conocido como del Divino Salvador. Poco después de su edifi cación, sus paredes y bóvedas fueron decoradas por artistas nativos con pasajes bíblicos, exuberantes plantas y diferentes especies de animales. Los análisis que se han realizado de estos...

  12. Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two

  13. Microbial community dynamics in the rhizosphere of a cadmium hyper-accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. L.; Zhang, C.; Mathews, E. R.; Tang, C.; Franks, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Phytoextraction is influenced by the indigenous soil microbial communities during the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil microbial communities can affect plant growth, metal availability and the performance of phytoextraction-assisting inocula. Understanding the basic ecology of indigenous soil communities associated with the phytoextraction process, including the interplay between selective pressures upon the communities, is an important step towards phytoextraction optimization. This study investigated the impact of cadmium (Cd), and the presence of a Cd-accumulating plant, Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes, on the structure of soil-bacterial and fungal communities using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Whilst Cd had no detectable influence upon fungal communities, bacterial communities underwent significant structural changes with no reduction in 16S rRNA copy number. The presence of C. rossii influenced the structure of all communities and increased ITS copy number. Suites of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed in abundance in response to either Cd or C. rossii, however we found little evidence to suggest that the two selective pressures were acting synergistically. The Cd-induced turnover in bacterial OTUs suggests that Cd alters competition dynamics within the community. Further work to understand how competition is altered could provide a deeper understanding of the microbiome-plant-environment and aid phytoextraction optimization.

  14. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  15. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  16. Zinc Hyperaccumulation in Squirrelfish (Holocentrus adscenscionis) and Its Role in Embryo Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Chris N.; Capo, Tom; Walsh, Patrick J.; Hogstrand, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Female squirrelfish (Fam. Holocentridae) can accumulate and temporarily sequester copious amounts of zinc (Zn) in their livers. There, it is initially compartmentalized before a subsequent, estrogen-triggered redistribution to the ovaries. Here we show that cellular uptake of Zn is also influenced by estrogen signaling, and that estrogen increases concentrations of the plasma Zn-binding protein vitellogenin (VTG). However, estrogen-mediated increases in VTG are not sufficient to accommodate the magnitude of hepato-ovarian Zn transfer in female squirrelfish (Holocentrus adscensionis). These findings suggest that holocentrids have acquired the ability to use hormonal cues to drive hepatic uptake and storage of Zn, signal for its physiological redistribution, and influence the capacity for systemic transport of Zn beyond the mediation of increased plasma VTG concentrations. Such specific adaptations suggest an advantage for the oocyte, which is corroborated in further studies where we determined that oocyte Zn concentrations are positively correlated with egg viability in captive-spawned squirrelfish. The novel nature of these findings underlies the importance of Zn in squirrelfish reproductive biology. PMID:23056248

  17. Screening for the next generation heavy metal hyperaccumulators for dryland decontamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravanbakhsh, Mohammadhossein; Ronaghi, Abdol Majid; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal removal by plants bears a great potential to decontaminate soils. A major challenge remains to find plant species that accumulate heavy metal, harbor a sufficient biomass and grow in the desired environmental conditions. Here we present candidate plants for phytoremediation in arid

  18. The major parameters on biomass pyrolysis for hyperaccumulative plants--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilks, R T; Monette, F; Glaus, M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the main phytoremediation techniques and it has often been described as a potentially feasible in situ soil decontamination method of large amounts of heavy metals, organic pollutants and explosive compounds. As this remediation technique is approaching extensive on-field experimentation and commercialization, research focus is on investigating new ways to achieve the valorisation of its by-products. Biomass pyrolysis represents a key step to numerous valorisation options and it is characterized by differential output products that are determined by the operating conditions of the process and the characteristics of the input. However, when used to valorise plants that have undergone significant metal uptake, this strategy involves some new aspects related to harvest, procedure and final product reutilization. This paper reviews the studies made on biomass pyrolysis of plants with emphasis on the differential quality and distribution of pyrolysis products in relation with the variables of the process and the metal-rich phytoextraction feedstock properties. By investigating these parameters, this survey provides indications on ways to optimize the valorisation of phytoremediation by-products through biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Arsenic hyperaccumulation and speciation in the edible ink stain bolete (Cyanoboletus pulverulentus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braeuer, S.; Gössler, W.; Kameník, Jan; Konvalinková, Tereza; Žigová, A.; Borovička, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 242, č. 3 (2018), s. 225-231 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34839L; GA MŠk LM2015056; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015074 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Edible mushrooms * Dimethylarsinic acid * Soil * Health risk * HPLC-ICPMS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  20. Arsenic hyperaccumulation and speciation in the edible ink stain bolete (.i.Cyanoboletus pulverulentus./i.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braeuer, S.; Goessler, W.; Kameník, J.; Konvalinková, T.; Žigová, Anna; Borovička, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 242, 1 March (2018), s. 225-231 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : edible mushrooms * dimethylarsinic acid * soil * health risk * HPLC-ICPMS Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  1. More than a Mural: The Intersection of Public Art, Immigrant Youth, and Human Rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutiérrez-Vicario, Marissa A

    2016-01-01

    ..., Franklin, 18) Introduction The disciplinary fields of the arts and human rights may seem disparate. For instance, at the university level, international human rights and fine arts are taught in distinct schools where students are traditionally awarded separate degrees. Yet, upon further examination, there are rich intersections between the t...

  2. Escavando ficções sob o mural de Diego Rivera

    OpenAIRE

    Reses, Lucymar Therezinha de Gesat

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Literatura O presente estudo busca fazer uma leitura benjaminiana à contra-corrente dos murais de Diego Rivera e de sua própria imagem pública, ao desenterrar questões menos conhecidas tanto sobre ele próprio como imagem, e suas mulheres, como também sobre o México e sua revolução em potencial. Para isso, busca-se aqui trazer à tona o que subjaz à superfície da m...

  3. What is cultural analysis? And what is the role of philosophy? An answer to Mural Aydemir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Früchtl, J.

    2008-01-01

    Looking back at the debate between Mieke Bal and myself, I have sometimes questioned whether it was a good idea to let this debate take place. Because, above all, it was in my opinion, as Murat Aydemir also puts it, a ‘missed opportunity'. He adds that it was also a ‘vital’ opportunity, and one may

  4. Unicystic plexiform ameloblastoma with mural proliferation: a full-blown lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchlia, Sonal; Bahl, Sumit; Vyas, Siddharth; Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar

    2016-04-06

    Ameloblastoma is the most common aggressive benign odontogenic tumour of the jaws and has received considerable attention due to its frequency, clinical subtypes and high tendency to infiltrate and recur. There are various types of this tumour and confusion still exists among clinicians as to its correct classification. Multicystic ameloblastoma is the most frequent subtype while unicystic ameloblastoma can be considered a variant of the solid or multicystic subtype. Unicystic ameloblastoma is considered a less aggressive tumour with a variable recurrence rate. However, its frequency is often underestimated. Ameloblastoma is often asymptomatic, presenting as a slowly enlarging facial swelling or an incidental finding on radiograph. It is seen in all age groups but is most commonly diagnosed in the third and fourth decades. We report a case of unusual unicystic ameloblastoma and present its clinical, radiological and full-blown histological changes and treatment modalities, providing new insights into ameloblastomas. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Ileal Crohn disease: mural microvascularity quantified with contrast-enhanced US correlates with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franco, Antonio; Di Veronica, Alessandra; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Roberto, Italia; Marzo, Manuela; De Pascalis, Barbara; De Vitis, Italo; Papa, Alfredo; Bock, Enrico; Danza, Francesco M; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Guidi, Luisa

    2012-02-01

    To quantitatively assess microvascular activation in the thickened ileal walls of patients with Crohn disease (CD) by using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) and evaluate its correlation with widely used indexes of CD activity. This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The authors examined 54 consecutively enrolled patients (mean age, 35.29 years; age range, 18-69 years; 39 men, 15 women) with endoscopically confirmed CD of the terminal ileum. Ileal wall segments thicker than 3 mm were examined with low-mechanical-index contrast-enhanced US and a second-generation US contrast agent. The authors analyzed software-plotted time-enhancement intensity curves to determine the maximum peak intensity (MPI) and wash-in slope coefficient (β) and evaluated their correlation with (a) the composite index of CD activity (CICDA), (b) the CD activity index (CDAI), and (c) the simplified endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD, evaluated in 37 patients) for the terminal ileum. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman rank test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MPI and β coefficients were significantly increased in the 36 patients with a CICDA indicative of active disease (P<.0001 for both), the 33 patients with a CDAI of at least 150 (P<.032 and P<.0074, respectively), and the 26 patients with an SES-CD of at least 1 (P<.0001 and P<.002, respectively). ROC analysis revealed accurate identification (compared with CICDA) of active CD with an MPI threshold of 24 video intensity (VI) (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 83%) and a β coefficient of 4.5 VI/sec (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 83%). Contrast-enhanced US of the ileal wall is a promising method for objective, reproducible assessment of disease activity in patients with ileal CD. © RSNA, 2011

  6. CECR1-mediated cross talk between macrophages and vascular mural cells promotes neovascularization in malignant glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Zhu (Changbin); I. Chrifi (Ihsan); D.A.M. Mustafa (Dana); M.M. van der Weiden (Marcel); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); J.M. Kros (Johan); C. Cheng (Caroline)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGlioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) are most malignant brain tumors characterized by profound vascularization. The activation of macrophages strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis during GBM development. Previously, we showed that extracellular adenosine deaminase protein

  7. Maria Angelina Doukaina Palaiologina and her depictions in post-byzantine mural paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoritsas Demetrios C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian Despot of Ioannina Thomas Preljubović and his wife Maria Angelina Doukaina Palaiologina were frequently connected with religious endowments and artefacts that were donated in churches and monasteries. One of them, an icon of the “Doubting Thomas” with the depiction of Maria Palaiologina among the Apostles, was donated by Maria to the monastery of Metamorphosis (Great Meteoron most probably in the memory of her husband Thomas. This rare iconographic type is traced in post-byzantine painted monuments in Epirus, Thessaly and Macedonia from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. The transmis­sion of the above iconography is due to the spiritual and artistic influence of two important monastic centers, the Philanthropenos monastery in Ioannina and the Varlaam monastery in Meteora region, whose founders - the Philanthropenos and Apsaras families - were strongly connected to the Serbian rulers of Ioannina and especially Maria Palaiologina.

  8. A multi-technique approach for the characterization of Roman mural paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toschi, Francesco [CNR-IMIP (Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi), Area della Ricerca Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo, Roma, (Italy); Paladini, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.paladini@cnr.it [CNR-IMIP (Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi), Area della Ricerca Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo, Roma, (Italy); Colosi, Francesca [CNR-ITABC (Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali), Area della Ricerca Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo, Roma (Italy); Cafarelli, Patrizia; Valentini, Veronica [CNR-IMIP (Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi), Area della Ricerca Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo, Roma, (Italy); Falconieri, Mauro; Gagliardi, Serena [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Roma (Italy); Santoro, Paola [CNR-ISMA (Istituto di Studi sul Mediterraneo Antico), Area della Ricerca Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo, Roma (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    In the frame of an ongoing archeological study on the Sabina area, a countryside close to Rome, white and red samples of roman wall paintings have been investigated by combining X-ray diffraction and different spectroscopic methodologies, namely laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, μ-Raman and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. The used multi-technique approach has allowed the unambiguous identification of the red pigment as red ochre and has provided insight on the provenance of both the pigment and the material used for the realization of the wall paintings. The experimental results have confirmed some assumptions on the use of local materials in roman rural architecture.

  9. [Mural paintings of Jean Coquet at the Desgenette Hospital in Lyon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Frédéric; Fischer, Louis-Paul

    2010-01-01

    René Nicolas Dufriche Desgenettes (1762-1837) became famous through two historical events: the first and most famous one is where he proved his courage by inoculating himself with the plague during the Syrian campaign in 1799; the second one, rarely represented in paintings, happened during the Russian retreat in 1812 when he was freed thanks to his reputation. Two wide fresco paintings facing each other in the hall of Desgenettes, a hospital built during World War Two, are witnesses of these two major events. Jean Coquet (1907-1990), a decorator, painter and glassblower, who worked at the Beaux-Arts School of Lyon, first as a decoration teacher than as its director, painted these two works of art. In 1946, he inserted them into an ornamental group constituted of ironworks, furniture, stained glass and ceramics. Two paintings from Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835) inspired these works: Bonaparte visiting the plague-stricken of Jaffa (1804) and Napoleon on the battlefield of Eylau (1808). With their academic composition and daring stylization those two frescoes represent in a modern and original way Desgenettes' life style, an archetype of what the military doctor is.

  10. Fungal-Induced Deterioration of Mural Paintings: In Situ and Mock-Model Microscopy Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unković, Nikola; Grbić, Milica Ljaljević; Stupar, Miloš; Savković, Željko; Jelikić, Aleksa; Stanojević, Dragan; Vukojević, Jelena

    2016-04-01

    Fungal deterioration of frescoes was studied in situ on a selected Serbian church, and on a laboratory model, utilizing standard and newly implemented microscopy techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray confirmed the limestone components of the plaster. Pigments used were identified as carbon black, green earth, iron oxide, ocher, and an ocher/cinnabar mixture. In situ microscopy, applied via a portable microscope ShuttlePix P-400R, proved very useful for detection of invisible micro-impairments and hidden, symptomless, microbial growth. SEM and optical microscopy established that observed deterioration symptoms, predominantly discoloration and pulverization of painted layers, were due to bacterial filaments and fungal hyphal penetration, and formation of a wide range of fungal structures (i.e., melanized hyphae, chlamydospores, microcolonial clusters, Cladosporium-like conidia, and Chaetomium perithecia and ascospores). The all year-round monitoring of spontaneous and induced fungal colonization of a "mock painting" in controlled laboratory conditions confirmed the decisive role of humidity level (70.18±6.91% RH) in efficient colonization of painted surfaces, as well as demonstrated increased bioreceptivity of painted surfaces to fungal colonization when plant-based adhesives (ilinocopie, murdent), compared with organic adhesives of animal origin (bone glue, egg white), are used for pigment sizing.

  11. An investigation of paint from a mural in the church of Sainte Madeleine, Manas, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Raymond E; Papanastasiou, Malvina; McMahon, Adam W; Allen, Norman S

    2011-08-01

    The pigment in brown paint samples taken from a church in the Drôme region of France has been shown to be almost pure 6-bromoindigo and 6,6'-dibromoindigo. The composition of the pigment was established by comparison with 6-bromoindigo and 6,6'-dibromoindigo standards using atmospheric pressure photoionization combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The brown paint samples were taken from a frieze of ca 20 brown images having symmetric tree-like forms composed of five overlapping filled circles representing foliage. The tree-like images, simple rather than artistic, had a metallic luster. The molar ratio of 6-bromoindigo and 6,6'-dibromoindigo in the brown paint pigment (98:2) is remarkably similar to that of shellfish purple from the Mediterranean Murex brandaris (96.5:3.5) thus, it is possible that the origin of the indigoid compounds in the brown paint pigment is the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. As the production of Tyrian purple ended with the fall of Byzantium in 1453, purple pigment had to have been produced prior to this time. We have conjectured about the circumstances that may account for the use of 'purple' in this manner in the Drôme region and how the pigment was transported there from the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea during the time of the Crusades. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Multiple Ascending Aortic Mural Thrombi and Acute Necrotizing Mediastinitis Secondary to Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kwon Chong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of aortic thrombi is an extremely rare complication of acute pancreatitis. Here we report a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by a paraesophageal pseudocyst, necrotizing mediastinitis, and the formation of multiple thrombi in the ascending aorta. The patient was successfully treated by surgical therapy, which included extensive debridement of the mediastinum and removal of the aortic thrombi under cardiopulmonary bypass. Although esophageal resection was not carried out concomitantly, the lesions were resolved and the patient remained free of complications over 2 years of follow-up care.

  13. REINTEGRACIÓN DE PINTURAS MURALES EXTERIORES: ESTUDIO Y VALORACIÓN DE SISTEMAS Y MATERIALES

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN BALDÓ, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Until now, few studies have focused on painting facades in Spains. Poor maintenance of these, and the disappearance of many of them, joined the little research that this kind of assets have today raised a state of limited and fragmented these question. This poor maintenance is given on the one hand, by the agents of deterioration that affect themselves (rainwater, wind, solar radiation ...), on the other, for the constructive characteristic, and finally by traumatic causes. Your characte...

  14. Micro-analytical evidence of origin and degradation of copper pigments found in Bohemian Gothic murals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarcová, Silvie; Hradil, David; Hradilová, Janka; Kocí, Eva; Bezdicka, Petr

    2009-12-01

    Correct identification of pigments and all accompanying phases found in colour layers of historical paintings are relevant for searching their origin and pigment preparation pathways and for specification of their further degradation processes. We successfully applied the analytical route combining non-destructive in situ X-ray fluorescence analyses with subsequent laboratory investigation of micro-samples by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray powder micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) to obtain efficiently all the data relevant for mineralogical interpretations of the copper pigments origin. Cu salts (carbonates, chlorides, sulphates, etc.) used as pigments exist in a range of polymorphs with similar or identical composition. The efficiency of the micro-XRD for direct identification of such crystal phases present in micro-samples of colour layers was demonstrated in the presented paper. A new, until now unpublished, type of copper pigment--cumengeite, Pb(21)Cu(20)Cl(42)(OH)(40)--used as a blue pigment on a sacral wall painting in the Czech Republic was found by means of micro-XRD. Furthermore, azurite, malachite, paratacamite, atacamite and posnjakite were identified in fragments of colour layers of selected Gothic wall paintings. We found Cu-Zn arsenates indicating the natural origin of azurite and malachite; artificial malachite was distinguishable according to its typical spherulitic crystals. The corrosion of blue azurite to green basic Cu chloride was clearly evidenced on some places exposed to the action of salts and moisture-in a good agreement with the results of laboratory experiments, which also show that oxalic acid accelerates the corrosion of Cu pigments.

  15. Letting in the Sun: Native Youth Transform Their School with Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alejandro; Hall, McClellan

    2007-01-01

    From a visual perspective, many disadvantaged students are assigned to schools that are dark, shabby and lifeless--more like a factory or fortress than a place for learning. Equally lifeless is the standard test-driven curriculum which utterly fails to tap the interests and talents of these students. Stultified learning environments are…

  16. CECR1-mediated cross talk between macrophages and vascular mural cells promotes neovascularization in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Chrifi, I; Mustafa, D; van der Weiden, M; Leenen, P J M; Duncker, D J; Kros, J M; Cheng, C

    2017-09-21

    Glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) are most malignant brain tumors characterized by profound vascularization. The activation of macrophages strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis during GBM development. Previously, we showed that extracellular adenosine deaminase protein Cat Eye Syndrome Critical Region Protein 1 (CECR1) is highly expressed by M2-like macrophages in GBM where it defines macrophage M2 polarization and contributes to tumor expansion. In this study, the effect of CECR1 in macrophages on tumor angiogenesis was investigated. Immunohistochemical evaluation of GBM tissue samples showed that the expression of CECR1 correlates with microvascular density in the tumors, confirming data from the TCGA set. In a three-dimensional co-culture system consisting of human pericytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and THP1-derived macrophages, CECR1 knockdown by siRNA and CECR1 stimulation of macrophages inhibited and promoted new vessel formation, respectively. Loss and gain of function studies demonstrated that PDGFB mRNA and protein levels in macrophages are modulated by CECR1. The proangiogenic properties of CECR1 in macrophages were partially mediated via paracrine activation of pericytes by PDGFB-PDGFRβ signaling. CECR1-PDGFB-PDGFRβ cross-activation between macrophages and pericytes promoted pericyte migration, shown by transwell migration assay, and enhanced expression and deposition of periostin, a matrix component with proangiogenic properties. CECR1 function in (M2-like) macrophages mediates cross talk between macrophages and pericytes in GBM via paracrine PDGFB-PDGFRβ signaling, promoting pericyte recruitment and migration, and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, CECR1 offers a new portent target for anti-angiogenic therapy in GBM via immune modulation.

  17. Fluid mechanics of arterial stenosis: relationship to the development of mural thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestein, D; Niu, L; Schoephoerster, R T; Dewanjee, M K

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed blood flow through a model stenosis with Reynolds numbers ranging from 300 to 3,600 using both experimental and numerical methods. The jet produced at the throat was turbulent, leading to an axisymmetric region of slowly recirculating flow. For higher Reynolds numbers, this region became more disturbed and its length was reduced. The numerical predictions were confirmed by digital particle image velocimetry and used to describe the fluid dynamics mechanisms relevant to prior measurements of platelet deposition in canine blood flow (R.T. Schoephoerster et al., Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 12:1806-1813, 1993). Actual deposition onto the wall was dependent on the wall shear stress distribution along the stenosis, increasing in areas of flow recirculation and reattachment. Platelet activation potential was analyzed under laminar and turbulent flow conditions in terms of the cumulative effect of the varying shear and elongational stresses, and the duration platelets are exposed to them along individual platelet paths. The cumulative product of shear rate and exposure time along a platelet path reached a value of 500, half the value needed for platelet activation under constant shear (J.M.. Ramstack et al., Journal of Biomechanics 12: 113-125, 1979).

  18. Tau Processing by Mural Cells in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    significantly alter the progress of any studies. As an alternative, we are also considering the option of purchasing these animals from a commercial ...traumatic brain injury in a mouse model produces learning and memory deficits accompanied by histological changes. J Neurotrauma 29:2761-73 (2012). [2

  19. TECNOGRAN: TODO PISO SERÁ PALCO. TODA PAREDE, MURAL. E A CIDADE INTEIRA, POESIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Denes dos Santos Carstens

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este caso apresenta a Tecnogran, empresa paranaense de revestimentos de alto tráfego atuante no segmento de pisos para supermercados, shopping centers, áreas externas, obras públicas e de acessibilidade. O caso descreve o histórico, as características da organização e do setor, abordando impasses enfrentados pela Tecnogran: pressões por preço e demandas de mercado. A empresa é líder no mercado nacional e, apesar disso, encontra dilemas ao buscar se consolidar como inovadora frente a seus concorrentes. O caso é analisado sob as perspectivas das teorias: Estratégias Genéricas e Vantagem Competitiva Ambiental; Teoria Baseada em Recursos; e Teoria de Recursos, Processos e Valores na Inovação. O caso apresenta também as respostas da empresa: inovações em produtos e serviços, e alterações em processos produtivos para manutenção de sua liderança no mercado nacional. As informações para a elaboração do caso foram obtidas por entrevistas semiestruturadas com os gestores da Tecnogran e por dados secundários, tais como publicações, documentos da empresa e sites. Este caso de ensino poderá ser utilizado nas disciplinas de Administração Estratégica, Gestão da Inovação, Marketing e disciplinas correlatas, em cursos de graduação e pós-graduação com foco em negócios de empresas. Os principais objetivos educacionais são: sensibilizar alunos para perceber as estratégias empresariais; analisar os modelos de gestão em busca de vantagem competitiva; identificar modelos estratégicos organizacionais; assinalar a relação entre competências organizacionais e vantagem competitiva sustentável; e compreender a importância e os desafios da inovação para as organizações.

  20. La recuperación de los murales de Rafael Troya

    OpenAIRE

    López Ulloa, Fabián

    2000-01-01

    Rafael Troya (1845 - 1920), fue uno de los pintores ecuatorianos más destacados de su época; en el Gobierno de García Moreno, tras acompañar como ilustrador a una expedición de científicos alemanes, a varios puntos de la Sierra y el Oriente, logró plasmar muchos óleos con temas paisajísticos que, expuestos en el Palacio de Gobierno, le hicieron ganar la fama que trascendió su tiempo. Destacó también como retratista, labor que inició en Colombia, lugar en donde hizo historia con su obra. El pr...

  1. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  2. Refeeding-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Glycogen Hyper-Accumulation in Mice Is Mediated by Insulin and Catecholamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, Christopher M.; Bobe, Alexandria M.; Yu, Justin C.; Volden, Paul A.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT) glycogen levels within 4–12 hours (hr) of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT). Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology. PMID:23861810

  3. Erato polymnioides - A novel Hg hyperaccumulator plant in ecuadorian rainforest acid soils with potential of microbe-associated phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamba, Irene; Rosado, Daniel; Kalinhoff, Carolina; Thangaswamy, Selvaraj; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Gazquez, Manuel Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) accumulation capacity was assessed in three plant species (Axonopus compressus, Erato polymnioides, and Miconia zamorensis) that grow on soils polluted by artisanal small-scale gold mines in the Ecuadorian rainforest. Individuals of three species were collected at two sampling zones: i) an intensive zone (IZ, 4.8 mg Hg kg-1 of soil) where gold extraction continues to occur, and ii) a natural zone (NZ, 0.19 mg Hg kg-1 of soil). In addition, the percentage of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization was determined in plant roots and seven fungal morphotypes isolated from rhizospheric soil. Results suggest a facilitation role of native and pollution adapted AMF on Hg phytoaccumulation. E.g., E. polymnioides increased Hg accumulation when growing with greater AMF colonization. We concluded that E. polymnioides is a good candidate for the design of microbe-assisted strategies for Hg remediation at gold mining areas. The consortia between E. polymnioides and the AMF isolated in this study could be instrumental to get a deeper understanding of the AMF role in Hg phytoaccumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Refeeding-induced brown adipose tissue glycogen hyper-accumulation in mice is mediated by insulin and catecholamines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Carmean

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT glycogen levels within 4-12 hours (hr of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT. Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology.

  5. Refeeding-induced brown adipose tissue glycogen hyper-accumulation in mice is mediated by insulin and catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, Christopher M; Bobe, Alexandria M; Yu, Justin C; Volden, Paul A; Brady, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT) glycogen levels within 4-12 hours (hr) of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT). Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology.

  6. Technical photography for mural paintings: the newly discovered frescoes in Aci Sant'Antonio (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cosentino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cycle of 18th century frescoes, depicting the last days of Christ on earth, were recently discovered in Aci Sant'Antonio (Sicily, Italy. The paintings survive along the corners of an originally square chapel that was altered in the early 20th century, acquiring the current octagonal plan. This paper presents the results of the technical photography documentation of these wall paintings and illustrates the methodological challenges that were posed during their examination. Raking light photography was used to reveal the paintings' state of conservation, details of the plaster work and painting techniques. Ultraviolet fluorescence and infrared false color photography were also performed to evaluate areas of interest for further analytical and diagnostic studies. The first striking feature is the lack of giornate. Only pontate are clearly seen in all the scenes thus indicating that in the larger paint areas, a mixed of fresco and secco technique would have been used.

  7. Maçonneries murales de brique dans l’Espagne médiévale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araguas, Philippe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Few are the different bonds of brickwork in medievel Spain. Walls entirely built with bricks are scarce. Brick is used combining header bond and sideways bond, opus spicatum or vertical bond. Among mixed bonds, the «toledan bond» is very characteristic. A diachronic cartography can show the variation of these different bonds according to time and historical regionsLes modalités d’appareillage des murs de brique dans l’Espagne médiévale sont peu variées. Rares sont les murs construits entièrement en brique ; celle-ci est utilisée en appareil de revêtement en combinant disposition «en carreau» et « en boutisse, en opus spicatum ou «ce chant». Parmi les appareils mixtes, l’ «appareil tolédan» est aisément identifiable. Une cartographie diachronique permet de rendre compte de la variation de ces modes d’utilisation de la brique.

  8. Ecological Mapping for the Preventive Conservation of Prehistoric Mural Paintings in Rock Habitats: the Site of Filiano (Basilicata, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Caneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodeterioration phenomena are of great relevance in rock settlements, due to favourable environmental conditions, such as the infiltration of rainwaters, condensation phenomena and abundance of salts and organic nutrients. Rinaldi’s rock shelter in Filiano, which is located in a natural forest of mixed oaks is of great value due to the important traces of prehistoric paintings. It is an emblematic case of the delicate balance, achieved throughout the centuries, between the environment and artwork. During the plurimillenarian history of the site, a portion of the ceiling that covered the shelter collapsed, leaving signs that are still visible today, together with traces of blackening left by the fires of ancient settlements. Several of the biodeteriogens typical of rocky habitats have already been detected and include algae, cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, vascular plants and fungi, which form macroscopic communities.Each community has an ecological preference and the mapping of their distribution is a suitable tool for understanding variations in the environmental factors that most affect them. Relating ecological data to the taxonomical characterization of the species and to the spatial distribution of each community, a site map of the humidity and of the nutrients was obtained. Among the various communities, microcolonial fungi (MCF, which appear as little black spots, here, represent the most critical risk factor, due to their low water needs. An evaluation of the biological risk for the possible future attack of such a biological community was made, suggesting indirect mitigation measures, through modification of the microclimatic and local ventilation conditions.

  9. Non-destructive and micro-invasive testing techniques for characterizing materials, structures and restoration problems in mural paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortora, Mariagrazia, E-mail: Mariagrazia.Tortora@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), I-67100, Loc. Coppito, L’Aquila, AQ (Italy); Sfarra, Stefano, E-mail: Stefano.Sfarra@univaq.it [Las.E.R. Laboratory, University of L’Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, Piazzale E. Pontieri 1, I-67100, Loc. Monteluco di Roio, Roio Poggio, L’Aquila, AQ, Italy, (Italy); Chiarini, Marco, E-mail: mchiarini@unite.it [University of Teramo, Department of Bioscience and Technology for Food Agriculture and Environment, Via Carlo Lerici 1, I-64023, Mosciano Sant’Angelo, Teramo, TE, Italy, (Italy); Daniele, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Daniele@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, Piazzale E. Pontieri 1, I-67100, Loc. Monteluco di Roio, Roio Poggio, L’Aquila, AQ (Italy); Taglieri, Giuliana, E-mail: Giuliana.Taglieri@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics, Piazzale E. Pontieri 1, I-67100, Loc. Monteluco di Roio, Roio Poggio, L’Aquila, AQ (Italy); Cerichelli, Giorgio, E-mail: Giorgio.Cerichelli@univaq.it [University of L’Aquila, Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), I-67100, Loc. Coppito, L’Aquila, AQ (Italy)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography allowed to identify structural damage and rising damp effect. • The present approach provided insights on the used pigments and painting techniques. • FT-IR, XRF and XRD analyses of the mortar sample showed the peculiar composition. • 1D, 2D NMR analyses were useful for the identification of the restoration polymer. • NMR technique also allowed to characterize the plasticizing agents. - Abstract: In this paper, chemical and structural studies of medieval wall paintings in Ocre (L’Aquila, Italy) are presented. During the latest restoration campaign, non-destructive (Near-Infrared Reflectography and Infrared Thermography) and micro-invasive (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, μ-Raman, Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-ray Microanalysis, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence, Optical Microscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Thermogravimetry) analyses were performed in order to determine the detachments of wall surfaces and the characterization of original and restoration materials. Data integration allowed to reconstruct the conservative history, the execution techniques and the conservation problems of the artefact, as well as to assess the effectiveness of restoration activities adopted. The combined use of physical and micro-chemical techniques proved to be effective for an in-depth study of materials stratification of paintings.

  10. Mural thrombus and the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a large population-based prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behr-Rasmussen, Carsten; Grøndal, Nikolaj Fibiger; Thomsen, Marie Dahl

    2014-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the relative size of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is associated with AAA growth. METHODS: This large observational study was based on a randomised population-based screening trial. Six hundred and fifteen AAAs were......, and diastolic blood pressure were significantly positively associated with growth rate, while the presence of diabetes mellitus was significantly negatively associated with growth rate. The relative ILT size remained significantly positively associated with the growth rate after a multivariate linear regression...

  11. Non-destructive and micro-invasive testing techniques for characterizing materials, structures and restoration problems in mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Mariagrazia; Sfarra, Stefano; Chiarini, Marco; Daniele, Valeria; Taglieri, Giuliana; Cerichelli, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, chemical and structural studies of medieval wall paintings in Ocre (L'Aquila, Italy) are presented. During the latest restoration campaign, non-destructive (Near-Infrared Reflectography and Infrared Thermography) and micro-invasive (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, μ-Raman, Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-ray Microanalysis, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence, Optical Microscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Thermogravimetry) analyses were performed in order to determine the detachments of wall surfaces and the characterization of original and restoration materials. Data integration allowed to reconstruct the conservative history, the execution techniques and the conservation problems of the artefact, as well as to assess the effectiveness of restoration activities adopted. The combined use of physical and micro-chemical techniques proved to be effective for an in-depth study of materials stratification of paintings.

  12. Acinar cystadenoma of the pancreas: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases including multilocular lesions with mural nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Tze S; Badizadegan, Kamran; Ferrone, Cristina; Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos; Desai, Gaurav S; Saenz, Adam; Le, Long; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Deshpande, Vikram

    2012-11-01

    Pancreatic acinar cystadenomas (ACAs) are rare cystic lesions showing acinar differentiation with benign outcome. Although debated, ACAs are favored to be neoplastic and potentially the benign counterpart of acinar cystadenocarcinoma. We present the largest single institution series to date comprising 10 cases. The mean age was 49 years with a female predominance (M:F=1:2.3). Abdominal/flank pain was the most common presentation (n=6). Serum amylase/lipase and cyst fluid amylase were often elevated. All lesions had a benign outcome on follow-up (5 to 67 mo). The lesions were unilocular (n=3) or multilocular (n=7) with mean size of 3.8 cm (range, 2.9 to 5.0 cm) and 5.1 cm (range, 2.0 to 7.5 cm), respectively. Eight lesions were unifocal with locations as follows: head (n=2), head/neck (n=2), body (n=1), tail (n=1), predominantly extrapancreatic with a microscopic intrapancreatic component (n=1), and unspecified location (n=1). Two lesions were multifocal, involving the head/uncinate/body and pancreatic head, respectively. Two aspects of ACAs that may represent a diagnostic pitfall include the propensity for acinar epithelium to appear as nondescript flat/cuboidal epithelium (trypsin/chymotrypsin immunopositive) and epithelial heterogeneity, with focal mucinous and squamous epithelium, the latter particularly in multilocular variants. In addition, 2 cases with intracystic nodules were observed. Array comparative genomic hybridization performed on 1 of these cases showed multiple chromosomal gains involving 1p, 3p, 5q, 6p, 7q, 8, 10q, 11, 14, 20, and X. These findings provide preliminary evidence that ACAs represent a cystic neoplastic lesion.

  13. Intervención mural de sitio específico como respuesta a la contaminación visiva

    OpenAIRE

    León Gutiérrez, Cristian Santiago

    2010-01-01

    La estética interna de los barrios periféricos de clase media de la ciudad de Cuenca de pronto se ha transformado en cárcel , la contaminación visiva se marca por amplios muros de concreto que frenan la socialización. El proyecto de investigación se encamina a indagar la contaminación visual en la ciudad de Cuenca, realizando en este caso, una práctica visual en sitio específico con una mirada a la intervención urbana, esgrimiendo técnicas de dibujo, pintura, fotografía, vídeo, entrevista y ...

  14. Differential regulation of blood flow-induced neovascularization and mural cell recruitment by vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Oliver A; Carter, James G; Lin, P Charles; Paleolog, Ewa; Machado, Maria J C; Bates, David O

    2017-03-01

    Combining nitric oxide (NO)-mediated increased blood flow with angiopoietin-1-Tie2 receptor signalling induces arteriolargenesis - the formation of arterioles from capillaries - in a model of physiological angiogenesis. This NO-Tie-mediated arteriolargenesis requires endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling. Inhibition of VEGF signalling increases pericyte coverage in microvessels. Together these findings indicate that generation of functional neovasculature requires close titration of NO-Tie2 signalling and localized VEGF induction, suggesting that the use of exogenous VEGF expression as a therapeutic for neovascularization may not be successful. Signalling through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and the tyrosine kinase with IgG and EGF domains-2 (Tie2) receptor by angiopoietins is required in combination with blood flow for the formation of a functional vascular network. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) contribute differentially to neovascularization induced by nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilatation, by comparing the phenotype of new microvessels in the mesentery during induction of vascular remodelling by over-expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the fat pad of the adult rat mesentery during inhibition of angiopoietin signalling with soluble Tie2 (sTie2) and VEGF signalling with soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (sFlt1). We found that NO-mediated angiogenesis was blocked by inhibition of VEGF with sFlt1 (from 881 ± 98% increase in functional vessel area to 279 ± 72%) and by inhibition of angiopoietin with sTie2 (to 337 ± 67%). Exogenous angiopoietin-1 was required to induce arteriolargenesis (8.6 ± 1.3% of vessels with recruitment of vascular smooth muscle cells; VSMCs) in the presence of enhanced flow. sTie2 and sFlt1 both inhibited VSMC recruitment (both 0%), and VEGF inhibition increased pericyte recruitment to newly formed vessels (from 27 ± 2 to 54 ± 3% pericyte ensheathment). We demonstrate that a fine balance of VEGF and angiopoietin signalling is required for the formation of a functional vascular network. Endogenous VEGF signalling prevents excess neovessel pericyte coverage, and is required for VSMC recruitment during increased nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation and angiopoietin signalling (NO-Tie-mediated arteriogenesis). Therapeutic vascular remodelling paradigms may therefore require treatments that modulate blood flow to utilize endogenous VEGF, in combination with exogenous Ang1, for effective neovascularization. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.

  15. ST Elevation Infarction after Heart Transplantation Induced by Coronary Spasms and Mural Thrombus Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Eiskjær, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The case illustrates the possible link between coronary spasms, intraluminal thrombus formation, and widespread organized and layered thrombi in HTx patients. Furthermore, the case underlines the clinical value of OCT as a novel method for high-resolution vessel imaging in heart-transplanted (HTx...... due to acute myocardial infarction induced by severe coronary spasms. The patients remained unstable on conservative therapy. Therefore, an optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed and revealed massive, organized thrombi in the left main coronary artery, the circumflex coronary artery...

  16. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation ...

  17. Regulation of odd-numbered fatty acid content plays an important part in the metabolism of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea spp. adapted to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlíková, D.; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Hlavsa, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 208, JAN (2017), s. 94-101 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane lipid-composition * amino-acids * gene-expression * salinity stress * leaf senescence * spartina-patens * low-temperature * cadmium stress * plants * tolerance * Environmental stress * Heavy metals * Phylogenetic profiling of fatty acids * Phytoremediation * Senescence * Thlaspi species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  18. Zn-bis-glutathionate is the best co-substrate of the monomeric phytochelatin synthase from the photosynthetic heavy metal-hyperaccumulator Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Jorge D; Girard, Lourdes; Hernández, Georgina; Saavedra, Emma; Pardo, Juan P; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Encalada, Rusely; Reyes-Prieto, Adrián; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    The phytochelatin synthase from photosynthetic Euglena gracilis (EgPCS) was analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic, functional, and phylogenetic levels. Recombinant EgPCS was a monomeric enzyme able to synthesize, in the presence of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+), phytochelatin2-phytochelatin4 (PC2-PC4) using GSH or S-methyl-GS (S-methyl-glutathione), but not γ-glutamylcysteine or PC2 as a substrate. Kinetic analysis of EgPCS firmly established a two-substrate reaction mechanism for PC2 synthesis with Km values of 14-22 mM for GSH and 1.6-2.5 μM for metal-bis-glutathionate (Me-GS2). EgPCS showed the highest Vmax and catalytic efficiency with Zn-(GS)2, and was inactivated by peroxides. The EgPCS N-terminal domain showed high similarity to that of other PCSases, in which the typical catalytic core (Cys-70, His-179 and Asp-197) was identified. In contrast, the C-terminal domain showed no similarity to other PCSases. An EgPCS mutant comprising only the N-terminal 235 amino acid residues was inactive, suggesting that the C-terminal domain is essential for activity/stability. EgPCS transcription in Euglena cells was not modified by Cd(2+), whereas its heterologous expression in ycf-1 yeast cells provided resistance to Cd(2+) stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the N-terminal domain showed that EgPCS is distant from plants and other photosynthetic organisms, suggesting that it evolved independently. Although EgPCS showed typical features of PCSases (constitutive expression; conserved N-terminal domain; kinetic mechanism), it also exhibited distinct characteristics such as preference for Zn-(GS)2 over Cd-(GS)2 as a co-substrate, a monomeric structure, and ability to solely synthesize short-chain PCs, which may be involved in conferring enhanced heavy-metal resistance.

  19. Off-line separation and determination of rare earth elements associated with chloroplast pigments of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotomaby normal-phase liquid chromatography and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Z.G.; Li, H.X.; Hu, F. [Nanjing Agricultural University, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hong, F.S. [Suzhou University, Department of Biology, College of Life Sciences, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yin, M. [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, G.W. [University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Chemistry, Hefei 230026 (China); Wong, J.W.C. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Department of Biology, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2004-10-01

    An off-line normal-phase liquid chromatography-ICP-MS method has been used for separation and determination of the rare earth elements (REE) associated with chloroplast pigments of Dicranopteris dichotoma. The stability of REE-bound pigments was tested, and almost no destruction of REE-bound pigments occurred during the so-called normal-phase liquid chromatography. The accumulated free REE ions on the microcrystalline cellulose column were cleaned by elution with 5 mmol L{sup -1} 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (P507), to avoid exchange of these free ions with metals from the pigments. When these precautions were taken, the method was applied to the study of REE-bound pigments in D. dichotoma. ICP-MS results showed REE were present in chlorophylls and lutein, although REE concentrations in carotene and pheophytin were both below procedural blank levels. By careful analysis of the eluate fractions containing chlorophyll a it was found that REE-bound chlorophyll a in D. dichotoma was slightly enriched in the fractions with relatively short retention time. Results indicated that the retention time of REE-bound chlorophyll a might be slightly less than that of magnesium chlorophyll a, and REE-bound chlorophylls might be of relatively low polarity in comparison with magnesium bound chlorophylls. This phenomenon could be explained by the special double-decker sandwich-structure of REE-bound chlorophylls, as was reported by us and other authors. On the basis of these results we preferred to consider that REE can replace magnesium in chlorophyll a of D. dichotoma, and that the role of REE-bound chlorophylls in photosynthesis cannot be neglected. These data might be useful for understanding of both the properties of REE-bound pigments and the effect of REE on plant photosynthesis. (orig.)

  20. Monitoring of the heavy-metal hyperaccumulation in vegetal tissues by X-ray radiography and by femto-second laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, J; Samek, O; Reale, L; Liska, M; Malina, R; Ritucci, A; Poma, A; Tucci, A; Flora, F; Lai, A; Mancini, L; Tromba, G; Zanini, F; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Cinque, G

    2007-02-01

    This article reports on the utilization of X-ray microradiography and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) techniques for investigation of the metal accumulation in different part of leaf samples. The potential of the LIBS-analysis for finding the proper plant species for phytoremediation is compared with the results of microradiography measurements at the HERCULES source at ENEA, Rome (Italy) and X-ray microradiography experiments at the ELETTRA Synchrotron, Trieste (Italy).

  1. Off-line separation and determination of rare earth elements associated with chloroplast pigments of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma by normal-phase liquid chromatography and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z G; Hong, F S; Yin, M; Li, H X; Hu, F; Zhao, G W; Wong, J W C

    2004-10-01

    An off-line normal-phase liquid chromatography-ICP-MS method has been used for separation and determination of the rare earth elements (REE) associated with chloroplast pigments of Dicranopteris dichotoma. The stability of REE-bound pigments was tested, and almost no destruction of REE-bound pigments occurred during the so-called normal-phase liquid chromatography. The accumulated free REE ions on the microcrystalline cellulose column were cleaned by elution with 5 mmol L(-1) 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (P507), to avoid exchange of these free ions with metals from the pigments. When these precautions were taken, the method was applied to the study of REE-bound pigments in D. dichotoma. ICP-MS results showed REE were present in chlorophylls and lutein, although REE concentrations in carotene and pheophytin were both below procedural blank levels. By careful analysis of the eluate fractions containing chlorophyll a it was found that REE-bound chlorophyll a in D. dichotoma was slightly enriched in the fractions with relatively short retention time. Results indicated that the retention time of REE-bound chlorophyll a might be slightly less than that of magnesium chlorophyll a, and REE-bound chlorophylls might be of relatively low polarity in comparison with magnesium bound chlorophylls. This phenomenon could be explained by the special double-decker sandwich-structure of REE-bound chlorophylls, as was reported by us and other authors. On the basis of these results we preferred to consider that REE can replace magnesium in chlorophyll a of D. dichotoma, and that the role of REE-bound chlorophylls in photosynthesis cannot be neglected. These data might be useful for understanding of both the properties of REE-bound pigments and the effect of REE on plant photosynthesis.

  2. Lead accumulation reduces photosynthesis in the lead hyper-accumulator Salvinia minima Baker by affecting the cell membrane and inducing stomatal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Sáenz-Carbonell, Luis; Talavera-May, Carlos; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker accumulates a fair amount of lead in its tissues; however, no studies have investigated the effect of lead on the physiological processes that affect photosynthesis in this species. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the high amounts of lead accumulated by S. minima can affect its photosynthetic apparatus. The physiological changes in the roots and leaves in response to lead accumulation were analyzed. An exposure to 40 μM Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h (first stage) was sufficient to reduce the photosynthetic rate (Pn) by 44%. This reduction in Pn was apparently the result of processes at various levels, including damage to the cell membranes (mainly in roots). Interestingly, although the plants were transferred to fresh medium without lead for an additional 24 h (second stage), Pn not only remained low, but was reduced even further, which was apparently related to stomatal closure, and may have led to reduced CO2 availability. Therefore, it can be concluded that lead exposure first decreases the photosynthetic rate by damaging the root membrane and then induces stomatal closure, resulting in decreased CO2 availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1995--June 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L.

    1995-12-01

    The biological accumulation of heavy metals and cesium, strontium, and uranium in plants is discussed. The role of nutrient deficiencies and foliar treatments of manganese and iron compounds is described.

  4. Phytoremediation of Soil Trace Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation includes several distinct approaches to using plants to achieve soil remediation goals. Phytoextraction uses rare hyperaccumulator plants to accumulate in their shoots enough metals per year to achieve decontamination goals. Phytomining uses hyperaccumulators and biomass burn to pro...

  5. Les fous en image à la fin du Moyen Âge. Iconographie de la folie dans la peinture murale alpine (XIVe-XVe siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Gilly-Argoud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article entend analyser le rapport entre l’image et la folie à travers le prisme mental médiéval. Il faut s’interroger sur la définition de la folie à la fin de cette période charnière et sur ce que les images empruntent à ce discours. La question du fou malade physiquement ou mentalement se traduit souvent par l’idée de la possession dans la représentation. La perception de la maladie s’effectue aussi par le biais d’un vice ou d’un péché. Les images témoignent d’une permanence ou d’une continuité de la vision médiévale du fou, du personnage marginalisé par un comportement en dehors de la norme, en dehors de son « esprit » normal, si on définit la folie comme déviation des normes sociales. Dans ce cadre, quelles sont les perceptions médiévales et modernes de la folie en milieu alpin, de part et d’autre des versants italien et français ? Quelles représentations et évolutions caractérisent ces perceptions dans la période dite tardo-médiévale ou proto-moderne ?

  6. La reconstitution 3D du chevet de Cluny III : clôture de chœur, stalles, pavement, peintures murales et vitraux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Rollier-Hanselmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Le chevet de Cluny était la partie la plus richement décorée par la présence de sculptures, de peintures, de vitraux, de pavements en marbre et d’objets liturgiques précieux. Une partie de ces éléments nous est parvenue grâce aux fouilles archéologiques et a permis de proposer des hypothèses de restitution. Le parti général était celui de représenter l’église dans son état à la fin du xve siècle, sans tenir compte des reprises plus tardives. Nous avons tenté de réunir les connaissances actuel...

  7. Estudos sobre thrombose cardiaca e endocardite parietal de origem não valvular On thrombosis of heart and on mural endocarditis of non-valvular origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magarinos Torres

    1928-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.-Since the parietal endocarditis represents a chapter generally neglected, owing to the relative lack of cases, and somewhat confused because there various terms have been applied to a very same morbid condition, it justifies the work which previously we tried to accomplish, of nosographic classification. Taking into account the functional disturbances and the anatomical changes, all cases of parietal endocarditis referred to in the litterature were distributed by the following groups: A-Group-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 1st . type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis per continuum. 2nd. type-Metastatic valvulo-parietal endocarditis. 3rd. type-Valvulo-parietal endocarditis of the mitral stenosis. B-Group-Genuine parietal endocarditis. a with primary lesions in the myocardium. b with primary lesions in the endocardium. 4th type-Fibrous chronic parietal endocarditis (B A Ü M L E R, « endocarditis parietalis simplex». 5th type-Septic acute parietal endocarditis (LESCHKE, «endocarditis parietalis septica». 6th type-Subacute parietal endocarditis (MAGARINOS TORRES, «endocarditis muralis lenta». 2.-Studying a group of 14 cases of fibrous endomyocarditis with formation of thrombi, and carrying together pathological and bacteriological examinations it has been found that some of such cases represent an infectious parietal endocarditis, sometimes post-puerperal, of subacute or slow course, the endocardic vegetations being contamined by pathogenic microörganisms of which the most frequent is the Diplococcus pneumoniae, in most cases of attenuated virulence. Along with the infectious parietal endocarditis, there occur arterial and venous thromboses (abdominal aorta, common illiac and femural arteries and external jugular veins. The case 5,120 is a typical one of this condition which we name subacute parietal endocarditis (endocarditis parietalis s. muralis lenta. 3.-The endocarditis muralis lenta encloses an affection reputed to be of rare occurrence, the «myocardite subaigüe primitive», of which JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN published in 1901 the first cases, and ROQUE and LEVY, another, in 1914. The «myocardite subaigüe primitive» was, wrongly, in our opinion, included by WALZER in the syndrome of myocardia of LAUBRY and WALZER, considering that, in the refered cases of JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN and in that of ROQUE and LEVY, there are described rather considerable inflammatory changes in the myocardium and endocardium. The designation «myocardia» was however especially created by LAUBRY and WALZER for the cases of heart failure in which the most careful aetiologic inquiries and the most minucious clinical examination were unable to explain, and in which, yet, the post-mortem examination did not reveal any anatomical change at all, it being forcible to admit, then, a primary functional change of the cardiac muscle fibre. This special cardiac condition is thoroughly exemplified in the observation that WALZER reproduces on pages 1 to 7 of his book. 4.-The clinical picture of the subacute parietal endocarditis is that of heart failure with oedemas, effusion in the serous cavities and passive chronic congestion of the lungs, liver, kideys and spleen associated, to that of an infectious disease of subacute course. The fever is rather transient oscillating around 99.5 F., being intersected with apyretic periods of irregular duration; it is not dependent on any evident extracardiac septic infection. In other cases the fever is slight, particularly in the final stage of the disease, when the heart failure is well established. The rule is to observe then, hypothermy. The cardiac-vascular signs consist of enlargement of the cardiac dullness, smoothing of the cardiac sounds, absence of organic murmurs and accentuated and persistent tachycardia up to a certain point independent of fever. The galloprhythm is present, in most cases. The signs of the pulmonary infarct are rather expressed by the aspect of the sputum, which is foamy and blood-streaked than by the classic signs. Cerebral embolism was a terminal accident on various cases. Yet, in some of them, along with the signs of septicemia and of cardiac insufficiency, occurred vascular, arterial (abdominal aorta, common illiac and femurals arteries and venous (extern jugular veins thromboses. 5. The autopsy revealed an inflammatory process located on the parietal endocardium, accompanied by abundant formation of ancient and recent thrombi, being the apex of the left ventricle, the junction of the anterior wall of the same ventricle, with the interventricular septum, and the right auricular appendage, the usual seats of the inflammatory changes. The region of the left branch of HIS’ bundle is spared. The other changes found consist of fibrosis of the myocardium (healed infarcts and circumscribed interstitial myocarditis, of recent visceral infarcts chiefly in lungs, spleen and brain, of recent or old infarcts in the kidneys (embolic nephrocirrhosis and in the spleen, and of vascular thromboses (abdominal aorta, common illiacs and femurals arteries and external jugular veins, aside from hydrothorax, hydroperitoneum, cutaneous oedema, chronic passive congestion of the liver, lungs, spleen and kidneys and slight ictericia. 6. In the subacute parietal endocarditis the primary lesions sometimes locate themselves at the myocardium, depending on the ischemic necrosis associated to the arteriosclerosis of the coronariae arteries, or on an specific myocarditis. Other times, the absence of these conditions is suggestive of a primary attack to the parietal endocardium which is then the primary seat of the lesions. It matters little whatever may be the initial pathogenic mechanism; once injured the parietal endocardium and there being settled the infectious injury, the endocarditis develops with peculiar clinical and anatomical characters of remarkable uniformity, constituting an anatomo-clinical syndrome. 7.-The histologic sections show that recent lesions…

  8. Analysis of tables, murals, grids and chassis available for conventional diagnostic radiology; Analise de mesas, murais, grades e chassis disponiveis para radiologia diagnostica convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Wilson Otto; Navarro, Marcus Vinicius Teixeira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica], e-mail: wilson@cefetnet.com.br, e-mail: mvtn@cefetba.br; Ferreira, Mario de Jesus [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Alagoinhas, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: mario@cefetba.br

    2003-07-01

    Tables, bucky, grids, chassis and their combinations produced by several industries have been analysed, verifying and quantifying the attenuation in order to confront the results with the national and international recommendations. The results have shown that some of those tables do not satisfy the national requirements and for that reason increasing the patient dose. As the dose measurements are performed on the table or bucky, the analysis normally is not considered for quality control verifications and have to be considered, as those parts are positioned among the patient and the image receptor (radiological film) influenced the skin dose.

  9. Arquitectura mural e paisagens culturais no Brasil a partir de uma abordagem transdisciplinar e da visâo de processos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Munhoz de Arghollo Ferrâo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo presenta, a partir de una abordaje transdisciplinary de la visión de procesos, el arquitectura rural como un campo de investigación intrínseco y necesario a: el concepción y análisis de emprendimentos sustentables; el ordenación territorial a partir del rescate de la memoria y de los valores de una comunidad; el desarrollo de proyectos destinados a la valoración de las paisajes culturales vinculadas a la agricultura o al mundo rural de un país o región. Presenta- se para el caso brasileño, la arquitectura resultante de la dinámica del complexo productivo del café,y las respectivas repercusiones sobre el territorio de la provincia de São Paulo. Preséntase, además, un método de abordaje para investigaciones sobre el desarrollo rural sustentable, y se hace el sugerencia de que el mismo enfoque adoptado para el caso del café en Brasil pueda ser adecuado para las investigaciones a respecto de arquitectura rural (y de las paisajes culturales relacionadas a ella a partir de otros productos agro-industriales y otros contextos culturales. Finalmente, se hace la sugerencia de que la arquitectura rural, así como las investigaciones sobre las paisajes culturales vinculadas a ella, deban, necesariamente, continuar siendo conducidas a partir del enfoque transdisciplinar y de la visión de procesos.Este artigo apresenta, a partir de uma abordagem transdisciplinar e da visão de processos, a arquitetura rural como um campo de estudos intrínseco e necessário à concepção e análise de empreendimentos sustentáveis; à ordenação territorial a partir do resgate da memória e dos valores de uma comunidade; ao desenvolvimento de projetos destinados à valorização das paisagens culturais vinculadas à agricultura ou ao mundo rural de um país ou região. Apresenta-se para o caso brasileiro, a arquitetura resultante da dinâmica do complexo produtivo do café, e as respectivas repercussões sobre o território do estado de São Paulo. Apresenta-se um método de abordagem para estudos sobre o desenvolvimento rural sustentável, e sugere-se que o enfoque adotado para o caso do café no Brasil possa ser adequado ao estudo da arquitetura rural (e das paisagens culturais relacionadas a ela a partir de outros produtos agroindustriais e outros contextos culturais. Salienta-se, por fim, que a arquitetura rural, assim como os estudos sobre as paisagens culturais vinculadas a ela, devam, necessariamente, continuar sendo realizados a partir do enfoque transdisciplinar e da visão de processos.This paper presents rural architecture as a discipline which must be studied from a specific viewpoint: process and transdisciplinar vision. This approach is absolutely necessary when the rural landscapes and the agricultural activities are in focus. The regional planning, including management and cultural landscapes projects, maintain a straight relationship with rural architecture when productives processes are analyzed. This approach is also important when a regional planning is based on cultural heritage. The Brazilian coffee productive process was presented like a case. The “architecture of coffee” in São Paulo state is presented. This method can be used to analyze cultural landscapes based on rural architecture. All of the agribusiness commodities can generate a specific rural architecture and this is an important element to characterize its respective cultural landscapes. The conclusion indicates that this kind of studies must be done with similar approach.

  10. Self-Fashioning through Glamour and Punk in East Los Angeles: Patssi Valdez in Asco's "Instant Mural" and "A La Mode"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Marci R.

    2011-01-01

    Patssi Valdez, one of the most influential yet understudied female artists of the Chicana/o movement, was the only original and long-term female member of the 1970s art collective Asco. Through the visual discourses of pachuca glamour and punk, Valdez negotiated and exploited the gendered ideologies that visually put her at the center of the…

  11. Microorganisms and the integrated conservation-intervention process of the renaissance mural paintings from Casas Pintadas in Évora – Know to act, act to preserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tânia Rosado; Mara Silva; Luís Dias; António Candeias; Milene Gil; José Mirão; José Pestana; A. Teresa Caldeira

    2017-01-01

    The identification of microorganisms involved in biodeterioration/biodegradation process is determinant to understand their effects on cultural assets, and furthermore, it is a crucial step to define...

  12. Microorganisms and the integrated conservation-intervention process of the renaissance mural paintings from Casas Pintadas in Évora – Know to act, act to preserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Rosado

    2017-10-01

    In vitro antifungal assays performed with new natural biocompounds revealed efficient inhibition capacity, suggesting the potential of these compounds to be used as a great and safe alternative to the chemical compounds usually used on cultural assets microbial treatments.

  13. A TOPOGRAFIA AUSENTE: A PAISAGEM POLÍTICA DA NIEUW HOLLAND NAS VINHETAS DE FRANS POST PARA O MAPA MURAL BRASILIA QUA PARTE PARET BELGIS, 1643-1647

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Souza Leão Vieira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto é uma investigação da paisagem política do Brasil holandês a partir da análise das vinhetas de Frans Post em sua relação para com o espaço cartográfico do mapa de Georg Marcgraf. Após a comparação do efeito corográfico tal como emerge nas vinhetas e nos desenhos de Post (1645, concluimos que as vinhetas e os desenhos divergem entre si quanto às estratégias visuais, apesar da mesma temática na construção cultural de uma paisagem política para a Nova Holanda: os desenhos são topográficos, com implicações de representações do corpo político pátrio; enquanto as vinhetas são a cenografia estereotipada de descrição de costumes de terras estrangeiras. Os primeiros conotam a ideologia orangista e as segundas o republicanismo civil e mercantil na cultura política das Provínicas Unidas dos Países Baixos no século XVII.

  14. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California; Caracterizacion fisicoquimica de pigmentos y soportes en pinturas murales: caso Mayapan, Yucatan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, B.; Cobo, J.; Schorr, M. [Area de Corrosion y Materiales, Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez, S/N, 21280, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico); Cota, L. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Oviedo, F. [Centro INAH - BC, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)]. e-mail: benval@iing.mxl.uabc.mx

    2006-07-01

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called {sup s}tone on stone{sup ,} explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  15. Embolization of the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery as a porcine model of chronic trans-mural myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Derek W; Wong, Maelene L; Jenny Chang, C W; Humphrey, Sterling; Grayson, J Kevin; Boyd, Walter D; Griffiths, Leigh G

    2015-06-06

    Although the incidence of acute death related to coronary artery disease has decreased with the advent of new interventional therapies, myocardial infarction remains one of the leading causes of death in the US. Current animal models developed to replicate this phenomenon have been associated with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. A new model utilizing the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending artery (D1-LAD) was developed to provide a clinically relevant lesion, while attempting to minimize the incidence of adverse complications associated with infarct creation. Eight Yucatan miniature pigs underwent percutaneous embolization of the D1-LAD via injection of 90 µm polystyrene micro-spheres. Cardiac structure and function were monitored at baseline, immediately post-operatively, and at 8-weeks post-infarct using transthoracic echocardiography. Post-mortem histopathology and biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate for changes in myocardial structure and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition respectively. Echocardiographic data were evaluated using a repeated measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey's HSD post hoc test. Biochemical analyses of infarcted to non-infarcted myocardium were compared using analysis of variance. All eight pigs successfully underwent echocardiography prior to catheterization. Overall procedural survival rate was 83% (5/6) with one pig excluded due to failure of infarction and another due to deviation from protocol. Ejection fraction significantly decreased from 69.7 ± 7.8% prior to infarction to 50.6 ± 14.7% immediately post-infarction, and progressed to 48.7 ± 8.9% after 8-weeks (p = 0.011). Left ventricular diameter in systole significantly increased from 22.6 ± 3.8 mm pre-operatively to 30.9 ± 5.0 mm at 8 weeks (p = 0.016). Histopathology showed the presence of disorganized fibrosis on hematoxylin and eosin and Picro Sirius red stains. Collagen I and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content were significantly greater in the infarcted region than in normal myocardium (p = 0.007 and p = 0.018, respectively); however, pyridinoline crosslink content per collagen I content in the infarcted region was significantly less than normal myocardium (p = 0.048). Systolic dysfunction and changes in ECM composition induced via embolization of the D1-LAD closely mimic those found in individuals with chronic myocardial infarction (MI), and represents a location visible without the need for anesthesia. As a result, this method represents a useful model for studying chronic MI.

  16. Histidine-mediated xylem loading of zinc is a species-wide character in Noccaea caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozhevnikova, A.; Seregin, I.V.; Erlikh, N.T.; Shevyreva, T.A.; Andreev, I.M.; Verweij, R.; Schat, H.

    2014-01-01

    Histidine plays a crucial role in nickel (Ni) translocation in Ni-hyperaccumulating plants. Here, we investigated its role in zinc (Zn) translocation in four accessions of the Zn hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, using the related non-hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi arvense, as a reference. We

  17. 19 CFR 12.106 - Importation prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals... architectural sculpture or mural which is exported (whether or not such exportation is to the United States...

  18. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals... or mural listed in § 12.105 is detained in accordance with § 12.108 and the importer states in..., the sculpture or mural shall be seized and summarily forfeited to the United States in accordance with...

  19. 19 CFR 12.107 - Importations permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.107 Importations permitted. Pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural for which... sculpture or mural, in a form acceptable to the Secretary, certifying that such exportation was not in...

  20. 19 CFR 12.108 - Detention of articles; time in which to comply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Sculpture and Murals § 12.108 Detention of articles; time in which to comply. If the importer cannot produce... take the sculpture or mural into Customs custody and send it to a bonded warehouse or public store to... sculpture or mural is taken into Customs custody, or such longer period as may be allowed by the port...

  1. Fort Monroe Historic Image Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Figure 308: Mural in Coast Artillery Board Building, 1940 (NARA RG 111-SC Box 9 117168). .......................... 157 Figure 309: Mural in Coast...Artillery Board Building, 1940 (NARA RG 111-SC Box 9 117167). .......................... 158 Figure 310: Mural in Coast Artillery Board Building, 1940...Archives in Philadelphia, PA. During these visits researchers collected archival information such as historic photo- graphs, art work, maps, and

  2. Assessing the Suitability of Woven Fabric and Composite Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This art studio experimental study explored the suitability of woven cotton fabric as alternative material for creating pictorial designs for murals based on the batik, tie-and-dye, screen printing, appliqué and embroidery techniques in textiles. While painted and sculpted murals abound in Ghana, the study found textile murals a ...

  3. Children and Youth in Mexico Toward the 21st Century. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Rose C.

    This paper consists of two art curriculum units: (1) mural painting; and (2) sculpture. In the mural painting unit, students analyze and critique works done by Diego Rivera and create a mural using the fresco technique. In the sculpture unit, students create a piece of sculpture that combines influences of past and/or present-day Mexican sculpture…

  4. Mexican Muralists: Rivera, Siqueiros, and Orozco. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Kim

    Murals created by Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros embody a time of change in Mexico. The murals they created were intended to educate an illiterate population. Today these murals embody national pride. The goal of this curriculum project is rooted in learning about the history, culture, and art of Mexico. The project…

  5. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja History, art and politics: the muralism of the Bolivian Miguel Alandia Pantoja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo de Oliveira Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Arte Revolucionária e Independente lançado por André Breton, Diego Rivera e Leon Trotski em 1936, permitindo o surgimento de uma obra original, polêmica e marcante para a História latino-americana.This article intends to evaluate how art and politics are expressed both in the creation and in the action of the Bolivian militant politician Miguel Alandia Pantoja, who was an active participant in decisive moments of his country's history, as the Chaco War, the 1952 Revolution and the Commune of La Paz in 1971. The Andean indigenismo and the Mexican muralist influences seemed to have crossed with Alandia political options and with his enrollment at the proposal made by artists related to the Manifesto for a Revolutionary and Independent Art launched by Andre Breton, Diego Rivera and Leon Trotski in 1936, allowing the uprising of an original and controversial artistic creation for Latin American history.

  6. Participation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in Luteinizing Hormone-induced Differential Regulation of Steroidogenesis and Steroidogenic Gene Expression in Mural and Cumulus Granulosa Cells of Mouse Preovulatory Follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, You-Qiang; Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft

    2006-01-01

    The LH surge induces the terminal differentiation and onset of luteinization in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles, a process involving the differential expression of genes essential for steroidogenesis, and appearing to be mediated by complex signaling pathways. The objective of this study...

  7. Les peintures murales du catholicon du monastère de Gradac: Répertoire des fresques et observations sur les particularités de certaines représentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the iconographic program of frescoes in the Church of the Annunciation in the monastery of Gradac, in which there were a number of hitherto unrecognized sections that have now been identified. It publishes the pre served inscriptions on the frescoes, as well as the texts on the scrolls of the hierarchs in the altar space. Finally, it presents observations about the typical program features of the wall painting in the Gradac church, which have not been previously considered in research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177036: Srpska srednjovekovna umetnost i njen evropski kontekst

  8. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja History, art and politics: the muralism of the Bolivian Miguel Alandia Pantoja

    OpenAIRE

    Everaldo de Oliveira Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Art...

  9. Cadmium speciation and localization in the hyperfaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguet, S.; Bert, V.; Laboudigue, A.; Barthes, V.; Isaure, M-P; Llorens, I.; Schat, H.; Sarret, G.

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis halleri is a model plant investigated for Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation. In this work, A. halleri plants from metallicolous origin exposed to Cd and Zn were studied using an original combination of chemical and physical techniques to obtain insights on Cd hyperaccumulation mechanisms. In

  10. Variation in Heavy Metal Accumulation and Genetic Diversity at a Regional Scale Among Metallicolous and Non-Metallicolous Populations of the Facultative Metallophyte Biscutella laevigata subsp. laevigata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pošćić, F.; Fellet, G.; Vischi, M.; Casolo, V.; Schat, H.; Marchiol, L.

    2015-01-01

    Biscutella laevigata is a facultative metallophyte, with populations on non-metalliferous and metalliferous soils. Some of its metallicolous populations have been shown to hyperaccumulate thallium or lead in nature. Only Tl hyperaccumulation has been experimentally confirmed. We aimed to compare the

  11. Multimodality imaging of aortitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartlage, Gregory R; Palios, John; Barron, Bruce J; Stillman, Arthur E; Bossone, Eduardo; Clements, Stephen D; Lerakis, Stamatios

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging of aortitis is useful for identification of acute and chronic mural changes due to inflammation, edema, and fibrosis, as well as characterization of structural luminal changes...

  12. 78 FR 13377 - Landmarks Committee of the National Park System Advisory Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...: Illinois ADLAI E. STEVENSON II HOUSE, Mettawa Michigan THE DETROIT INDUSTRY MURALS, DETROIT INSTITUTE OF ARTS, Detroit Pennsylvania GEORGE NAKASHIMA WOODWORKER COMPLEX, Bucks County The committee may also...

  13. Phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae tribe Alysseae inferred from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Satovic, Zlatko; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Liber, Zlatko

    2013-12-01

    Numerous molecular systematic studies within Brassicaceae have resulted in a strongly improved classification of the family, as morphologically defined units at and above the generic level were often found to poorly reflect phylogenetic relationships. Here, we focus on tribe Alysseae, which despite its size (accounting for about 7% of all species) has only received limited coverage in previous phylogenetic studies. Specifically, we want to test phylogenetic hypotheses implied by current tribal and generic circumscriptions and to put diversification within tribe Alysseae into a temporal context. To this end, sequence data from the nrDNA ITS and two plastid regions (ndhF gene, trnL-F intergenic spacer) were obtained for 176 accessions, representing 16 out of 17 currently recognized genera of the tribe, and were phylogenetically analysed, among others, using a relaxed molecular clock. Due to large discrepancies with respect to published ages of Brassicaceae, age estimates concerning Alysseae are, however, burdened with considerable uncertainty. The tribe is monophyletic and contains four strongly supported major clades and Alyssum homalocarpum, whose relationships among each other remain uncertain due to incongruences between nuclear and plastid DNA markers. The largest genus of the tribe, Alyssum, is not monophyletic and contains, apart from A. homalocarpum, two distinct lineages, corresponding to sections Alyssum, Psilonema, Gamosepalum and to sections Odontarrhena and Meniocus, respectively. Clypeola, whose monophyly is supported only by the plastid data, is very closely related to and possibly nested within the second Alyssum lineage. Species of the genus Fibigia intermingle with those of Alyssoides, Clastopus, Degenia, and Physoptychis, rendering Fibigia polyphyletic. The monotypic genera Leptoplax and Physocardamum are embedded in Bornmuellera. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Habitat management of organic vineyard in Northern Italy: the role of cover plants management on arthropod functional biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, G; Marchesini, E; Reggiani, N; Montepaone, G; Schiatti, P; Sommaggio, D

    2016-12-01

    The effect of cover plants on arthropod functional biodiversity was investigated in a vineyard in Northern Italy, through a 3-year field experiment. The following six ground cover plants were tested: Sweet Alyssum; Phacelia; Buckwheat; Faba Bean; Vetch and Oat; control. Arthropods were sampled using different techniques, including collection of leaves, vacuum sampling and sweeping net. Ground cover plant management significantly affected arthropod fauna, including beneficial groups providing ecosystem services like biological control against pests. Many beneficial groups were attracted by ground cover treatments in comparison with control, showing an aggregative numerical response in the plots managed with some of the selected plant species. Alyssum, Buckwheat and 'Vetch and Oat' mixture showed attractiveness on some Hymenoptera parasitoid families, which represented 72.3% of the insects collected by sweeping net and 45.7 by vacuum sampling. Phytoseiidae mites showed a significant increase on leaves of the vineyard plots managed with ground covers, in comparison with control, although they did not show any difference among the treatments. In general, the tested ground cover treatments did not increase dangerous Homoptera populations in comparison with control, with the exception of Alyssum. The potential of ground cover plant management in Italian vineyards is discussed: the overall lack of potential negative effects of the plants tested, combined with an aggregative numerical response for many beneficials, seems to show a potential for their use in Northern Italy vineyards.

  15. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspicaerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant,are studied and compared to their orthologues in Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-hyperaccumulator plant.The TcZNT1 and TcZNT2 genes of T. caerulescens are members of the Zrt, Irt ( ZIP) -like gene family and sho...

  16. La Memoria De Nuestra Tierra: Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Judy

    2005-01-01

    La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra combines a meticulously hand-painted landscape with historic photographs in a seamless blend imprinted on the holographic-like surface of a metallic coated substrate. The mural for the Denver International Airport, entitled La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra is a breakthrough in digital murals, printed digitally on a…

  17. In the Shadow of the Peace Walls: Art, Education, and Social Reconstruction in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom; Conlon, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Northern Ireland's well-known civil strife between Catholics and Protestants had enjoyed an uneasy peace, but a recent outbreak of new violence in 2010 caused disappointment to these authors. Bernard Conlon and Tom Anderson collaborated on creating a new children's peace mural with the Kids' Guernica Peace Mural Project in West Belfast. This Kids'…

  18. Interconnected by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Mural painting provides an excellent opportunity for students to participate in a collaborative project. To many teachers, class mural projects seem intimidating because of organizational and logistical challenges. Many of these challenges can be mitigated, however, if there is plenty of discussion beforehand to organize ideas, get input from…

  19. Mosaic Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    Through the generosity of a Lowes Toolbox for Education Grant and a grant from the Bill Graham Foundation, an interdisciplinary mosaic mural was created and installed at Riverview Middle School in Bay Point, California. The actual mural, which featured a theme of nurturing students through music, art, sports, science, and math, took about three…

  20. Chicanos Paint Their Way Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguer, Annick

    1999-01-01

    In Tucson (Arizona) and El Paso (Texas), Chicano mural painters and art educators have begun community programs to engage alienated Chicano and Yaqui youth in painting murals that defuse gang conflicts, celebrate Mexican culture and history, and provide training in marketable skills. (SV)

  1. From Hurt to Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2002

    2002-01-01

    A group of adolescent girls portray in art and in words their journey from trauma and hurt to trust and hope. Students, who are members of a positive peer culture group, designed and painted a mural in three sections. As a whole, the mural represents the three stages of the adolescent process. (Author)

  2. Windows to Art Excitement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  3. Learning Outside the Box: How Mayan Pedagogy Informs a Community/University Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staikidis, Kryssi

    2009-01-01

    In this article the author describes a project in which professors and preservice art educators from Northern Illinois University (NIU) collaborated with teens and members of the DeKalb Latino local community center to create a mural celebrating a traditional Aztec narrative. The mural project involved professors, university students, teenagers…

  4. Becoming Educultural: Collaborative Projects in the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    Manurewa Intermediate students were given an experience only the arts can provide as they collaboratively researched, responded to and celebrated a school mural project. The mural project was initiated by Shane Hansen through the Principal Iain Taylor and coordinated by Dianne Macdonald, a Professional Learning Leader at Manurewa Intermediate…

  5. Reconstructing Community History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Amy

    2004-01-01

    History is alive and well in Lebanon, Missouri. Students in this small town in the southwest region of the state went above and beyond the community's expectations on this special project. This article describes this historical journey which began when students in a summer mural class reconstructed a mural that was originally created by a…

  6. Mexico: A Transition to Democracy. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Joyce

    This interdisciplinary unit is designed for secondary level history students but can be adapted for other levels. The focus of the unit is on Diego Rivera's mural "Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in the Alameda." Students use the mural to examine three major phases of Mexican history and to provide a basis of research of Mexican history and…

  7. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspi

  8. Fitoremediasi dan Potensi Tumbuhan Hiperakumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is defined as cleaning up of pollutants mediated primarily by plants. It is an emerging technology for environmental remediation that offers a low-cost technique suitable for use against different types of contaminants in a variety of media. Phytoremediation is potentially applicable to a diversity of substances, involving hyperaccumulators heavy metals and radionuclides. It is also applicable to other inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, various salts and nutrients, and a variety of organic contaminants, including explosives, petroleum hydrocarbons and pesticides. At least there are one taxon of plant as hyperaccumulator for Cd, 28 taxa for Co, 37 taxa for Cu, 9 taxa for Mg, 317 taxa for Ni, and 11 taxa for Zn. Extensive progress were done in characterizing physiology of plants which hyperaccumulate or hypertolerate metals. Hypertolerance is fundamental to hyperaccumulator, and high rates of uptake and translocation are observed in hyperaccumulator plants. Hyperaccumulator plants and agronomic technology were undertaken to improve the annual rate of phytoextraction and to allow recycling of soil toxic metals accumulated in plant biomass. These techniques are very likely to support commercial environmental remediation. Most phytoremediation systems are still in development, or in the stage of plant breeding to improve the cultivars for field use. However, application for commercial purposes has already been initiated. Many opportunities have also been identified for research and development to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation.

  9. Hegemonic Shifts: The Latest from the Walls of Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Crowley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the changes that have taken place in the murals of Northern Ireland over the past decade or so. It will be argued that although there have been important developments in the murals that reflect the consolidation of ‘peace’ during this period, the walls also tell a different story.  It will be shown that, perhaps predictably, given the paralysis and stagnation that have characterised the power-sharing arrangements, and the disillusionment, cynicism and bitterness towards the political settlement which is now evident, a number of murals offer representations that indicate the growth of tendencies that present latent but real dangers.

  10. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 163 - Interim (a)(1)(A) List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Documents required for works of art § 10.48Declaration of artist, seller or shipper, curator, etc. §§ 10.49... architectural sculpture and murals Certificate of legal exportation Evidence of exemption § 12.110Pesticides...

  11. Diego Rivera Detroit Industry (1932-1933): North wall fresco, lower panel 5.398 m × 13.716 m. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mike Mckiernan

    2009-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diego RiveraDetroit Industry (19321933) North wall fresco, lower panel 5.398 m 3 13.716 m. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, USA. This massive mural .22 feet high...

  12. Systemic thromboembolism in endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF): clinical observations, aetio-pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy, J J; Ekott, J U; Ansa, V O

    2010-09-01

    Mural thrombi and thromboemboli are very common in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), whose cardiac pathology is indistinguishable from endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF). Although mural thrombi are common in EMF cases, and post mortem embolic infarcts are frequently seen; clinical recognition of thromboembolism in EMF is unusual. We report here 4 cases of clinically recognized thromboembolism among 106 consecutive cases of EMF (including a case with a sudden onset of vascular occlusion and a below knee infarction and auto-amputation of the right leg). Two of the 4 cases had hypereosinophilia that was probably induced by microfilaria. The mechanisms of mural thrombosis and thromboembolic infarcts in EMF cases are discussed, and the possibility shown that helminth induced eosinophilic myocarditis can induce similar acute mural thrombosis and thromboembolism. The place of anticoagulant therapy in EMF is discussed.

  13. Comparison of CT enterography and MR enterography imaging features of active Crohn disease in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, Heather I. [The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Rhode Island Hospital/Hasbro Children' s Children' s Hospital/Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Sharatz, Steven M.; Nimkin, Katherine; Gee, Michael S. [MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Taphey, Mayureewan [Bumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Bradley, William F. [Cambridge Mobile Telematics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Assessment for active Crohn disease by CT enterography and MR enterography relies on identifying mural and perienteric imaging features. To evaluate the performance of established imaging features of active Crohn disease in children and adolescents on CT and MR enterography compared with histological reference. We included patients ages 18 years and younger who underwent either CT or MR enterography from 2007 to 2014 and had endoscopic biopsy within 28 days of imaging. Two pediatric radiologists blinded to the histological results reviewed imaging studies and scored the bowel for the presence or absence of mural features (wall thickening >3 mm, mural hyperenhancement) and perienteric features (mesenteric hypervascularity, edema, fibrofatty proliferation and lymphadenopathy) of active disease. We performed univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression to compare imaging features with histological reference. We evaluated 452 bowel segments (135 from CT enterography, 317 from MR enterography) from 84 patients. Mural imaging features had the highest association with active inflammation both for MR enterography (wall thickening had 80% accuracy, 69% sensitivity and 91% specificity; mural hyperenhancement had 78%, 53% and 96%, respectively) and CT enterography (wall thickening had 84% accuracy, 72% sensitivity and 91% specificity; mural hyperenhancement had 76%, 51% and 91%, respectively), with perienteric imaging features performing significantly worse on MR enterography relative to CT enterography (P < 0.001). Mural features are predictors of active inflammation for both CT and MR enterography, while perienteric features can be distinguished better on CT enterography compared with MR enterography. This likely reflects the increased conspicuity of the mesentery on CT enterography and suggests that mural features are the most reliable imaging features of active Crohn disease in children and adolescents. (orig.)

  14. Dades floristiques per a l'Alt Bergueda

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano i Tomàs, Ignasi

    1985-01-01

    Se presenta una lista de 19 táxones con interés corológico, del Alt Berguedá (Pirineos orientales), con algunas observaciones acerca de su ecología, y en algunos casos con su distribución en Cataluña. La lista incluye nuevas localidades pirenaicas para orófitos (Brassica repanda subsp. turbonis, Alyssum cuneifolium), plantas mediterráneas (Asparagus acutifolius, Arenaria modesta), sinantrópicas (Impatiens balfourii), etc.

  15. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: katarina.vogel@uni-lj.si; Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 5960 mg kg{sup -1} Cd and 3500 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  16. Incidence of apoptotic bodies in membrana granulosa of the patients participating in an in vitro fertilization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, K; Saito, H; Saito, T; Ito, M; Ohta, N; Sakai, N; Tezuka, N; Hiroi, M; Watanabe, H

    1997-02-01

    To investigate the incidence of apoptotic bodies in mural granulosa cell masses and cumulus cell masses. Nonrandomized, prospective study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan. One hundred twenty-nine normally ovulating women underwent ovulation induction for IVF-ET with GnRH analogue (GnRH-a) and gonadotropins. Patients underwent follicle aspiration after the administration of hCG. The nuclei of recovered granulosa cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy and the incidence of apoptotic bodies was tabulated. The incidence of apoptotic bodies was significantly higher in mural granulosa cell masses than in cumulus cell masses in the entire group of 129 patients. Both incidence of apoptotic bodies of mural granulosa cell masses and cumulus cell masses were significantly higher in patients with less than six follicular oocytes compared with patients with six or more oocytes. Nonpregnant patients showed significantly higher incidence of apoptotic bodies in mural granulosa cell masses compared with pregnant patients. These results indicate that mural granulosa cell masses and cumulus cell masses may have different functions in follicular maturation. The incidence of apoptotic bodies in mural granulosa cell masses can be used as an indicator of success of IVF.

  17. [Diego Rivera: a great master and a didactic and discerning medical historian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2014-11-01

    Diego Rivera is one of the artistic giants of the 20th century. His many original creations included landscapes, portraits and large murals created in both Mexico and the United States. Rivera ventured into many styles-cubism, naturalism and narrative realism-with great success. Rivera's murals build on those of the Renaissance, pre-historic and colonial civilizations of Mexico. Biological and medical topics and their history form an important concern in Rivera's work, present in many of his murals in a highly informative and creative manner. His two History of Cardiology murals present an original and comprehensive account of the developments of this medical specialty from pre-historic to modern times. His History of Medicine in Mexico (The people demands health) mural is a creatively and vigorously fashioned and highly dynamic and synthetic vision of the relationships between pre-historic and modern medicine in Mexico and its social foundations. Medical topics such as vaccines and vaccination, embryology and surgery are inventively and accurately presented in the large mural, Detroit Industry. The trigger and impetus for the concern of Rivera for these topics of life and death, and the exceedingly ground-breaking way he presents them, appear to stem from his rational materialism, his concern for collective wellbeing, his belief in progress through scientific developments and political action and his commitment to understand Mexican and American history.

  18. Comparison of CT enterography and MR enterography imaging features of active Crohn disease in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Heather I; Sharatz, Steven M; Taphey, Mayureewan; Bradley, William F; Nimkin, Katherine; Gee, Michael S

    2017-09-01

    Assessment for active Crohn disease by CT enterography and MR enterography relies on identifying mural and perienteric imaging features. To evaluate the performance of established imaging features of active Crohn disease in children and adolescents on CT and MR enterography compared with histological reference. We included patients ages 18 years and younger who underwent either CT or MR enterography from 2007 to 2014 and had endoscopic biopsy within 28 days of imaging. Two pediatric radiologists blinded to the histological results reviewed imaging studies and scored the bowel for the presence or absence of mural features (wall thickening >3 mm, mural hyperenhancement) and perienteric features (mesenteric hypervascularity, edema, fibrofatty proliferation and lymphadenopathy) of active disease. We performed univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression to compare imaging features with histological reference. We evaluated 452 bowel segments (135 from CT enterography, 317 from MR enterography) from 84 patients. Mural imaging features had the highest association with active inflammation both for MR enterography (wall thickening had 80% accuracy, 69% sensitivity and 91% specificity; mural hyperenhancement had 78%, 53% and 96%, respectively) and CT enterography (wall thickening had 84% accuracy, 72% sensitivity and 91% specificity; mural hyperenhancement had 76%, 51% and 91%, respectively), with perienteric imaging features performing significantly worse on MR enterography relative to CT enterography (P Crohn disease in children and adolescents.

  19. The Mexican Assimilation: Colombia in the 1930s - The case of Ignacio Gómez Jaramillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Solano Roa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 1930s in Colombia, artists such as Ignacio Gómez Jaramillo, took Mexican muralism as an important part of their careers thus engaging with public art for the irst time in the country. In 1936, Gómez Jaramillo travelled to Mexico for two years in order to study muralism, to learn the fresco technique and to transmit the Mexican experience of the open-air-schools. Gómez Jaramillo returned to Colombia in 1938 and in 1939 painted the murals of the National Capitol. Although Gómez Jaramillo’s work after 1939 is well known, his time in Mexico has been barely studied and very few scholars have analyzed the artist’s work in light of his Mexican experience. While in Mexico, Gómez Jaramillo joined the LEAR (La Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios with whom he crated the murals of the Centro Escolar Revolución. These murals depict politically engaged images that, apparently, little had to do with his more historical work back in Colombia. This text proposes a careful reading of the artist’s work at the CER and a rereading of the National Capitol murals in light of a more politicized vision.

  20. Lead uptake, tolerance, and accumulation exhibited by the plants Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile in contaminated soil without additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Milena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile collected from plants growing at uncontaminated sites were transplanted in Pb-contaminated soil without additives (EDTA, HEDTA to identify their natural potential for hyper-tolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead. The total content of Pb in the plants was determined by atomic spectroscopy. Our research showed that the concentrated toxic levels of lead (Pb in Sedum spectabile and Urtica dioica were about 100 or more times higher than those of non-accumulator plants. It can be concluded that these plants have a high natural potential for hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead, since they can hyperaccumulate it without addition of any chelating compounds (EDTA, HEDTA to enhance lead uptake. This makes them very promising plants for use in phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated sites.

  1. Tamponamento do pH da solução nutritiva na hidroponia de plantas ornamentais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira C. M. Fonseca

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Seis espécies de plantas ornamentais: Viola tricolor, Antirrhinum majus, Phlox drummondii, Petunia hibrida, Statice sinuata e Alyssum maritimun foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com e sem agente tamponante, num experimento fatorial inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Avaliou-se o tempo para germinação, produção de muda, início do florescimento, teores de nutrientes e perdas do vigor e da qualidade das flores. As plantas foram colhidas quando perderam o vigor e a qualidade das flores. Dentre as espécies cultivadas, a que apresentou menor ciclo foi boca-de-leão (Antirrhinum majus. Boca-de-leão (Antirrhinum majus e petúnia (Petúnia x hybrida monstraram-se melhor esenvolvidas quando cultivadas com agente tamponante. Amorperfeito (Viola tricolor e flox (Phlox drummondii tenderam a um melhor desenvolvimento em solução nutritiva sem agente tamponante. Para estátice (Statice sinuata e alisso (Alyssum maritimun as soluções empregadas não resultaram em diferenças significativas no crescimento das plantas, embora o vigor e número de flores de alisso apresentem superioridade em presença de agente tamponante.

  2. Floral Strips Attract Beneficial Insects but Do Not Enhance Yield in Cucumber Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2017-04-01

    Natural enemies and pollinators require nutritional and habitat resources that are often not found in conventional agricultural fields. The addition of flowering plants within agroecosystems may provide the resources necessary to support beneficial insects at the local scale. We hypothesized that insect pollinator and natural enemy abundance would increase in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plots containing flower strips and that the effect would be greatest in the crop rows closest to the flower strips. Three flower treatments were tested: 1) buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), 2) yellow mustard (Brassica hirta), 3) sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), and cucumbers as a control. Flowers were planted within a commercial cucumber field in 20-m-long strips in a randomized complete block design with six replications in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Some floral treatments successfully attracted more beneficial insects than others, but the beneficials did not disperse out to the cucumber plants. Cucumber yield was unaffected by flowers with one exception: in 2015, cucumber yield in the sweet alyssum plots were greater than those in plots with no flowers. Our research indicates that adding flowers to cucumber fields to increase services from beneficial insects needs to be further investigated to better understand the effect of factors such as relative flowering strip size. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. HUMAN FIGURES IN THE ANATOLIAN SELJUQ ART: A COMPARISON TO THE CAVE DRAWINGS OF UYGURS AND THE MURALS OF GHAZNAVIDS FROM THE ASPECTS OF THEME AND MORPHOLOGY ANADOLU SELÇUKLU SANATINDAKİ İNSAN FIGÜRLERİNİN UYGURLARIN MAĞARA RESİMLERİ VE GAZNELİLERİN DUVAR RESİMLERİYLE KONU VE BİÇİM YÖNÜNDEN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga ERKAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Türk toplulukları ve devletlerinde insan figürü kullanımı sıkça görülmektedir. Farklı coğrafyalarda, farklı zaman dilimlerinde ve farklı dinleri benimsemiş olan Türklerde kullanılan insan figürleri konu ve biçim bakımından benzerlik göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada, Anadolu Selçukluların sanat eserlerinde bulunan insan figürlerinin kendilerinden önce var olmuş Türk toplulukları ve devletlerinin yaptığı sanat eserlerindeki insan figürleriyle olan ilişkiyi incelemektedir. Anadolu Selçuklu sanat eserlerinde görülen insan figürleriyle, önceki dönemlerde Orta Asya’da yaşamış olan Türklerin, Uygurların ve Gaznelilerin yaptığı insan figürlerinin bulunduğu sanat eserlerinde kompozisyonda kullanılan elemanlar, duruşlar, giysiler ve yüzler gibi konu ve biçimsel yönleriyle benzerlik görülmektedir. Türk sanatında, Uygurlar ve Gazneliler gibi eski Türk medeniyetlerinin kullandığı geleneksel insan figürü anlayışı Anadolu’da Anadolu Selçuklular yönetimi döneminde getirilmiş ve gelişmiştir. Figurative depiction is widely circulated among Turkish communities and states. There is an alikeness of the aspects of theme and morphology in the figurative art among Turkish communities and states even though they adopted different religions and existed in different regions and periods. Turkish figural art tradition was transferred to Minor Asia by the Anatolian Seljuqs. Correspondingly, this study points up the human figures and their use in the art of the Anatolian Seljuqs as a link to documenting figurative depiction elements within previous Turkish communities and states. Hence the figurative depiction that appears in the Anatolian Seljuqs art parallel to the Uygurs and the Ghaznavids wall paintings in terms of theme, setting and scene, and clothes and the faces of the figures. These characteristics of the Anatolian Seljuqs figurative depictions bear similarity to the theme and the morphologic aspects of the ancient Turks in Central Asia, the Uygurs and the Ghaznavids. Therefore Turkish figurative depiction continued to exist and develop in Anatolia under the Anatolian Seljuqs patronage with the influence of ancient Turkish civilizations, including the Uygurs and the Ghaznavids.

  4. Restore procedure to remove insoluble salts on murals paintings in the church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP) with accompaniment of portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence); Procedimento de restauro para remocao de sais insoluveis sobre pinturas murais na igreja da Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP) com acompanhamento por equipamento portatil de EDXRF (fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Marcia [MRizzo Restauracoes - Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao de Bens Culturais Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio, E-mail: appoloni@uel.b, E-mail: parreira@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the proposition and application procedure for removal of insoluble salts, deposited on the surface of a wall painting in water-soluble, as well as the physical-chemical study with fluorescence X-ray in situ, that support and/or validated the restoration decision making

  5. Application of a portable equipment EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) in the monitoring of the restoration work of murals paints in the Church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP); Aplicacao de um equipamento portatil de EDXRF (fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia) no acompanhamento dos trabalhos de restauro de pinturas murais na igreja da Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio, E-mail: appoloni@uel.b, E-mail: parreira@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil); Rizzo, Marcia [MRizzo Restauracoes - Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao de Bens Culturais Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the application of the portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) of the Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina in the analysis in situ of pigments in wall paintings, as well as in monitoring restoration processes

  6. The BdV screen of memory and Ciutat d'Asunción boulevard at the Baró de Viver neighborhood (Barcelona: (rethinking citizens' participation in urban design El mural de la memoria y la Rambla Ciutat d’Asunción del barrio de Baró de Viver (Barcelona: repensado la participación ciudadana en el diseño urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeu Vidal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    We present a case of citizen participation to design some public spaces in Baró de Viver, a neighbourhood of the city of Barcelona. Our aim is to reflect on the ways to understand citizen participation in political and academic agenda, the role of different actors (citizens, professionals, politicians... and strategies and methods used in participatory urban planning. The experience showed in this paper is located in a scale of urban design very close and well known to the people. We begin with a brief historical overview of the neighborhood where the project arose. Then we give an account of the stages of the participatory process, showing the main milestones, features and methods. Finally we propose some ideas to rethink the conceptual and methodological aspects of the intervention and urban research in environmental psychology and people-environment studies.

    En este artículo presentamos una experiencia de participación ciudadana para diseñar varios espacios públicos del barrio de Baró de Viver, en Barcelona. El objetivo es reflexionar en torno a la manera de entender la participación ciudadana en las agendas política y académica, el papel de los diferentes actores (ciudadanos, técnicos, políticos… y las estrategias y métodos utilizados en las decisiones sobre el espacio de la ciudad. La experiencia se sitúa en la escala de diseño urbano que, por su cotidianeidad, suele provocar más implicación entre la ciudadanía. Empezamos con una breve descripción histórica y social del barrio donde surge el proyecto, para luego dar cuenta de las etapas del proceso participativo, describiendo sus principales hitos, características y métodos desarrollados. Concluimos con algunos elementos de reflexión en torno a los objetivos planteados, con el fin de repensar los fundamentos conceptuales y metodológicos de la intervención y la investigación urbanas en la psicología ambiental y disciplinas afines.

  7. Archaeomagnetic studies in Mesoamerica using non-conventional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Arechalde, A.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2004-12-01

    For the first time results of an archaeomagnetic study of mural paintings and unburned lime-plasters from Mesoamerica are presented. The magnetic measurements show that at least four murals (sites: Cacaxtla, Cholula and Templo Mayor) retain a remanent magnetization carried by a mixture of hematite and magnetite grains. In most specimens, a characteristic magnetization is successfully isolated by alternating field demagnetization. The mean directions are reasonably well determined for each murals and within the range of secular variation during the last centuries. Studied Mesoamerican murals apparently retain the direction of the magnetic field at the time they were painted and are therefore an invaluable source of information concerning its secular variation. Lime-plaster samples were selected from two archaeological excavation projects in the Teopancazco residential compound of Teotihuacan and the large multi-stage structure of Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan, where chronological information is available. The intensity of remanent magnetization and low-field susceptibility are weak reflecting low relative content of magnetic minerals. NRM directions are well grouped and alternating field demagnetization shows single or two-component magnetizations. Rock-magnetic experiments point to fine-grained titanomagnetites with pseudo-single domain behavior. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements document a depositional fabric, with normal to free-surface minimum AMS axes. Characteristic mean site directions were correlated to the paleosecular variation curve for Mesoamerica. Our results suggest that archaeomagnetic dating can be applied to mural paintings and lime-plasters, which are materials widely employed in Mesoamerica.

  8. Studies through EDXRF of pre hispanic objects of the archaeological zone of Cholula, Puebla, Mexico; Estudios mediante EDXRF de objetos prehispanicos de la zona arqueologica de Cholula, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres H, J.; Navarrete M, Z. [INAOP, 72840 Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In the valley of Puebla-Tlaxcala in Mexico flourished a culture, as great as the Teotihuacana, the Cholulteca, between the years 0-800. The product most known of this culture was the ceramic, famous by its colours; however, there was another important activity where they left master pieces, the mural painting. The mural 'Los Bebedores' is probably unique in its type. The technique used to paint it is not defined, but it was very similar to that known as 'al fresco'. This mural is inside of the great pyramid of Cholula and present damage due to its age and the different attempt to restore it. In this work we present the results obtained using a portable system of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) to characterize the chemical composition of the polychromatic ceramic and the pigments, used in the mural painting, of Cholula. We describe the problems associated to the characterization of composition of the dyes used in the mural painting, due mainly to the thin layers of the pigments of this type of samples. (Author)

  9. Author Details - African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low molecular weight organic acids in root exudates and cadmium accumulation in cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and nonhyperaccumulator Solanum lycopersicum L. Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 3 (2012) - Articles Evidence for a role of KISS-1/GPR54 system in decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion ...

  10. Analysis of arsenic in soil and vegetation of a contaminated area in Zarshuran, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, N.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Maroofi, H.; Schat, H.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the potential for arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation of native plant species, plant and soil samples were collected from the Zarshuran area (north-western Iran), which has a history of As pollution from mining. Total and water-soluble As in the soil ranged from 11.2 to 6525 and from 0.004 to

  11. teneurs en éléments majeurs et oligoéléments dans un sol et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    23 févr. 2015 ... Molecular mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and phytoremediation. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and. Biology18: 339-353. Zurera-Cosano, G., Moreno-Rojas, R., Salmeron-. Egea, J. and Pozo Lora, R. 1989. Heavy metal uptake from greenhouse border soils for edible vegetable.

  12. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Content (TPH) As an Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    leguminous vascular plants, aquatic plants and hyperaccumulators have been involved in such application. But neither of such application may have been reported on Leucaena leucocephala and. Bauhinia monandra. Therefore this study is aimed at determining their THC levels and in the post- phytoremediated crude oil ...

  13. The fascinating facets of plant selenium accumulation - biochemistry, physiology, evolution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2017-03-01

    Contents 1582 I. 1582 II. 1583 III. 1588 IV. 1590 V. 1592 1592 References 1592 SUMMARY: The importance of selenium (Se) for medicine, industry and the environment is increasingly apparent. Se is essential for many species, including humans, but toxic at elevated concentrations. Plant Se accumulation and volatilization may be applied in crop biofortification and phytoremediation. Topics covered here include beneficial and toxic effects of Se on plants, mechanisms of Se accumulation and tolerance in plants and algae, Se hyperaccumulation, and ecological and evolutionary aspects of these processes. Plant species differ in the concentration and forms of Se accumulated, Se partitioning at the whole-plant and tissue levels, and the capacity to distinguish Se from sulfur. Mechanisms of Se hyperaccumulation and its adaptive significance appear to involve constitutive up-regulation of sulfate/selenate uptake and assimilation, associated with elevated concentrations of defense-related hormones. Hyperaccumulation has evolved independently in at least three plant families, probably as an elemental defense mechanism and perhaps mediating elemental allelopathy. Elevated plant Se protects plants from generalist herbivores and pathogens, but also gives rise to the evolution of Se-resistant specialists. Plant Se accumulation affects ecological interactions with herbivores, pollinators, neighboring plants, and microbes. Hyperaccumulation tends to negatively affect Se-sensitive ecological partners while facilitating Se-resistant partners, potentially affecting species composition and Se cycling in seleniferous ecosystems. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. The molecular mechanism of zinc and cadmium stress response in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.F.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    When plants are subjected to high metal exposure, different plant species take different strategies in response to metal-induced stress. Largely, plants can be distinguished in four groups: metal-sensitive species, metal-resistant excluder species, metal-tolerant non-hyperaccumulator species, and

  15. Classification of Plants According to Their Heavy Metal Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classes of plant species according to their accumulated heavy metals around North Mara Gold Mine were not known. ... requirements, optimizations, growth rates and the incidence of pests and diseases are required on the identified heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants for possible future remediation of the study area.

  16. Treatment and Management of Closed or Inactive Small Arms Firing Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements – A review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry . Biorecovery 1, 81-126. Baker, A...MS thesis , Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Schmidt, U. 2003. Enhancing phytoextraction: The effect of chemical soil

  17. Ground Water Issue: Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Ground Water at Hazardous Waste Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Heavy Metals. CAB International, New York, NY, pp. 1-14. Brooks, R.R. 1998b. Phytochemistry of hyperaccumulators. In R.R. Brooks (ed.), Plants...strips grown in riparian zones for biomass production and nonpoint source pollution control. Ph.D. Thesis , University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. Licht

  18. CONSERVATION OF THE SINCLAIR INN MUSEUM, AND THE PAINTED ROOM ANNAPOLIS ROYAL, NOVA SCOTIA, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shaftel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of the historic 18thC. Sinclair Inn Museum, and of the recently discovered late 18th/early 19thC. unique panoramic wall paintings located in an upstairs room, are co-dependent. This project was carried out with Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI staff, and Conservator in Private Practice Ann Shaftel. This paper will introduce the Sinclair Inn Museum, outline the CCI murals and building investigations of 2011-15, the mural investigation of 2015-16, which confirmed that the mural extended to all four walls of the function room, now referred to as the Painted Room, and to describe how it has been revealed and conserved to date.

  19. Practices of memorialization and commemoration in public space in Argentina. Artistic interventions about the desappeared and murdered people of the last civic and military dictatorship (1976-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Jean Jean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years in Argentina, practices of memorialization and commemoration in public space have been adopted multiple forms and strategies. This paper proposes to analyze the artistic interventions about the desappeared and murdered people by State terrorism in the last civic and military dictatorship (1976-1983. This case study is about the artistic productions of murals in public space, made by the “Espacio de Cultura y Memoria El Rancho Urutau” and their proyect “Mosaicos por la Memoria”, performed since 2010 in Ensenada, provincia de Buenos Aires. These murals in ceramic technique and urban scale, privilege a figurative representation for the honored victim. The murals are placed in strategic spaces, in the neighborhood that the victim belonged to. These productions work out as “memory places” because create a social space of “rememoriación” and commemoration from the victims and the recent history developments in the city.

  20. Conservation of the Sinclair Inn Museum, and the Painted Room Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaftel, A.; Ward, J.

    2017-08-01

    Conservation of the historic 18thC. Sinclair Inn Museum, and of the recently discovered late 18th/early 19thC. unique panoramic wall paintings located in an upstairs room, are co-dependent. This project was carried out with Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) staff, and Conservator in Private Practice Ann Shaftel. This paper will introduce the Sinclair Inn Museum, outline the CCI murals and building investigations of 2011-15, the mural investigation of 2015-16, which confirmed that the mural extended to all four walls of the function room, now referred to as the Painted Room, and to describe how it has been revealed and conserved to date.