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Sample records for hymneoptera apidae hives

  1. Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold or sun exposure Excessive perspiration Illness, including lupus , other autoimmune diseases , and leukemia Infections such as mononucleosis Exercise Exposure to water Often, the cause of hives ...

  2. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of the Invasive Ants in Hives of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, M R; Giannotti, E; Tofolo, V C; Pizano, M A; Firmino, E L B; Antonialli-Junior, W F; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M

    2016-02-01

    Apiculture in Brazil is quite profitable and has great potential for expansion because of the favorable climate and abundancy of plant diversity. However, the occurrence of pests, diseases, and parasites hinders the growth and profitability of beekeeping. In the interior of the state of São Paulo, apiaries are attacked by ants, especially the species Camponotus atriceps (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which use the substances produced by Apis mellifera scutellata (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), like honey, wax, pollen, and offspring as a source of nourishment for the adult and immature ants, and kill or expel the adult bees during the invasion. This study aimed to understand the invasion of C. atriceps in hives of A. m. scutellata. The individuals were classified into castes and subcastes according to morphometric analyses, and their cuticular chemical compounds were identified using Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). The morphometric analyses were able to classify the individuals into reproductive castes (queen and gynes), workers (minor and small ants), and the soldier subcaste (medium and major ants). Identification of cuticular hydrocarbons of these individuals revealed that the eight beehives were invaded by only three colonies of C. atriceps; one of the colonies invaded only one beehive, and the other two colonies underwent a process called sociotomy and were responsible for the invasion of the other seven beehives. The lack of preventive measures and the nocturnal behavior of the ants favored the invasion and attack on the bees.

  3. Densidade de colmeias de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera l. 1758 (hymenoptera: apidae, para polinizar maçã cv. anna Density of hives of africanized honeybees Apis mellifera L. 1758 (hymenoptera: apidae to pollinate apple cv. Anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.J. PARANHOS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se determinar o número de colmeias por hectare para polinização de maçã, foram levadas a um pomar uma a uma, a cada dois dias, 5 colônias de abelhas africanizadas, marcadas com fósforo radioativo (32P. Cada colmeia continha uma população estimada em cerca de 35.000 abelhas. Na área experimental de aproximadamente 0,8 ha, foram demarcadas macieiras a cada 10 m a partir do centro onde estavam as colmeias, formando quatro alas perpendiculares em formato de cruz, até a uma distância de 50m. As abelhas foram coletadas com puçá quando visitavam as flores, durante 10 minutos por dia em cada árvore estaqueada e por 10 dias consecutivos. Pôde-se observar que o número de abelhas marcadas coletadas foi aumentando à medida que se acrescentavam mais colmeias no pomar, sendo que não houve diferença estatística significativa entre o número médio de abelhas coletadas nas flores com 2, 3, 4 e 5 colmeias, concluindo-se então que 2,5 colmeias por ha seriam suficientes para visitar todas as flores do pomar.In order to determine the number of hives per hectare for apple pollination, 5 hives of africanized bees, with ca. 35,000 bees each, labeled with radiophosphorus, were taken to an orchard, one at a time, every 2 days. A circular area of 100 meters diameter (0,8ha, was marked every 10 m from the center to the limit (50m, in two perpendicular directions (cross-shape pointing out to North-South and East-West directions. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers for 10 min a day during a 10 day period. The experimental area (0.8 ha was saturated with bees from 5 hives and there was no significant diference between the average number of collected bees with 2, 3, 4 and 5 hives. Consequently, the ideal number of hives per hectare of apple orchard is 2.5 taking into consideration the tested population.

  4. Hives (Urticaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rare cases, a doctor may prescribe a steroid pill or liquid to treat chronic hives. Usually, this will only be done for short periods (5 days to 2 weeks). When It's an Emergency Anaphylaxis and severe attacks of hives require immediate ...

  5. Hives (Urticaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Asthma at School Allergies Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food Allergy Insect Allergy Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite ... and will ask you about your recent medical history. The doctor may do allergy testing . Hives can ...

  6. Help with Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... berries, and nuts ), medicines (such as antibiotics ), and insect stings or bites . Other causes of hives are ... diagnose hives just by looking at you and hearing your story about what happened. The doctor can ...

  7. Apache hive essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data analyst, developer, or simply someone who wants to use Hive to explore and analyze data in Hadoop, this is the book for you. Whether you are new to big data or an expert, with this book, you will be able to master both the basic and the advanced features of Hive. Since Hive is an SQL-like language, some previous experience with the SQL language and databases is useful to have a better understanding of this book.

  8. Hives (Urticaria) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rare cases, a doctor may prescribe a steroid pill or liquid to treat chronic hives. Usually this is done for just a short period (5 days to 2 weeks) to prevent harmful steroid side effects. In Case of Emergency Anaphylactic shock and bad attacks of hives or ...

  9. Hives and Angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water, pressure on the skin, emotional stress and exercise. Underlying medical conditions. Hives and angioedema also occasionally occur in response to blood transfusions, immune system disorders such as lupus, some types of cancer such as lymphoma, certain ...

  10. Demonstrating HIVE and HIVE-ES: Supporting Term Browsing and Automatic Text Indexing with Linked Open Vocabularies

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Mateos, David; Bueno de la Fuente, Gema; Greenberg, Jane; Melgar Estrada, Liliana María; Gomez, Nancy Diana; Willis, Craig; Méndez Rodríguez, Eva María; Boone, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract y presentación presentados en el Workshop The HIVE (Helping Interdisciplinary Vocabulary Engineering) and HIVE-España (ES) projects both support dynamic, automatic metadata generation using multiple vocabularies. This demonstration will present both the HIVE and HIVE-ES projects and showcase the overarching HIVE framework and functionalities, and give insight into the broader issues relating to linked open vocabularies—LOV. HIVE relies on the Simple Knowledge Organization Sy...

  11. Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits Become a member DermCare Team Professionalism and ethics My account Member directory Publications JAAD JAAD Case ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising Public and patients SPOT Skin Cancer™ Community programs & ...

  12. Hive products effect against fermentativ spoilage yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Rogão, Mónica; Moreira, Leandro; Pereira, Ana Paula; Morais, Margarida; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2009-01-01

    Hive products have recently being in the centre of the international scientific community attention, due to its biological properties.Honey is a sweet aliment produced by honey bees and derived from the nectar of flowers. Propolis is prepared by bees througt the collection of resins from trees and flowers. Bee pollen is the male seed of flowers that is collected by honey bees and mixed with bee secretions. The antimicrobial activity of hive products has been studied namely using pathogenic ye...

  13. Instant Apache Hive essentials how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks.This book provides quick recipes for using Hive to read data in various formats, efficiently querying this data, and extending Hive with any custom functions you may need to insert your own logic into the data pipeline.This book is written for data analysts and developers who want to use their current knowledge of SQL to be more productive with Hadoop. It assumes that readers are comfortable writing SQL queries and are familiar with Hadoop at the level of the classic WordCount exampl

  14. Evaluation of transitional and modern hives for honey production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Adami Tulu and Arsi Negelle districts from September 2009 to June 2012 to evaluate productivity performance of transitional and modern box bee hives. Based on farmers' capacity, one modern box hive and one transitional hive made from locally available materials were used at each of the ...

  15. Rediscovering the antibiotics of the hive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraâ, Laïd; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2009-11-01

    Honey and other bee products were subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations during the past few decades and the most remarkable discovery was their antibacterial activity. Honey has been used since ancient times for the treatment of some diseases and for the healing of wounds but its use as an anti-infective agent was superseded by modern dressings and antibiotic therapy. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria has confounded the current use of antibiotic therapy leading to the re-examination of former remedies. Honey, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom have a strong antibacterial activity. Even antibiotic-resistant strains such as epidemic strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycine resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have been found to be as sensitive to honey as the antibiotic-sensitive strains of the same species. Sensitivity of bacteria to bee products varies considerably within the product and the varieties of the same product. Botanical origin plays a major role in its antibacterial activity. Propolis has been found to have the strongest action against bacteria. This is probably due to its richness in flavonoids. The most challenging problems of using hive products for medical purposes are dosage and safety. Honey and royal jelly produced as a food often are not well filtered, and may contain various particles. Processed for use in wound care, they are passed through fine filters which remove most of the pollen and other impurities to prevent allergies. Also, although honey does not allow vegetative bacteria to survive, it does contain viable spores, including clostridia. With the increased availability of licensed medical stuffs containing bee products, clinical use is expected to increase and further evidence will become available. Their use in professional care centres should be limited to those which are safe and with certified antibacterial activities. The present article is a short review

  16. A new cooling technique for stingless bees hive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Ahmad Syazwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees are a type of insect that are very sensitive to the changes of their surroundings, especially to severe heat wave. A report stated that at temperature as high as 38°C can cause death of bees especially to the pupae. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate a new method in regulating the temperature in the hive. Greenroof, a type of roof which contains green vegetation and soil, was used as the cooling method in this study. Two units of MUSTAFA-hives were exposed under sunlight, one is without temperature control and another one was fitted greenroof. The temperatures inside each hive was measured at two points and was compared with the hive without temperature control. It was found that, for the hive integrated with greenroof, the average hive temperature was about 3°C and 6°C lower in the honey cassette and brood-cells compartment, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the implementation of greenroof could solve the problem of stingless bee hive overheating, and the greenroof has an impressive cooling performance besides being an economic and simple solution.

  17. (Apidae: Hymenoptera) pollination on yields of Cucumeropsis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The honeybees play an important role in the pollinations of many field crops. Here, we assessed the effect of the presence of honeybee colonies, A. mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) in the production of African melon crop, C. mannii (Naudin) (Cucurbitaceae) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of. Congo.

  18. Vasculature of the hive: heat dissipation in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoan, Rachael E; Goldman, Rhyan R; Wong, Peter Y; Starks, Philip T

    2014-06-01

    Eusocial insects are distinguished by their elaborate cooperative behavior and are sometimes defined as superorganisms. As a nest-bound superorganism, individuals work together to maintain favorable nest conditions. Residing in temperate environments, honey bees (Apis mellifera) work especially hard to maintain brood comb temperature between 32 and 36 °C. Heat shielding is a social homeostatic mechanism employed to combat local heat stress. Workers press the ventral side of their bodies against heated surfaces, absorb heat, and thus protect developing brood. While the absorption of heat has been characterized, the dissipation of absorbed heat has not. Our study characterized both how effectively worker bees absorb heat during heat shielding, and where worker bees dissipate absorbed heat. Hives were experimentally heated for 15 min during which internal temperatures and heat shielder counts were taken. Once the heat source was removed, hives were photographed with a thermal imaging camera for 15 min. Thermal images allowed for spatial tracking of heat flow as cooling occurred. Data indicate that honey bee workers collectively minimize heat gain during heating and accelerate heat loss during cooling. Thermal images show that heated areas temporarily increase in size in all directions and then rapidly decrease to safe levels (<37 °C). As such, heat shielding is reminiscent of bioheat removal via the cardiovascular system of mammals.

  19. Vasculature of the hive: heat dissipation in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera) hive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoan, Rachael E.; Goldman, Rhyan R.; Wong, Peter Y.; Starks, Philip T.

    2014-06-01

    Eusocial insects are distinguished by their elaborate cooperative behavior and are sometimes defined as superorganisms. As a nest-bound superorganism, individuals work together to maintain favorable nest conditions. Residing in temperate environments, honey bees ( Apis mellifera) work especially hard to maintain brood comb temperature between 32 and 36 °C. Heat shielding is a social homeostatic mechanism employed to combat local heat stress. Workers press the ventral side of their bodies against heated surfaces, absorb heat, and thus protect developing brood. While the absorption of heat has been characterized, the dissipation of absorbed heat has not. Our study characterized both how effectively worker bees absorb heat during heat shielding, and where worker bees dissipate absorbed heat. Hives were experimentally heated for 15 min during which internal temperatures and heat shielder counts were taken. Once the heat source was removed, hives were photographed with a thermal imaging camera for 15 min. Thermal images allowed for spatial tracking of heat flow as cooling occurred. Data indicate that honey bee workers collectively minimize heat gain during heating and accelerate heat loss during cooling. Thermal images show that heated areas temporarily increase in size in all directions and then rapidly decrease to safe levels (<37 °C). As such, heat shielding is reminiscent of bioheat removal via the cardiovascular system of mammals.

  20. TheHiveDB image data management and analysis framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlboeck, J-Sebastian; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew

    2014-01-06

    The hive database system (theHiveDB) is a web-based brain imaging database, collaboration, and activity system which has been designed as an imaging workflow management system capable of handling cross-sectional and longitudinal multi-center studies. It can be used to organize and integrate existing data from heterogeneous projects as well as data from ongoing studies. It has been conceived to guide and assist the researcher throughout the entire research process, integrating all relevant types of data across modalities (e.g., brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data). TheHiveDB is a modern activity and resource management system capable of scheduling image processing on both private compute resources and the cloud. The activity component supports common image archival and management tasks as well as established pipeline processing (e.g., Freesurfer for extraction of scalar measures from magnetic resonance images). Furthermore, via theHiveDB activity system algorithm developers may grant access to virtual machines hosting versioned releases of their tools to collaborators and the imaging community. The application of theHiveDB is illustrated with a brief use case based on organizing, processing, and analyzing data from the publically available Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

  1. TheHiveDB image data management and analysis framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-Sebastian eMuehlboeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hive database system (theHiveDB is a web-based brain imaging database, collaboration and activity system which has been designed as an imaging workflow management system capable of handling cross-sectional and longitudinal multi-center studies. It can be used to organize and integrate existing data from heterogeneous projects as well as data from ongoing studies. It has been conceived to guide and assist the researcher throughout the entire research process, integrating all relevant types of data across modalities (i.e. brain imaging, clinical and genetic data. TheHiveDB is a modern activity and resource management system capable of scheduling image processing on both private compute resources and the cloud. The activity component supports common image archival and management tasks as well as established pipeline processing (e.g. Freesurfer for extraction of scalar measures from magnetic resonance images. Furthermore, via theHiveDB activity system algorithm developers may grant access to virtual machines hosting versioned releases of their tools to collaborators and the imaging community. The application of theHiveDB is illustrated with a brief use case based on organizing, processing, and analyzing data from the publically available Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI.

  2. CloudETL: Scalable Dimensional ETL for Hadoop and Hive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiufeng, Liu; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) programs process data from sources into data warehouses (DWs). Due to the rapid growth of data volumes, there is an increasing demand for systems that can scale on demand. Recently, much attention has been given to MapReduce which is a framework for highly parallel...... handling of massive data sets in cloud environments. The MapReduce-based Hive has been proposed as a DBMS-like system for DWs and provides good and scalable analytical features. It is,however, still challenging to do proper dimensional ETL processing with Hive; for example, UPDATEs are not supported which...... makes handling of slowly changing dimensions (SCDs) very difficult. To remedy this, we here present the cloud-enabled ETL framework CloudETL. CloudETL uses the open source MapReduce implementation Hadoop to parallelize the ETL execution and to process data into Hive. The user defines the ETL process...

  3. Evaluation of four apicultural products for hive colonization by honey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four apicultural products (honey, bee wax, slum gum and propolis) were evaluated for their potentials to attract the African honey bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) colony into artificial hives and their effect on infestation by apicultural insect pests. Ten grammes each of propolis, bee wax and slum gum and 10 ml of honey were ...

  4. Eusocial Apidae in tropical insular region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Affonso Lorenzon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined species richness and relative abundance of eusocial Apidae in an insular region of rain-forest, southeastern Brazil. Sampling took place during one year, using an standardized method with entomological net, at sites of secondary growth habitats surrounded by Atlantic rain-forest. Thirteen species of eusocial Apidae were netted at flowers, over 80% of the captured individuals were meliponine species, although the presence of Apis mellifera, commonly dominant in Brazilian habitats. Foraging activity of these bee species were essentially non-seasonal, apparently affected by high humidity. The patterns in abundance and species richness observed in Ilha Grande differed with other studies conducted at tropical islands, which were characterized by the poverty of meliponine species.Esta pesquisa foi realizada em uma Ilha tropical do Sudeste brasileiro, onde se examinou a riqueza em espécies e sua abundância relativa de abelhas Apidae eussocias. A amostragem foi feita durante um ano, com pulçás entomológicos, utilizando-se método padrão de coleta em regiões de habitat secundário, cercado por floresta de mata Atlântica. Treze espécies de abelhas eussociais foram capturadas nas flores, mais de 80% do total de espécimes eram meliponíneos, apesar da presença de Apis mellifera, comumente dominante nos hábitats brasileiros. O forrageamento das espécies de abelhas apresentou-se asazonal, com forte influência de períodos muito úmidos. Na Ilha Grande, padrões de abundância e riqueza em espécies contrastam com estudos realizados em outras ilhas, que se caracterizam pela baixa ocorrência de meliponíneos.

  5. Comparative analysis of profitability of honey production using traditional and box hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Adgaba, Nuru; Herab, Ahmed H; Ansari, Mohammad J

    2017-07-01

    Information on the profitability and productivity of box hives is important to encourage beekeepers to adopt the technology. However, comparative analysis of profitability and productivity of box and traditional hives is not adequately available. The study was carried out on 182 beekeepers using cross sectional survey and employing a random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function and partial budgeting. The CD production function revealed that supplementary bee feeds, labor and medication were statistically significant for both box and traditional hives. Generally, labor for bee management, supplementary feeding, and medication led to productivity differences of approximately 42.83%, 7.52%, and 5.34%, respectively, between box and traditional hives. The study indicated that productivity of box hives were 72% higher than traditional hives. The average net incomes of beekeepers using box and traditional hives were 33,699.7 SR/annum and 16,461.4 SR/annum respectively. The incremental net benefit of box hives over traditional hives was nearly double. Our study results clearly showed the importance of adoption of box hives for better productivity of the beekeeping subsector.

  6. Comparative analysis of profitability of honey production using traditional and box hives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the profitability and productivity of box hives is important to encourage beekeepers to adopt the technology. However, comparative analysis of profitability and productivity of box and traditional hives is not adequately available. The study was carried out on 182 beekeepers using cross sectional survey and employing a random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA, the Cobb-Douglas (CD production function and partial budgeting. The CD production function revealed that supplementary bee feeds, labor and medication were statistically significant for both box and traditional hives. Generally, labor for bee management, supplementary feeding, and medication led to productivity differences of approximately 42.83%, 7.52%, and 5.34%, respectively, between box and traditional hives. The study indicated that productivity of box hives were 72% higher than traditional hives. The average net incomes of beekeepers using box and traditional hives were 33,699.7 SR/annum and 16,461.4 SR/annum respectively. The incremental net benefit of box hives over traditional hives was nearly double. Our study results clearly showed the importance of adoption of box hives for better productivity of the beekeeping subsector.

  7. Adrenergic urticaria: a new form of stress-induced hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, W B; Shelley, E D

    1985-11-09

    A distinctive new type of autonomic-system-dependent urticaria was seen in two patients. This "adrenergic" urticaria is to be contrasted with cholinergic urticaria. Widespread pruritic, urticarial papules developed at times of stress, each papule being surrounded by a striking white halo. Associated with these lesions was an increase in plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations. In severe attacks large plaques of urticaria appeared as well. The halo hives could be replicated with an intradermal injection of noradrenaline, but not with acetylcholine. Treatment with a beta-adrenoreceptor-blocker, propranolol, prevented attacks.

  8. Survival and reproduction of small hive beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) on commercial pollen substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assay was developed to investigate the small hive beetle’s (Aethina tumida) potential for survival and reproduction when providing artificial food resources in managed European honey bees (Apis mellifera). Supplemental feeding is done to maintain the health of the hive, initiate comb building, ex...

  9. Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The honeybees play an important role in the pollinations of many field crops. Here, we assessed the effect of the presence of honeybee colonies, A. mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) in the production of African melon crop, C. mannii (Naudin) (Cucurbitaceae) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.

  10. De schermbloemzandbij Andrena nitidiuscula terug in Nederland (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.

    2005-01-01

    New records of Andrena nitidiuscula in the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) In 2005 Andrena nitidiuscula was observed from late June till mid August in a garden and a few other sites near Maastricht (Limburg). These observations are the first since 1950 and refute the classification as extinct in

  11. AHA syndrome (arthralgia, arthritis, hives, angioneuroticedema in children (literature data and own observations description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fedorov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. 7 cases of AHA syndrome (arthralgia, arthritis, hives, angioneuroticedema in children described. Literature and own data are presented. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical symptoms and treatment are discussed.

  12. Variability of residue concentrations of ciprofloxacin in honey from treated hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Danny; Macarthur, Roy; Fussell, Richard J; Wilford, Jack; Budge, Giles

    2017-04-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were treated with a model veterinary drug compound (ciprofloxacin) in a 3-year study (2012-14) to investigate the variability of residue concentration in honey. Sucrose solution containing ciprofloxacin was administered to 45 hives (1 g of ciprofloxacin per hive) at the beginning of the honey flow in late May/mid-June 2012, 2013 and 2014. Buckfast honey bees (A. mellifera - hybrid) were used in years 2012 and 2013. Carniolan honey bees (A. mellifera carnica) were used instead of the Buckfast honey bees as a replacement due to unforeseen circumstances in the final year of the study (2014). Honey was collected over nine scheduled time points from May/June till late October each year. Up to five hives were removed and their honey analysed per time point. Honey samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine ciprofloxacin concentration. Statistical assessment of the data shows that the inter-hive variation of ciprofloxacin concentrations in 2012/13 is very different compared with that of 2014 with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 138% and 61%, respectively. The average ciprofloxacin concentration for 2014 at the last time point was more than 10 times the concentration compared with samples from 2012/13 at the same time point. The difference between the 2012/13 data compared with the 2014 data is likely due to the different type of honey bees used in this study (2012/13 Buckfast versus 2014 Carniolan). Uncertainty estimates for honey with high ciprofloxacin concentration (upper 95th percentile) across all hives for 55-day withdrawal samples gave residual standard errors (RSEs) of 22%, 20% and 11% for 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. If the number of hives were to be reduced for future studies, RSEs were estimated to be 52% (2012), 54% (2013) and 26% (2014) for one hive per time point (nine total hives).

  13. How Do Honeybees Attract Nestmates Using Waggle Dances in Dark and Noisy Hives?

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Hasegawa; Hidetoshi Ikeno

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that honeybees share information related to food sources with nestmates using a dance language that is representative of symbolic communication among non-primates. Some honeybee species engage in visually apparent behavior, walking in a figure-eight pattern inside their dark hives. It has been suggested that sounds play an important role in this dance language, even though a variety of wing vibration sounds are produced by honeybee behaviors in hives. It has been shown that d...

  14. High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahan Simonyan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE is a high-throughput cloud-based infrastructure developed for the storage and analysis of genomic and associated biological data. HIVE consists of a web-accessible interface for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, share, annotate, compute and visualize Next-generation Sequencing (NGS data in a scalable and highly efficient fashion. The platform contains a distributed storage library and a distributed computational powerhouse linked seamlessly. Resources available through the interface include algorithms, tools and applications developed exclusively for the HIVE platform, as well as commonly used external tools adapted to operate within the parallel architecture of the system. HIVE is composed of a flexible infrastructure, which allows for simple implementation of new algorithms and tools. Currently, available HIVE tools include sequence alignment and nucleotide variation profiling tools, metagenomic analyzers, phylogenetic tree-building tools using NGS data, clone discovery algorithms, and recombination analysis algorithms. In addition to tools, HIVE also provides knowledgebases that can be used in conjunction with the tools for NGS sequence and metadata analysis.

  15. High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-09-30

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a high-throughput cloud-based infrastructure developed for the storage and analysis of genomic and associated biological data. HIVE consists of a web-accessible interface for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, share, annotate, compute and visualize Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) data in a scalable and highly efficient fashion. The platform contains a distributed storage library and a distributed computational powerhouse linked seamlessly. Resources available through the interface include algorithms, tools and applications developed exclusively for the HIVE platform, as well as commonly used external tools adapted to operate within the parallel architecture of the system. HIVE is composed of a flexible infrastructure, which allows for simple implementation of new algorithms and tools. Currently, available HIVE tools include sequence alignment and nucleotide variation profiling tools, metagenomic analyzers, phylogenetic tree-building tools using NGS data, clone discovery algorithms, and recombination analysis algorithms. In addition to tools, HIVE also provides knowledgebases that can be used in conjunction with the tools for NGS sequence and metadata analysis.

  16. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  17. Modeling Effects of Honeybee Behaviors on the Distribution of Pesticide in Nectar within a Hive and Resultant in-Hive Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumkee, Jack C O; Becher, Matthias A; Thorbek, Pernille; Osborne, Juliet L

    2017-06-20

    Recently, the causes of honeybee colony losses have been intensely studied, showing that there are multiple stressors implicated in colony declines, one stressor being the exposure to pesticides. Measuring exposure of individual bees within a hive to pesticide is at least as difficult as assessing the potential exposure of foraging bees to pesticide. We present a model to explore how heterogeneity of pesticide distribution on a comb in the hive can be driven by worker behaviors. The model contains simplified behaviors to capture the extremes of possible heterogeneity of pesticide location/deposition within the hive to compare with exposure levels estimated by averaging values across the comb. When adults feed on nectar containing the average concentration of all pesticide brought into the hive on that particular day, it is likely representative of the worst-case exposure scenario. However, for larvae, clustering of pesticide in the comb can lead to higher exposure levels than taking an average concentration in some circumstances. The potential for extrapolating the model to risk assessment is discussed.

  18. Monitoring the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera:Nitidulidae), with baited flight traps: effect of distance from bee hives and shade on the numbers of beetles captured

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small hive beetle is a native of Africa where it is considered a minor pest of honey bees, and until recently it was thought to be limited to that continent. However, it was detected in Florida in 1998, and by 2004, it had spread to 30 states. It now poses a major threat to the beekeeping indu...

  19. How Hives Collapse: Allee Effects, Ecological Resilience, and the Honey Bee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Dennis

    Full Text Available We construct a mathematical model to quantify the loss of resilience in collapsing honey bee colonies due to the presence of a strong Allee effect. In the model, recruitment and mortality of adult bees have substantial social components, with recruitment enhanced and mortality reduced by additional adult bee numbers. The result is an Allee effect, a net per-individual rate of hive increase that increases as a function of adult bee numbers. The Allee effect creates a critical minimum size in adult bee numbers, below which mortality is greater than recruitment, with ensuing loss of viability of the hive. Under ordinary and favorable environmental circumstances, the critical size is low, and hives remain large, sending off viably-sized swarms (naturally or through beekeeping management when hive numbers approach an upper stable equilibrium size (carrying capacity. However, both the lower critical size and the upper stable size depend on many parameters related to demographic rates and their enhancement by bee sociality. Any environmental factors that increase mortality, decrease recruitment, or interfere with the social moderation of these rates has the effect of exacerbating the Allee effect by increasing the lower critical size and substantially decreasing the upper stable size. As well, the basin of attraction to the upper stable size, defined by the model potential function, becomes narrower and shallower, indicating the loss of resilience as the hive becomes subjected to increased risk of falling below the critical size. Environmental effects of greater severity can cause the two equilibria to merge and the basin of attraction to the upper stable size to disappear, resulting in collapse of the hive from any initial size. The model suggests that multiple proximate causes, among them pesticides, mites, pathogens, and climate change, working singly or in combinations, could trigger hive collapse.

  20. Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele P. Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Here we provide a description of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta with partial bilateral phenotypic asymmetry. The specimen was collected by cineol baittrap at Parque Estadual São Camilo, a conservation unit in western Paraná. The bee has mostly a female phenotype, except by the right half of its head, including the presence of 11 flagellomeres, ivory markings on scape and parocular area, by the pilosity of the right galea, and by deformed male characteristics on mid and hind tibiae of right legs.

  1. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) visiting flowers of yellow melon (Cucumis melo) using different number of hives

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Márcia de Fátima; Silva,Eva Mônica Sarmento da; Lima Júnior,Ivan de Oliveira; Kiill,Lúcia Helena Piedade

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) pollinate melon (Cucumis melo) and improve production and quality of fruits. However, little is known about bee behavior and number of hives required. The aims of this study were to compare bees visiting flowers in crop areas with different number of hives (0, 1, 2, and 3), and to evaluate which is the best number. Flowers were observed (n=78) from 5 am to 6 pm, for five consecutive days, in four experimental areas (0.5ha each). Comparisons were made for male (MF) ...

  2. eHive: An Artificial Intelligence workflow system for genomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Leo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ensembl project produces updates to its comparative genomics resources with each of its several releases per year. During each release cycle approximately two weeks are allocated to generate all the genomic alignments and the protein homology predictions. The number of calculations required for this task grows approximately quadratically with the number of species. We currently support 50 species in Ensembl and we expect the number to continue to grow in the future. Results We present eHive, a new fault tolerant distributed processing system initially designed to support comparative genomic analysis, based on blackboard systems, network distributed autonomous agents, dataflow graphs and block-branch diagrams. In the eHive system a MySQL database serves as the central blackboard and the autonomous agent, a Perl script, queries the system and runs jobs as required. The system allows us to define dataflow and branching rules to suit all our production pipelines. We describe the implementation of three pipelines: (1 pairwise whole genome alignments, (2 multiple whole genome alignments and (3 gene trees with protein homology inference. Finally, we show the efficiency of the system in real case scenarios. Conclusions eHive allows us to produce computationally demanding results in a reliable and efficient way with minimal supervision and high throughput. Further documentation is available at: http://www.ensembl.org/info/docs/eHive/.

  3. eHive: an artificial intelligence workflow system for genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Jessica; Beal, Kathryn; Vilella, Albert J; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Schuster, Michael; Gordon, Leo; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Flicek, Paul; Herrero, Javier

    2010-05-11

    The Ensembl project produces updates to its comparative genomics resources with each of its several releases per year. During each release cycle approximately two weeks are allocated to generate all the genomic alignments and the protein homology predictions. The number of calculations required for this task grows approximately quadratically with the number of species. We currently support 50 species in Ensembl and we expect the number to continue to grow in the future. We present eHive, a new fault tolerant distributed processing system initially designed to support comparative genomic analysis, based on blackboard systems, network distributed autonomous agents, dataflow graphs and block-branch diagrams. In the eHive system a MySQL database serves as the central blackboard and the autonomous agent, a Perl script, queries the system and runs jobs as required. The system allows us to define dataflow and branching rules to suit all our production pipelines. We describe the implementation of three pipelines: (1) pairwise whole genome alignments, (2) multiple whole genome alignments and (3) gene trees with protein homology inference. Finally, we show the efficiency of the system in real case scenarios. eHive allows us to produce computationally demanding results in a reliable and efficient way with minimal supervision and high throughput. Further documentation is available at: http://www.ensembl.org/info/docs/eHive/.

  4. eHive: An Artificial Intelligence workflow system for genomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ensembl project produces updates to its comparative genomics resources with each of its several releases per year. During each release cycle approximately two weeks are allocated to generate all the genomic alignments and the protein homology predictions. The number of calculations required for this task grows approximately quadratically with the number of species. We currently support 50 species in Ensembl and we expect the number to continue to grow in the future. Results We present eHive, a new fault tolerant distributed processing system initially designed to support comparative genomic analysis, based on blackboard systems, network distributed autonomous agents, dataflow graphs and block-branch diagrams. In the eHive system a MySQL database serves as the central blackboard and the autonomous agent, a Perl script, queries the system and runs jobs as required. The system allows us to define dataflow and branching rules to suit all our production pipelines. We describe the implementation of three pipelines: (1) pairwise whole genome alignments, (2) multiple whole genome alignments and (3) gene trees with protein homology inference. Finally, we show the efficiency of the system in real case scenarios. Conclusions eHive allows us to produce computationally demanding results in a reliable and efficient way with minimal supervision and high throughput. Further documentation is available at: http://www.ensembl.org/info/docs/eHive/. PMID:20459813

  5. Non-random nectar unloading interactions between foragers and their receivers in the honeybee hive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyret, Joaquín; Farina, Walter M.

    2005-09-01

    Nectar acquisition in the honeybee Apis mellifera is a partitioned task in which foragers gather nectar and bring it to the hive, where nest mates unload via trophallaxis (i.e. mouth-to-mouth transfer) the collected food for further storage. Because forager mates exploit different feeding places simultaneously, this study addresses the question of whether nectar unloading interactions between foragers and hive-bees are established randomly, as it is commonly assumed. Two groups of foragers were trained to exploit a different scented food source for 5 days. We recorded their trophallaxes with hive-mates, marking the latter ones according to the forager group they were unloading. We found non-random probabilities for the occurrence of trophallaxes between experimental foragers and hive-bees, instead, we found that trophallactic interactions were more likely to involve groups of individuals which had formerly interacted orally. We propose that olfactory cues present in the transferred nectar promoted the observed bias, and we discuss this bias in the context of the organization of nectar acquisition: a partitioned task carried out in a decentralized insect society.

  6. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras-Ramírez, María Elena; Lara-Álvarez, Carlos; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

  7. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras–Ramírez, María Elena; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg). PMID:27092938

  8. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valdovinos-Flores

    Full Text Available In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg.

  9. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. A lectotype is designated for Melipona torrida and notes on the type material of Melipona marginata obscurior are provided. Other known examples of species described from mislabeled specimens in Friese's Zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica are discussed. It is pointed out that additional names proposed in this work, based on material from Costa Rica, might turn out to correspond to South American taxa. Also, the date of publication of this Friese's paper is discussed.

  10. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae by fluorochromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson de Brito Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K=32+2. Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin.

  11. The small hive beetle Aethina tumida: A review of its biology and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. CUTHBERTSON et al

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The small hive beetle Aethina tumida is an endemic parasitic pest and scavenger of colonies of social bees indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. In this region this species rarely inflicts severe damage on strong colonies since the bees have develo­­ped strategies to combat them. However, A. tumida has since ‘escaped’ from its native home and has recently invaded areas such as North America and Australia where its economic impact on the apiculture industry has been significant. Small hive beetle, should it become established within Europe, represents a real and live threat to the UK bee keeping industry. Here we review the biology and current pest status of A. tumida and up to-date research in terms of both chemical and biological control used against this honey bee pest [Current Zoology 59 (5: 644–653, 2013].

  12. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  13. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. How do honeybees attract nestmates using waggle dances in dark and noisy hives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hasegawa

    Full Text Available It is well known that honeybees share information related to food sources with nestmates using a dance language that is representative of symbolic communication among non-primates. Some honeybee species engage in visually apparent behavior, walking in a figure-eight pattern inside their dark hives. It has been suggested that sounds play an important role in this dance language, even though a variety of wing vibration sounds are produced by honeybee behaviors in hives. It has been shown that dances emit sounds primarily at about 250-300 Hz, which is in the same frequency range as honeybees' flight sounds. Thus the exact mechanism whereby honeybees attract nestmates using waggle dances in such a dark and noisy hive is as yet unclear. In this study, we used a flight simulator in which honeybees were attached to a torque meter in order to analyze the component of bees' orienting response caused only by sounds, and not by odor or by vibrations sensed by their legs. We showed using single sound localization that honeybees preferred sounds around 265 Hz. Furthermore, according to sound discrimination tests using sounds of the same frequency, honeybees preferred rhythmic sounds. Our results demonstrate that frequency and rhythmic components play a complementary role in localizing dance sounds. Dance sounds were presumably developed to share information in a dark and noisy environment.

  15. How do honeybees attract nestmates using waggle dances in dark and noisy hives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that honeybees share information related to food sources with nestmates using a dance language that is representative of symbolic communication among non-primates. Some honeybee species engage in visually apparent behavior, walking in a figure-eight pattern inside their dark hives. It has been suggested that sounds play an important role in this dance language, even though a variety of wing vibration sounds are produced by honeybee behaviors in hives. It has been shown that dances emit sounds primarily at about 250-300 Hz, which is in the same frequency range as honeybees' flight sounds. Thus the exact mechanism whereby honeybees attract nestmates using waggle dances in such a dark and noisy hive is as yet unclear. In this study, we used a flight simulator in which honeybees were attached to a torque meter in order to analyze the component of bees' orienting response caused only by sounds, and not by odor or by vibrations sensed by their legs. We showed using single sound localization that honeybees preferred sounds around 265 Hz. Furthermore, according to sound discrimination tests using sounds of the same frequency, honeybees preferred rhythmic sounds. Our results demonstrate that frequency and rhythmic components play a complementary role in localizing dance sounds. Dance sounds were presumably developed to share information in a dark and noisy environment.

  16. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  17. Mitochondrial genome of the North African Sahara Honeybee, Apis mellifera sahariensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, Nizar; Adjlane, Noureddine; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida

    2017-01-01

    e present the complete mitochondrial genome of honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera sahariensis (Apidae) belonging to the African lineage. The assembled circular genome has a length of 16,569 bp which comprises 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and AT rich...

  18. First host record for the cleptoparasitic bee Rhathymus friesei Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Werneck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhathymus contains only obligatory cleptoparasitic species whose hosts belong to the genus Epicharis (Apidae, Centridini. Host information is available for only four of the 20 species of Rhathymus. In this note a new host record is added, in which the parasitism by R. friesei on nests of Epicharis (Epicharoides picta is documented.

  19. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jennifer A; Hood, W Michael; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Delaplane, Keith S

    2013-01-01

    In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  20. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Berry

    Full Text Available In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate and Check Mite+ (coumaphos and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  1. Research on Diagnostics and Regulation of Temperature in the Hive Confined Space With the Use of Mobile Array Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troshkov Aleksandr Mikhaylovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests the diagnostics of air circulation in the hive. The ventilation of enclosed space is achieved by the constant movement of the worker bees’ wings with variable intensity, and hence with a modified air flow. The main place of air flow is notches on which the bees are located, and their flapping wings intensify pressure air circulation. Thus, the air pressure allows creating ventilation in the hive. The possibilities of controlling the temperature in the enclosed space are investigated. The theoretical studies and the analysis of scientific papers, as well as confirmations by practicing beekeepers of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic and Stavropol Territory have proved the correlation between the temperature regime of the hive confined space and the presence of carbon dioxide during winter. In the second half of winter, the correlation coefficient is reduced. This is due to the change in the physiological state of bee colonies, the appearance of larvae and, as a consequence, of oxygen consumption. Hence, there is need in hive ventilation and maintaining the stable temperature, especially in the areas of brood. The authors synthesized the sensor array device of temperature regulation. The use of this sensor improves the quality of sectoral diagnostics of the hive, and the evaluative zone allows to specify displacement estimation characteristics. The temperature control zone was determined. The possibility of temperature monitoring with the construction of the graphic measurements was realized.

  2. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. High-performance integrated virtual environment (HIVE): a robust infrastructure for next-generation sequence data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Vahan; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Faison, William; Goldweber, Scott; Golikov, Anton; Gulzar, Naila; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Vinh Nguyen Lam, Phuc; Maudru, Thomas; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Osipova, Ekaterina; Pan, Yang; Pschenichnov, Alexey; Rostovtsev, Alexandre; Santana-Quintero, Luis; Smith, Krista; Thompson, Elaine E; Tkachenko, Valery; Torcivia-Rodriguez, John; Voskanian, Alin; Wan, Quan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Wilson, Carolyn; Mazumder, Raja

    2016-01-01

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a distributed storage and compute environment designed primarily to handle next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. This multicomponent cloud infrastructure provides secure web access for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, annotate and compute on NGS data, and to analyse the outcomes using web interface visual environments appropriately built in collaboration with research and regulatory scientists and other end users. Unlike many massively parallel computing environments, HIVE uses a cloud control server which virtualizes services, not processes. It is both very robust and flexible due to the abstraction layer introduced between computational requests and operating system processes. The novel paradigm of moving computations to the data, instead of moving data to computational nodes, has proven to be significantly less taxing for both hardware and network infrastructure.The honeycomb data model developed for HIVE integrates metadata into an object-oriented model. Its distinction from other object-oriented databases is in the additional implementation of a unified application program interface to search, view and manipulate data of all types. This model simplifies the introduction of new data types, thereby minimizing the need for database restructuring and streamlining the development of new integrated information systems. The honeycomb model employs a highly secure hierarchical access control and permission system, allowing determination of data access privileges in a finely granular manner without flooding the security subsystem with a multiplicity of rules. HIVE infrastructure will allow engineers and scientists to perform NGS analysis in a manner that is both efficient and secure. HIVE is actively supported in public and private domains, and project collaborations are welcomed. Database URL: https://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Internal hive temperature as a means of monitoring honey bee colony health in a migratory beekeeping operation before and during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal temperatures of honey bee hives kept at different sites in North Dakota were monitored before and during winter to evaluate the effects of treatment, in the form of exposure to commercial pollination, and location on colony health. In October, hives exposed to commercial pollination durin...

  5. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  6. Data Container Study for Handling Array-based Data Using Rasdaman, Hive, Spark, and MongoDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Hu, F.; Yu, M.; Scheele, C.; Liu, K.; Huang, Q.; Yang, C. P.; Little, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Geoscience communities have come up with various big data storage solutions, such as Rasdaman and Hive, to address the grand challenges for massive Earth observation data management and processing. To examine the readiness of current solutions in supporting big Earth observation, we propose to investigate and compare four popular data container solutions, including Rasdaman, Hive, Spark, and MongoDB. Using different types of spatial and non-spatial queries, datasets stored in common scientific data formats (e.g., NetCDF and HDF), and two applications (i.e. dust storm simulation data mining and MERRA data analytics), we systematically compare and evaluate the feature and performance of these four data containers in terms of data discover and access. The computing resources (e.g. CPU, memory, hard drive, network) consumed while performing various queries and operations are monitored and recorded for the performance evaluation. The initial results show that 1) Rasdaman has the best performance for queries on statistical and operational functions, and supports NetCDF data format better than HDF; 2) Rasdaman clustering configuration is more complex than the others; 3) Hive performs better on single pixel extraction from multiple images; and 4) Except for the single pixel extractions, Spark performs better than Hive and its performance is close to Rasdaman. A comprehensive report will detail the experimental results, and compare their pros and cons regarding system performance, ease of use, accessibility, scalability, compatibility, and flexibility.

  7. Prison construction and guarding behaviour by European honeybees is dependent on inmate small hive beetle density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J

    2003-08-01

    Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA.

  8. T-38 Primary Flight Display Prototyping and HIVE Support Abstract & Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This fall I worked in EV3 within NASA's Johnson Space Center in The HIVE (Human Integrated Vehicles & Environments). The HIVE is responsible for human in the loop testing, getting new technologies in front of astronauts, operators, and users early in the development cycle to make the interfaces more human friendly. Some projects the HIVE is working on includes user interfaces for future spacecraft, wearables to alert astronauts about important information, and test beds to simulate mock missions. During my internship I created a prototype for T-38 aircraft displays using LabVIEW, learned how to use microcontrollers, and helped out with other small tasks in the HIVE. The purpose of developing a prototype for T-38 Displays in LabVIEW is to analyze functions of the display such as navigation in a cost and time effective manner. The LabVIEW prototypes allow Ellington Field AOD to easily make adjustments to the display before hardcoding the final product. LabVIEW was used to create a user interface for simulation almost identical to the real aircraft display. Goals to begin the T-38 PFD (Primary Flight Display) prototype included creating a T-38 PFD hardware display in a software environment, designing navigation for the menu's, incorporating vertical and horizontal navigation bars, and to add a heading bug for compass controls connected to the HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator). To get started with the project, measurements of the entire display were taken. This enabled an accurate model of the hardware display to be created. Navigation of menu's required some exploration of different buttons on the display. The T-38 simulator and aircraft were used for examining the display. After one piece of the prototype was finished, another trip of to the simulator took place. This was done until all goals for the prototype were complete. Some possible integration ideas for displays in the near future are autopilot selection, touch screen displays, and crew member preferences

  9. [Pollinators of Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidales: Lecythidaceae): interactions with stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) and trophic niche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Charles F; Absy, Maria L

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the foraging behavior and interactions of Xylocopa frontalis Olivier (Apidae: Xylocopini) and Eulaema mocsaryi (Friese) (Apidae: Euglossini) in the presence of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazilian nut. The palynological load carried by both species was also examined. This study was conducted in the farm Aruanã, Itacoatiara/ Amazonas state, Brazil, during the flowering peak of B. excelsa. The visitation by the main pollinators X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi were influenced by the presence and activities of stingless bees in the flowers of B. excelsa. Meliponini bees did not have any effect on the visits and collection of floral resources by X. frontalis, while negatively affecting the number of visits by E. mocsaryi. The stingless bees presented a variety of strategies to get access to pollen grains of B. excelsa, grouped into two categories: opportunism -Frieseomelitta trichocerata Moure, Tetragona goettei (Friese), and Tetragona kaieteurensis (Schwarz), and stealing -Trigona branneri Cockerell, Trigona fuscipennis Friese, and Trigona guianae Cockerell. The palynological analysis from X. frontalis showed that the bee collected pollen in a few species of plants, but mainly on B. excelsa. The pollen grains of B. excelsa were poorly represented in the pollen shipments of E. mocsaryi, due to its large trophic niche in the locality.

  10. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Kirk J; Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Read, Harry; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities (microbiomes) are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  11. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk J Grubbs

    Full Text Available Microbial communities (microbiomes are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  12. Genetic breeding on the bee Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros José de Ribamar Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of queens of Melipona scutellaris through the most productive colonies were carried out during eight months in an orange honeyflow. Each of the colonies was evaluated by its production, that is, the gross weight production ( pollen, brood, geopropolis and wax of each hive. With this data a coefficient of repeatability was estimated by the intraclass correlation method, obtained r = 0.835 ± 0.071. The repeatibility is very high showing that the analysed data (production is repeatable. Selection was then carried out using the regression coefficient of each colony and the respective production gain. Using these data the colonies were divided into three groups according to the method Vencovsky and Kerr (1982: a with the colonies of highest productivity, b of least productivity, and c of intermediary productivity. Colonies with the highest production (Group a gave their queens to those of the lowest production (Group b after their queens were taken out and killed; while those of intermediate (Group c stayed with the same queens during the entire experiment both before and after the selection. The modifications in weight, that is, the genetic response was (R= 7.98 gr per day which indicated a selection gain. The estimate of the realized herdability is twice the rate of the response to selection (R by the selection differential (S2. That is then h²R=2(R/S2 then h²R= 0.166

  13. Effects of Oxalic Acid on Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Eva; Harz, Marika; Schneider, Saskia

    2017-08-07

    Abstract: Oxalic acid dihydrate is used to treat varroosis of Apis mellifera. This study investigates lethal and sublethal effects of oxalic acid dihydrate on individually treated honeybees kept in cages under laboratory conditions as well as the distribution in the colony. After oral application, bee mortality occurred at relatively low concentrations (No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) 50 µg/bee; Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) 75 µg/bee) compared to the dermal treatment (NOAEL 212.5 µg/bee; LOAEL 250 µg/bee). The dosage used in regular treatment via dermal application (circa 175 µg/bee) is below the LOAEL, referring to mortality derived in the laboratory. However, the treatment with oxalic acid dihydrate caused sublethal effects: This could be demonstrated in an increased responsiveness to water, decreased longevity and a reduction in pH-values in the digestive system and the hemolymph. The shift towards stronger acidity after treatment confirms that damage to the epithelial tissue and organs is likely to be caused by hyperacidity. The distribution of oxalic acid dihydrate within a colony was shown by macro-computed tomography; it was rapid and consistent. The increased density of the individual bee was continuous for at least 14 days after the treatment indicating the presence of oxalic acid dihydrate in the hive even long after a treatment.

  14. Powdered sugar shake to monitor and oxalic acid treatments to control varroa mites (Parasitiformes: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective monitoring and alternative strategies to control the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Truemann (Parasitiformes: Varroidae), (varroa) are crucial for determining when to apply effective treatments to honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies. Using simpl...

  15. Short communication. Platform for bee-hives monitoring based on sound analysis. A perpetual warehouse for swarms daily activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atauri Mezquida, D.; Llorente Martinez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Bees and beekeeping are suffering a global crisis. Constant information on swarms conditions would be a key to study new diseases like colony collapse disorder and to develop new beekeeping tools to improve the hive management and make it more efficient. A platform for beehives monitoring is presented. It is based on the analysis of the colonies buzz which is registered by a bunch of sensors sending the data to a common database. Data obtained through sound processing shows plenty of patterns and tendency lines related to colonies activities and their conditions. It shows the potential of the sound as a swarm activity gauge. The goal of the platform is the possibility to store information about the swarms activity. The objective is to build a global net of monitored hives covering apiaries with different climates, razes and managements. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M. [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Cervancia, Cleofas R. [Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Tolentino, Mitos M.; Abrera, Gina B.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C. [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Sabino, Noel G.; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C. [Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Feliciano, Chitho P., E-mail: cpfeliciano@pnri.dost.gov.ph [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2011-10-15

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a {sup 60}Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D{sub 10}) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10{sup 5}-9x10{sup 3} spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D{sub min}) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to {gamma}-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. - Highlights: > We characterized Paenibacillus larvae and determined its radiation sensitivity. > We investigated the effectiveness of gamma rays in inactivating P. larvae. > Gamma radiation inactivates P. larvae. > 15 kGy is effective for the sterilization of P. larvae-infected hives. > Irradiation produces no visible changes in the hives' body, waxes and frames.

  17. Commercial bumblebee hives to assess an anthropogenic environment for pollinator support: a case study in the region of Ghent (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Laurian; Meeus, Ivan; Cheroutre, Lore; Mommaerts, Veerle; Louwye, Stephen; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic changes of the environment influence the distribution and abundance of pollinators such as bumblebees and have been proposed as one of the main causes in their worldwide decline. In order to evaluate the impact of expanding anthropogenic landscapes on supporting pollinator potential, reliable tools are needed. Bombus terrestris is one of the most abundant bumblebee species in Europe, and these bumblebees are known as generalist pollinators of not only wild flowers in nature but also of crops in agriculture. For more than two decades, these bumblebees have been commercially mass reared for biological pollination in greenhouses. In this project, we placed commercial hives of the bumblebee B. terrestris containing one queen and 40 workers, in three different locations in the region of Ghent (Belgium), and the performance of these hives was followed during a 4-week period in spring 2012. In parallel, we determined the floral richness and diversity index in the chosen study sites. The sites consisted of a rich urban environment with patchy green areas opposed to an urban environment with poor landscape metrics; a third rural study site showed average positive landscape metrics. The results demonstrated that the hive biomass and numbers of workers increased significantly in the rich compared to the poor environment, providing a mechanism to discriminate between study sites. In addition, the bumblebee-collected pollen showed that the flowering plants Salix spp. and Rosaceae/Prunus spp. are dominant food sources in all anthropogenic environments during early spring. Finally, the results are discussed in relation to the optimization of the experimental setup and to the use of commercial bumblebee hives in assessing local pollinator support within any given environment.

  18. Killing them with kindness? In-hive medications may inhibit xenobiotic efflux transporters and endanger honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hawthorne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honey bees (Apis mellifera have recently experienced higher than normal overwintering colony losses. Many factors have been evoked to explain the losses, among which are the presence of residues of pesticides and veterinary products in hives. Multiple residues are present at the same time, though most often in low concentrations so that no single product has yet been associated with losses. Involvement of a combination of residues to losses may however not be excluded. To understand the impact of an exposure to combined residues on honey bees, we propose a mechanism-based strategy, focusing here on Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR transporters as mediators of those interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using whole-animal bioassays, we demonstrate through inhibition by verapamil that the widely used organophosphate and pyrethroid acaricides coumaphos and τ-fluvalinate, and three neonicotinoid insecticides: imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid are substrates of one or more MDR transporters. Among the candidate inhibitors of honey bee MDR transporters is the in-hive antibiotic oxytetracycline. Bees prefed oxytetracycline were significantly sensitized to the acaricides coumaphos and τ-fluvalinate, suggesting that the antibiotic may interfere with the normal excretion or metabolism of these pesticides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many bee hives receive regular treatments of oxytetracycline and acaricides for prevention and treatment of disease and parasites. Our results suggest that seasonal co-application of these medicines to bee hives could increase the adverse effects of these and perhaps other pesticides. Our results also demonstrate the utility of a mechanism-based strategy. By identifying pesticides and apicultural medicines that are substrates and inhibitors of xenobiotic transporters we prioritize the testing of those chemical combinations most likely to result in adverse interactions.

  19. Killing them with kindness? In-hive medications may inhibit xenobiotic efflux transporters and endanger honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, David J; Dively, Galen P

    2011-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have recently experienced higher than normal overwintering colony losses. Many factors have been evoked to explain the losses, among which are the presence of residues of pesticides and veterinary products in hives. Multiple residues are present at the same time, though most often in low concentrations so that no single product has yet been associated with losses. Involvement of a combination of residues to losses may however not be excluded. To understand the impact of an exposure to combined residues on honey bees, we propose a mechanism-based strategy, focusing here on Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) transporters as mediators of those interactions. Using whole-animal bioassays, we demonstrate through inhibition by verapamil that the widely used organophosphate and pyrethroid acaricides coumaphos and τ-fluvalinate, and three neonicotinoid insecticides: imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid are substrates of one or more MDR transporters. Among the candidate inhibitors of honey bee MDR transporters is the in-hive antibiotic oxytetracycline. Bees prefed oxytetracycline were significantly sensitized to the acaricides coumaphos and τ-fluvalinate, suggesting that the antibiotic may interfere with the normal excretion or metabolism of these pesticides. Many bee hives receive regular treatments of oxytetracycline and acaricides for prevention and treatment of disease and parasites. Our results suggest that seasonal co-application of these medicines to bee hives could increase the adverse effects of these and perhaps other pesticides. Our results also demonstrate the utility of a mechanism-based strategy. By identifying pesticides and apicultural medicines that are substrates and inhibitors of xenobiotic transporters we prioritize the testing of those chemical combinations most likely to result in adverse interactions.

  20. Age and aggregation trigger mating behaviour in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sandra G.; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Duncan, Michael; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Steidle, Johannes L. M.; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee ( Apis mellifera) parasite. We described the mating behaviour in detail and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vital role in mating in this species. Gender preference was examined in the context of age-dependency and possible chemical communication. Beetles started mating at a high frequency 18 days after emergence from the soil but only if they were aggregated ( p behaviour was characterised by a short pre-copulation courtship and female aggression towards other females and copulating couples. Both behaviours may be indicative of cryptic female choice. Delayed onset of reproductive behaviour is typical of many polygamous species, whilst the indispensability of aggregation for onset of sexual behaviour seems to be a feature unique to A. tumida. Both strategies support mass reproduction in this parasitic species, enabling A. tumida to overcome its honey bee host colony, and are probably triggered by chemotactic cues.

  1. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  2. A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina from northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae from northeastern Brazil. Eufriesea pyrrhopyga sp. nov. a short-tongued Eufriesea is described as a new species. It can be easily recognized for its predominantly violet lower frons and thorax, violet tergum 1 contrasting with the strong reddish coloration on the lateral portions of terga 2 to 4 and on entire terga 5 and 6, and head pubescence with contrasting colors, white on the lower two-thirds of the face and black on upper frons and vertex. This new species, collected in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, apparently is restricted to the Pernambuco endemic center, and seems to be highly endangered.

  3. The effects of hive types (shield and sword) on wintering ability, survival rates and strength of honeybee colonies (A. mellifera L.) in spring season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeninar, Halil; Akyol, Etem; Sahinler, Nuray

    2010-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of shield and sword comb orientation hive types on wintering ability, survival rates (in winter) and population growth of honeybee colonies (A. mellifera anatoliaca) in spring season. In ancient Anatolia beekeeping; honeybee colonies were identified sword and shield (the colonies which build up the combs vertical and horizontal according to positions of the hive entrance) before the uses of top-opened hive with movable frames. Total twenty honeybee colonies, which have similar condition according to queen age, genotype, number of frames covered with adult worker bees, brood areas and food stocks, were used in this study. Average wintering ability of colonies in the shield and sword groups were found to be 98.57% and 69.76%; average survival rates were found to be 100% and 100% in shield and sword group colonies respectively. The average number of frames covered with adult worker bees at mid June in shield and sword group colonies were found to be 15.6 +/- 1.58, 12.00 +/- 1.25 number/colony and the average brood areas were found as 7863.5 +/- 402.9, 5997.0 +/- 373.3 cm(2)/colony respectively. Differences between the group means on wintering ability, sealed brood areas and colony strength were found significant (P 0.05). The colonies living in shield (horizontal) hives have showed better wintering ability and more colony population than colonies living in sword (vertical) hives.

  4. Tracking Climate Effects on Plant-Pollinator Interaction Phenology with Satellites and Honey Bee Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, Wayne E.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Tan, Bin; Ma, Peter L.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Question/Methods: The complexity of plant-pollinator interactions, the large number of species involved, and the lack of species response functions present challenges to understanding how these critical interactions may be impacted by climate and land cover change on large scales. Given the importance of this interaction for terrestrial ecosystems, it is desirable to develop new approaches. We monitor the daily weight change of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to record the phenology of the Honey Bee Nectar Flow (HBNF) in a volunteer network (honeybeenet.gsfc.nasa.gov). The records document the successful interaction of a generalist pollinator with a variety of plant resources. We extract useful HBNF phenology metrics for three seasons. Sites currently exist in 35 states/provinces in North America, with a concentration in the Mid-Atlantic region. HBNF metrics are compared to standard phenology metrics derived from remotely sensed vegetation indices from NASA's MODIS sensor and published results from NOAA's A VHRR. At any given time the percentage of plants producing nectar is usually a sma11 fraction of the total satellite sensor signal. We are interested in determining how well the 'bulk' satellite vegetation parameters relate to the phenology of the HBNF, and how it varies spatially on landscape to continental scales. Results/Conclusions: We found the median and peak seasonal HBNF dates to be robust, with variation between replicate scale hives of only a few days. We developed quality assessment protocols to identify abnormal colony artifacts. Temporally, the peak and median of the HBNF in the Mid-Atlantic show a significant advance of 0.58 d/y beginning about 1970, very similar to that observed by the A VHRR since 1982 (0.57 d/y). Spatially, the HBNF metrics are highly correlated with elevation and winter minimum temperature distribution, and exhibit significant but regionally coherent inter-annual variation. The relationship between median of the

  5. New species and records of Ammobatine bees from Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Sri Lanka (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Nove vrste in najdbe čebel plemena Ammobatini iz Pakistana, Kirgizistana in Šri Lanke (Hymenoptera: Apidae):

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Four new cleptoparasitic bees of the tribe Ammobatini (Apidae: Nomadinae) are described and figured from southeastern Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Ammobates maxschwarzi sp. n. (Pakistan) is known from a series of females, while A. cinnamomeus sp. n. (Pakistan), Parammobatodes craterus sp. n. (Pakistan), and Chiasmognathus taprobanicola sp. n. (Sri Lanka) are known from males and females. The species are distinguished from their congeners and comments madeon potential hosts. In addition, C. gussako...

  6. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  7. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M; Cervancia, Cleofas R; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Tolentino, Mitos M; Abrera, Gina B; Cobar, Ma Lucia C; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Sabino, Noel G; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C; Feliciano, Chitho P

    2011-10-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a ⁶⁰Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D₁₀) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10⁵- 9 × 10³ spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D(min)) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to γ-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptomic and functional resources for the small hive beetle Aethina tumida, a worldwide parasite of honey bees

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    Matthew R. Tarver

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida, is a major pest of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera colonies in the United States and Australia, and an emergent threat in Europe. While strong honey bee colonies generally keep SHB populations in check, weak or stressed colonies can succumb to infestations. This parasite has spread from a sub-Saharan Africa to three continents, leading to immense management and regulatory costs. We performed a transcriptomic analysis involving deep sequencing of multiple life stages and both sexes of this species. The assembled transcriptome appears to be nearly complete, as judged by conserved insect orthologs and the ability to find plausible homologs for 11,952 proteins described from the genome of the red flour beetle. Expressed genes include each of the major metabolic, developmental and sensory groups, along with genes for proteins involved with immune defenses and insecticide resistance. We also present a total of 23,085 high-quality SNP's for the assembled contigs. We highlight potential differences between this beetle and its honey bee hosts, and suggest mechanisms of future research into the biology and control of this species. SNP resources will allow functional genetic analyses and analyses of dispersal for this invasive pest. All resources are posted as Supplemental Tables at https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-transcriptomic-and-functional-resources-small-hive-beetle-aethina-tumida-worldwide, and at NCBI under Bioproject PRJNA256171.

  9. Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato Classificação dos grandes grupos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A higher-level classification of bees, in which the entire group is treated as a single family - the Apidae - is advocated here. A total of seven subfamilies, 51 tribes and 27 subtribes are recognized. These subfamilies correspond to the families adopted in the traditional classification. Although the proposed changes do not involve any major rearrangement, basically only changing the rank given to the main groups, the new system makes the classification of bees more consistent with that adopted for other major groups of aculeate Hymenoptera. It also departs from the 19th century practice, perpetuated in the traditional classification, of giving family-status to the main groups of bees. A correspondence table associating the taxon names used in the current traditional classification with those of the revised classification is presented. Scrapterini new tribe (type-genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville is proposed to accommodate the southern African genus Scrapter.Apresenta-se uma classificação para as abelhas em que o todo o grupo é tratado como uma única família - Apidae. São reconhecidas sete subfamílias, 51 tribos e 27 subtribos. As subfamílias correspondem às famílias da classificação tradicional. Apesar das mudanças propostas afetarem apenas o status dos grupos, o novo sistema torna a classificação das abelhas mais consistente com aquela adotada para os grandes grupos de Hymenoptera aculeados. Além disso, distancia-se da tradição de dar status de família aos grupos principais de abelhas, uma prática do século 19 perpetuada na classificação tradicional. É apresentada uma tabela de correspondência associando os nomes dos táxons usados na classificação tradicional corrente com aquelas da classificação sendo proposta aqui. Scrapterini tribo nova (gênero-tipo Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville é proposta para acomodar Scrapter, um gênero restrito à porção sul do continente africano.

  10. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Thailand.

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    Sirikarn Sanpa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

  11. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  12. Nesting sites characteristics of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    Nelky Suriawanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae is eusocial insects that live together in a colony. This research was aimed to study the nesting site characteristics of stingless bees in the settlement areas at Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The nesting sites were observed by purposive sampling method from July 2015 to January 2016. Four species belong to genus Tetragonula were found, namely T. fuscobalteata, T. biroi, T. sapiens, and T. laeviceps. Two spesies, T. biroi and T. sapiens are the new record in Sulawesi island. The highest abundance of stingless bees colony was T. fuscobalteata (92.26%, followed by T. biroi (4.17%, T. sapiens (2.98%, and T. laeviceps (0.59%. Nesting sites of T. fuscobalteata were found in the stone, brick wall, wooden wall, bamboo, and iron cavities, T. biroi in the wooden wall, stone, and brick wall cavities, T. sapiens in stone cavities, while T. laeviceps in wooden walls.

  13. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

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    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  14. Fumagillin control of Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia:Nosematidae) infection in honey bee (Hymenoptera:Apidae) colonies in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobino, Agostina; Rivero, Rocio; Molineri, Ana Ines; Cagnolo, Natalia Bulacio; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Salto, Cesar; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-06-30

    Information on the long‑term consequences of Nosema ceranae to honey bee lifespan and effectiveness of Nosema control with fumagillin is scarce and not always consistent. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the antibiotic fumagillin to control N. ceranae in hives in East‑Central Argentina. Honey bee hives were assigned to 3 experimental treatments, a control group with un‑treated hives, a preventive strategy group with hives treated monthly, and a monitoring strategy group with hives treated according to a N. ceranae threshold level. Apiaries were monitored monthly during Fall‑Winter 2009 and 2010 and N. ceranae spore intensity and honey bee colony strength measures were estimated. Fumagillin‑treated colonies had reduced N. ceranae spores load in 2010 compared to control colonies. However, there was no significant difference between treated and control groups for colony strength measures including adult bee population, bee brood availability, honey, or pollen. Fumagillin treatment reduced N. ceranae intensities but had little effect on colonies. The bee population during Winter was reduced in treated as well as in control colonies. Our results clarify that fumagillin treatment should be at least reviewed and that further research should be conducted to acquire a more complete perspective of Nosemosis disease.

  15. Efficacy of formic acid in gel for Varroa control in Apis mellifera L.: importance of the dispenser position inside the hive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguaras, Martin; Palacio, Maria Alejandra; Faverin, Claudia; Basualdo, Marina; Del Hoyo, Marcelo Luis; Velis, Gustavo; Bedascarrasbure, Enrique

    2003-02-13

    The efficacy of formic acid in a gel matrix was evaluated in two groups of honeybee colonies. In Group 1, a dispenser with 120 g of formic acid (70%) in gel was placed on the brood combs and another dispenser with the same dose was located on the hive bottom (total dose, 240 g). Group 2 received two doses of 240 g of formic acid (70%) in gel and each application was applied in two dispensers containing 120 g of the formic acid solution each and they were located over the brood chamber (total dose, 480 g). In Group 2, the period between both applications was 15 days, and the efficacies after the first and both applications were calculated. Significant differences were registered for final efficacy between both groups. When final efficacy of Group 1 was compared with efficacy after first application of Group 2, significant differences were found (P=0.0005). Same doses in different positions within the hive have different final efficacy. The higher efficacy was registered when the dispensers were placed over brood combs and on the hive bottom. It is suggested that efficacy is related to dispenser position within the hive.

  16. Honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of African origin exist in non-africanized areas of the southern United States: evidence from mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Pinto; W.S. Sheppard; J.S. Johnston; W.L. Rubink; R.N. Coulson; N.M. Schiff; I. Kandemir; J.C. Patton

    2007-01-01

    Descendents of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (the Africanized honey bee) arrived in the United States in 1990. Whether this was the first introduction is uncertain. A survey of feral honey bees from non-Africanized areas of the southern United States revealed three colonies (from Georgia, Texas, and New Mexico) with a...

  17. A framework for organizing cancer-related variations from existing databases, publications and NGS data using a High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Jung; Shamsaddini, Amirhossein; Pan, Yang; Smith, Krista; Crichton, Daniel J; Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Years of sequence feature curation by UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PIR-PSD, NCBI-CDD, RefSeq and other database biocurators has led to a rich repository of information on functional sites of genes and proteins. This information along with variation-related annotation can be used to scan human short sequence reads from next-generation sequencing (NGS) pipelines for presence of non-synonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs) that affect functional sites. This and similar workflows are becoming more important because thousands of NGS data sets are being made available through projects such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and researchers want to evaluate their biomarkers in genomic data. BioMuta, an integrated sequence feature database, provides a framework for automated and manual curation and integration of cancer-related sequence features so that they can be used in NGS analysis pipelines. Sequence feature information in BioMuta is collected from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), ClinVar, UniProtKB and through biocuration of information available from publications. Additionally, nsSNVs identified through automated analysis of NGS data from TCGA are also included in the database. Because of the petabytes of data and information present in NGS primary repositories, a platform HIVE (High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment) for storing, analyzing, computing and curating NGS data and associated metadata has been developed. Using HIVE, 31 979 nsSNVs were identified in TCGA-derived NGS data from breast cancer patients. All variations identified through this process are stored in a Curated Short Read archive, and the nsSNVs from the tumor samples are included in BioMuta. Currently, BioMuta has 26 cancer types with 13 896 small-scale and 308 986 large-scale study-derived variations. Integration of variation data allows identifications of novel or common nsSNVs that can be prioritized in validation studies. Database URL: BioMuta: http://hive

  18. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Silvia R. M. Pedro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae. The systematics and biogeography of Partamona Schwarz, a Neotropical genus of stingless bees (Meliponini, Apinae, Apidae, are revised. Seventeen new species are described: P. epiphytophila sp. nov., P. subtilis sp. nov., P. nhambiquara sp. nov., P. batesi sp. nov., P. yungarum sp. nov., P. vitae sp. nov., P. ferreirai sp. nov., P. gregaria sp. nov., P. auripennis sp. nov., P. nigrilabris sp. nov., P. combinata sp. nov., P. chapadicola sp. nov., P. seridoensis sp. nov., P. littoralis sp. nov., P. criptica sp. nov., P. rustica sp. nov. and P. sooretamae sp. nov. Partamona pseudomusarum Camargo, 1980, is considered as junior synonym of P. vicina Camargo, 1980. Types of P. grandipennis (Schwarz, 1951, P. xanthogastra Pedro & Camargo, 1996-1997, P. pearsoni (Schwarz, 1938, P. ailyae Camargo, 1980, P. pseudomusarum, P. vicina, P. mulata Moure in Camargo, 1980, P. aequatoriana Camargo, 1980, P. mourei Camargo, 1980, P. peckolti, (Friese, 1901, P. testacea (Klug, 1807, P. helleri (Friese, 1900 and P. musarum (Cockerell, 1917 were examined. Lectotypes of P. orizabaensis (Strand, 1919, and P. cupira (Smith, 1863 are designated. An identification key for the species and drawings of morphological characters are presented. A phylogenetic hypothesis, based mainly on morphological characters is proposed. Four groups are defined, considering the shape of mandible of workers and sternum VII of males: bilineata / epiphytophila group (western Amazon to México, including P. bilineata (Say, P. grandipennis, P. xanthogastra P. orizabaensis P. peckolti P. epiphytophila sp. nov., P. subtilis sp. nov., P. nhambiquara sp. nov., P. batesi sp. nov., P. yungarum sp. nov. and P. vitae sp. nov.; musarum group (Central Brazil, north of South America to Central America, including P. musarum, P. aequatoriana, P. vicina, P. mourei, P. pearsoni, P. ferreirai sp. nov., P. gregaria sp. nov. and P

  19. Commentary: The Wright Ross Salk Award: Worker Bees and Benefits to the Hive: Service Contributions to the Profession and Society of Pediatric Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C

    2016-11-01

    This article reflects on service contributions upon receiving the 2016 Society of Pediatric Psychology Wright Ross Salk Distinguished Service Award. As the title implies, worker bees make service contributions for the overall benefit of the hive and colony. So too, the scientific discipline, clinical profession, and the Society of Pediatric Psychology need the service contributions of multiple individuals to survive and thrive. Many people have made professional contributions to benefit the field and its organizational home; many more worker bees will volunteer in the future to fill important service roles and sustain the hive. The article discusses lessons learned about service. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Evaluation of apicultural characteristics of first-year colonies initiated from packaged honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, James P; Calderone, Nicholas W

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of six named types of package honey bees, Apis mellifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from four commercial producers. We examined the effects of levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, the endoparasitic mite Acarapis woodi (Rennie), the gut parasite Nosema (species not determined) in samples from bees in 48 packages, and levels of adult drones in the same packages on corresponding levels of those same traits in the fall in colonies that developed from those 48 packages. After package installation, we measured the rate of queen failure, the removal of freeze-killed brood (an assay to assess hygienic behavior), varroa-sensitive hygiene, and short-term weight gain in all colonies. We examined the correlations among these traits and the effect of initial package conditions and package-type on the expression of these traits. In general, differences among sources were not significant, except that we did observe significant differences in the proportion of mite infected worker brood in the fall. There was no significant difference in weight gain in colonies established from nosema-infected packages versus those established from noninfected packages. Freeze-killed hygienic behavior and varroa-sensitive hygienic behavior were positively correlated, suggesting that both traits could be selected simultaneously. Neither trait was correlated with colony weight gain, suggesting that both traits could be selected without compromising honey production.

  1. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa incubated at room temperature from drones exposed to miticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Lisa M; Fell, Richard D; Saacke, Richard G

    2008-08-01

    We conducted research to examine the potential impacts ofcoumaphos, fluvalinate, and Apilife VAR (Thymol) on drone honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), sperm viability over time. Drones were reared in colonies that had been treated with each miticide by using the dose recommended on the label. Drones from each miticide treatment were collected, and semen samples were pooled. The pooled samples from each treatment were subdivided and analyzed for periods of up to 6 wk. Random samples were taken from each treatment (n = 6 pools) over the 6-wk period. Sperm viability was measured using dual-fluorescent staining techniques. The exposure of drones to coumaphos during development and sexual maturation significantly reduced sperm viability for all 6 wk. Sperm viability significantly decreased from the initial sample to week 1 in control colonies, and a significant decrease in sperm viability was observed from week 5 to week 6 in all treatments and control. The potential impacts of these results on queen performance and failure are discussed.

  3. Body size limits dim-light foraging activity in stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streinzer, Martin; Huber, Werner; Spaethe, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Stingless bees constitute a species-rich tribe of tropical and subtropical eusocial Apidae that act as important pollinators for flowering plants. Many foraging tasks rely on vision, e.g. spatial orientation and detection of food sources and nest entrances. Meliponini workers are usually small, which sets limits on eye morphology and thus quality of vision. Limitations are expected both on acuity, and thus on the ability to detect objects from a distance, as well as on sensitivity, and thus on the foraging time window at dusk and dawn. In this study, we determined light intensity thresholds for flight under dim light conditions in eight stingless bee species in relation to body size in a Neotropical lowland rainforest. Species varied in body size (0.8-1.7 mm thorax-width), and we found a strong negative correlation with light intensity thresholds (0.1-79 lx). Further, we measured eye size, ocelli diameter, ommatidia number, and facet diameter. All parameters significantly correlated with body size. A disproportionately low light intensity threshold in the minute Trigonisca pipioli, together with a large eye parameter P eye suggests specific adaptations to circumvent the optical constraints imposed by the small body size. We discuss the implications of body size in bees on foraging behavior.

  4. Tipos polínicos coletados por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Carvalho Carlos Alfredo Lopes de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os tipos polínicos coletados no mesmo pasto apícola por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae foram estudados e comparados durante dois meses em Piracicaba-SP, (22o43'S; 47o25'W; altitude: 580m. As massas de pólen foram obtidas através da captura de operárias que retornavam à colônia das 5:00 às 19:00 horas nos meses de outubro e novembro de 1996. Trinta e um tipos polínicos pertencentes a 22 famílias foram identificados, dos quais 22,58% foram coletados exclusivamente por N. testaceicornis, 35,48% por T. angustula e 41,94%, por ambas as espécies. As famílias Fabaceae, Liliaceae, Mimosaceae e Myrtaceae e as espécies Bulbine frutescens, Eucalyptus spp., Leucaena leucocephala e Tipuana tipu foram as mais freqüentes e constantes durante os trabalhos. O índice de similaridade entre as fontes de pólen explorada pelas abelhas foi igual a 0,78.

  5. Sublethal Effects of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Thiamethoxam on the Transcriptome of the Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Teng-Fei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Fang; Qi, Lei; Yu, Lin-Sheng

    2017-12-05

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are now the most widely used insecticides in the world. Previous studies have indicated that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids impair learning, memory capacity, foraging, and immunocompetence in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Despite these, few studies have been carried out on the molecular effects of neonicotinoids. In this study, we focus on the second-generation neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, which is currently widely used in agriculture to protect crops. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq, we investigated the transcriptome profile of honey bees after subchronic exposure to 10 ppb thiamethoxam over 10 d. In total, 609 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 225 were upregulated and 384 were downregulated. Several genes, including vitellogenin, CSP3, defensin-1, Mrjp1, and Cyp6as5 were selected and further validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The functions of some DEGs were identified, and Gene Ontology-enrichment analysis showed that the enriched DEGs were mainly linked to metabolism, biosynthesis, and translation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that thiamethoxam affected biological processes including ribosomes, the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, tyrosine metabolism pathway, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, and drug metabolism. Overall, our results provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the complex interactions between neonicotinoid insecticides and honey bees. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. FLIGHT RANGE OF AFRICANIZED HONEYBEES, Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae IN AN APPLE GROVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARANHOS B.A.J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honeybees from five colonies were marked with P-32 and taken to an apple grove for a flight behavior study. The method used to determine the flight range was to put out an array of tagged trees in a cross pattern with the colonies arranged in the center point of a 0.8 ha test area. The tagged trees were located 10 meters apart in the 4 rows of 50 meters each, arranged according to the North, South, East, and West directions. Bees were collected while visiting the tagged tree flowers twice a day, during a ten-day period. The number of honeybees marked decreased in relation to the distance from the hives. Analysis of variance showed that a linear regression was highly significant to describe the process. Geographic directions did not affect the activity of the bees.

  7. Variation in honey yield per hive of Africanized bees depending on the introducing time of young queens

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    Vladson Carbonari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to evaluate the honey production per hive and the egg laying rates of queens produced in 2007, 2008 and 2010. Thirty colonies initiated with a queen per colony at each climatic season were used during the three years. The years, started on January (summer, April (autumn, July (winter and October (spring and ended 12 months later, at the same periods related to each season of the later years. Honey supply were weighed before and after centrifugation to evaluate the quantity of the stored honey. Colonies with queens introduced during autumn and winter in the three years produced 57.2±6.0kg and 60.7±7.5kg of honey, respectively. In the first year of production activity, after the introduction of queens in the initial colonies, values were significantly higher than those obtained in colonies with queens introduced in the summer (39.3±7.6kg and spring (41.8±3.7kg. Egg laying rates of queens were higher in spring (98.2±3.9% and summer (88.4±7%, indicating greater food flow (flowerings in these seasons compared to the averages in autumn (30.3±8.1% and winter (24.5±7.2%. Produce and introduce queens of Africanized Apis mellifera in colonies initiated during autumn and winter was found to be economically feasible. Honey production of colonies initiated in these periods were higher and they had greater population stability in times of scarcity of flowerings.

  8. Optimizing Drone Fertility With Spring Nutritional Supplements to Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Andrée; Giovenazzo, Pierre

    2016-03-27

    Supplemental feeding of honey bee (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in spring is essential for colony buildup in northern apicultural regions. The impact of pollen and syrup feeding on drone production and sperm quality is not well-documented, but may improve fecundation of early-bred queens. We measured the impact of feeding sucrose syrup, and protein supplements to colonies in early spring in eastern Canada. Drones were reared under different nutritional regimes, and mature individuals were then assessed in regard to size, weight, and semen quality (semen volume, sperm count, and viability). Results showed significant increases in drone weight and abdomen size when colonies were fed sucrose and a protein supplement. Colonies receiving no additional nourishment had significantly less semen volume per drone and lower sperm viability. Our study demonstrates that feeding honey bee colonies in spring with sucrose syrup and a protein supplement is important to enhance drone reproductive quality. RÉSUMÉ: L'administration de suppléments alimentaires aux colonies de l'abeille domestique (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) au printemps est essentielle pour le bon développement des colonies dans les régions apicoles nordiques. L'impact de la supplémentation des colonies en pollen et en sirop sur la production des faux-bourdons et la qualité du sperme demeure peu documenté mais pourrait résulter en une meilleure fécondation des reines produites tôt en saison. Nous avons mesuré l'impact de la supplémentation en sirop et/ou en supplément de pollen sur les colonies d'abeilles tôt au printemps dans l'est du Canada. Les faux-bourdons ont été élevé sous différents régimes alimentaires et les individus matures ont ensuite été évalués pour leur taille, leur poids ainsi que la qualité de leur sperme (volume de sperme, nombre et viabilité des spermatozoïdes. Les résultats montrent une augmentation significative du poids et de la taille

  9. Expression of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in commercial VSH honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danka, Robert G; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2011-06-01

    We tested six commercial sources of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), whose breeding incorporated the trait of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). VSH confers resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman by enhancing the ability of the bees to hygienically remove mite-infested brood. VSH production queens (i.e., queens commercially available for use in beekeepers' production colonies) from the six sources were established in colonies which later were measured for VSH. Their responses were compared with those of colonies with three other types of queens, as follows: VSH queens from the selected closed population maintained by USDA-ARS for research and as a source of breeding germplasm, queens from the cooperating commercial distributor of this germplasm, and queens of a commercial, mite-susceptible source. The reduction of mite infestation in brood combs exposed to test colonies for 1 wk differed significantly between groups. On average, colonies with VSH production queens reduced infestation by 44%. This group average was intermediate between the greater removal by pure ARS VSH (76%) and the cooperators' breeding colonies (64%), and the lesser removal by susceptible colonies (7%). VSH production colonies from the different sources had variable expression of hygiene against mites, with average reduced infestations ranging from 22 to 74%. In addition, infertility was high among mites that remained in infested cells in VSH breeder colonies from ARS and the commercial distributor but was lower and more variable in VSH production colonies and susceptible colonies. Commercial VSH production colonies supply mite resistance that generally seems to be useful for beekeeping. Resistance probably could be improved if more VSH drones sources were supplied when VSH production queens are being mated.

  10. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are predominant pigments in bumblebee (Apidae: Bombus pubescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Polidori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus are well known for their important inter- and intra-specific variation in hair (or pubescence color patterns, but the chemical nature of the pigments associated with these patterns is not fully understood. For example, though melanization is believed to provide darker colors, it still unknown which types of melanin are responsible for each color, and no conclusive data are available for the lighter colors, including white. Methods By using dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis on 12 species/subspecies of bumblebees from seven subgenera, we tested the hypothesis that eumelanin and pheomelanin, the two main melanin types occurring in animals, are largely responsible for bumblebee pubescence coloration. Results Eumelanin and pheomelanin occur in bumblebee pubescence. Black pigmentation is due to prevalent eumelanin, with visible signals of additional pheomelanin, while the yellow, orange, red and brown hairs clearly include pheomelanin. On the other hand, white hairs reward very weak Raman signals, suggesting that they are depigmented. Additional non-melanic pigments in yellow hair cannot be excluded but need other techniques to be detected. Raman spectra were more similar across similarly colored hairs, with no apparent effect of phylogeny and both melanin types appeared to be already used at the beginning of bumblebee radiation. Discussion We suggest that the two main melanin forms, at variable amounts and/or vibrational states, are sufficient in giving almost the whole color range of bumblebee pubescence, allowing these insects to use a single precursor instead of synthesizing a variety of chemically different pigments. This would agree with commonly seen color interchanges between body segments across Bombus species.

  11. Phylogeny, new generic-level classification, and historical biogeography of the Eucera complex (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchin, A; López-Uribe, M M; Praz, C J; Griswold, T; Danforth, B N

    2018-02-01

    The longhorn bee tribe Eucerini (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a diverse, widely distributed group of solitary bees that includes important pollinators of both wild and agricultural plants. About half of the species in the tribe are currently assigned to the genus Eucera and to a few other related genera. In this large genus complex, comprising ca. 390 species, the boundaries between genera remain ambiguous due to morphological intergradation among taxa. Using ca. 6700 aligned nucleotide sites from six gene fragments, 120 morphological characters, and more than 100 taxa, we present the first comprehensive molecular, morphological, and combined phylogenetic analyses of the 'Eucera complex'. The revised generic classification that we propose is congruent with our phylogeny and maximizes both generic stability and ease of identification. Under this new classification most generic names are synonymized under an expanded genus Eucera. Thus, Tetralonia, Peponapis, Xenoglossa, Cemolobus, and Syntrichalonia are reduced to subgeneric rank within Eucera, and Synhalonia is retained as a subgenus of Eucera. Xenoglossodes is reestablished as a valid subgenus of Eucera while Tetraloniella is synonymized with Tetralonia and Cubitalia with Eucera. In contrast, we suggest that the venusta-group of species, currently placed in the subgenus Synhalonia, should be recognized as a new genus. Our results demonstrate the need to evaluate convergent loss or gain of important diagnostic traits to minimize the use of potentially homoplasious characters when establishing classifications. Lastly, we show that the Eucera complex originated in the Nearctic region in the late Oligocene, and dispersed twice into the Old World. The first dispersal event likely occurred 24.2-16.6 mya at a base of a clade of summer-active bees restricted to warm region of the Old World, and the second 13.9-12.3 mya at the base of a clade of spring-active bees found in cooler regions of the Holarctic. Our results further

  12. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. <10%). The maximum neonicotinoid residue detected in either wax or beebread was 3.9 ppb imidacloprid. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the residues recovered from beebread in apiaries located in commercial, urban, and rural landscapes. The calculated risk quotient based on a dietary no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) suggested low potential for negative effects on bee behavior or colony health.

  13. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits

    OpenAIRE

    Bixby, Miriam; Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E.; Currie, Rob W.; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Pernal, Stephen F.; Foster, Leonard J.; Guarna, M. Marta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pat...

  14. Discovery of medical Big Data analytics: Improving the prediction of traumatic brain injury survival rates by data mining Patient Informatics Processing Software Hybrid Hadoop Hive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Rodger

    Full Text Available Entering medical encounter data by hand is time-consuming. In addition, data are often not entered into the database in a timely enough fashion to enable their use for subsequent mission planning. The Patient Informatics Processing Software semi-automates the data collection process onboard ships. Then data within these images are captured and used to populate a database, after which multiple ship databases are used for reporting and analysis. In this paper, we used the Patient Informatics Processing Software Hybrid Hadoop Hive to orchestrate database processing via various ships, by marshaling the distributed servers, running the various tasks in parallel, managing all of the communications and data transfers between the various parts of the system, and providing for redundancy and fault tolerance. Then we employed the Apache Hive as a data warehouse infrastructure built on top of Hadoop for data summarization, query, and analysis to identify traumatic brain injury (TBI as well as other injury cases. Finally, a proposed Misdiagnosis Minimization Approach method was used for data analysis. We collected data on three ship variables (Byrd, Boxer, Kearsage and injuries to four body regions (head, torso, extremities, and abrasions to determine how the set of collected variables relates to the body injuries. Two dimensions or canonical variables (survival vs. mortality were necessary to understand the association between the two sets of variables. Our method improved data classification and showed that survival, mortality, and morbidity rates can be derived from the superset of Medical Operations data and used for future decision-making and planning. We suggest that an awareness of procedural errors as well as methods to reduce misclassification should be incorporated into all TBI clinical trials. Keywords: Decision support, Traumatic brain injuries, Apache hive, Symbolic data analysis, Informatics, Data mining

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenoptera: apidae) on the rate of brood production in modern bee-hives, Abstract. KA Fasasi. Vol 5 (2007) ... Vol 8 (2010), Effect of feeding frequencies on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus, Abstract. CI Ayo-Olalusi, AAA ...

  16. Native Prey and Invasive Predator Patterns of Foraging Activity: The Case of the Yellow-Legged Hornet Predation at European Honeybee Hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Arca, Mariangela; Leprêtre, Lisa; Mougel, Florence; Bonnard, Olivier; Silvain, Jean-François; Maher, Nevile; Arnold, Gérard; Thiéry, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to native predators, which have co-evolved with their prey, alien predators often benefit from native prey naïveté. Vespa velutina, a honeybee predator originating from Eastern China, was introduced into France just before 2004. The present study, based on video recordings of two beehives at an early stage of the invasion process, intends to analyse the alien hornet hunting behaviour on the native prey, Apis mellifera, and to understand the interaction between the activity of the predator and the prey during the day and the season. Chasing hornets spent most of their time hovering facing the hive, to catch flying honeybees returning to the hive. The predation pressure increased during the season confirming previous study based on predator trapping. The number of honeybee captures showed a maximum peak for an intermediate number of V. velutina, unrelated to honeybee activity, suggesting the occurrence of competition between hornets. The number of honeybees caught increased during midday hours while the number of hornets did not vary, suggesting an increase in their efficacy. These results suggest that the impact of V. velutina on honeybees is limited by its own biology and behaviour and did not match the pattern of activity of its prey. Also, it could have been advantageous during the invasion, limiting resource depletion and thus favouring colonisation. This lack of synchronization may also be beneficial for honeybee colonies by giving them an opportunity to increase their activity when the hornets are less effective.

  17. Native Prey and Invasive Predator Patterns of Foraging Activity: The Case of the Yellow-Legged Hornet Predation at European Honeybee Hives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Monceau

    Full Text Available Contrary to native predators, which have co-evolved with their prey, alien predators often benefit from native prey naïveté. Vespa velutina, a honeybee predator originating from Eastern China, was introduced into France just before 2004. The present study, based on video recordings of two beehives at an early stage of the invasion process, intends to analyse the alien hornet hunting behaviour on the native prey, Apis mellifera, and to understand the interaction between the activity of the predator and the prey during the day and the season. Chasing hornets spent most of their time hovering facing the hive, to catch flying honeybees returning to the hive. The predation pressure increased during the season confirming previous study based on predator trapping. The number of honeybee captures showed a maximum peak for an intermediate number of V. velutina, unrelated to honeybee activity, suggesting the occurrence of competition between hornets. The number of honeybees caught increased during midday hours while the number of hornets did not vary, suggesting an increase in their efficacy. These results suggest that the impact of V. velutina on honeybees is limited by its own biology and behaviour and did not match the pattern of activity of its prey. Also, it could have been advantageous during the invasion, limiting resource depletion and thus favouring colonisation. This lack of synchronization may also be beneficial for honeybee colonies by giving them an opportunity to increase their activity when the hornets are less effective.

  18. The sound field generated by tethered stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris): inferences on its potential as a recruitment mechanism inside the hive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Michael; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Schmidt, Veronika M; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G

    2008-03-01

    In stingless bees, recruitment of hive bees to food sources involves thoracic vibrations by foragers during trophallaxis. The temporal pattern of these vibrations correlates with the sugar concentration of the collected food. One possible pathway for transferring such information to nestmates is through airborne sound. In the present study, we investigated the transformation of thoracic vibrations into air particle velocity, sound pressure, and jet airflows in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Whereas particle velocity and sound pressure were found all around and above vibrating individuals, there was no evidence for a jet airflow as with honey bees. The largest particle velocities were measured 5 mm above the wings (16.0+/-4.8 mm s(-1)). Around a vibrating individual, we found maximum particle velocities of 8.6+/-3.0 mm s(-1) (horizontal particle velocity) in front of the bee's head and of 6.0+/-2.1 mm s(-1) (vertical particle velocity) behind its wings. Wing oscillations, which are mainly responsible for air particle movements in honey bees, significantly contributed to vertically oriented particle oscillations only close to the abdomen in M. scutellaris (distances particle velocity alone is strong enough to be detected by Johnston's organ of the bee antenna. Taking the physiological properties of the honey bee's Johnston's organ as the reference, M. scutellaris hive bees are able to detect the forager vibrations through particle movements at distances of up to 2 cm.

  19. Integrating a Hive Triangle Pattern with Subpixel Analysis for Noncontact Measurement of Structural Dynamic Response by Using a Novel Image Processing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chi Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a digital image processing approach with a unique hive triangle pattern by integrating subpixel analysis for noncontact measurement of structural dynamic response data. Feasibility of proposed approach is demonstrated based on numerical simulation of a photography experiment. According to those results, the measured time-history displacement of simulated image correlates well with the numerical solution. A small three-story frame is then mounted on a small shaker table, and a linear variation differential transformation (LVDT is set on the second floor. Experimental results indicate that the relative error between data from LVDT and analyzed data from digital image correlation is below 0.007%, 0.0205 in terms of frequency and displacement, respectively. Additionally, the appropriate image block affects the estimation accuracy of the measurement system. Importantly, the proposed approach for evaluating pattern center and size is highly promising for use in assigning the adaptive block for a digital image correlation method.

  20. Four Common Pesticides, Their Mixtures and a Formulation Solvent in the Hive Environment Have High Oral Toxicity to Honey Bee Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanyi; Schmehl, Daniel R.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides detected in the hive has raised serious concerns about pesticide exposure on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health. A larval rearing method was adapted to assess the chronic oral toxicity to honey bee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen and wax - fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil, and chloropyrifos - tested alone and in all combinations. All pesticides at hive-residue levels triggered a significant increase in larval mortality compared to untreated larvae by over two fold, with a strong increase after 3 days of exposure. Among these four pesticides, honey bee larvae were most sensitive to chlorothalonil compared to adults. Synergistic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of chlorothalonil with fluvalinate at the concentrations of 34 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively; whereas, when diluted by 10 fold, the interaction switched to antagonism. Chlorothalonil at 34 mg/L was also found to synergize the miticide coumaphos at 8 mg/L. The addition of coumaphos significantly reduced the toxicity of the fluvalinate and chlorothalonil mixture, the only significant non-additive effect in all tested ternary mixtures. We also tested the common ‘inert’ ingredient N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone at seven concentrations, and documented its high toxicity to larval bees. We have shown that chronic dietary exposure to a fungicide, pesticide mixtures, and a formulation solvent have the potential to impact honey bee populations, and warrants further investigation. We suggest that pesticide mixtures in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicities together, until complete data on interactions can be accumulated. PMID:24416121

  1. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: Consequences for whole-colony health and brood production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Di, Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-02-01

    Metal pollution has been increasing rapidly over the past century, and at the same time, the human population has continued to rise and produce contaminants that may negatively impact pollinators. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) forage over large areas and can collect contaminants from the environment. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether the metal contaminants cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) can have a detrimental effect on whole-colony health in the managed pollinator A. mellifera. The authors isolated small nucleus colonies under large cages and fed them an exclusive diet of sugar syrup and pollen patty spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se or a control (no additional metal). Treatment levels were based on concentrations in honey and pollen from contaminated hives around the world. They measured whole-colony health including wax, honey, and brood production; colony weight; brood survival; and metal accumulation in various life stages. Colonies treated with Cd or Cu contained more dead pupae within capped cells compared with control, and Se-treated colonies had lower total worker weights compared to control. Lead had a minimal effect on colony performance, although many members of the hive accumulated significant quantities of the metal. By examining the honey bee as a social organism through whole-colony assessments of toxicity, the authors found that the distribution of toxicants throughout the colony varied from metal to metal, some caste members were more susceptible to certain metals, and the colony's ability to grow over time may have been reduced in the presence of Se. Apiaries residing near metal-contaminated areas may be at risk and can suffer changes in colony dynamics and survival. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Four common pesticides, their mixtures and a formulation solvent in the hive environment have high oral toxicity to honey bee larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyi Zhu

    Full Text Available Recently, the widespread distribution of pesticides detected in the hive has raised serious concerns about pesticide exposure on honey bee (Apis mellifera L. health. A larval rearing method was adapted to assess the chronic oral toxicity to honey bee larvae of the four most common pesticides detected in pollen and wax--fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil, and chloropyrifos--tested alone and in all combinations. All pesticides at hive-residue levels triggered a significant increase in larval mortality compared to untreated larvae by over two fold, with a strong increase after 3 days of exposure. Among these four pesticides, honey bee larvae were most sensitive to chlorothalonil compared to adults. Synergistic toxicity was observed in the binary mixture of chlorothalonil with fluvalinate at the concentrations of 34 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively; whereas, when diluted by 10 fold, the interaction switched to antagonism. Chlorothalonil at 34 mg/L was also found to synergize the miticide coumaphos at 8 mg/L. The addition of coumaphos significantly reduced the toxicity of the fluvalinate and chlorothalonil mixture, the only significant non-additive effect in all tested ternary mixtures. We also tested the common 'inert' ingredient N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone at seven concentrations, and documented its high toxicity to larval bees. We have shown that chronic dietary exposure to a fungicide, pesticide mixtures, and a formulation solvent have the potential to impact honey bee populations, and warrants further investigation. We suggest that pesticide mixtures in pollen be evaluated by adding their toxicities together, until complete data on interactions can be accumulated.

  3. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk E Anderson

    Full Text Available Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or "beebread". We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop, midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota

  4. Morphometric differences and fluctuating asymmetry in Melipona subnitida Ducke 1910 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in different types of housing

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    C. B. S. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract A geometric morphometrics approach was applied to evaluate differences in forewing patterns of the Jandaira bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke. For this, we studied the presence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA in forewing shape and size of colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or natural tree trunks. We detected significant FA for wing size as well as wing shape independent of the type of housing (rational box or tree trunks, indicating the overall presence of stress during the development of the studied specimens. FA was also significant (p < 0.01 between rational boxes, possibly related to the use of various models of rational boxes used for keeping stingless bees. In addition, a Principal Component Analysis indicated morphometric variation between bee colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or in tree trunks, that may be related to the different origins of the bees: tree trunk colonies were relocated natural colonies while rational box colonies originated from multiplying other colonies. We conclude that adequate measures should be taken to reduce the amount of stress during bee handling by using standard models of rational boxes that cause the least disruption.

  5. Fluctuating asymmetry in Apis mellifera(Hymenoptera: Apidae as bioindicator of anthropogenic environments

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    Lorena Andrade Nunes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful distribution of A. melliferais due to their ability to adjust to seasonal variations, considerable control over their internal physical environment and exploration of different resources. However, their populations have experienced different forms and levels of environmental pressure. This research aimed to verify the phenotypic plasticity in both size and shape of wings in A. melliferausing fluctuating asymmetry, based on geometric morphometrics from apiaries located in sites with high and low levels of anthropization. We sampled 16 locations throughout all five geographic regions of Brazil. At each site, samples were collected from 20 beehives installed in apiaries: 10 installed near high anthropogenic environments (Cassilàndia - MS, Fortaleza - CE, Maringá - PR, Aquidauana - MS, Rolim de Moura - RO, Riachuelo - SE, Ubirata - PR and Piracicaba - SP, and 10 in sites with low levels of human disturbance (Cassilàndia - MS, Itapiúna CE, Uniao da Vitoria - PR, Aquidauana - MS, Rolim de Moura - RO, Pacatuba - SE, Erval Seco - RS, Rio Claro - SP. A sample of 10 individuals was taken in each hive, totaling 200 per location, for a total of 1 600 individuals. We used fluctuating asymmetry (FA in size and shape of the forewing through geometric morphometrics. The FA analysis was conducted in order to check bilateral differences. The indexes of size and shape were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA, where the characters evaluated were used as factors to verify the size and shape differences. The results indicated an asymmetry on the shape of the wing (P < 0.001 but no asymmetry was observed on wing size. Considering FA as an environmental response and high and low impacted areas as a fixed factor, we observed significant differences (P < 0.05. The results for the wing shape in A. melliferademonstrated that this feature undergoes more variation during ontogeny compared to the variation in size. We concluded that bee samples

  6. Comparative performance of two mite-resistant stocks of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama beekeeping operations.

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    Ward, Kenneth; Danka, Robert; Ward, Rufina

    2008-06-01

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared with that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor Anderson & Truman (Acari: Varroidae), were measured twice each year, and colonies that reached established economic treatment thresholds (one mite per 100 adult bees in late winter; 5-10 mites per 100 adult bees in late summer) were treated with acaricides. Infestations of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari: Tarsonemidae), were measured autumn and compared with a treatment threshold of 20% mite prevalence. Honey production was measured in 2005 and 2006 for colonies that retained original test queens. Throughout the three seasons of measurement, resistant stocks required less treatment against parasitic mites than the Italian stock. The total percentages of colonies needing treatment against varroa mites were 12% of VSH, 24% of Russian, and 40% of Italian. The total percentages requiring treatment against tracheal mites were 1% of Russian, 8% of VSH and 12% of Italian. The average honey yield of Russian and VSH colonies was comparable with that of Italian colonies each year. Beekeepers did not report any significant behavioral problems with the resistant stocks. These stocks thus have good potential for use in nonmigratory beekeeping operations in the southeastern United States.

  7. Influence of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Thiamethoxam on miRNA Expression in the Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Shi, Teng-Fei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Fang; Qi, Lei; Yu, Lin-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous noncoding single-stranded RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. They play important roles in regulating caste differentiation, behavior development, and immune defences in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In this study, we explored the effect of the neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on miRNA expression in this species using deep small RNA sequencing. The results showed that seven miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (q-value 1) upon exposure to 10 ppb thiamethoxam over 10 d. Some candidate target genes were related to behavior, immunity, and neural function. Several miRNAs, including ame-miR-124, ame-miR-981, ame-miR-3791, and ame-miR-6038, were selected and further validated using real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The findings expand our understanding of the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on honey bees at the molecular level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

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    EP. Pires

    Full Text Available The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens, followed by Euglossa (Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%. Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species, followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species. Eulaema (Apeulaema marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899 were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  9. Comunidade de Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae das dunas litorâneas do Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Community of Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae from the coastal sand dunes of Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The Euglossini community structure was analyzed by attracting males with the scents eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, benzyl benzoate and methyl salicylate, and by netting bees on flowers. The samplings took place three times a month along one year from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. The scent baits attracted 670 individuals belonging to seven species of three genus. The predominant species were Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 (76.6% and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (21.8%. Euglossini males visited the scents along the whole year, being more abundant in May and in August. The most efficient fragrance was eucalyptol, attracting 624 individuals of five species. The males abundance fluctuated along the day, being the highest frequency observed between 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. Forty eigth Euglossini females of four species were netted visiting flowers of 14 plant species belonging to 13 families. Solanaceae and Caesalpiniaceae were the most visited. The species catched on flowers were Euglossa cordata, Eulaema nigrita, Euplusia mussitans (Fabricius, 1787 and Eulaema meriana flavescens Friese 1899. Euglossa cordata was the predominant species on flowers (64.6%, being collected during almost the whole year. Euplusia mussitans was the only species netted on flowers which males were not sampled on the scents.

  10. Estudo Comparativo das Sensilas Antenais de Operárias de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae de Diferentes Altitudes

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    Marcília Aparecida Nascimento

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensilas são estruturas sensoriais presentes nas antenas dos insetos e são responsáveis pela higro- quimio-, termo- e mecanorrecepção. No presente trabalho, as sensilas presentes nos três flagelômeros (F mais distais de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenopera: Apidae coletadas em diferentes altitudes (200 e acima de 900m foram avaliadas qualitativamente e quantitativamente. A identificação, contagem e medição das sensilas foram feitas a partir de imagens da superfície dorsal das antenas que foram obtidas com o auxílio de microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram observadas as sensilas placoide, basicônica, celocônica, ampulácea, campaniforme e tricoide reta e curvada. Comparativamente, o grupo localizado a 200m de altitude possui sensilas tricoides retas em maior quantidade nos três flagelômeros, enquanto que o grupo de altitudes acima de 900m apresentou maior quantidade de sensilas tricoides curvadas no F9, sendo as mesmas maiores para o F10. Essas diferenças foram discutidas em função da localização geográfica dos diferentes grupos aqui estudados. Os resultados da investigação da estrutura antenal de M. scutellaris contribuem para um melhor entendimento da biologia dessa espécie.

  11. Interactions between carpenter bees and orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae Interações entre abelhas carpinteiras e abelhas das orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae em flores de Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae

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    Charles Fernando dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition between two species of bees for the same type of floral resource may generate antagonistic behavior between them, especially in cultivated areas where food resources are limited, seasonally and locally. In this study, was tested the hypothesis of antagonism between two solitary bee species of the family Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini and Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini, visiting the Brazil nut flowers (Bertholletia excelsa: Lecythidaceae in a central Amazonia agricultural area. The visitation time was analyzed to detect the possible temporal overlap in the foraging of these bees. Furthermore, was analyzed their interspecific interactions for manipulating flower species visited by an opponent species, as well as attempts to attack this opponent. The individuals of Xylocopa frontalis visited the Brazil nut flowers before Eulaema mocsaryi, although the peak visitation of both did not presented significant differences. Neither of the species manipulated flowers recently visited by opponent species, and there were practically no antagonistic interactions between them. Thus, X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi shared the same food source in the flowers of B. excelsa due to differences in their time of visits and non-aggressive way of interacting with the opponent. This result has important implications for pollinating the Brazil nut, and a possible management of X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi, since these two were the most abundant pollinators in the studied locality.A competição entre duas espécies de abelhas por um mesmo tipo de recurso floral pode gerar comportamentos antagônicos entre elas, principalmente, dentro de áreas cultivadas, onde o recurso alimentar é limitado sazonalmente e localmente. No presente trabalho, foi testada a hipótese de antagonismo entre duas espécies de abelhas solitárias da família Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini e Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini em flores da castanheira do Brasil (Bertholletia

  12. Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 = Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apidae associadas às flores do pau-de-balsa Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788

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    Carla Regina Guimarães Brighenti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the familyApidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the genera Partamona and Trigona (677 individuals, which were considered of constant occurrence. Flowers producing up to 16.7 nectar mL were found. The nectar diet contained 16.44% of total sugar, and resulted in low survival of the bees in laboratory (31.32 . 2.37 hours, compared to a diet of 50% aqueous solution of honey (112.32 .2.03 hours.A flor do pau-de-balsa produz cerca de 10 a 15 mL de néctar, útil na atração de polinizadores, uma vez que o gênero Ochroma é incapaz de fazer autofecundação. É observada intensa mortalidade de abelhas em suas flores. Objetivou-se realizar o levantamento da frequência e constância de mortalidade de indivíduos da família Apidae, sendo os dados levantados no período de junho a agosto de 2008 em Lavras, MinasGerais, Brasil. Além disso, avaliou-se a sobrevivência de abelhas africanizadas alimentadas com o néctar desta flor quando comparados com aquelas alimentadas com solução aquosa de mel a 50%. Foram analisadas 40 flores e coletados 949 indivíduos das Ordens: Hymenoptera (98,1%, Hemiptera (0,95%, Coleoptera (0,74% e Diptera (0,21%. Dentre os himenópteros os mais frequentes foram dos g

  13. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States.

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    Koch, Jonathan B; Lozier, Jeffrey; Strange, James P; Ikerd, Harold; Griswold, Terry; Cordes, Nils; Solter, Leellen; Stewart, Isaac; Cameron, Sydney A

    2015-01-01

    Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus) are pollinators of wild and economically important flowering plants. However, at least four bumble bee species have declined significantly in population abundance and geographic range relative to historic estimates, and one species is possibly extinct. While a wealth of historic data is now available for many of the North American species found to be in decline in online databases, systematic survey data of stable species is still not publically available. The availability of contemporary survey data is critically important for the future monitoring of wild bumble bee populations. Without such data, the ability to ascertain the conservation status of bumble bees in the United States will remain challenging. This paper describes USBombus, a large database that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bumble bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the United States was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affinis, B. occidentalis, B. pensylvanicus, and B. terricola. Prior to our national survey of bumble bees in the United States from 2007 to 2010, there have only been regional accounts of bumble bee abundance and richness. In addition to surveying declining bumble bees, we also collected and documented a diversity of co-occuring bumble bees. However we have not yet completely reported their distribution and diversity onto a public online platform. Now, for the first time, we report the geographic distribution of bumble bees reported to be in decline (Cameron et al. 2011), as well as bumble bees that appeared to be stable on a large geographic scale in the United States (not in decline). In this database we report a total of 17,930 adult occurrence records across 397 locations and 39 species of Bombus detected in our national survey. We summarize their abundance and distribution across the United States and

  14. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.Filogenia e revisão taxonômica das abelhas do gênero Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, com comentários sobre o poliformismo cefálico das fêmeas. São apresentadas uma revisão taxonômica e filogenia para as espécies de Rhinocorynura. Seis espécies são reconhecidas, duas descritas como novas, R. brunnea sp. nov. e R. viridis sp. nov., e quatro com nomes disponíveis, R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps e R. vernoniae stat. nov., esta última removida da sinonímia com R. inflaticeps. Designam-se aqui lectótipos para Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 e Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906. Outro nome disponível incluído em

  15. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used in migratory beekeeping for crop pollination.

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    Danka, Robert G; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Sylvester, H Allen; Wagener, Christine M; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2012-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated for performance when used in migratory crop pollination. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were managed without miticide treatments and compared with colonies of Italian honey bees that served as controls. Control colonies were managed as groups which either were treated twice each year against V. destructor (CT) or kept untreated (CU). Totals of 240 and 247 colonies were established initially for trials in 2008 and 2009, respectively. RHB and VSH colonies generally had adult and brood populations similar to those of the standard CT group regarding pollination requirements. For pollination of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] in February, percentages of colonies meeting the required six or more frames of adult bees were 57% (VSH), 56% (CT), 39% (RHB), and 34% (CU). RHB are known to have small colonies in early spring, but this can be overcome with appropriate feeding. For later pollination requirements in May to July, 94-100% of colonies in the four groups met pollination size requirements for apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). Infestations with V. destructor usually were lowest in CT colonies and tended to be lower in VSH colonies than in RHB and CU colonies. This study demonstrates that bees with the VSH trait and pure RHB offer alternatives for beekeepers to use for commercial crop pollination while reducing reliance on miticides. The high frequency of queen loss (only approximately one fourth of original queens survived each year) suggests that frequent requeening is necessary to maintain desired genetics.

  16. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinators

  17. Evaluation of spring organic treatments against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in eastern Canada.

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    Giovenazzo, Pierre; Dubreuil, Pascal

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the efficacy of two organic acid treatments, formic acid (FA) and oxalic acid (OA) for the spring control of Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Forty-eight varroa-infested colonies were randomly distributed amongst six experimental groups (n = 8 colonies per group): one control group (G1); two groups tested applications of different dosages of a 40 g OA/l sugar solution 1:1 trickled on bees (G2 and G3); three groups tested different applications of FA: 35 ml of 65% FA in an absorbent Dri-Loc(®) pad (G4); 35 ml of 65% FA poured directly on the hive bottom board (G5) and MiteAwayII™ (G6). The efficacy of treatments (varroa drop), colony development, honey yield and hive survival were monitored from May until September. Five honey bee queens died during this research, all of which were in the FA treated colonies (G4, G5 and G6). G6 colonies had significantly lower brood build-up during the beekeeping season. Brood populations at the end of summer were significantly higher in G2 colonies. Spring honey yield per colony was significantly lower in G6 and higher in G1. Summer honey flow was significantly lower in G6 and higher in G3 and G5. During the treatment period, there was an increase of mite drop in all the treated colonies. Varroa daily drop at the end of the beekeeping season (September) was significantly higher in G1 and significantly lower in G6. The average number of dead bees found in front of hives during treatment was significantly lower in G1, G2 and G3 versus G4, G5 and G6. Results suggest that varroa control is obtained from all spring treatment options. However, all groups treated with FA showed slower summer hive population build-up resulting in reduced honey flow and weaker hives at the end of summer. FA had an immediate toxic effect on bees that resulted in queen death in five colonies. The OA treatments that were tested have minimal toxic impacts on the

  18. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana Record of Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae of the southern Pampas

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    Santiago Plischuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 10(6 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivani, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A mellifera fuera del continente europeo.During surveys for the detection of protists associated to Apidae in the Pampas region, biconcave oval spores, and spore clumps were observed in the Malpighian tubules of honeybees from Dufaur, Saavedra county, southwestern Buenos Aires province. Mature spores measured 4.8 ± 0.05 x 2.4 ± 0.03 μm, and mean spore load was 5.71 ± 1.49 x 10(6 per honeybee. Detections were from July to October 2006, and prevalence in positive colonies ranged from 1 to 16.7%. Morphology of the spores, the site of development, and the identity of the host species suggest that the isolated microorganism belongs to the genus Nephridiophaga and would be N apis Ivani, the type species, knowledge on which is extremely limited. The finding constitutes the first record of a nephridiophagid in honeybees outside of Europe.

  19. Pollen harvest features of the Central Amazonian bee Scaptotrigona fulvicutis Moure 1964 (Apidae: Meliponinae, in Brazil Aspectos de coleta de pólen de Scaptotrigona fulvicutis 1964 (Apidae: Meliponinae, abelha da Amazônia Central, Brasil

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    Antonio Carlos Marques-Souza

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Over a twelve-month period, pollen loads transported by Scaptotrigona fulvicutis Moure 1964 were collected from the workers corbiculae right after the hive entrance closure in an area of old secondary forest mixed with some exotic fruit trees and ornamentals. Once the pollen grains were identified, their monthly frequency in the samples and grouping by botanical family established that Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae were the most frequently visited. The workers harvested the pollen from 97 plant species distributed in 73 genera and 36 families, mostly: Stryphnodendron guianense (Aubl. Benth. in April (57,37% and Schefflera morototoni (Aubl. Frodin in May (54,73%. The harvested pollen types abundance matrix showed that there was little species dissimilarity between the months, which resulted in the formation of two large groups.Durante o período de doze meses, o pólen transportado por Scaptotrigona fulvicutis Moure 1964 foi coletado das corbículas das operárias, logo após o fechamento da entrada das colméias. Feita a identificação polínica dos grãos, sua freqüência mensal nas amostras e o agrupamento por famílias botânicas, constatou-se que as mais visitadas foram: Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae e Sapindaceae. As operárias coletaram o pólen de 97 espécies de plantas distribuídas em 73 gêneros e 36 famílias, sendo as mais freqüentes: Stryphnodendron guianense (Aubl. Benth. em abril (57,37% e Schefflera morototoni (Aubl. Frodin em maio (54,73%. A matriz de abundância dos tipos polínicos coletados mostrou que a dissimilaridade de espécies entre os meses foi pequena o que resultou na formação de dois grandes grupos.

  20. Diversity, local knowledge and use of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-González, Alejandro; Camou-Guerrero, Andrés; Reyes-Salas, Octavio; Argueta, Arturo; Casas, Alejandro

    2014-06-05

    Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas. Our study aimed at inventorying stingless bees' species, traditional knowledge and forms of use and management of them at the municipality of Nocupetaro, Michoacán, Mexico, a region of the Balsas River Basin. We inventoried the stingless bees of the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacán, México, through extensive collecting of bee specimens in different vegetation types. We then conducted semi-structured interviews to local experts in order to document their knowledge and management techniques of stingless bees' species. We identified a total of eight stingless bees' species in the study area as well as three additional unidentified taxa recognized by people through the local names. Our inventory included one new record of species for the region (Lestrimelitta chamelensis Ayala, 1999). The taxa identified are all used by local people. Scaptotrigona hellwegeri Friese, 1900; Melipona fasciata Latreille, 1811; Frieseomelitta nigra Cresson, 1878 and Geotrigona acapulconis Strand, 1919 are particularly valued as food (honey), medicinal (honey and pollen), and material for handcrafts (wax). All species recorded are wild and their products are obtained through gathering. On average, local experts were able to collect 4 nests of stingless bees per year obtaining on average 6 L of honey and 4 Kg of wax but some came to collect up 10-12 hives per year (18 L of honey and 24 Kg of wax). Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area. Information about this group of bees is progressively scarcer in Mexico and significant effort should be done from ethnobiological and ecological perspectives in order to complement the national inventory of bee resources and traditional knowledge and management of them.

  1. Plasticidade de glândulas tegumentares abdominais em Monoeca xanthopyga Harter-Marques, Cunha & Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Tapinotaspidini

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    Camila Gonçalves dos Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Glândulas tegumentares são amplamente conhecidas em abelhas sociais e responsáveis por diversas funções nestes insetos. Entretanto, pouco se conhece sobre estas glândulas em abelhas solitárias. Monoeca xanthopyga é uma espécie de abelha solitária que exibe comportamento peculiar nas estratégias de acasalamento e no processo de nidificação. Este estudo visa verificar a ocorrência de glândulas tegumentares abdominais e a natureza química de produtos secretados por machos e fêmeas de M. xanthopyga, em dois momentos do ciclo vital: recém-emergidas e em período de nidificação. O material foi estudado utilizando-se microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura e histoquímica. Machos e fêmeas recém-emergidas e em período de nidificação apresentam glândulas tegumentares nos tergos III ao VII, entretanto diferem no tipo e na localização. Nos esternos de fêmeas recém-emergidas, as glândulas estão ausentes, já nas fêmeas em período de nidificação estas glândulas estão presentes nos esternos IV ao VI. Nos machos, as glândulas tegumentares estão presentes nos esternos IV ao VI. A análise histoquímica das glândulas tegumentares de machos e fêmeas sugere a presença de produtos de natureza lipídica, possivelmente envolvidos na comunicação relacionada ao comportamento sexual.Plasticity of abdominal tegumentar glands in Monoeca xanthopyga Harter-Marques, Cunha & Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Tapinotaspidini. Tegumentar glands are highly known in social bees and are responsible for a diversity of functions in these insects. However, little is known about these glands in solitary bees. Monoeca xanthopyga is a solitary bee species that shows a singular behavior of mating and nesting. This study is to verify the occurrence of abdominal tegumentar glands and the chemical nature of the products secreted by males and females of M. xanthopyga, at two moments of the vital cycle: just emerged and at the nesting period. The

  2. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae in Costa Rica: population dynamics and its influence on the colony condition of Africanized honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rafael A Calderón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae population dynamics in Africanized honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae colonies was monitored from February to July 2004 in Atenas, Costa Rica. A correlation between the mite infestation level and the colony condition was evaluated. For each colony, infestation of varroa in adult bees was measured twice a month. Sticky boards were placed on the bottom boards of each colony to collect fallen mites. The condition of the colonies was evaluated by measuring the amount of brood and adult bees. Our results consistently showed that mite infestation on adult bees increased significantly in the experimental colonies, rising to 10.0% by the end of the experiment. In addition, the mean mite fall increased significantly over the course of the study in the treated (R= 0.72, PLa dinámica poblacional del ácaro Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en abejas africanizadas, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae fue monitoreada de febrero a julio 2004, en Atenas, Costa Rica. Asimismo, se analizó la relación entre el nivel de infestación de varroa y la condición de la colmena. La infestación del ácaro V. destructor fue evaluada en abejas adultas dos veces al mes. Además, se colocaron trampas adhesivas en el fondo de la colmena para recoger los ácaros que caen naturalmente. La condición de la colmena fue determinada midiendo la cantidad de cría y la población de abejas adultas. La infestación del ácaro V. destructor en abejas adultas aumentó significativamente durante el estudio hasta alcanzar un 10.0%. Igualmente, la caída natural de ácaros se incrementó, tanto en colmenas que fueron tratadas previa-mente con un acaricida químico (R= 0.72, P<0.05 como en colmenas sin tratamiento (R= 0.74, P<0.05, hasta llegar a 63.8 y 73.5 ácaros por día, respectivamente. El aumento de la infestación en las colmenas coincidió con una

  3. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae = Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e Anacardiaceae.The pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentaryresources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae.

  4. O Efeito do Fogo sobre a Comunidade de Abelhas Euglossini (Hymenoptera: Apidae em Floresta de Transição Cerrado-Amazônia (Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Nubia Giehl

    2013-12-01

    Abstract. We evaluated the effects of induced burned on Euglossini bee assemblages (Hymenoptera: Apidae in a transitional area between Cerrado and Amazonia, eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. We determinate abundances, richness and composition of Euglossini in three plots: control plot (unburned, plot burned each year since 2004 (intermediate degradation, plot burned each three years since 2004 (high degradation. We tested the hypothesis that two burned plots present lower male abundances, less species richness and different species composition in comparison with the control plot. We collected male bees actively and passively by using six pure fragrances: β-ionona, benzoato de benzila, geraniol, fenil-etil-acetato, salicilato de metila e vanilina. We collected seven species with no differences in male abundances among three plots (F (2, 12= 0.150; p= 0.8. Estimated richness species in control the plot was higher than the plot burned each three years (12 ± 3.8; 4± 2, respectively, while plot burned each year showed intermediate richness (8 ± 4.35 and higher than plot burned each three years. Cluster Analysis (UPGMA revealed significant differences in species composition of the triennial fire area to the other two areas. Our results suggest that fire occurring with different frequencies in transitional forest promote decreases in richness of species and modifications in species composition. These modifications were clearer in plot more degraded (burned each three years and induce deleterious effects on orchid bee assemblage.

  5. Effects of brood pheromone (SuperBoost) on consumption of protein supplement and growth of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies during fall in a northern temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Breece, Carolyn R

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), nutrition is vital for colony growth and maintenance of a robust immune system. Brood rearing in honey bee colonies is highly dependent on protein availability. Beekeepers in general provide protein supplement to colonies during periods of pollen dearth. Honey bee brood pheromone is a blend of methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters extractable from cuticle of honey bee larvae that communicates the presence of larvae in a colony. Honey bee brood pheromone has been shown to increase protein supplement consumption and growth of honey bee colonies in a subtropical winter climate. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) has the potential to increase protein supplement consumption during fall in a temperate climate and thus increase colony growth. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Oregon during September and October 2009. In both the experiments, colonies receiving brood pheromone treatment consumed significantly higher protein supplement and had greater brood area and adult bees than controls. Results from this study suggest that synthetic brood pheromone may be used to stimulate honey bee colony growth by stimulating protein supplement consumption during fall in a northern temperate climate, when majority of the beekeepers feed protein supplement to their colonies.

  6. Avaliação de diferentes modelos de colméias para abelhas jataí (Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 Evaluation of different types of stingless bees hives (Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811

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    Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de colônias de abelhas jataís, Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Meliponinae na região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, alojadas nos seguintes modelos de colméia: Fritzen, Guiliani, Nogueira-Neto e Antonio Carlos Farias (ACF. O experimento foi realizado no período de dezembro de 1999 a dezembro de 2000, com 20 colônias. Mensalmente, as colméias foram pesadas e obtendo-se o peso da colônia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente utilizando o mês como co-variável e o teste de Scheffe para comparação das médias. As colônias alojadas em colméias dos modelos Guiliani e Nogueira-Neto apresentaram um melhor desenvolvimento diferindo (p = 0,0004 das colônias alojadas nos modelos Fritzen e ACF. O peso médio das colônias foi de 387,3 ± 92,2g, 375,8 ± 72,6g, 241,2 ± 137,1g e 230,9 ± 55,3g, respectivamente, para as alojadas nos modelos Guiliani, Nogueira-Neto, ACF e Fritzen. Os meses críticos foram março e maio de 2000, nos quais ocorreram oito mortes e oito abandonos. Pode-se verificar que as colônias mantidas nas colméias Guiliani e Nogueira-Neto apresentaram uma maior uniformidade no peso. Portanto, pode-se concluir que os modelos de colméias Guiliani e Nogueira-Neto seriam os mais recomendados para a região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná.This research was carried out to evaluate the performance of stingless bees' colonies, Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Meliponinae, in Maringá region in the south of Brazil. Twenty colonies were settled in the following types of hives: Fritzen, Guiliani, Nogueira-Neto, and Antonio Carlos Farias (ACF, with five replications each type. The experimental season was from December, 1999 to December 2000. Monthly, the hives were weighed in order to get the colony weight. Data were analyzed statistically using the month as co variable and Scheffes’s test to compare the means. The colonies settled in

  7. Eficacia del Oxavar® para el Control del Ácaro Varroa destructor (Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Apidae Efficacy of Oxavar® to control the mite Varroa destructor (Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (Apidae

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    Jorge Augusto Marcangeli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del producto Oxavar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman en colmenas de abejas Apis mellifera durante la primavera de 2002 y otoño de 2003. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre un total de 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth que se dividieron en dos grupos iguales. El primer grupo recibió 5 ml de Oxavar® (323 g en 5000 ml de agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas. El segundo grupo, el testigo, recibió 5 ml de agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas. Ambos grupos recibieron tres dosis a intervalos de siete días. Semanalmente, se recolectaron los ácaros muertos caídos en pisos especiales que evitaban que las abejas los eliminen. Posteriormente, en los dos grupos se colocaron tiras del producto Apistan® para eliminar los ácaros remanentes en las colonias y poder así calcular la eficacia del tratamiento. El producto Oxavar® presentó una eficacia promedio de 85,5 % ± 2,8 durante la primavera y 86,1% ± 2,6 durante el otoño, no mostrando diferencias significativas entre las estaciones (p> 0,05. En ambos casos se registraron diferencias significativas frente al grupo control (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of Oxavar® to control Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in Apis mellifera (L colonies during the spring 2002 and the autumn 2003. Work was done at “Centro de Extensión Apícola” experimental apiary located in Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires. Twenty Langstroth hives were used divided in two equal groups. The first group received 5 ml of Oxavar® (323 g in 5000 ml of destiled water per comb covered by honeybees and the second one received 5 ml of destiled water. Both groups received three dosages at seven day periods. Dead mites were collected weekly from special floors in order to avoid

  8. Winter losses of honeybee colonies (Hymenoptera: Apidae): the role of infestations with Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Marc O; Ritter, Wolfgang; Pettis, Jeff S; Neumann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Multiple infections of managed honeybee, Apis mellifera, colonies are inevitable due to the ubiquitous ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and might be an underlying cause of winter losses. Here we investigated the role of adult small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, alone and in combination with V. destructor for winter losses and for infections with the microsporidian endoparasite Nosema ceranae. We found no significant influence of A. tumida and V. destructor alone or in combination on the numbers of N. ceranae spores. Likewise, A. tumida alone had no significant effects on winter losses, which is most likely due to the observed high winter mortality of the adult beetles. Therefore, our data suggest that A. tumida is unlikely to contribute to losses of overwintering honeybee colonies. However, high losses occurred in all groups highly infested with V. destructor, supporting the central role of the mite for colony losses.

  9. Population Growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Colonies of Russian and Unselected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Stocks as Related to Numbers of Foragers With Mites.

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    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Danka, Robert; Chambers, Mona; DeJong, Emily Watkins; Hidalgo, Geoff

    2017-06-01

    Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) is an external parasite of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite-resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. Russian honey bee and other mite-resistant stocks limit Varroa population growth by affecting factors that contribute to mite reproduction. However, mite population growth is not entirely due to reproduction. Numbers of foragers with mites (FWM) entering and leaving hives also affect the growth of mite populations. If FWM significantly contribute to Varroa population growth, mite numbers in RHB colonies might not differ from unselected lines (USL). Foragers with mites were monitored at the entrances of RHB and USL hives from August to November, 2015, at two apiary sites. At site 1, RHB colonies had fewer FWM than USL and smaller phoretic mite populations. Russian honey bee also had fewer infested brood cells and lower percentages with Varroa offspring than USL. At site 2, FWM did not differ between RHB and USL, and phoretic mite populations were not significantly different. At both sites, there were sharp increases in phoretic mite populations from September to November that corresponded with increasing numbers of FWM. Under conditions where FWM populations are similar between RHB and USL, attributes that contribute to mite resistance in RHB may not keep Varroa population levels below that of USL. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Are Dispersal Mechanisms Changing the Host-Parasite Relationship and Increasing the Virulence of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Managed Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies?

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    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Graham, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) are a serious pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), and difficult to control in managed colonies. In our 11-mo longitudinal study, we applied multiple miticide treatments, yet mite numbers remained high and colony losses exceeded 55%. High mortality from varroa in managed apiaries is a departure from the effects of the mite in feral colonies where bees and varroa can coexist. Differences in mite survival strategies and dispersal mechanisms may be contributing factors. In feral colonies, mites can disperse through swarming. In managed apiaries, where swarming is reduced, mites disperse on foragers robbing or drifting from infested hives. Using a honey bee-varroa population model, we show that yearly swarming curtails varroa population growth, enabling colony survival for >5 yr. Without swarming, colonies collapsed by the third year. To disperse, varroa must attach to foragers that then enter other hives. We hypothesize that stress from parasitism and virus infection combined with effects that viruses have on cognitive function may contribute to forager drift and mite and virus dispersal. We also hypothesize that drifting foragers with mites can measurably increase mite populations. Simulations initialized with field data indicate that low levels of drifting foragers with mites can create sharp increases in mite populations in the fall and heavily infested colonies in the spring. We suggest new research directions to investigate factors leading to mite dispersal on foragers, and mite management strategies with consideration of varroa as a migratory pest. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini em ninhos-armadilha no Nordeste do Maranhão, Brasil Nidification of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini in trap nests in Northeast Maranhão, Brazil

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    Fernanda N. Mendes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter dados sobre a ecologia da nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith em três ecossistemas: mata ciliar (MC, mata mesofítica (MM e eucaliptal (EC, utilizandose ninhos-armadilha confeccionados em gomos de bambu, distribuídos em diferentes alturas: 1,5 m e 5-12 m do solo. Foram obtidos 41 ninhos: 31 no EC e 10 na MM, a maioria no estrato superior e com maior freqüência de nidificações ocorrendo no período de estiagem. A razão sexual foi de 1,9:1 (fêmeas/ machos no EC e de 1,08:1 na MM. Cerca de 22% dos ninhos do EC e 40% da MM foram parasitados por Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apidae e Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae. A análise polínica revelou predominância de grãos de pólen de Banisteriopsis sp. (Malpighiaceae e Cassia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae no EC e de espécies de Caesalpiniaceae Kunth. e Banisteriopsis Robinson na MM.This work had as objective to obtain ecological data of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith's nidification in three ecosystems: riparian forest (MC, mesophitic forest (MM and eucalyptal (EC, using trap nests made by bamboo canes, distributed in differentiated heights: 1,5 m and 5-12 m high. A total of 41 nests were collected: 31 in EC and 10 in MM, the majority in the upper strata and with the largest frequency of nesting occurring in the dry season. The sex ratio was of 1.9:1 (females/ males in EC and of 1.08:1 in MM. About 22% of nests of the EC and 40% of MM were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae. The pollinic analyses showed a higher quantity of pollen grains of Banisteriopsis sp. (Malpighiaceae and Cassia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae in EC area and a species of Caesalpiniaceae Kunth. and Banisteriopsis Robinson in MM area.

  12. Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.7103 Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.7103

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    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the family Apidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the genera Partamona and Trigona (677 individuals, which were considered of constant occurrence. Flowers producing up to 16.7 nectar mL were found. The nectar diet contained 16.44% of total sugar, and resulted in low survival of the bees in laboratory (31.32 ± 2.37 hours, compared to a diet of 50% aqueous solution of honey (112.32 ± 2.03 hours.The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the family Apidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the

  13. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixby, Miriam; Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E; Currie, Rob W; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J; Guarna, M Marta

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper's profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E.; Currie, Rob W.; Melathopoulos, Andony P.; Pernal, Stephen F.; Foster, Leonard J.; Guarna, M. Marta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper’s profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. PMID:28334400

  15. A second generation genetic map of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 reveals slow genome and chromosome evolution in the Apidae

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    Kube Michael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bumblebee Bombus terrestris is an ecologically and economically important pollinator and has become an important biological model system. To study fundamental evolutionary questions at the genomic level, a high resolution genetic linkage map is an essential tool for analyses ranging from quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping to genome assembly and comparative genomics. We here present a saturated linkage map and match it with the Apis mellifera genome using homologous markers. This genome-wide comparison allows insights into structural conservations and rearrangements and thus the evolution on a chromosomal level. Results The high density linkage map covers ~ 93% of the B. terrestris genome on 18 linkage groups (LGs and has a length of 2'047 cM with an average marker distance of 4.02 cM. Based on a genome size of ~ 430 Mb, the recombination rate estimate is 4.76 cM/Mb. Sequence homologies of 242 homologous markers allowed to match 15 B. terrestris with A. mellifera LGs, five of them as composites. Comparing marker orders between both genomes we detect over 14% of the genome to be organized in synteny and 21% in rearranged blocks on the same homologous LG. Conclusions This study demonstrates that, despite the very high recombination rates of both A. mellifera and B. terrestris and a long divergence time of about 100 million years, the genomes' genetic architecture is highly conserved. This reflects a slow genome evolution in these bees. We show that data on genome organization and conserved molecular markers can be used as a powerful tool for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies, opening up new avenues of research in the Apidae.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 900 ... Vol 15, No 5 (2015), Efficacy of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties as a source of food and feed in Endamehoni district, Northern Ethiopia ... Vol 15, No 2 (2015), Evaluation of four apicultural products for hive colonization by honey bees (Apis mellifera adansonii) (Hymenoptera: apidae) and ...

  17. Zoologist (The) - Vol 8 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of age of honeybee queens of Apis mellifera adansonii (Hymenoptera: apidae) on the rate of brood production in modern bee-hives · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Effect of feeding frequencies on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae.

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    Wayne Hunter

    Full Text Available The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania. To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control.

  19. Large-Scale Field Application of RNAi Technology Reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan

    2010-01-01

    The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi) has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee) genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates, seasons and geographical locations (Florida and Pennsylvania). To our knowledge, this is the first successful large-scale real world use of RNAi for disease control. PMID:21203478

  20. Short communication. First field assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki aerial application on the colony performance of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Maria del Mar Leza Salord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee populations around the world are experiencing a decrease in colony numbers probably due to a combination of different causes, such as diseases, poor nutrition and frequent applications of insecticides to control pests. Previous studies about the effect of pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk on Apis mellifera L. report different results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of field aerial applications of Btk on bee colony performance, specifically on the brood cell percentage evolution, which can be used as an indicator of queen health and brood development breeding rates. To achieve it, the brood cell surface was photographed in every sampling, and data were analyzed using a method based on image treatment software. A total of 480 pictures were examined from two groups of four nucleus hives in two areas, one receiving aerial spraying with Btk and the other without treatment. A mixed factorial design was realized to analyse the data showing no differences in colony performance between the two groups of colonies either before the treatment, during and at the end of the assay. Furthermore, the brood surface ratio of Btk-treated/untreated increased along the experiment. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that Btk aerial applications did not affect the brood development of honeybees under natural conditions. Nevertheless further field studies are required to ascertain a safe use of Btk in forest pest management.

  1. Efecto del cambio del paisaje en la estructura de la comunidad de abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae en Meta, Colombia

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    Guiomar Nates-Parra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas sin aguijón son unos de los polinizadores naturales más diversos de la fauna Apoidea en los trópicos. Nidifican en diversos sustratos y distintos ambientes, existiendo algunas especies típicas de lugares naturales o artificiales. La alteración del medio donde nidifican tiene un importante impacto sobre la composición natural de su estructura, hecho que se ve reflejado también en la densidad de nidos. Analizamos la composición de la estructura de la comunidad de abejas sin aguijón en tres paisajes del piedemonte llanero colombiano, una región importante por representar la transición entre ambientes andinos y de sabana (seriamente amenazada por la ganadería intensiva. Realizamos muestreos sistemáticos en bosque secundario, agro-ecosistema y zona urbana; registramos la presencia de 204 nidos de 11 géneros representados por 24 especies. La riqueza de abejas sin aguijón fue similar, aun cuando hubo diferencias significativas en la estructura de la comunidad en los tres paisajes. La densidad de nidos por paisaje fue heterogénea y nunca mayor de 16 nidos/Ha. Observamos dos patrones de nidificación y registramos diferente número de especies en la misma zona utilizando otro criterio de muestreo.Effect of landscape change on the structure of the sting-less bee community (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Meta, Colombia. Stingless bees represent one of the most diversified components of the natural Apoidea fauna of pollinators in the tropics. They use diverse kinds of substrates and inhabit varied habitats. Some species are typical for some natural either artificial place. The landscape alteration were this group of bees nests, has and important impact on the natural composition of its community structure, fact which is reflected in the nest density. We analyzed the structure composition of the stingless bees’ community in three environments in the Colombian llanos piedmont, an important region that represents the transition between

  2. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae Comunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinatorsComunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Abelhas Euglossina são importantes polinizadores nas florestas e em

  3. Assessing the Role of Environmental Conditions on Efficacy Rates of Heterorhabditis indica (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) for Controlling Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: a Citizen Science Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth S; Smythe, Ashleigh B; Delaney, Deborah A

    2016-02-01

    Certain species of entomopathogenic nematodes, such as Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar & David, have the potential to be effective controls for Aethina tumida (Murray), or small hive beetles, when applied to the soil surrounding honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives. Despite the efficacy of H. indica, beekeepers have struggled to use them successfully as a biocontrol. It is believed that the sensitivity of H. indica to certain environmental conditions is the primary reason for this lack of success. Although research has been conducted to explore the impact of specific environmental conditions--such as soil moisture or soil temperature-on entomopathogenic nematode infectivity, no study to date has taken a comprehensive approach that considers the impact of multiple environmental conditions simultaneously. In exploring this, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine what environmental conditions resulted in reductions of A. tumida populations in honey bee colonies. To obtain the sample sizes necessary to run a multivariate logistic regression, this study utilized citizen scientist beekeepers and their hives from across the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Results suggest that soil moisture, soil temperatures, sunlight exposure, and groundcover contribute to the efficacy of H. indica in reducing A. tumida populations in A. mellifera colonies. The results of this study offer direction for future research on the environmental preferences of H. indica and can be used to educate beekeepers about methods for better utilizing H. indica as a biological control. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Potential of Bee-Generated Carbon Dioxide for Control of Varroa Mite (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Indoor Overwintering Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to manipulate ventilation rate to characterize interactions between stocks of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and ventilation setting on varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) mortality in honey bee colonies kept indoors over winter. The first experiment used colonies established from stock selected locally for wintering performance under exposure to varroa (n = 6) and unselected bees (n = 6) to assess mite and bee mortality and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) in the bee cluster when kept under a simulated winter condition at 5°C. The second experiment, used colonies from selected bees (n = 10) and unselected bees (n = 12) that were exposed to either standard ventilation (14.4 liter/min per hive) or restricted ventilation (0.24 liter/min per hive, in a Plexiglas ventilation chamber) during a 16-d treatment period to assess the influence of restricted air flow on winter mortality rates of varroa mites and honey bees. Experiment 2 was repeated in early, mid-, and late winter. The first experiment showed that under unrestricted ventilation with CO2 concentrations averaging varroa mite mortality when colonies were placed under low temperature. CO2 was negatively correlated with O2 in the bee cluster in both experiments. When ventilation was restricted, mean CO2 level (3.82 ± 0.31%, range 0.43-8.44%) increased by 200% relative to standard ventilation (1.29 ± 0.31%; range 0.09-5.26%) within the 16-d treatment period. The overall mite mortality rates and the reduction in mean abundance of varroa mite over time was greater under restricted ventilation (37 ± 4.2%) than under standard ventilation (23 ± 4.2%) but not affected by stock of bees during the treatment period. Selected bees showed overall greater mite mortality relative to unselected bees in both experiments. Restricting ventilation increased mite mortality, but did not affect worker bee mortality relative to that for

  5. Efecto de la cantidad de cría de abeja Apis mellifera (Apidae sobre la eficacia del Oxavar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Varroidae Effect of Apis mellifera (Apidae honeybee brood amount on Oxavar® acaricide efficacy against the mite Varroa destructor (Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcangeli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia acaricida del Oxavar® en el control del ácaro ectoparásito Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. El trabajo fue realizado en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se seleccionaron diez colmenas tipo Langstroth que fueron divididas en dos grupos: a cinco colmenas con tres cuadros cubiertos completamente de cría en desarrollo y b cinco colmenas con seis cuadros cubiertos por cría. Ambos grupos recibieron cinco ml of Oxavar® (Apilab, Argentina; 64,6 g/l de ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas adultas en tres dosis a intervalos de siete días. Semanalmente, se colectaron los ácaros muertos de los pisos especiales provistos a las colmenas de estudio con el objeto de evitar su remoción por parte de las abejas. Una vez concluido el tratamiento, en cada colmena se introdujeron dos tiras plásticas de Apistan® (Roteh, Argentina para eliminar los ácaros remanentes y poder así calcular la eficacia acaricida del Oxavar®. Los resultados mostraron que la eficacia del Oxavar® en el primer grupo (85,6% ± 1,4 resultó significativamente superior a la registrada en el segundo grupo (75,7 ± 1,7. Estas diferencias fueron testeadas a partir del número total de ácaros eliminados por el Oxavar® y Apistan® en ambos grupos de colmenas (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of honeybee brood on acaricide efficacy of Oxavar® to control the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. Work was done at Centro de Extensión Apícola experimental apiary located at Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires. Ten Langstroth hives were selected and divided in two groups: a hives containing three honeybee combs full of brood and b hives containing six honeybee brood combs. Both groups received five ml of Oxavar® (Laboratorio Apilab, Argentina; 64.6 g/l oxalic acid in destilled water

  6. Managed Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Caged With Blueberry Bushes at High Density Did Not Increase Fruit Set or Fruit Weight Compared to Open Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J W; O'Brien, J; Irvin, J H; Kimmel, C B; Daniels, J C; Ellis, J D

    2017-04-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination. There were four treatments in this study: two treatments of caged commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies (low and high weight hives), a treatment excluding all pollinators, and a final treatment which allowed all pollinators (managed and wild pollinators) in the area have access to the plot. All treatments were located within a highbush blueberry field containing two cultivars of blooming plants, 'Emerald' and 'Millennia', with each cage containing 16 mature blueberry plants. We gathered data on fruit set, berry weight, and number of seeds produced per berry. When pollinators were excluded, fruit set was significantly lower in both cultivars (58%). Berry weight was not significantly different among the treatments, and the number of seeds per berry did not show a clear response. This study emphasizes the importance of bumble bees as an effective pollinator of blueberries and the potential beneficial implications of the addition of bumble bees in commercial blueberry greenhouses or high tunnels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Termorregulação em colônias de Melipona eburnea (Apidae: Meliponina criadas racionalmente em Rio Branco, Acre

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    Francisco Cildomar da Silva Correia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. A temperatura é o agente climático que afeta mais diretamente o metabolismo das abelhas, influenciando no desenvolvimento das crias, podendo acarretar resultados negativos para produção de mel. O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a diferença da termorregulação de colônias de Melipona eburnea Friese. As observações foram realizadas en­tre 09 de junho e 09 de julho de 2016, 24 horas por dia, utilizando-se dois ninhos de M. eburnea, um em caixa racional e outro em troncode árvore. Utilizou-se Data Logger(modelo HOBO U12 – 012, com exatidão de ±0,35 °C. Verificou-se que o ninho de M. eburnea em oco de árvore manteve uma temperatura média de 31,7 ºC, enquanto que o ninho em caixa racional apresentou temperatura média de 27,8 ºC. A temperatura ambiente variou de 16,6 a 34,2 °C, com média de 23,8 ºC. A espécie M. eburnea em caixa racional apresentou termorregulação inferior à colônia em oco de árvore e também maior oscilação de temperatura. Concluiu-se que M. eburnea mantém sua colônia em homeostase, mesmo quando há variações na temperatura ambiente (ninho em oco de árvore. M. eburnea apresentou termorregulação insatisfatória, quando mantida em caixa racional. Thermoregulation in colonies of Melipona eburnea Friese(Apidae: Meliponina rationally bred in Rio Branco, Acre Abstract. Temperature is the climatic agent that most directly affects the metabolism of bees, influencing at the development of the young being able lead to negative results for honey production. The objective of this study was to know the difference of thermoregulation of Melipona eburnea Friese colonies. The observations were made between June 9 and July 9, 2016, 24 hours a day, using two nests of M. eburnea, one in rational box and the other in tree trunk. Was used Data Logger (model HOBO U12-012 was used, with accuracy of ± 0.35 °C. Was verified that the nest of M. eburnea in tree hollow maintained an average temperature of 31

  8. Variación de la comunidad de abejas de las orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae en tres ambientes perturbados del piedemonte llanero colombiano

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    Alejandro Parra-H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas de las orquídeas subsisten en vastas áreas de bosque tropicales gracias a que mantienen estrechas relaciones con tipos de vegetación particular en diversos micro-hábitats. Con base en este tipo de relaciones con el medio y características biológicas como preferencia por ciertos tipos de néctares y de polen, y diversidad morfológica y etológica de la tribu, es posible evaluar la calidad de un hábitat según la distribución de euglosinos. Este trabajo propone el uso de esta información, además de índices de diversidad para la evaluación de la calidad del medio. Entre marzo y diciembre de 2003 muestreamos tres tipos de paisaje (Urbano, Rural y Conservado en el piedemonte llanero colombiano, usando redes entomológicas y sustancias aromáticas (Cineol y Metil Salicilato. Para las 15 localidades muestreadas se registraron 17 de las 26 especies conocidas para el área. Eulaema nigrita fue la más frecuente mientras que Euglossa magnipes, E. cybelia, E. heterosticta, E. singularis, Eulaema bombiformis, E. speciosa y Exaerete frontalis correspondieron a ambientes considerados de aceptable a buena calidad. La composición y cercanía de fragmentos de bosque son factores favorables. La diversidad relativa (máxima variación de formas y tamaños dentro de la tribu, sería proporcional a la calidad del medio.Variation of the orchid bees community (Hymenoptera: Apidae in three altered habitats of the Colombian "llano" piedmont. Orchid bees subsist in vast tropical forest areas because they maintain close relationships with particular plant species in diverse micro-habitats. Based on the relationships among the environment and biological features (food preference, morphologic and ethologic diversity, it is possible to determine habitat quality using the euglossine array. This work proposes the use of this ecological information, in addition to diversity indices, for the evaluation of environmental quality. Fifteen localities in

  9. Hives (urticaria) on the trunk (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This person has raised, red, itchy welts (urticaria) on the chest and abdomen. The majority of urticaria develop as a result of allergic reactions. Occasionally, they may be associated with autoimmune ...

  10. Ocorrência do pólen de Podocarpus sp. (Podocarpaceae nas coletas de Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 (Apidae: Meliponinae em uma área de Manaus, AM, Brasil Occurrence of Podocarpus sp. (Podocarpaceae pollen on Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 (Apidae: Meliponinae in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Marques-Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de doze meses, o pólen transportado por Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 foi coletado das corbículas das operárias, logo após o fechamento da entrada das colméias. Feita a identificação polínica dos grãos de pólen e sua frequência mensal nas amostras, constatou-se que as espécies das famílias mais visitadas pela ordem de coleta, foram: Cecropiaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae e Moraceae. As operárias coletaram o pólen de 79 espécies de plantas distribuídas em 60 gêneros e 37 famílias, sendo as mais frequentes: Cecropia sp. visitada o ano todo com atratividade em janeiro de 82,03%, Morus sp. com atratividade de 37,46% em dezembro; Myrcia amazonica DC. com atratividade em abril de 32,34% e Pouteria macrophylla (A.DC. Eyma em junho com atratividade de 36,54%. Quanto a Podocarpus sp. esse é o primeiro relato da presença do pólen dessa espécie em coletas de meliponíneos, o que não deixa de ser um fato curioso, uma vez que se trata de uma gimnosperma encontrada em áreas específicas da região amazônica e que apresentou atratividade para Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 de 4,94% no mês de março.Over a 12 month period, pollen was sampled from the corbiculae of workers of the stingless bee Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836. Collections were obtained immediately after sealing the hives, located in a forest fragment in the city of Manaus. Pollen was identified and monthly frequency of each type was tallied. The most-visited plant families in decreasing order of frequency were Cecropiaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae and Moraceae. Identified pollen was harvested from 79 plant species in 60 genera and 37 families. The most frequent species were: Cecropia sp., visited year-round but with highest attractiveness (82% in January; Morus sp., with peak attractiveness (37% in December; Myrcia amazonica DC. with 32% peak attractiveness in April; and Pouteria macrophylla (A.DC. Eyma, with 37% peak attractiveness in

  11. First report of Israeli acute paralysis virus in asymptomatic hives of Argentina Primera comunciación del virus israelí de la parálisis aguda en colmenas asintomáticas de la República Argentina

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    Francisco J. Reynaldi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bee mortality has recently been associated with Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, a proposed etiological agent for a new syndrome known as Colony Collapse Disorder. Bees infected with this virus show shivering wings, progress into paralysis, and finally die outside the hive. During the last years, honey bee mortality became a serious problem for Argentinean beekeepers. We herein report the preliminary results of a survey carried out to detect IAPV in samples taken from several Argentine provinces, by using a reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction assay. Our data indicate the existence of high frequency of IAPV in asymptomatic hives of Argentina.Recientemente la mortalidad de las abejas melíferas ha sido asociada al virus israelí de la parálisis aguda (IAPV, propuesto como agente etiológico del denominado síndrome de despoblamiento de las colmenas. Las abejas infectadas con este virus presentan temblores en las alas que progresan hasta convertirse en parálisis, y finalmente mueren fuera de la colmena. Durante los últimos años, la mortalidad de las abejas melíferas se ha transformado en un serio problema para los productores de miel de la Argentina. Nosotros informamos aquí los resultados preliminares de un estudio realizado para detectar IAPV en muestras de colmenas provenientes de varias provincias argentinas utilizando la técnica de transcripción reversa-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Nuestros datos indican la presencia de IAPV en un alto porcentaje de las colonias estudiadas.

  12. Onde os mais Adaptados Permanecem: Comunidade de Abelhas sem Ferrão (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini em Áreas Urbanas do Município de Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Where the most Adapted Remain: Stingless Bees Community (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini in Urban Areas of the City of Uba, Minas Gerais, Brazil Abstract. The urbanization has caused the fragmentation of various natural environments, taking to loss of many ecological processes in which includes pollination, realized mainly by bees, in special Meliponini species, which has drastically reduced their populations due to loss of habitat for urban expansion. The aim of this study was to survey the species of stingless bees in urban areas of the municipality of Ubá - MG, Brazil, relate the richness and abundance of species found with the percentage of occupation of the structural variables of the urban landscape and relate the presence of the species obtained with these variables. Were found 28 nests belonging to four species, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier and Friesella schrottkyi (Friese. There was no significant relationship between richness and abundance of Meliponini and structural variables of vegetation, possibly due to low values in the number of nests and species obtained. Only T. spinipes showed related to the presence of vegetation. The results show that the Meliponini community is composed by generalist species able to use artificial cavities and ornamental plants as an alternative source of resources, common in urban areas. The results obtained in this study is a warning to current conditions of the plant remaining in urban areas in the city of Ubá, besides may also be used as support in taking-decision on projects for the conservation and recovery of degraded areas, focusing on bees and their importance to the sustainability of these ecosystems.

  13. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061 Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061

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    Carlos Afredo Lopes de Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e AnacardiaceaeThe pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentary resources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae

  14. Estudio sobre la Eficacia a Campo del Amivar® contra Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Research on Amivar® efficacy against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae in honey bee colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Jorge Marcangeli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del producto Amivar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, en colmenas de abejas durante el otoño de 2003. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre un total de 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth que se dividieron en dos grupos iguales. En el primer grupo se introdujo una tira de Amivar® (amitraz, 1gr, Apilab, Argentina en el centro del nido de cría de las colmenas. El segundo grupo, sólo recibió el tratamiento de Oxavar® para determinar el número total de ácaros presentes en las colmenas. Semanalmente, se recolectaron los ácaros muertos caídos en pisos especiales que evitaban que las abejas los eliminen. Posteriormente, los dos grupos recibieron tres dosis en total a intervalos de siete días de 5 ml del producto Oxavar® (Apilab-INTA, Argentina; 64,6 g/l; ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas para eliminar los ácaros remanentes en las colonias y poder así calcular la eficacia del tratamiento. El producto Amivar® presentó una eficacia promedio de 85,05%±3,39 (rango=79,5 91,6, registrándose diferencias significativas frente al grupo control (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of Amivar® (amitraz, Apilab, Argentina to control Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, in Apis mellifera colonies during the autumn 2003. Work was done at "Centro de Extensión Apícola" experimental apiary located in Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires. Twenty Langstroth hives were used divided in two equal groups. The first group received one strip of Amivar® (amitraz, 1 gr in the center of brood area. The second one represented the control group. Dead mites were collected weekly from special floors designed to avoid mite removal by adult honeybees. Then, a total of three doses of 5 ml of Oxavar® at seven days

  15. Control del parásito Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en colmenas de la abeja Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae mediante la aplicación de la técnica de entrampado Control of the parasite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae applying brood trap combs

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    Natalia Damiani

    2006-07-01

    technique as possible control method of mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. Work was done at Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires using Langstroth hives of the local hybrid of Apis mellifera (Linneaus. In each colony, the queen was confined in one brood comb to control queen oviposition. After capped, these combs were taken to the laboratory to uncapp each cell and to examinate the total number of trapped parasites. This technique was applied varying the number of brood tramp combs (1-3 for worker and drone brood cells. Also, the impact of this technique on normal development of the colonies were evaluated by means of its honey production. Results showed that this technique is only effective when three drone brood tramp combs were applied, reaching a total efficacy of 84%. When worker brood combs were used, total efficacy was significant lower (14%. Honey production was significant lower in test colonies compared to control ones. Brood tramp combs technique represent a good alternative method to be combined with other control methods, decreasing the presence of chemical sustances and residues in honey and the possible resistant mite populations.

  16. Ensayo a campo sobre la eficacia del Colmesan® contra el ácaro Varroa destructor (Varroidae en colmenas de Apis mellifera (Apidae Field assay of Colmesan® efficacy against the mite Varroa destructor (Varroidae in honey bee colonies of Apis mellifera (Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcangeli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del producto Colmesan® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson &Trueman en colmenas de abejas durante el otoño de 2003. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en el apiario experimental ubicado en la ciudad de La Plata, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre un total de 10 colmenas tipo "Langstroth" que se dividieron en dos grupos iguales. El primer grupo recibió dos dosis de Colmesan® (amitraz, 2,05 g, aplicadas a intervalos de 10 días. El segundo grupo, no recibió ningún tipo de tratamiento. Semanalmente, se recolectaron los ácaros muertos caídos en pisos especiales que evitaban que las abejas los eliminen. Posteriormente, los dos grupos recibieron tres dosis semanales de 5 ml del producto Oxavar® (64,6g/l ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas para eliminar los ácaros remanentes en las colonias y poder así calcular la eficacia del tratamiento. El producto Colmesan® presentó una eficacia promedio de 70,92% ± 11,93 (rango = 57,92 - 85,42, registrándose diferencias significativas frente al grupo control (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of Colmesan® to control Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in Apis mellifera (L. colonies during the autumn 2003. Work was done at an experimental apiary located in La Plata city, province of Buenos Aires. Ten Langstroth hives were used divided in two equal groups. The first group received Colmesan® (amitraz, 2,05 g in 2 doses at 10 days period. The second one represented the control group. Dead mites were collected weekly from special floors designed to avoid mite removal by adult honeybees. Then, 3 weekly doses of 5 ml of Oxavar® (64.6 g/l oxalic acid in destilled water were placed in each colony to kill remanent mites and the acaricide efficacy was calculated. Colmesan® showed an average acaricide efficacy of 70.92% ± 11.93 (range = 57.92 -85.42, showing significant

  17. Efeito dos óleos vegetais de andiroba (Carapa sp. e Copaíba (Copaifera sp. sobre forídeo, pragas de colméias, (Diptera: Phoridae na Amazônia Central Effect of andiroba (Carapa sp. and copaiba's (Copaifera sp. vegetable oils on phorides, hives's prague (Diptera: Phoridae in Central Amazonia

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    Delci da Costa Brito Freire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento de substâncias repelentes para forídeos é um passo importante para a meliponicultura brasileira, pois esses insetos podem causar sérios danos às colméias de abelhas nativas. Os óleos de copaíba e andiroba, naturalmente encontrados na região amazônica, são muito utilizados pelos povos tradicionais da região como repelentes de insetos. Foi observado o efeito de dois óleos vegetais (andiroba e copaíba sobre a postura de ovos por fêmeas de forídeos em condições de laboratório. A postura das fêmeas foi realizada preferencialmente no substrato pólen e diferiu estatisticamente dos substratos contendo óleo de andiroba ou copaíba, nos quais houve considerável diminuição (até nenhuma postura, e do substrato contendo mel. Esses óleos são uma boa alternativa no controle preventivo e curativo dessa praga em colônias de Meliponineos, devido ao seu efeito repelente, ao baixo custo e disponibilidade na Região Amazônica.The knowlegment of repellants substances to phoride flies is an important step to the Brazilian stinglessbee beekeeping due to the serious damage to the native bee hives they can do. The copaiba and andiroba oils, found commonly in the Amazon region, are very employed by the traditional people as insects' repellants. We observed the effect of these oils over the phoride's laying in laboratory conditions. The female phoride's eggs occurred preferentially in the pollen substrate and statistically differed from those containing andiroba and copaiba oils, which was strongly reduced (until none eggs were laid, and from the substrate containing honey. These oils showed to be quite good alternative for this plague's preventive and curative control in stingless bee hives due to its repellant effect, low cost, and availability to get it in the region.

  18. Índices de prevalencia del ácaro Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en cuadros de cría nuevos o previamente utilizados por Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in new and old honeybee brood combs of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Jorge, A. Marcangeli

    2007-07-01

    evaluate infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in new and old honeybee brood combs of creole honeybee (hybrid of Apis mellifera mellifera Linnaeus and Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. Work was done at Coronel Vidal city on 20 Langstroth hives during spring months 2005. In each colony an old frame (2 years and a new one were selected and placed in the middle of brood chamber. When both frames were operculated, they were carried to the laboratory for inspection. Each cell was desoperculated and total number of mite adult female was registered. Infestation level was calculated as number of infested cells divided by total number of desoperculated cells. Results showed significant differences between old and new comb infestation levels (13.52% ± 3.35 and 6.18% ± 2.12 respectively; t = 10.62; p = 1.9 E-9; g. l.= 19. Same results were observed in the average number of mites in combs (443.3 ± 70.54 and 217.85 ± 51.76 for old and new combs respectively; t = 23.87; p = 1.24 E-15; g. l.= 19. Mites show a strong preference for old combs directed by attractant alien scents of brood cells. Also, these scents masked the mites and prevent to honeybees to eliminate them by hygienic behaviour.

  19. Substituição natural de rainhas fisogástricas e distância de vôo dos machos em Tiuba (Melipona compressipes fasciculata Smith, 1854 e Uruçu (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Apidae, Meliponini Natural substitutions of queens and flight distance of males in tiuba (Melipona compressipes fasciculata Smith, 1854 and uruçu (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Apidae, Meliponini

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    Gislene Almeida Carvalho-Zilse

    2004-12-01

    inseminated in near the hive, therefore, gene dispersion depends more upon the males and of the occupation of a new cavity for nest.

  20. System, subsystem, hive: boundary problems in computational theories of consciousness

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    Tomer Fekete

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious will do so for some – perhaps most – of its subsystems, as well as for irrelevantly extended systems (e.g., the original system augmented with physical appendages that contribute nothing to the properties supposedly supporting consciousness, and for aggregates of individually conscious systems (e.g., groups of people. This problem suggests that the properties that are being measured are epiphenomenal to consciousness, or else it implies a bizarre proliferation of minds. We propose that a solution to the boundary problem can be found by identifying properties that are intrinsic or systemic: properties that clearly differentiate between systems whose existence is a matter of fact, as opposed to those whose existence is a matter of interpretation (in the eye of the beholder. We argue that if a putative MoC can be shown to be systemic, this ipso facto resolves any associated boundary issues. As test cases, we analyze two recent theories of consciousness in light of our definitions: the Integrated Information Theory and the Geometric Theory of consciousness.

  1. HiveScience: A Citizen Science Project for Beekeepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee health is affected by multiple factors including parasites, disease, poor nutrition, pesticides and agronomic practices. The value of honey bees goes far beyond providing honey; honey bees pollinate 90 commercial crops and add $11.5 billion in value to agricultural cro...

  2. HiveScience: A Citizen Science Project for Beekeepers##

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past decade, beekeepers have been experiencing unacceptably high colony losses while the demand for insect-pollinated crops has tripled during the same time period. Underscoring the need to develop reliable methods for predicting colony health, the United States Departme...

  3. Heterogeneous Systems for Information-Variable Environments (HIVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    predicted where steering mistakes were likely along a future reference trajectory . ................................................................ 119...placed on the outer canthus of each eye and above and below the right orbital fossa to record electro-oculogram (EOG). Continuous EEG data were...This strategy could be unnecessarily sensitive to FPs, and a method that models trajectories , for example,117 might reduce FPs. However, the

  4. From the hive: Honey, a novel weapon against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badolato, Mariateresa; Carullo, Gabriele; Cione, Erika; Aiello, Francesca; Caroleo, Maria Cristina

    2017-12-15

    Nowadays there is a folk medicine branch called apitherapy that aims to treat diseases with bee products, including honey. Honey has long been known for its medicinal and health promoting properties. It encloses numerous types of phytochemicals with high phenolic and flavonoid content, which contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Varieties and variants of polyphenols in honey showed antiproliferative property against several types of cancer. This review focuses on the latest discoveries about the key role of honey in different stages of carcinogenesis, initiation, proliferation and progression, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on its adjuvant effect in cancer therapy. Although a possible application of honey and its active compounds as drugs against cancer is still far away from clinical practice, scientific results highlight that they could be used as immune booster for patients undergoing chemotherapy. They showed protective effects against the common exasperating and disabling side effects, mostly mucositis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Thumping the hive Russian neocortical warfare in Chechnya

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Since the 1994 Chechen war, analysts have written volumes about the evolution of-and lessons learned from-this ongoing conflict. Why has success eluded this Cold War superpower in subduing the small Caucasian republic? Russia has since hiccupped back and forth across the spectrum of conflict in the region and the years have provided much speculation as to why. For a decade, researchers have described Chechen terror, erosion of the Russian...

  6. Bee Hive management and colonisation: a practical approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bee-keeping is fast becoming a big business although the practice requires an understanding of the nature and preferences of the honey bee. These will include knowledge of the types of housing and how to maintain the structures; method of attracting bees to colonies, the erected structure and the way to relate to bees in ...

  7. Reproduction in eusocial bees (Apidae: Apini, Meliponini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinh, T.X.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents some key aspects of the regulation and the mechanisms of colony reproduction in honeybees and stingless bees. Special attention is paid to key questions about how the production of males, gynes and swarms takes place, and what intranidal and extranidal factors are related to

  8. Efficacy of two fungus-based biopesticide against the honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelaal A; Abd-Elhady, Hany K

    2013-08-15

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) (Acari: Varroidae), is known as the most serious ectoparasitic mite on honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the world. Based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi, two commercial preparations; Bioranza (Metarhizium anisopliae) and Biovar (Beauveria bassiana) were evaluated through application into the hives against varroa mite. Data showed significant differences between treatments with Bioranza and Biovar, the results were significant after 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Mean a daily fallen mite individual was significantly different between the hives before and after the applications of the two biopesticides and wheat flour. Also, mites' mortality was, significantly, different between the hives before and after treatments. There were significant differences between treatments with the two biopesticides in worker's body weight. Bioranza and Biovar did not infect the honeybee in larval, prepupal, pupal and adult stages. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images showed spores and hyphae penetration through stigma and wounds on varroa. The results suggest that Bioranza and Biovar are potentially are effective biopesticides against V. destructor in honeybee colonies.

  9. Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae infected with Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia

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    Santiago Plischuk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heavy infections caused by a microsporidium were detected in midgut epithelium cells of two adult workers of the bumble bee Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier collected near Puerto Iguazú, Misiones province, Argentina. Microsporidium rRNA (16S small subunit was amplified by 218MITOC primers and produced amplicons indicating presence of Nosema ceranae Fries et al., a virulent pathogen of more than 20 bee species, possibly involved in Apis mellifera L. Colony Collapse Disorder. Campaigns in search of B. brasiliensis between 2008 and 2015 have revealed a possible narrower range in the southeastern area of its known distribution. Effects of N. ceranae infections could be modulating their populations and should not be overlooked. In addition, the wide host range of this microsporidium makes it a potential threat to several endemic bees such as stingless (Meliponini and orchid bees (Euglossini.

  10. Does beekeeping reduce genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Zilse, G A; Costa-Pinto, M F F; Nunes-Silva, C G; Kerr, W E

    2009-06-30

    Many factors have contributed to reductions in wild populations of stingless bees, such as: deforestation, displacement and destruction of nests by honey gatherers, as well as use of insecticides and other agrochemicals. All of these can potentially affect the populational structure of native species. We analyzed genetic variability and populational structure of Melipona scutellaris, based on five microsatellite loci, using heterologous primers of M. bicolor. Samples were taken from 43 meliponaries distributed among 30 sites of four northeastern states of Brazil (Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia). Thirty-one alleles were found to be well distributed among the populations, with sizes ranging from 85 to 146 bp. In general, there was a variable distribution and frequency of alleles among populations, with either exclusive and/or fixed alleles at some sites. The population of Pernambuco was the most polymorphic, followed by Bahia, Alagoas and Sergipe. The heterozygosity was Ho = 0.36 on average, much lower than what has been reported for M. bicolor (Ho = 0.65). Most populations were not under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found a higher variation within rather than among populations, indicating no genetic structuring in those bees maintained in meliponaries. This apparent homogenization may be due to intense beekeeping activity, including exchange of genetic material among beekeepers. Based on our findings, we recommend more studies of meliponaries and of wild populations in order to help orient management and conservation of these native pollinators.

  11. A new subgenus of Heterotrigona from New Guinea (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Michael S.; Rasmussen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    A new subgenus is established within the Indomalayan stingless bee genus Heterotrigona Schwarz (Meliponini). Sahulotrigona Engel & Rasmussen, new subgenus, is distinguished from amongst other Heterotrigona, particularly the subgenus Platytrigona Moure, within which one of the two included species...

  12. Diploid Male Production of Two Amazonian Melipona Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diploid male has already been recorded for Melipona Illger, and herein, in Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell and Melipona interrupta manaosensis Schwarz. This paper was carried out at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, AM, Brazil. We produced and monitored 31 new colonies of M. s. merrillae and 32 new colonies of M. i. manaosensis. We sampled 2,995 pupae of M. s. merrillae and 2,020 of M. i. manaosensis. In colonies with a 1 : 1 sex ratio, male diploidy was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis and workers’ behavior. We estimated 16 sex-determining alleles in M. s. merrillae and 22 in M. i. manaosensis. In colonies of M. i. manaosensis in a 1 : 1 sex ratio, workers killed the males and the queen that produced them soon after they emerged, as predicted. This behavior was not registered for M. s. merrillae, and sex ratios did not stay 1 : 1, indicating polyandry for this species.

  13. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity in the bumblebee, Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae.

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    Peter Skorupski

    Full Text Available The bumblebee Bombus impatiens is increasingly used as a model in comparative studies of colour vision, or in behavioural studies relying on perceptual discrimination of colour. However, full spectral sensitivity data on the photoreceptor inputs underlying colour vision are not available for B. impatiens. Since most known bee species are trichromatic, with photoreceptor spectral sensitivity peaks in the UV, blue and green regions of the spectrum, data from a related species, where spectral sensitivity measurements have been made, are often applied to B impatiens. Nevertheless, species differences in spectral tuning of equivalent photoreceptor classes may result in peaks that differ by several nm, which may have small but significant effects on colour discrimination ability. We therefore used intracellular recording to measure photoreceptor spectral sensitivity in B. impatiens. Spectral peaks were estimated at 347, 424 and 539 nm for UV, blue and green receptors, respectively, suggesting that this species is a UV-blue-green trichromat. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity peaks are similar to previous measurements from Bombus terrestris, although there is a significant difference in the peak sensitivity of the blue receptor, which is shifted in the short wave direction by 12-13 nm in B. impatiens compared to B. terrestris.

  14. A survey of indigenous knowledge of stingless bees (Apidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They however do not know the role of stingless bees in the pollination of their crops. Even though the indigenous people recognize stingless bee honey as highly medicinal, no attempt has been made to manage the bees for their benefits. Harvesting of honey has been mainly destructive and this research is opening up an ...

  15. Phylogenetic divergence of the Australian allodapine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Nicholas J; Schwarz, Michael P; Cooper, Steve J B

    2003-05-01

    Allodapine bees are most diverse in Africa but are distributed throughout the Old World tropical and Austral regions. They are considered useful for studies into the evolution of social behaviour since they exhibit the full range of social organisation from solitary to highly eusocial (sensu; ). Five genera are found in Australia, namely Braunsapis, Exoneurella, Exoneura, Brevineura, and Inquilina. Sociality and life histories are well documented for the exoneurine genera (review in ) and Inquilina is an obligate social parasite of species of Exoneura (). In this paper, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods using molecular sequence data from two mitochondrial gene regions (cyt b and COI) and a single nuclear gene region (EF-1alpha) are used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the Australian allodapine genera. Results suggest that the exoneurine group (Brevineura, Exoneurella, and Exoneura+Inquilina) diverged very rapidly and are monophyletic to the exclusion of other (primarily African) allodapine genera. A clade containing Australian species of Braunsapis is also monophyletic to the exclusion of African congeners. Braunsapis is not phylogenetically close to, and is a more derived group than the exoneurine group and probably came to occupy the Australian plate via a later dispersal through the southern Asian region. It is unclear at this point how the exoneurine group came to occupy the Australian plate and possible scenarios are discussed.

  16. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gastauer, Markus; Campos, Lucio A. O.; WITTMANN, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini) collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of t...

  17. Gynandromorphy in Eulaema atleticana Nemésio (Apidae, Euglossini

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    Maxwell Silveira

    2012-12-01

    Resumo. É descrito um espécime ginandromorfo de Eulaema atleticana Nemésio. O primeiro registrado em Eulaema. O espécime foi coletado em armadilha de cheiro, na reserva da Mata do Buraquinho, um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, localizado no perímetro urbano da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Nordeste, Brasil. O espécime apresenta assimetria bilateral e anteroposterior. A cabeça possui apenas caracteres de macho. O mesossoma é composto por caracteres de macho e fêmea, com as pernas anteriores e medianas apresentando caracteres de macho. Nas pernas posteriores, a tíbia direita apresenta um mosaico de caracteres masculinos e femininos com rudimentos do órgão tibial e da corbícula. Todas as características do metassoma são de fêmea.

  18. [Fungi microbiot of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Richard E; Feijó, Francisco M C; Alves, Nilza D; Lima, Paulo M; Pereira, Daniel S; Freitas, Carlos C O

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the occurrence of filamentous fungi found on the surface of the bees body from the specie Melipona subnitida Ducke that inhabits rocky places on the semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. Bees with cause of natural death were collected of beehives belonging to the Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido. We found the fungi: Aspergillus sp. 6 (37.5%); Aspergillus niger 2 (12.5%); Penicilium sp. 2 (12.5%); Aspergillus terreus 1 (6.3%); Curvularia sp. 1 (6.35%); Monilia sp. 1 (6.3%); Nigrospora sp. 1 (6.3%); Cladosporium sp. 1 (6.3%); Tricoderma sp. 1 (6.3%).

  19. NEW CASES OF GYNANDROMORPHISM IN XYLOCOPA LATREILLE, 1802 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE

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    PAULA CAETANO ZAMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gynandromorphism is the most common case of sexual anomaly reported in bees and is characterized by individuals that show male and female traits simultaneously in the body. Gynandromorphic cases have been reported for 140 species of bees, an underestimated number comparing to the twenty thousand bee species described nowadays. Here we describe and illustrate the first case of a gynandromorphic Xylocopa darwini Cockerell, 1926 and the fourth case of Xylocopa varipuncta Patton, 1879. The specimens show a mixed form of gynandromorphism with predominantly female features and with all its male traits concentrated in one side of the body, right side in X. darwini and left side in X. varipuncta. The gynanders of X. darwini and X. varipuncta were collected on Isabela Island (Galapagos - Ecuador and Riverside (California - USA, and were deposited in Smithsonian Collection and California Academy of Sciences, respectively. Including this work, eighteen cases of gynandromorphism were reported to Xylocopa and twelve were recorded from Neoxylocopa subgenus.

  20. Flight activity of Melipona asilvai Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    B. A. Souza

    Full Text Available Many stingless bee species are specific to their areas of occurrence. Even when adapted to their local climate and flora conditions, they are subject to modifications in the environment, directly influencing flight activity. The aim of this work is to obtain information about the flight activity of the stingless bee Melipona asilvai Moure, thus contributing to the knowledge of this species. The flow of bees entering and leaving the colony was evaluated, and the type of transported material was identified. This information was correlated with climatic data collected at the time of observations, performed between June 2002 and March 2003. It can be proved that temperature was the factor with the greatest influence on the external activity of this species, showing a significant positive correlation with the entry of bees into the colony and pollen collection. Mud collecting showed a significant positive correlation with a humidity increase. Flight activity began at a temperature of 21.0 °C and humidity of 84.5%, peaking at 27.4 °C and 60.6% RH, respectively.

  1. An overview of cytogenetics of the tribe Meliponini (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O

    2017-06-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.

  2. Observations on fragrance collection behaviour of euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Peter W.H. Holland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Male bees of the tribe Euglossini collect volatile chemicals secreted by orchids using dense patches of hair on the front tarsi. After collecting chemicals, the bee hovers while transferring these fragrances to invaginations on the hind tibiae. The fragrance collection and hovering behaviours are repeated multiple times. Here I report preliminary field observations on the length of fragrance collection and hovering phases in bees of the Eulaema meriana (Oliver, 1789 mimicry complex visiting the orchid Catasetum discolor in Kavanayén, Venezuela. I observed that in extended visits with many cycles of fragrance collection and hovering, the length of each collection phase gradually increased, while the length of hovering phase was static. This suggests either that chemicals secreted by orchids are in limited supply or that efficiency of fragrance collection drops.

  3. Abejas englosinas de Colombia (Hymenoptera: Apidae I. Claves ilustradas Abejas englosinas de Colombia (Hymenoptera: Apidae I. Claves ilustradas

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    Bonilla Gómez María Argenis

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eight euglossine bee species are registered for Colombia, distributed in five genera: Aglae (1, Eufriesea (30, Euglossa (60, Eulaema (13 and Exaerete (4. New records for Colombia include: Eufriesea auripes, Ef. dressleri, Ef. fragrocara, Ef. xantha, Euglossa viridis, Eg. azureoviridis, Eg. cognata, Eg. singularis, EI. boliviensis, EI. seabrai and EI mocsaryi. Keys are given for males and females of Aglae, Exaerete, Eulaema and Eufriesea and for males of Euglossa of the 108 Colombian euglossines. A key for the subgenera of Euglossa is presented by the first time. Revisando diferentes fuentes de literatura y colecciones de abejas en Colombia y el exterior se encontró para Colombia un total de 108 especies de abejas de la subfamilia Euglossinae repartidas en 5 géneros: Aglae (1 especie, Eufriesea (30 especies, Euglossa (60 especies, Eulaema (13 especies y Exaerete (4 especies. Se registran por primera vez para Colombia 11 especies de abejas euglosinas: Eufriesea auripes, Ef. fragrocara, Ef. dressleri, Ef. xantha, Euglossa viridis, Eg. cognata, Eg. singularis, Eg. azureoviridis, Eulaema boliviensis, EI. seabrai y EI. mocsaryi. Se presentan claves para las 108 especies de los 5 géneros así, machos y hembras de Eufriesea, Exaerete y Aglae y los machos de Euglossa y por primera vez una clave para los subgéneros de Euglossa.

  4. Dimorfismo em machos de Euglossa mandibularis Friese (Apidae, Euglossina Male dimorphism in Euglossa mandibularis Friese (Apidae, Euglossina

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    Rui Carlos Peruquetti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Males of Euglossa mandibularis Friese, 1899 can be categorized by (1 presence or (2 absence of scutellar tuft (a morphological feature of dense setae found in females' scutellum of the genera Euglossa Latreille, 1802 and Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841. A multivariate statistical analysis using six morphological measures (hindtibia length and width, head width, intertegular span, midbasitarsus length and scape length show that males of the categories 1 and 2 were significantly different in relation to such measures. The width head, hindtibia length and scape length were the measures that most influenced the observed differences. Levene test suggest there is not effect of stabilizing selection on males without scutellar tuft. Since there is a fluctuation in the proportion of males with scutellar tuft occurring in a single population, the observed morphological differences might be environmentally determined.

  5. Comparison of Varroa destructor and Worker Honeybee Microbiota Within Hives Indicates Shared Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Ledvinka, Ondrej; Kopecky, Jan; Erban, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the honeybee Apis mellifera. In a previous study, bacteria were found in the guts of mites collected from winter beehive debris and were identified using Sanger sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. In this study, community comparison and diversity analyses were performed to examine the microbiota of honeybees and mites at the population level. The microbiota of the mites and honeybees in 26 colonies in seven apiaries in Czechia was studied. Between 10 and 50 Varroa females were collected from the bottom board, and 10 worker bees were removed from the peripheral comb of the same beehive. Both bees and mites were surface sterilized. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the Varroa and honeybee microbiota. The Varroa microbiota was less diverse than was the honeybee microbiota, and the relative abundances of bacterial taxa in the mite and bee microbiota differed. The Varroa mites, but not the honeybees, were found to be inhabited by Diplorickettsia. The relative abundance of Arsenophonus, Morganella, Spiroplasma, Enterococcus, and Pseudomonas was higher in Varroa than in honeybees, and the Diplorickettsia symbiont detected in this study is specific to Varroa mites. The results demonstrated that there are shared bacteria between Varroa and honeybee populations but that these bacteria occur in different relative proportions in the honeybee and mite bacteriomes. These results support the suggestion of bacterial transfer via mites, although only some of the transferred bacteria may be harmful.

  6. Inside Honeybee Hives: Impact of Natural Propolis on the Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa destructor and Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Nora; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando; Leonhardt, Sara D.

    2017-01-01

    Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera, globally. Propolis intake of 10 field colonies was manipulated by either reducing or adding freshly collected propolis. Mite infestations, titers of deformed wing virus (DWV) and sacbrood virus (SBV), resin intake, as well as colony strength were recorded monthly from July to September 2013. We additionally examined the effect of raw propolis volatiles on mite survival in laboratory assays. Our results showed no significant effects of adding or removing propolis on mite survival and infestation levels. However, in relation to V. destructor, DWV titers increased significantly less in colonies with added propolis than in propolis-removed colonies, whereas SBV titers were similar. Colonies with added propolis were also significantly stronger than propolis-removed colonies. These findings indicate that propolis may interfere with the dynamics of V. destructor-transmitted viruses, thereby further emphasizing the importance of propolis for honeybee health. PMID:28178181

  7. Digital hive project: prototyping a collaborative web portal for the explosive ordnance disposal community

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Information is currently being produced at a volume and velocity that surpasses the ability of individuals to make full use of it within a given time constraint—a condition known as information overload. Advances in technology, namely the Internet, have exacerbated information overload at all military commands. At the operational level especially, leaders are unable to receive adequate timely information necessary for complex problem s...

  8. Life in the Hive: Supporting Inquiry into Complexity Within the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Joshua A.; Peppler, Kylie; Phelps, David; Washington, Dianna

    2011-10-01

    Research into students' understanding of complex systems typically ignores young children because of misinterpretations of young children's competencies. Furthermore, studies that do recognize young children's competencies tend to focus on what children can do in isolation. As an alternative, we propose an approach to designing for young children that is grounded in the notion of the Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky 1978) and leverages Activity Theory to design learning environments. In order to highlight the benefits of this approach, we describe our process for using Activity Theory to inform the design of new software and curricula in a way that is productive for young children to learn concepts that we might have previously considered to be "developmentally inappropriate". As an illuminative example, we then present a discussion of the design of the BeeSign simulation software and accompanying curriculum which specifically designed from an Activity Theory perspective to engage young children in learning about complex systems (Danish 2009a, b). Furthermore, to illustrate the benefits of this approach, we will present findings from a new study where 40 first- and second-grade students participated in the BeeSign curriculum to learn about how honeybees collect nectar from a complex systems perspective. We conclude with some practical suggestions for how such an approach to using Activity Theory for research and design might be adopted by other science educators and designers.

  9. Training a Multiagent Hive Brain for Coordinated UGV Operations (4.4.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-24

    communication. Figure 4. Mazes . Visualizations of the four mazes in which robots were trained for reactivity. Statement of the problem...reactivity, proved capable of eliminating the need for multiple trials of noise in four different robot maze - navigation scenarios (shown in figure 4 of...that evolves a set of nemal controllers for a team of collaborating wheeled robots . The project was also supplemented by DARPA CSSG Phase 3 matching

  10. Altruistic self-removal of health-compromised honey bee workers from their hive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, O; Hayworth, M K; Ross, N P

    2010-07-01

    Social insect colonies represent distinct units of selection. Most individuals evolve by kin selection and forgo individual reproduction. Instead, they display altruistic food sharing, nest maintenance and self-sacrificial colony defence. Recently, altruistic self-removal of diseased worker ants from their colony was described as another important kin-selected behaviour. Here, we report corroborating experimental evidence from honey bee foragers and theoretical analyses. We challenged honey bee foragers with prolonged CO(2) narcosis or by feeding with the cytostatic drug hydroxyurea. Both treatments resulted in increased mortality but also caused the surviving foragers to abandon their social function and remove themselves from their colony, resulting in altruistic suicide. A simple model suggests that altruistic self-removal by sick social insect workers to prevent disease transmission is expected under most biologically plausible conditions. The combined theoretical and empirical support for altruistic self-removal suggests that it may be another important kin-selected behaviour and a potentially widespread mechanism of social immunity.

  11. Digital Hive Project: Prototyping a Collaborative Web Portal for the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    influences individuals’ behavior ad infinitum. Miller evokes the way in which grasshoppers , agitated by contact with their hind legs, are more likely to...make contact with other grasshoppers ’ hind legs, thereby creating the catalyst for a frenzied plague.90 Similarly, participants of collaborative web...maximizing the cognitive potential of a collaborative web portal—aligning the collective intelligence “ DNA ” to its purpose and the use of visual heuristics

  12. Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia Abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini en cementerios de la Cordillera oriental de Colombia

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    Danny Vélez E.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the specie with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del total. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocupación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.

  13. OBSERVACIÓN DE RANGOS DE VUELO DE Bombus Atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae EN AMBIENTES URBANOS Observation of Flight Ranges of Bombus Atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Urban Environments

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    LAÍN PARDO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la capacidad de regreso de Bombus atratus a su colonia midiendo la cantidad de individuos que volvieron a ésta después de ser liberadas a diferentes distancias y en cuatro direcciones (norte, sur, este, oeste. Para ello se trasladó una colonia de B. atratus, proveniente de Tenjo Cundinamarca, al Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogotá, se marcaron y liberaron un total de 100 forrajeras de las cuales regresaron 40. Hubo una relación lineal negativa clara entre la proporción de regresos al nido y las distancias del sitio de liberación, con reducción del número de abejorros capaces de regresar a medida que aumentaba la distancia al nido. El rango máximo observado al cual las abejas pudieron regresan al nido está entre 1.300m y 1.500m y un análisis de regresión lineal predice un rango de vuelo de 1,6 km.The return capacity of Bombus atratus to its colony was studied by measuring the quantity of individuals that returned to it, after being released at different distances and in four directions (north, south, east, west. We located a colony of B. atratus coming from Tenjo, Cundinamarca, at the Department of Biology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. We marked and released a total of 100 workers of which 40 returned. There was a clear negative relationship between the proportion of bees returning to its nest and the distance from the released site, decreasing the number of bumblebees able to return as it increased the distance to the nest. The observed maximum range to which the bees found their nest was between 1,300 m and 1,500 m and a lineal regression analysis predicts a flight range of 1.6 km.

  14. Biologia de nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier, 1841, e o comportamento de seus cleptoparasitas foram estudados em Monte Santo, Bahia, Brasil. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de solo e óleo, dentro de cavidades preexistentes na madeira de uma construção abandonada, assim como em gomos de bambu de 8 e 9 mm de diâmetro. Os ninhos completados tinham de uma a cinco células alongadas, arranjadas em uma série linear e orientadas horizontalmente. O tempo gasto para construir uma célula foi altamente variável, sendo em geral de 4,5 a 5,5 h. Após finalizar a construção da célula, as fêmeas fizeram uma ou duas viagens para coletar um líquido incolor, provavelmente óleo floral, usado para revestir as paredes internas da célula. Para aprovisionar uma célula foram realizadas de cinco a oito viagens de coleta para obtenção de pólen e néctar, e de quatro a seis viagens para coleta de óleo. Imediatamente após a oviposição, as fêmeas fecharam as células usando o solo que elas tinham coletado previamente. Três espécies cleptoparasitas pertencentes ao gênero Coelioxys Latreille, 1809 atacaram os ninhos. Entradas de cleptoparasitas dentro dos ninhos occorreram, na maioria dos casos, enquanto a fêmea hospedeira estava ausente do ninho. As fêmeas de C. (H. trigonoides apresentaram comportamentos defensivos para evitar parasitismo, tais como expulsar os parasitas e guardar os ninhos. Machos de C. (H. trigonoides usaram o local de nidificação como abrigo durante as horas mais quentes do dia, assim como para dormir. Eles deixavam as cavidades no dia seguinte entre 09:00 e 10:30 h. Isto sugere que machos e fêmeas têm padrões temporais de atividade distintos.The nesting behavior of Centris (Hemisiella trigonoides Lepeletier, 1841, and the behavior of their cleptoparasites were studied at Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil. The females constructed their nests within preexisting holes in wood from an abandoned building as well as in bamboo canes of 8 and 9 mm in diameter, using a mixture of soil and oil. Completed nests had one to five elongated cells arranged in a linear series and oriented horizontally. The time spent to construct a cell was highly variable, but it was generally between 4.5 to 5.5 h. After finishing the construction of a cell, females made one or two trips to collect a colorless liquid, probably floral oil, used to line the inner cell walls. Five to eight pollen-nectar collecting trips and from four to six oil-collecting trips were made to provision one cell. Immediately after oviposition, the females closed the cells using soil that they had previously gathered. Three cleptoparasites species belonging to the genera Coelioxys Latreille, 1809 attacked the nests. Visits of cleptoparasites into the nests occurred mainly while the host female was absent from the nest. Centris (H. trigonoides females showed defensive behaviors to avoid parasitism, such as chasing the parasites and guarding the nests. Centris (H. trigonoides males used the nesting sites for shelter during the hottest hours of the day, as well as for sleeping. They would leave the cavities the following day between 09:00 and 10:30 a.m. That suggests that males and females have distinct temporal activity patterns.

  15. Fauna de euglossina (Hymenoptera: Apidae da Amazônia sul-ocidental, Acre, Brasil Fauna of euglossina (Hymenoptera: Apidae from southwestern Amazonia, Acre, Brazil

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    Danielle Storck-Tonon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Machos de abelhas Euglossina foram coletados entre dezembro de 2005 e setembro de 2006 em 11 áreas florestais de diferentes tamanhos na região de Rio Branco, Acre, Amazônia Sul-Ocidental. As abelhas foram atraídas por 6 substâncias odoríferas e coletadas com rede entomológica e armadilhas. Um total de 3.675 machos de Euglossina pertencentes a 4 gêneros e 36 espécies foi coletado. Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius foi a espécie mais comum (24,6%, seguida por Eulaema meriana (Olivier (14,6%, Euglossa amazonica Dressler (10,5%, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (10,5% e Eulaema pseudocingulata (Oliveira (7,2%. Cineol foi a substância que atraiu maior número de indivíduos (23,8% e metil salicilato o maior número de espécies (28 para ambos os métodos de coleta. Foram coletados 31 indivíduos pertencentes a 9 espécies portando polinários. O número acumulado de espécies coletadas na região estabilizou a partir da 48ª coleta. Poucas espécies foram abundantes, a maioria representada por menos que 50 indivíduos. A falta de um protocolo amostral padronizado tem limitado comparações entre trabalhos realizados em diferentes regiões. Contudo, os resultados aqui apresentados indicam que o Acre apresenta elevada riqueza dessas abelhas.Male orchid bees were collected between December 2005 and September 2006 in 11 forest areas of different sizes in the region of Rio Branco, Acre, Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. The bees were attracted by 6 aromatic compounds and collected by insect nets and scent baited traps. A total of 3,675 males of Euglossina in 4 genera and 36 species were collected. Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius was the most common (24.6%, followed by Eulaema meriana (Olivier (14.6%, Euglossa amazonica Dressler (10.5%, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (10.5% and Eulaema pseudocingulata (Oliveira (7.2%. Cineole was the scent that attracted the greatest number of individuals (23.8% and methyl salicylate the greatest number of species (28 for both methods of sampling. Thirty one bees of 9 species with pollinar orchid attached to their bodies were collected. The accumulative number of species stabilized after the 48th collection. Few species were abundant; the great majority were represented by less than 50 bees. The lack of standardized sample protocols limited very much the conclusions derived from comparisons among the majority of studies on Euglossina assemblages. However, the results presented here suggest that the State of Acre is very rich in those bees compared to other regions.

  16. Espécies novas de Anthrenoides Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Andreninae da Argentina New species of Anthrenoides Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Andreninae from Argentina

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    Danúncia Urban

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritas e ilustradas as seguintes espécies: A calderensis sp. nov., A. cordobensis sp. nov., A. gibberosus sp. nov., A. neffi sp. nov., A. punctatus sp. nov., A. saltensis sp. nov., A. sanpedroi sp. nov., A. tucumanus sp. nov. e A. villaguayensis sp. nov. É apresentada uma chave para a sua identificação.Anthrenoides calderensis sp. nov., A. cordobensis sp. nov., A. gibberosus sp. nov., A. neffi sp. nov., A. punctatus sp. nov., A. saltensis sp. nov., A. sanpedroi sp. nov., A. tucumanus sp. nov. and A. villaguayensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated. A key to identify the species is presented.

  17. Notas sobre a bionomia de Tetragonisca weyrauchi schwarz, 1943 (Apidae, MeliponinI Notes on the bionomy of The stingless bee Tetragonisca weyrauchi Schwarz, 1943 (Apidae, Meliponini

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    Marilda Cortopassi-Laurino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a abelha sem ferrão, Tetragonisca weyrauchi tem sua distribuição restrita à região Amazônica. Constrói ninhos aéreos freqüentemente em forquilhas inclinadas de árvores. Os ninhos, cilindróides e verticais, medem cerca de 60cm de circunferência na parte mais larga e 35cm de altura. A cobertura é de uma película fina e maleável com diferentes consistências. A maioria dos ninhos apresenta, na parte superior, um prolongamento com várias protuberâncias e aberturas, ou só aberturas, com diâmetros milimétricos variáveis ao longo do dia, denominado aqui de respiráculo. A morfologia do ninho, com a porta na parte inferior e o respiráculo na parte superior, parece estar bem adaptado ao ambiente tropical em que se encontra. As médias das temperaturas internas de um ninho habitado e outro vazio acompanharam as flutuações ambientais com alto valor de correlação (r=0,98. Os resultados sugerem que a estrutura física do ninho seria responsável por uma pequena parcela na retenção da energia calorífera. Se existe termorregulação, ela deve ser mais evidente acima dos 33ºC ambientais, temperatura onde ocorreu tendência de estabilidade. A grande quantidade de lamelas de cerume ao redor dos favos de cria horizontais, o tamanho dos potes ovóides de alimento ao redor de 1-2 cm de altura, a porcentagem de água no mel ao redor de 27.6%, o aspecto do tubo de entrada com pequenos orifícios, os valores de temperatura em que ocorre a abertura desse tubo pela manhã, entre 21-23ºC, e as coletas de néctar, predominantemente em Myrtacea, fazem com que seja atribuída grande semelhança física e comportamental entre T.weyrauchi e T. angustula. Os ninhos se adaptam bem em colônias tipo Paulo Nogueira-Neto. São abelhas agressivas quando manuseadas. Estima-se que seus ninhos tenham uma população de 2000-3000 indivíduos.In Brazil, the stingless bee Tetragonisca weyrauchi has its distribution restricted to the Amazonian region. It builts aerial nests frequently in trees branches. The nests are 60 cm wide by 35cm tall. The cover is a fine layer, flexible with different consistences. The majority of the nests present, in the upper part, a prolongation with protuberances and opennings, or only opennings, with millimetrical diameters that vary during the day. This structures are here named "respiráculo". The morphology of the nest, with the opening in the inferior part and the respiráculo in the upper part, seems well adapted to the tropical environment. The internal temperatures of the inhabited nest were compared to those of an empty nest. Both values followed the environment fluctuations with a high correlation (r =0.98. The results suggest that the physical structure of the nest would be responsible for the retention of a small parcel of the caloric energy. If termorregulation exists, it must be more evident above the air temperature of 33ºC due to a tendency of stability of these values. There are several characteristics in nest morphology and behaviour that are similar in Tetragonisca weyrauchi and T. angustula: the large amount of cerume layers around the horizontal combs, the oval food pots around 1-2 cm high and the percentage of water in the honey around 27,6%. The entrance tube with small openings in both species is completly open in the morning when the air temperature is 21-23ºC, and the nectar collection predominantely occurs in Myrtaceae. The bees adapt well in colonies idealized by Nogueira-Neto. They are aggressive when manipulated. Their nests have an estimated population of 2000-3000 bees.

  18. A review of the albidohirta group of Ptilothrix (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Emphorini Revisión del grupo albidohirta de Ptilothrix (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Emphorini

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    Arturo Roig Alsina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The albidohirta group of Ptilothrix Smith includes three species: Ptilothrix albidohirta Brèthes, P. concolor sp. nov., and P. nemoralis sp. nov. The group is known from northern and western Argentina and from central Bolivia. One of its species, P. albidohirta, reaches high altitudes in the Andes mountains, up to 3600 m a.s.l., while the other two species occur in the lowlands. A characterization of the group, descriptions of the species, and illustrations are provided.El grupo albidohirta de Ptilothrix Smith incluye tres especies: Ptilothrix albidohirta Brèthes, P. concolor sp. nov. y P. nemoralis sp. nov. Este grupo se conoce del oeste y norte de la Argentina y del centro de Bolivia. Una de sus especies, P. albidohirta, llega hasta los 3.600 m s.n.m. en la cordillera de los Andes, en tanto que las otras dos especies habitan en el llano. Se caracteriza el grupo y se describen e ilustran las especies.

  19. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae Manipulação de resinas pegajosas pelas abelhas-sem-ferrão (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.Para sua defesa, abelhas-sem-ferrão (Meliponini coletam resinas vegetais para colar nos invasores de seus ninhos como formigas ou abelhas cleptobióticas causando a imobilização deles. O objetivo desse artigo é identificar todas as partes das operárias das abelhas-sem-ferrão que tocam na resina. De interesse especial são aquelas partes do corpo que repelem as resinas. Para isso, extensas observações foram realizadas tanto durante a coleta, como no tratamento e na aplicação das resinas. Durante a manipulação da resina, todos os tarsos das operárias encostam-se à resina quando andam sobre sua superfície. Para transportar a resinas das plantas para os ninhos durante o vôo de coleta, a resina é transferida para a corbícula via tarsos e basitarsos das pernas anteriores e médias. Uma vez coladas na resina ou depois que a corbícula foi descarregada, as pernas das operárias são meticulosamente limpas. Utilizadas na manipulação, corte e aplicação da resina pegajosa, somente as pontas das mandíbulas parecem ter, pelo menos temporariamente, propriedades repelindo resina.

  20. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae) Manipulação de resinas pegajosas pelas abelhas-sem-ferrão (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Gastauer; Campos, Lucio A. O.; Dieter Wittmann

    2011-01-01

    For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini) collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of t...

  1. Inventário da fauna de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae do baixo sul da Bahia, Brasil Inventory of the Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae fauna of southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Edinaldo Luz das Neves

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results concerning collection of Euglossinae bees in a mangrove ecosystem in Valença(13º22'08"S and 39º04'20"W, Bahia. These samples were made twice a month, for a year. The chemical baits Citronella, Eucalyptol, Eugenol, Metyl Salicylate and Vanillin attracted 1,144 specimens distributed among twelve species and two genera: Eulaema (Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa (Latreille, 1802. The predominam bee species was Eulaema nigrita (Lepeletier, 1841 consisting of 49.4% of the collected specimens, followed by Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 with 44.88%, Euglossa imperialis (Cockerell, 1922 with 2.4% and Eulaema meriana flavescens (Friese, 1899 with 1.6%. Theothers species, considering sporadic visitors, Euglossa securigera (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa chalybeata (Friese, 1925, Euglossa liopoda (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa townsendi (Cockerell, 1904, Euglossa truncata (Rebelo & Moure, 1995, Euglossa melanotricha (Moure, 1967 and Euglossa sapphirina (Moure, 1968 represented together only 1.8% of the total sample. The Euglossinae were more active from October to May. Eucalyptol was the most attractive bait, attracting 1,120 specimens. Methyl Salicylate attracted 17 specimens, followed by Eugenol, which attracted 04 specimens and Vanillin, which attracted 03 specimens. Citronella was not an attractive chemical.

  2. Nidificação e forrageamento de Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini Nesting biology and foraging of Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Marina Ramos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas pertencentes à tribo Centridini possuem distribuição neotropical e são consideradas os principais polinizadores de diversas espécies vegetais em diferentes biomas. Apesar disso, dados sobre a biologia da maioria das espécies ainda são escassos. Este trabalho relata observações sobre a biologia de Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke, 1910, uma espécie que ocorre no Nordeste do Brasil. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área de cerrado no Estado do Maranhão durante o período de atividade dos adultos. Fêmeas foram observadas nidificando em termiteiros epígeos e em visita às flores de Byrsonima umbellata Mart. (Malpighiaceae para coleta de óleo. O comportamento foi registrado diretamente e através de filmagens. Os ninhos foram escavados, raspando-se o substrato até as células serem encontradas. Um ninho completo foi aberto para exame das estruturas internas e análise do conteúdo das células. A estrutura geral apresentava um túnel principal com células descendentes dispostas linearmente. Foram encontradas células (n = 5 com larvas em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento e uma massa de pólen de consistência firme e pastosa formada por uma grande quantidade de grãos de Byrsonima.The bees belonging to the tribe Centridini possess distribution neotropical and are considered the main pollinators of different plant species in different biomas. Despite of this the biology data of the majority of species remain scarce. This work is about observations of biology of Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke, 1910, specie that occurs in the Northeast of Brazil. The study was made in a cerrado area in the State of Maranhão during a period of adult activity. Females were seen nesting at epigeous termite nests and visiting Byrsonima umbellata Mart. (Malpighiaceae flowers for oil collection. The behavior was directly registered and shooted. The nests were excavated being scraped the substratum until the cells were found. A complete nest was opened for examination of the internal structures and analysis of cells content. The general structure presented a main tunnel with cells descending linearly. Cells (n = 5 with larvae in different periods of development were found. A firmly pollen paste was seen where a huge Byrsonima grains was verified.

  3. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Wyatt A; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata's distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Multifemale nests and social behavior in Euglossa melanotricha (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini

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    Aline Andrade-Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The nesting biology and social behavior of the euglossine bee species Euglossa melanotricha was analyzed based on the monitoring of eight nests found in man-made cavities and transferred to observation boxes. Euglossa melanotricha females usually construct their nests in cavities in the ground, in buildings, or in mounds. In this study, we present new data on the nesting biology of E. melanotricha. The process of reactivation of nests was commonly observed with one to three females participating in the reactivation. The duration of the process of reactivation ranged from 10 to 78 days (n = 31 and were longer during the rainy season. Time spent (in days for provisioning, oviposition and closing a single cell was higher in reactivations that occurred during the dry period.151 emergences were observed (39 males and 112 females. 90 (80.3% of the emerged females returned to the natal nest, but only 35 (38.9% remained and actively participated in the construction and provisioning of cells. The other 55 abandoned the nests after several days without performing any work in the nest. Matrifilial nest structure was regulated by dominance-subordinate aggressive behavior among females, where the dominant female laid almost all eggs. Task allocation was recognized by behavioral characteristics, namely, agonism and oophagy in cells oviposited by other females. Euglossa melanotricha is multivoltine and its nesting is asynchronous with respect to season. Our observations suggest a primitively eusocial organization. These observations of E. melanotricha provide valuable information for comparison with other species of Euglossa in an evolutionary context.

  5. Programmed Cell Death in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Worker Brain Induced by Imidacloprid.

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    Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Ping-Li; Xu, Shu-Fa; Jia, Hui-Ru; Wang, Xing

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are at an unavoidable risk of exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides, which are used worldwide. Compared with the well-studied roles of these pesticides in nontarget site (including midgut, ovary, or salivary glands), little has been reported in the target sites, the brain. In the current study, laboratory-reared adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were treated with sublethal doses of imidacloprid. Neuronal apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL technique for DNA labeling. We observed significantly increased apoptotic markers in dose- and time-dependent manners in brains of bees exposed to imidacloprid. Neuronal activated caspase-3 and mRNA levels of caspase-1, as detected by immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively, were significantly increased, suggesting that sublethal doses of imidacloprid may induce the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Additionally, the overlap of apoptosis and autophagy in neurons was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. It further suggests that a relationship exists between neurotoxicity and behavioral changes induced by sublethal doses of imidacloprid, and that there is a need to determine reasonable limits for imidacloprid application in the field to protect pollinators. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Agricultural landscape and pesticide effects on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) biological traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes in order to study the in situ effects of the agricultural and pesticide exposure on honeybee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural in...

  7. ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini EN CEMENTERIOS DE LA CORDILLERA ORIENTAL DE COLOMBIA

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    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 ce- menterios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La es- pecie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios es- tudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del to- tal. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocu- pación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.

  8. El subgénero Trigona S. Str. Jurine 1808 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae en Colombia

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    Hernández Martínez Édgar Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Colombia se registran 28 de los 29 taxones descritos para el subgénero Trigona s. str. T. (T. albipennis Almeida, 1992; T. (T. amalthea Olivier, 1789; T. (T. hyalinata var. amazonensis
    Ducke, 1916; T. (T. hyalinata var. branneri Cockerell, 1912; T. (T. chanchamayoënsis Schwarz, 1948; T. (T. cilipes Fabricius, 1804; T. (T. corvina Cockerell, 1913; T. (T. crassipes Fabricius, 1793; T. (T. dallatorreana Friese, 1900; T. (T. dimidiata var. venezuelana Schwarz, 1948; T. (T. dimidiata var. dimidiata F. Smith, 1854; T. (T. ferricauda Cockerell, 1917; T. (T. fulviventris var. fulviventris Guerin, 1835; T. (T. fulviventris var. guianae Cockerell, 1910; T. (T. fuscipennis Friese,
    1900; T. (T. hyalinata var. hyalinata Lepeletier, 1836; T. (T. hypogea Silvestri, 1902; T. (T. mazucatoi Almeida, 1992; T. (T. necrophaga Camargo y Roubik, 1991; T. (T. nigerrima Cresson, 1878; T. (T. pallens Latreille, 1804; T. (T. permodica Almeida, 1992; T. (T. recursa F. Smith, 1863; T. (T. setentrionalis Almeida, 1992; T. (T. silvestriana Vachal, 1908; T. (T. spinipes Fabricius, 1793; T. (T. truculenta Almeida, 1984 y T. (T. williana Friese, 1900. Se reportan por primera vez los machos
    de T. (T. hyalinata var. amazonensis y T. (T. ferricauda los cuales se describirán en un trabajo posterior. Se encontró a T. (T. permodica y T. (T. necrophaga como registros nuevos para el país. El subgénero presenta una amplia distribución geográfica y altitudinal, encontrándose desde los 0 hasta los 2.600 msnm, todas las especies se encuentran en los bosques tropicales de Colombia. Existe una alta concentración de taxones (25 taxones; 89% de los taxones del país en la región del piedemonte llanero entre los departamentos de Cundinamarca, Boyacá y Meta. Se presenta una clave taxonómica ilustrada para separar obreras de las especies neotropicales; con diagnosis, comentarios sobre distribución, taxonomía y hábitos de nidificación de cada una de ellas. También se incluye una clave de campo para separar algunas especies del subgénero,
    basada en las características de la arquitectura externa de los nidos. Se discute la presencia de una especie nueva dentro del grupo Fulviventris. Se estableció una colección de referencia y una base de datos para el subgénero en el Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Abejas del departamento de Biología (LABUN de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá.

  9. Geographical patterns of genetic divergence in the widespread Mesoamerican bumble bee Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duennes, Michelle A; Lozier, Jeffrey D; Hines, Heather M; Cameron, Sydney A

    2012-07-01

    Bumble bees (Bombus Latreille) are an important group of social insects, well recognized throughout northern temperate regions as important pollinators of wild and agricultural plants. Little is known about the biology of this group in southern portions of the Americas, especially in Mesoamerica, a region of geological and ecological complexity from Mexico through Central America. One ubiquitous Mesoamerican species, Bombus ephippiatus, is enigmatic. Like many other Bombus, this species is homogeneous in body structure yet exhibits striking intraspecific color pattern polymorphism across its range, leading to uncertainty about its genealogical boundaries. It has been grouped taxonomically with B. wilmattae, a species narrowly restricted to southern Mexico and northern Guatamala. Furthermore, the relationships between these two taxa and a third species, B. impatiens, found only in America north of Mexico, have been controversial. Our phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from mitochondrial COI and nuclear PEPCK and CAD resolves the phylogeny of these three taxa as (B. impatiens, (B. ephippiatus, B. wilmattae)). Additional data from eight nuclear microsatellite markers reveal complex patterns of genetic divergence and isolation among populations of B. ephippiatus across its extensive geographic range, providing evidence for multiple independent evolutionary lineages. These lineages correspond not only to geographic and habitat variation across their range, but also to distinct color pattern groups present in the species. Knowledge of the phylogeny and genetic divergence of the B. ephippiatus group will provide a framework for understanding evolutionary and ecological origins of color pattern polymorphism in bumble bees, as well as providing insight into geographical factors enhancing speciation in Mesoamerica. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Paulo Nogueira-Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943 principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982 presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini should have at least 40 colonies to survive. This number was later extended to 44 colonies by Kerr (1985. This would be necessary to avoid any substantial amount of homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual loci, by keeping at least six different sexual gene alleles in a reproductive population. In most cases this would prevent the production of useless diploid males. However, several facts weigh against considering this as a general rule. From 1990 to 2001, 287 colony divisions were made, starting with 28 foundation colonies, in the inbreeding and population experiments with the Meliponini reported here. These experiments constitute the most extensive and longest scientific research ever made with Meliponini bees. In ten different experiments presented here, seven species (one with two subspecies of Meliponini bees were inbred in five localities inside their wide-reaching native habitats, and in two localities far away from these habitats. This was done for several years. On the whole, the number of colonies increased and the loss of colonies over the years was small. In two of these experiments, although these populations were far (1,000 km and 1,200 km from their native habitat, their foundation colonies were multiplied successfuly. It was possible to build up seven strong and three expanding medium populations, starting with one, two, three or even five colonies. However, in six other cases examined here, the Whiting (1943 principle and the hypothesis of Kerr & Vencovski (1982 and Kerr (1985, possibly hold up. In two other cases, the results are still unclear. Outside native habitats, most inbreeding experiments failed, possibly because of conditions that cause ecological stress. Although much more data are still needed, a new working hypothesis on the molecular level was presented to explain the results of the experiments described here. In the absence of any considerable stress, and in the eventuality of a good nutritive situation, even individual bees that are homozygous in the pair of chromosomic sexual locus would produce a sufficient amount of a sex determining substance. Therefore, the female genes of all the diploid individuals of a colony, both homozygous and heterozygous, would be activated. However, situations of considerable stress would cause a poor physiological and nutritive condition. This, together with homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual locus, would lead to a smaller production of the sex determining substance. When this happens in the diploid homozygous individuals of a colony, in relation to sex, only male genes are activated. As a result, all such homozygous diploid bees of the colony become useless males. However, when there is a heterozygous situation in the chromosomic sexual locus of all bees of a colony, all diploid individuals would produce a high amount of the sex determining substance. Consequently, all diploid individuals of such a colony would become females (queens and workers. Stresses, including ecological stress, as well as the nutritive condition and the genetic situation in the chromosomic sexual loci, will have a key influence in the life and behavior of the Meliponini, including sex determination. In relation to genetic factors, hybrid vigour may often cause a greater production of biological substances. This may be due to the presence of a greater number of copies of allelic genes when there is heterozygosis. This is a hypothesis requiring further research. However, in the experiments presented here, this hypothesis seems to apply well to the production of a sex determining substance in bees (Apoidea and other Hymenoptera.

  11. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Abrahamovich, Alberto H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented. PMID:26798288

  12. Ultrastructure of the midgut endocrine cells in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    C. A. Neves

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the ultrastructure of the endocrine cells observed in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. This bee has two types of endocrine cells, which are numerous on the posterior midgut region. Cells of the closed type are smaller and have irregular secretory granules with lower electrondensity than those of the open cell type. The open cell type has elongated mitochondria mainly on the basal area, where most of the secretory granules are also found. Besides the secretion granules and mitochondria, endocrine cells in this species have well-developed autophagic vacuoles and Golgi complex elements.

  13. CONTENIDO MICROBIOLÓGICO CULTIVABLE DEL TRACTO INTESTINAL Y POLEN ALMACENADO DE Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    DUBERNEY GARCÍA GARCÍA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available .Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transpor- tado en corbículas y tracto digestivo de las abejas (forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se ais- laron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacterias pueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros indi- viduos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.

  14. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  15. Brood removal influences fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hygienic removal of brood infested with Varroa destructor by Apis mellifera disrupts the reproduction of the infesting mites and exposes the foundress mites to potential removal from the colony by grooming. Using brood deliberately infested with marked Varroa, we investigated the association bet...

  16. TUMBUHAN YANG DIKUNJUNGI LEBAH PEKERJA Apis (Hymenoptera: Apidae DI SUMATERA BARAT

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    Jasmi Jasmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research about plant visited by Apis forager was conducted at altitude < 500 m and 600-1400 m of West Sumatra from December 2009-July 2010. The plant visited by forager was collected at radius 500 m from nests in fruits cropping, coffea and cinnamom plantation and forest edge. Honeybee from genus Apisvisit on plant consisted of four species, those are A. andreniformis, A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. koschevnikovi. Plant visited by forager Apis consisted of 61 species belong to 26 families. The number of 36 plant species found at lowland and highland, 20 species only at lowland and five species at highland. Most of plant species visited by Apis forager are Asteraceae and Leguminoceae. About 29 plant species visited by Apis were agriculture crop and 32 species of non agriculture. Apis andreniformis visited 29 plant species, A. cerana 56 species, A. dorsata 57 species and A. koschevnikovi one plant species. Cucumis sativus was visited by four bee species, Galiansoga farviflora was visited only by A. cerana. Five plant species (Rorippa indica, Cinnamomum burmanii, Nasturrium indicum, Rorippa indica and Eryngium foetidum were visited by only A. dorsata. Other three plants species (Mangifera indica, Cytrus aurantifoliaand Oryza sativa were visited by A. cerana and A. andreniformis, 31 plant species were visited by A. cerana and A. dorsata, 21 species were visited by A. andreniformis, A. cerana and A. dorsata. Keywords: lebah madu, Apis forager, food source plant, visit

  17. Genetic structure analysis of Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae populations from southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

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    Silvia H. Sofia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion. The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.

  18. Notes on the nesting biology of five species of Euglossini (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Fernando Carvalho-Filho

    2017-04-01

    Resumo. As abelhas-da-orquídea (Euglossini possuem tamanho médio a grande, corpo parcialmente ou completamente metálico e são relativamente comuns na região Neotropical. Apesar disso, a biologia de nidificação da maioria das espécies permanece desconhecida. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo e fornecer novas informações sobre a biologia de nidificação de cinco espécies de Euglossini encontradas em área urbana e florestada da Amazônia Brasileira. Os ninhos de Eufriesea pulchra (Smithe Euglossa chalybeata Frieseforam registrados pela primeira vez, encontrados dentro de ninho de formiga Azteca sp. e em uma árvore apodrecida caída, respectivamente. O ninho de Euglossa townsendiCockerell foi registrado pela primeira vez em uma folha da planta ornamental Cordyline sp. (Asparagaceae. Euglossa intersecta Latreillefoi registrada nidificando dentro de um ninho abandonado de cupim e Euglossa cordata (Linnaeusfoi encontrada nidificando em uma maçaneta tubular de metal de uma janela.

  19. Una nueva especie de Eulaema (Hymenoptera: Apidae) del Chocó, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Dressler Robert L.; Ospina Torres Rodulfo

    1997-01-01

    Eulaema sorotie is described. It is a sibling species of El. meriana, apparently restricted to the Chocó area of Colombia and adjacent Ecuador, where it probably developed in a Pleistocene forest refugium.Se describe Eulaema sororia, una especie cercana a El. meriana, aparentemente restringida al área del Chocó biogeográfico de Colombia y la zona adyacente de Ecuador, donde probablemente se desarrolló en un refugio de bosque en el Pleistoceno.

  20. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith in southern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    M. L. T. Buschini

    Full Text Available A total of 67 nests of Centris tarsata were obtained from wood trap-nests of different diameters, consisting of a linear series of brood cells built with sand mixed with oil. This species showed a preference for open habitats, since it occurred only in Swamp and Grassland areas and has never been found in the Araucaria forest. Nesting activity was bigger during the hot season, especially in December and January. The Sex ratio was of 1.48:1 (females/males, significantly different from 1:1. The females were larger than the males and these showed no dimorphism. Males were produced in the outermost cells and females in the innermost cells. C. tarsata presented a direct development without diapause in larval stage. They overwinter as adults. Development time was similar for males and females. Natural enemies are Bombyliidae Mesocheira bicolor, Coelioxys sp. and Meloidae.

  1. Orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini in a forest fragment in the ecotone Cerrado-Amazonian forest, Brazil

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    José Max Barbosa Oliveira-Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta información sobre la riqueza de especies y abundancia de Euglossini en la zona de transición entre el Cerrado y la selva amazónica, en la cuenca del río Xingu. Las muestras se recogieron en un fragmento de bosque en el municipio de Ribeirão Cascalheira, Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre el 1 y 5 de noviembre de 2011. Las sustancias puras de benzoato de bencilo, 1,8 cineol, eugenol y la vainillina se utilizaron en la colección activa, mientras que el salicilato de metilo se utilizó en trampas pasiva. Un total de 168 machos pertenecientes a los cuatro géneros fueron registrados, distribuidos en 19 especies. La mayor riqueza de especies se registró en Euglossa, con Eulaema nigrita, la especie más abundante en la comunidad. La riqueza de especies varió entre el borde y el primer punto dentro del fragmento. Los machos de Euglossini eran más activos entre 10:00-11:00 h, y el 1,8 cineol fue la sustancia pura más atractiva. El fragmento estudiado contenía un alto grado de riqueza de especies de Euglossini en una región de la heterogeneidad ambiental extensa, que sigue siendo en gran parte desconocido con relación a su fauna de insectos y merece la atención para la elaboración de nuevos inventarios.

  2. Age polyethism in Plebeia emerina (Friese) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies related to propolis handling

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Camila G dos; Blochtein, Betina; Megiolaro, Fernanda L; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L

    2010-01-01

    Stingless bees collect plant resins and make it into propolis, although they have a wider range of use for this material than do honey bees (Apis spp.). Plebeia spp. workers employ propolis mixed with wax (cerumen) for constructing and sealing nest structures, while they use viscous (sticky) propolis for defense by applying it onto their enemies. Isolated viscous propolis deposits are permanently maintained at the interior of their colonies, as also seen in other Meliponini species. Newly-eme...

  3. Age polyethism in Plebeia emerina (Friese) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies related to propolis handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Camila G; Blochtein, Betina; Megiolaro, Fernanda L; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L

    2010-01-01

    Stingless bees collect plant resins and make it into propolis, although they have a wider range of use for this material than do honey bees (Apis spp.). Plebeia spp. workers employ propolis mixed with wax (cerumen) for constructing and sealing nest structures, while they use viscous (sticky) propolis for defense by applying it onto their enemies. Isolated viscous propolis deposits are permanently maintained at the interior of their colonies, as also seen in other Meliponini species. Newly-emerged Plebeia emerina (Friese) workers were observed stuck to and unable to escape these viscous propolis stores. We examined the division of labor involved in propolis manipulation, by observing marked bees of known age in four colonies of P. emerina from southern Brazil. Activities on brood combs, the nest involucrum and food pots were observed from the first day of life of the marked bees. However, work on viscous propolis deposits did not begin until the 13th day of age and continued until the 56th day (maximum lifespan in our sample). Although worker bees begin to manipulate cerumen early, they seem to be unable to handle viscous propolis till they become older.

  4. Pollination of Rapeseed (Brassica napus by Africanized Honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae on Two Sowing Dates

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    EMERSON D. CHAMBÓ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433, three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011. The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  5. ORCHID BEES (APIDAE: EUGLOSSINI IN A FOREST FRAGMENT IN THE ECOTONE CERRADO-AMAZONIAN FOREST, BRAZIL

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    José Max Barbosa de OLIVEIRA-JUNIOR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta información sobre la riqueza de especies y abundancia de Euglossini en la zona de transición entre el Cerrado y la selva amazónica, en la cuenca del río Xingu. Las muestras se recogieron en un fragmento de bosque en el municipio de Ribeirão Cascalheira, nordeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre el 1 y 5 de noviembre de 2011. Las sustancias puras de benzoato de bencilo, 1,8 cineol, eugenol y la vainillina fueron utilizadas como cebos para atraer los machos usando red de insectos aunque el salicilato de metilo se utilizó en trampas pasivas. Un total de 168 machos pertenecientes a cuatro géneros fueron registrados, distribuidos en 16 especies. La mayor riqueza de especies se registró en el género Euglossa , aunque Eulaema nigrita fue la especie más abundante en la comunidad. La riqueza de especies varió entre el borde y el primer punto dentro del fragmento. Los machos de abejas de orquídeas eran más activos entre 10:00-11:00 h, y el 1,8 cineol fue la sustancia pura más atractiva. El fragmento estudiado contenía un alto grado de riqueza de especies de abejas de orquídeas en una región de heterogeneidad ambiental extensa, que sigue siendo en gran parte desconocido con relación a su fauna de insectos polinizadores y merece la atención para la elaboración de nuevos inventarios.

  6. Effect of bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) pollination intensity on the quality of greenhouse tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandin, L A; Laverty, T M; Kevan, P G

    2001-02-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (Solanaceae), quality in relation to the level of buzz-pollination by bumble bees. Studies were conducted in commercial tomato greenhouses in the Leamington, Ontario, area to categorize bruising of tomato anther cones by bumble bees into five levels of bruising. The number of pollen grains per stigma was determined for each bruising level, and the bruising level was found to be a good predictor of stigmatic pollen load. Experimental flowers were pollinated by bumble bees and assigned to bruising levels based on the degree of anther cone discoloration. Fruit set, tomato weight, minimum diameter, the number of days until ripe, roundness, weight, percentage sugars, and number of seeds were assessed and compared among bruising level. Fruit set in flowers receiving no pollination visits was 30.2%, whereas, 83.3, 84.4, 81.2, and 100% of the flowers set fruit in bruising levels 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Minimum diameter, number of seeds, and tomato weight all increased from no bruising to different levels of bruising. There was no increase in weight or diameter above a bruising level of 1, and no increase in the number of seeds per fruit after a bruising level of 2. We found that pollination of tomato flowers greater than a bruising level of 2 (corresponding to approximately one to two bee visits) did not result in a significant increase in quality.

  7. Nectar profitability, not empty honey stores, stimulate recruitment and foraging in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; de Sá Filho, Geovan Figueirêdo; Maia-Silva, Camila; Schorkopf, Martina; Hrncir, Michael; Barth, Friedrich G

    2016-10-01

    In stingless bees (Meliponini) like in many other eusocial insect colonies food hoarding plays an important role in colony survival. However, very little is known on how Meliponini, a taxon restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, respond to different store conditions. We studied the impact of honey removal on nectar foraging activity and recruitment behaviour in Melipona scutellaris and compared our results with studies of the honey bee Apis mellifera. As expected, foraging activity increased significantly during abundance of artificial nectar and when increasing its profitability. Foraging activity on colony level could thereby frequently increase by an order of magnitude. Intriguingly, however, poor honey store conditions did not induce increased nectar foraging or recruitment activity. We discuss possible reasons explaining why increasing recruitment and foraging activity are not used by meliponines to compensate for poor food conditions in the nest. Among these are meliponine specific adaptations to climatic and environmental conditions, as well as physiology and brood rearing, such as mass provisioning of the brood.

  8. Improved flight and rearing room design for honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, S F; Currie, R W

    2001-08-01

    A detailed technical description of a flight and rearing room for bees is provided, highlighting improvements made relative to other facilities. A primary innovation was the development of a draft-free air handling system capable of circulating large volumes of air with high rates of fresh air exchange and continuous electrostatic cleaning. This design has lead to a dramatic improvement in the quality of air recirculated in the flight room, and has prevented the recurrence of asthmatic symptoms in researchers to bee-produced aeroallergens. Other improvements include the incorporation of high-frequency fluorescent lamp ballasts and the choice of lamp types that provide a greater proportion of long-wavelength energy. Improvements in control system technology also have permitted more precise regulation of environmental conditions and the maintenance of a simulated diurnal cycle. Honey bees foraged in a manner similar to outdoor conditions and were free of behaviors associated with design problems seen in earlier flight rooms. Observations on bee behavior and colony performance are provided, and the utility of studying chemically based foraging attractants indoors is discussed.

  9. Effect of proline as a nutrient on hypopharyngeal glands during development of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proline is known to be an energy source for protein synthesis and appears to have a major role in insect flying metabolism. Insects can detect proline in their food and use it as an energy substrate to start flight and other high energy consuming activities. Honey bee has a feeding preference for nectars with higher concentrations of this amino acid. In this research we present evidence that L-proline can be utilized as a phagostimulant for the honeybee worker (Apis mellifera. We reported the L-proline increase hypopharyngeal glands acini diameter and syrup consumption at the experimental cage. Honeybee workers fed on 1000 ppm treatment prolin consumed 773.9±31.8 ul/bee after 18-days. It is obvious that the honeybee workers consumed 1000 ppm the more than other treatment. The feeding decreased when concentration of L-proline increased to 10000 ppm. The hypopharyngeal glands development increased gradually from honeybee workers emergence and started to decrease after 9 days old. The maximum acini diameter (0.1439±0.001 mm was recorded in the 9th day when newly emerged bees were fed on 1000 ppm proline syrup.

  10. Pollination of Greenhouse Tomatoes by the Mexican bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Carlos Hernan Vergara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican native bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus Say was evaluated as a potential pollinator of greenhouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon L.. The experiments were performed at San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, from June to December 2004 in two 1 000 m2 greenhouses planted with tomatoes of the cultivar Mallory (Hazera ®. For the experiments, we used two colonies of Bombus ephippiatus, reared in the laboratory from queens captured in the field. Four treatments were applied to 20 study plants: pollination by bumble bees, manual pollination, pollination by mechanical vibration and no pollination (bagged flowers, no vibration. We measured percentage of flowers visited by bumble bees, number of seeds per fruit, maturing time, sugar content, fruit weight and fruit shape. All available flowers were visited by bumblebees, as measured by the degree of anther cone bruising. The number of seeds per fruit was higher for bumble bee-pollinated plants as compared with plants pollinated mechanically or not pollinated and was not significantly different between hand-pollinated and bumble bee-pollinated plants. Maturation time was significantly longer and sugar content, fresh weight and seed count were significantly higher for bumblebee pollinated flowers than for flowers pollinated manually or with no supplemental pollination, but did not differ with flowers pollinated mechanically.

  11. Tree resin composition, collection behavior and selective filters shape chemical profiles of tropical bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Schmitt, Thomas; Blüthgen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific "filtering" of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans.

  12. Multi-dimensionality and variability in folk classification of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Fernando; Hilgert, Norma I

    2015-05-23

    Not long ago Eugene Hunn suggested using a combination of cognitive, linguistic, ecological and evolutionary theories in order to account for the dynamic character of ethnoecology in the study of folk classification systems. In this way he intended to question certain homogeneity in folk classifications models and deepen in the analysis and interpretation of variability in folk classifications. This paper studies how a rural culturally mixed population of the Atlantic Forest of Misiones (Argentina) classified honey-producing stingless bees according to the linguistic, cognitive and ecological dimensions of folk classification. We also analyze the socio-ecological meaning of binomialization in naming and the meaning of general local variability in the appointment of stingless bees. We used three different approaches: the classical approach developed by Brent Berlin which relies heavily on linguistic criteria, the approach developed by Eleonor Rosch which relies on psychological (cognitive) principles of categorization and finally we have captured the ecological dimension of folk classification in local narratives. For the second approximation, we developed ways of measuring the degree of prototypicality based on a total of 107 comparisons of the type "X is similar to Y" identified in personal narratives. Various logical and grouping strategies coexist and were identified as: graded of lateral linkage, hierarchical and functional. Similarity judgments among folk taxa resulted in an implicit logic of classification graded according to taxa's prototypicality. While there is a high agreement on naming stingless bees with monomial names, a considerable number of underrepresented binomial names and lack of names were observed. Two possible explanations about reported local naming variability are presented. We support the multidimensionality of folk classification systems. This confirms the specificity of local classification systems but also reflects the use of grouping strategies and mechanisms commonly observed in other cultural groups, such as the use of similarity judgments between more or less prototypical organisms. Also we support the idea that alternative naming results from a process of fragmentation of knowledge or incomplete transmission of knowledge. These processes lean on the facts that culturally based knowledge, on the one hand, and biologic knowledge of nature on the other, can be acquired through different learning pathways.

  13. Tree resin composition, collection behavior and selective filters shape chemical profiles of tropical bees (Apidae: Meliponini.

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    Sara D Leonhardt

    Full Text Available The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific "filtering" of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans.

  14. Pollen storages in nests of bees of the genera Partamona, Scaura and Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    André Rodrigo Rech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees and angiosperms established a mutualistic relationship along the evolutionary time. The aim of this study is to contribute for the understanding of this relation analyzing pollen stored by stingless bees colonies distributed along the Rio Negro. Fourteen species of Meliponini from the genera Partamona, Scaura, and Trigona were studied with regard to the content of pollen pots. The pollen material was removed from the pollen pots, homogenized, and prepared according to the usual acetolysis technique. The overlap of the trophic niche and the grouping of species by similarity of niches was calculated. The identification revealed 78 pollen types belonging to 36 families, being 37 types attractive and 16 considered as promoters of a temporary specialization event. With the results, it was possible to indicate a list of important plants for meliponiculture in the Amazon.

  15. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees.

  16. In vitro effects of thiamethoxam on larvae of Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-09-01

    Several investigations have revealed the toxic effects that neonicotinoids can have on Apis mellifera, while few studies have evaluated the impact of these insecticides can have on the larval stage of the honeybee. From the lethal concentration (LC50) of thiamethoxam for the larvae of the Africanized honeybee, we evaluated the sublethal effects of this insecticide on morphology of the brain. After determine the LC50 (14.34 ng/μL of diet) of thiamethoxam, larvae were exposed to a sublethal concentration of thiamethoxam equivalent to 1.43 ng/μL by acute and subchronic exposure. Morphological and immunocytochemistry analysis of the brains of the exposed bees, showed condensed cells and early cell death in the optic lobes. Additional dose-related effects were observed on larval development. Our results show that the sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam tested are toxic to Africanized honeybees larvae and can modulate the development and consequently could affect the maintenance and survival of the colony. These results represent the first assessment of the effects of thiamethoxam in Africanized honeybee larvae and should contribute to studies on honey bee colony decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quercetin-metabolizing CYP6AS enzymes of the pollinator Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G; Johnson, Reed M; Zangerl, Arthur R; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2009-12-01

    Although the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome contains far fewer cytochrome P450 genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism than other insect genomes sequenced to date, the CYP6AS subfamily, apparently unique to hymenopterans, has undergone an expansion relative to the genome of the jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis). The relative dominance of this family in the honey bee genome is suggestive of a role in processing phytochemicals encountered by honey bees in their relatively unusual diet of honey (comprising concentrated processed nectar of many plant species) and bee bread (a mixture of honey and pollen from many plant species). In this study, quercetin was initially suggested as a shared substrate for CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, and CYP6AS4, by its presence in honey, extracts of which induce transcription of these three genes, and by in silico substrate predictions based on a molecular model of CYP6AS3. Biochemical assays with heterologously expressed CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 enzymes subsequently confirmed their activity toward this substrate. CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 metabolize quercetin at rates of 0.5+/-0.1, 0.5+/-0.1, 0.2+/-0.1, and 0.2+/-0.1 pmol quercetin/ pmol P450/min, respectively. Substrate dockings and sequence alignments revealed that the positively charged amino acids His107 and Lys217 and the carbonyl group of the backbone between Leu302 and Ala303 are essential for quercetin orientation in the CYP6AS3 catalytic site and its efficient metabolism. Multiple replacements in the catalytic site of CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 and repositioning of the quercetin molecule likely account for the lower metabolic activities of CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 compared to CYP6AS1 and CYP6AS3.

  18. Influence of the insecticide pyriproxyfen on the flight muscle differentiation of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa Fernandez, Fernanda; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Malaspina, Osmar

    2012-06-01

    The Brazilian africanized Apis mellifera is currently considered as one of the most important pollinators threatened by the use of insecticides due to its frequent exposition to their toxic action while foraging in the crops it pollinated. Among the insecticides, the most used in the control of insect pragues has as active agent the pyriproxyfen, analogous to the juvenile hormone (JH). Unfortunately the insecticides used in agriculture affect not only the target insects but also beneficial nontarget ones as bees compromising therefore, the growth rate of their colonies at the boundaries of crop fields. Workers that forage for provisions in contaminated areas can introduce contaminated pollen or/and nectar inside the beehives. As analogous to JH the insecticide pyriproxyfen acts in the bee's larval growth and differentiation during pupation or metamorphosis timing. The flighty muscle is not present in the larvae wingless organisms, but differentiates during pupation/metamorphosis. This work aimed to investigate the effect of pyriproxyfen insecticide on differentiation of such musculature in workers of Brazilian africanized honey bees fed with artificial diet containing the pesticide. The results show that the bees fed with contaminated diet, independent of the insecticide concentration used, show a delay in flight muscle differentiation when compared to the control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cytotoxic effects of thiamethoxam in the midgut and malpighian tubules of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catae, Aline Fernanda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; De Oliveira, Regiane Alves; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2014-04-01

    Due to its expansion, agriculture has become increasingly dependent on the use of pesticides. However, the indiscriminate use of insecticides has had additional effects on the environment. These products have a broad spectrum of action, and therefore the insecticide affects not only the pests but also non-target insects such as bees, which are important pollinators of agricultural crops and natural environments. Among the most used pesticides, the neonicotinoids are particularly harmful. One of the neonicotinoids of specific concern is thiamethoxam, which is used on a wide variety of crops and is toxic to bees. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effects of this insecticide in the midgut and Malpighian tubule cells of Africanized Apis mellifera. Newly emerged workers were exposed until 8 days to a diet containing a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam equal to 1/10 of LC₅₀ (0.0428 ng a.i./l L of diet). The bees were dissected and the organs were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that thiamethoxam is cytotoxic to midgut and Malpighian tubules. In the midgut, the damage was more evident in bees exposed to the insecticide on the first day. On the eighth day, the cells were ultrastructurally intact suggesting a recovery of this organ. The Malpighian tubules showed pronounced alterations on the eighth day of exposure of bees to the insecticide. This study demonstrates that the continuous exposure to a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam can impair organs that are used during the metabolism of the insecticide. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao Kang; Csaki, Tamas; Doublet, Vincent; Dussaubat, Claudia; Evans, Jay D; Gajda, Anna M; Gregorc, Alex; Hamilton, Michele C; Kamler, Martin; Lecocq, Antoine; Muz, Mustafa N; Neumann, Peter; Ozkirim, Asli; Schiesser, Aygün; Sohr, Alex R; Tanner, Gina; Tozkar, Cansu Ozge; Williams, Geoffrey R; Wu, Lyman; Zheng, Huoqing; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to improve cage systems for maintaining adult honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) workers under in vitro laboratory conditions. To achieve this goal, we experimentally evaluated the impact of different cages, developed by scientists of the international research network COLOSS (Prevention of honey bee COlony LOSSes), on the physiology and survival of honey bees. We identified three cages that promoted good survival of honey bees. The bees from cages that exhibited greater survival had relatively lower titers of deformed wing virus, suggesting that deformed wing virus is a significant marker reflecting stress level and health status of the host. We also determined that a leak- and drip-proof feeder was an integral part of a cage system and a feeder modified from a 20-ml plastic syringe displayed the best result in providing steady food supply to bees. Finally, we also demonstrated that the addition of protein to the bees' diet could significantly increase the level ofvitellogenin gene expression and improve bees' survival. This international collaborative study represents a critical step toward improvement of cage designs and feeding regimes for honey bee laboratory experiments.

  1. Susceptibility of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to pellitorine, an amide isolated from Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, José; Hosana Maria Debonsi Navickiene,; Nogueira-Couto, Regina; Sérgio Antônio De Bortoli,; Kato, Massuo; Vanderlan Da Silva Bolzani,; Furlan, Maysa

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The acute toxicity of pellitorine, an amide isolated from Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae) which is studied as a biopesticide in European corner borer, was evaluated on larvae and newly emerged adults of honeybee Apis mellifera by means of contact and ingestion bioassays. Workers in the larval and adult phase were separated in groups, which received pellitorine in different concentrations. The larvae were maintained in their own original cells, receiving feeding and nor...

  2. Role of Human Action in the Spread of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert

    2017-06-01

    The increased annual losses in European honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in North America and some other countries is usually attributed to a range of factors including pathogens, poor nutrition, and insecticides. In this essay, I will argue that the global trade in honey bees and migratory beekeeping practices within countries has enabled pathogens to spread quickly. Beekeepers' management strategies have also contributed to the spread of pathogens as well as the development of resistance to miticides and antibiotics, and exacerbated by hobby beekeepers. The opportunities for arresting honey bee declines rest as strongly with individual beekeepers as they do with the dynamics of disease. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-02-01

    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation.

  4. A perliminary revision of the Oriental species of the genus Ceratina (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, van der J.

    1952-01-01

    The Oriental bees of the genus Ceratina Latr. are difficult to identify. Until now our knowledge of these insects consisted mainly of a considerable number (about 90) of isolated descriptions, scattered through several scientific journals. Most of these descriptions are based on colour characters

  5. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Ana M. Waldschmidt

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M. q. anthidioides. Only one among the M. q. quadrifasciata colonies did not present the marker. It was also absent in bees collected in northern Minas Gerais State (Brazil, despite their morphological resemblance to M. q. quadrifasciata. The marker can be used for studying the genetic structure of the hybridization zone formed by the intercrossing of the two subspecies.A espécie de abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata apresenta duas subespécies, Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lep. e Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lep. A diferença morfológica entre as duas subespécies é a presença de três a cinco bandas tergais amarelas do 3º ao 6º segmentos em operárias e machos de M. q. quadrifasciata e duas a cinco bandas interrompidas em M. q. anthidioides. Nós identificamos um marcador de DNA que está presente em M. q. quadrifasciata e ausente em M. q. anthidioides. Este marcador está ausente em abelhas coletadas no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, embora esses indivíduos apresentem morfologia similar à de M. q. quadrifasciata. Este marcador poderá ser utilizado em estudos da zona de hibridação entre as subespécies.

  6. The impact of forest exploitation on Amazonian stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturieri, G C

    2009-01-01

    The protocols available to sustainably exploit natural forest resources are known as "sustainable forest management". This type of management generally does not take into account the effect of timber exploitation on pollinators. Stingless bees, which include many species that play an important role as pollinators and are quite diverse in the Amazon, preferentially make their perennial nests in the base of hollow trees. Normally, during sustainable exploitation of trees, hollow trees are not cut down; however, predatory exploitation of such trees could severely affect natural populations of this pollinator group.

  7. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae - bionomia e biogeografia

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    Camargo João M. F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work, dedicated to the study of nesting habits of the species of the Neotropical genus Partamona Schwarz, is a sequence to the taxonomic revision recently published elsewhere. A total of 214 nests and nest aggregations of 18 species [Partamona epiphytophila Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. testacea (Klug, 1807; P. mourei Camargo, 1980; P. vicina Camargo, 1980; P. auripennis Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. combinata Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. chapadicola Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. nhambiquara Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. ferreirai Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. pearsoni (Schwarz, 1938; P. gregaria Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. batesi Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. ailyae Camargo, 1980; P. cupira (Smith, 1863; P. mulata Moure in Camargo, 1980; P. seridoensis Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. criptica Pedro & Camargo, 2003; P. helleri (Friese, 1900] were studied , including data about habitat, substrate, structural characteristics, construction materials and behavior. The descriptions of the nests are illustrated with 48 drawings. Partial data of the nests of P. bilineata (Say, 1837, P. xanthogastra Pedro & Camargo, 1997, P. orizabaensis (Strand, 1919, P. peckolti (Friese, 1901, P. aequatoriana Camargo, 1980, P. musarum (Cockerell, 1917 and P. rustica Pedro & Camargo, 2003 are also presented. Nests of P. grandipennis (Schwarz, 1951, P. yungarum Pedro & Camargo, 2003, P. subtilis Pedro & Camargo, 2003, P. vitae Pedro & Camargo, 2003, P. nigrior (Cockerell, 1925, P. sooretamae Pedro & Camargo, 2003 and P. littoralis Pedro & Camargo, 2003 are unknown. The species of Partamona build notable nest entrance structures, with special surfaces for incoming / exiting bees; some of them are extremely well-elaborated and ornamented, serving as flight orientation targets. All species endemic to western Ecuador to Mexico with known nesting habits (P. orizabaensis, P. peckolti, P. xanthogastra, P. bilineata, P. aequatoriana and P. musarum build their nests in several substrates, non-associated with termitaria, such as cavities and crevices in walls, among roots of epiphytes and in bases of palm leaves, in abandoned bird nests, under bridges, and in other protected places, except P. peckolti that occasionally occupies termite nests. In South America, on the eastern side of the Andes, only P. epiphytophila and P. helleri nest among roots of epiphytes and other substrates, non-associated with termitaria. All other species studied (P. batesi, P. gregaria, P. pearsoni, P. ferreirai, P. chapadicola, P. nhambiquara, P. vicina, P. mourei, P. auripennis, P. combinata, P. cupira, P. mulata, P. ailyae, P. seridoensis, P. criptica and P. rustica nest inside active termite nests, whether epigeous or arboreous. The only species that builds obligate subterranean nests, associated or not with termite or ant nests (Atta spp. is P. testacea. Nests of Partamona have one vestibular chamber (autapomorphic for the genus closely adjacent to the entrance, filled with a labyrinth of anastomosing pillars and connectives, made of earth and resins. One principal chamber exists for food and brood, but in some species one or more additional chambers are filled with food storage pots. In nests of P. vicina, there is one atrium or "false nest", between the vestibule and the brood chamber, which contains involucral sheaths, cells and empty pots. All structures of the nest are supported by permanent pillars made of earth and resins (another autapomorphy of the genus. The characters concerning nesting habits were coded and combined with morphological and biogeographic data, in order to hypothesize the evolutive scenario of the genus using cladistic methodology. The phylogenetic hypothesis presented is the following: (((((P. bilineata (P. grandipennis, P. xanthogastra (P. orizabaensis, P. peckolti (P. aequatoriana, P. musarum P. epiphytophila, P. yungarum, P. subtilis, P. vitae (((((P. testacea (P. mourei, P. vicina (P. nigrior (P. auripennis, P. combinata (P. ferreirai (P. pearsoni (P. gregaria (P. batesi (P. chapadicola, P. nhambiquara ((((P. ailyae, P. sooretamae P. cupira, P. mulata P. seridoensis P. criptica, P. rustica, P. littoralis P. helleri. One area cladogram is presented. Dates of some vicariance / cladogenesis events are suggested. For bilineata / epiphytophila group, which inhabits the Southwestern Amazonia and the Chocó-Mexican biogeographical components, the origin of ancestral species is attributed to the Middle Miocene, when the transgressions of the Maracaibo and Paranense seas isolated the tropical northwestern South America from the eastern continental land mass. The next cladogenic event in the history of the bilineata / epiphytophila group is attributed to the Plio-Pleistocene, when the Ecuadorian Andes reached more than 3000 m, and the ancestral species was fragmented in two populations, one occupying the western Andes (ancestral species of the bilineata subgroup and other the southwestern Amazon (ancestral species of the epiphytophila subgroup. Other aspects of the history of Partamona are also discussed.

  8. Tree Resin Composition, Collection Behavior and Selective Filters Shape Chemical Profiles of Tropical Bees (Apidae: Meliponini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Schmitt, Thomas; Blüthgen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific “filtering” of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans. PMID:21858119

  9. The antennal sensilla of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a study of different sexes and castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga; Ferreira, Ríudo de Paiva; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    The sensilla of insects are integumental units that play a role as sensory structures and are crucial for the perception of stimuli and for communication. In this study, we compared the antennal sensilla of females (workers and queens), males (haploid (n) and diploid (2n)), and queen-like males (QLMs, resulting from 2n males after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment) in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Images of the dorsal antenna surfaces were acquired using a scanning electron microscope. As reported for other hymenopterans, this species exhibits a heterogeneous sensillar distribution along the antennae. Thirteen different types of sensilla were found in the antennae of M. quadrifasciata: trichodea (subtypes I to VI), chaetica (subtypes I and II), placodea, basiconica, ampullacea, coeloconica, and coelocapitula. Sensilla trichodea I were the most abundant, followed by sensilla placodea, which might function in olfactory perception. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica I, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla ampullacea were found exclusively in females. In terms of the composition and size of the sensilla, the antennae of QLMs most closely resemble those of the 2n male, although QLMs exhibit a queen phenotype. This study represents the first comparative analysis of the antennal sensilla of M. quadrifasciata. The differences found in the type and amount of sensilla between the castes and sexes are discussed based on the presumed sensillary functions.

  10. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    LIMA-VERDE L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  11. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud-Netto, J

    2000-02-01

    Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  12. ABELHAS EUGLOSSINA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE ASSOCIADAS À MONOCULTURA DE EUCALIPTO NO CERRADO MATO-GROSSENSE

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    Silva do Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição de abelhas Euglossina em três áreas distintas, com monocultura de eucalipto de diferentes idades, utilizando a vegetação nativa como controle, com base nos aspectos de riqueza e abundância. O trabalho foi realizado em três propriedades particulares, localizadas na região Sudoeste de Mato Grosso, em monocultura de eucaliptos de diferentes idades e vegetação nativa (Cerrado. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, de dezembro de 2011 a março de 2012, utilizando-se seis essências: eugenol, eucaliptol, vanilina, benzoato de benzila, salicitato de metila e acetato de benzila, das 8 às 16 h. Foram coletados 430 espécimes, de quatro gêneros e 18 espécies. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Euglossa melanotricha Moure, 1967 e Eulaema cingulata Fabricius, 1804 foram as espécies mais abundantes e comuns a todas as áreas estudadas. A área com maior abundância de abelhas foi ApS (166 indivíduos e com maior riqueza, a Tol (14 espécies. A composição de espécies foi semelhante nas áreas analisadas, e a abundância apresentou dissimilaridade entre a Tol e as áreas SanR e ApS. A área AC (área-controle apresentou maior abundância (147 e riqueza (n = 15 em relação à monocultura de eucalipto.

  13. Agricultural Landscape and Pesticide Effects on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Biological Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Steckel, Sandra J; Williams, Matthew T; Skinner, John A; Tarpy, David R; Meikle, William G; Adamczyk, John; Stewart, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    Sixteen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes to study the effects of agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas) and one nonagricultural area (NAG area). Colonies were monitored for their performance and productivity for one year by measuring colony weight changes, brood production, and colony thermoregulation. Palynological and chemical analyses were conducted on the trapped pollen collected from each colony and location. Our results indicate that the landscape's composition significantly affected honey bee colony performance and development. Colony weight and brood production were significantly greater in AG areas compared to the NAG area. Better colony thermoregulation in AG areas' colonies was also observed. The quantities of pesticides measured in the trapped pollen were relatively low compared to their acute toxicity. Unexplained queen and colony losses were recorded in the AG areas, while colony losses because of starvation were observed in the NAG area. Our results indicate that landscape with high urban activity enhances honey bee brood production, with no significant effects on colony weight gain. Our study indicates that agricultural crops provide a valuable resource for honey bee colonies, but there is a trade-off with an increased risk of exposure to pesticides. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. El subgénero Trigona S. Str. Jurine 1808 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae en Colombia

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    Édgar Javier Hernández Martínez

    2004-07-01

    basada en las características de la arquitectura externa de los nidos. Se discute la presencia de una especie nueva dentro del grupo Fulviventris. Se estableció una colección de referencia y una base de datos para el subgénero en el Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Abejas del departamento de Biología (LABUN de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá.

  15. Observaciones sobre algunos comportamientos de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Iliiger (Hym. Apidae.

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    Morales Soto Gilberto

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas sin aguijón del género Trigona constituyen uno de los grupos de insectos más amplios v diversos de la región tropical. Aunque su origen parece haber sido África, su mayor especiación ocurrió en el Trópico Americano, con cerca de 300 especies. En la región Neotropical, estas abejas son el grupo más importante de polinizadores de muchas plantas ornamentales, frutales y maderables. La interdependencia entre dichas plantas y las abejas, es en muchos casos altamente compleja y la ruptura de esa estrecha asociación por la intervención errónea del hombre, podría implicar la desaparición de unas otras respectivamente. Existen estudios sobre los hábitos de nidifación y arquitectura de los nidos de las trigonas y se posee conocimientos al respecto sobre la especia Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula Illiger. Sin embargo, los trabajos sobre comportamiento e importancia económica de este grupo de insectos son muy escasos y en el medio prácticamente inexistentes.

  16. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francinaldo S Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Água e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%, Eufriesea (15.2% and Exaerete (7.6%. The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%, Eulaema cingulata (19% and Euglossa cordata (18.3%. Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62.5% of the individuals were collected in that period. Eufriesea species appeared at the baits only in the wet season. The hourly frequency of bees at scent baits showed a clear preference for the morning period, where 87.9% visited the baits from 07:00 to 12:00hr. The euglossine bee fauna found in the Northeastern Maranhão Cerrado is represented chiefly by species of large geographic distribution and by some forest bee species, where their occurrence is maybe related to to the environmental conditions supported by the Gallery Forest ecosystem. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 625-633. Epub 2012 June 01.

  17. Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Sofia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, relative abundance, seasonal changes in the species abundance and scent association of male Euglossini collected in a semi-deciduous forest fragment in the north of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, were recorded. Euglossine males were collected twice a month, for twelve months, from 8:00 am to 3:00 pm. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, methyl salicylate and benzyl acetate were used as baits. A total of 434 males distributed among 3 genera and 9 species were attracted to the chemical baits. Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840 (49.8%, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (23.0% and Euglossa pleosticta Dressler, 1982 (13.8% were dominant in number of individuals. Among the non-dominant species, Euglossa fimbriata Rebêlo & Moure, 1995 was more common (9.0%, followed by E. cordata (L., 1758 (1.8%, E. truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1995 (1.4%, E. melanotricha Moure, 1967 (0.7%, E. townsendi Cockerell, 1904 (0.23% and Eufriesea auriceps Friese, 1899 (0.23%. In general, bees were more abundant in warm-wet season (September-March. Eufriesea violacea was the most seasonal species, showing activity through the warm-wet season, from October to February. Eucalyptol was the most attractive fragrance, which was responsible for 92.6% of all visits by euglossine bees.

  18. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francinaldo S Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Água e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%, Eufriesea (15.2% and Exaerete (7.6%. The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%, Eulaema cingulata (19% and Euglossa cordata (18.3%. Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62.5% of the individuals were collected in that period. Eufriesea species appeared at the baits only in the wet season. The hourly frequency of bees at scent baits showed a clear preference for the morning period, where 87.9% visited the baits from 07:00 to 12:00hr. The euglossine bee fauna found in the Northeastern Maranhão Cerrado is represented chiefly by species of large geographic distribution and by some forest bee species, where their occurrence is maybe related to to the environmental conditions supported by the Gallery Forest ecosystem. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 625-633. Epub 2012 June 01.Las abejas de las orquídeas son un grupo muy importante de polinizadores distribuido en el Neotrópico, incluyendo Brasil. Aunque una gran cantidad de estudios sobre las abejas euglosinas se han hecho en esa región, pocos trabajos han sido hasta ahora llevado a cabo en el bioma del Cerrado. Este manuscrito tiene como objetivo principal mostrar la comunidad de abejas de orquídeas de un bosque de galería en el Cerrado brasileño, así como la composición de las especies, abundancia, estacionalidad y distribución horaria. Abejas euglosinas fueron capturadas mensualmente desde octubre 2007 hasta mayo 2009 en la Reserva Forestal da Itamacaoca perteneciente a la Companhia de Água e Esgoto do Maranhão, en el municipio de Chapadinha, Maranhão, Brasil. Eucaliptol, eugenol y vainillina se utilizaron para atraer las abejas, entre las 07:00 y 17:00hr. Bolas de algodón fueron impregnadas con los respectivos compuestos aromáticos y suspendidas por un cordel en ramas de los árboles alrededor de 1.5m sobre el nivel del suelo, separados 8m entre sí. Los especímenes fueron capturados con redes entomológicas, fijados con acetato de etilo y transportados al laboratorio para su identificación. Un total de 158 individuos y 14 especies de abejas fueron registrados. El género Eulaema fue el grupo más representativo de las abejas euglosinas, lo que representa el 50.6% de las abejas seguido por Euglossa (26.6%, Eufriesea (15.2% y Exaerete (7.6%. Las especies más frecuentes fueron: Eulaema nigrita (27.8%, cingulata Eulaema (19% y Euglossa cordata (18.3%. Muchas especies típicas de los ambientes forestales fueron capturadas, como Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons y Eulaema meriana. La aparición de Exaerete guaykuru representa el segundo registro de esta especie para la región Neotropical, y ambos registros procedentes de las zonas de bosque de galería. Las abejas euglosinas fueron recolectadas principalmente en la estación seca (62.5%, pero el género Eufriesea apareció sobre todo en la estación lluviosa. Las abejas mostraron una clara preferencia por el período de la mañana, donde el 87.9% visitó los cebos aromáticos entre 07:00 y las 12:00hr. La fauna de abejas euglosinas está representada principalmente por especies de distribución geográfica amplia y por algunas especies forestales. La aparición de estas especies puede deberse a las condiciones ambientales presentes en el bosque de galería.

  19. Gain and loss of specialization in two oil-bee lineages, Centris and Epicharis (Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline C; Melo, Gabriel A R; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-07-01

    It is plausible that specialized ecological interactions constrain geographic ranges. We address this question in neotropical bees, Centris and Epicharis, that collect oils from flowers of Calceolariaceae, Iridaceae, Krameriaceae, Malpighiaceae, Plantaginaceae, or Solanaceae, with different species exploiting between one and five of these families, which either have epithelial oil glands or hair fields. We plotted the level of oil-host specialization on a clock-dated phylogeny for 22 of the 35 species of Epicharis and 72 of the 230 species of Centris (genera that are not sister genera) and calculated geographic ranges (km(2) ) for 23 bee species based on collection data from museum specimens. Of the oil-offering plants, the Malpighiaceae date to the Upper Cretaceous, whereas the other five families are progressively younger. The stem and crown groups of the two bee genera date to the Cretaceous, Eocene, and Oligocene. Shifts between oil hosts from different families are common in Centris, but absent in Epicharis, and the direction is from flowers with epithelial oil glands to flowers with oil hairs, canalized by bees' oil-collecting apparatuses, suitable for piercing epithelia or mopping oil from hair fields. With the current data, a link between host specialization and geographic range size could not be detected. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Sampling Error, Effective Paternity, and Estimating the Genetic Structure of Honey Bee Colonies (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David R. Tarpy; DavidI. Nielsen

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Multiple mating by social Hymenopteran queens significantly lowers the average genetic relatedness among female nestmates, which subsequently affects a wide range of social behaviors. Honey bees (Apis spp...

  1. Approaches and Challenges to Managing Nosema (Microspora: Nosematidae) Parasites in Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Holly L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2016-08-01

    The microsporidia Nosema apis (Zander) and Nosema ceranae (Fries) are common intestinal parasites in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Though globally prevalent, there are mixed reports of Nosema infection costs, with some regions reporting high parasite virulence and colony losses, while others high Nosema prevalence but few costs. Basic and applied studies are urgently needed to help beekeepers effectively manage Nosema spp., ideally through an integrated pest management approach that allows beekeepers to deploy multiple strategies to control Nosema when Nosema is likely to cause damage to the colonies, rather than using prophylactic treatments. Beekeepers need practical and affordable technologies that facilitate disease diagnosis and science-backed guidelines that recommend when, if at all, to treat infections. In addition, new treatment methods are needed, as there are several problems associated with the chemical use of fumagillin (the only currently extensively studied, but not globally available treatment) to control Nosema parasites. Though selective breeding of Nosema-resistant or tolerant bees may offer a long-term, sustainable solution to Nosema management, other treatments are needed in the interim. Furthermore, the validation of alternative treatment efficacy in field settings is needed along with toxicology assays to ensure that treatments do not have unintended, adverse effects on honey bees or humans. Finally, given variation in Nosema virulence, development of regional management guidelines, rather than universal guidelines, may provide optimal and cost-effective Nosema management, though more research is needed before regional plans can be developed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Uma espécie nova de Schwarzula da Amazônia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo João M. F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwarzula coccidophila sp. nov., a tiny Amazonian stingless bee, that attends scale insects (Cryptostigma Ferris, 1922, Coccidae in its nest, is described. It is distinguished from Schwarzula timida (Silvestri, 1902, the only other species of the genus, mainly by the malar area longer than diameter of 3rd flagellomere, and the denser plumose pilosity. Additional records of S. timida is presented.

  3. Effect of Three Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Species of Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Hernández, R A; Ruíz-Toledo, J; Toledo, J; Sánchez, D

    2016-05-04

    Development of alternative strategies for pest control with reduced effect on beneficial organisms is a priority given the increasing global loss of biodiversity. Biological control with entomopathogenic fungi arises as a viable option to control insect pests. However, few studies have focused on the consequences of using these organisms on pollinators other than the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) or bumble bees (Bombus spp). We evaluated the pathogenicity of commercial formulations of three widely used entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin, and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize), to three species of stingless bees: Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin-Meneville, and Melipona beecheii Bennett. Bioassays consisted of exposing groups of bees to the recommended field concentration of each fungus using a microspray tower under laboratory conditions. Susceptibility to fungi varied greatly among species. Isaria fumosorosea (strain Ifu-lu 01) and the two formulations of B. bassiana (Bea-TNK and BotanicGard) caused entomopathogenic fungi on stingless bees, further field studies are required to support this finding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. EXPANDING THE AREA OF DISTRIBUTION OF EUFRIESEA FRAGROCARA KIMSEY (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. S. Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of agriculture in the Arc of Deforestation causes deforestation and habitat loss. Euglossines sampling was done near Juruena River, Cotriguaçu municipality, northern Mato Grosso State. The bees were collected on understory and canopy using different baits. A total of 41 males of Eufriesea fragrocara Kimsey were collected. This is a rare species in collections and catalogued only in Huánuco (Peru, Napo (Ecuador, Ouro Preto D’Oeste and Ariquemes, Rondônia, Brazil. This new records increase the geographic distribution of E. fragrocara in 500 km to the western Amazon Basin, reducing the filling gaps in their distribution range in the Neotropics.

  5. Insecta, Hymenoptera, Apidae, Serra do Itajai National Park, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study concerning the bee fauna of the Serra do Itajaí National Park, state of Santa Catarina, wascarried out during ten months in the domain of the Atlantic Rainforest. Bees were collected monthly betweenOctober 2006 and December 2007, in two sampling localities, from 8:00 h to 16:00 h, totaling 151 h of sampling.Bees were captured with entomological nets in flowers, during flight, on the ground or while foraging for sweaton collectors. A total of 1,616 individuals were collected (1,240 females and 376 males, distributed in 89species, 46 genera, 16 tribes and five subfamilies. Apinae was the richest subfamily with 47 species. The generawith the greatest number of species were Augochloropsis Cockerell, 1897 (nine, Ceratina Latreille, 1802 (nineand Dialictus Robertson, 1902 (seven. Paratetrapedia fervida (Smith, 1879 was the most abundant species,comprising 11.57 % of the sampled individuals.

  6. The genus Amegilla (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Anthophorini in Australia: A revision of the subgenera Notomegilla and Zonamegilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko Leijs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Australian bees in the subgenera Notomegilla and Zonamegilla of the genus Amegilla are revised. Commonly in Australia the species in these subgenera are called blue-banded bees, although not all species have blue bands. A phylogeny based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequence data was used to delineate the species and a set of morphological criteria was developed for species identification. Strong support was obtained for separating the Australian species into the three subgenera previously proposed on the basis of morphology. Two species, are recognised in the subgenus Notomegilla and eleven new synonymies are proposed. Twelve Australian species are recognised in the subgenus Zonamegilla including four new species: indistincta, karlba, paeninsulae and viridicingulata, and twenty new synonymies are proposed. Keys to the species of both sexes and descriptions or redescriptions of all species are provided. Distribution maps, data on flower visitation and phenology are given.

  7. Cephalic salivary glands of two species of advanced eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: morphology and secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Poiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some adult eusocial bees have a pair of cephalic salivary glands (CSG in addition to the thoracic labial or salivary gland pairs. This paper deals with variations in morphological features and secretion production of the CSG of females and males of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The following life stages were studied: newly emerged, nurse, and forager workers; newly emerged and egg-laying queens; and newly emerged and sexually mature males. The histological results showed that the CSG differs between the two species in the following features: while alveoli and duct cells are cuboidal in workers and queens of A. mellifera, they change from cuboidal to flat in S. postica as the workers age. The glands of newly emerged males and females of A. mellifera are similar. However, as males become sexually mature, glands degenerate and practically disappear. The secretion from the glands of females of both species is oleaginous and gradually accumulates in the lumen of the alveoli in the beginning of the adult phase. Consequently, forager workers and egg-laying queens exhibit more turgid alveoli than younger individuals. Sudan black and Nile's blue staining indicated that the CSG secretion consists of neutral lipids. The possible role of gland secretion is discussed taking in account tasks performed by the individuals in the particular phases studied.

  8. Por que Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae forrageia sob alta umidade relativa do ar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília D. e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que a temperatura do ar e a umidade relativa afetam a atividade de voo de espécies de abelhas sociais Meliponini. Em particular, as espécies grandes do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 responderiam de maneira mais estreita à variação na umidade relativa. Neste estudo defende-se o argumento de que a umidade relativa seja uma variável de confusão. Nesta linha de argumentação, também foi analisado o papel da coleta de pólen sobre o ritmo diário de forrageio. A robusta Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811 foi usada como modelo e a atividade diária de voo e de forrageio de pólen foi medida em 12 colônias (4 colônias/hábitat, em três tipos de hábitats, que variam principalmente quanto à pluviosidade, na área de distribuição natural desta espécie (Floresta Pluvial, Floresta Sazonal e Transição Floresta Tropical-Cerrados. A maioria da atividade de voo acontece durante a manhã. A atividade de forrageio das colônias foi mais elevada nas primeiras horas do alvorecer, quando a umidade relativa também era alta, frequentemente associada a picos de coleta de pólen. A atividade de voo decresceu abruptamente durante as temperaturas altas ao redor do meio dia. A relação da atividade de voo com a umidade relativa foi altamente significativa e linear, contrastando com a relação significativa e unimodal com a temperatura. Na relação com o forrageio de M. scutellaris, a umidade relativa se configura como uma variável contingente, em hábitats tropicais úmidos, considerando os padrões diários de variação do microclima e de forrageio de pólen. Este último padrão também sustenta a hipótese de partição temporal de fontes florais de pólen.

  9. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  10. Varroa destructor infestation in untreated honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies selected for hygienic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, M; Reuter, G S

    2001-04-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of"Starline" stock. Colonies bred for hygienic behavior are able to detect, uncap, and remove experimentally infested brood from the nest, although the extent to which the behavior actually reduces the overall mite-load in untreated, naturally infested colonies needed further verification. The results indicate that hygienic colonies with queens mated naturally to unselected drones had significantly fewer mites on adult bees and within worker brood cells than Starline colonies for up to 1 yr without treatment in a commercial, migratory beekeeping operation. Hygienic colonies actively defended themselves against the mites when mite levels were relatively low. At high mite infestations (>15% of worker brood and of adult bees), the majority of hygienic colonies required treatment to prevent collapse. Overall, the hygienic colonies had similar adult populations and brood areas, produced as much honey, and had less brood disease than the Starline colonies. Thus, honey bees bred for hygienic behavior performed as well if not better than other commercial lines of bees and maintained lower mite loads for up to one year without treatment.

  11. A Method for Distinctly Marking Honey Bees, Apis mellifera, Originating from Multiple Apiary Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R.; Deynze, Allen Van; Martin, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive and non-intrusive marking methods are essential to track natural behavior of insects for biological experiments. An inexpensive, easy to construct, and easy to install bee marking device is described in this paper. The device is mounted at the entrance of a standard honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hive and is fitted with a removable tube that dispenses a powdered marker. Marking devices were installed on 80 honey bee colonies distributed in nine separate apiaries. Each device held a tube containing one of five colored fluorescent powders, or a combination of a fluorescent powder (either green or magenta) plus one of two protein powders, resulting in nine unique marks. The powdered protein markers included egg albumin from dry chicken egg whites and casein from dry powdered milk. The efficacy of the marking procedure for each of the unique markers was assessed on honey bees exiting each apiary. Each bee was examined, first by visual inspection for the presence of colored fluorescent powder and then by egg albumin and milk casein specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Data indicated that all five of the colored fluorescent powders and both of the protein powders were effective honey bee markers. However, the fluorescent powders consistently yielded more reliable marks than the protein powders. In general, there was less than a 1% chance of obtaining a false positive colored or protein-marked bee, but the chance of obtaining a false negative marked bee was higher for “protein-marked” bees. PMID:22236037

  12. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  13. Chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity of corn pollen collected from Apis mellifera hives compared to floral corn pollen at Nan, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantarudee Atip

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee pollen is composed of floral pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretion that is collected by foraging honey (Apis sp. and stingless bees. It is rich in nutrients, such as sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins and flavonoids, and has been ascribed antiproliferative, anti-allergenic, anti-angiogenic and free radical scavenging activities. This research aimed at a preliminary investigation of the chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity in A. mellifera bee pollen. Methods Bee pollen was directly collected from A. mellifera colonies in Nan province, Thailand, in June, 2010, whilst floral corn (Zea mays L. pollen was collected from the nearby corn fields. The pollen was then sequentially extracted with methanol, dichloromethane (DCM and hexane, and each crude extract was tested for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay, evaluating the percentage scavenging activity and the effective concentration at 50% (EC50. The most active crude fraction from the bee pollen was then further enriched for bioactive components by silica gel 60 quick and adsorption or Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography. The purity of all fractions in each step was observed by thin layer chromatography and the bioactivity assessed by the DPPH assay. The chemical structures of the most active fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Results The crude DCM extract of both the bee corn pollen and floral corn pollen provided the highest active free radical scavenging activity of the three solvent extracts, but it was significantly (over 28-fold higher in the bee corn pollen (EC50 = 7.42 ± 0.12 μg/ml, than the floral corn pollen (EC50 = 212 ± 13.6% μg/ml. After fractionation to homogeneity, the phenolic hydroquinone and the flavone 7-O-R-apigenin were found as the minor and major bioactive compounds, respectively. Bee corn pollen contained a reasonably diverse array of nutritional components, including biotin (56.7 μg/100 g, invert sugar (19.9 g/100 g, vitamin A and β carotene (1.53 mg/100 g. Conclusions Bee pollen derived from corn (Z. mays, a non-toxic or edible plant, provided a better free radical scavenging activity than floral corn pollen.

  14. Researching Social News – Is reddit.com a mouthpiece for the ‘Hive Mind’, or a Collective Intelligence approach to Information Overload?

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Distributed moderation and filtering systems are becoming increasingly common on the web. This paper examines reddit.com, a Social News website where users vote to determine which stories will be featured in high-visibility locations. User voting activity and attention are found to be highly concentrated on the website’s front page. The consequences of this are considered, chiefly by studying reddit’s coverage of a major news story. Minority opinions are found to be slightly marginalised but ...

  15. Chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity of corn pollen collected from Apis mellifera hives compared to floral corn pollen at Nan, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bee pollen is composed of floral pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretion that is collected by foraging honey (Apis sp.) and stingless bees. It is rich in nutrients, such as sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins and flavonoids, and has been ascribed antiproliferative, anti-allergenic, anti-angiogenic and free radical scavenging activities. This research aimed at a preliminary investigation of the chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity in A. mellifera bee pollen. Methods Bee pollen was directly collected from A. mellifera colonies in Nan province, Thailand, in June, 2010, whilst floral corn (Zea mays L.) pollen was collected from the nearby corn fields. The pollen was then sequentially extracted with methanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane, and each crude extract was tested for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay, evaluating the percentage scavenging activity and the effective concentration at 50% (EC50). The most active crude fraction from the bee pollen was then further enriched for bioactive components by silica gel 60 quick and adsorption or Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography. The purity of all fractions in each step was observed by thin layer chromatography and the bioactivity assessed by the DPPH assay. The chemical structures of the most active fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Results The crude DCM extract of both the bee corn pollen and floral corn pollen provided the highest active free radical scavenging activity of the three solvent extracts, but it was significantly (over 28-fold) higher in the bee corn pollen (EC50 = 7.42 ± 0.12 μg/ml), than the floral corn pollen (EC50 = 212 ± 13.6% μg/ml). After fractionation to homogeneity, the phenolic hydroquinone and the flavone 7-O-R-apigenin were found as the minor and major bioactive compounds, respectively. Bee corn pollen contained a reasonably diverse array of nutritional components, including biotin (56.7 μg/100 g), invert sugar (19.9 g/100 g), vitamin A and β carotene (1.53 mg/100 g). Conclusions Bee pollen derived from corn (Z. mays), a non-toxic or edible plant, provided a better free radical scavenging activity than floral corn pollen. PMID:22513008

  16. Langstroth hive construction with cement-vermiculite Construção de colméia Langstroth com cimento-vermiculita

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    Maria Cristina Affonso Lorenzon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated vermiculite is a light-weight and cheap product that, because of its thermal resistance, has become a valuable insulating material. With regard to its use in beekeeping, this research tested whether the box for honey bees constructed with cement-vermiculite mortar (CVM presents physical characteristics similar to those of wood. The experiment was carried out at Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, for eight months. The cement-vermiculite mortar was compared with a control material (pinewood, in the construction of Langstroth boxes and boards, in a completely randomized design, with respect to thermal control, thermal conductivity and its capacity to absorb and lose water. The production cost for a CVM box was estimated. There were no internal temperature differences between CVM and wooden boxes. Thermal conductivity values for CVM and pinewood were similar. CVM absorbed more water and lost water faster than pinewood. Since CVM boxes can be easily constructed, at a low cost and with similar characteristics as traditional boxes, made of wood, the material can be recommended for use in non-migratory beekeeping.A vermiculita expandida é um material leve, barato e sua resistência térmica permite sua utilização como material isolante. Referente ao seu uso na Apicultura, esta pesquisa testou se a caixa para abelhas melíferas construída com argamassa cimento-vermiculita (ACV apresenta características similares às da madeira. O estudo foi realizado em Seropédica (ERJ, Brasil, durante oito meses. Comparou-se a argamassa com o material controle, que foi a madeira pinho, em caixas de abelhas e em placas, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, quanto ao: controle térmico, a condutividade térmica, a capacidade de absorver e perder água. O custo de produção da caixa ACV para abelhas foi estimado. Não se observaram diferenças da temperatura interna entre as caixas de ACV e de madeira. A condutividade térmica foi similar nas placas de ACV e de madeira. As placas de ACV absorveram mais água, mas perderam mais rapidamente do que as de madeira. Considerando que a caixa de abelhas ACV é de fácil construção, de custo baixo e apresenta características similares a do material tradicional (madeira, este material pode ser recomendado para a apicultura, desde que não migratória.

  17. DEL MARACUYÁ DEL GÉNERO Xylocopa(HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE, XYLOCOPINI EN COLOMBIA Biological and Taxonomic Notes on Maracuyá Bees of the Genus Xylocopa(Hymenoptera: Apidae, Xylocopini in Colombia

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    VICTOR H. GONZALEZ

    Full Text Available Presentamos información sobre los hábitos de nidificación de la abeja carpintera Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa lachnea en la cordillera Oriental de Colombia. También presentamos comentarios sobre el estado actual del conocimiento del género Xylocopa en Colombia y guías para la identificación de los subgéneros y especies más comunes en el país.We provide information on the nesting habitats of the carpenter bee Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa lachnea from the cordillera Oriental of Colombia. We also provide an overview of the genus Xylocopa in Colombia as well as identification keys to the subgenera and most common species in the country.

  18. CONTENIDO MICROBIOLÓGICO CULTIVABLE DEL TRACTO INTESTINAL Y POLEN ALMACENADO DE Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Cultured Microbiological Content of the Intestinal Tract and Stored Pollen of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    DUBERNEY GARCÍA GARCÍA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transportado en corbículas y tracto digestivo de las abejas (forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacterias pueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros individuos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.Microorganisms associated with Apis mellifera were characterized. Samples were collected from storage pollen (young pollen and ripe pollen and carried in corbiculas, and bee’s gut of newly born and adult workers. Bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia and Arthrobacter genus and molds of Rhizopus, Alternaria and Epicoccum genus were isolated. According to their biochemical properties some of these microbes may be involved in the outer pollen walls degradation and could have been acquired by the bees through food ingestion or contact with other bees. The molds presence is explicated by their wide environmental distribution; they are typically found in soil and plants chosen as food source by bees.

  19. Cultured Microbiological Content of the Intestinal Tract and Stored Pollen of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Contenido microbiológico cultivable del tracto intestinal y polen almacenado de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    García García Duberney

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with Apis mellifera were characterized. Samples were collected from storage pollen (young pollen and ripe pollen and carried in corbiculas, and bee's gut of newly born and adult workers. Bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia and Arthrobacter genus and molds of Rhizopus, Alternaria and Epicoccum genus were isolated. According to their biochemical properties some of these microbes may be involved in the outer pollen walls degradation and could have been acquired by the bees through food ingestion or contact with other bees. The molds presence is explicated by their wide environmental distribution; they are typically found in soil and plants chosen as food source by bees.Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transportado en corbículas y tracto digestivo de las abejas (forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacteriaspueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros individuos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las
    plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.

  20. A new cluster-brood building species of Plebeia (Hymenoptera, Apidae from eastern Brazil Uma nova espécie de Plebeia (Hymenoptera, Apidae do leste do Brasil, com células de cria em cacho

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Plebeia, the second largest genus of stingless bees in the Neotropical region, is described from eastern Brazil. Plebeia grapiuna sp. nov., known only from the lowland forests of southern Bahia, is most similar to P. lucii Moure, a species recently described from Minas Gerais. The lack of yellow marks and the smoother integument of the frons and mesoscutum in P. grapiuna sp. nov. distinguish them. Main features of the nesting habits of the new species are described and illustrated.Uma nova espécie de Plebeia, o segundo maior gênero de meliponíneos na região Neotropical, é descrita do leste do Brasil. Plebeia grapiuna sp. nov., conhecida apenas das florestas de terras baixas do sul da Bahia, é semelhante a P. lucii Moure, uma espécie recentemente descrita de Minas Gerais. A ausência de manchas amarelas e o integumento menos rugoso da fronte e do mesoscuto em P. grapiuna sp. nov. distinguem as duas espécies. Características principais do hábito de nidificação da nova espécie são descritas e ilustradas.

  1. Bioatividade do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 para adultos de Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae Bioactivity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 to adults of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner sobre adultos de Apis mellifera Linnaeus. Os experimentos foram realizados em laboratório a 28 ± 2 ºC, UR 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. B. thuringiensis foi aplicado com pulverização sobre adultos, e fornecido através de solução aquosa de mel a 50% e em adição à pasta Cândi, utilizando o produto comercial Dipel® PM. Esse produto quando aplicado com pulverização ou incorporado à pasta Cândi ou à solução aquosa de mel provocou mortalidade de adultos de A. mellifera em todas as concentrações utilizadas, com exceção de 0,25 g de Dipel®/100 mL adicionado à solução aquosa de mel a 50%. Ao ser incorporado à pasta Cândi, a CL50 correspondeu a 0,325 g e a CL90 2,127 g do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki/60 g de pasta. Adicionado à solução aquosa de mel a 50%, a CL50 foi de 1,403 g e a CL90 foi de 7,759 g do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki/100 mL de solução. Sintomas de infecção pelo B. thuringiensis foram identificados nas abelhas adultas e através do isolamento obteve-se uma cultura dessa bactéria o que comprovou a patogenicidade para adultos de A. mellifera.The effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner on adults of Apis mellifera Linnaeus were evaluated. The bioassays were carried out under controlled conditions at 25±2ºC, RH 70±10% and 12-h photophase. Adults of A. mellifera were exposed to the commercial product Dipel® PM. The following methods were used: direct spraying; supplying Bt with honey aqueous solution; and by a Candy paste added to Bt. B. thuringiensis caused mortality on A. mellifera adults, independent of the method used, except at 0.25 g of Bt/100 mL added to the honey aqueous solution. B. thuringiensis added to the Candy paste showed CL50 and CL90 of 0.325 g and 2.127 g of the product to 60 g of Candy paste, respectively. Dipel® PM added to the honey aqueous solution showed CL50 and CL90 of 1.403 g and 7.759 g of B. thuringiensis/100 mL, respectively. Infection symptoms by B. thuringiensis were identified on bees adult and by isolation of this bacterium, the toxicity of B. thuringiensis on A. mellifera was confirmed.

  2. Primeiro registro de Eufriesea laniventris (Ducke, 1902 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini no Amazonas, Brasil First record of Eufriesea laniventris (Ducke, 1902 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Eliana Fernandez Storti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Eufriesea laniventris no Amazonas. No ano 2000, foram coletados seis exemplares na região de Manaus (2º 36' S e 60º 02' W atraídos pelas substâncias odoríferas 1,8 cineol e salicilato de metila.The first record of Eufriesea laniventris in the state of Amazonas is here reported. Attracted to 1.8 cineole and methyl salicylate fragrances, six specimens were colected in the region of Manaus (2º 36' S 60º 02' W during the year 2000.

  3. As espécies de Euglossa Latreille do nordeste de São Paulo (Apidae, Euglossinae The species of Euglossa Latreille from the northeast of São Paulo, Brazil (Apidae, Euglossinae

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    José Manuel Macário Rebelo

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A key and short descriptions are given to the males of the eleven species of Euglossa Latreillle, 1802. collected in cineole; eugenol and vanillin in natural forest reserves of the Northeast of São Paulo State (Cajuru, Sertãozinho, Dumont, Ribeirão Preto, Luís Antônio and Pedregulho. Namely: E. imperialis Cockerell. 1922; E. annectans Dressler. 1982; E. pleosticta Dressler. 1982; E. townsendi Cockerell. 1904; E. melanotricha Moure, 1967; E. cordata (Linaeus, 1758; E. securigera Dressler, 1982; E. fimbriata. sp.n.; E. leucotricha. sp.n.; E. truncata, sp.n. and E. violaceifrons, sp.n..

  4. Sazonalidade e horário de atividade de abelhas Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae, em florestas de terra firme na Amazônia Central Seasonality and daily activity of Euglossinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in terra firme forest in Central Amazonia

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    Marcio Luiz de Oliveira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Euglossinae bee fauna of two areas of terra firme forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil was compared. Over a twelve-month period collections were done fortnightly, between 7:00 a.m and 5:00 p.m, using traps with eight kinds of scent baits. The traps were placed in the understory and in tree crowns. The majority of species and specimens was most active between August-December, near the beginning of the rainy season in this region. The bees were most active from 9:00 a.m. until 4:00 p.m., while air temperatures were between 24.5-27ºC, but there was a decline in this activity when air temperature varied above or below of this range. There were differences in the seasonality and in the daily activity patterns for the two areas studied but these differences were not significative.

  5. Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State; Ninhos de Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) em fragmentos de Mata Atlantica secundaria, Salvador, BA

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    Drummmont, Patricia; Viana, Blandina F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas (LABEA); Silva, Fabiana O. da [Faculdade Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Faculdades Jorge Amado, Savador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-05-15

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 deg 01' W and 38 deg 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased ({chi}{sup 2} = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cell's partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. (author)

  6. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

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    Cristiane C. de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  7. Preferência por estratos florestais e por substâncias odoríferas em abelhas Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae Stratification and scents baits preferences in Euglossinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Mareio Luiz de Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Euglossinae bees of two areas of Terra Firme forest, near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were studied. During one year the collections were done fortnightly, using traps with eight kinds of scent baits. The traps were placed in the understory and in tree crowns. Some species showed a very clear vertical stratification in the forest. The comparison between the strata studied showed that the fauna of one understory is more similar to other than fauna of crowns and the similarity between fauna of understory and fauna of crown of the the two areaswas low. Some species were specialists while most were generalists in their choice of scent baits. Some species varied its preferences during the year.

  8. Comunidades de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil Euglossine bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae community in Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil

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    André Villaça Ramalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comunidade de abelhas Euglossina foi amostrada através de armadilhas com iscas aromáticas, ao longo de 12 meses (novembro de 2004 a outubro de 2005 em cinco fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica submontana com diferentes tamanhos e níveis de degradação, na bacia do Rio São João, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito (21 ha e Afetiva (19 ha. Foram registrados 4094 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies de três gêneros (Euglossa, Eulaema e Exaerete nas 5 áreas. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa sapphirina Moure, 1968, sendo maior a importância relativa desta última nos fragmentos menores. Dentre as espécies encontradas, Euglossa analis Westwood, 1840 é sugerida como possível indicadora de florestas mais preservadas. Na comparação entre as cinco áreas foram verificadas correlações positivas e significativas da riqueza de espécies de abelhas com o tamanho da área e da diversidade de abelhas (H´ com a diversidade florística (H´. Estes dados sugerem que perdas de área e qualidade de hábitat influenciam negativamente a comunidade destas abelhas, reduzindo a riqueza e diversidade de espécies. Os maiores valores de similaridade foram observados na comparação entre os fragmentos da região do Imbaú, distantes entre si por até 2 Km, sugerindo que estes não estejam isolados para as populações de Euglossina, ou que venham sofrendo igualmente os efeitos da fragmentação.The Euglossine bee community was sampled with chemical bait traps throughout 12 months (November 2004 to October 2005 in five remnants of submontane Atlantic Forest in São João river basin, in the north of Rio de Janeiro state with different sizes and degradation levels: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito (21 ha e Afetiva (19 ha. 4094 individuals belonging to 17 species of three genera (Euglossa, Eulaema and Exaerete were captured. The species with highest values of relative abundance were Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa sapphirina Moure, 1968, the last one being more important in the smaller remnants. Among the collected species Euglossa analis Westwood, 1840 is suggested as possible indicator of preserved forests. Comparing the five areas, positive and significant correlations were observed, bee species richness with area size and bee diversity (H' with floristic diversity (H'. These results suggest that losses in forest size and habitat quality influence euglossine bee communities negatively by reducing the abundance and richness of species. The highest similarity values were observed in the Imbaú region remnants, distant from each other by up to 2 km, suggesting that these areas are not isolated for euglossine populations, or they have been suffering similar fragmentation effects.

  9. Pollen storages in nests of bees of the genera Partamona, Scaura and Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae Pólen estocado nos ninhos de abelhas dos gêneros Partamona, Scaura e Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    André Rodrigo Rech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees and angiosperms established a mutualistic relationship along the evolutionary time. The aim of this study is to contribute for the understanding of this relation analyzing pollen stored by stingless bees colonies distributed along the Rio Negro. Fourteen species of Meliponini from the genera Partamona, Scaura, and Trigona were studied with regard to the content of pollen pots. The pollen material was removed from the pollen pots, homogenized, and prepared according to the usual acetolysis technique. The overlap of the trophic niche and the grouping of species by similarity of niches was calculated. The identification revealed 78 pollen types belonging to 36 families, being 37 types attractive and 16 considered as promoters of a temporary specialization event. With the results, it was possible to indicate a list of important plants for meliponiculture in the Amazon.Abelhas e plantas estabeleceram ao longo do tempo evolutivo uma relação mutualística. Buscando contribuir para o entendimento dessa relação, foi analisado o pólen estocado por colônias de abelhas-sem-ferrão distribuídas ao longo do rio Negro. Foram estudados potes de pólen de 14 espécies de Meliponini dos gêneros Partamona, Scaura e Trigona. O material polínico foi retirado dos potes de pólen, homogeneizado e preparado segundo técnica usual de acetólise. Foram calculados a sobreposição de nicho trófico e o agrupamento das espécies pela similaridade de nichos. Foi identificado o total de 78 tipos polínicos, pertencentes a 36 famílias, sendo 37 destes, considerados atrativos, enquanto 16 foram promotores de eventos de especialização temporária. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível indicar uma lista de plantas de importância para a meliponicultura na Amazônia.

  10. Resistencia a la enfermedad de cría yesificada por colonias de Apis mellifera con eficiente comportamiento higiénico (Hymenoptera, Apidae Chalkbrood disease resistance in Apis mellifera colonies with eficient hygienic behaviour (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Ciro Invernizzi

    Full Text Available In an apiary composed of 14 hygienic and 7 non-hygienic colonies of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 the presence of visible and capped mummies was recorded, one hygienic and 4 non-hygienic colonies showed symptoms of chalkbrood. Twenty-eight days after a massive contamination of the colonies with pollen patties containing Ascosphaera apis Olive & Spiltoir, 1955, the situation was almost identical to that at the beginning: the same 4 non-hygienic colonies still were infected and one hygienic colony that was healthy became infected. The high proportion of hygienic colonies that eliminated the disease symptoms suggests that they could maintain themselves healthy in spite of the presence of colonies with chalkbrood in the apiary.

  11. Pollen morphology and study of the visitors (Hymenoptera, Apidae of Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae in Central Amazon Morfologia polínica e estudo dos visitantes (Hymenoptera, Apidae de Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae na Amazônia Central

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceae family has a wide distribution, mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas of South America. Solanum L. is one of the most important genera of the family with approximately 1,200 species. The objective of this work was to study the floral biology, pollen morphology as well as to investigate the bee visitors of S. stramoniifolium. Preliminary data indicate the presence of one species of stinging bee and four species of stingless bees as visitors to S. stramoniifolium. The pollen of S. stramoniifolium is tricolporate and psilate or without ornamentation. In a word, S. stramoniifolium constitutes a potential source of pollen for different species of bees with and without sting, providing an interesting field for germination studies, insect-plant interactions and floral biology that are already under way.A família Solanaceae tem ampla distribuição, principalmente nas áreas tropicais e subtropicais da América do Sul. Solanum L. é um dos mais importantes gêneros desta família com aproximadamente 1.200 espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar a biologia floral com enfoque na morfologia polínica e no registro de algumas abelhas visitantes de S. stramoniifolium. Dados preliminares indicam a presença de uma espécie de abelha com ferrão e quatro espécies sem ferrão como visitantes de S. stramoniifolium. O pólen de S. stramoniifolium é tricolporado e psilado, ou seja, sem ornamentação. Conclui-se, após o estudo da biologia floral, que S. stramoniifolium constitui fonte potencial de pólen para diferentes espécies de abelhas com e sem ferrão, representando interessante campo para estudos de germinação, interações inseto-planta e biologia floral.

  12. Revisão das espécies de Melipona do grupo fuliginosa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae, Meliponini Revision of the species of Melipona of the fuliginosa group (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae, Meliponini

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    João M. F. Camargo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies são reconhecidas: Melipona (Michmelia fuliginosa Lepeletier, 1836, de larga distribuição, do Suriname e Guiana Francesa até o sudeste do Brasil e noroeste da Argentina, M. (Michmelia titania Gribodo, 1893 (revalidado, endêmica do oeste da Amazônia, e M. (Michmelia fallax sp. nov., do noroeste do Equador até a América Central. Melipona fuliginosa distingue-se pela pilosidade dos tergos metassomáticos II-V, tanto do macho como da operária, densa e plumosa, e pelo primeiro tarsômero da perna III do macho mais largo que longo. Em M. titania e M. fallax sp. nov., a pilosidade dos tergos II-V é escassa e simples, não-plumosa, e o primeiro tarsômero tão longo quanto largo ou mais longo que largo. Operárias de Melipona titania e M. fallax sp. nov. separam-se pela forma do penicilo, que é fortemente sinuoso em M. titania, e nos machos de M. fallax sp. nov. as órbitas internas dos olhos são paralelas, enquanto em M. titania as órbitas são convergentes embaixo. Novos registros geográficos, dados bionômicos e uma chave para identificação das espécies são apresentados. Adicionalmente, são feitos comentários sobre o padrão biogeográfico e sobre as glândulas tergais das rainhas.Three species are recognized: Melipona (Michmelia fuliginosa Lepeletier, 1836, widely distributed, from Suriname and French Guiana to southeastern Brazil and northwestern Argentina, M. (Michmelia titania Gribodo, 1893 (revalidated, endemic to western Amazon and M. (Michmelia fallax sp. nov., from northwestern Ecuador to Central America. Melipona fuliginosa differs from the other species by the pilosity of metasomal terga II-V, dense and plumose, in both male and workers, and the first tarsomere of leg III of the male wider than long. In M. titania and M. fallax sp. nov., the pilosity of terga II-V is scarce and simple, non-plumose, and the first tarsomere of leg III of the male is as long as wide or longer. Workers of Melipona titania and M. fallax sp. nov. differ by the shape of the penicillum, which is strongly sinuous in M. titania, and in the males of M. fallax sp. nov. the internal orbits of the eyes are parallel, while in M. titania the orbits are convergent below. New geographic records, bionomic data and an identification key for the species are presented. In addition, comments are given on geographic patterns and tergal glands of the queens.

  13. Cultured Microbiological Content of the Intestinal Tract and Stored Pollen of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Contenido microbiológico cultivable del tracto intestinal y polen almacenado de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

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    García García Duberney; Sánchez Nieves Jimena; Rojas Mogollón Marco Andrés

    2006-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Apis mellifera were characterized. Samples were collected from storage pollen (young pollen and ripe pollen) and carried in corbiculas, and bee's gut of newly born and adult workers. Bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia and Arthrobacter genus and molds of Rhizopus, Alternaria and Epicoccum genus were isolated. According to their biochemical properties some of these microbes may be involved in...

  14. Determinação das castas em Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: diferenciação do ovário Caste determination in Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: the ovarian differentiation

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    Thaís da Cruz Alves dos Santos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Both castes of Scaptotrigolia postica (Latreille, 1804 possess four ovarioles in each ovary. Queen and workers have the same ovarian development during the larvallife, but in lhe late larval stage the queen ovary beco me larger. During pupation a higher rate of cell division is observed in queen ovarioles and a higher rale of cell death in workers. Newly emerged workers have short ovarioles with differenriatcd germarium and vitellarium while queens have very long ovarioles with only germarium. Caste deterrnination in rhis species of bee is trophic, but lhe food does not differ in quality, only in quantiry. The food differences only beco me effecri ve by the end of larval stage when the queen larvae have lhe opportunity of eat more. In this way lhe ovary differentiation, between workers and queens. In this species, only occurs frorn lhe end of larval stage, mainly during pupation. Although the ovaries of workers are smaller, they are precocious in relation to queens, since nurse workers, 5 10 20 days, old may lay eggs. The eggs laid by the workers may be trophic or functional. These eggs may be distinguished by lhe aspect ofthe yolk. Older forager workers have degenerated ovaries.

  15. Revealing Pesticide Residues Under High Pesticide Stress in Taiwan's Agricultural Environment Probed by Fresh Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Yu-Shin; Chen, Tsui-Yao; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Ting; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Yue-Wen

    2017-10-01

    Significant pesticide residues are among the most serious problems for sustainable agriculture. In the beekeeping environment, pesticides not only impact a honey bee's survival, but they also contaminate bee products. Taiwan's agricultural environment has suffered from pesticide stress that was higher than that found in Europe and America. This study deciphered problems of pesticide residues in fresh honey bee pollen samples collected from 14 monitoring apiaries in Taiwan, which reflected significant contaminations within the honey bee population. In total, 155 pollen samples were screened for 232 pesticides, and 56 pesticides were detected. Among the residues, fluvalinate and chlorpyrifos showed the highest concentrations, followed by carbendazim, carbaryl, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, ethion, and flufenoxuron. The average frequency of pesticide residues detected in pollen samples was ca. 74.8%. The amounts and types of pesticides were higher in winter and in southwestern Taiwan. Moreover, five of these pollen samples were contaminated with 11-15 pesticides, with average levels between 1,560 and 6,390 μg/kg. Compared with the literature, this study emphasized that pollen gathered by honey bee was highly contaminated with more pesticides in Taiwan than in the America, France, and Spain. The ubiquity of pesticides in the pollen samples was likely due to the field applications of common pesticides. Recently, the Taiwanese government began to improve the pesticide policy. According to the resurvey data in 2016, there were reductions in several pesticide contamination parameters in pollen samples from west to southwest Taiwan. A long-term investigation of pollen pesticide residues should be conducted to inspect pesticides usage in Taiwan's agriculture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. ORIGEN GEOGRÁFICO Y BOTÁNICO DE MIELES DE Apis mellifera (APIDAE EN CUATRO DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA

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    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar marcadores palinológicos que permitieran caracterizar el origen geográfico y botánico de mieles provenientes de los departamentos de Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander y Magdalena. Se realizaron análisis melisopalinológicos de 184 muestras de miel procedentes de 131 apiarios. Se determinaron diferencias significativas entre tipos de mieles mediante un análisis discriminante y comparando la composición de especies entre las muestras. En total se encontraron 297 especies distribuidas en 69 familias, dentro de las cuales las más representativas fueron Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. y Quercus humboldtii. Las familias más importantes fueron Fabaceae, Asteraceae,Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae, y Melastomataceae. Se lograron determinar seis grupos de mieles diferenciadas por su origen geográfico: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Provincia Comunera; también se encontraron diferencias entre las mieles de las regiones andinas y subandinas. Dentro de los tipos de mieles diferenciadas por origen botánico predominaron las mieles monoflorales de Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp.y Heliocarpus americanus, mieles oligoflorales de asteráceas y mezclas de mielato de Q. humboldtii y néctar floral (Eucalyptus sp. tipo Brassicaceae, asteráceas. La información de este trabajo junto con la obtenida en análisis fisicoquímicos y sensoriales servirá de base para que los apicultores puedan solicitar la denominación de origen de estas mieles.

  17. Effects of abamectin and deltamethrin to the foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica (Hymenoptera: Apidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dalal Musleh Aljedani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of some insecticides (abamectin and deltamethrin on the lethal time (LT50 and midgut of foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica were studied under laboratory conditions. The bees were provided with water, food, natural protein and sugar solution with insecticide (concentration: 2.50 ppm deltamethrin and 0.1 ppm abamectin. The control group was not treated with any kind of insecticides. The mortality was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hour (h after insecticides treatment and period to calculate the value of lethal time (LT50. But the samples the histology study of midgut collected after 24 h were conducted by Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed the effects of insecticides on the current results show that abamectin has an adverse effect on honeybees, there is a clear impact on the lethal time (LT50 was the abamectin faster in the death of honeybee workers compared to deltamethrin. Where have reached to abamectin (LT50 = 21.026 h, deltamethrin (LT50 = 72.011 h. However, abamectin also effects on cytotoxic midgut cells that may cause digestive disorders in the midgut, epithelial tissue is formed during morphological alterations when digestive cells die. The extends into the internal cavity, and at the top, there is epithelial cell striated border that has many holes and curves, abamectin seems to have crushed the layers of muscle. Through the current results can say abamectin most toxicity on honeybees colony health and vitality, especially foragers honeybee workers.

  18. The traditional knowledge on stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponina used by the Enawene-Nawe tribe in western Brazil

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    Antonini Yasmine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the Enawene-Nawe Society's traditional knowledge about stingless bees. The Enawene-Nawe are an Aruak speaking people, indigenous to the Meridian Amazon. Specifically, they live in the Jurema River hydrological basin, located in the northwestern region of the Mato Grosso state. Methods The stingless bees were sampled from two ecologically similar regions in the interior of Enawene-Nawe Land. The first sampling took place around the village, i.e., adjacent to houses, by the edge of the Iquê River, next to food leftovers, around human excrement, and simply when the insects were found flying or reposing on a human body. The second round of sampling happened from 29/10 to 02/11/94, during an expedition for honey collection that took place throughout the ciliar bushes of the Papagaio River, an important tributary of Juruena River. We sampled bees adjacent to their nests following the beehive inspection or during the honey extraction. In this work, the main bee species of the sub tribe Meliponina, which were handled by the Enawene-Nawe, was identified, and a brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and its social-cosmologic meaning for the group was done. Results and Discussion Similar to other indigenous people in Brazil, the Enawene-Nawe recognized 48 stingless bee species. They identified each bee species by name and specified each one's ecological niche. A brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and bees' social-cosmologic meaning for the group is included. Conclusion We concluded that, as an example of other indigenous people, the Enawene-Nawe classify and identify the bees based not only on their structure and morphological aspects but also on the ecological, etiological, and social characteristics of the species.

  19. The Salivary Glands of Adult Female Varroa Destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an Ectoparasite of the Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000, an ectoparasite of honey bees, causes huge economic losses to apiculture annually. Its role as a vector of diseases is thought to involve the salivary glands as the terminal organs of transmission. The salivary glands are paired, oval, non-acinar organs...

  20. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safira, Nabila; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre-Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  1. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safira, Nabila, E-mail: safira.nabila@ymail.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: tjandra@sith.itb.ac.id [School of Life Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung – Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre–Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  2. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  3. Contenido microbiológico cultivable del tracto intestinal y polen almacenado de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    DUBERNEY GARCÍA GARCÍA; MARCO ANDRÉS ROJAS MOGOLLÓN; JIMENA SÁNCHEZ NIEVES

    2005-01-01

    Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro) y transportado en corbículas y
    tracto digestivo de abejas forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Proteus y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquí...

  4. Contenido microbiológico cultivable del tracto intestinal y polen almacenado de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Sánchez Nieves Jimena

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transportado en corbículas y
    tracto digestivo de abejas forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Proteus y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacterias pueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros individuos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución
    en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.

  5. The influence of Nosema (Microspora: Nosematidae) infection on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) defense against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the costs and benefits of co-parasitism with Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) and Nosema (Nosema ceranae Fries and Nosema apis Zander) on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different defense levels. Newly-emerged worker bees from either high-mite-mortality-rate (high-MMR) bees or low-mite-mortality-rate (low-MMR) bees were confined in forty bioassay cages which were either inoculated with Nosema spores [Nosema (+) group] or were left un-inoculated [Nosema (-) group]. Caged-bees were then inoculated with Varroa mites [Varroa (+) group] or were left untreated [Varroa (-) group]. This established four treatment combinations within each Nosema treatment group: (1) low-MMR Varroa (-), (2) high-MMR Varroa (-), (3) low-MMR Varroa (+) and (4) high-MMR Varroa (+), each with five replicates. Overall mite mortality in high-MMR bees (0.12±0.02 mites per day) was significantly greater than in the low-MMR bees (0.06±0.02 mites per day). In the Nosema (-) groups bee mortality was greater in high-MMR bees than low-MMR bees but only when bees had a higher mite burden. Overall, high-MMR bees in the Nosema (-) group showed greater reductions in mean abundance of mites over time compared with low-MMR bees, when inoculated with additional mites. However, high-MMR bees could not reduce mite load as well as in the Nosema (-) group when fed with Nosema spores. Mean abundance of Nosema spores in live bees and dead bees of both strains of bees was significantly greater in the Nosema (+) group. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of both Nosema species in inoculated bees but N. ceranae was more abundant than N. apis and unlike N. apis increased over the course of the experiment. Collectively, this study showed differential mite mortality rates among different genotypes of bees, however, Nosema infection restrained Varroa removal success in high-MMR bees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the Varroa Sensitive Hygienic trait in Russian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene and more specific VarroaVarroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH) provide resistance toward the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, Russian (RHB) and Italian honey bees were assessed for the VSH trait. Two...

  7. Responses to Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae by several commercial strains of Australian and North American honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of varroa (Varroa destructor, Anderson & Trueman. 2000) on Australian beekeeping and agriculture depends in part on the levels of resistance to this parasite expressed by Australian commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera). The responses of seven lines of Australian honey bees to ...

  8. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Rogério M.O. Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.A abelha Melipona scutellaris é considerada a espécie criada de meliponíneo com maior distribuição no norte e nordeste do Brasil, com ocorrência registradas desde o Estado do Grande do Norte até o Estado da Bahia. Considerando a importância desta espécie na geração de renda para agricultura familiar e na manutenção de áreas com vegetação natural, este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a distribuição de colônias naturais de M. scutellaris no Estado da Bahia. Informações de literatura, entrevistas com meliponicultores e expedições foram realizadas para confirmar a ocorrência natural da espécie. Um total de 102 municípios apresentou registro de M. scutellaris, cuja ocorrência foi observada em áreas desde o nível do mar até 1.200 metros de altitude. A ocorrência desta espécie no Estado da Bahia é considerada como restrita a municípios da área costeira e da Chapada Diamantina, onde existem matas úmidas. Dados de coordenadas geográficas, altitude, clima e vegetação foram obtidos, possibilitando elaborar o mapa da área de ocorrência, subsidiando políticas de conservação e manejo da espécie.

  9. Variation in daily flight activity and foraging patterns in colonies of uruçu - Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Apidae, Meliponini

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    Leonardo Monteiro Pierrot

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flight activities of five colonies of Melipona (Michmelia scutellaris Latreille, 1811 kept among mixed fruit crop plantations in within fragments of Atlantic Rainforest in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil was examined. The daily deployment of foragers to collect pollen, nectar, resin and mud was observed. The colonies performed between 2,640 and 14,250 flights per day. Variations in the number of total daily flights were similar between colonies on all observation days. Proportional allocation of foragers to the different resources also among colonies showed similar variation. More than 90% of the pollen collection flights were made early in the morning. Nectar was collected in similar proportional frequencies with a reduction in activity at noon. On a single day, was observed atypical intense pollen foraging during the afternoon by all colonies. This indicates a high plasticity in foraging behaviour and efficient recruitment to resources which are presented by mass flowering trees with synchronised big bang or multiple bang flowering. Resource availability of the surrounding vegetation, therefore, seems to be the major factor in defining the forager activities on a given day.

  10. Polliniferous plants and foraging strategies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Rogel

    2002-01-01

    A study of the most important polliniferous plants for European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) was made in Quintana Roo state. Comparisons were made between the plants visited by both bee types in order to determine whether there were qualitative or quantitative differences in their choice of plant species. Also some foraging strategies of the honeybees were analysed. Pollen from pollen load samples was acetolysed and mounted on slides. Subsequently the pollen grains were identified, counted and photographed. A total of 206 pollen load samples were collected at Palmas and St. Teresa during two years. The most frequent species in the pollen load samples from European and Africanized honeybees were Cecropia peltata, Metopium brownei, Lonchocarpus sp. 2, Viguiera dentata, Eragrostis sp. 1, Bursera simaruba and Eupatorium albicaule. Both types of honey bees show a high reliance on pollen from only a few species, the first five named above comprised around 50% of all the mean percentage frequencies. Families that contributed with the largest number of pollen species were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, Poaceae, Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae and Tiliaceae. C. peltata, Trema micrantha, B. simaruba, Eugenia sp. 1, Thouinia canesceras, Pouteria sp. 1, Mimosa bahamensis and V. dentata, were the pollen species with the largest percentages of occurrence in both European and Africanized bee pollen load samples, and also represent a "long-term" food resources during the year.

  11. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the varroa sensitive hygienic trait in Russian honey bee (hymenoptera: apidae colonies.

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    Maria J Kirrane

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor continues to threaten colonies of European honey bees. General hygiene, and more specific Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH, provide resistance towards the Varroa mite in a number of stocks. In this study, 32 Russian (RHB and 14 Italian honey bee colonies were assessed for the VSH trait using two different assays. Firstly, colonies were assessed using the standard VSH behavioural assay of the change in infestation of a highly infested donor comb after a one-week exposure. Secondly, the same colonies were assessed using an "actual brood removal assay" that measured the removal of brood in a section created within the donor combs as a potential alternative measure of hygiene towards Varroa-infested brood. All colonies were then analysed for the recently discovered VSH quantitative trait locus (QTL to determine whether the genetic mechanisms were similar across different stocks. Based on the two assays, RHB colonies were consistently more hygienic toward Varroa-infested brood than Italian honey bee colonies. The actual number of brood cells removed in the defined section was negatively correlated with the Varroa infestations of the colonies (r2 = 0.25. Only two (percentages of brood removed and reproductive foundress Varroa out of nine phenotypic parameters showed significant associations with genotype distributions. However, the allele associated with each parameter was the opposite of that determined by VSH mapping. In this study, RHB colonies showed high levels of hygienic behaviour towards Varroa -infested brood. The genetic mechanisms are similar to those of the VSH stock, though the opposite allele associates in RHB, indicating a stable recombination event before the selection of the VSH stock. The measurement of brood removal is a simple, reliable alternative method of measuring hygienic behaviour towards Varroa mites, at least in RHB stock.

  12. Honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), leaf damage on Alnus species in Uganda: a blessing or curse in agroforestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeko, P; Edwards-Jones, G; Day, R K

    2002-10-01

    It is a dictum that Apis mellifera Linnaeus is innocuous in agricultural ecosystems. This study provides the first record of A. mellifera as a significant defoliator of Alnus species. Careful field observations coupled with microscopic examination provided convincing evidence implicating A. mellifera as the cause of leaf perforation on Alnus species in Uganda. Apis mellifera was observed foraging selectively on young Alnus leaves and buds in search of a sticky substance, apparently propolis. In so doing, the bee created wounds that enlarged and caused tattering of Alnus leaves as they matured. Biological surveys indicated that the damage was prevalent and occurred widely, particularly on Alnus acuminata Kunth in Uganda. Incidence of the Apis mellifera damage on Alnus acuminata peaked in the dry season, with up to 90% of leaves emerging per shoot per month damaged, and was lowest in the wet months during peak leaf emergence. Apis mellifera leaf damage was consistently higher on Alnus acuminata than A. nepalensis D. Don., on saplings than mature trees, and on sun exposed than shaded leaves. The activity of honeybees may be detrimental to the productivity of Alnus, yet the substance for which the insect forages on Alnus is a resource with potential economic importance.

  13. Biogeografía de las abejas de las orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini en Colombia

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    Parra-H. Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas de las orquídeas, propias de la región neotropical, parecen haber aparecido recientemente entre el piedemonte de la cordillera de los Andes y la Amazonía. Además éstas abejas de lengua larga y vuelos amplios
    llaman la atención por sus características biológicas, fisiológicas, ecológicas y comportamentales que comparadas con el resto de las tribus más cercanas a ellas (las abejas corbiculadas: Meliponini, Bombini y Apini
    presentan diferencias importantes. Debido a esto y a que son importantes polinizadores, es de especial interés
    establecer sus patrones de distribución, particularmente en Colombia, debido a las características geográficas
    del país. Con base en el material de euglosinos depositados en la colección del LABUN, referencias bibliográficas, características morfológicas y comporamentales de la tribu, así como la localización geográfica y altitudinal de las especies, se desarrolló un análisis de correspondencia para determinar cómo las diferentes variables podrían estar implicadas en la distribución de los euglosinos en Colombia. Los resultados del análisis multivariado muestran que no hay una estrecha relación de las especies de euglosinos a las regiones naturales que ocupan, sino que dentro de las variables consideradas, el tamaño corporal (implicado en capacidad de vuelo y la termorregulación, la estructura social (asociada a aprovechamiento y optimización de recursos en el hábitat y la longitud de la lengua (relacionada con la preferencia y toma de néctares, generan la mayor variabilidad de la muestra. De acuerdo a las características morfológicas y comportamentales analizadas se propone un patrón biogeográfico para la distribución de las abejas euglosinas en Colombia.

  14. The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

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    Mohammed Hannan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma aestuans (Linnaeus and X. (Ctenoxylocopa sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological notes provided for X. sulcatipes. Notes on the nesting biology and ecology of X. sulcatipes are appended. As in studies for this species from elsewhere, nests were found in dried stems of Calotropis procera (Aiton (Asclepiadaceae and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae.

  15. The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Mohammed A.; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille) occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) aestuans (Linnaeus) and Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa) sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological notes provided for Xylocopa sulcatipes. Notes on the nesting biology and ecology of Xylocopa sulcatipes are appended. As in studies for this species from elsewhere, nests were found in dried stems of Calotropis procera (Aiton) (Asclepiadaceae) and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae). PMID:22768000

  16. Bombus huntii, Bombus impatiens, and Bombus vosnesenskii (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pollinate Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes in Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, James P

    2015-06-01

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are the primary pollinators of tomatoes grown in greenhouses and can significantly increase fruit weight compared with tomatoes that receive no supplemental pollination. More than a million colonies are sold worldwide annually to meet pollination needs. Due to mounting concerns over the transportation of bumble bees outside of their native ranges, several species native to western North American are currently being investigated as potential commercial pollinators. Here, two western, Bombus huntii Greene and Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski, and one eastern species, Bombus impatiens Cresson, are compared for their efficacy as pollinators of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. In two experiments, colonies were placed in greenhouses and compared with control plants that received no supplemental pollination. In the first experiment, seed set was significantly increased with B. huntii pollination in one variety of cherry tomatoes. In the second experiment comparing all three bumble bee species, fruit weight was an average of 25.2 g heavier per fruit pollinated by bees versus the control, and the number of days to harvest was 2.9 d shorter for bee-pollinated fruit. In some rounds of pollination, differences were found among bumble bee species, but these were inconsistent across replicates and not statistically significant overall. Additionally, fruit weight was shown to be highly correlated to fruit diameter and seed set in all tests and, thus, is shown to be a reliable metric for assessing pollination in future studies. These results suggest that commercialization of western bumble bees is a viable alternative to the current practices of moving of nonnative bees into western North America to pollinate tomatoes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. [The gallery forests of the São Francisco river as corridors for Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from tropical rainforests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Debora C; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Euglossini are typical bees of Neotropical rainforests and only a few species occur in the Caatinga. The São Francisco river, which is the only permanent river in the semi-arid NE-Brazil, is bordered by a gallery forest with evergreen leaves. This environment offers flooral rewards along the year. Surveys of euglossine bees by attracting males to scent baits showed that species of the Atlantic Rainforest like Euglossa imperialis Cockerel, E. truncata Moure and Eulaema cingulata Fabricius occur in the gallery forest of the São Francisco river under the semi-arid climate of the caatinga region. These bees are restricted to the gallery forests which function as bio-corridors, and are absent at places where the forests were cut down. This emphasizes the need to protect the threatened gallery forests to maintain biodiversity.

  18. Euglossa obrima, a new species of orchid bee from Mesoamerica, with notes on the subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A; Melo, Gabriel A R; Engel, Michael S

    2011-05-11

    A new species of the orchid bee subgenus Dasystilbe Dressler (Euglossini: Euglossa Latreille) is described and figured from a series of males and females collected broadly in Mesoamerica. Euglossa (Dasystilbe) obrima, sp. n., is differentiated from the one known species of Dasystilbe, Euglossa (Dasystilbe) villosa Moure, which occurs only in Panamá and perhaps Costa Rica. The subgenus and its constituent species are diagnosed, and comments provided on Dasystilbe.

  19. Angiosperm flora used by meliponine guilds (Apidae, Meliponina) occurring at rainforest edges in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Verde, Luiz W; Loiola, Maria I B; Freitas, Breno M

    2014-09-01

    Information about the use of floristic resources of the immediate edges of ombrophilous forest (Atlantic rainforest) fragments by stingless bees is not readily available in the scientific literature. Considering the importance of these plant species for local guilds of stingless bees, this study aimed to identify and characterize the flora of the immediate borders of four Atlantic rainforest fragments situated in Baturité massif, state of Ceará, used as food resource by stingless bees. We studied the growth-form of the plants, the floristic similarity between edges and the effect of rainfall on the flowering, and suggested simple techniques for handling these areas. We compiled a total of 82 plant species with a predominance of tree and shrub form. There were different floristic richness between areas and rainfall had differentiated influence on flowering, according to the edge. We concluded that the florist components of the studied edges are relevant to the stingless bee guilds, but alternative management practices are needed to conserve both plant and bee species.

  20. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae of two Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

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    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid-bee faunas of the ‘Parque Nacional do Pau Brasil’ (8,500 ha and ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ (6,000 ha, two Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, were surveyed. Seventeen chemical compounds were used as scent baits to attract orchid-bee males. Seven hundred and twelve males belonging to 20 species were actively collected with insect nets during 80 hours in February and April, 2009. Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, the most sensitive orchid-bee species of the Atlantic Forest, was recorded at both preserves, though in low abundance. ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ is the smallest forest patch where Euglossa marianae has ever been recorded.

  1. Registro de Nephridiophaga sp. (Protista: Nephridiophagidae en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae del Sur de la región Pampeana

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    Santiago PLISCHUK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudios prospectivos tendientes a la detección de protistas asociados a ápidos en la región Pampeana, se observó la presencia de esporos ovales bicóncavos y grupos de esporos (cúmulos en los túbulos de Malpighi de abejas de Dufaur, partido de Saavedra, sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los esporos maduros midieron 4,8 ± 0,05 x 2,4 ± 0,03 μm y la carga (intensidad promedió 5,71 ± 1,49 x 106 esporos/abeja. Las detecciones se efectuaron entre julio y octubre de 2006 y la prevalencia en las colmenas positivas osciló entre 1 y 16,7 %. Las características morfológicas de los esporos, el lugar de desarrollo y la especie huésped involucrada sugieren que el microorganismo en cuestión, pertenece al género Nephridiophaga y sería N. apis Ivanić, especie tipo cuyo conocimiento es extremadamente limitado. El hallazgo constituye el primer registro de un nefridiofágido asociado a A. mellifera fuera del continente europeo.

  2. Características físico-químicas de amostras de mel de Melipona asilvai (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Souza Bruno de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Análises de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona asilvai provenientes dos municípios de Itaberaba e Tucano, região semi-árida do Estado da Bahia, foram realizadas com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento das características físico-químicas desse produto. A maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos apresentou valores adequados para o consumo humano, o que possibilita a exploração desse produto pelas comunidades rurais da região semi-árida da Bahia. Contudo, o teor de umidade elevado é um aspecto que merece uma maior atenção por parte do produtor, que deverá ter cuidado com a higiene na manipulação do mel durante a coleta e no processo de armazenamento.

  3. A missing piece in the puzzle: the presence of Euglossa viridissima in the Baja California Peninsula (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Armando Falcón-Brindis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Orchid bees are a conspicuous component of the neotropical bee fauna, with a few species reaching the northernmost natural distribution for the group in northwestern continental Mexico. Among them, Euglossa viridissima Friese is here reported for the first time in the Cape Region of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico, where no species of the group have been found previously. These records are presented, their biogeographical implications discussed, and some interpretations of the local factors that influence the bees is presented.

  4. Diet and Cell Size Both Affect Queen-Worker Differentiation through DNA Methylation in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yuan Yuan; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhi Jiang; Wang, Zi Long; Wu, Xiao Bo; Yan, Wei Yu

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young larvae of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) are totipotent; they can become either queens (reproductives) or workers (largely sterile helpers). DNA methylation has been shown to play an important role in this differentiation. In this study, we examine the contributions of diet and cell size to caste differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the activity and gene expression of one key enzyme involved in methylation, Dnmt3; the rates of methylation in the gene ...

  5. Side-effects of thiamethoxam on the brain andmidgut of the africanized honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenopptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Regiane Alves; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Malaspina, Osmar

    2014-10-01

    The development of agricultural activities coincides with the increased use of pesticides to control pests, which can also be harmful to nontarget insects such as bees. Thus, the goal of this work was assess the toxic effects of thiamethoxam on newly emerged worker bees of Apis mellifera (africanized honeybee-AHB). Initially, we determined that the lethal concentration 50 (LC50 ) of thiamethoxam was 4.28 ng a.i./μL of diet. To determine the lethal time 50 (LT50 ), a survival assay was conducted using diets containing sublethal doses of thiamethoxam equal to 1/10 and 1/100 of the LC50. The group of bees exposed to 1/10 of the LC50 had a 41.2% reduction of lifespan. When AHB samples were analyzed by morphological technique we found the presence of condensed cells in the mushroom bodies and optical lobes in exposed honeybees. Through Xylidine Ponceau technique, we found cells which stained more intensely in groups exposed to thiamethoxam. The digestive and regenerative cells of the midgut from exposed bees also showed morphological and histochemical alterations, like cytoplasm vacuolization, increased apocrine secretion and increased cell elimination. Thus, intoxication with a sublethal doses of thiamethoxam can cause impairment in the brain and midgut of AHB and contribute to the honeybee lifespan reduction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  6. Diet and cell size both affect queen-worker differentiation through DNA methylation in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Apidae.

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    Yuan Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Young larvae of the honey bee (Apis mellifera are totipotent; they can become either queens (reproductives or workers (largely sterile helpers. DNA methylation has been shown to play an important role in this differentiation. In this study, we examine the contributions of diet and cell size to caste differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the activity and gene expression of one key enzyme involved in methylation, Dnmt3; the rates of methylation in the gene dynactin p62; as well as morphological characteristics of adult bees developed either from larvae fed with worker jelly or royal jelly; and larvae raised in either queen or worker cells. We show that both diet type and cell size contributed to the queen-worker differentiation, and that the two factors affected different methylation sites inside the same gene dynactin p62. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We confirm previous findings that Dnmt3 plays a critical role in honey bee caste differentiation. Further, we show for the first time that cell size also plays a role in influencing larval development when diet is kept the same.

  7. Diet and cell size both affect queen-worker differentiation through DNA methylation in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan Yuan; Huang, Zachary Y; Zeng, Zhi Jiang; Wang, Zi Long; Wu, Xiao Bo; Yan, Wei Yu

    2011-04-26

    Young larvae of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) are totipotent; they can become either queens (reproductives) or workers (largely sterile helpers). DNA methylation has been shown to play an important role in this differentiation. In this study, we examine the contributions of diet and cell size to caste differentiation. We measured the activity and gene expression of one key enzyme involved in methylation, Dnmt3; the rates of methylation in the gene dynactin p62; as well as morphological characteristics of adult bees developed either from larvae fed with worker jelly or royal jelly; and larvae raised in either queen or worker cells. We show that both diet type and cell size contributed to the queen-worker differentiation, and that the two factors affected different methylation sites inside the same gene dynactin p62. We confirm previous findings that Dnmt3 plays a critical role in honey bee caste differentiation. Further, we show for the first time that cell size also plays a role in influencing larval development when diet is kept the same.

  8. Ultrastructural detection of lipids in the cephalic salivary glands of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae workers

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    Silvana Beani Poiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Secretory cells of the cephalic salivary glands (CSGs of eusocial bees produce and accumulate lipid-like secretion in the lumens of their alveoli. Correspondingly, secretory cells present typical ultrastructural features of lipid-compound producers. Previous work on bees has revealed inter-specific differences in the chemical composition of secretion, and the production mechanisms and secretory cycle of secretory cells. In this work a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of lipid storage in the CSGs of Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1807 workers was carried out. The ultrastructural location of lipids was ascertained using imidazole-osmium (IO, using individuals in different stages of their life cycles. Lipid deposits were identified inside glandular cells and in the alveolar lumens in all individuals, but differences were observed between the species. The glandular cells of A. mellifera workers presented positive reactions to IO as droplets dispersed in the cytoplasm, as vesicles and in the channels formed by apical plasma membrane infolds. In S. postica , lipid compounds were detected inside the mitochondrial matrix and in smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisterns. In both species, forager workers exhibited the largest amounts of lipids stored in the alveolar lumen. The differences between the species are discussed, taking into account specific behavioral differences.

  9. Acaricidal and insecticidal activity of essential oils on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Gende, Liesel B; Bailac, Pedro; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2009-12-01

    Varroa destructor is an external parasitic mite that is a serious pest of honeybees and has caused severe losses of colonies worldwide. One of the feasible alternative treatments being used for their control is essential oils. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of some essential oils on V. destructor and Apis mellifera in relation with their chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Lavender, lavendin and laurel essential oils showed linalool as main compound in their composition. 1,8-Cineole was also present as a predominant component in the laurel essential oil. However, thyme oil was characterized by a high concentration of thymol. Mites and bees toxicity was tested by means of complete exposure method. For mites, LC(50) values for laurel, lavender and lavendin essential oil did not show significant variation throughout all observation times. However, the LC(50) values for thyme oil at 48 and 72 h were lower than at 24 h. Bee mortality was evident only in treatment with thyme oil. At 48 and 72 h, lavender essential oil presented better selectivity indexes. In this research, all essential oils caused mite mortality without severe harmful effects on adult bees. The simultaneous evaluation of the physicochemical analysis of the essential oils, the characterization of the dosage response relationships among them, and the mortality effects on mite and bees, give us the possibility to obtain comparative results for future research in Varroa control.

  10. Diversity, local knowledge and use of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-González, Alejandro; Camou-Guerrero, Andrés; Reyes-Salas, Octavio; Argueta, Arturo; Casas, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas. Our study aimed at inventorying stingless bees’ species, traditional knowledge and forms of use and management of them at the municipality of Nocupetaro, Michoacán, Mexico, a region of the Balsas River Basin. Methods We inventoried the stingless bees of the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacán, México, through extensive collecting of bee sp...

  11. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping

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    Abdulaziz Alqarni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile of honey samples from stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponinae) submitted to a dehumidification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carlos A L; Sodré, Geni S; Fonseca, Antonio A O; Alves, Rogério M O; Souza, Bruno A; Clarton, Lana

    2009-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a dehumidification process on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of stingless-bee honey. Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey samples were submitted to a dehumidification process and to physicochemical (reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture, diastatic activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, ash, pH, acidity, and electric conductivity) and sensory evaluations (fluidity, color, aroma, crystallization,flavor,and acceptability). The results indicated that the dehumidification process does not interfere with honey quality and acceptability.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile of honey samples from stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponinae submitted to a dehumidification process

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    Carlos A.L. Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a dehumidification process on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of stingless-bee honey. Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey samples were submitted to a dehumidification process and to physicochemical (reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture, diastatic activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, ash, pH, acidity, and electric conductivity and sensory evaluations (fluidity, color, aroma, crystallization,flavor,and acceptability. The results indicated that the dehumidification process does not interfere with honey quality and acceptability.Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do processo de desumidificação sobre as características físico-químicas e sensoriais do mel das abelhas sem ferrão. Amostras de méis de Melipona scutellaris e M. quadrifasciata foram submetidas ao processo de desumidificação, passando em seguida por avaliações físico-químicas (açúcares redutores, sacarose aparente, umidade, atividade diastásica, hidroximetilfurfural, cinzas, pH, acidez e condutividade elétrica e sensoriais (fluidez, cor, aroma, cristalização, sabor e aceitabilidade. Os resultados indicaram que o processo de desumidificação não interfere na qualidade e aceitabilidade do mel.

  14. Malformações antenais em zangões de Apis mellifera de ocelos claros (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUD-NETTO, J.

    2000-01-01

    Antenas com malformações diversas, extraídas de zangões de Apis mellifera de ocelos claros, foram desenhadas e dissecadas para a contagem de discos olfativos dos segmentos morfologicamente alterados, em comparação com as antenas normais de seus irmãos. Alguns zangões apresentaram anormalidades morfológicas em um dos segmentos da antena direita ou esquerda, mas outros possuíam dois ou mais segmentos alterados na mesma antena. Zangões com malformações em ambas as antenas também foram observados...

  15. The orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina in a forest fragment from western Paraná state, Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An orchid bee inventory was carried out in Parque Estadual São Camilo, Palotina, Paraná (Brazil; conservation unit with about 400 hectares of Semidecidual Seasonal forest. Three bait traps were installed at the border of the fragment, each one containing the following fragrances: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and vanilin. Sampling was carried out from 09am to 03pm, October 2011 to June 2012, summing up nine sampling days. A total of 186 specimens distributed among seven species were sampled. Eufriesea violacea with 140 specimens was the most common species, followed by Euglossa fimbriata (31, Euglossa annectans (9, Eulaema nigrita (4, Euglossa cordata (1, Euglossa pleosticta (1, and Exaerete smaragdina (1. According to qualitative and NMDS analysis, the orchid bee fauna of Parque Estadual São Camilo is representative of Semidecidual Seasonal forest, with richness comparable with other assemblages in the southern distribution of Euglossina. The sampled bee richness indicates that forest fragments, even small and isolated, are important in the conservation of this bees.

  16. Colony-level variation in pollen collection and foraging preferences among wild-caught bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuddin, Mustafa; Jha, Shalene

    2014-04-01

    Given that many pollinators have exhibited dramatic declines related to habitat destruction, an improved understanding of pollinator resource collection across human-altered landscapes is essential to conservation efforts. Despite the importance of bumble bees (Bombus spp.) as global pollinators, little is known regarding how pollen collection patterns vary between individuals, colonies, and landscapes. In this study, Vosnesensky bumble bees (Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski) were collected from a range of human-altered and natural landscapes in northern California. Extensive vegetation surveys and Geographic Information System (GIS)-based habitat classifications were conducted at each site, bees were genotyped to identify colony mates, and pollen loads were examined to identify visited plants. In contrast to predictions based on strong competitive interactions, pollen load composition was significantly more similar for bees captured in a shared study region compared with bees throughout the research area but was not significantly more similar for colony mates. Preference analyses revealed that pollen loads were not composed of the most abundant plant species per study region. The majority of ranked pollen preference lists were significantly correlated for pairwise comparisons of colony mates and individuals within a study region, whereas the majority of pairwise comparisons of ranked pollen preference lists between individuals located at separate study regions were uncorrelated. Results suggest that pollen load composition and foraging preferences are similar for bees throughout a shared landscape regardless of colony membership. The importance of native plant species in pollen collection is illustrated through preference analyses, and we suggest prioritization of specific rare native plant species for enhanced bumble bee pollen collection.

  17. ORIGEN GEOGRÁFICO Y BOTÁNICO DE MIELES DE Apis mellifera (APIDAE EN CUATRO DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar marcadores palinológicos que permitieran caracterizar el origen geográfico y botánico de mieles provenientes de los departamentos de Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander y Magdalena. Se realizaron análisis melisopalinológicos de 184 muestras de miel procedentes de 131 apiarios. Se determinaron diferencias significativas entre tipos de mieles mediante un análisis discriminante y comparando la composición de especies entre las muestras. En total se encontraron 297 especies distribuidas en 69 familias, dentro de las cuales las más representativas fueron Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. y Quercus humboldtii. Las familias más importantes fueron Fabaceae, Asteraceae,Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae, y Melastomataceae. Se lograron determinar seis grupos de mieles diferenciadas por su origen geográfico: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Provincia Comunera; también se encontraron diferencias entre las mieles de las regiones andinas y subandinas. Dentro de los tipos de mieles diferenciadas por origen botánico predominaron las mieles monoflorales de Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp.y Heliocarpus americanus, mieles oligoflorales de asteráceas y mezclas de mielato de Q. humboldtii y néctar floral (Eucalyptus sp. tipo Brassicaceae, asteráceas. La información de este trabajo junto con la obtenida en análisis fisicoquímicos y sensoriales servirá de base para que los apicultores puedan solicitar la denominación de origen de estas mieles.

  18. The importance of plant diversity in maintaining the pollinator bee, Eulaema nigrita (Hymenoptera: Apidae in sweet passion fruit fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita plays an important role for the pollination of native and economically important plants, such as the sweet passion-fruit Passiflora alata. E. nigrita uniquely collects the nectar from the flowers of P. alata, nevertheless, it needs to visit other plants to collect pollen, nectar and other resources for its survival. There are two methods to identify the species of plants used by bees in their diet: by direct observation of the bees in the flowers, and through identification of pollen grains present in brood cells, feces, or in the bees’ body. In order to identify the other plants that E. nigrita visits, we analyzed samples of pollen grains removed from the bee’s body in the course of the flowering period of P. alata. Among our results, the flora visited by E. nigrita comprised 40 species from 32 genera and 19 families, some of them used as a pollen source or just nectar. In spite of being a polyletic species, E. nigrita exhibited preference for some plant species with poricidal anthers. P. alata which has high sugar concentration nectar was the main source of nectar for this bee in the studied area. Nonetheless, the pollinic analysis indicated that others nectariferous plant species are necessary to keep the populations of E. nigrita. Studies such as this one are important since they indicate supplementary pollen-nectar sources which must be used for the conservation of the populations of E. nigrita in crops neighbouring areas. In the absence of pollinators, growers are forced to pay for hand pollination, which increases production costs; keeping pollinators in cultivated areas is still more feasible to ensure sweet passion fruit productionLa abeja euglosina Eulaema nigrita juega un importante papel para la polinización de las plantas nativas y de importancia económica, como es el caso de la fruta de la pasión o maracuyá Passiflora alata. E. nigrita únicamente recoge el néctar las flores de P. alata, sin embargo, tiene que visitar otras plantas para recoger polen, néctar y otros recursos para su supervivencia. Hay dos métodos para identificar las especies de plantas utilizadas por las abejas en su dieta: por observación directa de las abejas en las flores, y a través de la identificación de los granos de polen presentes en las celdas de cría, heces o en el cuerpo de las abejas. Con el fin de identificar las otras plantas que E. nigrita visita, se analizaron muestras de granos de polen extraído del cuerpo de la abeja durante el período de floración de P. alata. Entre nuestros resultados, la flora visitada por E. nigrita está compuesta por 40 especies de 32 géneros y 19 familias, algunas de ellas utilizadas como fuente de polen o solamente de néctar. A pesar de ser una especie polifilética, E. nigrita exhibe preferencia por algunas especies de plantas con anteras poricidas. El néctar de P. alata tiene la más alta concentración de azúcar y fue la principal fuente de este recurso para las abejas en el área de estudio. Sin embargo, el análisis polínico indicó que otras especies de plantas nectaríferas son necesarias para mantener las poblaciones de E. nigrita. Estudios como éste son importantes pues indican cuales son las fuentescomplementarias de néctar y polen que deben ser utilizadas para la conservación de las poblaciones de E. nigrita en los cultivos de las zonas vecinas. En ausencia de polinizadores, los productores se ven obligados a pagar por la polinización manual, lo que aumenta los costos de producción, por lo tanto el mantenimiento de polinizadores en las zonas cultivadas es más factible para asegurar la producción de la fruta de la pasión

  19. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of propolis of Plebeia droryana and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamigo, Thaliny; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Oliveira, Alex Santos; Torquato, Heron Fernandes Vieira; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a complex bioactive mixture produced by bees, known to have different biological activities, especially in countries where there is a rich biodiversity of plant species. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Brazilian propolis from the species Plebeia droryana and Apis mellifera found in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In the ethanolic extracts of P. droryana propolis (ExEP-P) and A. mellifera (ExEP-A) acids, phenolic compounds, terpenes and tocopherol were identified as major compounds. Both extracts presented antioxidant activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, the maximum activities being 500 μg/mL (ExEP-P) and 300 μg/mL (ExEP-A). However, only ExEP-A was able to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by the oxidizing agent 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), which inhibited oxidative hemolysis and reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in human erythrocytes for 4 h of incubation. The extracts also reduced the cell viability of the K562 erythroleukemia tumour line, with a predominance of necrotic death. Thus, it is concluded that the propolis produced by P. droryana and A. mellifera contain important compounds capable of minimizing the action of oxidizing substances in the organism and reducing the viability of erythroleukemia cells.

  20. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of propolis of Plebeia droryana and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thaliny Bonamigo; Jaqueline Ferreira Campos; Alex Santos Oliveira; Heron Fernandes Vieira Torquato; José Benedito Perrella Balestieri; Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso; Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero; Kely de Picoli Souza; Edson Lucas dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Brazilian propolis from the species Plebeia droryana and Apis mellifera...

  1. Effect of a fungicide and spray adjuvant on queen-rearing success in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M; Percel, Eric G

    2013-10-01

    Commercial producers of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.) have reported unexplained loss of immature queens during the larval or pupal stage. Many affected queen-rearing operations are situated among the almond orchards of California and report these losses in weeks after almond trees bloom. Almond flowers are a rich foraging resource for bees, but are often treated with fungicides, insecticides, and spray adjuvants during bloom. Anecdotal reports by queen producers associate problems in queen development with application of the fungicide Pristine (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) and spray adjuvants that are tank-mixed with it. To test the effect of these compounds on queen development, a new bioassay was developed in which queens are reared in closed swarm boxes for 4 d, until capping, with nurse bees fed exclusively on artificially contaminated pollen. Pollen was treated with four concentrations of formulated Pristine (0.4, 4, 40, and 400 ppm), a spray adjuvant (Break-Thru, 200 ppm), the combination of Pristine and spray adjuvant (400:200 ppm), the insect growth regulator insecticide diflubenzuron (100 ppm) as a positive control, or water as negative control. Chemical analysis revealed that low concentrations of pyraclostrobin (50 ppb), but no boscalid, were detectable in royal jelly secreted by nurse bees feeding on treated pollen. No significant difference in queen development or survival was observed between any of the experimental treatments and the negative control. Only diflubenzuron, the positive control, caused a substantial reduction in survival of immature queens.

  2. Diversity, local knowledge and use of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in the municipality of Nocupetaro, Michoacan, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reyes-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Camou-Guerrero, Andres; Reyes-Salas, Octavio; Argueta, Arturo; Casas, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    .... Our study aimed at inventorying stingless bees' species, traditional knowledge and forms of use and management of them at the municipality of Nocupetaro, Michoacan, Mexico, a region of the Balsas River Basin. Methods...

  3. Effect of biotic factors on the spatial distribution of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini) in fragmented neotropical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, M M; Cruz-López, L; Sánchez, D; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Vandame, R

    2012-04-01

    We recorded stingless bee colony abundance and nesting habits in three sites with different anthropogenic activities in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico: (1) agroforestry (7 hacacao crop), (2) grassland (12 ha), and (3) urban area (3 ha). A total of 67 nests were found, representing five stingless bee species, Tetragonisca angustula angustula (Lepeletier), Trigona fulviventris (Guérin), Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin), Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre), and Oxytrigona mediorufa (Cockerell). The most abundant stingless bee in each site was T. angustula angustula (>50%). The primary tree species used by the bees were Ficus spp. (Moraceae, 37.8%) and Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae, 13.5%). The nest entrance height of T. angustula angustula (96 ± 19 cm) was different than the other species, and this bee was the only one that used all different nesting sites. Volatiles analyzed by gas chromatography from pollen collected by the stingless bees differed between bee species, but were highly similar in respect to the fragrances of the pollen collected by the same species at any site. Our data indicate that T. angustula angustula experienced low heterospecific and high intraspecific foraging overlap especially in the urban site. We observed cluster spatial distribution in grassland and in agroforestry sites. In the urban site, T. angustula angustula presented random distribution tended to disperse. Trigona fulviventris was the only overdispersed and solitary species.

  4. The role of the agricultural matrix: coffee management and euglossine bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) communities in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, H M; Perfecto, I; Brosi, B J

    2013-12-01

    With growing concern surrounding global pollinator declines, it is important to understand how habitat destruction and agricultural intensification impact pollinator communities. Euglossine bees are tropical forest-dependent pollinators responsible for pollination of both economically important crops and wild plant species. A growing body of work has focused on the effect of habitat fragmentation on euglossine bees, yet little is known about how these bees are impacted by agricultural intensification. Coffee cultivation is widespread in the tropics, and its management is conducted along a gradient of intensity, which ranges from monoculture (i.e., no shade, high inputs) to polyculture (shade overstory retained, fewer inputs). We used a landscape in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico, that allowed for comparison between monoculture and polyculture coffee farms, while holding distance to native habitat, as well as native habitat quality, constant. We found that habitat management influenced abundance, estimated richness, and community composition of euglossine bees. The polyculture coffee farm boasts a more similar community composition to the forest than to the monoculture coffee farm. In addition, the polyculture farm had almost double the euglossine abundance compared with the monoculture farm. Our results suggest that coffee management regimes may strongly impact euglossine communities and that less intensive polyculture approaches may mitigate species losses of this important group of pollinators.

  5. ORIGEN GEOGRÁFICO Y BOTÁNICO DE MIELES DE Apis mellifera (APIDAE EN CUATRO DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar marcadores palinológicos que permitieran caracterizar el origen geográfico y botánico de mieles provenientes de los departamentos de Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander y Magdalena. Se realizaron análisis meli- sopalinológicos de 184 muestras de miel procedentes de 131 apiarios. Se determinaron diferencias significativas entre tipos de mieles mediante un análisis discriminante y comparando la composición de especies entre las muestras. En total se encontraron 297 especies distribuidas en 69 familias, dentro de las cuales las más representativas fueron Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. y Quercus humboldtii. Las familias más importantes fueron Fabaceae, Asteraceae,Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae, y Melastomataceae. Se lograron determinar seis grupos de mieles diferenciadas por su origen geográfico: altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y provincia Comunera; también se encontraron diferencias entre las mieles de las regiones andinas y subandinas. Dentro de los tipos de mieles diferenciadas por origen botánico predominaron las mieles monoflorales de Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp. y Heliocarpus americanus, mieles oligoflorales de asteráceas y mezclas de mielato de Q. humboldtii y néctar floral (Eucalyptus sp. tipo Brassicaceae, asteráceas. La información de este trabajo junto con la obtenida en análisis fisicoquímicos y sensoriales servirá de base para que los apicultores puedan solicitar la denominación de origen de estas mieles.

  6. Nidificación de meliponinos (Hymenoptera: Apidae) de la Región Central de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara B., Carlos; Villa L., Antonio; Nates P., Guimar

    2016-01-01

    Se registran los principales hábitos de nidificación de 34 especies de meliponinos, con base en 303 nidos de varios sitios del Departamento de Cundinamarca (Colombia). Se examinaron los siguientes parámetros; sitio en donde las abejas construyen el nido; presencia o ausencia de una estructura especializada para la entrada y salida de las abejas y grado de exposición de la construcción, como aspectos de la arquitectura externa; altura de los nidos sobre el-suelo y su distribución altitudinal. ...

  7. Floral sources to Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera: Apidae and their pollen morphology in a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Braga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bees are important flowers visitors of several plant species, due to their feeding habits and foraging behavior, constituting an important group to maintain biodiversity and the dynamics of tropical communities. Among stingless bees, Tetragonisca angustula is widely distributed in tropical habitats, and has been considered an important pollinator of different plant families. To support a rational economic use of this group, there is a need to characterize the plant species that represent important sources as part of their diet, as preferred, alternative or casual food sources. The aim of this survey was to distinguish the plant species that T. angustula visited most often. The study was undertaken in four regions of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil over a year from March 2008 to February 2009. For this, we collected bees, flowering plants and bee pollen loads from the four sites, and evaluated pollen morphology in the laboratory. Field observations showed the presence of plants belonging to ten different families and pollen loads showed the presence of pollen types belonging to 26 plant families. There were strong differences between pollen types, especially regarding pollen grain shape. The present survey suggests a high value of these plant species as trophic resources for the T. angustula in the understory of Atlantic Rainforest. Changes in these fragments of this forest may compromise the availability of resources for Tetragonisca angustula species and other stingless bees.

  8. Floral sources to Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera: Apidae and their pollen morphology in a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Braga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bees are important flowers visitors of several plant species, due to their feeding habits and foraging behavior, constituting an important group to maintain biodiversity and the dynamics of tropical communities. Among stingless bees, Tetragonisca angustula is widely distributed in tropical habitats, and has been considered an important pollinator of different plant families. To support a rational economic use of this group, there is a need to characterize the plant species that represent important sources as part of their diet, as preferred, alternative or casual food sources. The aim of this survey was to distinguish the plant species that T. angustula visited most often. The study was undertaken in four regions of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil over a year from March 2008 to February 2009. For this, we collected bees, flowering plants and bee pollen loads from the four sites, and evaluated pollen morphology in the laboratory. Field observations showed the presence of plants belonging to ten different families and pollen loads showed the presence of pollen types belonging to 26 plant families. There were strong differences between pollen types, especially regarding pollen grain shape. The present survey suggests a high value of these plant species as trophic resources for the T. angustula in the understory of Atlantic Rainforest. Changes in these fragments of this forest may compromise the availability of resources for Tetragonisca angustula species and other stingless bees.Para apoyar el uso racional de las abejas sin aguijón, es necesario conocer las especies de plantas que actúan como fuentes de recursos para estas abejas en su ambiente natural. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las especies de plantas que fueron visitadas con mayor frecuencia por abejas Tetragonisca angustula y describir los granos de polen de estas plantas. El estudio se realizó en la Mata Atlántica, donde se recogieron las abejas, las plantas con flores y el polen de las cargas corbiculares de las abejas obreras. La observación de campo mostró la presencia de plantas pertenecientes a diez familias y las cargas de polen mostraron la presencia de tipos de polen pertenecientes a 26 familias botánicas. Hubo grandes diferencias entre los tipos de polen, sobre todo teniendo en cuenta la ornamentación de los granos de polen. Este estudio sugiere un alto valor de estas especies de plantas como recursos tróficos para las abejas jataí en el sub-bosque de la Mata Atlántica. Las alteraciones de los fragmentos de bosque pueden afectar la disponibilidad de recursos para Tetragonisca angustula y otras abejas sin aguijón y ser un gran obstáculo para la su crianza sostenible.

  9. The importance of plant diversity in maintaining the pollinator bee, Eulaema nigrita (Hymenoptera: Apidae in sweet passion fruit fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita plays an important role for the pollination of native and economically important plants, such as the sweet passion-fruit Passiflora alata. E. nigrita uniquely collects the nectar from the flowers of P. alata, nevertheless, it needs to visit other plants to collect pollen, nectar and other resources for its survival. There are two methods to identify the species of plants used by bees in their diet: by direct observation of the bees in the flowers, and through identification of pollen grains present in brood cells, feces, or in the bees’ body. In order to identify the other plants that E. nigrita visits, we analyzed samples of pollen grains removed from the bee’s body in the course of the flowering period of P. alata. Among our results, the flora visited by E. nigrita comprised 40 species from 32 genera and 19 families, some of them used as a pollen source or just nectar. In spite of being a polyletic species, E. nigrita exhibited preference for some plant species with poricidal anthers. P. alata which has high sugar concentration nectar was the main source of nectar for this bee in the studied area. Nonetheless, the pollinic analysis indicated that others nectariferous plant species are necessary to keep the populations of E. nigrita. Studies such as this one are important since they indicate supplementary pollen-nectar sources which must be used for the conservation of the populations of E. nigrita in crops neighbouring areas. In the absence of pollinators, growers are forced to pay for hand pollination, which increases production costs; keeping pollinators in cultivated areas is still more feasible to ensure sweet passion fruit production

  10. Ocorrência e morfometria de glândulas tegumentares abdominais em Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Heloiza Vilas Boas Mota

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera L. apresenta três diferentes tipos de glândulas abdominais: (i glândulas tergais unicelulares, representadas por: a glândulas de Koschenikow, situadas no VIII tergo abdominal de operárias e rainhas: b glândulas de Nassanoff ou glândulas de cheiro, localizadas no VII tergo das operárias: c glândulas de Renner e Baumann, localizadas nos tergos III, IV e V das rainhas; (ii glândulas epiteliais, representadas pelas glândulas de cera das abelhas operárias; (iii glândulas associadas ao ferrão: a ácidas; b básicas, ocorrendo em ambas as castas. O estudo do ciclo de desenvolvimento das glândulas abdominais foi realizado por meio de técnicas morfométricas, que consistiram em medidas diretas das células e dos diâmetros de seus núcleos e cálculo posterior de suas respectivas áreas. A ocorrência e a morfometria mostraram correlações entre o ciclo de desenvolvimento e a função das glândulas e o comportamento das abelhas.Apis mellifera L. presents threww different types of abdominal glands: (i unicelular tergal glands, represented by: a the Koschenikow glands, situated in the VIII abdominal tergum of workers and queens; b the Nassanoff glands or scent glands located in the VII tergum of workers; c the Renner and Baumann glands located in the III, IV and V terga of the queens; (ii epithelial glands, represented by wax glands of worker bees; (iii glands associated to the sting: a acid; b basic glands, occurring in both castes. The study of the developmental cycle of the abdominal glands was done by means of morfometric tecniques which consisted in direct measurements of the cells and their nuclei diameters and further calculation of their respective areas: The occurrence and morphometric studies showed correlations between the developmental cycle and the glands function and bees behavior.

  11. Repertoire of Defensive Behavior in Africanized Honey Bees (Hymenoptera – Apidae: Variations in Defensive Standard and Influence of Visual Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pinto

    2016-04-01

    Resumo. As abelhas africanizadas (AHB são conhecidas por sua alta produtividade e tolerância a patógenos e parasitas como o ácaro Varroa destructor. Em contraste às características vantajosas, as AHB são consideradas altamente defensivas necessitando de certos cuidados em seu manejo. Entretanto, poucos estudos relatam características específicas sobre os padrões de comportamento de AHB na apicultura brasileira. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o repertório do comportamento defensivo (DB em AHB, identificando a importância de condições climáticas e estímulos visuais nesta característica, bem como gradiente de agressividade dentre as colônias. Os aspectos relacionados ao comportamento defensivo foram avaliados pelo método de Stort com adaptações. Foram encontradas diferenças entre as colônias em relação à velocidade do primeiro ataque e intensidade de ataque (p<0.05%, por outro lado os padrões de DB não foram afetados pela variação de temperatura durante os períodos de avaliação. Todos os ataques se iniciaram pela parte preta da esfera alvo, contudo após o primeiro ataque ambos os lados (preto e branco sofreram ataques. Tal fato indica que embora as pistas visuais possuam um papel relavente na defesa das colônias, sinais químicos (feromônios de alarme atuam na manutenção e aumento do possível alvo. Pôde-se também identificar uma grande variação nos padrões defensivos dentre as colônias estudadas, fator esperado devido a grande variabilidade genética presente em AHB. Por sua vez, a avaliação do DB possui um importante papel na seleção e melhoramento de colônias visando à seleção de características benéficas como alta produtividade de mel e baixa agressividade durante o manejo.

  12. Individual foraging, activity level and longevity in the stingless bee Melipona beecheii in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Tóth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of individually marked workers of Melipona beecheii (Meliponinae) was monitored in Costa Rica to investigate individual specialisation for different materials and how this influences foraging longevity. The majority of the individuals harvested one commodity (pollen, nectar or

  13. First record of the behavior of latex drainage by Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae in laticiferous flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Koschnitzke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the behavior of the bee Trigona spinipes, to avoid the latex, when piercing the base of the tubular corolla of the flowers of Mandevilla guanabarica in order to steal the nectar.

  14. Male scent-marking pheromone of Bombus ardens ardens (Hymenoptera; Apidae) attracts both conspecific queens and males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Ryohei; Harano, Ken-ichi; Ono, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To explore the role of the volatiles emitted from male labial gland (LG) of the bumblebee Bombus ardens ardens, we investigated the responses of virgin queens and males to volatiles using a gas chromatography-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) system and Y-tube olfactometer. GC-EAD analysis revealed that citronellol, the main compound detected in the male LG, caused clear electrophysiological responses in the antennae of B. a. ardens virgin queens and males although two minor compounds elicited antennal responses when applied in a high concentration. Behavioral tests using a Y-tube olfactometer showed that queens and males were significantly attracted to both LG extracts and citronellol more than to the solvent alone. This is the first study to demonstrate that citronellol as a major compound of male scent-marking pheromone in B. a. ardens functions as a sex attractant for queens. The results also suggest that this compound has another function as a trail marker used by males.

  15. Biological activity of some plant essential oils against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an ectoparasitic mite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Vahid; Moharramipour, Saeid; Tahmasbi, Gholamhosein

    2011-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate acaricidal activity of the essential oils of Thymus kotschyanus, Ferula assa-foetida and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Varroa destructor under laboratory conditions. Moreover, fumigant toxicity of these oils was tested on Apis mellifera. After preliminary dose-setting experiments, mites and honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of the oil, with 10 h exposure time. Essential oil of T. kotschyanus appeared the most potent fumigant for V. destructor (LC(50) = 1.07, 95% confidence limit (CL) = 0.87-1.26 μl/l air), followed by E. camaldulensis (LC(50) = 1.74, 95% CL = 0.96-2.50 μl/l air). The lowest acaricidal activity (LC(50) = 2.46, 95% CL = 2.10-2.86 μl/l air) was attributed to essential oil of F. assa-foetida. Surprisingly, among the three oils tested, essential oil of T. kotschyanus had the lowest insecticidal activity against A. mellifera (LC(50) = 5.08, 95% CL = 4.54-5.06 μl/l air). These findings proved that essential oil of T. kotschyanus has potential of practical value for use as alternative acaricide in the management of varroa in apiaries.

  16. Large pathogen screening reveals first report of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) parasitizing Apis mellifera intermissa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menail, Ahmed Hichem; Piot, Niels; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida

    2016-06-01

    As it is most likely that global warming will also lead to a shift in pollinator-habitats northwards, the study of southern species becomes more and more important. Pathogen screenings in subspecies of Apis mellifera capable of withstanding higher temperatures, provide an insight into future pathogen host interactions. Screenings in different climate regions also provide a global perspective on the prevalence of certain pathogens. In this project, we performed a pathogen screening in Apis mellifera intermissa, a native subspecies of Algeria in northern Africa. Colonies were sampled from different areas in the region of Annaba over a period of two years. Several pathogens were detected, among them Apicystis bombi, Crithidia mellificae, Nosema ceranae, Paenibacillus larvae, Lake Sinai Virus, Sacbrood Virus and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV). Our screening also revealed a phoroid fly, Megaselia scalaris, parasitizing honey bee colonies, which we report here for the first time. In addition, we found DWV to be present in the adult flies and replicating virus in the larval stages of the fly, which could indicate that M. scalaris acts as a vector of DWV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What's in that package? An evaluation of quality of package honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shipments in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, James P; Cicciarelli, Richard P; Calderone, Nicholas W

    2008-06-01

    To replace deceased colonies or to increase the colony numbers, beekeepers often purchase honey bees, Apis mellifera L., in a package, which is composed of 909-1,364 g (2-3 lb) of worker bees and a mated queen. Packages are typically produced in warm regions of the United States in spring and shipped throughout the United States to replace colonies that perished during winter. Although the package bee industry is effective in replacing colonies lost in winter, packages also can be an effective means of dispersing diseases, parasites, and undesirable stock to beekeepers throughout the United States. To evaluate the quality of packages, we examined 48 packages representing six lines of bees purchased in the spring 2006. We estimated levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman and the percentage of drone (male) honey bees received in packages. We surveyed for presence of the tracheal honey bee mite, Acarapis woodi (Rennie), and a microsporidian parasite, Nosema spp., in the shipped bees. We found significant differences in both the mean Varroa mite per bee ratios (0.004-0.054) and the average percentage of drones (0.04-5.1%) in packages from different producers. We found significant differences in the number of Nosema-infected packages (0.0-75.0%) among the six lines. No packages contained detectable levels ofA. woodi. Considering the observed variability among honey bee packages, beekeepers should be aware of the potential for pest and disease infestations and high drone levels in packages.

  18. Recognition and identification of bumblebee species in the Bombus lucorum-complex (Hymenoptera, Apidae – A review and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Bossert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of cryptic species represents one of the major challenges in current taxonomy and affects our understanding of global diversity. In practice, the process from discovery to acceptance in the scientific community can take an extensive length of time. A prime example is the traditionally difficult taxonomy of the cryptic bumblebee species belonging to the Bombus lucorum-complex. The status of the three European species in the group – Bombus lucorum and the closely related Bombus cryptarum and Bombus magnus – has recently become widely accepted, primarily due to investigations of nucleotide sequences and marking pheromones. In contrast, doubts prevail concerning the validity of species identification based on morphology. As a consequence, our knowledge of the species is muddled in a mire of unreliable and confusing literature data from a large number of authors over the centuries. To clarify this issue, this paper provides a recapitulation of the historical literature and highlights the milestones in the process of species recognition. Further, the possibility of a morphologically based species identification is discussed in the context of new molecular data. Finally, this review outlines the current challenges and provides directions for future issues.

  19. Nesting biology of an Oriental carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838, in Thailand (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological study of wild non-Apis bees can provide useful information that may help with the pollination of food crops and native plants in areas where the keeping of honey bee colonies is restricted or affected by CCD. Here, we describe the nesting biology of the Oriental large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838. An aggregation of more than 80+ bamboo nests of X. nasalis was discovered in Suan Pheung district, Ratch Buri province, Thailand on the 25th of May 2012. We collected 27 nests from the site to dissect, measure the external and internal nest architecture, and analyze the pollen composition of the pollen masses. X. nasalis constructs linear unbranched nests with nest entrance mostly located at the open-end of the bamboo culms. The nest length and the branch diameter of the nest entrance (excluding nesting edge are 25.40 ± 6.95 cm and 17.94 ± 6.00 mm, and the maximum number of provisioned cells is 8. A biased sex ratio of 8♀: 1♂ is reported, with up to 7 adults inhabiting in a single nest. 29 pollen types were identified from 14 pollen masses using an acetolysis method and visualization under both light microscope and scanning electron microscope. 13 pollen types were considered as major pollen sources (contribute ≥ 1% in total pollen volume; however, only 10 can be identified to family and generic levels. The dominant pollen sources are of the families Elaeagnaceae (Elaeagnus cf. latifolia, Euphorbiaceae (Croton, Fabaceae (Senna siamea and Cassia, Fagaceae (Lithocarpus and Castanopsis, and Lythraceae (Trapa which are mostly native to the region of Southeast Asia. The nesting architectural details should prove to be beneficial to beekeepers and researchers who are interested in trapping and studying X. nasalis, and the polylectic behavior of X. nasalis can be highly valuable for future crop pollination strategies, particularly for plants that require sonication of their poricidal anthers.

  20. Taxonomic utility of niche models in validating species concepts: A case study in Anthophora (Heliophila) (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael C; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry L; Pitts, James P

    2014-08-04

    Taxonomy has far-reaching effects throughout biology, and incorrect taxonomy can be detrimental in many ways. Polymorphic species complexes, many of which exist in the bee genus Anthophora Latreille, lend themselves to such difficulties. This study employs environmental niche mapping (ENM) and traditional morphological analyses to investigate the validity of the subjective synonymy of Anthophora (Heliophila) curta Provancher with the senior synonym A. squammulosa Dours. Eleven of fifty morphological characters consistently differentiate the two putative species, with an additional five characters sometimes separating them. Additionally, based on over 1000 georeferenced museum specimens, the geographic ranges of the two taxa do not overlap. The two entities also react differently to the bioclimatic variables based on correlation analysis. We further tested the two-species hypothesis by constructing ENMs with informative bioclimatic variables associated with locality records. Their modelled distributions overlapped less than 1%, suggesting discrete environmental boundaries. The variables which contributed most to each species' model also differed. These differences are explored in relation to their habitats. The combined morphological and biogeographic analysis indicates that A. curta and A. squammulosa are distinct species. Based on the accumulated evidence the synonymy is formally rejected and A. curta is recognized as a valid species. Five additional taxa (A. bispinosa Cockerell, A. franciscana Cockerell, A. usticauda Cockerell, A. u. cinerior Cockerell, A. zamoranella Cockerell) are newly synonymized with A. squammulosa and Anthophora curta var. melanops Cockerell is newly synonymized with A. curta. Implications outside of taxonomy are discussed. 

  1. The traditional knowledge on stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponina) used by the Enawene-Nawe tribe in western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gilton Mendes; Antonini, Yasmine

    2008-09-15

    This paper presents the Enawene-Nawe Society's traditional knowledge about stingless bees. The Enawene-Nawe are an Aruak speaking people, indigenous to the Meridian Amazon. Specifically, they live in the Jurema River hydrological basin, located in the northwestern region of the Mato Grosso state. The stingless bees were sampled from two ecologically similar regions in the interior of Enawene-Nawe Land. The first sampling took place around the village, i.e., adjacent to houses, by the edge of the Iquê River, next to food leftovers, around human excrement, and simply when the insects were found flying or reposing on a human body. The second round of sampling happened from 29/10 to 02/11/94, during an expedition for honey collection that took place throughout the ciliar bushes of the Papagaio River, an important tributary of Juruena River. We sampled bees adjacent to their nests following the beehive inspection or during the honey extraction. In this work, the main bee species of the sub tribe Meliponina, which were handled by the Enawene-Nawe, was identified, and a brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and its social-cosmologic meaning for the group was done. Similar to other indigenous people in Brazil, the Enawene-Nawe recognized 48 stingless bee species. They identified each bee species by name and specified each one's ecological niche. A brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and bees' social-cosmologic meaning for the group is included. We concluded that, as an example of other indigenous people, the Enawene-Nawe classify and identify the bees based not only on their structure and morphological aspects but also on the ecological, etiological, and social characteristics of the species.

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees ( Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL-1 against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  3. NUEVOS REGISTROS GENÉRICOS DE ABEJAS (Hymenoptera: Apoidea PARA COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR H. GONZÁLEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez para Colombia los géneros de abejas solitarias Lophothygater Moure y Michener (Apidae, Eucerini y Tapinotaspoides Moure (Apidae, Tapinotaspidini. Estos géneros solo se conocían del centro de la Amazonía brasileña, Argentina y Paraguay, respectivamente.

  4. Flowering phenology and floral visitors of Piliostigma reticulatum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera), Syrphidae (Diptera), Apidae (Hymenoptera) and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) were regarded as main potential pollinators of P. reticulatum. Apidae (Apis mellifera) was the most abundant and frequent visitor. We found that August was the peak flowering period for both male and female individuals ...

  5. New Records of Bee Genera (Hymenoptera: Apoidea from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor H. González

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The solitary bee genera Lophothygater Moure y Michener (Apidae, Eucerini and Tapinotaspoides Moure (Apidae, Tapinotaspidini are reported from northern Colombia for the first time. These genera were previously known from the central Brazilian Amazonian and Argentina and Paraguay, respectively.

  6. A new genus of Eastern Hemisphere stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae), with a key to the supraspecific groups of Indomalayan and Australasian Meliponini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Engel, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    and is more closely related to Lepidotrigona Moure. The species is transferred to Wallacetrigona Engel and Rasmussen, new genus, and differentiated from Geniotrigona proper as well as all other meliponines occurring in Sundaland, Wallacea, and Sahul (Australinea). The new genus occurs east of the Wallace Line...... and separate from the distribution of Geniotrigona, which is otherwise restricted to Sundaland, but Wallacetrigona is presently not known beyond the Weber Line. A hierarchical classification of Indomalayan and Australasian stingless bees is tabulated and a revised key to the genera and subgenera provided......, as well as an appendix tabulating the species and synonyms. The following new combinations are established: Wallacetrigona incisa (Sakagami and Inoue), Homotrigona (Lophotrigona) canifrons (Smith), Homotrigona (Odontotrigona) haematoptera (Cockerell), Homotrigona (Tetrigona) apicalis (Smith), H. (T...

  7. Hitting an Unintended Target: Phylogeography of Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier, 1836 and the First New Brazilian Bumblebee Species in a Century (Hymenoptera: Apidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eustáquio Santos Júnior

    Full Text Available This work tested whether or not populations of Bombus brasiliensis isolated on mountain tops of southeastern Brazil belonged to the same species as populations widespread in lowland areas in the Atlantic coast and westward along the Paraná-river valley. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses showed that those populations were all conspecific. However, they revealed a previously unrecognized, apparently rare, and potentially endangered species in one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots of the World, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This species is described here as Bombus bahiensis sp. n., and included in a revised key for the identification of the bumblebee species known to occur in Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses based on two mtDNA markers suggest this new species to be sister to B. brasiliensis, from which its workers and queens can be easily distinguished by the lack of a yellow hair-band on the first metasomal tergum. The results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that B. bahiensis sp. n. may have originated from an ancestral population isolated in an evergreen-forest refuge (the so-called Bahia refuge during cold, dry periods of the Pleistocene. This refuge is also known as an important area of endemism for several animal taxa, including other bees. Secondary contact between B. bahiensis and B. brasiliensis may be presently prevented by a strip of semi-deciduous forest in a climate zone characterized by relatively long dry seasons. Considering the relatively limited range of this new species and the current anthropic pressure on its environment, attention should be given to its conservation status.

  8. Forrajeo de polen por obreras de Melipona fasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini en una zona rural del Piedemonte Llanero, (Acacías, Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nates-Parra Guiomar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de polen de Melipona fasciata, en una zona rural de Acacías-Meta (3°56’29’’N-73°47’56’’W y 498 m de altitud. Los datos y las muestras se tomaron en época seca y en época lluviosa. Se realizaron conteos del número de abejas que regresan con polen a los nidos y se recolectaron muestras de cargas para determinar su origen botánico. Las obreras de M. fasciata recolectan polen temprano en la mañana alcanzando un pico hacia las 6:00, esta actividad está condicionada por la temperatura, la
    humedad, el estado de la colonia y probablemente por las fenología floral de las fuentes de polen. Se encontraron 20 tipos polínicos representados en las cargas, lo que demuestra que M. fasciata es una especie poliléctica y dado que el 88,5% contenían un solo tipo polínico, se discute la constancia floral individual (entendida como la tendencia del insecto a visitar flores del mismo tipo en cada viaje que presenta la especie.
    De las especies vegetales representadas en el polen  ransportado por M. fasciata sobresale Psidium guajava en las
    diferentes horas y en las dos épocas climáticas, otros palinomorfos importantes pertenecen a las familias Melastomataceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae y Bixaceae, entre otras. Sobresalen plantas con antesis diurna y con
    síndrome de polinización por zumbido.

  9. CARACTERIZACIÓN ANTIMICROBIANA Y FISICOQUÍMICA DE PROPÓLEOS DE Apis mellifera L. (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE DE LA REGIÓN ANDINA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTHER MARGARIDA ALVES FERREIRA BASTOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propóleo es un material resinoso producido por las abejas a partir de diversos materiales vegetales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar muestras de propóleos de Apis mellifera provenientes de la región Andina colombiana respecto a su perfil antimicrobiano y fisicoquímico. Fueron empleados extractos etanólicos de propóleos por la técnica de disco-difusión, frente a las especies Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans . Para la caracterización fisicoquímica se evaluaron el porcentaje de extracto seco, contenido de cera, índice de oxidación y determinación cuantitativa de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides. Todas las muestras presentaron actividad antibacteriana, con halos de inhibición comprendidos entre 8 y 12 mm para E. coli y entre 8,3 y 23,5 mm para S. aureus . No se observó ninguna actividad contra C. albicans . Los parámetros fisicoquímicos citados anteriormente presentaron una variación de 2,72 a 9,17%, 0 a 2%, 3 a 51s, 0,1 a 0,5 (p/p y 0,02 a 0,95 (p/p, respectivamente. El perfil antimicrobiano observado, relacionado al fisicoquímico, sugiere la necesidad de nuevos estudios para la determinación del origen botánico y geográfico de las muestras estudiadas.

  10. Nesting behavior of Centris (Hemisiella) vittata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in an area of the Cerrado in the northeast of the State of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marina; de Albuquerque, Patrícia; Rêgo, Márcia

    2010-01-01

    The nesting behavior of Centris (Hemisiella) vittata Lepeletier was studied in the Urbano Santos Cerrado in the northeast of Maranhão State, Brazil. To date, this species has only been studied in trap-nests. The nesting behavior of this species in a natural condition is recorded for the first time. Nesting occurred in preexisting holes in dead trunks of aroeira, Astronium myracrodruon (Anacardiaceae), at the end of the rainy season. The cells were constructed with a mixture of sand and oil. After finishing the nests, females used only oil to line the entrance wall. Two females collected sand at the same time to build their nests, and another one was seen collecting resources at Byrsonima sp. (Malpighiaceae). The pollen load of one bee was analyzed and was found to contain mainly Hymenaea courbaril (Leg-Caesalpiniaceae). Development from egg to adult took about 60 days. Protandry was observed, being males smaller than females. The nests were parasitized by Coleoptera and Diptera. However, the females only showed aggressive behavior against females of the same species or genus.

  11. Field application of menthol for Japanese honey bees, Apis cerana japonica (Hymenoptera: Apidae), to control tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taro; Sakamoto, Yoshiko

    2016-11-01

    The first record of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi, in Japan was made in 2010. These mites have since caused serious damage to the colonies of Japanese honey bees, Apis cerana japonica. In the present study, to control the mites on Japanese honey bees with l-menthol, an agent used for European honey bees, Apis mellifera, we investigated (1) the seasonality of menthol efficacy, (2) the overwintering mortality of menthol-treated colonies, and (3) the menthol residue in honey under field conditions in cooperation with private beekeepers of Japanese honey bees. Seasonal menthol efficacy was tested by applying 30 g of l-menthol for 1 month in different seasons. Mite prevalence was measured by dissecting the honey bee thorax. Overwintering mortality was monitored during winter after checking the mite prevalence in autumn, and was compared with that of untreated colonies reported in our previous study. The residual level of menthol in honey was measured by GC-MS. The results showed that the menthol-treated colonies had a smaller rate of increase in mite prevalence than the untreated colonies. The effects of menthol were highest in March and April. The winter mortality was depressed by menthol treatment. Honey samples extracted from the menthol-treated colonies included 0.4 ppm of menthol residue on average. Our findings suggest that menthol treatment is effective for controlling the tracheal mites on Japanese honey bees.

  12. Temporal Variation in Honey Production by the Stingless Bee Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Long-Term Management Reveals its Potential as a Commercial Species in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Sheina; Menezes, Cristiano; Menezes, Paulo Roberto; Kleinert, Astrid de Matos Peixoto; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here, we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910). We analyzed a 10-yr record of 155 M. subnitida colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time (years), age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation), and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence, while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation, fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Spore Loads May Not be Used Alone as a Direct Indicator of the Severity of Nosema ceranae Infection in Honey Bees Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera:Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huo-Qing; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Huang, Shao-Kang; Sohr, Alex; Wu, Lyman; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-12-01

    Nosema ceranae Fries et al., 1996, a microsporidian parasite recently transferred from Asian honey bees Apis cerana F., 1793, to European honey bees Apis mellifera L., 1758, has been suspected as one of the major culprits of the worldwide honey bee colony losses. Spore load is a commonly used criterion to describe the intensity of Nosema infection. In this study, by providing Nosema-infected bees with sterilized pollen, we confirmed that pollen feeding increased the spore loads of honey bees by several times either in the presence or absence of a queen. By changing the amount of pollen consumed by bees in cages, we showed that spore loads increased with an increase in pollen consumption. Nosema infections decrease honey bee longevity and transcription of vitellogenin, either with or without pollen feeding. However, the reduction of pollen consumption had a greater impact on honey bee longevity and vitellogenin level than the increase of spore counts caused by pollen feeding. These results indicate that spore loads may not be used alone as a direct indicator of the severity of N. ceranae infection in honey bees. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  14. Associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Russian and Italian honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M

    2013-04-01

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Truman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite populations and mite fall in colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees using 29 candidate measurements. Measurements included damaged and nondamaged younger mites, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements to the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions were found for trapped younger mites (Y) and trapped fresh mites (F). Measurments of Y and F across time could be used to estimate mite population growth for the purposes of selective breeding. The largest negative regressions with colony mites were observed for: trapped older mites/trapped mites (O/T), trapped older mites/trapped younger mites (O/Y), and trapped injured older mites/injured mites (IO/I). O/T and O/Y are significantly higher for Russian honey bee colonies suggesting that they are related to at least some of the mechanisms used by Russian honey bee to resist Varroa population growth. O/T and O/Y have strong negative relationships with colony mites for both Russian honey bee and Italian colonies suggesting that both strains possibly could be selected for reduced colony mites using O/T or O/Y.

  15. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Functionality of Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) When Used for Western U.S. Honey Production and Almond Pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, USA, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed honey bees with...

  17. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) Parasitism and Climate Differentially Influence the Prevalence, Levels, and Overt Infections of Deformed Wing Virus in Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano-Baez, Ricardo; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Md Hamiduzzaman, Mollah; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Correa-Benítez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and loads of deformed wing virus (DWV) between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies from a tropical and a temperate environment were compared. The interaction between these environments and the mite Varroa destructor in relation to DWV prevalence, levels, and overt infections, was also analyzed. V. destructor rates were determined, and samples of mites, adult bees, brood parasitized with varroa mites and brood not infested by mites were analyzed. DWV was detected in 100% of the mites and its prevalence and loads in honey bees were significantly higher in colonies from the temperate climate than in colonies from the tropical climate. Significant interactions were found between climate and type of sample, with the highest levels of DWV found in varroa-parasitized brood from temperate climate colonies. Additionally, overt infections were observed only in the temperate climate. Varroa parasitism and DWV loads in bees from colonies with overt infections were significantly higher than in bees from colonies with covert infections. These results suggest that interactions between climate, V. destructor, and possibly other factors, may play a significant role in the prevalence and levels of DWV in honey bee colonies, as well as in the development of overt infections. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain these results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Autumn invasion rates of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) into honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and the resulting increase in mite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Eva; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The honey bee parasite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman can disperse and invade honey bee colonies by attaching to "drifting" and "robbing" honey bees that move into nonnatal colonies. We quantified the weekly invasion rates and the subsequent mite population growth from the end of July to November 2011 in 28 honey bee colonies kept in two apiaries that had high (HBD) and low (LBD) densities of neighboring colonies. At each apiary, half (seven) of the colonies were continuously treated with acaricides to kill all Varroa mites and thereby determine the invasion rates. The other group of colonies was only treated before the beginning of the experiment and then left untreated to record Varroa population growth until a final treatment in November. The numbers of bees and brood cells of all colonies were estimated according to the Liebefeld evaluation method. The invasion rates varied among individual colonies but revealed highly significant differences between the study sites. The average invasion rate per colony over the entire 3.5-mo period ranged from 266 to 1,171 mites at the HBD site compared with only 72 to 248 mites at the LBD apiary. In the untreated colonies, the Varroa population reached an average final infestation in November of 2,082 mites per colony (HBD) and 340 mites per colony (LBD). All colonies survived the winter; however, the higher infested colonies lost about three times more bees compared with the lower infested colonies. Therefore, mite invasion and late-year population growth must be considered more carefully for future treatment concepts in temperate regions.

  19. Evaluation of Mite-Away-II for fall control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Nicholas W

    2010-02-01

    Mite-Away II, a recently-registered product with a proprietary formulation of formic acid, was evaluated under field conditions in commercial apiaries in upstate New York (USA) for the fall control of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Ambient temperatures during the treatment period were in the lower half of the range recommended on the label, but were typical for early fall in upstate New York. Average mite mortality was 60.2 +/- 2.2% in the Mite-Away II group and 23.3 +/- 2.6% in the untreated control group. These means were significantly different from each other, but the level of control was only moderate. These results demonstrate that Mite-Away II may not always provide an adequate level of control even when the temperature at the time of application falls within the recommended range stated on the product's label. To make the best use of temperature-sensitive products, I suggest that the current, single-value, economic treatment threshold be replaced with an economic treatment range. The limits for this range are specified by two pest density values. The lower limit is the usual pest density that triggers a treatment. The upper limit is the maximum pest density that one can expect to reduce to a level below the lower limit given the temperatures expected during the treatment period. When the actual pest density exceeds the upper limit, the product should not be recommended; or, a warning should be included indicating that acceptable control may not be achieved.

  20. Comparison of the efficiency of the bumble bees Bombus impatiens and Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinators of tomato in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ruiz, Alfonso; Jones, Robert W

    2012-12-01

    Experiments were conducted in a commercial tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae) greenhouse to compare the relative foraging effort and efficiency of two bumble bee species: Bombus impatiens Cresson, a species from northeastern North America, commercially reared and used for pollination in Mexico; and B. ephippiatus Say, a native species of Mexico and central America. B. ephippiatus was as efficient in pollination of tomatoes as B. impatiens, as indicated by all variables of fruit quality: fruit weight, number of seed per fruit, and maximum fruit diameter. The two species had similar levels of hourly and daily foraging activity. They had the same response to temperature fluctuation. Pollination rates by both species were similar and close to 100% throughout the sample period. However, B. impatiens showed greater foraging activity during the first half of the 27-d sample period, whereas B. ephipiatus had greater relative activity during the last half. This study establish that B. ephippiatus is as efficient as B. impatiens as a pollinator of tomatoes in greenhouses and thus a candidate as a managed pollinator. However, standard reliable methods for mass rearing of B. ephippiatus are not yet available. Such methods are necessary to ensure healthy colonies and optimum pollination for producers and will reduce the pressure for the unregulated collection of queens in the field and the subsequent reduction of populations of this species.

  1. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used for western U.S. honey production and almond pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderer, Tihomas E; Danka, Robert G; Johnson, Stephanie; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Frake, Amanda M; Villa, José D; De Guzman, Lilia I; Harris, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees and outcrossed honey bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were compared with control colonies of Italian honey bees. All colonies were managed without miticide treatments. In total, 185 and 175 colonies were established for trials in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, respectively. Survival of colonies with original queens or with supersedure queens was similar among stocks for both years. Colony sizes of the Varroa-resistant stocks were as large as or larger than the control colonies during periods critical to honey production and almond pollination. Honey production varied among stocks. In the first year, all stocks produced similar amounts of honey. In the second year, Russian honey bees colonies produced less honey than the control colonies. V. destructor infestations also varied among stocks. In the first year, control colonies had more infesting mites than either of the Varroa-resistant stocks, especially later in the year. In the second year, the control and outcrossed Varroa-sensitive hygiene colonies had high and damaging levels of infestation while the Russian honey bees colonies maintained lower levels of infestation. Infestations of Acarapis woodi (Rennie) were generally infrequent and low. All the stocks had similarly high Nosema ceranae infections in the spring and following winter of both years. Overall, the two Varroa-resistant stocks functioned adequately in this model beekeeping system.

  2. Occurrence of Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos-Silva, Evandson J; Camillo, Evandro; Garófalo, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    In a study conducted in the gallery forest of the Vale doVeu de Noiva in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso state, chemical baits were used to attract and sample male orchid bees. From September 2003 to July 2005, male euglossine bees were captured monthly, from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. as they arrived at the baits. Of the 264 males captured, eight males belonged to Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville, a cleptoparasitic euglossine species that presumably occurred only in the Amazon basin. Therefore, the occurrence of A. caerulea in this study area extends its geographical distribution range by approximately 2,400 km southwards in South America, as it is now recorded in both the Amazon and Platina basins.

  3. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemésio, A

    2013-05-01

    The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin.

  4. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, Charles I.; Michaluk, Lynnette M. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). Depts. of Psychology and Zoology. Lab. Comparative Psychology and Behavioral Biology]. E-mail: charles.abramson@okstate.edu; Wanderley, Paulo A.; Wanderley, Maria J.A.; Silva, Jose C.R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Bananeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura

    2007-11-15

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior. (author)

  5. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Russian and unselected honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) stock as related to numbers of foragers with mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa mites are an external parasite of honey bees and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. RHB and other mite resistant stock limit Varroa population growth...

  6. Geographic distribution and spatial differentiation in the color pattern of abdominal stripes of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Batalha-Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1836, regionally known as "mandaçaia", has been traditionally divided in two distinct subspecies: M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The main difference between the subspecies refers to the yellow metasomal stripes which are continuous in M. q. quadrifasciata and discontinuous in M. q. anthidioides. This study investigated the geographic differentiation in the metasomal stripes and characterized the restriction sites in the mtDNA of both chromatic types. Specimens from 198 localities were examined, and the variation observed in the pattern of stripes was grouped into distinct classes. The distribution pattern found in the present work agrees with the previously reported pattern: M. q. quadrifasciata inhabits the southern portion of the distribution, from Misiones, Argentina, southeastern Paraguay and Rio Grande do Sul to southern São Paulo, and M. q. anthidioides ranges from northeastern São Paulo to the northern Diamantina Plateau, Bahia, and westwards to the central portion of the Goiás state. It is documented for the first time the occurrence of two populations with continuous stripes inhabiting disjunct areas in relation to M. q. quadrifasciata - one in northern Minas Gerais and another in northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The data of RFLP showed two restriction patterns, one present in M. q. quadrifasciata, and another in M. q. anthidioides and in populations with continuous metasomal stripes from northern Minas Gerais and northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The observed patterns of geographic differentiation of M. quadrifasciata suggests the occurrence of repeated events of geographical isolation, followed by range expansion, that occurred probably during the cycles of climatic changes in the Pleistocene.

  7. No effect of Bt Cry1Ie toxin on bacterial diversity in the midgut of the Chinese honey bees, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hui-Ru; Dai, Ping-Li; Geng, Li-Li; Jack, Cameron J; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Yan-Yan; Diao, Qing-Yun; Ellis, James D

    2017-01-31

    Cry1Ie protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been proposed as a promising candidate for the development of a new Bt-maize variety to control maize pests in China. We studied the response of the midgut bacterial community of Apis cerana cerana to Cry1Ie toxin under laboratory conditions. Newly emerged bees were fed one of the following treatments for 15 and 30 days: three concentrations of Cry1Ie toxin (20 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL, and 20 μg/mL) in sugar syrup, pure sugar syrup as a negative control and 48 ng/mL imidacloprid as a positive control. The relative abundance of 16S rRNA genes was measured by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction and no apparent differences were found among treatments for any of these counts at any time point. Furthermore, the midgut bacterial structure and compositions were determined using high-throughput sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rDNA. All core honey bee intestinal bacterial genera such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Snodgrassella, and Gilliamella were detected, and no significant changes were found in the species diversity and richness for any bacterial taxa among treatments at different time points. These results suggest that Cry1Ie toxin may not affect gut bacterial communities of Chinese honey bees.

  8. Bt Toxin Cry1Ie Causes No Negative Effects on Survival, Pollen Consumption, or Olfactory Learning in Worker Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping-Li; Jia, Hui-Ru; Geng, Li-Li; Diao, Qing-Yun

    2016-04-27

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is a key nontarget insect in environmental risk assessments of insect-resistant genetically modified crops. In controlled laboratory conditions, we evaluated the potential effects of Cry1Ie toxin on survival, pollen consumption, and olfactory learning of young adult honey bees. We exposed worker bees to syrup containing 20, 200, or 20,000 ng/ml Cry1Ie toxin, and also exposed some bees to 48 ng/ml imidacloprid as a positive control for exposure to a sublethal concentration of a toxic product. Results suggested that Cry1Ie toxin carries no risk to survival, pollen consumption, or learning capabilities of young adult honey bees. However, during oral exposure to the imidacloprid treatments, honey bee learning behavior was affected and bees consumed significantly less pollen than the control and Cry1Ie groups. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Short communication. First field assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki aerial application on the colony performance of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria del Mar Leza Salord; Gregori Llado; Ana Belen Petro; Ana Alemany

    2014-01-01

    Honeybee populations around the world are experiencing a decrease in colony numbers probably due to a combination of different causes, such as diseases, poor nutrition and frequent applications of insecticides to control pests. Previous studies about the effect of pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) on Apis mellifera L. report different results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of field aerial applications of Btk on bee colony performance, specifically on the...

  10. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda (DL50 e CL50) de inseticidas para Scaptotrigona tubiba (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Apidae): via de contato

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Simone S.; Bautista, Ana Rita L.; Viana, Blandina F.

    2000-01-01

    Visando avaliar a toxicidade aguda de alguns inseticidas para Scaptotrigona tubiba (Smith) e discutir a aplicabilidade de testes de contato por aplicação tópica e filme seco, foram realizados testes com operárias capturadas na entrada da colméia e divididas em grupos de quatro repetições de cinco abelhas cada, sendo mantidas em placas de Petri forradas com papel de filtro por 48 h, com alimentação constante. Os produtos testados foram: deltametrina, Bacillus thuringiensis, triclorfom e malati...

  11. Insights into the role of age and social interactions on the sexual attractiveness of queens in an eusocial bee, Melipona flavolineata (Apidae, Meliponini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Jamille Costa; Menezes, Cristiano; Contrera, Felipe Andrés León

    2017-04-01

    The attraction of sexual partners is a vital necessity among insects, and it involves conflict of interests and complex communication systems among male and female. In this study, we investigated the developing of sexual attractiveness in virgin queens (i.e., gynes) of Melipona flavolineata, an eusocial stingless bee. We followed the development of sexual attractiveness in 64 gynes, belonging to seven age classes (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18 days post-emergence), and we also evaluated the effect of different social interactions (such as competition between queens and interactions with workers) on the development of attractiveness in other 60 gynes. We used the number of males that tried to mate with a focal gyne as a representative variable of its sexual attractiveness. During the essays, each gyne was individually presented to 10 sexually mature males, and during 3 min, we counted the number of males that everted their genitalia in response to the presence of a gyne. Here, we show that M. flavolineata gynes are capable to (i) maintain their sexual attractiveness for long periods through adult life, (ii) they need a minimum social interaction to trigger the development of sexual attractiveness, and (iii) that gynes express this trait only within a social context. We conclude that the effective occurrence of matings is conditional on potential social interactions that gynes experienced before taking the nuptial flight, when they are still in the nest. These findings bring insights into the factors determining reproductive success in social insects.

  12. Bionomia de Monoeca xanthopyga Harter-Marques, Cunha & Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Tapinotaspidini no Planalto das Araucárias, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Rodrigo da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the life history of the solitary bee Monoeca xanthopyga, was conducted at the Araucária Plateau, at the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The study focused the seasonality, sexual behavior, females activity during nest building, the exploited plant resources and the associated parasitoids. Three nest aggregations of M. xanthopyga built in clay soil with few plant cover or none at all, were studied on the Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, located in Cambará do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State. The nests were randomly distributed in areas up to eight square meters in size and reach a maximum density of 57 nests per square meter. The only one generation occurred from January to April. The immature stayed in diapausa in the prepupa stage during eight to 11 months. Males emerged a few days before females, and disappeared from the aggregations four days before the end of females activities. The search for females to mate occurred at nests from the previous year, where many males struggled for a single emergent female. It is suggested that males perceive smells emitted by females. Copulation's lasted, on average, 26 seconds and, immediately after it, the couple separated. Nest building females were not attractive to males. Mating tests, at artificial environments showed the occurrence of copulation with both virgin and fertilized females. After mating, the females returned to the aggregations and established new nests by digging new tunnels, or by using abandoned nests. The bee's flying activities began around 6 A.M. and lasted up to 6 P.M. The females did, on average, eight trips per day, each one lasting 31,4 minutes. They returned from the trips carrying pollen and/or floral oils. These resources were obtained from flowers of Malpighiaceae and Fabaceae species. Pollinaria from orchids of the genus Oncidium Sw. were carried accidentally by males and females. Mutilid parasitoids were present at the aggregations of M. xanthopyga during all the period of the activities. One species of Traumatomutilla André, 1903 was related to the immature of these bees, composing the first registration of inhabitant of this Mutillidae.

  13. Broad Protein Spectrum in Stored Pollen of Three Stingless Bees from the Chaco Dry Forest in South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini and Its Ecological Implications

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    Favio Gerardo Vossler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein content of pollen stored by three meliponine species was variable from 9.78% (less than half the value considered as optimal to brood development in Apis mellifera in type Capparis tweediana-C. speciosa to more than 26% in type Maytenus vitis-idaea and some Prosopis samples. This pollen of low protein value was occasionally foraged (only six out of 75 masses analyzed of G. argentina, but none in 86 masses of T. fiebrigi or in ten of M. orbignyi. However, it is likely that amino acid deficiencies of certain pollens are compensated by randomly foraging on a broad spectrum of pollen plants. The large amounts of pollen stored in their nests might also be important in compensating these deficiencies. The only sample studied for M. orbignyi showed a protein value greater than the one required for A. mellifera and was dominated by types Acacia praecox and Prosopis. As this species also prefers Solanum and other protein-rich pollen, more samples would need to be analyzed to establish whether protein requirements are high for this Melipona species. Pollen showing the highest protein content (>26% belonged to highly nectariferous plants well represented in meliponine and Apis honey such as Prosopis, Maytenus, and Ziziphus.

  14. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Kenner M. Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  15. Temporal and morphological differences in post-embryonic differentiation of the mushroom bodies in the brain of workers, queens, and drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roat, Thaisa Cristina; da Cruz Landim, Carminda

    2008-12-01

    The mushroom bodies are structures present in the insect brain described as centers for the neural basis of learning, memory, and other higher functions. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are insects with a sophisticated system of spatial orientation and possess well-developed learning and memory capabilities, which are associated with neural and brain structures. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the mushroom bodies during post-embryonic development and in newly emerged males, workers, and queens using light and transmission electron microscopy to examine how differential morphological characteristics are established during development. Measurements of structures were also taken in several post-embryonic developmental phases in order to evaluate size differences during the process and in the adult organs. The results show that workers, queens, and males exhibit temporal and size differences during the post-embryonic development of mushroom bodies, probably as adaptations to differences in behavior complexity. The mushroom bodies of workers are precociously formed and are larger than those of queens and drones. Thus, workers have the largest mushroom bodies resulting from differential development during metamorphosis.

  16. Resistance to Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) when mite-resistant queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were free-mated with unselected drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbo, J R; Harris, J W

    2001-12-01

    This study demonstrated (1) that honey bees, Apis mellifera L, can express a high level of resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman when bees were selected for only one resistant trait (suppression of mite reproduction); and (2) that a significant level of mite-resistance was retained when these queens were free-mated with unselected drones. The test compared the growth of mite populations in colonies of bees that each received one of the following queens: (1) resistant--queens selected for suppression of mite reproduction and artificially inseminated in Baton Rouge with drones from similarly selected stocks; (2) resistant x control--resistant queens, as above, produced and free-mated to unselected drones by one of four commercial queen producers; and (3) control--commercial queens chosen by the same four queen producers and free-mated as above. All colonies started the test with approximately 0.9 kg of bees that were naturally infested with approximately 650 mites. Colonies with resistant x control queens ended the 115-d test period with significantly fewer mites than did colonies with control queens. This suggests that beekeepers can derive immediate benefit from mite-resistant queens that have been free-mated to unselected drones. Moreover, the production and distribution of these free-mated queens from many commercial sources may be an effective way to insert beneficial genes into our commercial population of honey bees without losing the genetic diversity and the useful beekeeping characteristics of this population.

  17. Effect of the juvenile hormone on the development of the mandibular gland in workers' pupae of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    H. C. Salles

    Full Text Available Insect mandibular glands are exocrine organs that produce chemical substances known as pheromones that play an important role in intra-specific communication of insects. The mandibular glands of Apis mellifera, which are more highly developed in queens than in workers, present caste-specific polymorphism which seems to be regulated by the juvenile hormone (JH. These glands develop at the pupation stage, during which the titer of JH is higher in queens. In spite of this observation, application recounted here of juvenile hormone on 5th-instar workers' larvae of Apis mellifera did not produce a significant effect on the size of the mandibular glands. Therefore, we may conclude that the response of insect organs to the exogenous application of JH varies according to the type of organ, its developmental program, and its developmental stage, as well as to the amount of hormone applied.

  18. Abejas de orquídeas (Apidae: Euglossini en un fragmento de bosque en el ecótone Cerrado-Selva Amazónica, Brasil

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    José Max Barbosa OLIVEIRA-JUNIOR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta información sobre la riqueza de especies y abundancia de Euglossini en la zona de transición entre el Cerrado y la selva amazónica, en la cuenca del río Xingu. Las muestras se recogieron en un fragmento de bosque en el municipio de Ribeirão Cascalheira, Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre el 1 y 5 de noviembre de 2011. Las sustancias puras de benzoato de bencilo, 1,8 cineol, eugenol y la vainillina se utilizaron en la colección activa, mientras que el salicilato de metilo se utilizó en trampas pasiva. Un total de 168 machos pertenecientes a los cuatro géneros fueron registrados, distribuidos en 19 especies. La mayor riqueza de especies se registró en Euglossa, con Eulaema nigrita, la especie más abundante en la comunidad. La riqueza de especies varió entre el borde y el primer punto dentro del fragmento. Los machos de Euglossini eran más activos entre 10:00-11:00 h, y el 1,8 cineol fue la sustancia pura más atractiva. El fragmento estudiado contenía un alto grado de riqueza de especies de Euglossini en una región de la heterogeneidad ambiental extensa, que sigue siendo en gran parte desconocido con relación a su fauna de insectos y merece la atención para la elaboración de nuevos inventarios.

  19. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  20. The high-throughput production of dsRNA against sacbrood virus for use in the honey bee Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqing; Zhang, Yi; Han, Richou

    2016-10-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is a serious threat to honey bees. Currently, there is no specific drug available for the treatment of SBV that does not affect the quality of the bee product. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral strategy for disease control. To effectively utilize this technology, the large-scale production and purification of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is necessary. Here, a dsRNA-expressing plasmid targeting the VP1 gene of Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) HT115 (DE3). After lysing and ethanol precipitation from E. coli, dsRNA VP1 was purified with an anion exchange chromatography column. Second instar larvae of Apis cerana were fed the purified dsRNA VP1. A significant decrease in larval mortality and the level of expression of the VP1 gene after CSBV infection was demonstrated after the ingestion of dsRNA VP1. This result provides a potential method for the large-scale production of dsRNA to protect A. cerana from CSBV infection.

  1. [Rediscovery of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the "Restinga" in the Nacional Park Lençóis Maranhenses, Barreirinhas, MA, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Márcia; Albuquerque, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 95 years after the original description, a nest of Melipona subnitida Ducke was rediscovered in the state of Maranhão, in a restinga ecosystem of the Barreirinhas municipality, Northeastern Brazil. The voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of the "Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas" of the "Departamento de Biologia UFMA".

  2. Population dynamics of Euglossinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an early second-growth forest of Cajual Island, in the State of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA F. S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in an early second-growth forest aiming at knowing the richness, relative abundance, seasonal distribution, and hourly frequency of euglossine bees, and their association with scent baits. Male bees were attracted to cineole, vanillin, methyl salicylate, and eugenol. The baits were hooked 1.5 m high and 6 m from one another. The specimens were collected from December 1997 to November 1998, once a month, from 7:00 to 17:00 h. A total of 339 male euglossine bees were caughts, accounting for 19 species and four genera. The most common species was E. cordata, making up 69.9% of the individuals, followed by E. truncata (2.3%, E. violaceifrons, and E. smaragdina (2.1%. The most attractive scent was cineole, which baited 87% of the specimens and 73.7% of the species. Vanillin, the second most visited bait, eured 7.6% of the specimens and 26.3% of the species. E. surinamensis was only collected with this bait. Methyl salicylate and eugenol baited combined 2.6% of the specimens. However, by species numbers Methyl salicylate attracted 21% whereas eugenol was attractive for 15.8% of them. In general, the species were more abundantly found in the rainy season (January-June. The hourly activity data showed that the euglossine bees were attracted to the baits all day long, but at a higher frequency in the morning period, peaking between 8:00 and 10:00 h.

  3. On the identity of the adventive species of Eufriesea Cockerell in the USA: systematics and potential distribution of the coerulescens species group (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2010, two male specimens of the neotropical orchid bee genus Eufriesea Cockerell were collected in the Guadalupe Mountains of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico, USA. We tentatively identified them as E. coerulescens (Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau) because of the uncertainty su...

  4. Sampling a biodiversity hotspot: the orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of Tarapoto, northeastern Peru, the richest and most diverse site of the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemésio, A; Rasmussen, C

    2014-08-01

    The orchid-bee fauna of the region of Tarapoto, northeastern Peru, was surveyed using seventeen different scents as baits to attract orchid-bee males. Six hundred and fifty-nine males belonging to 41 species were actively collected with insect nets during 120 hours in late July and early August, 2012. Euglossa dressleri Moure, 1968, Euglossa laurensi Bembé, 2008, and Euglossa maculilabris Moure, 1968, three species belonging to the Euglossa cybelia species-group, are here reported for Peru for the first time. Previous sporadic and unpublished samplings in the area recorded eleven additional species. With 53 species, the region of Tarapoto can be considered the richest single site in the Neotropics for orchid bees. Diversity, estimated with the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H' = 3.02), was also the highest ever recorded for orchid bees.

  5. Polliniferous plants aud foraging strategles Of Apis mellifera (Hyínenoptera: Apidae) in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rogel Villanueva-G.,

    2002-01-01

    A study of the most important polliniferous plants for European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) was made in Quintana Roo state. Comparisons were made between the plants visited by both bee types in order to determine whether there were qualitative or quantitative differences in their choice of plant species. Also some foraging strategies of the honeybees were analysed. Pollen from pollen load samples was acetolysed and mounted on slides. Subsequently the polien grains were ident...

  6. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodulfo Ospina-Torres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Chocó Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championiand Eg. ignita.The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomiaspp. and Anthuriumspp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  7. Exposure to a sublethal concentration of imidacloprid and the side effects on target and nontarget organs of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catae, Aline Fernanda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Pratavieira, Marcel; Silva Menegasso, Anally Ribeiro da; Palma, Mario Sergio; Malaspina, Osmar

    2018-03-01

    The use of insecticides has become increasingly frequent, and studies indicate that these compounds are involved in the intoxication of bees. Imidacloprid is a widely used neonicotinoid; thus, we have highlighted the importance of assessing its oral toxicity to Africanized bees and used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the sublethal effects in the brain, the target organ, and the midgut, responsible for the digestion/absorption of food. In addition, the distribution of proteins involved in important biological processes in the brain were evaluated on the 1st day of exposure by MALDI-imaging analysis. Bioassays were performed to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC 50 ) of imidacloprid to bees, and the value obtained was 1.4651 ng imidacloprid/μL diet. Based on this result, the sublethal concentration to be administered at 1, 4 and 8 days was established as a hundredth (1/100) of the LC 50 . The results obtained from the ultrastructural analysis showed alterations in the midgut cells of bees as nuclear and mitochondrial damage and an increase of vacuoles. The insecticide caused spacing among the Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies, chromatin condensation and loss of mitochondrial cristae. The MALDI-imaging analysis showed an increase in the expression of such proteins as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, amyloid protein precursor and protein kinase C, which are related to oxygen supply, neuronal degeneration and memory/learning, and a decrease in the expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 1, which is fundamental to the synapses. These alterations demonstrated that imidacloprid could compromise the viability of the midgut epithelium, as well as inhibiting important cognitive processes in individuals, and may be reflected in losses of the colony.

  8. Evaluation of drone brood removal for management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, N W

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of drone brood removal for the management of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in colonies of the honey bee, A. mellifera L., was evaluated. Colonies were treated with CheckMite+ in the fall of 2002. The following spring, quantities of bees and brood were equalized, but colonies were not retreated. The brood nest of each colony consisted of 18 full-depth worker combs and two full-depth drone combs. Each worker comb had drone cells. Standard management practices were used throughout the season. Colonies were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the control group, drone combs remained in place throughout the season. In the treatment group, drone combs were removed on 16 June, 16 July, 16 August, and 16 September and replaced with empty drone combs (16 June) or with drone combs removed on the previous replacement date. In the early fall, the average mite-to-bee ratio in the control group was significantly greater than the corresponding ratio in the treatment group. Drone brood removal did not adversely affect colony health as measured by the size of the worker population or by honey production. Fall worker populations were similar in the two groups. Honey production in treatment colonies was greater than or similar to production in control colonies. These data demonstrate that drone brood removal can serve as a valuable component in an integrated pest management program for V. destructor and may reduce the need for other treatments on a colony-by-colony basis.

  9. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  10. Controlling Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae colonies by using Thymovar® and BeeVital®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Yeninar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of Thymovar® and BeeVital® on reducing Varroa mite (Varroa destructor damage in honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in spring season. Average percentage of Varroa infestation level was determined as 24.27 on adult workers before the treatments. The drugs were applied two times on 25 September and 16 October 2006. Average percentage of Varroa infestation levels were determined as 5.18%, 10.78% and 35.45% after the first application, 1.90%, 7.05% and 61.15% after the second application in Thymovar®, BeeVital® and control groups, respectively. Average efficacies of Thymovar® and BeeVital® were found to be 96.91% and 88.66%, respectively. Difference between drug efficacies on Varroa mite was found significant (P<0.01. There was no queen, brood and adult honeybee mortality in all group colonies during the research.

  11. Estudio sobre la Eficacia a Campo del Amivar® contra Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Jorge MARCANGELI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del producto Amivar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, en colmenas de abejas durante el otoño de 2003. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre un total de 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth que se dividieron en dos grupos iguales. En el primer grupo se introdujo una tira de Amivar® (amitraz, 1gr, Apilab, Argentina en el centro del nido de cría de las colmenas. El segundo grupo, sólo recibió el tratamiento de Oxavar® para determinar el número total de ácaros presentes en las colmenas. Semanalmente, se recolectaron los ácaros muertos caídos en pisos especiales que evitaban que las abejas los eliminen. Posteriormente, los dos grupos recibieron tres dosis en total a intervalos de siete días de 5 ml del producto Oxavar® (Apilab-INTA, Argentina; 64,6 g/l; ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas para eliminar los ácaros remanentes en las colonias y poder así calcular la eficacia del tratamiento. El producto Amivar® presentó una eficacia promedio de 85,05% ± 3,39 (rango = 79,5 – 91,6, registrándose diferencias significativas frente al grupo control (p< 0,05. No seobservaron efectos negativos del producto sobre la cría de abejas en desarrollo. Estos resultados demuestran que este producto es efectivo para el control de la parasitosis.

  12. Nosema ceranae Winter Control: Study of the Effectiveness of Different Fumagillin Treatments and Consequences on the Strength of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Y; Diaz-Cetti, S; Ramallo, G; Santos, E; Porrini, M; Invernizzi, C

    2017-02-01

    In Uruguay, colonies of honey bees moving to Eucalyptus grandis plantation in autumn habitually become infected with the microsporidian Nosema ceranae , a parasite that attacks the digestive system of bees. Beekeepers attributed to N. ceranae depopulation of the colonies that often occurs at the end of the blooming period, and many use the antibiotic fumagillin to reduce the level of infection. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of four different fumagillin treatments and determine how this antibiotic affects the strength of the colonies during the winter season. The colonies treated with fumagillin in July showed less spore load at the end of applications, being the most effective the following treatments: the four applications sprayed over bees of 30 mg of fumagillin in 100 ml of sugar syrup 1:1, and four applications of 90 mg of fumagillin in 250 ml of sugar syrup 1:1 using a feeder. However, 2 month after the treatment applications, the colonies treated with fumagillin were the same size as the untreated colonies. In September, the colonies treated and not treated with fumagillin did not differ in colony strength (adult bee population and brood area) or spores abundance. Our study demonstrates that fumagillin treatment temporarily decreased the spore load of N. ceranae , but this was not reflected in either the size of the colonies or the probability of surviving the winter regardless of the dose or the administration strategy applied. Given the results obtained, we suggest to not perform the pharmacological treatment under the conditions described in the experiment. En Uruguay las colonias de abejas melíferas que se trasladan a las forestaciones de Eucalyptus grandis en otoño indefectiblemente se infectan con el microsporido Nosema ceranae , parásito que ataca el sistema digestivo de las abejas. Los apicultores atribuyen a N. ceranae el despoblamiento de las colonias que ocurre con frecuencia al terminar el periodo de floración y muchos emplean el antibiótico fumagilina para reducir el nivel de infección. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la eficacia de cuatro tratamientos diferentes con fumagilina y determinar cómo incide en la fortaleza de las colonias durante la invernada. Las colonias tratadas con fumagilina en julio presentaron una menor carga de esporas al terminar las aplicaciones, siendo los tratamientos más eficaces el de 4 aplicaciones mediante asperjado sobre las abejas de 30 mg de fumagilina en 100 ml de jarabe de azúcar 1:1, y el de 4 aplicaciones de 90 mg de fumagilina en 250 ml de jarabe de azúcar 1:1 utilizando un alimentador. Sin embargo, durante el período de experimentación, las colonias tratadas con antibiótico presentaron igual tamaño que las colonias no tratadas. En setiembre, las colonias tratadas y no tratadas con fumagilina no se diferenciaron en la intensidad de infección ni en su tamaño. En las condiciones en que se realizó el estudio, la aplicación de fumagilina disminuyó temporalmente la carga de esporas de N. ceranae pero esto no se reflejó en el tamaño de las colonias ni en la probabilidad de sobrevivir el invierno.

  13. Are dispersal mechanisms changing the host-parasite relationship and increasing the virulence of Varroa destructor [Acari:Varroidae] in managed honey bee [Hymenoptera: Apidae] colonies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa mites are the most serious pest of honey bees worldwide, and difficult to control in managed colonies. We show in a longitudinal study that even with multiple miticide treatments in the summer and fall, mite numbers remained high and colony losses exceeded 55%. Furthermore, large heavily infe...

  14. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemesio, A

    2013-01-01

    The orchid-bee faunas of Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed...

  15. Variação do tamanho corporal de machos de Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini. Resposta materna à flutuação de recursos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peruquetti Rui Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It was compared body size (measured as intertegular span variance of trapped-males of Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 sampled in dry (July, August and September and wet (December, January and February seasons of the years 1988/89 and 1994/95 in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was also compared the body size variance between males and females sampled in three nests found in São Carlos (São Paulo, Brazil and between these males and trapped ones. The smaller male (6.4 mm was sampled in June and the bigger (8.9 mm in July 1994, but the majority (32.3% showed an intertegular span ranging from 7.8 to 8.0mm. The observed variance in body size was similar between males sampled in nests and trapped-males and the variance found inside a nest was similar between the sexes. However, males sampled in 1988/89 were bigger than 1994/95 males and males sampled in nests were smaller than trapped-males. The variance of the body size of males did differ between 1988/89 and 1994/95. In the first period differences between males sampled in dry or wet season was not observed, but in 1994/95 period the males sampled in dry season showed significantly greater variance in body size than males sampled in wet season. The body size variance did not differ between the wet seasons of 1988/89 and 1994/95. The body size variation, measured as the coefficient of variation in intertegular span, did not differ between males of E. nigrita (CV = 4.3% and ground-nesting bees. These results show that the variation in body size of males of E. nigrita reflects that one found inside the nests of this bee, being similar among males and females. This variation is expected as result of ecological factors influences the nesting females. El Niño climatic events alone or in association with the lack of local food resources due to deforestation and presence of monocultures might play a role in observed body size variation. However this hypothesis is not sufficient to explain the observed body size variation inside a single nest. The absence of pressures of selection related to the females' advantages of produce large offspring perhaps contributes to the maintenance of the observed size variation. Studies regarding maternal allocation in E. nigrita may be useful to explain either the variation in body size or sex ratio found in this Neotropical bee.

  16. Old Fragments of Forest Inside an Urban Area Are Able to Keep Orchid Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) Assemblages? The Case of a Brazilian Historical City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R P; Martins, C; Dutra, M C; Mentone, C B; Antonini, Y

    2013-10-01

    Retention of habitat fragments within the urban matrix can provide critical resources for the maintenance of regional biodiversity while still providing socio-economic value. Euglossini bees are important components in a community as they are important pollinators for economically valuable plants as well as hundreds of orchid species. However, some species are very sensitive to environmental impacts like urbanization. This study presents the role of antique urban fragments in a historical city in Brazil and compares it with a conservation area on the aspects of orchid bee assemblage, such as richness, composition, and abundance. Four fragments inside the city of Ouro Preto and three inside Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEIT) were sampled for Euglossini bees. Sorensen similarity index was used to compare community composition. The Mantel test was applied to verify the hypothesis that an urban center is a barrier for the mobility of the individuals. Fourteen Euglossini species from the region were registered. Close to 75% of the sampled bees were collected from the PEIT sampling areas. The fragments presented differences in Euglossini richness and abundance. A majority of the sampled fragments were dominated by the Eulaema cingulata Fabricius, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, and Euglossa securigera Dressler species. We found differences on community composition between the fragments localized in PEIT and those located in the urban center. The data suggest that there is a possible flux of individuals between the sampled fragments. The various small forest fragments in Ouro Preto, primarily in backyards, may also serve as stepping stones between sampled fragments.

  17. Distribution patterns of the cold adapted bumblebee Bombus alpinus in the Alps and hints of an uphill shift (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biella, Paolo; Bogliani, G.; Cornalba, M.; Manino, A.; Neumayer, J.; Porporato, M.; Rasmont, P.; Milanesi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2017), s. 357-366 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-10035P Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * specialist * rare species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10841-017-9983-1

  18. Selección bidireccional de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae para aumento de la resistencia y la susceptibilidad a la nosemosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamandú MENDOZA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La nosemosis es una enfermedad que afecta las funciones digestivas de las abejas melíferas causada por los microsporidios Nosema apis y Nosema ceranae. En Uruguay la única especie detectada es N. ceranae. Para determinar si la incidencia de N. ceranae en las colonias tiene un componente genético se realizó una selección bidireccional para aumento de la resistencia y la susceptibilidad a este parásito sin control de la paternidad. Las colonias fueron evaluadas en una forestación de Eucalyptus grandis en otoño. La infección de las colonias se determinó como 1 el porcentaje de abejas pecoreadoras infectadas y 2 el número promedio de esporas por campo en 10 campos. El trabajo se inició con 138 colonias y se evaluaron dos generaciones de 30 y 63 colonias. La respuesta a la selección fue muy limitada, solo en la primera generación las colonias de la línea resistente presentaron menos esporas por abejas que las colonias de la línea susceptible (19,6 ± 5,8 y 26,8 ± 10,4, respectivamente, W = 41,5; P = 0.03. Esto indicaría que la resistencia a la nosemosis está fuertemente afectada por el ambiente. Futuros esfuerzos para aumentar la resistencia de las abejas a N. ceranae a través de mejora genética deberán incluir el control de la paternidad.

  19. Descriptive attributes used in the characterization of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini in rural populations of the Atlantic forest (Misiones-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamudio Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human beings employ a combination of morphological, sensorial, utilitarian, cultural and ecological characters when they identify and classify organisms. Ethnotaxonomy has provided a store of information about the characters cultures employ when they identify and classify a vast diversity of taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, some more research is needed to provide a comparison of the characters employed in the description of taxons, and an analysis of the extent to which those descriptors are represented. Stingless bees constitute a diverse group of social insects that have been widely studied from an ethnobiological perspective due to their utilitarian and cultural importance. The objective of this study is to identify the elements local people consider when characterizing stingless bees, and how important these elements are in the study of local classifications. Methods The methodology used involves semi-structured interviews and trips with the informants to rural areas. Locally known ethnospecies are characterized, descriptive traits and salient criteria used in those characterizations are identified, and the frequency of reference of descriptive traits and salient criteria are estimated. Besides, the descriptive traits used for each ethnospecies are compared, and the contribution of the characterizations as a heuristic strategy in the study of folk classification systems is analyzed. Results The use of 19 biological descriptors (grouped according to 4 salient criteria and of comparisons among ethnospecies was found. Results suggest the existence of group and specific descriptors. Researchers identified which ethnospecies are considered similar, how less important traits contribute to descriptions, the relation between specific descriptors and ethnospecies, the presence of cognitive prototypes, and the most relevant salient properties from the emic perspective. Conclusions The estimated importance of attributes descriptors allowed us to identify the spectrum of salient properties relevant from the emic perspective to characterize the stingless bees. In this sense, the analysis proposed here is useful to study folk taxonomy in culturally heterogeneous groups or multicultural regions, where the linguistic elements usually employed cannot be applied. Resumen Antecedentes Los seres humanos, al identificar y clasificar a los organismos emplean una combinación de características morfológicas, sensoriales, utilitarias, culturales y ecológicas. Entre los aportes generados desde la etnotaxonomía, se ha obtenido información sobre los caracteres utilizados para identificar y clasificar una gran diversidad de grupos taxonómicos. Sin embargo, aún faltan trabajos donde se comparen los caracteres utilizados en las descripciones de taxones y se analice en qué medida estos descriptores se encuentran representados. Las abejas sin aguijón conforman un diverso grupo de insectos sociales que han sido estudiadas desde la perspectiva etnobiológica, dada su importancia utilitaria y cultural. Los interrogantes que guían este trabajo son ¿Qué elementos tienen en cuenta los pobladores para caracterizar a las abejas sin aguijón? y ¿Qué importancia revisten los mismos en el estudio de las clasificaciones locales? Métodos Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y recorridos en áreas rurales con los informantes. Se caracterizan a las etnoespecies conocidas localmente; se identifican los atributos descriptores y los criterios emergentes utilizados para dichas caracterizaciones; y se estima la frecuencia de citas de los atributos descriptores y criterios emergentes. Por otra parte, se comparan los atributos descriptores empleados para cada etnoespecie y se analiza el aporte de las caracterizaciones como estrategia heurística en el estudio de los sistemas de clasificación folclóricos. Resultados Se halló el empleo de 19 descriptores biológicos (que fueron agrupados en 4 criterios emergentes y de comparaciones entre etnoespecies. Los resultados sugieren la existencia de descriptores de grupo y descriptores específicos. Se identificaron cuales etnoespecies son consideradas similares, cómo contribuyen a las descripciones los atributos de menor peso, la relación entre los descriptores específicos y las etnoespecies, la presencia de prototipos cognitivos, así como las propiedades emergentes más relevantes desde la perspectiva émica. Conclusiones La importancia estimada de los atributos descriptores nos ha permitido identificar el espectro de propiedades emergentes que son relevantes desde la perspectiva emic para caracterizar las abejas sin aguijón. En este sentido el análisis aquí propuesto es de utilidad para estudiar taxonomías folclóricas en grupos heterogéneos culturalmente o en regiones pluriculturales, donde los elementos lingüísticos usualmente empleados no son aplicables.

  20. Polliniferous plants aud foraging strategles Of Apis mellifera (Hyínenoptera: Apidae in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico

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    Rogel Villanueva-G

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the most important polliniferous plants for European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. was made in Quintana Roo state. Comparisons were made between the plants visited by both bee types in order to determine whether there were qualitative or quantitative differences in their choice of plant species. Also some foraging strategies of the honeybees were analysed. Pollen from pollen load samples was acetolysed and mounted on slides. Subsequently the polien grains were identified, counted and photographed. A total of 206 pollen load samples were collected at Palmas and St. Teresa during two years. The most frequent species in the ponen load samples from European and Africanized honeyhees were Cecropia peltata, Metopium brownei, Lonchocarpus sp. 2, Viguiera dentata, Eragrostis sp. 1, Bursera simaruba and Eupatorium albicaule. Both types of honey bees show a high reliance on pollen from only a few species, the first five named above comprised around 50% of all the mean percentage frequencies. Families that contributed with the largest number of polien species were Fabaceae, Asteraceac, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaecae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, Poaceac, Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae and Tiliaceae. C. peltata, Trema micrantha, B. simaruba, Eugenia sp. 1, Thouinia canesceras, Pouteria sp. 1, Mimosa bahamensis and V. dentata, were the pollen species with the largest percentages of oceurrence in both European and Africanized bee pollen load samples, and also represent a "long-term" food resources during the year.Un estudio de las plantas poliníferas más importantes para las abejas europeas y africanizadas (Apis melifera L. se realizó en el estado de Quintana Roo. Se hicieron comparaciones entre plantas visitadas por ambos tipos de abejas, con el objetivo de determinar si hay diferencias cualitativas o cuantitativas en la elección de la especie de planta. Adicionalmente, se analizaron algunas estrategias de forrajeo de las abejas. Muestras de cargas de pólen se acetolizaron y se montaron en láminas. Posteriormente, los granos de pólen se identificaron, se contaron y se fotografiaron. Se recolectaron un total de 206 muestras de cargas de pólen en Las Palmas y Sta. Teresa durante dos años. Las especies más frecuentes en las muestras de cargas de pólen fueron Cecropia peltata, Metopium brownei, Lonchocarpus sp. 2, Viguiera dentata, 1, Eragrostis sp. 1, Bursera simaruba y Eupatorium albicaule. Ambos tipos de abejas mostraron una alta dependencia hacia sólo unas pocas especies de plantas, las primetas cinco de las mencionadas anteriormente constituyen aproximadamente un 50% de todas las frecuencias de porcentaje promedio. Las familias que contribuyeron con un mayor número de especies de pólen fueron Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, Poaceae, Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae y Tiliaceae. En tanto que C. peltata, Trema micrantha, B. simaruba, Eugenia sp. 1, Thouinia canesceras, Pouteria sp. 1, Mimosa bahamensis y V. dentata, fueron las especies de pólen con los más altos porcentajes de presencia en las cargas de pólen de las abejas y representan además, una fuente de recursos alimenticios de larga duración durante todo el año.

  1. Detección de Malpighamoeba mellifcae (Protista: Amoebozoa en Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidaede Argentina Detection of Malpighamoeba mellifcae (Protista: Amoebozoa in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae of Argentina

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    Santiago Plischuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a su rol como polinizador y productor de miel, la abeja Apis mellifera L. es considerado un insecto beneficioso. Si bien Argentina juega un papel de liderazgo en la producción de miel, existe un considerable vacío en el conocimiento acerca de las enfermedades de etiología protista que afectan las abejas en el país. La ameba Malpighamoeba mellificae Prell es un protista entomopatógeno que invade los túbulos de Malpighi de las abejas e interfiere con el proceso de excreción, debilitando al huésped y posiblemente facilitando la acción de otros patógenos. En esta contribución se presentan los primeros hallazgos de M. mellificae en Argentina y se brindan datos iniciales acerca de su frecuencia, intensidad de las infecciones, y co-ocurrencia con Nosema sp. Malpighamoeba mellificae se halló en dos de 36 localidades prospectadas: San Cayetano, al Sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires y San Carlos de Bariloche, en el Oeste de la provincia de Río Negro.Due to its role as a pollinator and honey producer, the honey bee Apis mellifera L. is considered a beneficial insect. Although Argentina plays a leading role in honey production, there is a considerable gap in knowledge regarding protistan diseases that affect honey bees in the country. The amoeba Malpighamoeba mellificae Prell is an entomopathogenic protist that invades the Malpighian tubules of honey bees and interferes with the excretory process, debilitating the host and possibly facilitating the action of other pathogens. In this contribution, we present the first reports of M. mellificae in Argentina, and provide some initial data about its frecuency, infection intensity, and co-occurrence with Nosema sp. Malpighamoeba mellificae was found in two out of 36 localities surveyed: San Cayetano, in southern Buenos Aires province, and San Carlos de Bariloche, in western Río Negro province.

  2. OBSERVACIONES SOBRE LA ESTRATIFICACIÓN VERTICAL DE ABEJAS EUGLOSINAS (APIDAE: EUGLOSSINI EN UN BOSQUE RIPARIO DE LA ORINOQUÍA COLOMBIANA

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    VÉLEZ DANNY

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron observaciones sobre la distribución vertical de abejas euglosinas en un bosque ripario asociado al sistema de lagunas Mata-Mata (Meta-Colombia. Los estratos evaluados fueron: sotobosque (1.8 m, la parte media entre el dosel y sotobosque (12-16 m y el dosel (18-25 m. Un total de 33 machos pertenecientes a cinco especies de Eulaema y Euglossa fueron capturados usando Cineol en trampas de caída. Eulaema nigrita y Euglossa intersecta fueron las especies más abundantes y se capturaron en todos los estratos. En general, no se encontró ninguna diferencia significativa en la diversidad, la abundancia y la riqueza de abejas en los diferentes estratos del bosque.

  3. [Composition and seasonality of Euglossina Species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in forest and dune in the Environmental Protection Area of the Mamanguape River Bar, PB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Rodrigo C A P; Madeira-da-Silva, Maria C; Pereira-Peixoto, Maria H; Martins, Celso F

    2008-01-01

    By using artificial fragrances as baits, we studied richness, composition, abundance and seasonality of Euglossina species in two areas (forest and dune) in the Environmental Protection Area of the Mamanguape River Bar, State of Paraiba, Brazil, between August 2002 and July 2004. Bees were attracted with wads of absorbent paper containing each of the fragrances: benzyl acetate, ionone beta, skatole, eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin, and captured with insect net. We collected a total of 3,132 males of nine species of Euglossina. On both areas, Euglossa cordata (L.) and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier were present throughout the year and were the most abundant species in the forest and the first one was the most abundant specie at the dune. Concerning to the composition, the Atlantic Rainforest areas in Paraíba State were more similar among themselves, the same occurring to the dune areas in Paraíba and Bahia States. In the forest, Euglossina species showed higher seasonality, being more abundant during the drier period, specially E. cordata. At the dune, species were homogeneously distributed in the dry and rainy periods.

  4. Food resource partitioning of stingless bees; Trigona apicalis Smith, 1857, Trigana collina Smith, 1857 and Trigona fimbriata Smith, 1857 (Apidae, Meliponinae in a mixed deciduous forest

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    Jongjitvimol, T.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Food resource partitioning of three species of stingless bees; Trigona apicalis Smith, 1857, T. collina Smith, 1857 and T. fimbriata Smith, 1857 at Phitsanulok Wildlife Conservation Devolopment and Extension Station were investigated from October 2003 to February 2005. The comparison study among T. apicalis, T. collina and T. fimbriata found different foraging times from food resources. Morphological study to examine the relationship between body size and foraging appendages among these species revealed significant differences in all characteristics (p<0.05. The results of food resource partitioning correlated with the competition theory. The three species appeared to avoid competition by performing a sign of coexistence in the same habitat possessing limited resources.

  5. Biochemical and cytochemical studies of the enzymatic activity of the venom glands of workers of honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rusleyd Maria Magalhães; Silva de Moraes, Regina Lúcia Morelli; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2010-02-01

    Biochemical studies revealed that the activity of some hydrolytic enzymes from the venom glands of honey bee Apis mellifera was higher in workers of 14 days of age than in those of 40 days. Among these enzymes, the highest activity was recorded for acid phosphatase, which was cytochemically detected throughout the length of the secretory filament and surrounding the canaliculi of the distal region of the reservoir. The acid phosphatase was considered to be a typical secretion product, since it was present in the cytoplasm as well as in the canaliculi of the secretory cells.

  6. Genetic characterization of the mite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) collected from honey bees Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapazzon, R; Carneiro, F E; Guerra, J C V; Moretto, G

    2009-08-18

    The mite Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite that is considered a major pest for beekeeping with European honey bees. However, Africanized bee colonies are less threatened by this ectoparasite, because infestation levels remain low in these bees. The low reproductive ability of female mites of the Japanese biotype (J), introduced to Brazil early in the 1970s was initially considered the main factor for the lack of virulence of this parasite on Africanized bees. In other regions of the world where the Korean (K) biotype of this mite was introduced, there have been serious problems with Varroa due to the high reproductive potential of the mite. However, a significant increase in the reproductive rate of females of Varroa in Brazil has been recently demonstrated; the cause could be a change in the type of Varroa in the bee colonies. We evaluated the prevalence of haplotypes J and K in mite samples collected from the State of Santa Catarina and from the island of Fernando de Noronha in the State of Pernambuco. The analysis of the mitochondrial genome (PCR + RFLP) revealed haplotype K in all samples from Santa Catarina and haplotype J in all samples from Fernando de Noronha. The analysis of microsatellites (nuclear genome) in bees from Fernando de Noronha showed only the specific alleles of haplotype J, while in bees from Santa Catarina, these alleles were found in only 2.8% of the samples. The high frequency of individuals with Korean genetic material is probably to the reason for the current high reproductive capacity of the mite V. destructor recorded in Santa Catarina.

  7. Pollen types used by Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (1874 (Hymenoptera, Apidae in the provisioning of brood cells in an area of Caatinga

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    Ana Paula Araújo da Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify, by sediment pollen analysis, the plant species used as floral resources for the provisioning of brood cells in Centris (Hemisiella tarsata, in an area of Caatinga, within the municipality of Nova Soure, Bahia State, Brazil. The analysis of pollen contents from three brood cells revealed 11 pollen types, corresponding to four botanical families. Malpighiaceae was represented most, followed by Leguminosae, Ochnaceae, and Solanaceae, the latter two represented by just a single pollen type each. On the basis of the percentages in the samples, it was possible to infer that C. tarsata visited distinct plants, but intensified its pollen collection in species related to Aeschynomene martii and Solanum paniculatumpollen types, which are considered the most important pollen sources in the larval diet of this bee. In addition to the pollen sources, we have also recorded seven pollen types regarded as oil ones, all related to the Malpighiaceae family. The information about the resources for C. tarsata can be of great relevance, in view of the importance of these bees in the pollination of native flora.

  8. Screening for quality indicators and phenolic compounds of biotechnological interest in honey samples from six species of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rosane Gomes de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Honey from stingless bees of the genus Melipona is a well sought product. Nevertheless lack of legal frameworks for quality assessment complicates the evaluation of food safety and marketing of these products. Seeking to assess the quality of honey from the bees of this genus, physical and chemical analyses, identification of phenolic compounds, and microbiological evaluation from six species of stingless bees was performed. The honey samples showed high reducing sugars, low protein levels and a balanced microbiota. High total phenols and flavonoids and higher antioxidant activity were also recorded. Different phenolic compounds of great biotechnological potential were identified and of these apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin were identified for the first time in honey. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few works describing a detail characterization of melipona honey together with identification of the phenolic compounds of significant therapeutic value.

  9. Pollen spectrum of the honey of uruçu bee (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the North Coast of Bahia State

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    Larissa Silva Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional-level studies of floral resources used by social bees for honey production can contribute to the improvement of management strategies for bee pastures and colonies, by identifying the most visited flowers and thus characterizing the various geographical origins of honey. The objective of this study was to investigate, through pollen analysis, the types of pollen and nectar sources used by the uruçu bee (Melipona scutellaris L. in the North Coast of Bahia. Honey samples were taken monthly from five colonies in an apiary from August 2010 to July 2011. Pollen analysis of honey was performed by using the acetolysis method, followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of pollen grains. Fifty pollen types belonging to 40 genera and 17 families were identified. The results indicate predominance of pollen types belonging to the families Fabaceae and Myrtaceae, which suggests that the bees preferred foraging from trees and shrubs. These plants should be included in regional reforestation projects in order to improve management of this bee species and honey production.

  10. Foraging Allocation in the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Tuned by the Presence of the Spinosad-Based Pesticide GF-120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Marín, N V; Liedo, P; Vandame, R; Sánchez, D

    2015-04-01

    Agroecosystem management commonly involves the use of pesticides. As a result, a heterogeneous landscape is created, in which suitable and unsuitable spaces are defined by the absence/presence of pesticides. In this study, we explored how foragers of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., adapt to such context. We specifically evaluated the effect of GF-120, a spinosad-based fruit fly toxic bait, on the allocation of foragers between food sources under the hypothesis that foragers will move from food sources with GF-120 to food sources without it. We thus carried out three experiments: in experiment 1, a group of foragers was trained to collect honey solution from a feeder; next, this feeder offered a GF-120/honey solution. A minority of foragers continued collecting the GF-120/honey solution. In experiment 2, we trained two groups of foragers from a colony to two food sources equally rewarding. Next, GF-120 was added to one of the food sources. We found that the majority of foragers moved from the GF-120-treated feeder to the feeder without GF-120 and that the minority that continued visiting the GF-120-treated feeder did not collect the GF-120/honey solution. In a third experiment, we wanted to know if foragers in an experimental setup as in experiment 1 would perform waggle dances: none of the foragers that collected GF-120/honey were observed dancing. Our results emphasize the importance of "food refuges" for non-target species, since they minimize the impact of agrochemicals upon them.

  11. Ovarian development in Meliponine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: the effect of queen presence and food on worker ovary development and egg production

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    Carminda da Cruz-Landim

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological studies of Meliponine worker ovaries in five species indicated a possible stimulatory effect of the queen on ovary development and on the production of trophic eggs in some of them. There are also indications that the queen inhibits the production of fertile eggs by the workers. This inhibition may involve a delay in the development of fertile eggs by the worker, until she is out of direct contact with the queen, or a lack of ovary development in the queen's presence, as seen in Leurotrigona muelleri. The evolutionary tendency toward inability to produce fertile eggs has its extreme representation in the pupal worker ovary reabsorption found in Frieseomelitta silvestri. On the other hand, the finding, in some species, of dwarf queens with the basic number of ovarioles (four in the ovaries, along with normal, trophically determined queens with larger numbers of ovarioles in the ovaries demonstrate the influence of food on this character, as in Apis mellifera.Aspectos morfológicos indicativos do grau de desenvolvimento dos ovários de meliponíneos indicaram um possível efeito estimulador da rainha sobre o desenvolvimento do ovário e a produção de ovos tróficos em algumas espécies. Há também indicações de que a rainha inibe a produção de ovos férteis pelas operárias. Esta inibição pode caracterizar-se por um retardamento na postura de ovos férteis, até que a operária esteja fora do contacto direto com a rainha, ou por um não desenvolvimento dos ovários na sua presença, como visto em Leutrotrigona muelleri. A tendência evolutiva, para uma total inabilidade para a produção de ovos férteis pelas operárias, tem sua representação extrema na reabsorção do ovário na pupa, como ocorre em Frieseomelitta silvestri. Por outro lado, a presença, em algumas espécies com determinação trófica das castas, de rainhas anãs com o número básico (quatro de ovaríolos nos ovários, ao lado de rainhas normais, determinadas troficamente, com números maiores de ovaríolos em seus ovários demonstra a influência do alimento sobre este caráter, como em Apis mellifera.

  12. Abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae exploram recursos na floresta amazônica? Do Africanized honeybees explore resources in the amazonian forest?

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    Marcio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas africanas (Apis mellifera scutellata foram trazidas para o Brasil na década de 1950 e, por acidente, cruzaram-se com outras subespécies de abelhas melíferas européias introduzidas no século XIX. Isso proporcionou o surgimento de híbridos com características predominantes das abelhas africanas, tais como rusticidade e maior capacidade de enxamear, o que lhes permitiu uma rápida adaptação e expansão por quase todo continente americano. Até hoje existem controvérsias se essas abelhas, denominadas africanizadas, causam algum impacto sobre a fauna de abelhas nativas. Nas Américas, as africanizadas estão restritas a regiões de baixas altitudes e de invernos amenos; no Brasil, ocorrem principalmente em áreas urbanas e formações vegetacionais abertas ou adulteradas, sendo dificilmente vistas ou coletadas no interior de florestas densas como a amazônica. Diante dessa observação, diversas iscas foram disponibilizadas no interior de fragmentos de florestas e de florestas contínuas na Amazônia central, para testar se operárias de abelhas africanizadas seriam capazes de penetrar nos mesmos. Nenhuma operária foi vista visitando as iscas na floresta contínua ou mesmo nos fragmentos de floresta, ocorrendo visitas somente nas áreas desmatadas e capoeiras próximas. Esse resultado, além de indicar a inexistência de competição por recursos com as abelhas nativas no interior da floresta amazônica, também indica que uma apicultura em grande escala na região seria inviável, uma vez que a floresta não é sequer visitada por essas abelhas.The African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata were introduced accidentally to Brazil in 1956 where it subsequently interbred with other subspecies of European honeybee here introduced in the 19th century. This resulted in hybrids with predominantly African honeybee characteristics, such as higher capacity of swarming and survival in inhospitable conditions, allowing them to adapt quickly and expand throughout nearly of the Americas. Moreover, to date there is much controversy about the probable impact of these bees, called Africanized honey bees, on native bees. In the Americas, Africanized honeybees are limited to regions of low altitude and cool winters, and in Brazil they occur principally in urban areas, and open or disturbed vegetation, not occurring in the interior of dense forest such as the Amazon Forest. We offered various kinds of bait in the interior of continuous forest, and in forest fragments to verify if Africanized honeybees would be capable of penetrate in it. No Africanized honeybee workers visited any baits in continuous forest or in forest fragments, but they did so in deforested/open areas. This result indicates that there is no possibility of source competition between Africanized and native bees within Amazon forest, and also indicates that large-scale beekeeping is unlikely to succeed in this region, because forest is not explored by Africanized bees.

  13. Sampling a biodiversity hotspot: the orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae of Tarapoto, northeastern Peru, the richest and most diverse site of the Neotropics

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    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid-bee fauna of the region of Tarapoto, northeastern Peru, was surveyed using seventeen different scents as baits to attract orchid-bee males. Six hundred and fifty-nine males belonging to 41 species were actively collected with insect nets during 120 hours in late July and early August, 2012. Euglossa dressleriMoure, 1968, Euglossa laurensiBembé, 2008, and Euglossa maculilabrisMoure, 1968, three species belonging to the Euglossa cybelia species-group, are here reported for Peru for the first time. Previous sporadic and unpublished samplings in the area recorded eleven additional species. With 53 species, the region of Tarapoto can be considered the richest single site in the Neotropics for orchid bees. Diversity, estimated with the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′ = 3.02, was also the highest ever recorded for orchid bees.

  14. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Conner, J.K. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount of solar UV-B reaching the earth`s surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Distribution and co-existence of the Macropis species and their cleptoparasite Epeoloides coecutiens (Fabr.) in NW Europe Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Melittidae and Apidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekkarinen, Antti; Berg, Øistein; Calabuig, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    The Macropis species collect pollen and fatty oil secreted by flowers of loosestrifes (Lysimachia, Primulaceae) and are the only known oil-collecting bees in the Holarctic. In NW Europe, L. vulgaris is the main or (in large areas) sole pollen and oil source for M. europaea Warncke (labiata auct...

  16. Pleistocene climate changes shaped the population structure of Partamona seridoensis (Apidae, Meliponini, an endemic stingless bee from the Neotropical dry forest.

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    Elder Assis Miranda

    Full Text Available Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern, with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup. The Mantel test revealed no isolation by distance. No evidence of a potential geographic barrier in the present that could explain the diversification between the P. seridoensis haplogroups was found. However, Pleistocene climatic changes may explain this differentiation, since the initial time for the P. seridoensis lineages diversification took place during the mid-Pleistocene, specifically the interglacial period, when the biota is presumed to have been more associated with dry conditions and had more restricted, fragmented geographical distribution. This event may have driven diversification by isolating the two haplogroups. Otherwise, the climatic changes in the late Pleistocene must not have drastically affected the population dynamics of P. seridoensis, since the Bayesian Skyline Plot did not reveal any substantial fluctuation in effective population size in either haplogroup. Considering its importance and the fact that it is an endemic bee from a very threatened Neotropical dry forest, the results herein could be useful to the development of conservation strategies for P. seridoensis.

  17. Pleistocene climate changes shaped the population structure of Partamona seridoensis (Apidae, Meliponini), an endemic stingless bee from the Neotropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Elder Assis; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Carvalho, Airton Torres; Martins, Celso Feitosa; Fernandes, Carlo Rivero; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network) consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern), with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup. The Mantel test revealed no isolation by distance. No evidence of a potential geographic barrier in the present that could explain the diversification between the P. seridoensis haplogroups was found. However, Pleistocene climatic changes may explain this differentiation, since the initial time for the P. seridoensis lineages diversification took place during the mid-Pleistocene, specifically the interglacial period, when the biota is presumed to have been more associated with dry conditions and had more restricted, fragmented geographical distribution. This event may have driven diversification by isolating the two haplogroups. Otherwise, the climatic changes in the late Pleistocene must not have drastically affected the population dynamics of P. seridoensis, since the Bayesian Skyline Plot did not reveal any substantial fluctuation in effective population size in either haplogroup. Considering its importance and the fact that it is an endemic bee from a very threatened Neotropical dry forest, the results herein could be useful to the development of conservation strategies for P. seridoensis.

  18. Evaluación del abejorro Bombus atratusFranklin(Hymenoptera: Apidae) como polinizador en fresa (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ‘Camarosa’) bajo invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Trujillo, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de la investigación fue establecer si el abejorro nativo Bombus atratus es un polinizador eficiente para el cultivo de fresa ‘Camarosa’ bajo invernadero con cubierta plástica en la Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia). Inicialmente se realizó una descripción morfológica de inflorescencias, flores y frutos; se determinó la oferta floral, la duración de etapas de la flor y se estimó la oferta de néctar, cantidad y viabilidad de polen y la receptividad estigmática. Posteriormente, con la int...

  19. Descriptive attributes used in the characterization of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in rural populations of the Atlantic forest (Misiones-Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human beings employ a combination of morphological, sensorial, utilitarian, cultural and ecological characters when they identify and classify organisms. Ethnotaxonomy has provided a store of information about the characters cultures employ when they identify and classify a vast diversity of taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, some more research is needed to provide a comparison of the characters employed in the description of taxons, and an analysis of the extent to which those descriptors are represented. Stingless bees constitute a diverse group of social insects that have been widely studied from an ethnobiological perspective due to their utilitarian and cultural importance. The objective of this study is to identify the elements local people consider when characterizing stingless bees, and how important these elements are in the study of local classifications. Methods The methodology used involves semi-structured interviews and trips with the informants to rural areas. Locally known ethnospecies are characterized, descriptive traits and salient criteria used in those characterizations are identified, and the frequency of reference of descriptive traits and salient criteria are estimated. Besides, the descriptive traits used for each ethnospecies are compared, and the contribution of the characterizations as a heuristic strategy in the study of folk classification systems is analyzed. Results The use of 19 biological descriptors (grouped according to 4 salient criteria) and of comparisons among ethnospecies was found. Results suggest the existence of group and specific descriptors. Researchers identified which ethnospecies are considered similar, how less important traits contribute to descriptions, the relation between specific descriptors and ethnospecies, the presence of cognitive prototypes, and the most relevant salient properties from the emic perspective. Conclusions The estimated importance of attributes descriptors allowed us to identify the spectrum of salient properties relevant from the emic perspective to characterize the stingless bees. In this sense, the analysis proposed here is useful to study folk taxonomy in culturally heterogeneous groups or multicultural regions, where the linguistic elements usually employed cannot be applied. Resumen Antecedentes Los seres humanos, al identificar y clasificar a los organismos emplean una combinación de características morfológicas, sensoriales, utilitarias, culturales y ecológicas. Entre los aportes generados desde la etnotaxonomía, se ha obtenido información sobre los caracteres utilizados para identificar y clasificar una gran diversidad de grupos taxonómicos. Sin embargo, aún faltan trabajos donde se comparen los caracteres utilizados en las descripciones de taxones y se analice en qué medida estos descriptores se encuentran representados. Las abejas sin aguijón conforman un diverso grupo de insectos sociales que han sido estudiadas desde la perspectiva etnobiológica, dada su importancia utilitaria y cultural. Los interrogantes que guían este trabajo son ¿Qué elementos tienen en cuenta los pobladores para caracterizar a las abejas sin aguijón? y ¿Qué importancia revisten los mismos en el estudio de las clasificaciones locales? Métodos Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y recorridos en áreas rurales con los informantes. Se caracterizan a las etnoespecies conocidas localmente; se identifican los atributos descriptores y los criterios emergentes utilizados para dichas caracterizaciones; y se estima la frecuencia de citas de los atributos descriptores y criterios emergentes. Por otra parte, se comparan los atributos descriptores empleados para cada etnoespecie y se analiza el aporte de las caracterizaciones como estrategia heurística en el estudio de los sistemas de clasificación folclóricos. Resultados Se halló el empleo de 19 descriptores biológicos (que fueron agrupados en 4 criterios emergentes) y de comparaciones entre etnoespecies. Los resultados sugieren la existencia de descriptores de grupo y descriptores específicos. Se identificaron cuales etnoespecies son consideradas similares, cómo contribuyen a las descripciones los atributos de menor peso, la relación entre los descriptores específicos y las etnoespecies, la presencia de prototipos cognitivos, así como las propiedades emergentes más relevantes desde la perspectiva émica. Conclusiones La importancia estimada de los atributos descriptores nos ha permitido identificar el espectro de propiedades emergentes que son relevantes desde la perspectiva emic para caracterizar las abejas sin aguijón. En este sentido el análisis aquí propuesto es de utilidad para estudiar taxonomías folclóricas en grupos heterogéneos culturalmente o en regiones pluriculturales, donde los elementos lingüísticos usualmente empleados no son aplicables. PMID:22330012

  20. Pollen resources and trophic niche breadth of Apis mellifera and Melipona obscurior (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a subtropical climate in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgert-Moreira, Suzane; Nascher, Carla; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia; Blochtein, Betina

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Pollen sources that comprise the trophic niche of native bee species Melipona obscurior and introduced Apis mellifera and the breadth of this niche were studied in two areas in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil. Pollen obtained from the forager bees during a period of 12 months showed that the richness of pollen types found in each sample varied from 5 to 21 for A. mellifera and from 1 to 10 for M. obscurior. In both areas, A. mellifera had higher niche bread...

  1. 7 CFR 760.206 - Notice of loss and application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... colony or honeybee hive was due to colony collapse disorder from an appropriate third party, as...) Chattel inspections. (d) For the loss of honeybee colonies and honeybee hives due to colony collapse... Application; (ii) For honeybee feed, honeybee colony, honeybee hive, or farm-raised fish feed or death losses...

  2. Caracterização do mel produzido por espécies de Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini da região nordeste do Brasil: 1. Características físico-químicas Characterization of honey produced by species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini from the northeast area of Brazil: 1. Physico-chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Almeida Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three honey samples produced by four Melipona species from different areas of the State of Bahia, were analyzed with the aim to determine their physico-chemical characteristics, contributing to the establishment of standards for quality control. The majority of the average values for physico-chemical parameters fulfilled the quality criteria established by the Brazilian and international Legislations for Apis honey, except for moisture content, which afforded higher values. Concerning the high number of samples wich did not fit the limits for reducing sugars, it is necessary to define minimum values in order to characterize Melipona honeys, as well as criteria for use of diastasic activity.

  3. Caracterização físico-química de amostras de méis de Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae do Estado do Ceará Physical-chemical characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Ceará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da Silva Sodré

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar as características físico-químicas de amostras de méis coletadas em cidades do Estado do Ceará (Araripe, Santana do Cariri, Assaré, Iguatu, Crato, Missão Velha e Pacajús, foram determinados no Laboratório de Apicultura do Departamento de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP: açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose aparente, umidade, atividade diastásica, hidroximetilfurfural, proteína, cinzas, pH, acidez, índice de formol, condutividade elétrica, viscosidade e cor de 20 amostras de méis Apis mellifera L., 1758, coletadas entre março de 2002 e agosto de 2002. A maioria das amostras de méis analisadas (65% encontra-se dentro das especificações brasileiras para as características físico-químicas, com exceção das características sacarose aparente (10% das amostras, umidade (10% das amostras, atividade diastásica (35% das amostras e HMF (20% das amostras. Os resultados indicaram condutividade elétrica e a sacarose aparente como as características que mais influenciaram no agrupamento das amostras.This research was aimed at to determining physico-chemical characteristics honey samples collected in cities of Ceara States (Araripe; Santana do Cariri 1 sample; Assaré 1 sample; Iguatu 8 samples; Crato 4 samples; Missão Velha 2 samples and Pacajús 3 samples, they were determined at the laboratory of Apiculture in the "Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ University of São Paulo, in Piracicaba, São Paulo State: total sugar, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, humidity, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, protein, ash, pH, acidity, formol index, electrical conductivity, viscosity and color of 20 samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 honey collected between March of 2002 and August of 2002. Most of the samples of honey analyzed (65% are inside of the Brazilian specifications for the characteristics physical-chemistries except for the characteristics apparent sucrose (10% of the samples, humidity (10% of the samples, diastase activity (35% of the samples and HMF (20% of the samples. The results showed electrical conductivity and apparent sucrose as characteristics that most influenced grouping samples.

  4. Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae =Efeito da pilhagem de néctar por abelhas nativas sem ferrão (Hymenoptera: Apidae na abscisão floral de Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbed flowers and nonrobber open flowers, in both soil and plant. For the statistical analysis, the T-test was used to see whether there was a difference between the averages obtained from the evaluated characteristics between the soil flowers and plant flowers. Simple linear regression was used to see whether there was a relationship between the closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant. There were significant differences regarding all variables measured between soil and plant.A correlation was found at both closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade de pilhagemde abelhas nativas influenciando a abscisão floral de Bougainvillea spectabilis. As coletas foram realizadas em dez indivíduos de B. spectabilis. Foram coletadas 2.874 flores no solo e 2.895 na planta no período de 4/5/2009 a 1/6/2009 com intervalo de três dias entre cada coleta, totalizando 10 repetições em cada indivíduo. Foram mensuradas as flores fechadas, flores abertas, flores fechadas pilhadas, flores fechadas não pilhadas, flores abertas pilhadas e flores abertas não pilhadas tanto no solo como na planta. Para as análises estatísticas foi utilizado o Teste-T para verificar se houve diferença entre as médias obtidas das características avaliadas entre as flores do solo e as flores da planta, além de regressão linear simples para verificar se houve relação entre as flores fechadas e flores fechadas pilhadas; flores abertas e flores abertas pilhadas, encontradas no solo e flores fechadas e flores fechadas pilhadas; flores abertas e flores abertas pilhadas na planta. Houve diferença significativa em relação a todas as variáveis entre o solo e a planta. Foi verificada correlação tanto nas flores fechadas e florespilhadas fechadas encontradas no solo quanto nas flores abertas e flores abertas não pilhadas na planta.

  5. Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.8191 Effect of nectar pillaging by native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the abscission of flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.8191

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Inforzato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbed flowers and non-robber open flowers, in both soil and plant. For the statistical analysis, the T-test was used to see whether there was a difference between the averages obtained from the evaluated characteristics between the soil flowers and plant flowers. Simple linear regression was used to see whether there was a relationship between the closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant. There were significant differences regarding all variables measured between soil and plant. A correlation was found at both closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant.This study had as objective to evaluate whether the pillaging activity by native bees influences floral abscission. Samples were collected in ten individuals of Bougainvillea spectabilis. In the period between May 4 and June 1st, 2009, 2,874 flowers were collected on the ground and 2,895 from the plants, with three-day intervals between each collection and a total of 10 repetitions in each plant. We measured the total of closed flowers, open flowers, robbed flowers, normal flowers, open robbed flowers and non-robber open flowers, in both soil and plant. For the statistical analysis, the T-test was used to see whether there was a difference between the averages obtained from the evaluated characteristics between the soil flowers and plant flowers. Simple linear regression was used to see whether there was a relationship between the closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant. There were significant differences regarding all variables measured between soil and plant. A correlation was found at both closed flowers and robbed closed flowers found on the ground and open flowers and non-robbed open flowers in the plant.

  6. Atividades relacionadas à construção e aprovisionamento de ninhos de Xylocopa subcyanea (Hymenoptera, Apidae em uma área de restinga na Bahia, Brasil Activities related to construction and provioning of nests of Xylocopa subcyanea (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an area of sandbank in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Gimenes

    Full Text Available As abelhas do gênero Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 são comuns em ecossistemas de restingas em acelerada fase de degradação e são importantes polinizadores deste ecossistema. Elas nidificam especialmente em madeira morta ou apodrecida. As atividades relacionadas à construção e estrutura dos ninhos de Xylocopa (Schoenherria subcyanea Perez, 1901 na restinga do litoral norte da Bahia, Brasil, foram observadas em 43 ninhos ativos de X. subcyanea, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, em dois troncos apodrecidos. A fase de fundação ou reuso no primeiro tronco foi em agosto e a fase de provisionamento das células nos ninhos, em ambos troncos, em janeiro. As principais atividades foram escavações no tronco, entrada e saída dos ninhos, permanência na entrada do ninho, entrada com pólen e desidratação de néctar. Foi observado horário preferencial ao longo do dia para as atividades de entrada e saída dos ninhos, sendo estas influenciadas pelos horários do nascer e pôr do sol. Ninhos abandonados foram reusados por X. subcyanea e Centris tarsata SMITH, 1874. Os ninhos ativos eram ocupados por quatro diferentes abelhas adultas. Geralmente, uma abelha ficava na entrada do ninho. A estrutura do ninho foi descrita.Bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 are frequent in sandbank ecosystems under accelerated degradation. They nest especially in dead or rotted wood. The nest construction and nest structure of Xylocopa (Schoenherria subcyanea Perez, 1901 were studied in a sandbank from Bahia's north littoral, Brazil. We observed 43 active nests, under different stages of development, in two dead logs. The main activities were excavation of the logs, entering and leaving nest, permanence in the nest entrance, entering with pollen, and nectar dehydration. Preferential times along the day were observed for entering and leaving nest, showing influence of sunrise and sunset times. Abandoned nests were reused by X. subcyanea and Centris tarsata Smith, 1874. Active nests were occupied by four different adult bees. An individual frequently stayed at nest entrance, adopting a defensive behavior. The nest structure was described.

  7. Conhecimento dos moradores do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, sobre a utilidade de produtos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae = Knowledge of the inhabitants of the Mid-Araguaia region, Mato Grosso State, about the usefulness of bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as indicações de uso dos produtos das abelhas. As entrevistas foram realizadas com representantes de 14 municípios do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, entre os meses de janeiro e fevereiro de 2007. No médio Araguaia, houve indicações de uso para mel, cera, veneno e própolis, principalmente para fins medicinais. O mel foi o produto mais utilizado (75,49%, o consumo é principalmente por ingestão (79,59%e in natura (71,43%. Os produtos das abelhas são utilizados, pela maioria, para fins medicinais (77,55% e recomendados para tratar afecções na garganta (63,27%.The objective of this study was to find out the use indications for bee products. The interviews were carried out with representatives of 14 municipalities of the Mid-Araguaia River region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the months of January and February 2007. In the Mid- Araguaia there were indications of use honey, beeswax, poison and propolis, mainly for medicinal purposes. Honey was the most used product (75.49%. The consumption is mainly by ingestion (79.59% and in natura (71.43%. The bee products are used, by the majority of the users, for medicinal purposes (77.55%, and they are recommended to heal throat infections (63.27%.

  8. Nest distribution and nesting habits of Xylocopa ordinaria Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a restinga area in the northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Distribuição de ninhos e hábitos de nidificação de Xylocopa ordinaria Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae em área de restinga no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Sarlo Bernardino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the distribution of natural nests of Xylocopa ordinaria and characterize its nesting habits in the restinga of Grussai/Iquipari (RJ, supporting future studies on the pollinators management in the northern Rio de Janeiro state. The data obtained from Aug/2003 to Dec/2004, in an area of 11.6ha, were related to the nest distribution, substrate identification and dimensions, emergence, sex ratio, nest structure (n= 23 nests and pollen content analysis of provisioning masses and feces. X. ordinaria nests were abundant and presented a clustered distribution. These bees do not present taxonomical affinity for nesting substrates, but preferences for wood availability and characteristics, being Pera glabrata the main substrate. X. ordinaria is a multivoltine species that tolerates co-specifics in their nests. These bees were generalist on their nectar and pollen consumption, but presented floral constancy while provisioning brood cells. These behaviors, activity along the year, flights throughout the day, and legitimate visits to flowers indicate the importance of X. ordinaria on the pollination of plants in the restinga.Este artigo objetiva estudar a distribuição de ninhos naturais de Xylocopa ordinaria e caracterizar seus hábitos de nidificação na restinga de Grussai/Iquipari, fornecendo bases para estudos de manejo de polinizadores no Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram obtidos entre Ago/2003 e Dez/2004, em uma área de 11,6ha, e correlacionados à distribuição dos ninhos, ao tipo de substrato e suas dimensões, à emergência, razão sexual, arquitetura do ninho (n=23 e ao conteúdo polínico presente em massas de aprovisionamento e fezes. Os ninhos de X. ordinaria foram abundantes e apresentaram distribuição agregada. Não foi verificada afinidade taxonômica por substratos de nidificação, mas quanto à disponibilidade e características da madeira, sendo Pera glabrata o substrato mais utilizado. X. ordinaria é uma espécie multivoltina que tolera a presença de co-específicos no ninho. Essas abelhas foram generalistas quanto às fontes de néctar e pólen, mas apresentaram constância floral no aprovisionamento de células de cria. Esses comportamentos, a atividade ao longo do ano, vôos ao longo do dia e visitas legítimas às flores indicam a importância de X. ordinaria na polinização de plantas da restinga.

  9. The orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of a forest remnant in the southern portion of the Brazilian Amazon/A fauna de abelhas-das-orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) de um remanescente florestal no extremo sul da Amazônia brasileira

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J E Santos; R R Ferrari; A Nemésio

    2014-01-01

      The orchid-bee fauna of the region of Porto Velho, in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, close to the southernmost limits of the Amazon Basin, was surveyed for the first time using five different scents as baits to attract orchid-bee males...

  10. Atividades de coleta e origem floral do pólen armazenado em colônias de Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae no sul do Brasil Collection activities and floral origin of the stored pollcn in colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae in south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Pick

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg, 1903, of São Francisco de Paula, were studied during the period from October/1998 to October/1999. The counting of the bees was proceeded monthly, differentiated workers that came back with and without pollen in the corbicula. Grains of pollen of pots previously marked were collected monthly and identified. The percentage of the pollen types of the samples was estimated: 20% of Asteraceae, 17% Myrtaceae, 15% type Meliaceae and 10% Euphorbiaceae. The remaining corresponds to other pollen types of small representation, besides those the were no identified. The climatic influence on the pollen collection was analyzed being used simple and multiple regressions. It was verified that in the spring and in the summer the temperature, the solar irradiation and relative humidity were significant for the pollen foraging. During autumn and winter the relative humidity had smaller influence in the pollen collection.

  11. Control del Ácaro Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mediante la Aplicación de distintos Principios Activos Control of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera Hymenoptera: Apidae) by means of different active agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Augusto Marcangeli; María del Carmen García

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia acaricida de cuatro productos utilizados para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) en colmenas de Apis mellifera (L.). Se seleccionaron 25 colmenas dividivas en cinco lotes iguales a las que se les suministró Apistan®, Bayvarol®, Apitol® y Folbex®. El último lote representó el control. Los ácaros muertos se recolectaron en pisos especiales que se controlaron semanalmente. Finalizada la experiencia cada lote fue sometid...

  12. Control del Ácaro Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae mediante la Aplicación de distintos Principios Activos Control of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera Hymenoptera: Apidae by means of different active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Marcangeli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia acaricida de cuatro productos utilizados para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman en colmenas de Apis mellifera (L.. Se seleccionaron 25 colmenas dividivas en cinco lotes iguales a las que se les suministró Apistan®, Bayvarol®, Apitol® y Folbex®. El último lote representó el control. Los ácaros muertos se recolectaron en pisos especiales que se controlaron semanalmente. Finalizada la experiencia cada lote fue sometido a un cruzamiento con otros productos con el fin de eliminar los ácaros remanentes y poder calcular las eficacias. El producto Apistan® fue el más efectivo con un valor promedio de 85,38% seguido por el Bayvarol® (83,83%, Apitol® (71,77% y Folbex® (62,78%. En todos los casos, los valores obtenidos resultaron inferiores a los estipulados por los laboratorios productores. Estos resultados alertan sobre la posible generación de resistencias por parte de las poblaciones del ácaro y la necesidad de buscar nuevos agentes de control eficaces para esta enfermedad.The aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of four commercial products against the mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (L.. Twenty five honeybee colonies divided in five equal groups were selected. Groups received Apistan®, Bayvarol®, Apitol® and Folbex®. Final group was the control. Dead mites were collected weekly in special floors. After treatment, each colony received a shock treatment with the other three products to kill remnant mites and to obtain acaricide efficacy. Average values of efficacy were Apistan® 85,38%, Bayvarol® 83,83%, Apitol® 71,77% and Folbex® 62,78%. In all cases these values were lower than those reported by the laboratories that produce them. These results alert about the possible generation of resistant mite populations and justify research directed to search for alternative products for the control this parasite.

  13. Diversidade de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae em dois fragmentos de Mata Atlântica localizados na região urbana de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil Diversity of Euglossinac (Hymenoptera, Apidae in two Atlantic Forest fragments located in the urban area of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Cleomar Porto Bezerra

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of fragrances to attract males of Euglossinae bees has been an important tool to increase the knowledge of the group. In the Northeastern of Brazil, studies on euglossine bees are still uncommon, mainly in urban areas. The goals of this study are to identify the Euglossinae species composition, to know the diversity and the community structure of Euglossinae species, verify their preferences for different fragrances and evaluate the phenology of these species, in two Atlantic Forest fragments of the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba state, Brazil. Bees were sampled at 15 days intervals, over the course of one year, from 8:00 to 17:00 hours, through the use of traps baited with seven types of fragrances. In both areas, 1082 individuals belonging to nine species were sampled. None significant difference of diversity and relative abundance of bees between fragments were observed. Eucalyptol was the most attractive fragrance. Bees were more abundant between 8:00 and 9:00 AM. Visits to the fragrances were more frequent from the middle of dry season to the beginning of the rainy season and positively correlated with the monthly mean temperature. Most species of bees visited all the baits over the year, but the number of attracted males was highest in April.

  14. Efeitos da aplicação tópica de hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovários de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae Effect of topic application of juvenile hormone on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    William Fernando Antonialli-Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento do ovário de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera foi analisada levando em conta a determinação trófica das castas, segundo a qual a alimentação larval é controlada pelas operárias de maneira a promover uma diferenciação de castas controlada pela produção e disponibilidade desse hormônio. A hipótese testada é que a ação do hormônio juvenil seja capaz de proteger ou prevenir a degeneração nos ovários das larvas de operárias. Foi feita aplicação tópica de 1 ml de hormônio dissolvido em hexano na concentração de 1 mg/ml do segundo até o quinto dia de vida larval, e a morfologia dos ovários avaliada nos dias subseqüentes à aplicação até ao sexto dia de vida larval. Como controles foram utilizadas larvas nas quais se aplicou 1 ml de hexano e larvas que não receberam nenhum tratamento. Constatou-se que o efeito do hormônio juvenil varia conforme a idade larval em que é aplicado e que este efeito foi maior quando a aplicação foi feita no terceiro dia de vida larval.The influence of juvenile hormone (JH on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera was analyzed, taking into account the trophic determination of the castes. The workers control the larval feeding in order to promote caste differentiation, which is regulated by the production and availability of this hormone. The hypothesis tested was that the action of juvenile hormone is capable of protecting or preventing the degeneration of the ovaries in worker larvae. A preparation of 1 ml of juvenile hormone dissolved in hexane at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was applied topically to 2- to 5-day-old larvae. The morphology of the ovaries was evaluated on the days following the application, until the larvae were 6 days old. The controls consisted of larvae to which 1 ml of hexane was applied, and larvae that received no treatment. The effect of juvenile hormone varied according to the age of the larvae to which it was applied, and this effect was greatest in 3-day-old larvae.

  15. Estratificação vertical de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em uma área de Mata Atlântica, Paraíba, Brasil Vertical stratification of Euglossina Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an area of the Atlantic Rainforest, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Celso F. Martins

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos estudos sobre distribuição vertical de insetos, principalmente de Hymenoptera Apiformes. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar se existe estratificação vertical entre as espécies de Euglossina em áreas de Mata Atlântica, através da comparação da riqueza, abundância e diversidade em dois estratos, sub-bosque (1,5 m e copa (10-12 m. Para isso, foram realizadas coletas mensais na Reserva Biológica Guaribas, de maio a dezembro de 2002, utilizando seis armadilhas contendo fragrâncias artificiais: eugenol, eucaliptol, escatol, beta ionona, acetato de benzila e vanilina, distribuídas nos dois estratos. Foram coletados 1.151 indivíduos pertencentes a 11 espécies e três gêneros de Euglossina. No estrato de sub-bosque a abundância e a diversidade foram maiores, em números absolutos, e a riqueza foi significativamente maior que no estrato de copa.There are few studies regarding vertical distribution of insects, mainly of Hymenoptera Apiformes. The goal of this study was to verify if vertical stratification exists among the species of Euglossina in Atlantic Rainforest areas, trough the comparison of the richness, abundance and diversity in two strata, sub-forest (1.5 m and canopy (10-12 m. For that, monthly collections where carried out in the Guaribas Biological Reserve from May to December of 2002. Six traps containing artificial fragrances: eugenol, eucalyptol, skatol, beta ionone, benzyl acetate and vanillin, distributed in two strata were used. A total of 1,151 individuals belonging to 11 species and three genera of Euglossina was collected. The abundance and diversity were higher in the sub-forest stratum in absolute number and richness was significantly higher compared with the canopy.

  16. Diferenciação e envelhecimento do músculo do vôo em operárias de Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae Differentiation and aging of the flight muscle in Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae workers

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    Camila Marques Adade

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata diferenças verificadas no desenvolvimento da musculatura do voo de S.postica Latreille, 1807, uma abelha sem ferrão nativa no Brasil. Tratando-se de uma espécie eussocial avançada, as operárias desta abelha apresentam complexas adaptações comportmentais que as habilitam a realizar as tarefas necessárias à manutenção da colônia, entre elas o forrageamento. Esta última tarefa requer uma musculatura do vôo funcional. Mensurações dos diâmetros e estudos ultra-estruturais das fibras musculares, mostraram diferenças morfológicas e de tamanho relacionadas à idade e função das operárias na colônia. A ultra-estrutura mostrou modificação na apresentação das mitocondrias, miofilamentos, núcleos e quantidade de glicogênio armazenado das fibras musculares, conforme a operárias envelhece ou muda de função.The present paper deals with the differences verified in the flight muscle development of S. postica Latreille, 1807, a Brazilian stingless bee. As an advanced eusocial species, the workers of this bee have complex behavioral adaptations that turn them able to performe all tasks necessary to colony maintenance, among them the foragement. This last work requires a well functioning flight musculature. Measurements of the fiber diameters in histological slides and ultrastructural studies, showed differences in the fiber size and morphology related to the worker age and function in the colony. The ultrastructural features, also showed modifications in the fibers mitochondria, miofilaments, nuclei and amount of glycogen stored, as the worker ages or change functions.

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN ANTIMICROBIANA Y FISICOQUÍMICA DE PROPÓLEOS DE Apis mellifera L. (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE DE LA REGIÓN ANDINA COLOMBIANA Antimicrobial and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Propolis of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae from the Colombian Andes

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    ESTHER MARGARIDA ALVES FERREIRA BASTOS

    Full Text Available El propóleo es un material resinoso producido por las abejas a partir de diversos materiales vegetales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar muestras de propóleos de Apis mellifera provenientes de la región Andina colombiana respecto a su perfil antimicrobiano y fisicoquímico. Fueron empleados extractos etanólicos de propóleos por la técnica de disco-difusión, frente a las especies Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans. Para la caracterización fisicoquímica se evaluaron el porcentaje de extracto seco, contenido de cera, índice de oxidación y determinación cuantitativa de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides. Todas las muestras presentaron actividad antibacteriana, con halos de inhibición comprendidos entre 8 y 12 mm para E. coli y entre 8,3 y 23,5 mm para S. aureus. No se observó ninguna actividad contra C. albicans. Los parámetros fisicoquímicos citados anteriormente presentaron una variación de 2,72 a 9,17%, 0 a 2%, 3 a 51s, 0,1 a 0,5 (p/p y 0,02 a 0,95 (p/p, respectivamente. El perfil antimicrobiano observado, relacionado al fisicoquímico, sugiere la necesidad de nuevos estudios para la determinación del origen botánico y geográfico de las muestras estudiadas.Propolis is a resinous material produced by bees from various plant sources. The objective of this study was to characterize propolis samples of Apis mellifera from the Colombian Andean region, regarding the antimicrobial and physicochemical profiles. We used the technique of disk diffusion with ethanol extracts of propolis against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The physicochemical characterization included percentage of solids content, wax, oxidation index and quantitative determination of phenolic and flavonoids compounds. All samples showed antibacterial activity, with inhibition zones between 8,0 and 12,0 mm for E. coli and between 8,3 and 23,5 mm for S. aureus. We did not observe any activity against C. albicans. The physical and chemical parameters cited above showed a variation from 2.72 to 9.17%, 0 to 2%, 3 to 51 s, 0.1 to 0.5 (w/w and 0.02 to 0.95 (p/p, respectively. The antimicrobial profile observed, related to the physicochemical profile, suggests the need for further studies to determine the geographical and botanical origin of the samples studied.

  18. Horário de atividade de machos de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae em um fragmento de floresta semidecídua no Norte do Estado do Paraná Male Euglossinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae daily activity in a semi-deciduous forest fragment in Northern Paraná, Brazil

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    Aline Mackert dos Santos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A atividade diária de machos de Euglossinae foi estudada em um fragmento de floresta semidecídua no norte do Estado do Paraná. Machos atraídos às iscas-odores foram amostrados quinzenalmente, durante 12 meses, das 8:00 às 15:00 horas. No total, 434 machos de 9 espécies foram coletados. Eufriesea violacea foi a espécie que visitou mais cedo as iscas, com maior pico de atividade das 9:00 às 11:00 horas. As demais espécies visitaram as iscas, preferencialmente, das 9:00 às 14:00 horas. Uma nítida diferença nos horários de visita das abelhas foi observada entre as estações quente-chuvosa e fria-seca. Na estação quente-chuvosa a maior freqüência de visitas deu-se das 9:00 às 14:00 horas e machos foram coletados em todos os horários. Na estação fria-seca a maior atividade ocorreu entre 11:00 e 14:00 horas e não houve visitas entre 8:00 e 10:00 horas. Durante esta estação a temperatura foi um fator que influenciou diretamente a atividade das abelhas.Euglossinae bee fauna daily activity was studied in a semideciduous forest in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Male euglossine bees, attracted by chemical baits, were sampled twice a month for one year, from 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Over this period, 434 males from 9 Euglossinae species were collected. Eufriesea violacea visited the baits earlier than the other species, showing an activity peak between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. The other species visited the baits more often between 9:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. A significant difference in daily activity was observed comparing the warm-wet months with the cold-dry months. During warm-wet season, males were collected during all sampling periods, but the higher bait visitation frequency occurred from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. During cold-dry season, the higher frequency was from 11:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. and no visitation was done between 8:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. Temperatur