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Sample records for hymenoptera braconidae eficiencia

  1. Revision of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae

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    Michael Sharkey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of the two genera of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae are revised. Thirteen species are recognized, of which five are new and eight were previously described: Khoikhoia anthelion Sharkey, sp. n., K. lission Mason, 1984, K. oligospilos Sharkey, sp. n., K. semiadusta Mason, 1983, K. solata Mason, 1983, K. townesi Mason, 1983, K. turneri Mason, 1984, Sania browni Sharkey, sp. n., S. capensis Mason, 1983, S. henryi Mason, 1983, S. marjoriae Mason, 1983, S. masneri Sharkey, sp. n., and S. masoni Sharkey, sp. n.. All are from the Cape Region of South Africa, and all but one species are confined to the western Cape. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included. Based on phylogenetic position and morphological characters, speculations on life history are made, and it is suggested that some species may be parasitoids of wood- or stem-boring Lepidoptera. The DELTA data matrix and images for the key are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.1.ik; Intkey files are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.2.ik; Lucid files in LIF and SDD format are available at doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.3.ik and doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.4.ik. Publishing of DELTA raw data will facilitate future workers to edit keys and to add newly discovered taxa.

  2. Bibliography of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) (1964-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghahari, H.; Yu, D.S.; Achterberg, van C.

    2006-01-01

    A bibliography of the family Braconidae/Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae is given for the period 1964-2003. It is an addition to Shenefelt's bibliography (1965), which covers the period 1785-1963. In total 10,436 references are listed.

  3. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-11-16

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898.

  4. A new species of the genus Homolobus Foerster from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Shaw, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    A new high elevation altitude species of the genus Homolobus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae), H. fuscinervis spec. nov. from Ecuador (Napo province, 2163 m elevation) is described and illustrated.

  5. The first known fossil Masoninae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Miocene Dominican amber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    The first fossil species of the genus Masona van Achterberg, 1995, of the subfamily Masoninae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. It originates from approximately 15-20 millions years old (= Miocene) Dominican amber.

  6. Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Guerrero, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands are described and illustrated: Peristenus angifemoralis spec. nov. from Tenerife, and P. gloriae spec. nov. from Gran Canaria and Tenerife.

  7. Macrocentrus sylvestrellae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae), a parasitoid of Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

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    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of the genus Macrocentrus Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae) described and illustrated: M. sylvestrellae spec. nov. from France and Italy. It is a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid of the pine stem borer Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840) (Lepidoptera;

  8. Revision of Zelodia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand

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    Michael Sharkey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of Thai Zelodia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae are revised. Twenty-one species are treated, 19 new species are described, i.e. Zelodia charoeni, Zelodia chongkraii, Zelodia cholathorni, Zelodia idrisi, Zelodia nikomi, Zelodia nopadoli, Zelodia pahangensis, Zelodia panyaii, Zelodia poonsathii, Zelodia ratanae, Zelodia saksiti, Zelodia surachaii, Zelodia suyaneeae, Zelodia toyae, Zelodia uthaii, Zelodia wangi, Zelodia wichaii, Zelodia wirati, Zelodia wirotei. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included.

  9. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-06-19

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided.

  10. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  11. Five newly recorded species of the genus Streblocera Westwood (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae from Korea

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    Hye-Rin Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five species of the genus Streblocera (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae are reported for the first time from Korea: Streblocera (Eutanycerus affinis Belokobylskij, Streblocera (E. galinae Belokobylskij, Streblocera (E. lienhuachihensis Chou, Streblocera (E. major Belokobylskij, and Streblocera (Streblocera spasskensis Belokobylskij. Diagnosis and photographs for the species are provided.

  12. The genus Nipponopius Fischer (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae new for China, with description of a new species

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    Tong Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nipponopius glabricaudatus sp. n. from Shaanxi and Ningxia (NW China is described and illustrated (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae. A key to the species of Nipponopius Fischer, 1963, is added and for the first time the male is described and illustrated. The genus is reported for the second time from outside Japan and is new for China. The position of Nipponopius Fischer is discussed and it is accepted as a valid genus.

  13. Revision of the genus Tropobracon Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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    Achterberg, van C.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Tropobracon Cameron, 1905 (Braconidae: Braconinae) is revised and its species are keyed. The type species is re-described and fully illustrated. Two new species are described: T. comorensis spec. nov. from the Comores and T. infuscatus spec. nov. from Hong-Kong. Bracon dorsalis Matsumura,

  14. Effects of feeding frequency and sugar concentration on behavior and longevity of the adult aphid parasitoid: Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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    Azzouz, H.; Giordanengo, P.; Wäckers, F.L.; Kaiser, L.

    2004-01-01

    Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary aphid endoparasitoid. Adults feed on honeydew and possibly on other sugar sources such as nectar. Sugar sources can vary qualitatively and quantitatively according to biotic factors and environmental conditions. Experiments were

  15. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae)

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    Wu, Q.; Achterberg, van C.; Tan, J.-L.; Chen, X.-X.

    2016-01-01

    The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. and P. majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. from China, and P. spectabilis van

  16. Orientopius Fischer (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae new for Europe, with first notes on its biology and description of a new species

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    Kees van Achterberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Orientopius Fischer, 1966 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae is reported for the first time from Europe and the West Palaearctic region, its biology (parasitoids of Phytobia spp. is given for the first time and a new species (O. europaeus sp. n. is described from France and Bulgaria.

  17. New species of Pambolus Haliday and Phaenocarpa Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Pambolinae, Alysiinae) from French Guyana, Suriname and Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2003-01-01

    Ten new species of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from French Guyana, Suriname and Panama are described and illustrated. Seven species of the genus Pambolus Haliday, 1836, (Pambolinae: P. pappi spec. nov., and P. rufus spec. nov. from French Guyana, P. granulatus spec. nov. from Suriname, P.

  18. Revision of Therophilus s.s. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand

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    Stephanie Stoelb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the limits of Therophilus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae are redefined and restricted to a small proportion of the previously included species. Those species belonging to the world fauna are listed and the species from Thailand are revised. Forty-four species are assigned to the genus including 11 new species, i.e. T. anuchati, T. apichati, T. areeluckae, T. boonthami, T. chiangmaiensis, T. kwanuiae, T. songrami, T. sukpengae, T. wannai, T. wongchaii, T. wongwani. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to an electronic interactive key and to distribution maps are also included.

  19. Estudos morfológicos e comportamentais do parasitoide Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago José de Souza Alves

    2013-01-01

    O controle biológico natural do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, no Brasil, é realizado principalmente por parasitoides. Entre eles, Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), um ectoparasitoide larval, constitui o principal agente biológico responsável pela redução natural das populações do bicudo no agroecossistema algodoeiro no Nordeste brasileiro. Embora possua importância na cotonicultura, são escassos os dados referentes à ação de parasitismo de B.vulgaris sobre Anthonomus grandis Boh. ...

  20. Parasitoid wasps new to Britain (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Eurytomidae, Braconidae & Bethylidae

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    David G. Notton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One genus and five species are recorded as new to Britain: Fidiobia, Fidiobia hispanica, Macroteleia bicolora (Platygastridae; Sycophila binotata (Eurytomidae; Schizoprymnus collaris (Braconidae; and Laelius pedatus (Bethylidae. Keys to British Macroteleia and Laelius are provided. Provisional synonymy is proposed between Macroteleia minor and M. brevigaster, and synonymy is proposed between Laelius femoralis, L. microneurus and L. nigricrus. The possible mode of introduction of Sycophila binotata is discussed. A lectotype is designated for Schizoprymnus collaris.

  1. Spermatogenesis in the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Lo Nostro, F.; Papeschi, A.; Cladera, J.; Bressa, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2017), s. 38-43 ISSN 0001-7272 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * modified meiosis * abortive division Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/azo.12148/pdf

  2. Fenología de los bracónidos (Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea, Braconidae del Pirineo andorrano

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    Falcó Garí, J. V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Phenology of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea at Andorra has been conducted/studied using a Malaise trap after a one-year cycle during 1993. A total of 1.892 specimens, representing 23 subfamilies and 79 genera were sampled. About 93.7% of the captures were koinobiont braconids, whereas 6.3% belonged to idiobiont braconids. The annual phenology has been characterized through the correlation between the evolution of the collected braconids and the weather (meteorological conditions. The maximum of the populations were registered between the two rain periods. In fact, the family Braconidae shows an abundance peak from middle of May to end of August, due to the xerothermic conditions of the andorran locality.



    La fenología de la familia Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea ha sido estudiada mediante una trampa Malaise en Andorra durante el año 1993. Han sido colectados 1.892 bracónidos (excepto Aphidiinae, pertenecientes a 23 subfamilias y 79 géneros. El 93,7% de los bracónidos capturados representa la estrategia biológica koinobionte frente al 6,3% de idiobiontes. La correlación de las capturas de los bracónidos con las condiciones meteorológicas ha permitido caracterizar la fenología anual de éstos. La evolución anual de las poblaciones alcanza sus máximos en el período comprendido entre las dos épocas de lluvias, pudiéndose señalar un único pico para la familia Braconidae, el cual transcurre desde mediados de mayo a finales de agosto, debido a las condiciones xerotérmicas de la localidad andorrana.

  3. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, C H; Pereira, L A; Filho, O M

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which was collected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individuals emerging from the same pupae.

  4. Diversity of Braconidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil

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    Sian de Souza Gadelha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Braconidae is a highly diversified family of Hymenoptera and usually known by their role in biological control both in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Despite of that, little is known about its diversity in the Amazon region. The present work inventoried the braconid fauna of an Open Ombrophylous Forest with Palm Trees of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, RO. Insects were collect from June/2008 to May/2009 using six Malaise traps in different parts of the reserve. A total of 377 wasps were captured, 17 subfamilies and 56 genera identified. Braconinae, Microgastrinae, Doryctinae and Rogadinae subfamilies were very abundant, and also the genera Aleiodes, Bracon, Capitonius, Compsobracon, Heterospilus, Hymenochaonia, Opius, Pedinotus, Rogas and Stantonia. The calculated Shannon diversity index was 2.15 and 3.3 for subfamily and genera, respectively, which were, generally, higher than the values found for other regions in Brazil. Generally, parasitoids were more abundant during the rainy season. The present work contributes with new genera records and faunistic data of Braconidae in Rondonia State, western Amazon.

  5. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders. Mecoptera was recovered as the

  6. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

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    Shi Min

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders

  7. The genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with an emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (...

  8. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new spec...

  9. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of northeastern Iran: aphidiine-aphid-plant associations, key and description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshani, Ehsan; Kazemzadeh, Sedigheh; Starý, Petr; Barahoei, Hossein; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Ćetković, Aleksandar; Popović, Anđelka; Bodlah, Lmran; Tomanović, Željko

    2012-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids of the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of northeastern Iran were studied in this paper. A total of 29 species are keyed and illustrated with line drawings. The aphidiines presented in this work have been reared from 42 aphid host taxa occurring on 49 plant taxa from a total of 33 sampling sites. Sixty-six aphidiine-aphid-plant associations are presented. Trioxys metacarpalis sp. nov. from Chaitaphis tenuicaudata Nevsky (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Kochia scoparia, is described. The species diversity based on the comparative faunistic analysis is discussed.

  10. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  11. Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... collection, Department of Biology, King Khalid University, Abha).(All the type material presently in the personal collection of author and will be deposited in BMNH, London). Etymology: The species name is derived from its type locality. DISCUSSION. P. (B.) arabica sp.nov. has the metasoma which is oval in.

  12. Performance of Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Natural Enemy of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Eggplant.

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    Salas Gervassio, Nadia G; Luna, María G; D'Auro, Franco; Sánchez, Norma E

    2017-12-27

    Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck; Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an American endoparasitoid that attacks the South American tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The interaction between P. dignus and T. absoluta in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.; Solanales: Solanaceae) crops has demonstrated that this enemy exhibits some desirable ecological traits as an effective biological control agent of this pest. With the aim of extending the use of P. dignus to other solanaceous crops, laboratory experiments were carried out to assess some life history traits and the parasitism efficiency when parasitizing T. absoluta larvae fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.; Solanales: Solanaceae). Rearings and experiments were conducted at 25 ± 2°C, ≈70% RH, and 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod, and T. absoluta was fed with eggplant. P. dignus developmental times of immature stages were lower (~ 5 d) on S. melongena than on S. lycopersicum. The female did not exhibit a pre-reproductive period, and its oviposition period lasted longer (~ 4 d) than that determined in tomato plants. Adult longevity was ca. 24 d for both sexes. Females produced ca. 61 cocoons during their lives and the maximum daily percentage of parasitism was 50% at the first day of adult emergence. Functional response of P. dignus on eggplant was density-independent of the host density offered, as in tomato plant, and the instantaneous attack rate (a') was 0.24 attacked larvae/ available larvae, in 24 h. Our results indicate that although there are differences, P. dignus would have a similar performance in eggplant and tomato in terms of its efficacy in the control of T. absoluta. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Review of Stantonia Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae from Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia, with descriptions of six new species

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    Cornelis van Achterberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Stantonia Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae is reviewed for Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia. Six new species of the genus Stantonia are described and illustrated: Stantonia brevicaudata van Achterberg, sp. n., S. dickyyui van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. granulata Long & van Achterberg, sp. n., S. robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. stilpnosoma Long & van Achterberg, sp. n., and S. vietnamica van Achterberg, sp. n. A new subgenus (Planitonia subg. n.: type species Stantonia robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n. is proposed for the species with a flat clypeus and face, and reduced vein r-m of the fore wing. Three species are newly recorded from Vietnam: Stantonia gracilis van Achterberg, 1987, S. sumatrana Enderlein, 1908, and S. tianmushana Chen, He & Ma, 2004. A key to species of Stantonia from Vietnam, China, Russia, and Japan is provided.

  14. Annotated catalogue of the types of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) in the Oxford University Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; O'Toole, C.

    1993-01-01

    An annotated catalogue of the types of Braconidae in the Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, Oxford, is given. The following new combinations are proposed: Aleiodes rothneyi (Shenefelt, 1975); Aniphiaulax agraensis (Cameron, 1897); Balcemena ruficollis (Cameron, 1899); Bicarinibracon

  15. Revision of the Euagathis species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Bassinae) from the Sunda Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simbolotti, G.; Achterberg, van C.

    1994-01-01

    The species of the genus Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900 (Braconidae: Bassinae (= Agathidinae)) from the Greater and Lesser Sunda Islands (including West Malaysia) are revised and keyed. The subfamily name Bassinae Nees, 1812, is used because it is senior to the commonly used subfamily name Agathidinae

  16. Revision of the Euagathis species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae) from China and northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Chen, X.

    2002-01-01

    The species of the genus Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900 (including Balcemena Cameron, 1903; Braconidae: Agathidinae) from China and northern Vietnam are revised and keyed. Twelve species are recognised, of which six are new: Euagathis argentosa spec. nov. and E. gracilitarsis spec. nov. from Yunnan

  17. Revision of the West Palaearctic species of the genus Agathis Latreille (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simbolotti, G.; Achterberg, van C.

    1999-01-01

    The West Palaearctic species of the genus Agathis Latreille, 1804 (Braconidae: Agathidinae) are revised and keyed. Forty-six species of Agathis are treated as valid, of which 29 occur in Europe; three species of the former Agathis mediator group (Bassus brevicaudus (Reinhard, 1867) comb. nov., B.

  18. Revisionary notes on the Palaearctic Genera and species of the tribe Exothecini Foerster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1983-01-01

    The tribe Exothecini Foerster sensu stricto (Braconidae, Rogadinae) is defined, and keys are given to the Palaearctic genera, the N.W. European species of Shawiana gen. nov. and the Palaearctic species of Xenarcha Foerster. Shawiana gen. nov. (type-species: Exothecus laevis Thomson, 1892) is

  19. The Palaearctic species of the genus Diachasmimorpha Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1999-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Diachasmimorpha Viereck, 1913 (Braconidae: Opiinae) are described: D. feijeni spec. nov. from Bhutan (reared from Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in fruits of Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin)) and D. budrysi spec. nov. from Far East Russia. A key

  20. Four new genera of Braconinae and Rogadinae from the Oriental region (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1989-01-01

    Three new genera of the Braconinae and one new genus of the Rogadinae (Braconidae) from the Oriental region are described and fully illustrated. Acrocerilia (type-species: A. pachynervis spec. nov. from the Philippines, parasite of cocoa-moth), Cordibraco (type-species: C. setorae spec. nov. from

  1. One new genus and seven new species of Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, K.D.; Achterberg, van C.

    2008-01-01

    One new genus of the tribe Rogadini Foerster, 1862 (Braconidae: Rogadinae) from Vietnam: Vietorogas Long & van Achterberg, gen. nov. (type species: Vietorogas bachma spec. nov.) is described. In addition, seven new species are described and illustrated: Vietorogas abditivus Long & van Achterberg,

  2. Braconidae (Hymenoptera fauna in native, degraded and restoration areas of the Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    CA Barbieri Junior

    Full Text Available This study sampled the diversity of Braconidae (Hymenoptera in three different ecosystems: a degraded pasture, a secondary forest and an area in recovery process using native tree seedlings. The objective was to verify the use of those insects as a tool to check the local conservation by examining Shannon's diversity index. Ten subfamilies were identified, and Microgastrinae was predominant in a number of individuals. The diversity index calculated varies among the sampled areas, thus showing a correlation with vegetation cover with the number of individuals collected and number of subfamilies found. The results showed changes in the community of Braconidae, in the recovery area between the first and second year of study, thereby leading to the conclusion that they are indicators of environmental quality.

  3. Cuniculobracon verdui gen nov. & spec. nov. and a new species of Polemochartus Schulz (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Spain, with a note on Eremita Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Falcó, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    Cuniculobracon gen. nov. (type species: C. verdui spec. nov.) from Spain (Braconidae: Helconinae) and Polemochartus ibericus spec. nov. from Spain (Braconidae: Alysiinae) are described and illustrated. A key to the West Palaearctic species of Polemochartus Schulz is added. Eremita perepetshaenkoi

  4. Seven new species of Allorhogas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae from Mexico Siete especies nuevas de Allorhogas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae de México

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    Juan José Martínez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven new Mexican species of the gall associated doryctine genus Allorhogas are described, illustrated and molecularly characterized: A. amuzgo sp. nov., A. coccolobae sp. nov., A. crassifemur sp. nov., A. jaliscoensis sp. nov., A. marshi sp. nov., A. parvus sp. nov., and A. scotti sp. nov. These new species were collected in tropical dry forests situated along the Pacific coast of Mexico in the states of Jalisco, Oaxaca and Guerrero. Allorhogas coccolobae was reared from leaf galls probably induced by an unidentified cecidomyiid (Diptera on Coccoloba barbadensis Jacq., representing the first record of this genus on Polygonaceae galls. A key to the described Mexican species of Allorhogas is provided.Se describen, ilustran y caracterizan molecularmente 7 especies nuevas del género gallícola Allorhogas (Braconidae: Doryctinae: A. amuzgo sp. nov., A. coccolobae sp. nov., A. crassifemur sp. nov., A. jaliscoensis sp. nov., A. marshi sp. nov., A. parvus sp. nov. y A. scotti sp. nov. Estas especies fueron recolectadas en bosques tropicales caducifolios de la costa del Pacífico mexicano en Jalisco, Oaxaca y Guerrero. Allorhogas coccolobae fue criada de agallas foliares en Coccoloba barbadensis Jacq., inducidas probablemente por un cecidómido (Diptera no identificado, representando el primer registro de este género en agallas de Polygonaceae. Se presenta una clave para las especies de Allorhogas descritas para México.

  5. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Andrea V. ANDORNO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.

  6. Contributions to the study of the Holarctic fauna of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae. I. Introduction and first results of transatlantic comparisons

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from both sides of the Holarctic region (Nearctic and Palaearctic were sampled for DNA barcoding and examined morphologically. Two species are recorded for the first time for the Nearctic: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, and Microgaster raschkiellae Shaw. Another European species, Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, previously introduced as a biological control agent, is confirmed to be present in North America. For another 13 species significant range extension is documented, including new records for France, Canada, United States, and Sweden. New host data are also provided for several species. The species name Apanteles masmithi Fernández-Triana is considered a syn. n. of Dolichogenidea britannica (Wilkinson.

  7. Interference of field evidence, morphology, and DNA analyses of three related Lysiphlebus aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Petrović, Andjeljko; Žikić, Vladimir; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Tomanović, Snežana; Tomanović, Željko; Havelka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study provides evidence on integrating the morphological, field, and laboratory data, and application of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene to the three asexual or sexual Lysiphlebus spp., i.e., Lysiphlebus cardui (Marshall), Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady and Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). New aphid- invasive plant association, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemipreta: Aphididae) on Impatiens glandulifera Royle, has been used in the same model area in the Czech Republic under the same sampling and rearing method for several consecutive years and throughout the season. For molecular identification of these three species, we used DNA sequences of the barcoding region of the mitochondrial COI gene. Although our results confirmed ecological and morphological differences among L. cardui, L. confusus, and L. fabarum, genetic analysis on the basis of COI mitochondrial barcoding gene does not support species status of the mentioned Lysiphlebus taxa. The level of morphological differentiation in these Lysiphlebus Förster species is in accordance with the usual species variability within subfamily Aphidiinae. However, it should be examined how appearance of asexual lineages affects the morphological or genetical variability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Occurrence and biology of Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802 (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae parasitising different species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera in Neotropical region

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    RB Silva

    Full Text Available Surveys on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera in Sete Lagoas city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, indicated the parasitism of adults of the species Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, 1775, Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824 and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866, by Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802 (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae. Since then, the parasitoid have been maintained in its original hosts at the Insect Rearing Laboratory - LACRI of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Institution - Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. Besides the citation of occurrence in Brazil, this work also indicates the parasitoid preference for C. maculata (70% of parasitism, followed by O. v-nigrum (43.3% of parasitism and E. connexa (36.7% of parasitism. Total life cycle of D. coccinellae was longer on C. maculata (32.4 ± 0.48 days, compared to O. v-nigrum (29.5 ± 0.49 days and E. connexa (27.8 ± 0.4 days. Due to the relatively high percentage of field parasitism, D. coccinellae can reduce the efficiency of biological pest control by Coccinellidae predators especially in the case of C. maculata.

  9. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  10. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae from the Azores

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    Kees van Achterberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini.

  11. Análise da riqueza da fauna de Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea em remanescentes naturais da Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA de Descalvado, SP

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    Cirelli Kátia Resende Netto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea fauna richness in natural remnants of the Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA of Descalvado, SP. A survey of the Braconidae fauna on fragmentary natural environments at northeast São Paulo State was conducted using Malaise traps installed in five sites of Área de Proteção Ambiental of Descalvado. A total of 2,262 specimens, representing 22 subfamilies and 94 genera, was sampled throughout a period of sixteen months (from May, 1999 to August, 2000. Biological data were obtained from current literature and behavior patterns of host utilization for the studied fauna, mainly Braconidae which have been successful in control of agricultural insect pests. Statistical analyses indicated that the asymptote of the genera richness has been approached using this sampling method. This is the most complete survey yet available from natural fragmentary areas of the Descalvado Braconidae fauna. Patterns of distribution and richness of the Braconidae genera were established. Cluster Analysis was adopted taking as attribute the number of Braconidae genera.

  12. Life tables of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Anagasta kuehniella and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effect of host density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Stathas, G J

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive performance of the parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against the moths Anagasta kuehniella Zeller and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied in the laboratory. The analysis was based on the comparison of parasitoid's life table parameters related to those of its hosts at various conditions of host density (daily supply of 1, 5, 15, and 30 full-grown host larvae). The estimated parameters were the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0), the mean generation time (G), the finite capacity of increase (lambda), the gross reproductive rate (GRR), the doubling time (DT), the reproductive value (Vx), and the life expectancy (ex). The rm of H. hebetor proved to be significantly higher than those of its hosts at all host densities. When only one host per day was supplied, the wasp had the lowest reproductive potential, whereas it was maximized when 15 hosts per day were exposed. Maximum values of R0 and GRR were obtained at densities > or =15 host larvae per day. Any increase in host supply above this threshold did not cause significant changes in life table parameters. Variation of rm as a function of host density can be described by the linear regression. Sex ratio of wasp progeny (females/total) ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, irrespective of host density or species. Newly emerged adults recorded maximum ex and Vx. The results of this study can be used to improve mass rearing programs and inoculative release applications of H. hebetor against moth pests of stored products.

  13. Biology and developmental strategies of the Palaearctic parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the neotropical moth Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Siscaro, Gaetano; Zappalà, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    During the years after the invasion of Western Palaearctic tomato crops by the South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), several indigenous generalist parasitoids have been recorded on this new host. Among these, Bracon nigricans Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region, and has been frequently recovered from South American tomato leafminer. However, most of the available data on this species deal with taxonomic aspects and its recovery in faunistic surveys. The current study documents the biology of B. nigricans on South American tomato leafminer, and provides a scientific basis for its inclusion in South American tomato leafminer management programs in Afro-Eurasia. We studied several B. nigricans life-history traits relevant to juvenile development and reproduction by females. B. nigricans proved to be an idiobiont and a synovigenic ectoparasitoid of mature South American tomato leafminer larvae. Several B. nigricans reproductive traits were influenced by the age of the mothers; on average, the progeny had a slightly male-biased sex ratio (60% males) and a low rate of successful development (37%). Adult females lived 42.8 d and produced an average of 29.8 offspring. These biological parameters yielded an intrinsic rate of increase of 0.052. Females showed behavioral plasticity in host use, as initial host paralysis was followed by host-feeding, oviposition, or host rejection, with a consequent high mortality rate among hosts exposed to parasitism. Although further field studies are needed, these data, obtained in laboratory conditions, suggest that B. nigricans should be considered as a potential biological control agent of in newly invaded areas of the Palaearctic region.

  14. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae.

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    María G Luna

    Full Text Available Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1 to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae early immature stages (egg and larva encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, and 2 to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid.

  15. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María G; Desneux, Nicolas; Schneider, Marcela I

    2016-01-01

    Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) early immature stages (egg and larva) encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and 2) to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old) was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid.

  16. Inorganic elements in the fat bodies of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D O; Zucchi, T D; Zucchi, O L A D; Nascimento Filho, V F; Almeida, E; Cônsoli, F L

    2010-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids use several strategies to regulate the host's physiological processes during parasitism. Although many aspects of host-parasitoid interactions have been explored, studies that attempted to assess the effects of parasitism on the availability of inorganic elements in the host are virtually nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of parasitism on the concentrations of inorganic elements in the fat bodies of larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during the development of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). TXRF analysis allowed comparisons of the changes in the availability of the elements P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the fat body tissues of D. saccharalis larvae parasitized by C. flavipes. Overall, the concentration of inorganic elements was higher early in parasitoid development (1 and 3days after parasitism) compared to non-parasitized larvae, but much lower towards the end of parasitoid development (7 and 9days after parasitism). Ca, K, and S were reduced after the fifth day of parasitism, which affected the total abundance of inorganic elements observed in the fat bodies of the parasitized hosts. The regulatory mechanisms or pathological effects related to the observed variation of the host inorganic elements induced by the parasitoid remain unknown, but there might be a strategy to make these elements available to the parasitoid larvae at the end of their development, when higher metabolic activity of the host fat body is required to sustain parasitoid growth. The observed variation of the host's inorganic elements could also be related to the known effects of parasitism on the host's immune response. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Longevidad de Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae en presencia de diferentes fuentes de alimento Longevity of Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae under the influence of different food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA IDE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tácticas implementadas en el control de Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff. en Chile fue la introducción en 1987 de Orgilus obscurator Ness., un parasitoide específico. Evaluaciones realizadas entre la VII y X regiones de Chile, entre 1995 y 1997, mostraron diferencias significativas en el establecimiento y porcentaje de parasitismo alcanzados por O. obscurator. Aún cuando son múltiples los factores que inciden en el éxito de un biocontrolador, es importante considerar la disponibilidad y accesibilidad de fuentes de alimento, tales como el néctar de algunas flores y su efecto en la longevidad de los adultos. Este estudio fue realizado en la temporada 1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la Provincia de Valdivia, décima región de Chile. Se utilizaron 295 individuos adultos, entre machos y hembras, manteniéndolos con agua, sin agua, agua-miel y con flores de cuatro especies de plantas, tres pertenecientes a la familia Apiaceae y otra a la familia Asteraceae. La mayor longevidad promedio se obtuvo usando agua miel (23 días en machos y 33 días en hembras y flores de Conium maculatum y Daucus carota (14,1 días, las cuales permitieron aumentar dos veces la longevidad respecto al uso sólo de agua. Los resultados encontrados permiten sugerir la incorporación de algunas especies como C. maculatum y D. carota a las plantaciones de Pinus radiata D. Don, especialmente en la séptima y octava regiones del país, como una forma de aumentar la eficiencia de parasitación de O. obscuratorOne of the tactics that improved the control of Rhyacionia buoliana in Chile was the introduction in 1987 of Orgilus obscurator, a specific parasitoid. Evaluations between the regions VII and X of Chile during 1995 to 1997 have shown significant differences in the establishment and parasitism obtained by O. obscurator. Several factors are involved in the success of control strategies, including the availability and access to food sources such as water, flower nectar and

  18. Phaenocarpa ungulosetosa spec. nov. from Finland and Elasmosoma depressum spec. nov. from Estonia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini, Euphorinae: Neoneurini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Koponen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of Braconidae belonging to the genera Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini) and Elasmosoma Ruthe, 1858 (Euphorinae: Neoneurini) are reported from Finland and Estonia, respectively, and described as P. angulosetosa spec. nov. and E. depressum spec. nov. A key to

  19. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose L; Whitfield, James B; Smith, M Alex; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V.johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) and V.randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011) is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400-1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG.

  20. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V. johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG and V. randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011 is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400–1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG.

  1. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Andorno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.Ten aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae were found parasitized by seven aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops. Myzus persicae (Sulzer was the most frequent aphid found on a wide variety of crops, with the largest parasitoid diversity associated. Aphidius colemani Viereck was the most frequent aphidiine attacking several species of aphids. Eight tritrophic associations involving Aphidius matricariae Haliday are reported for the first time for Argentina.

  2. The valid name for the genus Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta, Hymenoptera: Braconidae), preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foissner, W.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta: Braconidae) is preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora). The name previously used for Loxocephalus Foerster, Myiocephalus Marshall, 1897, becomes the valid name for the genus.

  3. Life History, Reproductive Biology, and Larval Development of Ontsira mellipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Newly Associated Parasitoid of the Invasive Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Julian R; Duan, Jian J; Aparicio, Ellen; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2016-08-01

    The invasive Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is a destructive xylophagous forest pest species originating from Asia. Several endemic North American hymenopteran (Braconidae) species in the mid-Atlantic region were capable of attacking and reproducing on A. glabripennis larvae in laboratory bioassays. Ontsira mellipes Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has been continually reared on A. glabripennis larvae at USDA-ARS BIIRU since 2010, and has been identified as a potential new-association biocontrol agent. Two experiments were conducted to investigate parasitism, paralysis, reproductive biology, larval development, and longevity of adult O. mellipes In the first experiment, pairs of adult parasitoids were given single A. glabripennis larvae every 2 d (along with honey and water) over their lifetimes, while in the second experiment individual parasitoids were observed daily from egg to adult, and adults were subsequently starved. Adults in the first experiment parasitized ∼21% of beetle larvae presented to them throughout their life, and paralysis of larvae occurred 1-2 d after oviposition. More than half of the individual pairs parasitized A. glabripennis larvae, with each female producing around 26 offspring throughout her life. In the second experiment, median development time of O. mellipes from egg to adult was about 3 wk, with five larval instars. Adult O. mellipes that were provided with host larvae, honey, and water lived 9 d longer than host-deprived and starved adults. These findings indicate that mass-rearing procedures for O. mellipes may be developed using the new association host for development of effective biocontrol programs against A. glabripennis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  4. The genus Spathius Nees (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae in Mexico: occurrence of a highly diverse Old World taxon in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Belokobylskij

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the parasitoid wasp genus Spathius Nees (Braconidae: Doryctinae from Mexico, S.mexicanus sp. n. and S. chamelae sp. n., are described and illustrated. These represent the second and third described species of this highly diverse Old World genus in the Neotropics, and the first described species recorded for the Mexican territory.

  5. The genus Spathius Nees (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) in Mexico: occurrence of a highly diverse Old World taxon in the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokobylskij, Sergey A.; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the parasitoid wasp genus Spathius Nees (Braconidae: Doryctinae) from Mexico, S. mexicanus sp. n. and S. chamelae sp. n., are described and illustrated. These represent the second and third described species of this highly diverse Old World genus in the Neotropics, and the first described species recorded for the Mexican territory. PMID:25147464

  6. Effects of the endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom, and calyx fluid on cellular and humoral immunity of its host Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zi-Wen; Xu, Gang; Gan, Shi-Yu; Chen, Xuan; Fang, Qi; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-02-01

    The larval endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis injects venom and bracoviruses into its host Chilo suppressalis during oviposition. Here we study the effects of the polydnavirus (PDV)-carrying endoparasitoid C. chilonis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitism, venom and calyx fluid on host cellular and humoral immunity, specifically hemocyte composition, cellular spreading, encapsulation and melanization. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) were higher in parasitized larvae than in unparasitized larvae in the late stages following parasitization. While both plasmatocyte and granulocyte fractions and hemocyte mortality did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized hosts, in vitro spreading behavior of hemocytes was inhibited significantly by parasitism throughout the course of parasitoid development. C. chilonis parasitism suppressed the encapsulation response and melanization in the early stages. Venom alone did not alter cellular immune responses, including effects on THCs, mortality, hemocyte composition, cell spreading and encapsulation, but venom did inhibit humoral immunity by reducing melanization within 6h after injection. In contrast to venom, calyx fluid had a significant effect on cell spreading, encapsulation and melanization from 6h after injection. Dose-response injection studies indicated the effects of venom and calyx fluid synergized, showing a stronger and more persistent reduction in immune system responses than the effect of either injected alone. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Residual toxicity of insecticides used in Tunisian citrus orchards on the imported parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Implications for IPM program of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlem Harbi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus agro-industry is globally harshened mainly by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, the most worldwide destructive tephritid fruit fly species. Citrus agro-industry is one of the pillars of Tunisia economy, and by hence, harshened by this species. Tunisia has established an Integrated Pest Management (IPM programme against citrus pests, including C. capitata, that rely on the structured use of pesticides, on the application several trapping protocols, along with pilot-scale sterile insect technique program and, since 2013, with pilot-scale releases of the braconid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmed (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Insecticide side-effects on parasitoids and other natural enemies are being requested for a successful implementation of biological control within any IPM programme. However, these data are almost scarce for the braconid species D. longicaudata. To this end, we have determined the side-effects of malathion, methidathion, acetamiprid, azadiractin, abamectin, deltametrin+thiacloprid and spinosad, as the most popular insecticides used in Tunisia either as fresh residues or at several aged time points, on the parasitoid D. longicaudata according the IOBC pesticide harm-classification. IOBC classification evolution of residues over time had allowed determining the best combination of pesticide applications in a structured fashion with the viable releases of D. longicaudata for the control of C. capitata in Tunisian citrus agro-ecosystems.

  8. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae, with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for P. brunneus, only known from a single male, and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae. DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene were obtained for 30 species (83%, and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965, comb. n., Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911, and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield: alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei.

  9. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Whitfield, James B.; Smith, M. Alex; Kula, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for Pseudapanteles brunneus, only known from a single male), and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae). DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene) were obtained for 30 species (83%), and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software) and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n., Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911), and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield): alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei. PMID:25349512

  10. Interactions between the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R J; Alencar, J R D C C; Silva, K P; Cividanes, F J; Duarte, R T; Agostini, L T; Polanczyk, R A

    2014-06-01

    The interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae McIntoch (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Nymphs of Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were first exposed to parasitoid females for 24 h and then 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards sprayed with a solution of B. bassiana. Likewise, aphids were also sprayed with B. bassiana and then exposed to parasitoids at 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards. Parasitism rate varied from 13 to 66.5%, and were significantly lower in treatments where the two agents were exposed within a 0-24 h time interval compared with the control (without B. bassiana). Parasitoid emergence was negatively affected in treatments with B. bassiana spraying and subsequent exposure to D. rapae. Decreases in longevity of adult females of the D. rapae F1 generation were observed in treatments with B. bassiana spraying. The application of these two biological control agents can be used in combination on the control of M. persicae, wherein this use requires effective time management to avoid antagonistic interactions.

  11. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Fernandez-Triana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new species and five species of Microplitis previously described from Mesoamerica. In ACG, all Microplitis were reared exclusively from Sphingidae, while all Snellenius were reared from Noctuoidea (Noctuidae and Erebidae. All of the wasp species with known host records are unambiguously specialists, parasitizing one or a few related hosts. Biological information (wasp cocoon and caterpillar hosts in the Neotropical region seems to differ from similar data reported in previous works for the Oriental region -but more studies on the world fauna are needed. Although the distinction between these two genera has been controversial, we consider that the available evidence, although not conclusive, suggests that these two genera are best kept as separate (based on the presence of at least a partial epicnemial carina in Snellenius, which is absent in Microplitis. The following 28 species, all authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described as species nova: Microplitis adrianguadamuzi, M. alexanderrojasi, M. francopupulini, M. hebertbakeri, M. jorgehernandezi, Snellenius billburgeri, S. bobdressleri, S. donstonei, S. felipechavarriai, S. gerardoherrerai, S. irenebakerae, S. isidrochaconi, S. johnkressi, S. jorgecampabadali, S. jorgegomezlauritoi, S. josesarukhani, S. kerrydresslerae, S. lucindamcdadeae, S. luisdiegogomezi, S. mariakuzminae, S. mariamartachavarriae, S. phildevriesi, S. quiricojimenezi, S. robertoespinozai, S. sandyknappae, S. velvaruddae, S. vickifunkae, S. warrenwagneri.

  12. Streamlining the use of BOLD specimen data to record species distributions: a case study with ten Nearctic species of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD is designed to support the generation and application of DNA barcode data, but it also provides a unique source of data with potential for many research uses. This paper explores the streamlining of BOLD specimen data to record species distributions – and its fast publication using the Biodiversity Data Journal (BDJ, and its authoring platform, the Pensoft Writing Tool (PWT. We selected a sample of 630 specimens and 10 species of a highly diverse group of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae from the Nearctic region and used the information in BOLD to uncover a significant number of new records (of locality, provinces, territories and states. By converting specimen information (such as locality, collection date, collector, voucher depository from the BOLD platform to the Excel template provided by the PWT, it is possible to quickly upload and generate long lists of "Material Examined" for papers discussing taxonomy, ecology and/or new distribution records of species. For the vast majority of publications including DNA barcodes, the generation and publication of ancillary data associated with the barcoded material is seldom highlighted and often disregarded, and the analysis of those data sets to uncover new distribution patterns of species has rarely been explored, even though many BOLD records represent new and/or significant discoveries. The introduction of journals specializing in – and streamlining – the release of these datasets, such as the BDJ, should facilitate thorough analysis of these records, as shown in this paper.

  13. Streamlining the use of BOLD specimen data to record species distributions: a case study with ten Nearctic species of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose L; Penev, Lyubomir; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Smith, M Alex; Sones, Jayme; Telfer, Angela; deWaard, Jeremy R; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) is designed to support the generation and application of DNA barcode data, but it also provides a unique source of data with potential for many research uses. This paper explores the streamlining of BOLD specimen data to record species distributions - and its fast publication using the Biodiversity Data Journal (BDJ), and its authoring platform, the Pensoft Writing Tool (PWT). We selected a sample of 630 specimens and 10 species of a highly diverse group of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Nearctic region and used the information in BOLD to uncover a significant number of new records (of locality, provinces, territories and states). By converting specimen information (such as locality, collection date, collector, voucher depository) from the BOLD platform to the Excel template provided by the PWT, it is possible to quickly upload and generate long lists of "Material Examined" for papers discussing taxonomy, ecology and/or new distribution records of species. For the vast majority of publications including DNA barcodes, the generation and publication of ancillary data associated with the barcoded material is seldom highlighted and often disregarded, and the analysis of those data sets to uncover new distribution patterns of species has rarely been explored, even though many BOLD records represent new and/or significant discoveries. The introduction of journals specializing in - and streamlining - the release of these datasets, such as the BDJ, should facilitate thorough analysis of these records, as shown in this paper.

  14. Influence of Temperature on the Reproductive and Developmental Biology of Ontsira mellipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Biological Control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Julian R; Duan, Jian J; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2017-08-01

    Ontsira mellipes Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a North American parasitoid species that develops on the invasive pest, Anoplophora glabripennis (Moltschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), under laboratory conditions and is currently being considered as a potential new-association biocontrol agent. To develop mass-rearing protocols and field-release strategies for this parasitoid, information on its reproductive biology in relation to temperature is needed. We determined the effect of temperature (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) on development, survivorship, and sex ratio, and its effect on the longevity, fecundity, and host attack rates (parasitism) of adults. Developmental time for parasitoid eggs to pupae decreased from 26.7 d to 6.1 d as temperature increased from 10 °C to 30 °C. While no pupae eclosed as adults at 10 °C, time of adult emergence from pupae decreased from 39.7 d to 12.2 d as temperature increased from 15 °C to 30 °C. Based on estimated lower development temperature threshold (11.1 °C), the degree-days required for one generation was estimated at 342.9. When female parasitoids were provided with host larvae, parasitism occurred at all temperatures and was maximized at 25 °C. Additionally, increasing temperatures significantly reduced the preoviposition period and longevity of female O. mellipes. In addition, combining these results with temperature data from areas in the United States currently infested with A. glabripennis, we estimated that O. mellipes can complete 1.2-3.7 generations per year. Findings from this study may be considered for the future development of effective mass rearing and augmentative release strategies of O. mellipes for biological control of A. glabripennis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Laboratory Population Parameters and Field Impact of the Larval Endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on its Host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tomato Crops in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Eliana L; Pereyra, Patricia C; Luna, María G; Medone, Paula; Sánchez, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a key pest of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L., crops in Central and South America. At present it is dispersing rapidly in Africa and Eurasian continents as an invasive pest, threatening worldwide tomato production. Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an American endoparasitoid reported as the main natural enemy of T. absoluta in commercial tomato. To gain knowledge of the potential role of P. dignus in the biological control of this pest, we determined its population parameters in laboratory and the parasitoid's impact on T. absoluta in the field. In laboratory, lifetime fecundity was 193 eggs per female, and longevity was 24 and 26 d for female and male, respectively. The finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.15 per female per day and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was 0.14. The net reproductive rate (R(0)) was found to be 51.2, and generation time (T) 28.8 d. The time for doubling the population (DT) was 5 d. Furthermore, field parasitism of T. absoluta varied between 33 and 64% in the different years studied. Population parameters estimated in this study can be considered baseline information for a mass-rearing protocol of this parasitoid. Moreover, growth rates of P. dignus, particularly r(m), and its impact on field populations of T. absoluta indicated that this parasitoid is a valuable candidate for biological control of this pest. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Leblanc, Luc; Putoa, Rudolph; Eitam, Avi

    2007-06-01

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was discovered on Tahiti Island in July 1996. Eradication programs were conducted from 1997 to 2001, but failed. From 1998 to 2006, B. dorsalis was recovered from 29 different host fruit from the five Society Islands: Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine. Analysis of coinfestation patterns by B. dorsalis, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), and Bactrocera kirki (Froggatt) suggested B. dorsalis had displaced these two species and become the most abundant fruit fly in coastal areas. To suppress B. dorsalis populations, a classical biological control program was initiated to introduce the natural enemy Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) into French Polynesia from Hawaii. Wasps were released and established on Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine Islands. In guava, Psidium guajava L., collections for Tahiti, F. arisanus parasitism of fruit flies was 2.1, 31.8, 37.5, and 51.9% for fruit collected for 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Based on guava collections in 2002 (before releases) and 2006 (after releases), there was a subsequent decrease in numbers of B. dorsalis, B. tryoni, and B. kirki fruit flies emerging (per kilogram of fruit) by 75.6, 79.3, and 97.9%, respectively. These increases in F. arisanus parasitism and decreases in infestation were similar for other host fruit. Establishment of F. arisanus is the most successful example of classical biological control of fruit flies in the Pacific area outside of Hawaii and serves as a model for introduction into South America, Africa, and China where species of the B. dorsalis complex are established.

  17. Two new species of Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae reared from fruit-infesting tephritid (Diptera hosts in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wharton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species of opiine Braconidae, reared from fruit-infesting Tephritidae in Kenya, are described. Psyttalia masneri sp. n. was reared from fruits of Dracaena fragrans (L. Ker Gawl. (Liliaceae infested with Taomyia marshalli Bezzi in western Kenya. Psyttalia masneri is the only opiine braconid known to attack members of the genus Taomyia. Unusual morphological features of P. masneri and its host are detailed. Psyttalia halidayi sp. n. was reared from fruits of Lettowianthus stellatus Diels (Annonaceae infested with Ceratitis rosa Karsch in coastal Kenya. Psyttalia halidayi is morphologically similar to several described species of Psyttalia that have previously been used in the biological control of tephritid pests. Unlike these other species, P. halidayi can attack and successfully develop on C. rosa, a serious pest of cultivated fruits. A list of valid species in Psyttalia is provided, along with comments on species groups and host records.

  18. Venom gland and reservoir morphology of the genus Pseudoyelicones van Achterberg, Penteado-Dias & Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) and implications for relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Areekul, B.; Zaldivar-Riverón, A.; Quicke, D.L.J.

    2004-01-01

    The venom apparatus of Pseudoyelicones nigriscutum van Achterberg, 1997 (Braconidae: Rogadinae) is described and illustrated. The venom apparatus morphology of Pseudoyelicones is closely related to that of Bulborogas van Achterberg. Therefore, we propose a sister group relationship between these two

  19. Life history, reproductive biology, and larval development of Ontsira mellipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly associated parasitoid of the invasive Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is an invasive xylophagous beetle originating from Asia. Several endemic North American hymenopteran (Braconidae) species located in the mid-Atlantic region were found attacking and reproducing on A. glabripennis larvae. Ontsira ...

  20. Cross-protection experiments with parasitoids in the genus Microplitis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) suggest a high level of specificity in their associated bracoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadash, K.; Harvey, J.A.; Strand, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The immunological and developmental effects of bracoviruses (BVs) from three parasitoids in the genus Microplitis (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) were compared in the hosts Pseudoplusia includens and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Southern blotting experiments indicated that viral DNAs

  1. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  2. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L.; Whitfield, James B.; Rodriguez, Josephine J.; Smith, M. Alex; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie D.; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M.; Solis, M. Alma; Brown, John; Cardinal, Sophie; Goulet, Henri; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae) is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica – including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene), information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae), ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae

  3. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica –including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5. Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI mitochondrial gene, information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae, ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae

  4. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L; Whitfield, James B; Rodriguez, Josephine J; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie D; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M; Solis, M Alma; Brown, John; Cardinal, Sophie; Goulet, Henri; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world's best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae) is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica - including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene), information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae), ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae, Elachistidae and

  5. Phenoloxidase in larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): molecular cloning of the proenzyme cDNA and enzyme activity in larvae paralyzed and parasitized by Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzer, Kris L; Zhu, Kun Yan; Baker, James E

    2005-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a major component of the insect immune system. The enzyme is involved in encapsulation and melanization processes as well as wound healing and cuticle sclerotization. PO is present as an inactive proenzyme, prophenoloxidase (PPO), which is activated via a protease cascade. In this study, we have cloned a full-length PPO1 cDNA and a partial PPO2 cDNA from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and documented changes in PO activity in larvae paralyzed and parasitized by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The cDNA for PPO1 is 2,748 bp and encodes a protein of 681 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 78,328 and pI of 6.41 containing a conserved proteolytic cleavage site found in other PPOs. P. interpunctella PPO1 ranges from 71-78% identical to other known lepidopteran PPO-1 sequences. Percent identity decreases as comparisons are made to PPO-1 of more divergent species in the orders Diptera (Aa-48; As-49; and Sb-60%) and Coleoptera (Tm-58; Hd-50%). Paralyzation of host larvae of P. interpunctella by the idiobiont H. hebetor results in an increase in phenoloxidase activity in host hemolymph, a process that may protect the host from microbial infection during self-provisioning by this wasp. Subsequent parasitization by H. hebetor larvae causes a decrease in hemolymph PO activity, which suggests that the larval parasitoid may be secreting an immunosuppressant into the host larva during feeding.

  6. Parasitoid diversity (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) on frugivorous larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) at Adolpho Ducke Forest reserve, central amazon region, Manaus, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S G M; Querino, R B; Ronchi-Teles, B; Penteado-Dias, A M M; Zucchi, R A

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to identify parasitoid species of frugivorous larvae and to describe the tritrophic interactions involving wild fruits, frugivorous insects and their natural enemies at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (RFAD) (Manaus, AM, Brazil). Collections were performed in four 1 km2 quadrants in the corners of the RFAD. The wild fruits were collected inside the forest in access trails leading to each collection area and in trails that surrounded the quadrants, up to five metres from the trail on each side. The fruits were placed in plastic containers covered with thin fabric, with a vermiculite layer on the base to allow the emergence of flies or parasitoids. Seven Braconidae species were collected, distributed among Opiinae: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911), Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913), and Opius sp., and Alysiinae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, 1958), Phaenocarpa pericarpa Wharton and Carrejo, 1999, Idiasta delicata Papp, 1969, and Asobara sp. Parasitism rates by braconids and figitids are presented. Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent, parasitizing the highest number of fly species, and showing the highest parasitism percentage in larvae feeding on Micropholis williamii fruits. The collected figitids belong to Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998 and A. pelleranoi (Brethes, 1924). All 15 tritrophic associations are new records for the Brazilian Amazon region. The RFAD is an important natural reservoir of frugivorous larvae parasitoids.

  7. Cross-protection experiments with parasitoids in the genus Microplitis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) suggest a high level of specificity in their associated bracoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadash, K; Harvey, J A; Strand, M R

    2003-05-01

    The immunological and developmental effects of bracoviruses (BVs) from three parasitoids in the genus Microplitis (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) were compared in the hosts Pseudoplusia includens and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Southern blotting experiments indicated that viral DNAs from Microplitis demolitor bracovirus (MdBV) cross-hybridized with viral DNAs from Microplitis croceipes bracovirus (McBV) and Microplitis mediator bracovirus (MmBV) under conditions of high stringency. Injection of calyx fluid plus venom from each parasitoid species dose-dependently delayed development of P. includens and H. virescens. Each virus also inhibited pupation of P. includens but not H. virescens. In situ hybridization experiments indicated that MdBV and McBV persistently infect hemocytes in both hosts while MmBV persistently infects hemocytes in P. includens but not H. virescens. While MdBV infection induced a loss of adhesion by most plasmatocytes, McBV and MmBV infection induced a loss of adhesion in less than 50% of cells. Cross-protection experiments indicated that calyx fluid plus venom from one species usually protected progeny of another species from encapsulation but did not always promote successful development.

  8. Mapeo estacional de Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoides de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae en las principales zonas productoras de pimiento de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. ANDORNO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El pimiento ( Capsicum annuum L. es una de las hortalizas de fruto más importantes producidas bajo invernadero en la provincia de Corrientes. Entre las plagas que afectan a este cultivo se encuentran los áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae, los cuales provocan daños directos debidos a la succión de fotosintatos e indirectos por la transmisión de virosis. Los himenópteros parasitoides de la subfamilia Aphidiinae (Braconidae y de la familia Aphelinidae se destacan como los enemigos naturales más eficientes de esta plaga. El objetivo general del presente trabajo es analizar comparativamente la riqueza y abundancia de áfidos y la composición faunística de parasitoides asociados en cultivos de pimiento en invernadero de la provincia de Corrientes. Para ello, se llevaron a cabo muestreos en cultivos bajo cubierta, ubicados en los departamentos Bella Vista y Lavalle, provincia de Corrientes. Se designaron 14 sitios de muestreo, 11 correspondientes al departamento de Bella Vista y tres al departamento de Lavalle. De mayo a noviembre de 2013 se realizaron colectas mensuales de áfidos vivos y parasitoidizados, tomándose cinco estaciones de muestreo por sitio. La única especie de áfido hallada fue Myzus persicae (Sulzer. Sobre la asociación pimiento- M. persicae se registraron cuatro especies de parasitoides primarios y cuatro especies de hiperparasitoides. Aphidius colemani (Viereck y Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh fueron los parasitoides primarios dominantes en los departamentos de Lavalle y Bella Vista, respectivamente. Se discuten aspectos de consideración útil para el control de áfidos plaga del cultivo de pimiento.

  9. Diversidade dos Braconidae (Hymenoptera da Unidade de Conservação de Teixeira Soares, Marcelino Ramos, RS, com ênfase nos Microgastrinae Braconidae diversity (Hymenoptera from the Unidade de Conservação Teixeira Soares, Marcelino Ramos, RS, with emphasis on Microgastrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozane Maria Restello

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo utilizamos três armadilhas Malaise coletando, respectivamente, em área degradada, mata mesófila e mata ciliar da Unidade de Conservação Teixeira Soares, Marcelino Ramos, RS, de novembro de 1999 a dezembro de 2000. Foram coletados 2.442 espécimes de Braconidae distribuidos em 23 subfamílias, a maioria proveniente da mata ciliar. Muitos dos gêneros constituem nova ocorrência para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Microgastrinae, Rogadinae, Opiinae e Helconinae foram os grupos mais abundantes, representando 78,3% do total. Foram identificados 885 espécimes de Microgastrinae, distribuídos em 28 gêneros. Glyptapanteles foi o mais comum em todos os pontos amostrados, seguido por Apanteles e Diolcogaster. Índices de ocorrência e dominância, diversidade e equitabilidade são também apresentados.Three Malaise traps were used, respectively, in a degrading area, native wood area and gallery forest at the Unidade de Conservação Teixeira Soares, Marcelino Ramos, RS, from November, 1999 to December, 2000. A total of 2,442 braconid specimens were collected distributed in 23 subfamilies, most of them coming from gallery forest. Many genera constitute new occurrences to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Microgastrinae, Rogadinae, Opiinae and Helconinae were the most abundant groups, representing 78.3% of the total. The 885 Microgastrinae specimens were identified and distributed into 28 genera. Glyptapanteles was the most common in all sampled points, followed by Apanteles and Diolcogaster. Indexes of occurrence and dominance, diversity and equitability are also presented.

  10. New species of Hymenoptera associated with galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica M. Penteado-Dias; Carvalho, Fabrício M. de

    2008-01-01

    Four species of Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924), T. mecanga sp.nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae), Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae) and Eurytoma sp. (Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) were reared from two different types of galls of Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Juiz-de-Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The two Tanaostigmatidae species are probably the gall inducers; the Braconidae species probably is phytophagous inquiline in round g...

  11. Reared Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Salvo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the identification of a small collection of Opiinae reared from Agromyzidae from Argentina are reported; six new species and one new genus (Lorenzopius gen. nov.; type species: Lorenzopius calycomyzae spec. nov.) are described. A checklist to the species of Opiinae known from

  12. Updated checklist of Iranian Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2016-01-12

    An updated checklist of Opiinae from Iran is provided including 101 species from 11 genera (Atormus van Achterberg, 1997, Biosteres Foerster, 1862, Eurytenes Forster, 1862, Fopius Wharton, 1987, Indiopius Fischer, 1966, Opius Wesmael, 1835, Phaedrotoma Forster, 1862, Pokomandya Fischer, 1959, Psyttalia Walker, 1860, Utetes Forster, 1862 and Xynobius Forster, 1862) belonging to two tribes (Biosterini and Opiini). Moreover, seven species Biosteres (Chilotrichia) punctiscuta (Thomson, 1895), Biosteres (Biosteres) remigii Fischer, 1971, Eurytenes (Eurytenes) abnormis (Wesmael, 1835), Opius (Hypocynodus) ponticus Fischer, 1958, Opius pygmaeator (Nees, 1811), Opius (Nosopoea) speciosus Fischer, 1959 and Phaedrotoma nitidulator (Nees, 1834) are recorded for the first time from Iran.

  13. New species of Hymenoptera associated with galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Brazil Novas espécies de Hymenoptera associadas a galhas de Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica M. Penteado-Dias; Carvalho, Fabrício M. de

    2008-01-01

    Four species of Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924), T. mecanga sp.nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae), Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae) and Eurytoma sp. (Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) were reared from two different types of galls of Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Juiz-de-Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The two Tanaostigmatidae species are probably the gall inducers; the Braconidae species probably is phytophagous inquiline in round g...

  14. Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae. Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van Achterberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven new species of the genus Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838 (Braconidae: Rogadinae are described and illustrated: A. abraxanae sp. n., A. angustipterus sp. n., A. artesiariae sp. n., A. carminatus sp. n., A. diarsianae sp. n., A. leptofemur sp. n., and A. ryrholmi sp. n. A neotype is designated for each of Aleiodes circumscriptus (Nees, 1834 and A. pictus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, and both species are redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes ochraceus Hellén, 1927 (not A. ochraceus (Curtis, 1834 is renamed as A. curticornis nom. n. & stat. rev., and redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman, 1917, A. nigriceps Wesmael, 1838, and A. reticulatus (Noskiewicz, 1956, are re-instated as valid species. A lectotype is designated for Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman. An illustrated key is given to some distinctive species and the residual species groups along which further parts of an entire revision of western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes and Heterogamus will be organised. Biology, host associations and phenology are discussed for the keyed species (in addition to the above, A. albitibia (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838, A. apiculatus (Fahringer, 1932, A. arcticus (Thomson, 1892, A. cantherius (Lyle, 1919, A. esenbeckii (Hartig, 1834, A. jakowlewi (Kokujev, 1898, A. modestus (Reinhard, 1863, A. nigricornis Wesmael, 1838, A. pallidator (Thunberg, 1822, A. praetor (Reinhard, 1863, A. seriatus (Herrich- Schäffer, 1838 sensu lato, A. testaceus (Telenga, 1941, A. ungularis (Thomson, 1892, and A. varius (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 which are dealt with in full here (with the exception of A. seriatus s.l. which is, however, included in the key. The experimental methodology covering the revision as a whole, which involves some behavioural investigation, is outlined.

  15. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  16. Eficiencia de autoridades portuarias

    OpenAIRE

    Zubillaga Fernández, Jose María

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN: En este trabajo se ha estudiado la eficiencia técnica de 26 de las 28 autoridades portuarias españolas para el periodo 2000-2013. Partiendo de la definición de eficiencia técnica de Farrel (1957) y con los datos de las memorias anuales de las autoridades portuarias, se ha estimado una función frontera de producción utilizando una función de producción Cobb-Douglas y aplicando el modelo de Greene (1980). Después de un análisis de los niveles de eficiencia obtenidos, se ha observado qu...

  17. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Symphyta & Ichneumonoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Achterberg, Kees; Taeger, Andreas; Blank, Stephan M; Zwakhals, Kees; Viitasaari, Matti; Yu, Dicky Sick Ki; de Jong, Yde

    2017-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Hymenoptera, taxonomic data from one grade (Symphyta) and one Superfamily (Ichneumonoidea), including 15 families and 10,717 species, are included. Ichneumonoidea is the largest superfamily of Hymenoptera and consisting of two extant families, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The costal cell of the fore wing is absent, the fore wing has at least two closed cells, the constriction between the mesosoma (thorax + first abdominal segment or propodeum) and the metasoma (remainder of abdomen) is distinct and the parasitoid larvae usually spin a silken cocoon. Also, the metasoma is ventrally partly desclerotized in the vast majority of ichneumonoids.

  18. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITIKA PADA TIPE EKOSISTEM BERBEDA DI BANGKA TENGAH, KEPULAUAN BANGKA BELITUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Marta Saputra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in different ecosystem types in Central Bangka, Bangka-Belitung Islands. Hymenoptera richness is dominated by parasitic species. More than 80% of Hymenoptera play a role as parasitoid on arthropods that are mostly insects. Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera is widely studied in various types of terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystem and non-agro-ecosystem. This study aimed to invent and compare the diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in three different ecosystems, i.e., forest, oil palm plantation, and ex-tin mining. The location was located in Central Bangka Regency, Bangka Island. The study was conducted in Juli 2014 until October 2015. Parasitic Hymenoptera was collected with insect sweep net and yellow pan trap on one transect line with 1000 m length. Parasitic Hymenoptera were found on forest as much as 732 morphospecies, 326 morphospecies on oil palm plantations, and 293 morphospecies on ex-tin mining. Diversity and abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera on forest was higher than oil palm plantation and ex-tin mining area. Braconidae family was found dominant on forest, however on oil palm plantation and extin mining area the dominant family was Scelionidae.

  19. New species of Hymenoptera associated with galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea in Brazil Novas espécies de Hymenoptera associadas a galhas de Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica M. Penteado-Dias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924, T. mecanga sp.nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae, Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae and Eurytoma sp. (Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae were reared from two different types of galls of Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea in Juiz-de-Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The two Tanaostigmatidae species are probably the gall inducers; the Braconidae species probably is phytophagous inquiline in round gall type. The two new species are described and illustrated, including their immature stages.Quatro espécies de Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodes ringueleti (Brèthes, 1924, T. mecanga sp. nov. (Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae, Allorhogas taua sp. nov. (Braconidae, Doryctinae e Eurytoma sp. foram obtidas de dois diferentes tipos de galhas de Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea em Juiz-de-Fora, MG, Brasil. As duas espécies de Tanaostigmatidae são os prováveis indutores das galhas; a espécie de Braconidae, provavelmente é um inquilino fitófago das galhas globosas. Estas duas novas espécies são descritas e ilustradas, incluindo os seus estágios imaturos.

  20. Eficiencia de polinización de colonias huérfanas del abejorro nativo Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae en dos cultivares de fresa (Fragaria x ananassa sembrados bajo cubierta en la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Poveda Coronel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la fresa se ha convertido en un cultivo de interés económico debido a la creciente demanda en el mercado extranjero en la última década. La mayoría de plantaciones son a campo abierto y no usan esquemas de polinización para mejorar la calidad de producción. La polinización con abejorros mejora la calidad de los frutos, aunque estos se producen mediante polinización espontánea. La especie nativa Bombus atratus ha sido reconocida como un polinizador eficiente de cultivos hortofrutícolas colombianos bajo invernadero. El presente estudio evaluó la eficiencia de polinización de dos colonias huérfanas en la calidad de los frutos de las variedades camino real y ventana sembrados bajo invernadero en Cajicá-Colombia. Se embolsaron los botones para obtener los frutos producidos espontáneamente y ser comparados con los frutos provenientes de la visita de obreras de B. atratus. Se encontró que la visita de las obreras mejoró la calidad de los frutos en las variables, calibre (35 % y 31 %, longitud (28 % y 19 %, peso fresco (103 % y 90 %, peso seco (126 % y 145 % y número de semillas (55 % y 81 % para las variedades Camino Real y Ventana respectivamente. A partir de las observaciones realizadas, se determinó que el recurso floral utilizado por las obreras de B. atratus fue el néctar y se hacen recomendaciones sobre su uso en este cultivo.

  1. Nuevos registros de Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José MARTÍNEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se proveen nuevos registros de Habrobracon hebetor (Say de Choele Choel, Río Negro, y de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parte de los ejemplares analizados fueron criados a partir de larvas de Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae sobre nueces almacenadas. Adicionalmente se provee una diagnosis ilustrada de la única especie de Habrobracon presente en el país.

  2. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and a key to Saudi Arabian species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... the type species Chelonus dentatus Panzer. Tobias. (1972 ... The types of new species are deposited in Department of Zoology, King Khalid. University, Abha, KSA pending transfer to Natural History Museum,. London. .... Tobias VI (1972) Contribución al conocimiento del subgénero Chelonus s. str. en la ...

  3. Nuevos registros de Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae en la Argentina New records of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se proveen nuevos registros de Habrobracon hebetor (Say de Choele Choel, Río Negro, y de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parte de los ejemplares analizados fueron criados a partir de larvas de Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae sobre nueces almacenadas. Adicionalmente se provee una diagnosis ilustrada de la única especie de Habrobracon presente en el país.New records of Habrobracon hebetor (Say are reported from Choele Choel, Río Negro and Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Some of the specimens examined were reared from larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on stored nuts. Additionally, an illustrated diagnosis of Habrobracon hebetor is provided.

  4. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Symphyta & Ichneumonoidea

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    Kees van Achterberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Hymenoptera, taxonomic data from one grade (Symphyta and one Superfamily (Ichneumonoidea, including 15 families and 10,717 species, are included. Ichneumonoidea is the largest superfamily of Hymenoptera and consisting of two extant families, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The costal cell of the fore wing is absent, the fore wing has at least two closed cells, the constriction between the mesosoma (thorax + first abdominal segment or propodeum and the metasoma (remainder of abdomen is distinct and the parasitoid larvae usually spin a silken cocoon. Also, the metasoma is ventrally partly desclerotized in the vast majority of ichneumonoids.

  5. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Symphyta & Ichneumonoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeger, Andreas; Blank, Stephan M.; Zwakhals, Kees; Viitasaari, Matti; Yu, Dicky Sick Ki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Hymenoptera, taxonomic data from one grade (Symphyta) and one Superfamily (Ichneumonoidea), including 15 families and 10,717 species, are included. Ichneumonoidea is the largest superfamily of Hymenoptera and consisting of two extant families, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The costal cell of the fore wing is absent, the fore wing has at least two closed cells, the constriction between the mesosoma (thorax + first abdominal segment or propodeum) and the metasoma (remainder of abdomen) is distinct and the parasitoid larvae usually spin a silken cocoon. Also, the metasoma is ventrally partly desclerotized in the vast majority of ichneumonoids. PMID:28894397

  6. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT PTPN VIII CINDALI, BOGOR

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    Ichsan Luqmana Indra Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in PTPN VIII oil palm plantation Cindali, Bogor. One group of important natural enemies in oil palm plantation is parasitic Hymenoptera. The purpose of this research is to know the diversity and fluctuation of parasitic Hymenoptera PTPN VIII Cindali oil palm plantation. This research was conducted in 6 blocks of oil palm in September 2014 – June 2015. There were 5 plots in every observation blocks 39.2 x 39.2 m in size, and used direct and indirect method. Direct method done by 5 plants in every plots was taken randomized to observed and taken the herbivore insects to reared until the parasitic Hymenoptera came out. Observation of cover crops conducted by 3 subplots determined diagonally in every plots 9.8 x 9.8 m in size and herbivore insects was observed and collected. Indirect methods used sweep net and yellow pan trap. The result of this research, 26 parasitic Hymenoptera families was found, with the Braconidae was the most morphospecies found and the most individual amount was Scelionidae. The abundance of parasitoid in every month fluctuated.

  7. Xyeloblacus gen. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) parasitoid of Xyelinae (Xyelidae: Hymenoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Altenhofer, E.

    1997-01-01

    The new genus Xyeloblacus (type species: Xyeloblacus leucobasis spec, nov.) is described and illustrated; it belongs to a new tribe (Xyeloblacini van Achterberg), and two Palaearctic species are included. The type species has been reared from two Xyela spp. ("Symphyta"; Xyelidae; Xyelinae) in

  8. Turismo y eficiencia: tendencias regionales

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    José Antonio Camacho Ballesta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la evolución de la productividad de las actividades económicas relacionadas con el turismo, centrando el estudio en la Hostelería y restaurantes, durante el período comprendido entre 1965 y 1995, y su efecto sobre la productividad de los servicios destinados a la venta en las regiones españolas. La metodología utilizada incluye herramientas como el análisis envolvente de datos, los índices de Malmquist, y la descomposición de la eficiencia total en eficiencia intrasectorial y eficiencia de composición. Los resultados muestran que la eficiencia de composición en los servicios destinados a la venta ha mejorado a lo largo del período estudiado, consecuencia del crecimiento en el tamaño relativo de aquellas ramas más eficientes o de aquellas donde la eficiencia ha crecido más. El buen comportamiento de la eficiencia comparada de la rama Hostelería y restaurantes explica que la especialización regional en dicha rama se haya convertido en un elemento de mejora para la eficiencia de composición. El cambio productivo ha sido positivo en todo el período analizado excepto en los años 1979 y 1995, con una variación media anual del 3,1% y explicado, casi por completo por el cambio técnico. Las regiones que han experimentado los mayores cambios productivos positivos han sido Cataluña, Galicia, Extremadura, Valencia y Madrid.

  9. Eco-eficiencia una gestion empresarial ambiental

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocio, Hartley B

    2009-01-01

    .... Examina una eficiencia en el uso de los recursos naturales, al "producir mas con menos". Esta eficiencia debe ser medida y evaluada, con el objetivo de dar seguimiento al desempeno productivo de una actividad economica...

  10. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

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    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  11. (gahan) (hymenoptera : eulophidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude experimentale de quelques parametres biologiques de ceranisus femoratus (gahan) (hymenoptera : eulophidae) un nouvel ennemi naturel Pour le controle de megalurothrips sjostedti (trybom) (thysanoptera : thripidae) ravageur du niebe au benin.

  12. Longevidad de Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) en presencia de diferentes fuentes de alimento Longevity of Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) under the influence of different food sources

    OpenAIRE

    SANDRA IDE; DOLLY LANFRANCO

    2001-01-01

    Una de las tácticas implementadas en el control de Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff. en Chile fue la introducción en 1987 de Orgilus obscurator Ness., un parasitoide específico. Evaluaciones realizadas entre la VII y X regiones de Chile, entre 1995 y 1997, mostraron diferencias significativas en el establecimiento y porcentaje de parasitismo alcanzados por O. obscurator. Aún cuando son múltiples los factores que inciden en el éxito de un biocontrolador, es importante considerar la disponibilidad y ...

  13. Ocorrência de Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae no Brasil Occurrence of Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Sampaio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833, were reared from the mummies of Cavariella aegopodii (Scopoli, 1763 collected on Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae at the Campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State on September/2002. This is the first record of B. brevicornis in Brazil.

  14. Discrimination of Torymus sinensis Kamijo (Hymenoptera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaori Yara; Yasuhisa Kunimi

    2009-01-01

      Torymus sinensis and Torymus beneficus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) are, respectively, introduced and indigenous parasitoid wasps that attack the invasive chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Japan...

  15. FRONTERAS DE EFICIENCIA PARA OPERADORES DE DECISIONES

    OpenAIRE

    Raffo Lecca, Eduardo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ingeniería de Sistemas e Informática, Departamento Académico de Ingeniería de Sistemas e Informática. Lima, Perú; Ruiz Lizama, Edgar; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    El artículo destaca la metodología del análisis envolvente de datos DEA (Del ingles DATA Envelopment Analysis) como una herramienta del “Benchmarking” para cuantificar o medir la eficiencia de las organizaciones. Se exponen desde conceptos generales, hasta las funciones de frontera de eficiencia mostrando su sustento matemático y también los alcances y bondades del DEA. This work highlights the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Methodology as a benchmarking tool suitable to quantify or measu...

  16. Hymenoptera Sphecoidea Fabriciana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, van der J.

    1961-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the early years of systematic entomology Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) described an enormous number of insects, including several hundreds of Hymenoptera, from various parts of the world. His descriptions are generally short and incomplete, the classification of the species

  17. On the entomofauna of Mt. Durmitor (Northern Montenegro: Braconid wasps of the subfamily Opiinae (Braconidae, Hymenoptera

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    Brajković M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Braconids are primary parasites of other insects and their eggs, larvae, and adults, and species have been recently discovered that lay their eggs in plant seeds. Classified into about 25 genera, more than 1,400 species of Opiinae are known at the present time in the world fauna. They have been registered in all zoogeographic regions. The Opiinae are solitary endoparasites of the larvae of cyclorhaphous Diptera, most often those of species belonging to the families Agromyzidae, Tephritidae, Anthomyiidae Ephydridae. In investigations conducted on Mt. Durmitor since 1982, we have up to now established 10 species of braconids of the subfamily Opiinae (Opius peterseni Fi., O. caudatus Wesm., O. parvungula Th., O. levisWesm., O. pallipesWesm., O. quasiquisti Fi., O. exilis Hal., O. filicornis Th., O. lugens Hal., and O. meracus Fi, eight of which are new for the fauna of Serbia and Montenegro.

  18. A new species of Aleiodes (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae from Brazil, with biological notes

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    Cássia I. V. de Abreu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aleiodes Wesmael is the most diverse rogadine genus, with koinobiont endoparasitic development in Lepidoptera caterpillars resulting in mummification of the host remains. Aleiodes japi sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Type specimens of the new species were reared from Physocleora grosica and Ischnopteris sp. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae larvae. Host larvae were collected on Alchornea triplinervia (Euphorbiaceae at the Reserva Biológica Municipal da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil. This is the second species of circumscriptus/gastritror group described from Brazil.

  19. New species and additional evidence of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Aphidiinae) from India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Barahoei, H.; Ahmed, Z.; Tomanović, Ž.; Janković, M.; Petrović, A.; Bodlah, I.; Starý, Petr

    -, č. 3397 (2012), s. 45-54 ISSN 1175-5326 Grant - others:University of Zabol(IR) 89-9198; Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Aphidiinae * Aphidius bifurcatus sp. n. * Ephedrus longiarticulatus sp. n. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2012 http://216.92.149.63/zootaxa/2012/f/z03397p054f.pdf

  20. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n. PMID:27408539

  1. Cold storage affects mortality, body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sidney, L.A.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Pereira, J.M.; Nomelini, Q.S.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of storing natural enemies at low temperatures is important for the mass production of biological control agents. We evaluated the effect of different periods of cold storage on immature mortality, mummy body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of the parasitoid Praon

  2. Pronkia, a new genus of the Meteorideinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1990-01-01

    A new genus of the subfamily Meteorideinae Čapek, 1970 (type-species: Pronkia antefurcalis spec. nov.) is described from New Zealand. The genus is included into the Pronkiini trib. nov. A key to separate the two known genera of Meteorideinae is added.

  3. Genus Indiopius Fischer, 1966 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) in Iran with a key to the world species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Rahmani, Zahra; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.; Rakhshani, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Iranian species belonging to the genus Indiopius Fischer are reviewed. A description of the first recorded female of I. cretensis Fischer, 1966 is provided. A key to the world species of the genus Indiopius is given. PMID:24478581

  4. First record of Aphidius ericaphidis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in Europe: North American hitchhiker or overlooked Holarctic citizen?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrović, A.; Črkić, J.; Jamhour, A.; Petrović-Obradović, O.; Mitrović, M.; Starý, Petr; Nedstam, B.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, AUG 01 (2017), s. 143-153 ISSN 1070-9428 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : allien species * Aphidius ericaphidis * Ericaphis scammelli Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016 https://jhr.pensoft.net/article/12517/element/2/12/

  5. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae associated with different aphid hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya M. Villegas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation. The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. Methods We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS, revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. Results The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat biotype. There was no significant effect of plant species on parasitoid wing size and shape. Discussion Although previous studies have suggested that the genotype of parasitoids is of greater significance for the morphological variations of size and shape of wings, this study indicates that the aphid host on which A. ervi develops is the main factor to alter the structure of parasitoid forewings. Bigger aphid hosts implied longer and broader forewings of A. ervi.

  6. The subfamily Mendesellinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Brazil, with the description of six new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoni, Marco Aurélio; Souza-Gessner, Carolina DA Silva; Penteado-Dias, Angélica Maria

    2016-11-29

    In this paper, we study the Mendesellinae wasps from Brazil deposited at Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil collection. Two new species of Epsilogaster (E. masoni sp. n. and E. whitfieldi sp. n.) and four new species of Mendesella (M. albipleura sp. n., M. itatiaia sp. n., M. japi sp. n., M. yamadai sp. n.) are described and illustrated.

  7. An illustrated key to Neotropical species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Helmuth; de Almeida, Luis Felipe; Shaw, Scott Richard; Sarmiento, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive key for 75 species of Meteorus distributed across 15 Neotropical countries is presented. Eleven new species from Bolivia, Costa Rica and Ecuador are described: Meteorus albistigma, Meteorus carolae, Meteorus eurysaccavorus, Meteorus fallacavus, Meteorus flavistigma, Meteorus haimowitzi, Meteorus magnoculus, Meteorus martinezi, Meteorus microcavus, Meteorus noctuivorus and Meteorus orion. Expanded range distributions are recorded for Meteorus andreae, Meteorus farallonensis, Meteorus guineverae, Meteorus jerodi, Meteorus kraussi, Meteorus papiliovorus and Meteorus quimbayensis. The host of Meteorus jerodi is reported for the first time: a noctuid larva feeding on Asteraceae. Meteorus papiliovorus is recorded attacking Papilionidae larvae in Ecuador, therefore displaying a similar host family preference as formerly documented from Costa Rica and Colombia. PMID:25878531

  8. An illustrated key to Neotropical species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmuth Aguirre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive key for 75 species of Meteorus distributed across 15 Neotropical countries is presented. Eleven new species from Bolivia, Costa Rica and Ecuador are described: M. albistigma, M. carolae, M. eurysaccavorus, M. fallacavus, M. flavistigma, M. haimowitzi, M. magnoculus, M. martinezi, M. microcavus, M. noctuivorus and M. orion. Expanded range distributions are recorded for M. andreae, M. farallonensis, M. guineverae, M. jerodi, M. kraussi, M. papiliovorus and M. quimbayensis. The host of M. jerodi is reported for the first time: a noctuid larva feeding on Asteraceae. Meteorus papiliovorus is recorded attacking Papilionidae larvae in Ecuador, therefore displaying a similar host family preference as formerly documented from Costa Rica and Colombia.

  9. Taxonomic synopsis of Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh, 1973 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Jimenez, Andrea; Sarmiento, Carlos E

    2016-06-29

    Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh, 1973 is the second most diverse genus of Doryctinae in the Neotropical region, however, in Colombia only two species have been reported and no studies on the diversity of the genus have been conducted. We present a taxonomic synopsis of the genus from Colombia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) allowed the taxonomic evaluation of morphometric characters used by other authors and those proposed in the present study to differentiate the species. Forty seven of 104 characters studied are useful to discriminate the species. Twenty three species are reported. The following new records for Colombia are: Notiospathius angustus Marsh, 2002; N. badius Marsh, 2002; N. bicolor Marsh, 2002; N. ninae Marsh, 2002; N. rugonotum Marsh, 2002; N. shawi Marsh, 2002; N. tinctipennis (Cameron, 1887) and N. venezuelae López-Estrada & Zaldívar-Riverón, 2012. The following 14 new species are described: N. alejandroi sp. nov., N. amazonensis sp. nov., N. carmenae sp. nov., N. cundinamarcensis sp. nov., N. farallonensis sp. nov., N. julianoi sp. nov., N. magdalenensis sp. nov., N. marshi sp. nov., N. payae sp. nov., N. putumayensis sp. nov., N. quimbayensis sp. nov., N. tayronensis sp. nov., N. utriae sp. nov., N. vallensis sp. nov. Notiospathius ugaldei Marsh, 2002 is the junior synonym of N. columbianus (Enderlein, 1912); Notiospathius mariachi Reséndiz-Flores, Nunes and Zaldívar-Riverón, 2014 is the junior synonym of N. carolinae (Marsh, 2002); and N. chinanteco Reséndiz-Flores, Nunes and Zaldívar-Riverón, 2014 is the junior synonym of N. rugonotum Marsh, 2002. A comprehensive taxonomic key with illustrations is presented.

  10. Dispersal capacity of fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in irrigated coffee plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gisely Camargos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is an Old World parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies that was widely introduced in the Americas to control pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. Augmentative releases in irrigated coffee plantations in semiarid regions of Brazil are under consideration and dispersal capacity of D. longicaudata in this habitat are important to develop release strategies. Approximately 2,000 individuals of D. longicaudata (5 to 7 days old were released in the center of a fruiting coffee plantation every two weeks from Dec. 2009 to Apr. 2010. Dispersal from the central release point was monitored to the north, south, east, west, northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest at 11 distances, beginning at 4.6 m and ending at 90 m from the release point. At each point, a parasitism unit (approximately 120 larvae of C. capitata in the 3rd instar wrapped in voile fabric and 10 coffee beans were collected. The average dispersion distance and dispersion area were estimated by the model proposed by Dobzhansky and Wright (1943. The average dispersion distances were 27.06 m (as estimated by fruit collection and 33.11 m (as estimated by oviposition traps. The average dispersion areas were 1,315.25 m2 and 1,752.45 m2 originating from the collection of beans and parasitism units, respectively. Cohorts of 2,000 adult D. longicaudata released at six points ha−1 are estimated to result in sufficient colonization to exert significant control of Ceratitis capitata.

  11. Pengaruh lama ketiadaan inang terhadap kapasitas reproduksi parasitoid Snellenius manilae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

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    Mohamad Eldiary Akbar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the  influence  of host deprivation on the oviposition and physiological condition of Snellenius manilae Ashmead. The research was conducted at Laboratory of Bioecology of Parasitoid and Predator, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB. Ten parasitoids of the same age and cohort were used in this experiment. Deprivation of hosts were done for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days at the beginning and toward the end of their life. All hosts were replaced every 24 hours. Result indicated that host deprivation affects the reproductive capacity of Snellenius manilae. Even though parasitoids were able to lay eggs even when they were deprived of hosts for seven consecutive days, the overall results of host deprivation experiment showed that the length and timing of deprivation period can affect reproductive capacity. Deprivation of hosts tends to increase the parasitism rate and the numbers of eggs laid upon their first encounter of hosts after the treatment. The difference is more pronounced on treatements that allowed parasitism to occur before the deprivation treatment. However, the overall results suggests that deprivation overall decrease the reproductive capacity of the parasitoid. The longevity of deprived individuals was also lengthened. Parasitoids that were given host before deprivation treatments tend to produced more eggs than those were not. These results showed that deprivation of hosts in the field may affect the effectiveness of parasitoids and the success of biological control.

  12. Expression differences in Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) females reared on different aphid host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Gabriel I; Gadau, Jürgen; Legeai, Fabrice; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Angelica; Lavandero, Blas; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Figueroa, Christian C

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow generalist parasitoids to exploit many, often very distinct hosts are practically unknown. The wasp Aphidius ervi, a generalist koinobiont parasitoid of aphids, was introduced from Europe into Chile in the late 1970s to control agriculturally important aphid species. A recent study showed significant differences in host preference and host acceptance (infectivity) depending on the host A. ervi were reared on. In contrast, no genetic differentiation between A. ervi populations parasitizing different aphid species and aphids of the same species reared on different host plants was found in Chile. Additionally, the same study did not find any fitness effects in A. ervi if offspring were reared on a different host as their mothers. Here, we determined the effect of aphid host species (Sitobion avenae versus Acyrthosiphon pisum reared on two different host plants alfalfa and pea) on the transcriptome of adult A. ervi females. We found a large number of differentially expressed genes (between host species: head: 2,765; body: 1,216; within the same aphid host species reared on different host plants: alfalfa versus pea: head 593; body 222). As expected, the transcriptomes from parasitoids reared on the same host species (pea aphid) but originating from different host plants (pea versus alfalfa) were more similar to each other than the transcriptomes of parasitoids reared on a different aphid host and host plant (head: 648 and 1,524 transcripts; body: 566 and 428 transcripts). We found several differentially expressed odorant binding proteins and olfactory receptor proteins in particular, when we compared parasitoids from different host species. Additionally, we found differentially expressed genes involved in neuronal growth and development as well as signaling pathways. These results point towards a significant rewiring of the transcriptome of A. ervi depending on aphid-plant complex where parasitoids develop, even if different biotypes of a certain aphid host species (A. pisum) are reared on the same host plant. This difference seems to persist even after the different wasp populations were reared on the same aphid host in the laboratory for more than 50 generations. This indicates that either the imprinting process is very persistent or there is enough genetic/allelic variation between A. ervi populations. The role of distinct molecular mechanisms is discussed in terms of the formation of host fidelity.

  13. DNA Barcoding of the parasitoid wasp subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chamela, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutiérrez-Arellano, Daniela; Gutiérrez-Arellano, Claudia Renata; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    .... A preliminary Barcoding study carried out in the Chamela region, located near the Mexican pacific coast in Jalisco, identified 185 barcoding species of Dorytinae assigned to 19 identified doryctine genera...

  14. DNA Barcoding of the parasitoid wasp subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Chamela, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gutiérrez-Arellano

    2015-05-01

    Results and conclusions. A total of 961 specimens were collected, from which 883 COI sequences were obtained. The sequences generated corresponded to 289 barcoding species and 30 identified genera. The most speciose genera were Heterospilus Haliday (170 spp., Ecphylus Förster (19 spp., Allorhogas Gahan (15 spp. and Callihormius Ashmead (14 spp.. Addition of previously collected material increased the diversity of the subfamily in the region to 34 genera and 290 species. Paraphyly of Heterospilus with respect to Neoheterospilus and Heterospathius was again recovered. Twenty new species and two new genera (Sabinita Belokobylskij, Zaldívar-Riverón et Martínez, Ficobolus Martínez, Belokobylskij et Zaldívar-Riverón have been described so far from the material collected in this work.

  15. Braconid (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) parasitoids of bark beetles in upland spruce stands of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aural Lozan; Jiri Zeleny

    2003-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles occur frequently in the upland spruce forests of the Czech Republic; some of them are serious pests that may cause vast destruction of forest stands. In the last decade, a complex of several species from the genera Ips, Pityogenes and Polygraphus contributed to large-scale devastation of thousand...

  16. A new species of the genus Xanthomicrogaster Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penteado-Dias, A.M.; Shimabukuro, P.H.F.; Achterberg, van C.

    2002-01-01

    One new Xanthomicrogaster species from Brazil is described, and X. fortipes Cameron, 1911, is redescribed and reported from Brazil and Suriname for the first time. A key to the species is presented as well as data about the geographical distribution in Brazil.

  17. Triaspis curculiovorus sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Japan, Parasitizing Acorn Weevils

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno, PAPP; Kaoru, MAETO; Zoological Department, Hungarian Natural History Museum; Hokkaido Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

    1992-01-01

    Triaspis curculiovorus sp. n. from Japan is described and illustrated with taxonomic remarks and a list of the Triaspis species of the eastern Palaearctic Region. The new species is a parasitoid of Curculio larvae infesting Quercus acorns.

  18. Tingkat Parasitasi Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera : Braconidae pada Lalat Buah Belimbing di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suputa Suputa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera carambolae was founf on carambola fruit in Yogyakarta Special Province and there were three species of parasitoids, i.e. Fopius arisanus, Agasnaspis sp., and Asobara sp. The population of Agasnaspis sp. and Asobara sp. were very low and was only found in Samas coastal area. F. arisanus was dominant and always found in all observation sites. There was no significant result on their parasitism (for region, F(2,35 = 0.057; p>0.005; for elevation, F(2,35= 0.704, p>0.05; for habitat, F(2,35= 0.215, p>0.05. Parasitism of F. arisanus on fruit fly in Yogyakarta Special Province was generally low, i.e. it ranged from 0.5495 ± 0.3843 (in Sleman, to 1.2935 ± 0.8206%. Evaluation of the existence of F. arisanus and augmentation efforts might be needed to improve its ability to parasitize fruit fly in Yogyakarta Special Province.   Lalat buah yang menyerang buah belimbing lokal di Daerah Yogyakarta adalah Bactrocera carambolae dan tidak ditemukan lalat buat spesies lain pada penelitian ini, sedangkan parasitoid yang menyerang lalat buah B. carambolae ada tiga spesies yaitu Fopius arisanus, Agasnaspis sp., dan Asobora sp. Populasi Agasnaspis sp. dan Asobara sp. sangat rendah dan hanya ditemukan di Kabupaten Bantul di daerah pesisir pantai Samas, sementara di lokasi pengamatan yang lain tidak ditemukan, sedangkan F. arisanus merupakan parasitoid yang selalu ditemukan pada berbagai lokasi pengamatan. Uji beda nyata menunjukkan bahwa tingkat parasitasi F. arisanus di Yogyakarta tidak berbeda secara nyata berdasarkan kategori daerah administrasi (F(2,35 = 0.057; p>0.005; ketinggian tempat, F(2,35= 0.704, p>0.05; dan habitat, F(2,35= 0.215, p>0.05. Tingkat parasitasi F, arisanus pada lalat buah di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta sangat rendah yaitu sekitar  0.5495 ± 0.3843 (di Sleman sampaidengan 1.2935 ± 0.8206%. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa di setiap kanupaten yang diamati, populasi lalat buah B. carambolae sangat tinggi, sedangkan populasi parasitoid F. arisanus sangat rendah dengan demikian perlu dilakukan evaluasi dan augmentasi F. arisanus secara periodik di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

  19. Parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Adjusts Reproductive Strategy When Competing for Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rashmi; Minor, Maria A

    2017-06-01

    Parasitoid fitness depends on its ability to manipulate reproductive strategies when in competition. This study investigated the parasitism and sex allocation strategies of the parasitic wasp Diaeretiella rapae McIntosh at a range of host (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) and conspecific densities. The results suggest that D. rapae females adjust their progeny production and progeny sex ratio with changing competition. When foraging alone, female D. rapae parasitize larger number of B. brassicae nymphs when the number of available hosts is increased, but the overall proportion of parasitized hosts decreases with increase in host density. The proportion of female offspring also decreases with elevated host density. Increase in the number of female D. rapae foraging together increased total parasitism, but reduced relative contribution of each individual female. The number of female progeny decreased when multiple females competed for the same host. However, foraging experience in the presence of one or more conspecifics increased the parasitism rate and proportion of female progeny. Competing females were more active during oviposition and had shorter lives. The study suggests that both host and foundress (female parasitoid) densities have significant effect on progeny production, sex allocation, and longevity of foraging females. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Euphorinae, Gnamptodontinae, Helconinae, Hormiinae and Rhysipolinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Achterberg, Kees Van

    2016-01-28

    The Iranian species diversity of five braconid subfamilies, Euphorinae (54 species in 16 genera and 8 tribes), Gnamptodontinae (4 species in 1 genus and 1 tribe), Helconinae (9 species in 5 genera and 2 tribes), Hormiinae (8 species in 4 genera and 2 tribe) and Rhysipolinae (3 species in 2 genera) are summarized in this catalogue. A faunistic list is given comprising both local and global distribution of each species under study as well as host records. In the present study ten new records are added to the Iranian fauna: Centistes (Ancylocentrus) ater (Nees), Centistes cuspidatus (Haliday), Meteorus affinis (Wesmael), Meteorus rufus (DeGeer), Microctonus brevicollis (Haliday), Microctonus falciger Ruthe, Peristenus nitidus (Curtis) (Euphorinae), Aspicolpus carinator (Nees), Diospilus capito (Nees) and Diospilus productus Marshall (Helconinae s.l.). Euphorus pseudomitis Hedwig, 1957 is transferred to the subfamily Hormiinae and Hormisca pseudomitis (Hedwig, 1957) is a new combination.

  1. First record of Aphidius ericaphidis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in Europe: North American hitchhiker or overlooked Holarctic citizen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjeljko Petrović

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aphidius ericaphidis, an aphid parasitoid originally described from North America, is recorded in Europe for the first time, based on morphological and molecular analyses. The species is recorded in Serbia, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. It was formerly recorded as Aphidius sp./Ericaphis latifrons/Vaccinium uliginosum from the Alps (France. The possible origin of A. ericaphidis, as well as its likely distribution, is discussed in relation to its host. As it is a specific parasitoid of Ericaphis aphids, especially the invasive aphid Ericaphis scammelli on blueberries, its potential as a biocontrol agent is also discussed.

  2. First record of Aphidius ericaphidis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in Europe: North American hitchhiker or overlooked Holarctic citizen?

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Andjeljko; Čkrkić, Jelisaveta; Jamhour, Aiman; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Mitrović, Milana; Starý, Petr; Nedstam, Barbro; Tomanović, Željko

    2017-01-01

    Aphidius ericaphidis, an aphid parasitoid originally described from North America, is recorded in Europe for the first time, based on morphological and molecular analyses. The species is recorded in Serbia, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. It was formerly recorded as Aphidius sp./Ericaphis latifrons/Vaccinium uliginosum from the Alps (France). The possible origin of A. ericaphidis, as well as its likely distribution, is discussed in relation to its host. As it is a specific par...

  3. Pseudorhysipolis gen. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rhysipolinae), with nine new species from Brazil, Suriname and Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatolini, D.; Penteado-Dias, A.M.; Achterberg, van C.

    2002-01-01

    Pseudorhysipolis gen. nov. (type species: Pseudorhysipolis fenix spec. nov. from Brazil and Panama) is described and illustrated. A key to nine new species is added; one new subgenus is described (Pararhysipolis nov.; type species: Pseudorhysipolis mellinotum spec. nov.) and the first host record

  4. Generic revision of the subfamily Betylobraconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and other groups with modified fore tarsus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1995-01-01

    The genera of the subfamilies Betylobraconinae, Hormiinae, Lysiterminae, Pambolinae-Chremylini, and Doryctinae-Ypsistocerini are revised. A key is given to the genera of groups belonging to the cyclostome grade including species with shortened and/or (partly) widened fore tarsus. Sixteen new genera

  5. La eficiencia: un valor cultural que necesitamos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Diagama Durán

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La eficiencia es un valor social que tanto este, como el modo alcanzado, constituyen problemas culturales que debemos resolver, no solo para manejar el estado, sino también para modernizar nuestra sociedad y hacer competitivas a nuestras organizaciones  y empresas.

  6. Assessing the suitability of flowering herbs as parasitoid food sources: flower attractiveness and nectar accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.

    2004-01-01

    Eleven insect-pollinated plant species were investigated with respect to their olfactory attractiveness and nectar accessibility for the parasitoid species Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Heterospilus prosopidis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera:

  7. Eficiencia en el uso de los medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez Peña

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el tema de la eficiencia del uso de los medicamentos. Se estudian las diferentes acciones asociadas con el uso como la selección, las guías terapéuticas, las terapéuticas no farmacológicas, el monitoreo de la prescripción y utilización de los medicamentos, así como la importancia de la información terapéutica independiente y su impacto en la eficiencia de la utilización de fármacos.The topic of the drug use efficiency is dealt with. The different actions associated with it as the selection, the therapeutic guides, the non-pharmacological therapeutics, the monitoring of the prescription and the utilization of drugs, as well as the independent therapeutic information and its impact on the efficiency of drug use are studied.

  8. Eficiencia en el uso de los medicamentos

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Pérez Peña

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta el tema de la eficiencia del uso de los medicamentos. Se estudian las diferentes acciones asociadas con el uso como la selección, las guías terapéuticas, las terapéuticas no farmacológicas, el monitoreo de la prescripción y utilización de los medicamentos, así como la importancia de la información terapéutica independiente y su impacto en la eficiencia de la utilización de fármacos.The topic of the drug use efficiency is dealt with. The different actions associated with it as the ...

  9. Evaluacion del desempeno atencional en ninos: eficacia, eficiencia y rendimiento

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteoliva, Juan Manuel; Ison, Mirta Susana; Pattini, Andrea Elvira

    2014-01-01

    ...: eficiencia atencional y rendimiento atencional. Esta prueba es utilizada para evaluar la atencion focalizada y sostenida y la aptitud para percibir, rapida y correctamente, semejanzas, diferencias...

  10. Eficiencia de las empresas aseguradoras en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Álvarez, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los mercados de seguros europeos han evolucionado mucho en los últimos años. Las directrices europeas han fomentado el establecimiento de un mercado de seguros único. Este hecho ha provocado una serie de fusiones y adquisiciones de empresas, así como aumentado la competitividad en los mercados dando lugar a una mayor preocupación por la eficiencia empresarial.Este estudio trata de analizar la eficiencia de cuatro de los principales mercados europeos en el ámbito asegurador, como son Alemania, Francia, Italia y Reino Unido, durante el periodo 2004-2007. Para ello se ha empleado un modelo DEA-CCR input orientado.Los resultados muestran que el mercado italiano es el más eficiente lo cual puede deberse a que está compuesto por un menor número de empresas. Por su parte el mercado británico es el más atomizado, lo que probablemente reduce su ratio de eficiencia a pesar de ser el que mayor número de empresas eficientes posee.ABSTRACT The European Insurance Market has been developed during the last years. With the aim of establishing a Single European Insurance Market, several Directives have been developed. This fact was following by an important process of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A, and also by an increase in competitive between firms, which were looking for more efficiency.This work analyses efficiency of four of the main European insurance market – Germany, France, Italy and United Kingdom- during the period 2004-2007. For that purpose, we have chosen a DEA-CCR model, input orientation. Results show that Italian market is the most efficient, probably due to being the one with the least number of firms. On the other hand, United Kingdom has a numerous and very heterogeneous market, which maybe reduce it efficiency rate, even when Britain market is that with more efficient firms.

  11. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  12. Disparidades en eficiencia técnica e influencia de las infraestructuras sobre la convergencia en eficiencia en México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osvaldo U. Becerril-Torres; Inmaculada C. Álvarez-Ayuso; Laura E. del Moral Barrera

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar las disparidades en eficiencia técnica y la influencia de las infraestructuras sobre la convergencia en eficiencia para las entidades federativas de México...

  13. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  15. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae Massive and simultaneous production of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae males and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N. López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F 1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.In the genetic sexing strain «Cast191», the females of Ceratitis capitata are homozygous for the mutation slow , slowing down their rate of development, and the males are heterozygous, having a normal rate of development. This feature made Cast191 capable of producing sterile males, on one hand, and parasitoids that are reared on the remaining larvae, on the other. The objective of the present work was to do this two thing simultaneously and at a larger scale than previously. Besides, in an attempt to improve malefemale separation under this conditions, a pulse of 15ºC was applied to first stage larva during 1 or 2 days; these larvae were later held either at 20ºC or, at 25ºC until pupation, both groups of pupae being then kept at 25ºC . The best separation between male and female, achieved rearing larvae at 20ºC without any pulse of 15ºC , was then used to evaluate the quality of the parasitoids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata reared on the larvae remaining after male separation. These larvae were exposed to the parasitoid under standard conditions. The rate of parasitism obtained was similar to the one found when parasitoids are exposed to wild strain, and the F1 sex rate was even more biased toward females. The potential use at larger scale of the Cast191 strain of C. capitata for producing sterile males and D. longicaudata parasitoids is discussed.

  16. Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae); Qualidade de diferentes especies de pulgoes como hospedeiros do parasitoide Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson J.; Bueno, Vanda H.P. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia]. E-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus V.[Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-03-15

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L. testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size. (author)

  17. Parasitóides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae de Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de parasitóides em moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner no estado do Acre. No município de Bujari foram encontrados os braconídeos Opius bellus Gahan (72,5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26,8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0,7% associados a A. obliqua (Macquart em frutos de taperebá (Spondias mombin L., com parasitismo de 29,5%. No município de Rio Branco, em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., ocorreu somente D. areolatus em A. obliqua com parasitismo de 2,7%.This paper records the first parasitoids occurrence on Anastrepha Schiner fruit flies in the state of Acre, Brazil. In the Bujari County there occurred the braconids Opius bellus Gahan (72.5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26.8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0.7% associated with A. obliqua (Macquart in tapereba fruits (Spondias mombin L., with parasitism of 29.5%. In guajava fruits (Psidium guajava L. at Rio Branco County, only D. areolatus on A. obliqua occurred, with parasitism of 2.7%.

  18. Biologia do ectoparasitóide Bracon hebetor Say, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae em sete espécies de lepidópteros Biology of the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor Say, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on seven lepidopteran species

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    Sandra Regina Magro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Bracon hebetor Say, 1857 é um ectoparasitóide larval de várias espécies de piralídeos que atacam grãos armazenados, sendo considerado um agente potencial de controle biológico dessas pragas. Assim, a biologia de B. hebetor foi estudada em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 2°C, umidade relativa (60 ± 10% e fotoperíodo (fotofase de 14 horas, sobre sete espécies de lepidópteros, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton e Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (hospedeiros naturais e Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (insetos criados rotineiramente no laboratório de Biologia de Insetos da ESALQ/USP, para determinar o melhor hospedeiro para sua criação em laboratório. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foram afetadas, dependendo do hospedeiro utilizado. A. kuehniella e C. cephalonica foram hospedeiros semelhantes para a criação de B. hebetor, produzindo insetos com duração de ciclo de 12,8 dias, viabilidade em torno de 90% e ótima capacidade de paralisação e parasitismo. D. saccharalis foi o único hospedeiro não natural que proporcionou resultados semelhantes àqueles obtidos sobre as três traças hospedeiras naturais. Quanto à agressividade, D. saccharalis produziu insetos com capacidade de paralisação e parasitismo semelhantes àqueles criados sobre as traças S. cerealella e C. cephalonica.Bracon hebetor Say, 1857 is a larval ectoparasitoid of several species of pyralids which attack stored grains, therefore a potential biological control agent of these pests. To determine the best host for laboratory rearing, the biology of B. hebetor was studied under controlled temperature conditions (25 ± 2°C, relative humidity (60 ± 10% and photoperiod (14-hour photophase on seven lepidopteran larvae: natural hosts Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier and in the insects regularly reared at the Insect Biology laboratory of ESALQ/USP, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith. Duration and viability of the biological cycle (egg-adult were affected according to the host used. A. kuehniella and C. cephalonica were similar hosts for B. hebetor rearing, producing insects with life cycle of 12.8 days, viability around 90% and excellent paralyzing and parasitism capacities. D. saccharalis was the only not-natural host providing similar results to those found on the three-grain stored moths. Regarding aggressiveness, D. saccharalis produced insects with paralyzing and parasitism capacities similar to those reared on S. cerealella and C. cephalonica.

  19. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae and their associations related to biological control in Brazil Parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae de pulgões e suas interações relacionadas ao controle biológico no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Starý

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the parasitoid-aphid-plant associations in Brazil with the objective of developing a useful research database for further studies of aphid parasitoid ecology and aphid management. The original material was obtained from collections made in Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo states. The published information on the Aphidiinae in Brazil is revised. The general features of the target parasitoid fauna of Central and South America is summarized and promising biological control programs of some aphid species in Brazil is discussed.Este trabalho avaliou as interações parasitóides-pulgão-planta no Brasil, com o objetivo de desenvolver um banco útil de dados para estudos subseqüentes em ecologia de parasitóides de afídeos e manejo de pulgões. O material original foi obtido de coletas nos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais e São Paulo, sendo revisadas as informações sobre Aphidiinae publicadas no Brasil. Foram também sumarizadas as caracteristicas gerais da fauna de parasitóides das Américas Central e do Sul e discutidos os programas potenciais de controle biológico de algumas espécies de pulgões no Brasil.

  20. La eficiencia terminal en la Educación Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Victor Millo Carmenate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se procesan los resultados de promoción de los estudian­tes de la carrera de Ingeniería Mecánica disponibles en la Secretaría General de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de Cienfuegos entre los años 2008 al 2015 y se encuestan 35 de los 75 que abandonaron sus estudios de­finitivamente en este mismo período, con el objetivo de co­nocer desde la perspectivas de los estudiantes causas del comportamiento de varios indicadores de eficiencia e iden­tificar los factores que afectan la eficiencia terminal, para lo cual se hizo uso de métodos estadísticos y cualitativos de análisis. Se realiza una propuesta de acciones a considerar para la mejora de los indicadores de eficiencia terminal.

  1. Management of occupational Hymenoptera allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruëff, Franziska; Chatelain, Rene; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Certain outdoor activities show a particularly high risk for being stung by Hymenoptera species. Avoidance of such stings is preferable for preventing unwanted local or systemic sting reactions. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current knowledge on risk factors and management of Hymenoptera venom allergy. We will specifically focus on patients with an intense occupational exposure to Hymenoptera venom. Repeated stings were found to increase the risk for subsequent severe anaphylactic sting reactions. The male preponderance for severe anaphylactic sting reactions probably reflects in part a sex-specific occupational exposure being higher in males. When selecting a specific venom for therapy, current knowledge of cross-reactivity between venoms of various species should be considered. If available, venom immunotherapy should be performed using the venom of the culprit insect. Recently, a pilot study also showed the efficacy of venom immunotherapy when treating large local reactions. If an intensely exposed patient presents with a systemic anaphylactic sting reaction, efficacy of venom immunotherapy should be demonstrated by a tolerated sting challenge before allowing this patient to return to his/her occupation. Patients with bee venom allergy and an intense exposure should be treated with an increased maintenance dose of 200 μg bee venom. Patients with a history of large local reactions should be provided with an emergency kit, which should contain oral antihistamines and corticosteroids. In patients in whom local sting reactions induce symptoms of high clinical significance, an off-label use of venom immunotherapy may be discussed.

  2. Primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raworth, D A; Pike, K S; Tanigoshi, L K; Mathur, S; Graf, G

    2008-04-01

    Blueberry scorch virus, a commercially important Carlavirus in highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., is vectored by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). We surveyed the aphids, primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Braconidae), and associated secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Charipidae, Megaspilidae, Pteromalidae) on highbush blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest from 1995 to 2006, with samples concentrated in 2005 and 2006, to lay the groundwork for augmentative biological control. Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) was the principal aphid. The dominant parasitoid species were Praon unicum Smith, Aphidius n. sp., A. sp., and Aphidius ervi Haliday. Their frequency in relation to the other primary parasitoids varied significantly with geographical area; P. unicum dominated the frequency distribution in southwestern British Columbia, A. n. sp., west of the Cascades, and A. sp. and A. ervi east of the Cascades. Among the secondary parasitoids, pteromalids dominated, and their frequency in relation to the other secondary parasitoids was lowest in southwestern British Columbia. The parasitization rate for P. unicum and A. n. sp. in southwestern British Columbia increased from May or June to a maximum of 0.080 +/- 0.024 and 0.090 +/- 0.084 (SD), respectively, in late July or early August. P. unicum emerged in the spring 4 wk before A. n. sp. The parasitization rate for P. unicum was lower in conventional than organic fields. Whereas aphid density increased monotonically, P. unicum had two spring peaks. A simulation model showed that these peaks could reflect discrete generations. Releases of insectary-reared P. unicum at 150 or 450 DD above 5.6 degrees C, summing from 1 January, may effectively augment the natural spring populations by creating overlapping generations.

  3. New species of Bacuma Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae) from Kenya and West Darfur with a key to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quicke, Donald L J; Guy, Travis J; Noort, Simon VAN; Broad, Gavin R; Butcher, Buntika A

    2017-05-08

    Three new species of the Afrotropical braconine wasp genus Bacuma are described, and biological observations (nectar feeding) by one of them are noted. The new species are: B. kayserae Quicke & Butcher sp. nov. from Kenya, B. madiensis Quicke & Butcher sp. nov. from Uganda and B. darfurensis Quicke & Butcher sp. nov. from Sudan. A group of four large nominal species with red metasomas and finely sculptured tergites (B. granulatus, B. maculipennis, B. rufa and B. whitei) may represent a single widespread species or a pair of species separated by mesoscutum colour, or four separate but morphologically very similar species. However, given the small number of specimens available for study and the poor condition of some of these, including the types, they are not formally synonymised here. A partial key to the species of Bacuma is presented, which recognizes those species that are clearly distinct, including three new species. Interactive Lucid dichotomous and matrix keys are available on www.waspweb.org.

  4. Compatibility of Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Hebrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for integrating the application of Heterorhabditis indica and release of Hebrobracon hebetor (in the management of Plodia interpunctella) was investigated. A combination of the nematode and the parasitoid was observed to increase the mortality of Indianmeal moth larvae but the increas...

  5. A new species of Phanerotoma Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) parasitoid of the carob moth in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Cornelis VAN; Thackeray, Sean R; Hill, Martin P

    2017-01-31

    A new species, Phanerotoma carobivora van Achterberg & Thackeray, sp. nov. is described from South Africa. It is a common endoparasitoid of the carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Pyralidae) on pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) and citrus fruits in South Africa. Mean percentage of parasitism varied 2-30% between host plants and sampled localities.

  6. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, D.M. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: delia.pinto@uku.fi; Himanen, S.J. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, A. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    In field O{sub 3}-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O{sub 3} on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O{sub 3}-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O{sub 3} and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O{sub 3}-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O{sub 3} will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella.

  7. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids.

  8. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  9. The effect of larval and early adult experience on behavioural plasticity of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Cristian A.; Pennacchio, Francesco; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2007-11-01

    The relevance of the integration of preimaginal and eclosion experiences on the subsequent habitat preferences and mate finding by the adult has been rarely tested in holometabolous insects. In this work, the effect of larval and early adult experiences on the behavioural responses of adult males of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, towards volatiles from the host-plant complex (HPC) and from conspecific females were evaluated. Two experience factors were considered: host diet (normal diet=ND; artificial diet=AD), and eclosion, i.e. extraction or non-extraction of the parasitoid larva from the parasitised aphid (extracted=EX; non-extracted=NE). Thus, four treatments were set up: ND/NE, ND/EX, AD/NE and AD/EX. Glass Y-tube olfactometers were used to investigate the responses of adult A. ervi males to the odour sources used. Males from the ND/NE treatment showed a shorter latency to the first choice of olfactometer arms, displayed a marked preference towards the HPC olfactometer arm, and spent more time in the HPC arm than males from the other treatments. Only the interaction of host diet and eclosion experiences proved to be relevant in explaining the differences in latency to first choice, time spent in olfactometers arms, and behaviours displayed in the olfactometer arms. These results show the importance of the integration of larval and eclosion experiences in the development of stereotyped responses of the adults. This process may involve memory retention from the preimaginal and emergence period, but further research is needed to disentangle the contribution of each stage. The response to conspecific females was much less affected by the treatments in relation to first arm choice and times in olfactometer arms, suggesting a pheromone-mediated behaviour, even though a prompter and more intense wing fanning courtship behaviour was registered in the ND/NE males compared to males from the AD/NE treatment. These results show that sexual behaviours are less affected by early experiences than behaviours related with finding a HPC for foraging or oviposition. Taken together, our results demonstrate for first time that larval and eclosion experiences affect in a differential way the early responses of the adult towards environment-derived cues and mate related cues.

  10. Parasitism of Autumnal Morphs of the Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) by Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Buckthorn

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark K. Asplen; Kris A. G. Wyckhuys; George E. Heimpel

    2011-01-01

    ... to A. glycines throughout the aphid life cycle and follow it to its primary host; and, if it does, 2) is parasitoid migration facilitated by phoretic movement within buckthorn-specific winged aphids...

  11. Pauesia silana Tremblay, 1969 a parasitoid of Cinara-aphids on Conifers in Malta (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mifsud, David; Stary, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Pauesia silana is recorded for the first time from Malta and the Lefkada and Meganissi islands in Greece. From Malta, the species was reared from Cinara palaestinensis on Pinus halepensis from material collected from Buskett. From the Greek islands, the species was collected on Cinara sp. on the same mentioned hostplant. The new record contributes to the information on its distribution, hosts and plant associations in the Mediterranean area.

  12. A new parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of the invasive bamboo aphids Takecallis spp. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Western Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Pons, X.; Lumbierres, B.; Havelka, Jan; Pérez Hidalgo, N.; Tomanović, Ž.; Starý, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, 21-22 (2017), s. 1237-1248 ISSN 0022-2933 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphid parasitoid * arboretum * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.834, year: 2016

  13. Revision of the new world genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae, with an identification key to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Figueroa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A key to species and descriptions are presented for 14 species of the New World genus Crassomicrodus Ashmead. Seven new species, C. azteca, C. clypealis, C. costaricensis, C. jalisciensis, C. mariae, C. oaxaquensis, and C. olgae are described. C. fenestratus (Viereck is synonymized with C. nigriceps (Cresson. C. melanopleurus (Ashmead is recognized as a valid species.

  14. Reared Microgastrine Wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Yanayacu Biological Station and Environs (Napo Province, Ecuador): Diversity and Host Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, James B.; Rodriguez, Josephine J.; Masonick, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The microgastrine braconid wasps recovered up through 2007 by the NSF-sponsored rearing project “Caterpillars and Parasitoids of the Eastern Andes in Ecuador” are summarized in terms of their host specialization and faunistic uniqueness. Two hundred fifty eight rearings of caterpillars resulted in records of Microgastrinae, distributed among 14 genera (Apanteles Förster, Choeras Mason, Cotesia Cameron, Diolcogaster Ashmead, Distatrix Mason, Dolichogenidea Viereck, Exix Mason, Glyptapanteles A...

  15. Taxonomic review of the genus Hypomicrogaster Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae), with descriptions of 40 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, A A; Whitfield, J B

    2015-06-25

    A taxonomic review of the genus Hypomicrogaster Ashmead is presented with the redescription and redelimitation of the already named species Hypomicrogaster ecus Nixon, H. imitator (Ashmead), H. tydeus Nixon and H. zonaria (Say). The review also implies eleven new synonymies, and a new combination for the species H. areolaris (Blanchard). Also, the present revision identified 40 new Hypomicrogaster species: Hypomicrogaster aodous n. sp., H. aplebis n. sp., H. cernus n. sp., H. crocinus n. sp., H. daktulios n. sp., H. deltis n. sp., H. duo n. sp., H. epipagis n. sp., H. espera n. sp., H. evrys n. sp., H. guille n. sp., H. hektos n. sp., H. hupsos n. sp., H. ingensis n. sp., H. insolitus n. sp., H. inversalis n. sp., H. koinos n. sp., H. largus n. sp., H. laxus n. sp., H. linearis n. sp., H. lineatus n. sp., H. luisi n. sp., H. masoni n. sp., H. mesos n. sp., H. mikrosus n. sp., H. multus n. sp., H. pectinatus n. sp., H. plagios n. sp., H. pollex n. sp., H. rugosus n. sp., H. scindus n. sp., H. sicingens n. sp., H. sicpollex n. sp., H. sicscindus n. sp., H. siderion n. sp., H. spatulae n. sp., H. specialis n. sp., H. tantillus n. sp., H. tetra n. sp., H. zan n. sp. The Hypomicrogaster species are using as hosts 11 families of Lepidoptera, and 52 confirmed lepidopteran species feeding on 34 families of plants. Additionally, a fully illustrated key to all known described species of Hypomicrogaster is presented.

  16. Oviposition sequence and offspring of mated and virgin females of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitizing Diatraea saccharalis larvae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scaglia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Large scale mass rearing of natural enemies has been a mean of improving biological control in the sugarcane intensive agriculture. Among them, Cotesia flavipes, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, was imported by Brasil to control caterpillars of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis. The C. flavipes larval development depends on its association with polydnavirus, which blocks the host defense reaction. To verify if the oviposition sequence (1st, 2nd or 3rd and the female condition (mated or virgin interfere in the number of C. flavipes descendents, 4th instar caterpillars of D. saccharalis were parasitized. Analysis of the data showed that: a there is an inverse correlation between the parasitism efficiency and the host reaction (encapsulation; b the number of caterpillars parasitized by virgin females that released parasitoid larvae in the period from 12 to 15 days was higher than that of caterpillars parasitized by mated females; c a slight difference between mated and virgin females in relation to the parasitim success was observed; and d the number of encapsulated parasitoid larvae was higher than that of eggs, suggesting that eggs have a better capacity to overcome the host reaction. In this study, the viability of C. flavipes eggs and larvae in the non-specific host D. saccharalis could be correlated with the oviposition sequence and the female condition.

  17. A multiple regression model for parasitization of gypsy moths by the introduced larval parasite Cotesia melanoscelus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Fuester

    1991-01-01

    Cotesia melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) is a bivoltine, solitary, endoparasite of larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). Imported from Europe after the turn of the century, it readily became established and now occurs throughout the generally infested area. Rates of parasitization are highly variable, particularly during the...

  18. Laboratory Investigations Reveal that Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Is a Poor Host for Dinocampus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Guedes, CamilaFediuk; de Almeida, LúciaMassutti

    2016-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) is an Asian coccinellid released in several places to act as a biological control agent of aphids. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) is an endoparasite that uses more than 40 coccinellid species as hosts. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between D. coccinellae and H. axyridis and to determine the impact of the parasitoid on the establishment capacity of H. axyridis It was also investigate the influence of host on the development of D. coccinellae using other Coccinellidae species as hosts: Cycloneda sanguinea, (L., 1763) Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829), Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866) In no-choice tests, pupa was the least attacked stage, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. In choice tests, the pupa was less attacked when combined with all the other stages, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. There was statistical difference only for fecundity, fertility, and number of eggs/day, with higher values found in the non-parasitized control group. Due to the low rate of parasitism it is believed that D. coccinellae has little impact on the populations of this coccinellid in Brazil. However, it is noteworthy that an increase in H. axyridis coverage areas can affect the populations of D. coccinellae, as in some places of occurrence, H. axyridis has become the predominant species of Coccinellidae. The result can be a decrease in populations of this species of parasitoid or its better adaptation to the new host. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  20. Tritrophic associations and taxonomic notes on Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae, a keystone aphid parasitoid in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshani Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of host associations, distribution and types of reproduction (sexual, asexual of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall across 20 provinces of Iran during 2006-2011 was undertaken. The parasitoid was reared from three groups of host aphids belonging to genera Aphis and Brachycaudus, and occasional host aphid genera. Aphis craccivora Koch was the most frequent host aphid for L. fabarum on various host plants, including economically important crops. The field sex ratio generally favored females, but in some cases, only thelytokous (uniparental populations were found. In those cases, the host was always an Aphis species. Specimens reared from Brachycaudus aphids were all biparental, indicating the presence of a sibling biological species. Overall analysis of diagnostic morphological characters in the forewing indicated intra-specific variability in forewing marginal setae as well as variations in length of the R1 vein. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  1. Interaction between the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales and the parasitoid wasp, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Emami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, on the biological characteristics of Aphidius colemani, a parasitoid of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, was studied under laboratory conditions. Third-instar nymphs of green peach aphid were infected with 5/3×105 conidia/mL of B. bassiana, which was determined to be the lethal concentration 50 dose. They were then offered to mated female parasitoids for 24 h at different intervals. Results showed that by prolonging the release intervals of parasitoids, the number of mummies and percent emergence of parasitoids were reduced. Moreover, production of male offspring increased in the F1 generation of parasitoids. The interference of B. bassiana with parasitoid development was also studied by first exposing the aphid hosts to the parasitoids for 24 h and subsequently spraying them with B. bassiana 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after exposure. Results showed that by prolonging fungal spraying intervals, the number of mummies and percent emergence of parasitoids were increased. It appeared that the best time for applying B. bassiana would be three to four days after parasitisation.

  2. Age-Specific Functional Response of Aphidius matricariae and Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazerouni, Z; Talebi, A A; Fathipour, Y; Soufbaf, M

    2016-12-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is one of the most important aphid pests on pepper. Aphidius matricariae Haliday and Praon volucre (Haliday) are known as biological control agents for aphids in vegetable crops. In this research, age-specific functional responses of these two parasitoids were evaluated on different densities of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 green peach aphids. Type of functional response varied from type II to type III for different ages of A. matricariae, but type of functional response was not affected by female age for P. volucre. The functional response of P. volucre was determined as type II in the whole parasitoid lifetime. The searching efficiency (a), b, and handling time (T h ) were estimated using the Rogers equations. The highest searching efficiency (a) and lowest handling time were observed during the first half of lifetime of A. matricariae and P. volucre. Aphidius matricariae and P. volucre caused reasonable mortality of the green peach aphid by parasitism of 52.17 and 47.05 host aphids, respectively, in 24 h. Therefore, they are suggested as suitable candidates for control of M. persicae in pepper greenhouses.

  3. Contrasting brood-sex ratio flexibility in two opiine (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of tephritid (Diptera) fruit files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass-rearing of fruit fly parasitoids for augmentative release would be more economical if production could be biased towards females. If sex ratios are ever to be manipulated under rearing conditions it is important to determine if, then understand why, sex ratio flexibility exists. Unequal brood-s...

  4. Quality of the Exotic Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Does Not Show Deleterious Effects after Inbreeding for 10 Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maíra; De Bortoli, Sergio A; Vacari, Alessandra M; Laurentis, Valéria L; Ramalho, Dagmara G

    2016-01-01

    Although the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) has proven effective in controlling sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) for many years, concern has arisen over the quality of individuals produced at large scales. The parasitoid has been reared in laboratories in Brazil for more than 40 years, with no new introductions of new populations during that period. Since the quality of the parasitoids was not verified at the time of the species' introduction in Brazil, we do not know if there has been any reduction in quality so far. However, it is possible to determine whether the parasitoid could reduce in quality in future generations. Thus, the objective of this research was to assess the quality of these insects over 10 generations and look for evidence of any loss in quality. We used two populations: one from a biofactory that has been maintained in the laboratory for over 40 years, and an inbred laboratory population. Both were bred, and compared for 10 generations. We wanted to determine what happened to the quality of the parasitoid after 10 generations in an extreme inbreeding situation. To assure inbreeding, newly emerged females were forced to mate with a sibling. Individual females were then allowed to parasitize larvae of D. saccharalis. We performed evaluations for each generation until the tenth generation, and recorded the sex ratio, percentage emergence, number of offspring/females, and longevity of both males and females. Results of the measurements of biological characteristics demonstrated random significant differences between populations; best results were obtained intermittently for both the biofactory population and the inbred population. No significant differences across generations for the same population were observed. Thus, rearing of a C. flavipes population subjected to inbreeding for 10 generations was not sufficient to reveal any deleterious effects of inbreeding.

  5. Opiine parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Australian and South Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, A E; Wharton, R A; Clarke, A R

    2005-12-01

    Opiine wasps are parasitoids of dacine fruit flies, the primary horticultural pests of Australia and the South Pacific. A taxonomic synopsis and distribution and host records (44% of which are new) for each of the 15 species of dacine-parasitizing opiine braconids found in the South Pacific is presented. Species dealt with are Diachasmimorpha hageni (Fullaway), D. kraussii (Fullaway), D. longicaudata (Ashmead), D. tryoni (Cameron), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), F. deeralensis (Fullaway), F. ferrari Carmichael & Wharton sp. n., F. illusorius (Fischer) comb. n., F. schlingeri Wharton, Opius froggatti Fullaway, Psyttalia fijiensis (Fullaway), P. muesebecki (Fischer), P. novaguineensis (Szépligeti) and Utetes perkinsi (Fullaway). A potentially undescribed species, which may be a colour morph of F. vandenboschi (Fullaway), is diagnosed but not formally described. Fopius vandenboschi sensu stricto, Diachasmimorpha fullawayi Silvestri, Psyttalia concolor Szépligeti and P. incisi Silvestri have been liberated into the region but are not considered to have established: a brief diagnosis of each is included. Biosteres illusorius Fischer is formally transferred to the genus Fopius. A single opiine specimen reared from a species of Bactrocera (Bulladacus) appears to be Utetes albimanus (Szépligeti), but damage to this specimen and to the holotype (the only previously known specimen) means that this species remains unconfirmed as a fruit fly parasite: a diagnosis of U. cf. albimanus is provided. Psyttalia novaguineensis could not be adequately separated from P. fijiensis using previously published characterizations and further work to resolve this complex is recommended. A key is provided to all taxa.

  6. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da [EMBRAPA Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Pereira, Julia D.B. [Universidade Federal do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Souza Filho, Miguel F. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Marinho, Claudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2008-11-15

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  7. A revision of the Yelicones species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) from Central America, with descriptions of sixteen new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quicke, D.L.J.; Chishti, M.J.K.; Basibuyuk, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Yelicones Cameron, 1887, from North and Central America is revised. Ninteen species are recognized: Y. arizonus spec. nov. from U.S.A. (Arizona) and Mexico; Y. barroci spec. nov. from Panama; Y. bicoloripes spec. nov. from Costa Rica and Panama; Y. canalensis spec. nov. from Panama; Y.

  8. Learning by the parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), alters individual fixed preferences for pea aphid color morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Shaun A; Tilmon, Kelley J; Cardinale, Bradley J; Ives, Anthony R

    2006-11-01

    Learning, defined as changes in behavior that occur due to past experience, has been well documented for nearly 20 species of hymenopterous parasitoids. Few studies, however, have explored the influence of learning on population-level patterns of host use by parasitoids in field populations. Our study explores learning in the parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday that attacks pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). We used a sequence of laboratory experiments to investigate whether there is a learned component in the selection of red or green aphid color morphs. We then used the results of these experiments to parameterize a model that examines whether learned behaviors can explain the changes in the rates of parasitism observed in field populations in South-central Wisconsin, USA. In the first of two experiments, we measured the sequence of host choice by A. ervi on pea aphid color morphs and analyzed this sequence for patterns in biased host selection. Parasitoids exhibited an inherent preference for green aphid morphs, but this preference was malleable; initial encounters with red aphids led to a greater chance of subsequent orientation towards red aphids than predicted by chance. In a second experiment, we found no evidence that parasitoids specialize on red or green morphs; for the same parasitoids tested in trials separated by 2 h, color preference in the first trial did not predict color preference in the second, as would be expected if they differed in fixed preferences or exhibited long-term (> 2 h) learning. Using data from the two experiments, we parameterized a population dynamics model and found that learning of the magnitude observed in our experiments leads to biased parasitism towards the most common color morph. This bias is sufficient to explain changes in the ratio of aphid color morphs observed in field sites over multiple years. Our study suggests that for even relatively simple organisms, learned behaviors may be important for explaining the population dynamics of their hosts.

  9. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Dan Mitroiu

    2015-03-01

    Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, ‘Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea’ comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe.

  10. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biló, B M; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude-Elberink, J N G

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula spp.) and honeybee stings are the most prevalent, whereas in the Mediterranean area stings from Polistes and Vespula are more frequent than honeybee stings; bumblebee stings are rare throughout Europe and more of an occupational hazard. Several major allergens, usually glycoproteins with a molecular weight of 10-50 kDa, have been identified in venoms of bees, vespids. and ants. The sequences and structures of the majority of venom allergens have been determined and several have been expressed in recombinant form. A particular problem in the field of cross-reactivity are specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies directed against carbohydrate epitopes, which may induce multiple positive test results (skin test, in vitro tests) of still unknown clinical significance. Venom hypersensitivity may be mediated by immunologic mechanisms (IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated venom allergy) but also by nonimmunologic mechanisms. Reactions to Hymenoptera stings are classified into normal local reactions, large local reactions, systemic toxic reactions, systemic anaphylactic reactions, and unusual reactions. For most venom-allergic patients an anaphylactic reaction after a sting is very traumatic event, resulting in an altered health-related quality of life. Risk factors influencing the outcome of an anaphylactic reaction include the time interval between stings, the number of stings, the severity of the preceding reaction, age, cardiovascular diseases and drug intake, insect type, elevated serum tryptase, and mastocytosis. Diagnostic tests should be carried out in all patients with a history of a systemic sting reaction to detect sensitization. They are not recommended in subjects with

  11. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Ward

    Full Text Available Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE. Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae. However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286, and major differences include: i the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe; and ii the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%. The disharmonic 'island' nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36% have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60% compared to Europe (~30%, and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950. Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment.

  12. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of dipterous collected in manure chicken in south of Goias/ Parasitóides (Hymenoptera de dípteros coletados em fezes de galinha no sul de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to verify the parasitoids associated with synanthropic dipterous in manure chicken, in Itumbiara, State of Goiás, from April 2006 to March 2007. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The species of parasitoids collected were: one specimen of Aphaereta sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae, two specimens of Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomidae, 26 specimens of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae, 65 specimens of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae, 38 specimens of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910, (Pteromalidae, um specimen of Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887, 147 specimes de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839, three specimens of Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805, 10 specimens of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839, 21 specimens of Spalangia sp. And 54 specimens of Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae. The specie more frequent was S. endius with 47.7%.Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar os parasitóides associados com dípteros sinantrópicos em fezes de galinha, em Itumbiara, Estado de Goiás, de abril de 2006 a março de 2007. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação. Elas foram individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas domésticas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As espécies de parasitóides coletados foram: um espécime de Aphaereta sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae, dois espécimes de Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomidae, 26 espécimes de Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae, 65 espécimes de Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae, 38 espécimes de Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910 (Pteromalidae, um espécime de Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887, 147 espécimes de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839, três espécimes de Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805, 10 espécimes de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839, 21 esp

  13. Inventario de Hymenoptera (Hexapoda en El Ventorrillo: un rico enclave de biodiversidad en la Sierra de Guadarrama (España Central

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    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Overall data of the inventory of Hymenoptera from the Biogeological Station of “El Ventorrillo” are presented. The studied site is located at an altitude of 1450 m, on the south face of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Central Spain, about 60 km NW from Madrid. Between 1988 and 1991 an insect biodiversity inventory was carried out using three sampling methods: Malaise traps, yellow pan traps and sweep nets. Out of the more than 1,000,000 insects trapped, increasing the collections of the MNCN, about 600,000 were sorted to order. We found 83,688 individuals of Hymenoptera (representing 13,8% and the second more abundant group in the samples, after Diptera (450,000 individuals and 77,5% of total. Forty nine families, 518 genera and 1310 species de Hymenoptera has been identified until now. The overall richness of Hymenoptera from El Ventorrillo is estimated in 2700 species and about 13,000 the number of insect species from the study site. An appendix is provided with the list of identified species and its overall abundance in the samples. As results of the inventory, ten new species for science have been described, and several more new species are not yet described; additionally, at least 33 genera and more than 170 species were recorded for the first time for Iberia. The abundance of Hymenoptera, as measured by Malaise trap catches, was very high, comparatively to other published data, reaching a peak of 916 individuals per trap day at the most productive trap and sampling period. The more abundant families were, in decreasing order, Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Apidae and Pteromalidae, represented by numbers of individuals between 12,000, for Braconidae, to near 6000 for Pteromalidae. Among the identified families, the more species rich at the study area were in decreasing order: Pteromalidae (290, Ichneumonidae (217, Sphecidae (107 and Eulophidae (101 species. The richness of the 29 remaining families at the area of study was

  14. Eficiencia del tratamiento de residuales ganaderos en digestores de geomembrana

    OpenAIRE

    Yanet Pérez González; Milagros C. Mata Varela

    2016-01-01

    Se evaluó la eficiencia de doce biodigestores de geomembrana de 10 m3, instalados para tratar los residuales porcinos y ganaderos –en Cooperativas de Créditos y Servicios (CCS) del municipio Cumanayagua–, con el objetivo de evaluar la factibilidad de la implantación en Cuba de la tecnología. Los indicadores físico-químicos de los efluentes fueron determinados en el momento de su entrada y su salida de los biodigestores. En los biodigestores que trabajan con residual porcino se alcanzó remover...

  15. Eficiencia en el uso del agua por las plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Medrano Gil, Hipólito; Bota Salort, Josefina; Cifre Llompart, Josep; Flexas Sans, Jaume; Ribas Carbó, Miquel; Gulías León, Javier

    2007-01-01

    La disponibilidad de agua es el principal factor limitante de la producción agrícola y ganadera en ambientes de clima mediterráneo. Limitación que, ante las previsiones de Cambio Climático Global realizadas por organismo internacionales, serán mucho mayores en los próximos años. En este escenario, la eficiencia en el uso de los recursos hídricos debe ser un aspecto transversal de las políticas públicas que debe, por tanto, ser afrontado desde diversos puntos de vista. En este sentido, uno ...

  16. Eficiencia de selección en planteles ovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Flamarique Carreiro, Virginia C.

    1991-01-01

    p.165-173 Se determinaron valores de eficiencia de selección en ovinos PDP, PPC y majada general para dos razas y distintas zonas geográficas en form a independiente para ambos sexos. Los valores hallados fluctúan entre -3por ciento y 95por ciento para los distintos grupos. Se analizaron los resultados obtenidos y se discute su relación con las distintas situaciones productivas y objetivos de selección. Para algunos casos, se calculan las correlaciones fenotípicas entre caracteres de impor...

  17. Benchmarking y Cotilleing: eficiencia en acción

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moracho, O

    2011-01-01

    ... a la eficiencia en la prestación de los servicios mediante el aprendizaje y la mejora disruptiva. Dentro de ellos, el benchmarking es una metodología con un enorme potencial de uso. Supone un proceso sistemático y continuo para evaluar comparativamente los resultados, productos, servicios y formas de trabajo en las organizaciones, para identificar de esta forma las mejores prácticas e incorporarlas en la empresa. El término se utilizó por primera vez como benchmarking competitivo en la Corporaci...

  18. UNIDADES DE EMPRENDIMIENTO BAJO UN ESTUDIO DE EFICIENCIA RELATIVA

    OpenAIRE

    GLORIA ISABEL RODRÍGUEZ LOZANO; ORLANDO TARAZONA MORALES

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un análisis comparativo de la eficiencia relativa de un grupo de Unidades de Emprendimiento (UE) ubicadas en la ciudad de Bogotá, utilizando Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Con base en la información obtenida de las UE estudiadas se definieron las entradas y sali - das, se generaron los diferentes submodelos, la Frontera Eficiente para cada uno y se analizaron los factores que determinaron esa condición. El presente estudio termina planteando la posibilidad de adel...

  19. Naamlijst van de Nederlandse bronswespen (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Checklist of the chalcid wasps of the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) A first list of Dutch Chalcidoidea was published by Snellen van Vollenhoven in Herklots (Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1858). This list contained 24 species of chalcids, partly synonyms of each other. In a new list (Snellen van

  20. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  1. (Apidae: Hymenoptera) pollination on yields of Cucumeropsis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The honeybees play an important role in the pollinations of many field crops. Here, we assessed the effect of the presence of honeybee colonies, A. mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) in the production of African melon crop, C. mannii (Naudin) (Cucurbitaceae) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of. Congo.

  2. Eficiencia del tratamiento de residuales ganaderos en digestores de geomembrana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Pérez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de doce biodigestores de geomembrana de 10 m3, instalados para tratar los residuales porcinos y ganaderos –en Cooperativas de Créditos y Servicios (CCS del municipio Cumanayagua–, con el objetivo de evaluar la factibilidad de la implantación en Cuba de la tecnología. Los indicadores físico-químicos de los efluentes fueron determinados en el momento de su entrada y su salida de los biodigestores. En los biodigestores que trabajan con residual porcino se alcanzó remover el 75,88 % de la DQO y hasta el 66,44 % de los SS, se garantiza además que el 64,79 % de la carga orgánica contaminante sea convertida en productos volátiles en el proceso de biofermentación; mientras que los biodigestores que trabajan con residuales vacuno alcanzaron una remoción 60,42 % en la DQO y hasta 67,67 % de los SS, se garantiza además que el 61,51 % de la carga orgánica contaminante sea convertida en productos volátiles. Se concluye que los biodigestores tuvieron valores aceptables de eficiencia, y que esta tecnología es factible de ser empleada en Cuba.

  3. Clinical Characteristics of Allergy to Hymenoptera Stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Kijmassuwan, Teera; Visitsunthorn, Kittipos; Pacharn, Panchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of allergy to stings from the Hymenoptera order of insects in a hospital in Thailand. A descriptive retrospective analytical study was carried out in inpatients and outpatients suffering from Hymenoptera stings from 2009 to 2013 in Siriraj Hospital. Medical records of 386 patients with an allergy to Hymenoptera stings were evaluated. Anaphylaxis was more common in patients younger than 15 years, who comprised 22.3% of patients in this study. The most common sting type was from wasps (58.3%). Eighty-five percent of patients sought medical treatment less than 24 hours after being stung. A systemic reaction and anaphylaxis were found in 9.9% and 4.4% of subjects, respectively. In 17 patients with anaphylaxis, only 11 patients (64.7%) received an epinephrine (adrenaline) injection as treatment, and only 8 (47.1%) received epinephrine autoinjectors or epinephrine-prefilled syringes to prevent a possible subsequent severe reaction. Significantly more patients younger than 15 years received epinephrine for prevention of an allergic reaction than did those older than 15 years (87.5% vs 11.7%, P < 0.001). Antibiotics were given to 43.0% of patients. Anaphylaxis from Hymenoptera stings was more common in children than in adults. Only half of the patients visited the emergency room within 1 hour of being stung. Overuse of antibiotics and underuse of epinephrine were found. More information about Hymenoptera stings should be provided to the public, and the use of epinephrine should be encouraged in the case of severe reactions and anaphylaxis.

  4. UNIDADES DE EMPRENDIMIENTO BAJO UN ESTUDIO DE EFICIENCIA RELATIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA ISABEL RODRÍGUEZ LOZANO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis comparativo de la eficiencia relativa de un grupo de Unidades de Emprendimiento (UE ubicadas en la ciudad de Bogotá, utilizando Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Con base en la información obtenida de las UE estudiadas se definieron las entradas y sali - das, se generaron los diferentes submodelos, la Frontera Eficiente para cada uno y se analizaron los factores que determinaron esa condición. El presente estudio termina planteando la posibilidad de adelantar estudios similares en organizaciones dedicadas a promover y apoyar el emprendimiento en otros países, con el fin de continuar construyendo conocimiento alrededor de esta temática.

  5. Cultura de trabajo para garantizar la sostenibilidad; eficiencia e impacto final de las tecnologias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senra, A

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de esta ponencia es exponer una cultura o estilo de trabajo para obtener una mayor sostenibilidad y eficiencia en los sistemas de explotacion bovinos, principalmente de produccion lechera...

  6. Efecto de la beca CONACYT en la eficiencia terminal en el posgrado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez Gomez, Miguel; Gomez Polanco, Edith; Morfin Otero, Maria

    2012-01-01

    ...) en los indices de eficiencia terminal de posgrado en Mexico analizado en la Maestria en Tecnologias para el Aprendizaje del Centro Universitario de la Costa de la Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG...

  7. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, 'Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)' comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe.

  8. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, ‘Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)’ comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe. PMID:25859127

  9. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  10. Cómo mejorar la eficiencia operativa utilizando el trabajo en equipo

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Franco; Francisco Velásquez

    2000-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta un modelo para aumentar la eficiencia operativa de diversas organizaciones de la economía con el fin de mejorar sus resultados financieros y por consiguiente su competitividad. Este modelo permite aprovechar los talentos de las personas que laboran en la empresa, organizándolos en equipos o grupos para que puedan identificar y aprovechar oportunidades de mejoramiento que conduzcan a un aumento significativo de la eficiencia p...

  11. Mieren in Veluwebermen: soortenrijkdom en aanbevelingen voor beheer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Boer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ants in roadside verges on the Veluwe: species richness and recommendations for management (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Highway verges in the Veluwe region contain some well developed nutrient poor plant communities, like grasslands, grey hair grass vegetation and heather vegetation. These places

  12. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  13. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) new for the fauna of Norway, Part 5

    OpenAIRE

    RIEDEL, Matthias; Hansen, Lars Ove

    2012-01-01

    The family Ichneumonidae represents a very species-rich family of parasitoid Hymenoptera. In Norway, 1583 different Ichneumonid species have been reported so far. The present survey gives distributional records for 98 additional species of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) previously not known from Norway. 21 of them have hitherto not been reported from Scandinavia, including the first Palaearctic record of Syrphophilus tricinctus (Ashmead, 1902). Posted here with permission from the...

  14. Rilascio e insediamento di Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera Torymidae) in Sardegna

    OpenAIRE

    Loru, Laura; Fois, Xenia; Fadda, Maria Leonarda; Peddes, Angelo; Pantaleoni, Roberto Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The classical biological control based on the release of the parasitoid Torymus sinensis Kamijo (Hymenoptera, Torymidae) is considered to be the only effective method of controlling Dryocosmus kuriphilus ((Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), a major pest of Castanea species worldwide. In our multi-year study, performed between 2009 and 2015, we confirm the establishment of T. sinensis in Sardinia (Italy) and its effectiveness in controlling gall wasp infestation.

  15. Análisis de eficiencia de algoritmos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovos, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La resolución de un problema usando una computadora puede ser modelada por diferentes algoritmos. De aquí la importancia de contar con herramientas que nos permitan seleccionar el algoritmo que sea más eficiente, es decir, el que insuma menos recursos del ordenador: tiempo y memoria necesarios para su ejecución. Existen dos formas de medir la complejidad de un algoritmo: análisis teórico y análisis empírico. En este trabajo se presenta la descripción del simulador, “SIMULA-ALGO”, junto con la propuesta de uso y detalles del diseño de la interfaz. Se presenta además una fundamentación teórica sobre las ventajas del uso de la simulación como recurso pedagógico-didáctico. El simulador se propone como recurso para la enseñanza aprendizaje del análisis teórico de eficiencia de algoritmos. El mismo está destinado a alumnos de los primeros años de carreras universitarias de licenciatura en sistemas. Los contenidos considerados en el simulador, requieren, para su comprensión, del uso de procesos cognitivos analíticos. El simulador pretende optimizar estos procesos en el alumno que lo usa. Así, por ejemplo, el simulador podrá realizar procesos rutinarios en forma rápida y efectiva, permitiendo que el alumno se concentre en los procesos analíticos que requiere la tarea.

  16. Semiochemicals From Fungal Associates of Bark Beetles May Mediate Host Location Behavior of Parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; C. Wayne Berisford

    2004-01-01

    In laboratory olfactometer bioassays, females of two hymenopteran parasitoid species, Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Spathius pallidus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), were attracted to odors from bark or bolts of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., colonized by bluestain fungi (genus ...

  17. Twenty-four new species of Aleiodes Wesmael from the eastern Andes of Ecuador with associated biological information (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Shimbori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aleiodes Wesmael is the most diverse rogadine genus worldwide, with specialized koinobiont endoparasitic development in Lepidoptera caterpillars resulting in mummification of the host remains. This paper focuses on describing new Aleiodes species from the Yanayacu Biological Station, with special interest in those with biological information. We describe 24 new species (Aleiodes albidactyl sp. n., Aleiodes albigena sp. n., Aleiodes albiviria sp. n., Aleiodes bimaculatus sp. n., Aleiodes cacuangoi sp. n., Aleiodes colberti sp.n., Aleiodes delicatus sp. n., Aleiodes dyeri sp. n., Aleiodes elleni sp. n., Aleiodes falloni sp. n., Aleiodes frosti sp.n., Aleiodes kingmani sp. n., Aleiodes longikeros sp. n., Aleiodes luteosicarius sp. n., Aleiodes marilynae sp. n., Aleiodes mirandae sp. n., Aleiodes napo sp. n., Aleiodes nubicola sp. n., Aleiodes onyx sp. n., Aleiodes shakirae sp. n., Aleiodes stewarti sp. n., Aleiodes townsendi sp. n., Aleiodes tzantza sp. n., and Aleiodes yanayacu sp.n. from Napo Province in Ecuador, 16 of which were reared from host caterpillars. With these results 89 species of Neotropical Aleiodes are now known, with 41 of themhost records. The most commonly reared species were in the circumscriptus/gastritor species-group, and mostly associated with Geometridae hosts (six of ten species. Three species of seriatus species-group, in contrast, were each reared from a different family. One of these species (i.e. A. frosti sp. n., reared from Notodontidae, cuts a posterior radial opening in the mummy for emergence, a unique behavior in Aleiodes, recorded here for the first time. A. luteosicarius sp. n. is the first described species from Ecuador in the pallidator species-group. Differing from previously described pallidator species, which attack only Lymantriinae larvae, A. luteosicarius sp. n. attacks several species of Arctiinae larvae, being both subfamilies within Erebidae with densely setose caterpillars. We also describe new species of the gressitti and pulchripes species-groups.

  18. Twenty-four new species of Aleiodes Wesmael from the eastern Andes of Ecuador with associated biological information (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbori, Eduardo Mitio; Shaw, Scott Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aleiodes Wesmael is the most diverse rogadine genus worldwide, with specialized koinobiont endoparasitic development in Lepidoptera caterpillars resulting in mummification of the host remains. This paper focuses on describing new Aleiodes species from the Yanayacu Biological Station, with special interest in those with biological information. We describe 24 new species (Aleiodes albidactyl sp. n., Aleiodes albigena sp. n., Aleiodes albiviria sp. n., Aleiodes bimaculatus sp. n., Aleiodes cacuangoi sp. n., Aleiodes colberti sp. n., Aleiodes delicatus sp. n., Aleiodes dyeri sp. n., Aleiodes elleni sp. n., Aleiodes falloni sp. n., Aleiodes frosti sp. n., Aleiodes kingmani sp. n., Aleiodes longikeros sp. n., Aleiodes luteosicarius sp. n., Aleiodes marilynae sp. n., Aleiodes mirandae sp. n., Aleiodes napo sp. n., Aleiodes nubicola sp. n., Aleiodes onyx sp. n., Aleiodes shakirae sp. n., Aleiodes stewarti sp. n., Aleiodes townsendi sp. n., Aleiodes tzantza sp. n., and Aleiodes yanayacu sp. n.) from Napo Province in Ecuador, 16 of which were reared from host caterpillars. With these results 89 species of Neotropical Aleiodes are now known, with 41 of them having host records. The most commonly reared species were in the circumscriptus/gastritor species-group, and mostly associated with Geometridae hosts (six of ten species). Three species of seriatus species-group, in contrast, were each reared from a different family. One of these species (i.e. A. frosti sp. n.), reared from Notodontidae, cuts a posterior radial opening in the mummy for emergence, a unique behavior in Aleiodes, recorded here for the first time. A. luteosicarius sp. n. is the first described species from Ecuador in the pallidator species-group. Differing from previously described pallidator species, which attack only Lymantriinae larvae, A. luteosicarius sp. n. attacks several species of Arctiinae larvae, being both subfamilies within Erebidae with densely setose caterpillars. We also describe new species of the gressitti and pulchripes species-groups. PMID:24843275

  19. Biología y ciclo reproductivo de Apanteles gelechiidivoris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, parasitoide de Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajonero Johanna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Apanteles gelechiidivoris es un parasitoide de larvas de Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, una plaga importante de cultivos como el tomate y la papa. El uso de este insecto para el control biológico no se ha implementado eficientemente debido a la falta de conocimiento de la biología, específicamente del ciclo de vida y el efecto de factores externos, como la temperatura, en su capacidad parasítica. Se evaluó el desarrollo y la capacidad reproductiva de A. gelechiidivoris en cuatro condiciones térmicas: 14, 20, 26 y 32 °C. En la evaluación del desarrollo se realizó una descripción del ciclo, se determinó la duración total de este, se estimaron los umbrales térmicos para cada estadio utilizando el modelo de Lactin y se hallaron los grados día. En la evaluación de la capacidad reproductiva se variaron las densidades del hospedero ofrecidas a una pareja recién emergida de la avispa de 5 hasta 160 y se contó el número de adultos emergidos con los cuales se evaluó longevidad y fecundidad. Adicionalmente se ajustó un modelo de respuesta funcional. La duración del ciclo de vida para las temperaturas evaluadas fue de 39 días en 14 °C, 34 en 20 °C, 19 en 26 °C y 17 en 32 °C. La longevidad fue de 7,5 (14 °C, 7 (20 °C, 5 (26 °C y 2,4 (32 °C días. La temperatura a la cual se pueden optimizar los parámetros reproductivos de esta avispa se encuentra entre 20 y 26 °C.

  20. Oviposition behaviour of four ant parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae, Neoneurini and Ichneumonidae, Hybrizontinae, with the description of three new European species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behaviour of four ant parasitoids was observed and filmed for the first time. The movies are available from YouTube (search for Elasmosoma, Hybrizon, Kollasmosoma and Neoneurus. Two of the observed species (Neoneurus vesculus sp. n. and Kollasmosoma sentum sp. n. are new to science. A third species (Neoneurus recticalcar sp. n. is described from Slovakia and Norway. Keys to the Palaearctic species of the genera Neoneurus and Kollasmosoma are added.

  1. Genética y citogenética de la determinación del sexo en Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.

    2011-01-01

    El parasitoide bracónido Diachasmimorpha longicaudata es ampliamente utilizado como controlador biológico de moscas de los frutos; sin embargo, es escaso el conocimiento disponible sobre su genética. A fin de aportar información y mejorar su cría masiva, se estudió su sistema de determinación del sexo mediante la realización de cruzamientos de alta y baja endogamia, utilizando herramientas de citogenética para determinar el nivel de ploidía de la descendencia. Asimismo, se analizó su espermat...

  2. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identification, and DNA barcoding over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best place-ba...

  3. Effects of GNA transgenic sugarcane on life history parameters of Parallorhogas pyralophagus (Marsh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of Mexican rice borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Beverly Wachtel; Bernal, Julio S

    2003-06-01

    Parallorhogas pyralophagus (Marsh) is the principal parasitoid of the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar)], the primary pest of sugarcane in south Texas. Insect resistant transgenic sugarcane producing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) was developed to improve control of E. loftini. The present laboratory study addressed whether over two consecutive generations transgenic sugarcane delivered via artificial diet has adverse host-mediated effects on P. pyralophagus life history parameters. The results of this study showed that a number of life history parameters were affected by transgenic sugarcane, whereas others were not affected, and that effects varied between generations. In the first generation, adult longevity was increased by approximately 2 d, and cocoon to adult and egg to adult developmental times were prolonged by approximately 1 d in parasitoids exposed to transgenic sugarcane, whereas effects were not evident on adult size; egg load; egg to cocoon developmental time; rates of gain of longevity and egg load with adult size; and egg, larval, and pupal mortality. However, in the second generation, adult longevity was reduced by approximately 3 d, adult size by approximately 5%, egg load by approximately 24%, and rate of gain of longevity with adult size by approximately 21%, whereas effects were not evident on the rate of gain of egg load with adult size. It was concluded that although GNA transgenic sugarcane, ingested via E. loftini tissues, was not acutely toxic to P. pyralophagus, the sublethal effects on life history parameters measured in this study must be considered in a broader context to determine their possible ecological significance.

  4. Revision of the Oriental genera of Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae with an emphasis on Thailand and interactive keys to genera published in three different formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sharkey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The genera of Oriental Agathidinae are revised and a fully illustrated dichotomous key is presented. New generic concepts are proposed for Bassus Fabricius, 1804 and Hypsostypos Baltazar, 1963. Bassus is restricted to a clade with an Old World distribution and the remaining members are divided amongst the resurrected genera Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920, Lytopylus Förster, 1862, and Therophilus Wesmael, 1837. The concept of Hypsostypos is restricted and the new genus Amputostypos Sharkey, gen. n. is proposed to include species formerly included in Hypsostypos that do not have raised antennal bases. Troticus Brullé, 1846 is reported from the Oriental region for the first time. Eighteen genera are recognized for Thailand and neighboring areas, i.e., Agathis Latreille, 1804, Amputostypos, Aneurobracon Brues, 1930, Bassus, Biroia Szépligeti, 1900, Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894, Camptothlipsis, Coccygidium Saussure, 1892, Cremnops Förster, 1862, Disophrys Förster, 1862, Earinus Wesmael, 1837, Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900, Gryochus Enderlein, 1920, Hypsostypos, Lytopylus Förster, 1862, Therophilus, Cremnoptoides van Achterberg & Chen, 2004, and Troticus. Identification keys to the genera are provided as a standard textual dichotomous key, as well as online keys in three different formats (conventional dichotomous, DELTA/Intkey, Lucid, and MX to enable users to choose their prefered platform and to allow direct comparisons of the technologies for producing online keys. Publication of underlying data (data matrices, character states table, and images under the OpenDataCommons license (ODbl (http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/ for DELTA/Intkey files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.1.ik, primary DELTA files (10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.2.ik Lucid3 (LIF3 and Lucid SDD key data files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.3.ik and MX MySQL database files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.4.ik allows future workers to edit keys and to add newly described taxa. The data files for the keys published and stored on the publisher’s website and in e-archives have the rights of “first publication” identified by its bibliography data, location and citation. Readers should cite the first published version and the day of accession in case they use future online versions of the same key. The concept of publication, citation, preservation, and re-use of data files to interactive keys under the open access model is discussed in a forum paper published in the present issue (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.274.

  5. An Insight in the Reproductive Biology of Therophilus javanus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, and Agathidinae), a Potential Biological Control Agent against the Legume Pod Borer (Lepidoptera, Crambidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboubakar Souna, Djibril; Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé; Ravallec, Marc; Cusumano, Antonino; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert; Volkoff, Anne Nathalie; Tamò, Manuele

    2017-01-01

    Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20-80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential

  6. An Insight in the Reproductive Biology of Therophilus javanus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, and Agathidinae, a Potential Biological Control Agent against the Legume Pod Borer (Lepidoptera, Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibril Aboubakar Souna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20–80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential fecundity, and egg load in T. javanus, as well as the effect of factors such as age of the female and parasitoid/host size at oviposition on egg load. The number of ovarioles was found to be variable and significantly influenced by the age/size of the M. vitrata caterpillar when parasitized. Egg load also was strongly influenced by both the instar of M. vitrata caterpillar at the moment of parasitism and wasp age. The practical implications of these findings for improving mass rearing of the parasitoid toward successful biological control of M. vitrata are discussed.

  7. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF. Souza-Filho

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann, A. obliqua (Macquart, A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker, N. glaberrima (Wiedemann, N. pendula (Bezzi, N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis, as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, D. brasiliensis (Szépligeti, Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut, and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchôa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years.

  8. Producción masiva y simultánea de machos de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae y parasitoides Dichasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N. LÓPEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En la línea de sexado genético «Cast191» las hembras de Ceratitis capitata son homocigotas para el gen slow , lo que reduce su velocidad de desarrollo; los machos son heterocigotas y muestran una velocidad de desarrollo normal. Esta característica permitió producir, con Cast191, machos estériles por un lado, y parasitoides criados sobre las larvas remanentes por el otro. Nuestro objetivo con este trabajo fue producir ambos insumos simultáneamente y a una escala mayor que hasta ahora. Además, bajo estas condiciones, y en un intento por aumentar la separación entre sexos, se aplicó a las larvas del primer estadío un pulso de 15º C, durante 1 ó 2 días, luego del cual se las mantuvo a 20º C ó 25º C, hasta que entraron al estado de pupa, luego se mantuvo todo el material a 25º C. La mejor separación de sexos, lograda con el tratamiento a 20º C sin pulso de frío, se usó para comparar la calidad del parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, criado sobre las larvas obtenidas tras la separación de los machos, con aquellos criados sobre la línea salvaje. Para ello, este tratamiento de separación fue aplicado en la cría de la mosca, y el material remanente de dieta con larvas fue expuesto al parasitoide. La tasa de parasitismo obtenida fue semejante a la hallada sobre la línea salvaje, y la tasa sexual de la F1 del parasitoide presentó un sesgo hacia las hembras aún mayor. Se discute la factibilidad de utilizar la línea Cast191 de C. Capitata, para la producción a mayor escala de machos de mosca y para la cría masiva del parasitoide D. longicaudata.

  9. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae of the mealy plum aphid Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffr. on common reed (Phragmites australis in different types of habitat in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barczak T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to determine the parasitoid guild of the mealy plum aphid Hyalopterus pruni on common reed (Phragmites australis in different types of habitats in central Poland. The investigations were carried out in selected areas of the Salted Kujawy Region (central-northern Poland. To compare the parasitoid guilds of H. pruni from common reed in different types of habitats, species composition, number, domination structure and the percentage of parasitization (effectiveness were evaluated. The primary parasitoid guild of H. pruni on common reed in central Poland comprises three aphidiine braconids, mainly Praon volucre and P. abjectum. The number of the primary parasitoid species and their effectiveness in the aphid colonies were very low. Hence, common reed did not seem to be a good reservoir of the H. pruni parasitoids, but it may play a role as a place of dispersion of these insects, beneficial to orchards. A very low number of the hyperparasitoids were observed in the aphid colonies.

  10. Regulação da microbiota intestinal de hospedeiros permissivo e não- permissivo por Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalia Cavichiolli de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoides interferem no sistema imunológico de seus hospedeiros, influenciando a expressão de genes relacionados à resposta celular e humoral, podendo interferir na relação hospedeiro - microbiota intestinal. Além disso, parasitoides induzem alterações fisiológicas no hospedeiro que alteram o consumo e a utilização de alimento, e que podem influenciar a microbiata intestinal do mesmo. Alterações nessa microbiota poderiam afetar as relações e contribuições ao hospedeiro e, consequentemente,...

  11. Courtship and mating behaviour in the parasitoid wasp Cotesia urabae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): mate location and the influence of competition and body size on male mating success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, G A; Withers, T M; Holwell, G I

    2017-08-01

    Cotesia urabae is a solitary larval endoparasitoid that was introduced into New Zealand in 2011 as a classical biological control agent against Uraba lugens. A detailed knowledge of its reproductive biology is required to optimize mass rearing efficiency. In this study, the courtship and mating behaviour of C. urabae is described and investigated from a series of experiments, conducted to understand the factors that influence male mating success. Cotesia urabae males exhibited a high attraction to virgin females but not mated females, whereas females showed no attraction to either virgin or mated males. Male mating success was highest in the presence of a male competitor. Also, the time to mate was shorter and copulation duration was longer when a male competitor was present. Larger male C. urabae had greater mating success than smaller males when paired together with a single female. This knowledge can now be utilized to improve mass rearing methods of C. urabae for the future.

  12. Systematics and biology of Cotesia typhae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae, a potential biological control agent against the noctuid Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Kaiser

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitoid species are subjected to strong selective pressures from their host, and their adaptive response may result in the formation of genetically differentiated populations, called host races. When environmental factors and reproduction traits prevent gene flow, host races become distinct species. Such a process has recently been documented within the Cotesia flavipes species complex, all of which are larval parasitoids of moth species whose larvae are stem borers of Poales. A previous study on the African species C. sesamiae, incorporating molecular, ecological and biological data on various samples, showed that a particular population could be considered as a distinct species, because it was specialized at both host (Sesamia nonagrioides and plant (Typha domingensis levels, and reproductively isolated from other C. sesamiae. Due to its potential for the biological control of S. nonagrioides, a serious corn pest in Mediterranean countries and even in Iran, we describe here Cotesia typhae Fernandez-Triana sp. n. The new species is characterized on the basis of morphological, molecular, ecological and geographical data, which proved to be useful for future collection and rapid identification of the species within the species complex. Fecundity traits and parasitism success on African and European S. nonagrioides populations, estimated by laboratory studies, are also included.

  13. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  14. Análisis de la eficiencia técnica de las explotaciones lecheras

    OpenAIRE

    Iraizoz Apezteguia, Belén; Rapún Gárate, Manuel; Zabaleta Arregui, Idoia

    1998-01-01

    El objetivo de este documento de trabajo es estimar y analizar la eficiencia técnica de un conjunto de explotaciones lecheras en una de las zonas prepirenáica de la Pení’nsula Ibérica. El método de análisis consiste en la estimación de funciones de producción frontera, una paramétrica y otra no paramétrica. A partir de las mismas se obtendrán dos medidas de la eficiencia técnica individual de cada explotación, lo que nos permitirá contrastar si la medida de la eficiencia técnica depende del m...

  15. Insectos asociados con flores de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, con énfasis en Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Fernández T.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los insectos visitantes en flores de nueve especies de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Oriental, durante 1993 (marzo a junio, en primavera y 1994 (enero a marzo, final del invierno y comienzo de la primavera. Se contabilizaron unas 50 horas de recolecta en tres horarios diferentes (0900-0930 hr en 1993; 0900-0930 hr, 1200-1230 hr y 1500-1530 hr en 1994. Se identificaron más de 140 especies y por lo menos 37 familias; Hymenoptera fue el orden mejor representado (con más de la mitad de los individuos rerecolectados, seguido de Diptera, Coleoptera y Lepidoptera. Dentro de Hymenoptera las abejas (Apoidea fueron mayoritarias, especialmente Apis mellifera L.; seguidas de avispas (Vespidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae e icneumónidos (Ichneumonidae; los microhimenópteros no se recolectaron. Se comparó la himenopterofauna en cuanto a diversidad, similitud, especies dominantes y subdominantes, preferencia de horarios, eficiencia de los muestreos, etc. Cada especie de planta sustentó una fauna característica. Casi un tercio de los himenópteros visitantes fueron controles biológicos de plagas agrícolas, y la mayoría pueden considerarse polinizadores. Especies afines filogenéticamente presentaron patrones de actividad diaria semejante. El horario 0900 -0930 hr fue el de mayor biodiversidad en cuanto a número de especies visitantes. Al analizar el número de especies con relación al número de especímenes rerecolectados, así como el total de especies y número de muestreos realizados, las funciones de mejor ajuste fueron polinomiales de segundo grado (r² = 0.9734 y r² = 0.9573 respectivamente, p The insect visitors of flowers in nine weeds species were studied in the Botanical Garden of Santiago de Cuba, Eastern Cuba, during 1993 (March - June, spring season and 1994 (January - March, end of winter and beginning of spring season. About 50 hours of collecting efforts were made at three times (0900-0930 hr in

  16. La influencia del Aspecto en la eficiencia del mensaje gráfico publicitario

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Bouza, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    La investigación se centra en cómo mejorar la eficiencia del mensaje gráfico publicitario desde la perspectiva formal del diseño y concreta la variación de la preferencia del receptor ante los cambios en los estímulos visuales provocados por los cambios de Aspecto del mensaje gráfico publicitario, así como la importancia del aspecto en el rendimiento comunicativo. El trabajo se orienta hacia el estudio de la influencia del Aspecto en la eficiencia del diseño gráfico aplicado a un sector en al...

  17. Mejora de la eficiencia en planta a través del mantenimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Boronat Soler, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    [ES] Identificación de las instalaciones que son cuello de botella. Cálculo y seguimiento del OEE de la planta y revisión del plan de mantenimiento. En el trabajo se incluirá un diagnóstico completo de la planta y un análisis de la situación respecto a la eficiencia de procesos automatizados. El alumno aprenderá a recoger datos de planta, calcular indicadores, diagnosticar situaciones y elaborar un plan de mantenimiento. Boronat Soler, T. (2014). Mejora de la eficiencia en planta a través ...

  18. EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA EN EL CAMPO DEL FRÍO.

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Alonso, Manuel; García Rodríguez, Carmen; Arias Carrillo, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    Se analizan los consumos energéticos más importantes que se producen en el campo del frío, se discuten los factores que afectan en dicho campo a la eficiencia de energía y las principales medidas a realizar para aumentar la eficiencia energética. Se presta principal atención: al aislamiento térmico, a los factores de forma de los almacenes frigoríficos y a las edificaciones, a las horas del día de funcionamiento de las máquinas frigoríficas, a la capacidad de estas, y a la iner...

  19. CONSECUENCIAS DE LA GLOBALIZACIÓN FINANCIERA SOBRE LA EFICIENCIA DEL SISTEMA FINANCIERO

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Tovar García

    2011-01-01

    El artículo aborda teórica y empíricamente el nexo globalización financiera-eficiencia del sistema financiero. Presenta una prueba empírica novedosa, en tanto que utiliza nuevos indicadores de globalización financiera y del desempeño de las funciones básicas del sistema financiero. Se emplea un modelo dinámico con datos de panel, cuyos principales resultados sugieren que la globalización financiera favorece la profundización financiera. Respecto a la eficiencia con que los sistemas financiero...

  20. Análisis de eficiencia en explotaciones lecheras de La Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Arzubi, Amílcar Antonio

    2011-01-01

    En éste estudio se plantean los siguientes objetivos principales: - Conocer las características técnico-económicas de las explotaciones lecheras de la Cuenca de Abasto Sur de Buenos Aires. - Analizar la eficiencia relativa de las explotaciones lecheras. - Identificar características y estrategias diferenciales entre las empresas. - Estudiar la asociación entre la eficiencia, las estrategias y los indicadores económicos. Se eligió el DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) como metodología de análisis...

  1. Un modelo para la medición de la eficiencia en los departamentos universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Díez de Castro, Emilio Pablo; Díez Martín, Francisco de Asis

    2005-01-01

    En términos globales la eficiencia se define como el cociente entre salidas y entradas, es decir, la relación entre los resultados obtenidos en función de los recursos utilizados. El conocimiento del grado de eficiencia de un departamento organizacional se presenta como un aspecto básico para ayudar a la toma de decisiones. Recientemente, las instituciones universitarias se están viendo obligadas a utilizar sistemas de control de presupuesto cada vez más ajustados, en este sentido...

  2. Discrimination of Torymus sinensis Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) and T. beneficus Yasumatsu et Kamijo and their hybrids by allele-specific PCR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yara, Kaori; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2009-01-01

    Torymus sinensis and Torymus beneficus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) are, respectively, introduced and indigenous parasitoid wasps that attack the invasive chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Japan...

  3. PARASITOIDES (HYMENOPTERA DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE NO SEMIÁRIDO DO ESTADO DO CEARÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELTON LUCIO ARAUJO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae, Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann, são importantes pragas da fruticultura no Brasil. Para desenvolver um sistema sustentável de manejo integrado para este grupo de pragas, é fundamental conhecer os parasitoides (Hymenoptera que podem regular as populações destes tefritídeos. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi relatar a diversidade, a distribuição geográfica e as relações tritróficas dos himenópteros parasitoides de moscas-das-frutas, na região do Baixo Jaguaribe, no semiárido do Estado do Ceará, Brasil. Foram realizadas coletas de frutos em sete municípios da região, no período de maio de 2010 amaio de 2013. Os frutos foram levados para o laboratório, onde foram contados, pesados, colocados em bandejas plásticas com vermiculita e fechadas com tecido voile. Após sete dias, a vermiculita foi peneirada para a obtenção dos pupários das moscas-das-frutas que, em seguida, foram contados e acondicionados em placas de Petri, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos (moscas e/ou parasitoides. Quatro espécies de parasitoides foram encontradas: Doryctobracon areolatus(Szépligeti, Opius bellus Gahan, Utetes anastrephae(Viereck (Braconidae e Tetrastichus giffardianusSilvestri (Eulophidae,sendo o mais frequente e com maior distribuição geográfica na região, D. areolatus. Doryctobracon areolatusfoi mais comum em associação com espécies de Anastrepha - A. sororcula Zucchi, A. obliqua (Mcquart e A. zenildae Zucchi, em frutos nativos e com C. capitata em frutos exóticos. Tetrastichus giffardianus foi obtido apenas em associação com C. capitata, em frutos nativos e exóticos. Estas informações podem servir de base para inserção de parasitoides em futuros programas de manejo integrado de moscas-das-frutas, nas condições do Semiárido brasileiro.

  4. Procedimiento para medir y valorar la eficiencia empresarial en el CAI Arrocero Sur del Jíbaro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Luis Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación titulada Procedimiento para medir y valorar la eficiencia empresarial en el CAI Arrocero “Sur del Jíbaro” se realiza un amplio análisis de la bibliografía, basado en dos variables fundamentales, procedimientos específicos y eficiencia empresarial definiendo como objetivo la necesidad que existe de desarrollar un procedimiento específico para medir y valorar la eficiencia. Es por ello que se propone un procedimiento específico, a través de la siguiente secuencia de pasos lógicos: Identificación de los indicadores de eficiencia, importancia de los indicadores según expertos, comportamiento de los indicadores en la organización, determinación del indicador general de eficiencia, valoración integral de la eficiencia en la organización. Resulta de gran utilidad práctica para la empresa el cálculo del IGE pues permite desde el punto de vista cuantitativo brindar una información de cómo está la empresa partiendo de la importancia relativa de cada uno de los indicadores y el comportamiento de ellos en el marco de la empresa, comprobando que el indicador general de eficiencia no se comporta de manera uniforme en todas las Unidades Empresariales de Base (UEB.

  5. Clasificación y eficiencia del Sistema Portuario Español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Garrido, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El actual proceso de innovación tecnológica, alentado por una creciente liberalización y globalización de las economías a nivel internacional, ha propiciado importantes cambios en la organización y gestión de la industria marítima y portuaria que afectan significativamente a la productividad y eficiencia de las actividades desarrolladas en los puertos. En este contexto, la competitividad de nuestro país depende, en gran medida, del desarrollo de los sistemas de transporte, y en particular, de la existencia de unos puertos eficientes que permitan el trasvase de mercancías de un modo ágil y seguro. Por todo ello, en este documento analizamos la eficiencia de los principales puertos del Sistema Portuario Español (SPE usando la metodología DEA (Análisis Envolvente de Datos. El estudio de los niveles de eficiencia alcanzados en los años precedentes por los distintos puertos que componen el SPE, nos permitirá analizar la evolución en los niveles de eficiencia de los mismos con el objeto de llegar a recomendaciones que permitan mejorarla en el futuro. Siendo conscientes de la complejidad y gran diversidad de los puertos que conforman el actual SPE proponemos el estudio previo de la estructura del sistema. El conocimiento de los distintos subsistemas que conforman el SPE nos permite definir grupos homogéneos de puertos en los que promover medidas específicas y diferenciadas que contribuyan a mejorar su eficiencia.

  6. Perspectivas sobre la eficiencia del sistema portuario español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medal Bartual, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La Ley 33/2010, de 5 de agosto, señala explícitamente “la exigencia de adoptar en España medidas que mejoren la gestión de nuestros puertos y su eficiencia, impulsando su competitividad en una coyuntura de fuerte competencia internacional”. Con este objeto, el presente artículo analiza las perspectivas futuras sobre la eficiencia de los puertos que integran el actual Sistema Portuario Español, tanto a corto como a medio plazo. Con ello pretendemos dar respuesta a cuestiones cómo qué nivel de eficiencia van a tener los puertos españoles en el futuro, qué puertos van a liderar el panorama portuario español en los próximos años, o cuál será el ranking jerárquico de dichas entidades en función de su nivel de eficiencia. Las respuestas a las mismas permitirán a los gestores portuarios tomar las medidas oportunas para mejorar la gestión de los puertos en la línea propuesta por la citada Ley. Para el análisis de la eficiencia previsible del Sistema Portuario Español hemos aplicado la metodología DEA con tolerancias, partiendo de las previsiones realizadas por el Organismo Público Puertos del Estado y recogidas en el Plan Estratégico de Infraestructuras y Transportes del 2009.

  7. Análisis de eficiencia relativa de hospitales públicos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Morera-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de eficiencia relativa hospitalaria resulta un tema trascendental para la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, dado que le permite determinar cuáles de los hospitales presentan un mejor desempeño relativo y cuáles podrían mejorar el uso de los recursos. El objetivo es analizar la eficiencia técnica hospitalaria en Costa Rica. Se utilizaron datos del 2012-2013 para los hospitales generales de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social. Para determinar la eficiencia hospitalaria se utiliza el análisis envolvente de datos con dos insumos: gasto en hospitalización y las camas y tres productos: actividad hospitalaria ajustada por casuística, índice de funcionamiento e índice de mortalidad intrahospitalaria ajustada por riesgo. Los resultados muestran que el nivel de eficiencia varía sustancialmente entre los 23 hospitales analizados. En 2013, un 30% de los hospitales resultó ser eficiente técnicamente, situación que mejoró levente respecto a 2012. Este trabajo es una primera aproximación del análisis de eficiencia de los hospitales públicos de Costa Rica. Se realizó un esfuerzo para homogenizar los datos, al ajustar las variables para considerar la complejidad y el riesgo de los casos que maneja cada hospital, de tal forma que los resultados sean comparables entre centros de diferentes tamaño y complejidad. Como conclusión se tiene que el 70% de los hospitales puede mejorar el uso de los recursos.

  8. Estudio de la eficiencia energética de una guardería de obra nueva

    OpenAIRE

    Miralles Calcagno, Joan

    2013-01-01

    En el presente Proyecto Final de Grado se ha realizado el estudio de eficiencia energética de una guardería de obra nueva antes de su ejecución, en la localidad de Barcelona. El estudio lo forman diferentes apartados. Primero, se hace una pequeña introducción a la eficiencia energética, aportando datos sobre el contexto en el que se encuentra este campo y se hace énfasis en el Real Decreto 47/2007 por el que se aprueba el procedimiento básico para la certificación de eficiencia...

  9. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  10. Medidas de eficiencia productiva utilizadas en las compañías de transporte aéreo y alguna evidencia con relación a los cambios observados en dicha eficiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo García Rendón

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo describe cuales han sido las diferentes formas de medir la eficiencia productiva en los medios de transporte aereo, fundamentalmente los de Estados Unidos y los Europeas, aunque marginalmente, se hace alusion a nivel mundial, y ademas trata de mostrar a partir de algunos estudios realizados, cual ha sido la evidencia y el efecto de la desregulacion de estas industrias en cuanto a la eficiencia productiva

  11. Primera cita de la Argentina de Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su parasitoide, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A AQUINO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina la presencia de la avispa galí - cola exótica Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y su para - sitoide natural, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en Eucalyptus camaldulensis de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Ophelimus maskelli es una especie invasora de origen Australiano que ha sido reportada como plaga de los eucaliptos en numerosos países de Asia, Europa y América. Closterocerus chamaleon es un parasitoide exótico cuyo potencial como biocontrolador de O. maskelli está siendo evaluado en algunos países.

  12. La industria minera en México: patrones de desempeño y determinantes de eficiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Gaytán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente artículo es cuantificar y analizar los niveles de eficiencia técnica en la minería no petrolera de México. Se emplea el análisis envolvente de datos (DEA y un modelo econométrico de panel que explora las determinantes de la eficiencia en la operación minera, considerando variables características de la Teoría Económica Regional. Los resultados muestran la consistencia de los patrones de localización, especialización e infraestructura productiva como factores explicativos de la eficiencia; asimismo, estos constituyen un referente que explica los factores puntuales a mejorar para elevar los niveles de eficiencia en el aprovechamiento de los diferentes minerales estudiados.

  13. Relación entre Eficiencia y Efectividad en los Hospitales del Servicio Andaluz de Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Calzado Cejas

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de nuestro estudio se han centrado en el análisis de la eficiencia de los hospitales pertenecientes al Servicio Andaluz de Salud a través del modelo Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Para ello, hemos realizado tres aplicaciones diferentes del modelo, considerando tres fases fundamentales en los análisis de eficiencia en salud. En concreto, con la especificación de dichas fases pretendemos determinar, por un lado: aquellos factores relacionados con los resultados finales conseguidos en la atención hospitalaria, a partir de unos recursos materiales, humanos y económicos; por otro lado: comprender la relación de eficiencia atendiendo, tan sólo, a la actividad realizada en los hospitales, y que como tales consumirán, igualmente, recursos materiales, humanos y económicos; y, finalmente, analizaremos la eficiencia obtenida por los hospitales andaluces relacionando los resultados obtenidos en el cuidado de la salud con todos aquellas actividades desarrolladas en este tipo de organizaciones sanitarias. Una vez obtenida la relación de aquellos hospitales eficientes e ineficientes, procederemos a determinar qué factores explican mejor la eficiencia obtenida en cada modelo analizado. En este sentido, analizaremos qué factores determinan tanto el nivel de eficiencia-ineficiencia de cada hospital, como la pertenencia al grupo de hospitales eficientes o ineficientes. The objective of this paper is the analysis of the efficiency of the public hospitals of Andalusia, Spain, by means of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The DEA model has been applied to 30 Spanish hospitals over the years 1993, 1994 and 1995, using for this three different types of relationships for measuring and evaluating efficiency. The factors that have been correlated are: 1 Resources of Health; 2 Resources and Activity; 3 Activity and Health. As well as identifying the efficient and inefficient hospitals according to each model, for each year, and the particular

  14. The potential of parasitoid Hymenoptera as bioindicators of arthropod diversity in agricultural grasslands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Annette Anderson; Stephen McCormack; Alvin Helden; Helen Sheridan; Anne Kinsella; Gordon Purvis

    2011-01-01

    .... This study tested the hypothesis that parasitoid Hymenoptera are potential bioindicators that provide a useful means to assess the wider biodiversity of arthropod populations in agro-ecosystem...

  15. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom

  16. Faunistic study on Pompilidae (Inseta: Hymenoptera) family in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study that comprises Ankara, Kýrýkkale and Çankýrý provinces, 30 specimens in total were collected, and 6 species belonging to Turkey Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) family were identified as new records in Turkey fauna. The locality and members of these specimens are shown in this material. Their distribution is also ...

  17. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) that occur on oak trees (Quercus spp.) and produce galls on a certain part of the host. In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in ...

  18. Faunistic study on Pompilidae (Inseta: Hymenoptera) family in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... In this study that comprises Ankara, Kırıkkale and Çankırı provinces, 30 specimens in total were collected, and 6 species belonging to Turkey Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) family were identified as new records in Turkey fauna. The locality and members of these specimens are shown in this material. Their.

  19. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary species checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of. Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya, is presented. The species list is based on specimens sampled from 1999 until 2009, which are deposited in the ant collection of the Zoological Research Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany, and the Natural History ...

  20. Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by pitfall traps from Sinai and Delta region, Egypt. Salwa Mohamed', Samy Zalatz, Hassan Fadll, Sohair Gadallal & Moustafa Sharaf“ l. Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. 2. Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, ...

  1. Revision of the world species of Xeris Costa (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri Goulet; Caroline Boudreault; Nathan M. Schiff

    2015-01-01

    Xeris is one of ten extant genera of Siricidae known as as woodwasps or horntails. They are important wood-boring Hymenoptera from the Northern Hemisphere. Adults and larvae of Xeris are often intercepted at ports and are consequently of concern as potential alien invasive species. The genus consists of 16 species with eight in...

  2. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  3. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy: Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Gunter J.; Varga, Eva-Maria; Roberts, Graham; Mosbech, Holger; Bilò, M. Beatrice; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Gawlik, Radoslaw; Jakob, Thilo; Kosnik, Mitja; Lange, Joanna; Mingomataj, Ervin; Mitsias, Dimitris I.; Ollert, Markus; Oude Elberink, Joanna N. G.; Pfaar, Oliver; Pitsios, Constantinos; Pravettoni, Valerio; Ruëff, Franziska; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Agache, Ioana; Angier, Elizabeth; Arasi, Stefania; Calderón, Moises A.; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Halken, Susanne; Jutel, Marek; Lau, Susanne; Pajno, Giovanni B.; van Ree, Ronald; Ryan, Dermot; Spranger, Otto; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Dhami, Sangeeta; Zaman, Hadar; Sheikh, Aziz; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction following a honeybee, vespid or ant sting. Systemic allergic sting reactions have been reported in up to 7.5% of adults and up to 3.4% of children. They can be mild and restricted to the skin or moderate-to-severe with a

  4. Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The honeybees play an important role in the pollinations of many field crops. Here, we assessed the effect of the presence of honeybee colonies, A. mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) in the production of African melon crop, C. mannii (Naudin) (Cucurbitaceae) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.

  5. A new species of Zamischus (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Zamischus (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae from Brazil. A new species of Zamischus from Brazil is described and diagnosed. The species is closely related to Z. brasiliensis but differs in the morphology of antennae and scutellum. Z. aquilesi sp. nov. was collected via Malaise trapping in a tobacco field in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul.

  6. De schermbloemzandbij Andrena nitidiuscula terug in Nederland (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.

    2005-01-01

    New records of Andrena nitidiuscula in the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) In 2005 Andrena nitidiuscula was observed from late June till mid August in a garden and a few other sites near Maastricht (Limburg). These observations are the first since 1950 and refute the classification as extinct in

  7. Michanthidium almeidai, a new species from northeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Danúncia; Parizotto, Daniele Regina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Michanthidium Urban (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)is described and figured from Sergipe and Bahia States, northeastern Brazil. An identification key, illustrations, and a distribution map for the three species of the genus are presented. The male genitalia of Michanthidium almeidai sp. n. and Michanthidium albitarse are illustrated and compared for the first time. PMID:22140334

  8. Eficiencia en el sector financiero colombiano en el periodo 1995-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO RAMÍREZ VIGOYA

    2010-01-01

    los años 1995 y 2008. La eficiencia se mide a través de los retornos de los factores de producción, en este caso de los préstamos y los salarios sobre los ingresos de los bancos. Como modelo teórico se utilizan funciones Cobb-Douglas y como modelo econométrico se utilizan datos panel. Se analizan los retornos en modelos de efectos fijos, ya que la muestra es toda la población de bancos comerciales en Colombia. Los modelos que se analizan se corren con efectos por año y con efectos por banco. Uno de los resultados interesantes es que el sector bancario en el periodo analizado presenta rendimientos constantes de escala. Se presenta menor eficiencia de todos los bancos en los años siguientes a la recesión de 1999.

  9. Eficiencia de las aletas con sección transversal no uniforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes A. Rangel Jara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo matemático exacto del perfil de temperatura y por ende de la eficiencia de la aleta con sección transversal no uniforme implica la solución de una ecuación diferencial de Bessel modificada. En este artículo se presenta e implementa una alternativa de cálculo de las funciones de Bessel modificadas de primera y segunda clase que resultan de resolver la ecuación diferencial y que permite la valoración de la eficiencia de la aleta. Se utilizan cuadraturas de Gauss y de Laguerre para la integración numérica de las funciones modificadas de Bessel de cualquier orden. Esta alternativa puede considerarse como una forma más elaborada y precisa, con respecto a las propuestas convencionales para la solución del problema.

  10. Un análisis de la eficiencia de los puertos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casasus Estelles, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se desarrolla una aplicación del modelo del Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, o análisis de la eficiencia relativa, a los diferentes puertos españoles. Después de una breve referencia a la metodología de estos tipos de análisis (un método de optimización, se discuten las diversas alternativas que para resolver el modelo es posible utilizar. Asimismo se valora la conveniencia de utilizar optimizadores específicos o bien un software de propósito general. Para finalizar se analiza la eficiencia relativa de la actividad portuaria en los diferentes puertos durante los últimos años para medir su evolución temporal.

  11. Capacidade reprodutiva de fêmeas de Apanteles galleriae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae em lagartas de Galleria mellonella e Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae criadas com dietas diferentes Reproductive capacity of Apanteles galleriae females (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in Galleria mellonella and Achroia grisella larvae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae reared on different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Grici Zacarin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive capacity of females of Apanteles galleriae (Wilkinson, 1932 was evaluated in fifth instar caterpillars of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 and Achroia grisella (Fabricius, 1754 fed on standard diet and diets enriched with protein. The reproductive capacity of parasitoid females on fifth instar caterpillars of G. mellonella and A. grisella with variable weight was also evaluated. The host weight interfered in the sex ratio of the obtained parasitoids. In heavier caterpillars, the investment in female descendants was greater than in males, and in lighter caterpillars the inverse occurred.

  12. Biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on irradiated larva of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae);Aspectos biologicos e morfologicos de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) criado em larvas irradiadas de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Giuliana Etore do

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was evaluate some biological and morphological aspects of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata on irradiated and not irradiated larva of bisexual and tsl strains of Ceratitis capitata. The experiments were developed at the Laboratorio de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia (LIARE) of CENA/USP. For gamma radiation treatment it was used a Cobalt-60 source, model Gamma beam-650. Larva of bisexual strain were irradiated with 65 Gy and the tsl strain with 45 Gy. Experiments were carried out at room temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, 75 +- 5 % RH and 14 hours of photo phase. After irradiation, the bisexual strain larva were exposed to adults of D. longicaudata for parasitization and parameters of percentage adult emergency and rate of male and female of D. longicaudata were observed. For tsl strain, were used larva from the first and the fourth collection only, and the following parameters were observed: percentage of adult emergency, rate of male and female, and the average unitary volume and weight of pupae at the 8{sup th} and 16 days after the parasitism date. Other parameters evaluated for tsl strain related to the parasitoid morphology such as, the length of the body, antenna, tibia and ovipositor. As result, both of the first and second experiments, the rate of parasitism was satisfactory, as well as showed larger incidence of females than males in parasitized larva, discarding the possibility that gamma radiation interfere in the sexual rate. No significant differences were observed on pupae volume. Some differences on pupae weight were observed at 8th and 16th day after the parasitism date, which should be associated to pre-emerging flies (8th day) and empty pupa (16th day). None significant difference was observed on morphological parameters, so one can conclude that gamma radiation treatment did not interfere in these quality parameters of the parasitoid. (author)

  13. The parasitic wasp genus Hecabolus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae, with the description of a new species from Mexico El género de avispas parasíticas Hecabolus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae, con la descripción de una especie nueva de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Zaldívar-Riverón

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The doryctine wasp genus Hecabolus Curtis and its type species, H. sulcatus Curtis, are redescribed. A new species from Mexico, H. mexicanus sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is distinguished from H. sulcatus and the other known species of the genus, H. costaricensis Marsh, in having a narrower pterostigma, longer discoidal (discal cell, basal (1M and recurrent (m-cu veins diverging posteriorly, first abscissa of mediocubital (M+CU vein of hind wing as long as the second abscissa (1M, and first metasomal tergite with a very small dorsope. A key for identification of the 3 known species of Hecabolus is provided.Se redescriben el género de avispas doryctinas Hecabolus Curtis y su especie tipo, H. sulcatus Curtis. Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva procedente de México, H. mexicanus sp. nov. La nueva especie se distingue de H. sulcatus y de la otra especie conocida del género, H. costaricensis Marsh, por presentar un pterostigma más angosto, una celda discoidal más larga, las venas basal y recurrente divergiendo posteriormente, la primer abscisa de la vena mediocubital del ala posterior tan larga como la segunda abscisa, y el primer tergo metasomal con un dorsopo muy pequeño. Se presenta una clave para identificar las 3 especies conocidas de Hecabolus.

  14. Introducción y producción en laboratorio de Diachasmimorpha tryon i y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para el control biológico de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae en la Argentina Introduction and laboratory production of Diachasmimorpha tryoni and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for the biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de reanudar la utilización de enemigos naturales contra la especie exótica Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, fueron introducidos a la Argentina en 1999 los agentes de control biológico Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, dos endoparasitoides de larvas de tefrítidos. Por este motivo, en este trabajo se describen los procedimientos de cría en laboratorio del huésped y de ambas especies de parasitoides y, se presentan y discuten los resultados de un año de producción de D. tryoni y D. longicaudata a mediana escala (enero-diciembre/2000. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los datos obtenidos sobre la producción de descendientes, proporción sexual, porcentaje de parasitismo y viabilidad de puparios por jaula de cría durante 15 generaciones entre ambas especies de parasitoides exóticos, utilizando como huésped larvas de C. capitata del tercer estadio de siete días de edad. Además, se discuten las posibilidades para implementar el control biológico aumentativo contra C. capitata y Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann en el país.The biocontrol agents Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, two endoparasitoids of fruit fly larvae, were introduced to Argentina in 1999 with the purpose of renewing the employment of natural enemies against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann. For this reason, the general procedure and maintenance of the host and parasitoids rearing in the laboratory are described, and the results of one year insectary production (January-December/2000 of both D. tryoni and D. longicaudata are discussed. Data are presented of the progeny production, offpring sex ratio, host parasitism percentage, and pupal viability per parasitoid rearing cage during 15 generations of D. longicaudata and D. tryoni reared using late third instar larvae of C. capitata. New perspectives are discussed on the establishment of a biological control program for C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann in Argentina by using parasitoid augmentative releases.

  15. La eficiencia de las televisiones públicas en España: la aplicación del DEA como modelo de medición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Campos Lucena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia de la gestión de los recursos públicos, supone unos de los pilares básicos de la economía. El objetivo del presente artículo es medir la eficiencia en el uso de dichos recursos en las televisiones públicas autonómicas en España. Para realizar dicho estudio se utilizó el DEA (Análisis Envolvente de Datos como técnica de análisis, lo que permitió comprobar la eficiencia o ineficiencia de dichas entidades y proponer las medidas de ajuste necesarias para conseguir la eficiencia. A partir de los datos analizados se concluye que no todas las firmas presentan eficiencia técnica y mucho menos eficiencia a escala.

  16. Eficiencia tecnica y estacionalidad en los procesos de tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sala-Garrido

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la eficiencia técnica en las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales esun fenómeno de creciente actualidad. Son muchas las razones que justifican la necesidad deconocer en detalle las posibles ineficiencias existentes en los procesos de tratamiento. El uso demodelos DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis en este campo ofrece grandes posibilidades conrespecto a la identificación y el conocimiento detallado de los factores que determinan laeficiencia de una planta. La obtención de indicadores de eficiencia asociados a cada uno de losinputs utilizados en el proceso resulta de gran utilidad. Una de las variables que influye en elcomportamiento eficiente de los procesos de tratamiento es la estacionalidad en los flujos.Aunque resulta difícil la cuantificación de esta influencia, en este trabajo se presenta unametodología que permite abordar los efectos de la estacionalidad a través de un análisis detolerancias asociado a los índices de eficiencia técnica. Se lleva a cabo una aplicación empíricapara una muestra de plantas de tratamiento existentes en la Comunidad Valenciana.

  17. Impacto de las inversiones en TI en la eficiencia de los bancos argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Agustín Argañaraz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Las tecnologías de información (TI constituyen en la actualidad una herramienta fundamental para el logro de ventajas competitivas en un contexto sumamente cambiante. Resulta relevante conocer el impacto de su utilización sobre el desempeño de las organizaciones, en particular en sectores como el bancario, que realizan un uso intensivo de información. En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo que posibilita evaluar el impacto de las inversiones en TI sobre la eficiencia de las entidades bancarias. Se utilizó la técnica Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA como herramienta de medición de la eficiencia de acuerdo al modelo elaborado sobre la información obtenida de los estados contables de entidades bancarias de la República Argentina. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que los bancos alcanzaron un buen nivel de eficiencia global. Se encontró que los más eficientes son las sucursales de entidades financieras del exterior y los bancos locales de capital extranjero.

  18. Eficiencia técnica y convergencia en los sectores productivos regionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Jesús Delgado Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la evolución y el grado de convergencia en eficiencia técnica de los sectores productivos regionales. Con esta finalidad se construyen índices de productividad de Malmquist, calculados mediante técnicas no paramétricas de programación lineal, que permiten comparar la aportación al crecimiento de la productividad de las ganancias de eficiencia en cada sector. A continuación se ha tratado de determinar si se ha producido un proceso de catching-up tecnológico y si las infraestructuras han constituido un factor condicionante de este. Los resultados muestran diferencias sectoriales en el comportamiento del cambio técnico y del cambio en eficiencia. Se ha confirmado también que los sectores productivos regionales menos eficientes se han beneficiado de la rápida difusión de la tecnología durante el periodo estudiado.

  19. FRAGMENT AGRICULTURAL PESTS OF SOME PARASITOIDS COLLECTED IN SOUTHERN GOIÁS AND SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H MARCHIORI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different parasitoids of some insect pests in southern Goiás and southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is reported in this article. The egg parasitoids obtained Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae were specimens of Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae, two specimens of Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae, 41 specimens Gryon gallardoi (Brethes (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae and six specimens of Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae. The parasitoids obtained Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae were 03 specimens of Leptopilina boulardi Barbotin et al. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and 285 specimens of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae. The occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae were: 21 specimens of Bracon sp., (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, one specimen of Earinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and 13 specimens Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae. In Lonomia sp. were collected: 4 specimens of Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae and three specimens of Aprostocetus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae.

  20. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  1. Eficiencia energética de los edificios: repercusión medioambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nieves Pacheco Jiménez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los recientes Planes, Estrategias y normas atinentes al fomento de la eficiencia energética en los edificios1 nacen en un contexto de preocupación por el cambio climático y sus consecuencias. Todos ellos persiguen la reducción de costes energéticos y la promoción de la sostenibilidad económica, política y ambiental. Un reflejo de esta inquietud por el bajo impacto ambiental puede observarse en el sector de la vivienda, cuyo consumo final de energía es muy elevado, y en la consiguiente intención de construir edificios bioclimáticos que aprovechen la energía del entorno. En aras a la consecución de estos objetivos, el Plan de Acción 2008-2012 impulsa una serie de medidas que recaen sobre el sector transporte, la industria, el sector residencial y el sector terciario, articulándose en torno a cuatro líneas de actuación: transversal, de movilidad, de edificios y de ahorro eléctrico. Este estudio aborda las pautas de ahorro y eficiencia energética propuestas para los edificios, tanto existentes como de nueva construcción, así como residenciales y del sector terciario. Para ello se hace imprescindible la remisión al concepto de “calidad” de los edificios, contemplado en la propia Exposición de Motivos de la Ley 38/1999, de Ordenación de la Edificación, y ligado estrechamente a la eficiencia energética de aquéllos.

  2. CÓMO MEJORAR LA EFICIENCIA OPERATIVA UTILIZANDO EL TRABAJO EN EQUIPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Franco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un modelo para aumentar la eficiencia operativa de diversas organizaciones de la economía con el fin de mejorar sus resultados financieros y por consiguiente su competitividad. Este modelo permite aprovechar los talentos de las personas que laboran en la empresa, organizándolos en equipos o grupos para que puedan identificar y aprovechar oportunidades de mejoramiento que conduzcan a un aumento significativo de la eficiencia productiva. La metodología que aquí se expone es particularmente útil para las empresas medianas y pequeñas que regularmente no cuentan con recursos ni infraestructura suficiente para introducir los cambios que CÓMO MEJORAR LA EFICIENCIA OPERATIVA UTILIZANDO EL TRABAJO EN EQUIPO CARLOS ALBERTO FRANCO Director MBA de la Universidad Icesi en convenio con la Universidad de Tulane. Ingeniero Eléctrico de la Universidad del Valle. Máster en Ingeniería de Carnegie Mellon University, Pisttsburg. Ph.D. en Ingeniería Eléctrica de USC (U.S.A. FRANCISCO VELÁSQUEZ V. Director del Programa de Administración de Empresas Plan Diurno. Ingeniero Electricista de la Universidad del Valle. Magister en Administración del Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus ciudad de México. mejoren su productividad. El modelo se puede aplicar directamente por los jefes o supervisores de cada una de las áreas de la empresa, sin necesidad de recurrir a asesorías costosas.

  3. Allergen-specific immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Graessel, Anke; Ollert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Stings of hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in venom-allergic patients, ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. Allergic patients' quality of life can be mainly improved by altering their immune response to tolerate the venoms...... on state of the art diagnostic and therapeutic options as well as on novel directions trying to improve therapy....

  4. Productividad, eficiencia y sus factores explicativos en el sector de la construcción en Colombia 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo de Jorge Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la productividad, la eficiencia y sus factores determinantes en cuatro sectores de la construcción en Colombia: construcción de obras residenciales, construcción de obras civiles, actividades inmobiliarias y adecuación de obras de la construcción en el período 2005-2010. Los resultados con la aplicación de la metodología DEA, revelan que tan solo este último sector experimenta crecimientos acumulados de la productividad en un 0,1%. El análisis de la eficiencia muestra bajos niveles de la misma que oscilan entre 78% y 54%. Finalmente, los factores explicativos de la eficiencia han resultado ser la cuota de mercado y el tamaño empresarial.

  5. Análisis de estabilidad y determinantes de eficiencia: evidencia empírica

    OpenAIRE

    Caravaca Garratón, Manuel; Solana Ibañez, José; Para González, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    [ESP] El procedimiento bietápico de Simar y Wilson marcó un punto de inflexión en la metodología del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA), dado que la significatividad de cierto factor exógeno proporciona una información estratégica de valor incalculable. En este trabajo se analiza la hipótesis de que la eficiencia de las regiones turísticas españolas durante el período 2005-2013, viene determinada por un grupo de variables ambientales. Se define el Coeficiente de Estabilidad (CE) ilustrando su...

  6. Estudio y análisis de cerramientos de alta eficiencia energética

    OpenAIRE

    LUCAS NAVALÓN, MARÍA ESCARLATA

    2011-01-01

    Trabajo científico técnico. El presente proyecto, basándose en criterios de sostenibilidad, pretende plantear una alternativa al sistema constructivo actual. Para ello, se comparan las características de los materiales tradicionalemente empleados en cerramientos (ladrillo cerámico y yeso laminado), con un nuevo material, el Thermal-wall. Lucas Navalón, ME. (2011). Estudio y análisis de cerramientos de alta eficiencia energética. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/11668. Archivo delegado

  7. Educación y pobreza, un análisis de eficiencia relativa departamental

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Torres, Mónica Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    La educación es un insumo importante a la hora de combatir la pobreza. Por tanto se hace un análisis de la evolución de pobreza y educación bajo el marco de los objetivos del milenio, este estudio parte de la necesidad de observar si en efecto la educación media departamental ha sido bien utilizada para reducir la incidencia en pobreza, por tanto se usa la técnica de programación lineal no paramétrica denominada Análisis de Envolvente de Datos, la cual presenta los índices de eficiencia relat...

  8. Herramientas para el uso eficiente del gas : diagramas de eficiencia térmica

    OpenAIRE

    Amell Arrieta, Andrés Adolfo; Gil B., Edison; Maya B., Rubén Darío

    1998-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada con el fin de desarrollar una herramienta fundamental relacionada con el proceso de optimización de la combustión: Los diagramas de eficiencia térmica. En el proceso de combustión se debe garantizar que todo el calor generado se transfiera eficientemente a la carga, por lo cual es necesario controlar las pérdidas de calor que se presentan básicamente por la salida de los gases de combustión a alta temperatura y ...

  9. Análisis de la eficiencia en transmisiones de engranajes rectos corregidos

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Ibarbia, Alberto; Fernández del Rincón, Alfonso; Iglesias Santamaría, Miguel; García Fernández, Pablo (ingeniero); Juan de Luna, Ana Magdalena de; Viadero Rueda, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo presenta el análisis cuasi-estático de un sistema de transmisión de potencia entreengranajes rectos corregidos. En él se pretende ver la influencia de las correcciones y los efectos disipativos en la eficiencia y en los diferentes factores de funcionamiento (Reparto de carga principalmente). Dentro de los efectos disipativos se va a estudiar principalmente la fricción entre dientes en presencia de lubricante, por ser el efecto que más contribuye a las pérdidas en una transmisión en...

  10. Sistemas híbridos: una estrategia para mejorar la eficiencia en los paneles solares

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Algarín, Carlos Arturo

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad se necesita contar con dos instalaciones diferentes para la implementación de sistemas de energía solar fotovoltaica y térmica, en términos de mayores requerimientos económicos y espaciales. En países como España, en entidades como la Universidad de Zaragoza en su programa de Máster en Energías Renovables y Eficiencia Energética, los investigadores están trabajando, a partir del año 2009 en sistemas combinados o híbridos, los cuales funcionan de forma conjunta con sistemas fo...

  11. Eficiencia técnica en hatos lecheros en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vargas-Leitón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue cuantificar índices de eficiencia técnica de 1086 hatos lecheros de Costa Rica (año 2007 utilizando Análisis de Frontera Estocástica. El modelo base analizó la variable endógena logaritmo de Producción de Sólidos Lácteos (kg/ha/semana en función de catorce variables predictoras relacionadas con aspectos físicos y de manejo. El promedio general de sólidos lácteos fue 32,5±23,5 kg, siendo más alto en lecherías especializadas intensivas de altura (83,9 kg, seguidas por las intensivas de bajura (51,0 kg, semi-intensivas de altura (33,8 kg, extensivas de bajura (23,0 kg y doble propósito de bajura (8,5 kg. Las variables predictoras asociadas (P<0,001 con producción de sólidos fueron la carga animal, aplicación de fertilizante, suministro de concentrado, proporción de ganado especializado, altitud y área de pastoreo. Un incremento de 1% en estas variables se asoció respectivamente con cambios de 0,85%, 0,07%, 0,07%, 0,19%, 0,15% y -0,10% en sólidos lácteos. El promedio general de eficiencia técnica fue 0,75±0,09. Al agregar la tipología de hato como variable predictora en el modelo el promedio de eficiencia se incrementó a 0,79±0,07; mientras que al ajustar el modelo separadamente para cada tipología el promedio de eficiencia fue de 0,77±0,11. Se prefirió este último estimado, ya que reflejó de manera más adecuada la heterogeneidad en la elasticidad de las variables predictoras entre distintas tipologías.

  12. Efectividad y eficiencia de los canales de búsqueda de empleo en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Isaza, Lina Maria

    2013-01-01

    El mercado laboral no puede definirse como una institución en la cual confluyen oferentes y demandantespara negociar una mercancía a un precio determinado; se ha identificado que existen distintos mecanismos,que son canales de búsqueda, mediante los cuales los agentes logran emparejar su capacidad de trabajarcon las vacantes disponibles. Para verificar la efectividad y la eficiencia de estos canales de búsquedase utilizó la información de la Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares, para las 13 áre...

  13. Eficiencia de la respuesta superovulatoria del ganado Brahman al protocolo P-24

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Salgado O; Andrés Mejía A.; Pablo Suárez S.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la eficiencia de la respuesta superovulatoria del ganado Brahman al protocolo P-24. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron doce vacas Brahman donadoras con más de 60 días postparto, a las cuales se les realizó un total de 21 tratamientos superovulatorios con base en el protocolo P-24. Se realizó la colecta de los embriones a través del método convencional y los embriones fueron clasificados (IETS). Resultados. Se obtuvo un promedio de 9.1 estructuras, 4.4 embriones transferible...

  14. Desafíos de la eficacia y la eficiencia en el trabajo en salut

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Hélder Pordeus; França,Maristela Botelho

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo, a partir del análisis de situaciones concretas de trabajo en la enfermería de neurocirugía y en el laboratorio de radiología de un hospital de la universidad pública en Brasil, trata de comprender cómo las sinergias presentes son articuladas para producir la eficacia y la eficiencia. Los resultados muestran que los trabajadores de la salud deben tratar de manera colectiva con diferentes temporalidades: temporalidad mercantile (los valores medidos, ...

  15. Medidas para el incremento de la eficiencia energética en una turbina

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Pérez, Francisco; Pérez Paz, Yoismel

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo realizado en una central termoeléctrica da a conocer un conjunto de recomendaciones, basadas en el análisis tribológico, para incrementar el diagnostico y mejorar la eficiencia a través del análisis del sistema de análisis del lubricante en una turbina generadora de electricidad. En el desarrollo del trabajo se llevaron a cabo herramientas importantes como el análisis de criticidad de la turbina, las recomendaciones para la toma de muestras de lubricantes, en estos...

  16. Incorporación de exigencias sobre eficiencia energética edilicia : Normativa caso Rosario

    OpenAIRE

    Bordachar, Florencia; Furno, Federico; Lattuca, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es describir el proceso desarrollado a partir del año 2011, con el fin de reglamentar e implementar la Ordenanza Nº 8757, sobre Aspectos Higrotérmicos y Eficiencia Energética de las construcciones en la ciudad de Rosario. Se conformó una comisión especial, integrada por representantes de diferentes instituciones, universidades, colegios profesionales y técnicos municipales, quienes elaboraron un procedimiento de verificación con el fin de evitar el riesgo de conden...

  17. Behavior of high efficiency electric motors; Comportamiento de motores electricos de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Austin H. [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The energy efficiency is one of the main parameters in the design of the industrial motors of general purpose; nevertheless, it is avoided that it is at the cost of the reliability or to the global performance of the motor. Exist user groups of this equipment that consider that, in the search of a greater efficiency, the useful life period is diminished and the characteristics of operation of the motor are affected. During the past last years, the author has studied the aspects of quality and reliability, as well as the operative advantages of the high efficiency motors and written down the increasing interest for these aspects. Also he has detected that a great number of users has realized that, additionally to the obvious energy saving, the efficient motor offers a greater reliability and a longer useful life in most of the industrial applications. The objective of this article is to present the differences in the quality levels, reliability and operation parameters of high efficiency squirrel cage type electrical motors with those of the motors of standard manufacture. [Spanish] La eficiencia energetica es uno de los principales parametros en el diseno de los motores industriales de proposito general; sin embargo, se evita que sea a costa de la confiabilidad o del desempeno global del motor. Existen grupos de usuarios de estos equipos que consideran que, en la busqueda de una mayor eficiencia, se disminuye el periodo de vida util y se afectan las caracteristicas de operacion del motor. Durante los ultimos anos, el autor ha estudiado los aspectos de calidad y confiabilidad, asi como las ventajas operativas de los motores de alta eficiencia y anotado el incremento del interes por estos aspectos. Tambien ha detectado que un gran numero de usuarios se ha dado cuenta que, adicionalmente a los obvios ahorros de energia, el motor eficiente ofrece una mayor confiabilidad y una vida util mas larga en la mayoria de las aplicaciones industriales. El objetivo de este

  18. Aproximaciones unidimensionales para estimar la eficiencia de aleta en intercambiadores tubulares con aletas continuas

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Felipe; Martínez, Osvaldo Miguel; Mariani, Néstor Javier; Barreto, Guillermo Fernando

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se propone un modelo unidimensional denominado de dos aletas radiales equivalentes. El mismo representa una extensión del de una aleta radial equivalente y permite mejorar la capacidad predictiva. El parámetro principal del modelo de dos aletas se obtiene estableciendo que el mismo replique exactamente el comportamiento térmico (eficiencia de aleta) de una aleta continua real (2D) cuando la velocidad de transferencia de calor por conducción a través de la aleta es relativament...

  19. Phylogenetic insights into the evolution of parasitism in hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, James B

    2003-01-01

    The Hymenoptera are one of the four megadiverse orders of insects, with over 100000 described species and several times this number still waiting to be described. A major part of this diverse group is formed of large lineages of parasitoid wasps. Some of these lineages have in turn given rise to subgroups that have gone on to diversify into other lifestyles, such as gall-forming on, and pollination of, plants, as well as a broad array of food-collecting behaviors associated with social living in colonies. Thus, the Hymenoptera demonstrate the large evolutionary potential of parasitism as a lifestyle, in contrast to early assertions that parasitism tends to lead to evolutionary 'dead ends' driven by overspecialization. Phylogenetic approaches have already led to a number of important insights into the evolution of parasitism in Hymenoptera. A series of examples are discussed in this review, including the origin of parasitism in the order, the development of koinobiosis in some groups, coevolution with symbiotic viruses, and the evolution in some groups away from parasitism and into such habits as gall formation, pollination of figs, nest building and sociality. The potential for comparative analysis of hymenopteran habits is large, but progress is still in its early stages due to the paucity of available well-supported phylogenies, and the still limited accumulation of basic biological data for many taxa.

  20. A case of anaphylaxis: horse-fly or hymenoptera sting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, O; Emiliani, F; Foschi, F G; Stefanini, G F

    2009-10-01

    In literature it has been described a high risk of systemic reaction after blood-sucking Dyptera bites, like mosquitoes and horsefly, in people sensitive to hymenoptera. A 51 year old man, allergic to hymenoptera venom and with a history of i.v. reaction after Mueller, who has been treated with Vespula sp. ITS for the last 3 years, was stung by a yellow, black and green insect on the neck. Five minutes after the bite, he suffered generalized hitching and urticaria, oral cavity and lower limbs paresthesia, followed by lost of consciousness. At the Emergency Room he was successfully treated with adrenaline, intravenous antihistamines and corticosteroid. The description of the insect as well as the lack of the sting on the site suggested a wasp as the culprit. By studying one of these insect that has been captured by the patient, it turned out it wasn't a Vespula, but a horsefly, the Tabanus bovinus, which resembles Hymenoptera. Skin prick test and RAST for Tabanus confirmed the allergology diagnosis. In conclusion, also Tabanus bovines can cause systemic reaction up to anaphylactic shock.

  1. Las avispas bandera (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano González Giselle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Evaniidae está representada por un número relativamente pequeño de géneros y especies dentro del orden Hymenoptera. Son avispas de tamaño medio, sin aguijón y solitarias que parasitan ootecas de cucarachas. Se realizó un estudio de reconocimiento genérico de la familia Evaniidae para Colombia y su distribución a partir de colecciones  entomológicas. El primer capítulo, “Sistemática y taxonomía de  Evaniidae”, pretende ser el reflejo de un trabajo realizado por más de un año, de curadoría y determinación de especímenes presentes en colecciones entomológicas, donde se propone una clave taxonómica para la identificación de los seis géneros de evánidos encontrados en Colombia y un análisis de los caracteres utilizados para la misma. El segundo capítulo, “Biología de Evaniidae”, es una recopilación de todos los estudios existentes sobre la biología de la familia, en donde se hace evidente la falta de trabajo sobre el tema y el desconocimiento básico de algunos aspectos que podrían ser muy útiles para la implementación de nuevas estrategias de control biológico. El tercer capítulo, “Distribución geográfica de los géneros de la f amilia Evaniidae”, muestra como los diferentes géneros de la familia se encuentran distribuidos dentro del territorio colombiano y presenta el estado actual del muestreo de la familia dando información para poder definir áreas de concentración de muestras o áreas posteriores de muestreo. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones y recomendaciones finales que permiten dar una idea del trabajo que queda por hacer y los pasos a seguir.

  2. Comparación de la Eficiencia Técnica de los Sectores Productivos Regionales: 1980-1995".

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Rodríguez, María Jesús; Álvarez Ayuso, Inmaculada

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es estimar la eficiencia técnica de los sectores productivos regionales y explorar la influencia de los equipamientos de infraestructuras en este análisis. Para ello, se utilizará el enfoque no paramétrico de la Envolvente de Datos (DEA) y se construirán índices de productividad de Malmquist que permiten distinguir entre ganancias de eficiencia y cambio técnico. Los resultados alcanzados muestran que las infraestructuras productivas han permitido lograr ganancias ...

  3. Análisis matemático para elevar la eficiencia de los aserraderos con sierras de banda

    OpenAIRE

    D. Álvarez Lazo; Andrade F. Andrade Egas; Chávez, P.; Estévez, I.; J. M. García Delgado

    2003-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo brindar algunas consideraciones para elevar la eficiencia del proceso de transformación mecánica en los aserraderos a partir de la utilización de la herramienta matemática que permitirá el perfeccionamiento del aserrado de la madera. Con la reducción del corte de apertura del asierre, se eleva la eficiencia de la conversión mecánica de la madera en los aserraderos hasta un rendimiento volumétrico total entre 4.7 y 8.3 %, lo cual posibilita u...

  4. ANÁLISIS EMPÍRICO DE LAS DIFERENCIAS DE EFICIENCIA ENTRE LAS EMPRESAS FAMILIARES Y LAS NO FAMILIARES /

    OpenAIRE

    García de la Borbolla Fernández, A.; Herrera Madueño, J.; Larrán Jorge, M.; Sánchez Gardey, G.; Suárez Lloréns, A.

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo plantea un análisis empírico de las diferencias de eficiencia entre las empresas familiares y no familiares, medida a través de tres indicadores subrogados (rentabilidad financiera, rentabilidad económica y margen de explotación). El estudio empírico, desarrollado sobre una muestra de 765 empresas andaluzas, no permite contrastar ninguna de las hipótesis alternativas planteadas desde las teorías de la Agencia y de los Costes de Transacción sobre la superior o inferior eficiencia ...

  5. Eco-eficiencia en la gestión de residuos municipales en Catalunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Javier Díaz Villavicencio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es medir la eco-eficiencia en la gestión de residuos urbanos en Catalunya, España. Para ello, se presenta un modelo que incluye aspectos de medición ambiental y Análisis Envolvente de Datos DEA (Data Envelopment Análisis. La base de esta investigación, se centra en la orientación hacia la sostenibilidad, indicada por el World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD, quien también recomienda la aplicabilidad de la eco-eficiencia, dentro de los organismos públicos. A tal efecto, hemos realizado una aproximación empírica tomando una muestra de 48 municipios de Catalunya, España. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que en términos generales, sólo existirían dos municipios eco-eficientes, lo que denotaría que existe un alto nivel de ineficiencia en materia de gestión de residuos municipales. Por otro lado, las conclusiones apuntan a demandar de parte de los órganos de gobierno, más acceso y calidad de información.

  6. Normalization of the energy efficiency in pumping systems; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en sistemas de bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R.A.; Buendia Dominguez, E.H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) has prepared the preliminary project of the norm of energetic efficiency for pumping systems, specifically for the agricultural sector. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the issue of a norm and is about to be published as a Mexican Official Norm of energetic efficiency. In this paper mention is made of the results in the analysis of the pumping systems in operation, the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that sustain the norm project, indicating besides the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en sistemas de bombeo, especificamente para el sector agricola. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, y esta proximo a publicarse como norma oficial mexicana de eficiencia energetica. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de los sistemas de bombeo en operacion, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  7. Eficiencia en la adquisición de alimentos en el sector público colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Peralta Borray

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dada la magnitud y el potencial del mercado de compras públicas dealimentos en Colombia y la tendencia que se ha venido dando en AméricaLatina en relación a la utilización de la contratación como mecanismo paraintervenir las entidades públicas y la economía, se hace imperiosa la necesidad de contar con herramientas que permitan medir la gestión de los administradores públicos al respecto. Este documento propone un indicador para la medición de la eficiencia en relación a la compra de alimentos de las entidades públicas, además, analiza si el uso de diferentes formas de contratación influye en sus niveles de eficiencia. También entrega elementos estadísticos razonables para determinar la mejor forma de abastecimiento de alimentos para los proyectos, programas y servicios estatales. La muestra evaluada corresponde a la observación de 139 referencias de alimentos crudos, comprados periódicamente por las entidades entre los años 2005 y 2009, y utilizados en su mayoría para la prestación de servicios de alimentación y/o su entrega directa a la población con una inversión promedio a 43 302 millones de pesos anuales.

  8. Revision of the standards in the application of high efficiency induction motors; Revision de la normatividad en la aplicacionon de motores, de induccion, de eficiencia alta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acoltzi Acoltzi, Higinio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work the elements contained in the national and international standards to obtain the benefits in the application of high efficiency electrical motors are presented. A table of associated normal and minimum efficiency is presented, and one with values of nominal efficiency at full load for totally enclosed motors of standard efficiency, for opened motors of standard efficiency and high efficiency. Graphs are given where the comparison of nominal efficiencies is shown for AC induction motors to closed and opened poles. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los elementos contenidos en las normas nacionales e internacionales para conseguir los beneficios en la aplicacion de motores electricos de eficiencia alta. Se muestra una tabla de eficiencia normal y minima asociados, y una con valores de eficiencia nominal a plena carga para motores cerrados de eficiencia estandar, para motores abiertos de eficiencia estandar y de eficiencia alta. Se da graficas donde se muestra la comparacion de eficiencias nominales, para motores de CA de induccion, a polos cerrados y a polos abiertos.

  9. Side Effects of Fungicides Used in Cucurbitaceous Crop on Trichogrammaatopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae Efectos Secundarios sobre Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae de Fungicidas usados en Cucurbitáceas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can control Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. On the other hand, pesticides may reduce the efficiency of natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of fungicides used in the production of cucurbitaceous crops on Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner parasitizing D. hyalinata eggs. The fungicides used in bioassays were: azoxystrobin (0.08 g active ingredient [ai] L-1, chlorothalonil (2.00 g ai L-1, mancozeb (1.60 g ai L-1, tebuconazole (0.25 g ai L-1 and thiophanate-methyl (0.49 g ai L-1. Cardboards with 30 D. hyalinata eggs previously immersedin fungicide solutions and distilled water (control were offered separately to 20 newly emerged T. atopovirilia females in glass tubes. Parasitism, parasitism reduction, emergence, sex ratio, and number of individuals per egg were evaluated. The fungicides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced parasitism of T. atopovirilia by 43.37, 27.64 and 18.51%, respectively. However, parasitism with azoxystrobin (79.21% was higher than the control (67.37% (P ≤ 0.05. Chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced emergence by 73.77, 75.62 and 79.35% (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Azoxystrobin and thiophanate-methyl reduced the sex ratio by 0.77 and 0.76 (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Fungicides did not reduce the number of individuals per egg. The fungicides azoxystrobin and mancozeb were selective for T. atopovirilia for most studied parameters suggesting that these products must have the priority in crop disease management to allow efficient biological control of T. atopovirilia against D. hyalinata.Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae pueden controlar Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Sin embargo, los plaguicidas pueden reducir la eficiencia de los enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de los fungicidas utilizados en la

  10. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  11. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  12. Eficiencia del programa de prevención de anemia falciforme en Ciudad de La Habana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Raúl Martín Ruiz

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Con vistas a evaluar la eficiencia del programa cubano de prevención de anemia falciforme en Ciudad de La Habana, se realizó un estudio retrospectivo en gestantes portadoras en 2 períodos: 1995-97 y 1998. Los parámetros evaluados fueron los siguientes: edad gestacional en la que la pareja concluye su estudio del riesgo, y causas de no terminación del estudio. El principal resultado fue que el 76,6 % en 1995-97 y 83,6 % en 1998 de las parejas de alto riesgo detectadas por primera vez concluyeron el estudio antes de las 22 semanas de edad gestacional. Asimismo, hubo disminución de la proporción de gestantes no localizadas del 12,6 % al 4,5 %. Se recoge un aumento de la proporción de inasistentes del 14,6 al 19,5 %, probablemente a causa de gestantes que ya conocían el riesgo con anterioridad. Estos resultados muestran un progresivo aumento en la eficiencia del programa. Se requiere continuar incrementando su eficienciaIn order to evaluate the efficiency of the Cuban Program of Prevention of Sickle Cell Anemia in Havana City, a retrospective study was conducted among pregnant carriers in 2 periods: 1995-97 and 1998. The following parameters were evaluated: gestational age at which the couple concluded their risk study and the causes not to end the study. The main result was that 76,6 % in 1995-97 and 83,6 % in 1998 of the high risk couples detected for the first time finished the study before the 22 weeks of gestational age. Likewise, it was observed a reduction of the number of non-localized expectants from 12,6 % to 4,5 %. There was an increase in the proportion of non-attendants from 14,6 to 19,5 %, probably due to the fact that some pregnant women already knew the risk. These results showed a progressive increase in the efficiency of the program. It is necessary to continue improving its efficiency

  13. Palatability of Baits Containing (S)-Methoprene to Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelle P. Montgomery; Cas Vanderwoude; A. Jasmyn J. Lynch

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wasmannia auropunctata Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), little fire ant, is recognized as a serious pest ant species that affects agriculture, homes, gardens, and natural ecosystems in Hawaii, USA, and elsewhere...

  14. Propuesta de actuaciones para la mejora de la calificación de eficiencia energética de un edificio de oficinas

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Cuadra, Inés

    2014-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en obtener la calificación de eficiencia energética de un edificio de oficinas situado en Madrid con la normativa vigente para verificar el cumplimiento del Documento Básico de Ahorro de Energía del Código Técnico de la Edificación (CTE DB HE) así como poder determinar el nivel de eficiencia energética correspondiente a dicho edificio según el procedimiento básico para la certificación de la eficiencia energética de los edificios aprobado por el RD 235/2013...

  15. Convergencia regional en España, 1980-2003: eficiencia sectorial y estructura productiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rafael Peña Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisa y actualiza la evolución de las disparidades económicas regionales en el periodo 1980-2003, a partir de la descomposición del VABpc en productividad aparente del trabajo, empleos por habitantes, productividad aparente del capital y capitalización del empleo, identificando las posibles causas que las han determinado; igualmente se examina la influencia que la reestructuración de los sectores productivos y la productividad sectorial de las regiones han tenido en la evolución de las desigualdades económicas regionales; y por último, se estudia el impacto que la capitalización del empleo ha ejercido en la eficiencia productiva, y a través de esta, en el nivel de desarrollo económico de las comunidades autónomas españolas

  16. Análisis comparativo de eficiencia entre Brasil, México y Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Benjamín Duarte Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca contrastar la eficiencia débil de los índices bursátiles de Brasil, México y Estados Unidos, desde el supuesto de que un mercado eficiente no es predecible. Con este propósito se evalúa la predictibilidad usando la prueba de rachas y el ratio de varianza automático, en el periodo 1995-2014. Los resultados evidencian que los mercados accionarios de Brasil y México han pasado de ser no eficientes a eficientes en los últimos años; en contraste, Estados Unidos muestra predictibilidad en distintos intervalos de tiempo.

  17. La educación superior: crecimiento y desarrollo. Calidad, financiamiento y eficiencia en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Darío Valencia,

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día casi todos los países reconocen que el capital humano contribuye al desarrollo económico tanto como el capital físico. La educación es tomada como un importante instrumento para el desarrollo económico y social; la inversión en ella lleva a la acumulación de capital humano, lo cual es un factor clave para el crecimiento económico sostenido y para el aumento del ingreso privado y social. El presente artículo se propone dos temas estrechamente ligados con la formación del capital humano y en particular con la educación superior: crecimiento económico, y, en el caso colombiano, lo referente a la calidad, el financiamiento y la eficiencia

  18. Análisis comparativo de eficiencia entre Brasil, México y Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Benjamín Duarte Duarte; Katherine Julieth Sierra Suárez; Víctor Alfonso Rueda Ortiz

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo busca contrastar la eficiencia débil de los índices bursátiles de Brasil, México y Estados Unidos, desde el supuesto de que un mercado eficiente no es predecible. Con este propósito se evalúa la predictibilidad usando la prueba de rachas y el ratio de varianza automático, en el periodo 1995-2014. Los resultados evidencian que los mercados accionarios de Brasil y México han pasado de ser no eficientes a eficientes en los últimos años; en contraste, Estados Unidos muestra predicti...

  19. Análisis de la eficiencia de las unidades productivas de una universidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo utiliza el Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA para estudiar la eficiencia técnica en el conjunto de una universidad, junto con un análisis cluster que ayuda a explicar los aspectos más ventajosos y debilidades de las unidades evaluadas. Por otra parte, también se realiza un análisis contextualizado en cada una de las cinco ramas de conocimiento, acercándonos así todavía más a la realidad de las unidades funcionales con mayor afinidad científica y objetivos docentes más coincidentes. En definitiva, aporta un modelo que suministra una información detallada y objetiva de las causas de las (ineficiencias de las unidades productivas evaluadas, lo cual constituye una ayuda a la toma de decisiones de los órganos de gobierno de una determinada universidad.

  20. Gestión y Eficiencia en el Gasto de Funcionamiento Universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín García García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo estudiamos el efecto sobre el gasto corriente universitario de distintos modelos de gestión del presupuesto, al establecer distintas medidas de control del gasto, tanto en la forma de gestionarlo como con la introducción de mejoras tecnológicas. Para ello se analiza un panel de datos de gasto en diversos recursos básicos para el funcionamiento normal de la docencia y la investigación (consumo eléctrico, telefónico y agua, durante una etapa en la que se observaron distintos cambios en la forma de gestionar los recursos. El análisis conjunto de esos datos, junto con las variables típicas para cuantificar la actividad universitaria, permiten deducir qué cambios en la gestión pueden mejorar la eficiencia del gasto.

  1. Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele P. Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Here we provide a description of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta with partial bilateral phenotypic asymmetry. The specimen was collected by cineol baittrap at Parque Estadual São Camilo, a conservation unit in western Paraná. The bee has mostly a female phenotype, except by the right half of its head, including the presence of 11 flagellomeres, ivory markings on scape and parocular area, by the pilosity of the right galea, and by deformed male characteristics on mid and hind tibiae of right legs.

  2. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHERWANDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape.

  3. La actividad del turismo rural en galicia: un análisis de eficiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murias Fernández, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El fuerte crecimiento experimentado por la actividad del turismo rural en los últimos años, sobre todo en las Comunidades Autónomas del norte y del interior que habían quedado relativamente marginadas del modelo turístico de “sol y playa”, no se ha visto acompañado por la proliferación de estudios que profundicen en el estudio de sus aspectos más estrictamente económicos y en el análisis de la eficiencia de los establecimientos de turismo rural. Este trabajo pretende contribuir a subsanar dicha carencia. Con este objetivo se utilizará el Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA. Una herramienta especialmente útil para estimar la eficiencia técnica de un conjunto de unidades productivas en contextos caracterizados por múltiples inputs y outputs y falta de información sobre los precios de los mismos. La base de datos a partir de la cual se aplicará la técnica DEA está constituida por un panel que incluye información, para el período 1996-2001, de una muestra de 49 establecimientos de turismo rural repartidos por las cuatro provincias gallegas. A partir de una encuesta dirigida a dichos establecimientos se obtuvo información relativa a las características estructurales, laborales y económicas de las distintas tipologías de establecimientos que constituyen la oferta de turismo rural gallego.

  4. Thermal efficiency of Duovent array glassing; Eficiencia termica de arreglos de vidrios Duovent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Garcia G; Cortina Leyva, C; Flores Prieto, Jose J [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologico, DGIT SEP, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the thermal performance of duovent glazing with different solar control coatings. The thermal efficiency, {eta}, was determined. The duovent array consists of 6 mm glass+solar coating+air layer+6 mm glass. The width of the air layer between the two glasses is 12 mm. The experimental work was carried out using a calorimeter setup calling DEMETEV. The DEMETEV was specially designed to measure the heat gains through sample glassings. The heat flux, the shading coefficients and the thermal efficiency curve as a function of the temperature difference and incident radiative flux are presented. Comparing the results for duovent with clear glasses with the ones reported by Dubrous show a difference of 2.2%. Also this study verifies the theoretical model reported. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio experimental del comportamiento termico de vidrios Duovent con diferentes filtros solares mediante el calculo de la eficiencia termica, {eta}. El arreglo lo comprende vidrio+filtro+aire+vidrio de 6 mm de espesor con un espacio con aire entre vidrios de 12 mm. El trabajo experimental se llevo a cabo haciendo uso del dispositivo calorimetrico experimental, denominado DEMETEV, que fue disenado especialmente para medir las ganancias de calor a traves de vidrios. Se presentan los flujos de calor, los coeficientes de sombreado y la curva de eficiencia termica como funcion de la diferencia de temperaturas y del flujo radioactivo incidente. Los resultados obtenidos para vidrios claros fueron comparados con los que se obtuvieron en el trabajo reportado por Dubrous obteniendo una diferencia del 2.2%. Tambien se presenta la validacion de los datos experimentales con un modelo teorico reportado.

  5. Energy saving and efficiency in building; Ahorro de energia y eficiencia en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Sanchez, Maria M. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Pacheco Aguilar, Francisco [Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    High energy consumption is one of the serious problems in the world today. Newly, this question has taken on not only economic, but also social and ecological importance. In order to reduce the amount of fossil energy, energy diagnosis are one of the most useful tools for increasing the energy efficiency in buildings. In the Faculty of Engineering, dependency of the Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Mexico a program of energy diagnosis was developed under an ongoing project entitled energy savings program, which begun in 1996. This paper describes a methodology about diagnosis building energy consumption building shell and energy efficiency in a case study. No doubt future developments are likely to lead to changes in the estimates. We hope that, nevertheless, this study will contribute to increased energy efficiency in this Faculty. [Spanish] En el mundo actual, uno de los problemas mas serios que se tienen es el elevado consumo de energia, que no solamente representa un problema economico sino que tambien abarca aspectos de indole social y ecologica. Con el fin de reducir el alto costo de la energia fosil, el diagnostico de energia es una de las herramientas mas poderosas para promover la eficiencia de los edificios. En la Facultad de Ingenieria, dependencia de la Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Mexico se esta llevando a efecto un diagnostico energetico perteneciente al programa de ahorros de energia que comenzo en el ano de 1996. En este estudio se describe una metodologia de diagnostico de ahorro energetico y eficiencia energetica de la envolvente termica en un estudio del caso, aplicado a los edificios de la Facultad de Ingenieria (FIUADY).

  6. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Redescription of Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoid introduced for the control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Torréns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.The bio-control agent introduced in Argentina Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae for the control of Cydia pomonella (L. is redescribed, providing new characters for the species.

  7. Estudios etológicos en Hymenoptera (insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Genise

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión sobre los estudios etológicos en Hymenoptera plP.- tende destacar la forma tan particular en que la etología es encarada en este grupo de insectos, resaltando ciertas modalidades y conceptos, algunos de ellos de posible aplicación en otros grupos, cspecialmente de invertebrados. Los puntos sobresalientes pueden resumirse así; 1 El estudio de los grupos de Hymenoptera solitarios cercanamente emparentados con los sociales, para rastrear evolutivamente los patrones de comportamiento que ya presentes en las especies no sociales se habrían combinado para dar una conducta social. 2 La división en fases de esta evolución como esquema básico para encarar las investigaciones y la búsqueda de modelos de transición entre fases que permitan ejemplificar sin discontinuidades importantes el proceso evolutivo. 3 El estudio de la filogenia de otros patrones de comportamiento no directamente relacionados con la conducta social, que alcanzan su máxima expresión en grupos no sociales. 4 El estudio del comportamiento de los organismos que posiblemente hayan actuado como agentes selectivos en la evolución. 5 La contribución que los estudios etológicos hacen a la ecología, al esclarecer ciertos aspectos relacionados con la inserción de las especies en los ecosistemas

  8. El impacto del uso efectivo de las TIC sobre la eficiencia técnica de las empresas españolas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Fernández Menéndez

    2007-01-01

    ... este desempeño es la eficiencia técnica en el proceso de conversión de inputs en outputs. Esta eficiencia técnica se ha calculado utilizando un modelo de Data Envelopment Analysis, metodología estándar en estudios sobre productividad, pero que hasta la fecha apenas ha sido utilizada para analizar el impacto de las TIC sobre el rendimiento empresarial.

  9. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  10. Effect of continuous rearing on courtship acoustics of five braconid parasitoids, candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The courtship acoustics of five species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae), were compared between recently colonized individuals and those continuously reared 70-148 generations. During...

  11. Host suitability affects odor association in Cotesia marginiventris: implications in generalist parasitoid host-finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect herbivores often induce plant volatile compounds that can attract natural enemies. Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a generalist parasitoid wasp of noctuid caterpillars and is highly attracted to Spodoptera exigua-induced plant volatiles. The plasticity of C. marginiventris...

  12. Dynamic effects of parasitism by an endoparasitoid wasp on the development of two host species: implications for host quality and parasitoid fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    1. The study reported here examined growth and developmental interactions between the gregarious larval koinobiont endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and two of its hosts that vary considerably in growth potential: Pieris rapae and the larger P. brassicae (Lepidoptera:

  13. Eficiencia Productiva y Presión Competitiva: el Caso del Sector de la Construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Dutto Giolongo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la concentración de una industria sobre la eficiencia productivade las empresas participantes, constituye un test empírico habitualen el campo de la microeconomía aplicada y de la organización industrial.Este trabajo está basado en la evidencia del sector de la construcciónen la Provincia de Santa Fe, en el período 1993-2001, y se comprobó lahipótesis prevista por la teoría: dado el alto grado de competencia delsector y baja concentración de la industria, entonces la eficiencia mediay mínima del sector son altas, y el desvío standard de los indicadores deeficiencia individuales es bajo.

  14. Análisis matemático para elevar la eficiencia de los aserraderos con sierras de banda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Álvarez Lazo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo brindar algunas consideraciones para elevar la eficiencia del proceso de transformación mecánica en los aserraderos a partir de la utilización de la herramienta matemática que permitirá el perfeccionamiento del aserrado de la madera. Con la reducción del corte de apertura del asierre, se eleva la eficiencia de la conversión mecánica de la madera en los aserraderos hasta un rendimiento volumétrico total entre 4.7 y 8.3 %, lo cual posibilita una mejor utilización de la madera como materia prima. Por otra parte; se desarrolla un procedimiento matemático que permite definir la amplitud del corte de apertura en las trozas, facilitando una mayor utilización de la madera en la zona cercana a la corteza.

  15. La eficiencia del sistema de salud en las provincias: un análisis con variables discrecionales y no discrecionales

    OpenAIRE

    Iñiguez, Patricia A; Ferreyra, Ernesto L; Arburua, Mariana; Hernández, Marta S; Iñiguez, Adriana L

    2012-01-01

    El conocimiento del nivel de eficiencia de las provincias constituye una información relevante para la revisión de la gestión así como para el diseño de políticas que contribuyan a la mejora de sus resultados y, por tanto, a una mayor satisfacción de las necesidades de sus habitantes. Sin embargo, las características del sector público condicionan a que las técnicas de medición de eficiencia deban adaptarse a la incertidumbre y al desconocimiento que rodea a la tecnología de la producción púb...

  16. La eficiencia en un Hospital de Maracaibo: Su relación con la oferta y la demanda de servicios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Vargas González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo discute las concepciones de eficiencia y el énfasis puesto en la misma en las políticas de reforma al sistema de salud en Venezuela durante 1996-1998 y sus contradicciones con las políticas de salud a partir de la Constitución de 1999. Se analiza la búsqueda de eficiencia durante el periodo 1996-2002, en el Hospital General del Sur, ubicado en Maracaibo, cuya capacidad presupuestada es de 432 camas. El análisis parte de dos consideraciones: a planteamientos teóricos y jurídicos sobre la eficiencia como criterio de gestión; y b el comportamiento de la demanda de servicios con relación a la oferta y sus implicaciones en los costos de funcionamiento. Con base en el estudio realizado se concluye que los servicios del Hospital General del Sur son financiados con: a asignaciones presupuestarias de acuerdo a la oferta, aun cuando ésta no responda a las necesidades, lo cual genera un comportamiento ineficiente, por la falta de control; y b una tendencia incrementar la proporción de los ingresos por recuperación de costos, respecto a la asignación presupuestaria, que se invierte durante los dos últimos años, lo cual pone de relieve la búsqueda de eficiencia mediante el incremento de ingresos por cobro de los servicios de salud, sin enfatizar la reducción de costos.

  17. Gestión del conocimiento en el tercer sector: de la competitividad a la eficiencia organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bedoya-Dorado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tiene como objetivo presentar una reflexión sobre el aporte de la gestión del conocimiento (GC a la eficiencia en organizaciones del tercer sector. Para ello se llevó a cabo un análisis de contenido de una recopilación de 35 artículos de revistas indexadas JCR y SJR, y de revistas especializadas en GC. El análisis señala que aunque las organizaciones del tercer sector no están llamadas a competir como las organizaciones tradicionales, ni a generar estrategias de captación y fidelización de clientes, sí compiten por la financiación de otras organizaciones y realizan procesos misionales en donde la GC puede contribuir a su eficiencia, de modo que tengan una mejor atención y gestión de sus grupos de interés. Entre los resultados se destaca la importancia de los recursos humanos para lograr la eficiencia a través de la GC en las organizaciones del tercer sector. Este estudio sugiere, para futuras investigaciones, determinar empíricamente el efecto que tienen variables como la gestión de personal, el uso de las TIC, y la innovación en la GC y en la eficiencia de organizaciones del tercer sector, de gran importancia en los países en vía de desarrollo, debido a que atienden necesidades sociales y económicas en las que los Estados son ineficaces, por lo que la GC puede generar aportes para sus objetivos organizacionales.

  18. Comprobación de la eficiencia débil en los principales mercados financieros latinoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Benjamín Duarte Duarte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo comprobar la eficiencia débil en los 5 principales mercados bursátiles de Latinoamérica, usando 2 enfoques; primero se evalúa la normalidad de las series mediante las estadísticas básicas, el test Jarque-Bera y la prueba de bondad de ajuste de la chi-cuadrado; en segundo lugar, se contrasta la caminata aleatoria (RW de los activos en sus versiones RW1 (test Rachas y test BDS, RW2 (filtros de Alexander con algoritmos genéticos y RW3 (Test Ljung-Box e Intervalo de Bartlett; encontrando que las 5 principales economías latinoamericanas han experimentado un cambio de no eficiencia a eficiencia en los últimos años de acuerdo con el siguiente orden cronológico: México (2007, Brasil (2008, Colombia (2008, Chile (2011 y Perú (2012.

  19. Una medida de eficiencia de mercado. Un enfoque de teoría de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Susana García Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, con base en el concepto de entropía de Shan-non, se propone una medida de eficiencia de mercado que uti-liza la función de densidad empírica de los rendimientos comoalfabeto para calcular la entropía del sistema y proveer con ellouna medida de eficiencia de mercado. Se demuestra que bajociertas condiciones de ergodicidad y de estacionariedad la en-tropía muestral converge a la entropía del estado dominante,lo que valida el uso de la entropía muestral como medida deeficiencia del sistema. Asimismo, se demuestra que la medidapropuesta es consistente con algunos de los axiomas de Artz-neret al.(1999 acerca de una medida coherente de riesgo. Porúltimo, con fines ilustrativos, se llevan a cabo varias aplicacio-nes de la medida de eficiencia propuesta a distintos mercadosde capitales: DJIA, S&P500, FTSE100 e IPC.

  20. Eficiencia técnica en la depuración de aguas residuales: El caso de la comunidad valenciana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Garrido, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dada la importancia creciente de la reutilización de aguas residuales como fuente alternativa de recursos hídricos en muchos ámbitos territoriales, el objetivo de este trabajo consiste en analizar el funcionamiento de las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales en términos de su eficiencia. Para el cálculo de las medidas de eficiencia se utiliza una metodología Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Mediante el uso de técnicas de programación matemática se obtiene un índice de eficiencia para cada planta fijándose como objetivo la minimización del conjunto de los inputs utilizados en el proceso de depuración. Este indicador se utiliza como referencia para caracterizar la actividad de estas instalaciones a través de un análisis de varianza (ANOVA y haciendo uso de una serie de variables tales como el tamaño de planta o la estructura de costes. Dada la relevancia de los tratamientos de aguas residuales en el marco de la Comunidad Valenciana se lleva a cabo un estudio empírico para 338 plantas situadas en este espacio territorial.

  1. CRECIMIENTO Y EFICIENCIA FOTOSINTÉTICA DE Ludwigia decurrens Walter (ONAGRACEAE BAJO DIFERENTES CONCENTRACIONES DE NITRÓGENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEÑA ENRIQUE JAVIER

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y la eficiencia fotosintética de Ludwigia decurrens (Onagraceae, a partir de la estimación de la fluorescencia de la clorofila bajo diferentes concentraciones de nitrógeno (0 mg/L, 465 mg/L y 930 mg/L en condiciones de laboratorio. Como parámetros de crecimiento se utilizaron la longitud total del tallo y el área foliar. Durante el periodo de estudio se observó un incremento en el crecimiento y la eficiencia quántica con el aumento en la concentración de nitrógeno. Sin embargo, no se presentaron diferencias significativas (p<0,05 en los valores de fluorescencia de la clorofila entre los tratamientos. Los resultados del comportamiento de la eficiencia fotosintética (Fv/Fm y el crecimiento de las plantas tratadas con diferentes concentraciones de nitrógeno, demuestran que la macrófita Ludwigia decurrens crece en ambientes relativamente altos de nitrógeno.

  2. Eficiencia de las sociedades musicales de la Comunidad Valenciana || Efficiency of Musical Societies in the Valencian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rausell Koster, Pau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las aplicaciones empíricas basadas en los análisis de eficiencia resultan todavía muy escasas dentro del campo de las organizaciones culturales. En este trabajo se analiza la eficiencia mediante un modelo DEA output orientado no radial que se aplica a una muestra de 292 sociedades musicales de la Comunidad Valenciana. El interés en este tipo de asociación cultural radica tanto en su relevancia socio-económica como en su grado de territorialidad. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la eficiencia media de las sociedades musicales de la Comunidad Valenciana se sitúa en el 72,66% y apuntan hacia la existencia de determinadas especificidades en la oferta y la demanda de los mercados provinciales en que operan. || Empirical applications for assessing the efficiency in cultural organizations are still scarce. In this paper, we use a non-radial, output-oriented, DEA model for assessing the efficiency of a sample of 292 Musical Societies in the Valencian Community. The interest in this type of cultural organization lies in both its socio-economic relevance and its degree of territoriality. The achieved results show that the average efficiency of the Musical Societies stands at 72.66% and points out to the existence of certain specificities in the supply and demand for provincial markets in which they operate.

  3. Aplicación del costo-eficiencia en un área de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mukodsi Caran

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de costo-eficiencia en el policlínico "Turcios Lima" en Ciudad de La Habana, que correlaciona los gastos y resultados de salud alcanzados en el período de un año. Se analiza el presupuesto y los costos unitarios, obtenidos de la aplicación del sistema aprobado para ese fin por el Ministerio de Salud Pública. Se muestra el comportamiento de un grupo de indicadores de salud seleccionados, que reflejan el grado de eficacia. Se establece una relación entre ambos aspectos, concluyendo que existen reservas de eficiencia económica sin explotar, basándonos para ello en los resultados siguientes: el salario representa el 75 % de los gastos, los altos costos por consulta del Plan Familia son de $ 3,65, en Interconsultas de $ 11,09, en Atención Médica Especializada de $ 10,59 y en Psicología de $ 10,50. Los consultorios en centros de trabajo y educacionales son caros, al igual que los medios diagnósticos. Se recomienda la evaluación sistemática en las reuniones del GBT de los resultados de costosA cross-sectional descriptive study of cost-efficiency was conducted at "Turcios Lima" Polyclinic in Havana City to correlate the health expenditures and the results attained during a year. The budget as well as the unitary costs resulting from the application of the system approved by the Ministry of Public Health are analyzed. The behavior of a group of selected health indicators reflecting the degree of efficiency is shown. A relationship between both aspects is established and it is concluded that there are reserves of economic efficiency that have not been exploted yet based on the following results: the salary accounts for 75% of the expenditures, the high costs by consultation of the Family Physician Plan are $3,65; in Interconsultations, $11,09; in Specialized Medical Attention, $10,59; and in Psychology, $10,50. The physcian?s offices in working and educational centers are expensive, as a

  4. Descentralización fiscal y eficiencia en los servicios sociales a nivel territorial en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo León Cano Blandón

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de descentralización en Colombia tiene más de veinte años. Éste se ha caracterizado por la transferencia de recursos desde el nivel central a las entidades territoriales para que cumplan con competencias en servicios básicos para el bienestar de la población. Las transferencias en Colombia han crecido desde el 1,6% como porcentaje del PIB en 1987 hasta el 5,8% como porcentaje del PIB en 2004. Dadas las dificultades económicas del país durante 1999, el sistema de transferencias se modificó y a partir del año 2001 dichos recursos no quedaron atados al crecimiento económico del país, como se había estipulado en la Constitución de 1991. Esta investigación pretende realizar un análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo, para verificar la relación presentada entre el monto de recursos transferidos a las entidades territoriales colombianas y su aplicación a los servicios sociales de educación y salud y de provisión de saneamiento básico (acueducto y alcantarillado para el año 2005, con el fin de medir su impacto en términos de cobertura y calidad para la población colombiana. Una forma de análisis para medir la eficiencia en la gestión pública territorial consiste en aplicar la técnica conocida como Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, la cual consiste en utilizar técnicas de programación lineal para observar, analizar y estudiar la gestión de una entidad territorial con ayuda de la teoría económica y siguiendo un enfoque temporal que considera tanto los insumos (inputs utilizados, como los productos (outputs obtenidos. Se encontró que si bien el proceso de descentralización fiscal otorga competencias y recursos a las entidades territoriales para proveer los servicios sociales básicos para la población, el desempeño global aún dista de mostrar los niveles de eficiencia necesarios, cuando se contrastan los insumos con los productos. Esto por problemas en la gestión, utilización de insumos u obtención de productos.

  5. Hymenoptera venom allergy: work disability and occupational impact of venom immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolocci, Giulia; Folletti, Ilenia; Torén, Kjell; Muzi, Giacomo; Murgia, Nicola

    2014-08-06

    Little is known about the Hymenoptera venom allergy impact on work ability and the effect of venom immunotherapy (VIT) on work. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of work disability in patients treated with VIT and the effects of VIT on occupational functioning. 181 patients, aged 18-71 years, treated with VIT while working, were investigated by questionnaire. Participants were classified into employed and self-employed and, based on work exposure to Hymenoptera, into three risk categories: high risk, occasionally high risk and low risk. Work disability was defined as having to have changed jobs/tasks and/or suffered economic loss because of Hymenoptera venom allergy. Predictors of work disability were assessed in logistic regression models. 31 (17%) patients reported work disability. Being self-employed and having the severe reaction at work were associated with work disability (pallergy could determine work disability. Patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy having a high-risk job for exposure to Hymenoptera seem to have higher risk of work disability and refer more frequently a positive effect of VIT on work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. EFECTO DEL SISTEMA DE RIEGO Y CLIMA EN LA EFICIENCIA DEL USO DE AGUA DE NOGAL PECANERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Zermeño González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El nogal pecanero (Carya illinoensis K. es una especie frutícola de gran importancia para México, su cultivo se realiza en regiones de clima semidesértico donde el agua es el factor limitante de la producción, por lo que es necesario obtener la máxima eficiencia del uso de este recurso, que es función del sistema de riego y de las condiciones climáticas de la región. Sobre esta base, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficiencia del uso del agua de dos huertas de nogal pecanero bajo dos sistemas de riego y diferentes condiciones climáticas. El estudio se realizó en el verano de 2008, en dos huertas de nogal pecanero del noreste de México: una de ellas ubicada en el sureste del estado de Coahuila (Mieleras, municipio de Matamoros con riego por goteo subsuperficial, y la otra en el norte del mismo estado (Zaragoza regada con aspersión. La eficiencia del uso del agua de las huertas del nogal pecanero se definió como la relación entre moles de CO2 asimilados por mol de agua evapotranspirada por el dosel de los árboles. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que aunque la asimilación de CO2 promedio diurna en la huerta de Mieleras (441.68 mmol m-2 fue estadísticamente igual a la observada en la huerta de Zaragoza (489.04 mmol m 2; la eficiencia promedio diaria del uso del agua (mmol CO2 mol-1 H2O fue mayor (P ≤ 0.05 en la huerta de Zaragoza (1.82 que la que se obtuvo en la huerta de Mieleras (1.42. Esto se debió a que las condiciones climáticas en Matamoros fueron de un mayor déficit de presión de vapor y una mayor tasa de evapotranspiración, que tuvieron un efecto mayor en la eficiencia del uso del agua que el sistema de riego utilizado en cada huerta.

  7. Energy efficiency standardizing in vertical pumps; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely; Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) developed the project of a standard on energy efficiency of vertical pumps, turbine type with external motor. This documents has fulfilled the necessary formalities for the issuing of a norm, being published the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-001-ENER-1995) on December 22, 1995. This article relates the results of the study for the elaboration of this norm, considering the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that supports the project of the norm, indicating also the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) elaboro el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales tipo turbina con motor externo. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, habiendose publicado como Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-001-ENER-1995) el 22 de diciembre de 1995. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del estudio para la realizacion de esta norma, considerando los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicando tambien el impacto ambiental que tendra su implantacion.

  8. Program of energy efficiency of Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos; Programas de eficiencia energetica de Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbarela Croda, Ruperto; Arce Vargas, Mauricio [Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos is a producing company of chlorine, soda, sodium hypochlorite and salt. With the purpose of maintaining and consolidating its competitiveness in the international market and to contribute to the preservation of the environment, in 2004 initiated the Program of energy efficiency whose objectives are: to identify the opportunity areas to diminish the present power indexes, to use efficiently the energy sources of the productive activity of the plant and to promote the saving of energy in the companies of Mexichem. [Spanish] Mexichem Derivados Coatzacoalcos es una empresa productora de cloro, sosa, hipoclorito de sodio y sal. Con el fin de mantener y consolidar su competitividad en el mercado internacional y contribuir a la preservacion del medio ambiente, en 2004 inicio con el Programa de eficiencia energetica cuyos objetivos son: identificar las areas de oportunidad para disminuir los indices energeticos actuales, utilizar eficientemente los energeticos de la actividad productiva de la planta y promover el ahorro de energia en las empresas de Mexichem.

  9. Submersible pumps: Energetic efficiency norm; Bombas sumergibles: norma de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R. A.; Buendia Dominguez, E. H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), has prepared a preliminary project of the norm of energy efficiency for submersible pumps. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the emission of the norm. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the submersible pumps, the energy savings, as well as the economic evaluation that sustains the norm project, additionally pointing out the environmental impact that will bring along the implantation of the same. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica para bombas sumergibles. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de las bombas sumergibles, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  10. La economía de la salud, la eficiencia y el costo de oportunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Baly Gil

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La organización del sistema de salud en Cuba, que tiene como base la Atención Primaria de Salud, tendrá necesariamente que abordar el estudio y la implementación de la evaluación económica. La presente comunicación permite un acercamiento a conceptos relacionados con la Economía de la Salud. Se abordan las definiciones de economía, evaluación económica, eficiencia económica, costo, beneficio y costo de oportunidad, en el contexto de un ejemplo hipotético de un problema de salud en la atención primaria. Se concluyó que el uso de la evaluación económica proporciona un marco de análisis más integral de los problemas de salud.Summary The organization of the health system in Cuba that is based on Primary Health Care will have to undertake the study and implementation of economic evaluation. The present communication allows to deal with concepts related to Health Economics. Definitions of economy, economic evaluation, economic efficiency, cost, and cost-benefit of opportunity are approached in the context of a hypothetical example of a health problem in primary care. It was concluded that the use of economic evaluation offers a more comprehensive framework for analyzing health problems.

  11. Valoración de la eficiencia de los sistemas de inteligencia tecnológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Torres P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas formalizados de inteligencia en las organizaciones permiten identificar sus capacidades tecnológicas y los cambios del entorno, a través de la transformación de datos en conocimiento con valor estratégico. El sistema de inteligencia tecnológica (SIT surge con el objeto de incorporar adecuadamente la variable tecnológica en el sistema productivo y empresarial, permitiendo su gestión y la generación de bases para el desarrollo de procesos de innovación. El objetivo de este artículo es el de definir un subsistema que permita realizar seguimiento y evaluar la implementación de los SIT. Con ese fin, inicialmente se revisa la evolución del tema de inteligencia tecnológica, para luego analizar los fundamentos en la literatura con respecto a la medición de la eficiencia de los SIT. Posteriormente se plantea un modelo que involucra las principales variables del sistema, el cual fue simulado sobre la base de la implementación de la inteligencia en varias cadenas agroindustriales. Finalmente se plantean los principales aportes del modelo desarrollado para el desempeño óptimo de los SIT.

  12. Eficiencia del plan de marketing como técnica de aprendizaje cooperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Vallet-Bellmunt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Es innegable la importancia que el trabajo en equipo tiene como capacidad transversal en los nuevos planes de estudio universitarios. Por ello, es importante conocer qué es el aprendizaje cooperativo y su eficiencia sobre los equipos de estudiantes que lo utilizan. El objetivo de este artículo consiste en operacionalizar el concepto de aprendizaje cooperativo y estudiar sus consecuencias sobre el aprendizaje individual de los miembros de un equipo y el rendimiento global obtenido por el mismo. Se utilizan los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales sobre una muestra de 319 alumnos en una asignatura de marketing en una universidad pública española. Los resultados obtenidos señalan que el aprendizaje cooperativo mejora el aprendizaje de la asignatura en la que se aplica y el rendimiento del equipo, por lo que abogamos por que se favorezca su uso en las aulas y proponemos nuevas líneas de investigación para completar nuestro conocimiento sobre el aprendizaje cooperativo.

  13. Regulation on power efficiency in the automobile; Regulacion sobre eficiencia energetica en el automovil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado Susano, Armando; Romero de Vivar Uvaldo, Pascual [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article it is presented a brief analysis of one of the regulations on the yield of fuel consumption of the light vehicles that promoted substantial changes in the Mexican automotive industry, the decree denominated PREMCE (Average of minimum fuel yield by company), as well as some international experiences relative to the subject. It is also indicated the evolution, in the last years, of the average yields of fuel consumption (Km/L) in Mexico in the new automobiles and the more important technological factors that affect their energy efficiency. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un breve analisis de una de las regulaciones sobre el rendimiento de consumo de combustible de los vehiculos ligeros que promovio cambios sustanciales en la industria automotriz mexicana, el decreto denominado Premce (Promedio de rendimiento minimo de combustible por empresa), asi como algunas experiencias internacionales relativas al tema. Se senala tambien la evolucion, en los ultimos anos, de los rendimientos promedio de consumo de combustible (Km/L) en Mexico en los automoviles nuevos y los factores tecnologicos mas importantes que influyen en su eficiencia energetica.

  14. EFECTIVIDAD Y EFICIENCIA DE LOS ANTIVIRUS GRATUITOS COMBINADOS FRENTE AL MALWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Renné Navia Mendoza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio consistió en evaluar cuatro antivirus gratuitos con el objetivo de observar su rendimiento y carga de trabajo producida, tanto de forma individual como de forma combinada, al momento de proteger un computador contra el malware, para determinar qué tan conveniente es utilizar más de un antivirus a la vez. Para este proceso, se utilizó computadores con S.O. Windows 7 Profesional de 64 bits con varios programas utilitarios de uso común. Los aspectos considerados en la evaluación fueron: la carga de trabajo en el sistema, la protección ante amenazas y la utilidad en general. Se emplearon utilidades adicionales, como AppTimer o BootRacer para medir los parámetros de funcionamiento del software instalado en el computador. Los resultados obtenidos han permitido inferir la eficiencia de los antivirus tanto de forma individual y combinada, con la diferencia que la segunda modalidad requiere más recursos.

  15. Predator deterrence by mandibular gland secretions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, J H

    1986-06-01

    Volatile lipids from the mandibular gland secretions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) are potent olfactory repellents of foraging ants (Formica, Crematogaster) in biologically relevant contexts and quantities. In contrast, differential success in capture of bee and fly prey by predatory asilid flies (Efferia), reduviid bugs (Apiomerus), and arachnids (Agelenopsis, Argiope) is better explained by prey size than by chemical repellence, aposematism, or possession of a sting. Supernormal doses of some allomones, applied to worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) that were fed toArgiope aurantia spiders, elicted more frequent preenvenomation pauses following ensnarement but did not significantly increase other prey-handling times. These pauses merely delayed the bee's demise. Mandibular gland secretions of solitary bees augment their other secondary defenses in at least two contexts: (1) during intranest encounters when repelling intruding ants, and (2) retaliation delivered to their arthropodan predators which, if the bee is nearly too large for the predator to handle, may allow the bee to escape.

  16. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae from Colombia

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    Ana Castro Huertas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox; Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron; Ageniella fallax (Arlé; Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron; Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; Aporus (Aporus cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus diverticulus (Fox; Aporus (Notoplaniceps canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks; Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox; Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans.

  17. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. A lectotype is designated for Melipona torrida and notes on the type material of Melipona marginata obscurior are provided. Other known examples of species described from mislabeled specimens in Friese's Zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica are discussed. It is pointed out that additional names proposed in this work, based on material from Costa Rica, might turn out to correspond to South American taxa. Also, the date of publication of this Friese's paper is discussed.

  18. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae by fluorochromes

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    Jefferson de Brito Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K=32+2. Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin.

  19. Revision of the Paridris nephta species group (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Talamas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Paridris nephta group is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae. Fifteen species are described, 14 of which are new: Paridris atrox Talamas, sp. n. (Yunnan Province, China, P. bunun Talamas, sp. n. (Taiwan, P. ferus Talamas, sp. n. (Thailand, P. kagemono Talamas, sp. n. (Japan, P. minator Talamas, sp. n. (Laos, Thailand, P. mystax Talamas, sp. n. (Laos, Thailand, P. nephta (Kozlov (Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Far Eastern Russia, P. nilaka Talamas, sp. n. (Thailand, P. reptilis Talamas, sp. n. (Taiwan, P. rugulosus Talamas, sp. n. (Laos, Vietnam, P. solaris Talamas, sp. n. (Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, P. teres Talamas, sp. n. (Vietnam, P. toketoki Talamas, sp. n. (Taiwan, P. verrucosus Talamas, sp. n. (Guangdong Province, China, P. yak Talamas, sp. n. (Thailand.

  20. A new scenario of bioprospecting of Hymenoptera venoms through proteomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LD Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venoms represent a huge and essentially unexplored reservoir of bioactive components that may cure diseases that do not respond to currently available therapies. This review select advances reported in the literature from 2000 to the present about the new scenario of Hymenoptera venom composition. On account of new technologies in the proteomic approach, which presents high resolution and sensitivity, the combination of developments in new instruments, fragmentation methods, strategic analysis, and mass spectrometry have become indispensable tools for interrogation of protein expression, molecule interaction, and post- translational modifications. Thus, the biochemical characterization of Hymenoptera venom has become a major subject of research in the area of allergy and immunology, in which proteomics has been an excellent alternative to assist the development of more specific extracts for diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitive patients to Hymenoptera venoms.

  1. Vertical stratification of selected Hymenoptera in a remnant forest of the Po Plain (Italy, Lombardy (Hymenoptera: Ampulicidae, Crabronidae, Sphecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Di Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Communities of the canopy of temperate forests are still relatively unexplored. Furthermore, very little is known on how vertical stratification for some insect groups is related to biological strategies. In this study, we investigated the community composition of both canopy and understory of the families Ampulicidae, Crabronidae and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera of the Natural Reserve of “Bosco della Fontana”, a remnant lowland forest in northeastern Italy. Observed patterns in vertical stratification have been related to species foraging habits. Our study reveals that the bulk of the community of Spheciformes of the understory consists of species predating dipterans and spiders, while species associated with the canopy are mainly predators of sap-sucking honeydew producers and epiphyte grazers, like aphids, thrips, and barkflies. Comparing the communities of canopy and understory may lead to a better understanding of species ecology and provides useful information to forest managers.

  2. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  3. Capacidad parasítica de Praon pos. occidentale (Hymenoptera: Braconidae sobre Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae en condiciones de laboratorio

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    Aragón Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Praon pos. occidentale es un parasitoide promisorio para regular poblaciones de áfidos Macrosiphum euphorbiae en cultivos comerciales bajo invernadero de rosas. Se evaluó la capacidad parasítica de P. pos. occidentale bajo tres temperaturas constantes (18, 25 y 28ºC y variando la densidad de su hospedero (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 y 150. En cada unidad experimental se liberó una pareja del parasitoide con 24 horas de edad y se mantuvieron durante 24 horas en incubadoras graduadas a cada temperatura en evauación, con 12 horas de luz y 12 de oscuridad. Se registró el número de áfidos parasitados y se permitió el desarrollo de los huevos depositados hasta adulto. Se estimó la tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ y el tiempo de manipulación (Th a partir de los cuales se ajustó el modelo de respuesta funcional tipo II para cada temperatura. La tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ fue más alta a 18ºC con un valor de 0,1081, seguida de 28ºC con 0,0323 y 25ºC con 0,0103. El tiempo de manipulación (Th más corto fue el que se presentó a 25ºC de 4,8913, seguido de 28º C con un tiempo de 5,7579 y 18ºC con 8,2697. El máximo número de individuos parasitados estimado fue de 4,9 a 25ºC. A 18ºC el 60% de los áfidos parasitados alcanzó la emergencia del adulto, el 74,2% a 25ºC y el 88% a 28ºC. No existe ningún efecto significativo de la densidad del hospedero ni de la temperatura en la proporción sexual de Praon pos. Occidentale.

  4. Hymenoptera venom allergy in outdoor workers: Occupational exposure, clinical features and effects of allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toletone, Alessandra; Voltolini, Susanna; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Dini, Guglielmo; Bignardi, Donatella; Minale, Paola; Massa, Emanuela; Signori, Alessio; Troise, Costantino; Durando, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was performed. A structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to investigate the occupational features of allergic reactions. These were graded according to standard systems in patients at the first episode, and after re-stings, during VIT. One-hundred and 8four out of the 202 patients referred had a complete data set. In 32 (17.4%) patients, the allergic reaction occurred during work activities performed outdoor. Of these, 31.2% previously stung by hymenoptera at work, and receiving VIT, were re-stung during occupational activity. The grades of reaction developed under VIT treatment resulted clinically less severe than of those occurred at the first sting (p-value = 0.031). Our findings confirmed the clinical relevance of HVA, and described its occupational features in outdoor workers with sensitization, stressing the importance of an early identification and proper management of the professional categories recognized at high risk of hymenoptera stings. The Occupational Physician should be supported by other specialists to recommend appropriate diagnostic procedures and the prescription of VIT, which resulted an effective treatment for the prevention of episodes of severe reactions in workers with a proven HVA.

  5. Análisis de la variación de la eficiencia en la producción de biocombustibles en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Morelos Gómez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de investigación tiene como objetivo realizar la medición de las variaciones de eficiencia de los países productores de biocombustibles en Latinoamérica. Se utilizó la metodología no paramétrica de análisis envolvente de datos (DEA, que permitió calcular la frontera de eficiencia de Brasil, Colombia, Argentina, Ecuador, México, Paraguay, Perú, Bolivia y Uruguay. La información analizada se obtuvo de la base de datos FAOSTAT año 2010. Los resultados mostraron el liderazgo de Perú y Brasil, con eficiencias igual a 1 en la producción de biodiésel y bioetanol. De los 9 países analizados, 7 presentaron bajos niveles de eficiencia en la producción de biocombustibles y solo uno (Paraguay mostró tener eficiencia media en la fabricación de bioetanol.

  6. Eficiencia en costos de la banca en Colombia, 1999-2007: una aproximación no paramétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Almanza-Ramírez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se utiliza un procedimiento en dos fases para estimar la eficiencia en costos de la banca en Colombia y explorar sus determinantes potenciales durante el período 1999- 2007. La eficiencia en costos y sus componentes se calcula en la primera fase mediante la técnica no paramétrica conocida como DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis. En la segunda fase se utiliza una regresión Tobit para examinar la influencia del entorno y de algunas características específicas de cada agente sobre la eficiencia. Los resultados DEA indican niveles de ineficiencia en costos no significativamente diferentes de los parámetros internacionales, la cual, tal como lo señala la literatura empírica, es atribuible a la ineficiencia alocativa. Los resultados econométricos indican que el nivel de eficiencia observado fue influido significativamente por la concentración del mercado, el grado de profundización financiera, la relación de intermediación y el crecimiento económico. En cuanto a las variables específicas, sólo el grado de especialización influyó significativamente en los niveles de eficiencia observados.

  7. Serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballada, F; Alonso, M; Vizcaino, L; Coutinho, V; Núñez, R; Vidal, C; Boquete, M; González-Quintela, A

    2013-01-01

    Increased tryptase concentrations are a risk marker for the severity of reactions to Hymenoptera stings or venom immunotherapy To investigate serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). Serum tryptase concentrations were measured in adult patients with HVA (n = 91, 37 of whom were beekeepers), beekeepers without HVA (n = 152), and control individuals from the general adult population (n = 246). Multivariate analyses revealed that serum tryptase levels were positively associated with beekeeping activities (P Beekeeping and HVA are independently associated with increased concentrations of serum tryptase.

  8. New host association: Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae parasitized by Melaloncha (Diptera, Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayelen Lutz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New host association: Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae parasitized by Melaloncha (Diptera, Phoridae. The genus Melaloncha Brues is a large assemblage of New World, parasitoid phorid flies. They are parasitoids of Apoidea bees. However, here we present the first record of a wasp parasitized by Melaloncha sp. The new host is Polybia scutellaris (White, a neotropical eusocial wasp. The parasitized wasp was found in an urban park near the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. It appears that the genus Melaloncha parasitizes a wider range of social Hymenoptera than currently known.

  9. The energy efficiency standards in Mexico; Las normas de eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, Ybo [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    actividades, asi como certificar, verificar e inspeccionar su cumplimiento. Las NOM son de aplicacion obligatoria porque tienen como finalidad establecer las caracteristicas y/o especificaciones, criterios y procedimientos que permitan proteger y promover el mejoramiento del medio ambiente y los ecosistemas, asi como la preservacion de los recursos naturales. La Secretaria de Energia expide las NOM sobre eficiencia energetica, las cuales son formuladas por el Comite Consultivo Nacional de Normalizacion para la Preservacion Uso Racional de los Recursos Energeticos (CCNNPURRE), que es presidido por el Director General de la Conae. La normalizacion de Eficiencia Energetica en Mexico ha permitido ahorros, en el consumo de energia electrica y termica, estimados para el 2001 de 7 700 GWh y una potencia electrica evitada de 1 270 MW, lo cual la ubica como una medida importante en el logro de los objetivos de la CONAE-CCNNPURRE, de concebir y promover estrategias y lineamientos de accion relativos al ahorro y uso eficiente y racional de la energia y como consecuencia la preservacion de los recursos naturales no renovables.

  10. Eficacia y eficiencia del tratamiento antituberculoso en jurisdicciones sanitarias de Morelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-García Ma. de Lourdes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia y la eficiencia del tratamiento antituberculoso administrado por la Secretaría de Salud (SSA en las jurisdicciones sanitarias de Cuernavaca y Cuautla, estado de Morelos, en el periodo 1992-1996. Material y métodos. Se hizo una revisión retrospectiva de las tarjetas de control de tratamiento en pacientes tuberculosos. Se utilizaron las definiciones contenidas en la Norma Oficial para el Control y Prevención de la Tuberculosis en la Atención Primaria a la Salud. La información fue vaciada en formatos estandarizados y se analizó mediante el programa SAS y Epi Info. Se visitaron las 149 unidades de atención primaria y los cuatro hospitales de la zona de estudio. Resultados. Se encontraron las tarjetas correspondientes a 288 pacientes, de los cuales 260 eran de casos nuevos. Estos pacientes recibieron en conjunto 311 tratamientos, de los cuales 85% fueron supervisados. Las tarjetas revisadas correspondieron al 60% de los casos notificados por la SSA en el mismo periodo. El grupo de pacientes tuberculosos tuvo mayor edad que la media poblacional y mayor probabilidad de pertenecer a los estratos socioeconómicos medio y bajo que la población general del área. Se analizaron 246 esquemas de tratamiento y se encontró que 32% presentó curación bacteriológica; 26%, curación probable; 18% abandonó el tratamiento; 1% fracasó en el tratamiento, y 3% murió durante el tratamiento. En 20% de los casos se desconoció el resultado del tratamiento. La frecuencia de curación fue mayor en los casos nuevos (61% que en los retratamientos (38% (p< 0.01. Los pacientes en retratamiento lo abandonaron con mayor frecuencia (32% que los casos nuevos (16% (p< 0.01. La eficacia del tratamiento fue de 71%, y la eficiencia, de 58%. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre abandono de tratamiento y retratamiento (RM 3.3, IC95% 1.3-8.5, p= 0.01 o nivel socioeconómico bajo (RM 2.3, IC95% 1.0-4.9, p= 0.04. En los

  11. Eficiencia productiva de la industria venezolana del hierro en la Región Guayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo J. Pico F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de la investigación fue analizar la eficiencia productiva de la industria venezolana de Hierro de Reducción Directa (HRD en la Región Guayana en el periodo 2005 al 2009. La investigación fue explicativa. El método aplicadofue el hipotético deductivo con un diseño no experimental de corte transversal. La recolección de datos fue documental y la población fueron los reactores ubicados en la Región Guayana, ya que allí es donde se concentra toda la producción de HRD de Venezuela. La técnica de análisis de los datos aplicada fue Análisis Envolvente de Datos. Los resultados, indican que la producción de HRD está en descenso por la disminución de oferta de insumos (factores externos y la ineficiencia del manejo de insumos (factores internos, siendo la más significativa los factores externos que representa un 74% de la producción y una perdida de 17.569 miles de toneladas, lo que significa un descenso de 1,02 miles de Toneladas anuales en los niveles de producción equivale una pérdida de 23.330 miles de toneladas en el lapso 2005-2009, un 38,7% de producción. Se concluye que es ineludible un cambio de actitud con criterio de competitividad en la conducción de la gestión de los procesos de producción de reducción directa de hierro

  12. Construction components and energy efficiency in buildings; Componentes de construccion y eficiencia energetica en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, N.K.; Bhandari, M.S.; Kummar, P.S. [Centro para el Estudio de Energia, Instituto Hindu de Tecnologia, Hauz Khas, Nueva Delhi (Indonesia)

    2005-01-15

    An energy efficiency analysis to a set of buildings was made in India to quantify the effects of the individual design concepts with respect to the energy system in general. The saving potential of energy of different concepts as well as the orientation, windows, air cavities, insulation, etc. was quantified for the different climatic conditions that prevail in most of the Central India regions. It is demonstrated that the specific requirement of heat energy can be reduced to 300 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edifice} = 2.13 W/m{sup 2} K) for a building of normal construction up to 143 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edifice} = 0.95 W/m{sup 2} K) when using ceiling insulation and walls and by means of the use of double glass windows. [Spanish] Se realizo el analisis de eficiencia de energia a un conjunto de edificios en la India, para cuantificar los efectos de los conceptos individuales de diseno respecto al sistema de energia en general. El potencial de ahorro de energia de distintos conceptos, como la orientacion, ventanas, cavidades de aire, aislamiento, etc. fue cuantificado para las distintas condiciones climaticas que prevalecen en la mayoria de las regiones de India central. Se demuestra que el requerimiento especifico de energia calorifica puede ser reducida de 300 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edificio} = 2.13 W/m{sup 2} K) para un edificio de construccion normal hasta 143 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edificio} = 0.95 W/m{sup 2} K) al usar un aislante en el techo, paredes y mediante el empleo de ventanas de doble vidrio.

  13. Eficiencia del tratamiento de residuales porcinos en digestores de laguna tapada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Blanco

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de dos lagunas tapadas, diseñadas para tratar los residuales de las granjas porcinas P-3 y T-2.1 _pertenecientes a la Asociación de Porcicultores de Yucatán, México_, con el objetivo de verificar la factibilidad de implementar en Cuba esta tecnología. Los indicadores físico-químicos y microbiológicos de los efluentes fueron determinados en el momento de su entrada y su salida de los digestores, y a su salida del lago de estabilización. El digestor de la granja P-3 logró remover más del 90 % de la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO y hasta el 71 % de los sólidos suspendidos totales (SST presentes; mientras que el digestor de la granja T-2.1 alcanzó una remoción del 78 % en la DQO y el 62 % de los SST. Los análisis sanitarios indicaron que las bacterias coliformes totales presentaron una disminución importante, de 2,4 x 108 a 1,7 x 103 en la granja P-3 y de 4,2 x 107 a 2,7 x 103 en la granja T-2.1. En ambas lagunas, los huevos de helmintos mostraron una reducción del 100 %. Se concluye que las lagunas tapadas tuvieron un adecuado desempeño en el tratamiento de los residuales porcinos, y que esta tecnología es factible de ser empleada en Cuba.

  14. Eficiencia de la respuesta superovulatoria del ganado Brahman al protocolo P-24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Salgado O.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la eficiencia de la respuesta superovulatoria del ganado Brahman al protocolo P-24. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron doce vacas Brahman donadoras con más de 60 días postparto, a las cuales se les realizó un total de 21 tratamientos superovulatorios con base en el protocolo P-24. Se realizó la colecta de los embriones a través del método convencional y los embriones fueron clasificados (IETS. Resultados. Se obtuvo un promedio de 9.1 estructuras, 4.4 embriones transferibles, 3.7 embriones congelables y 3.2 embriones degenerados recuperados por colecta. Los estadíos de desarrollo que predominaron fueron mórula (32.6%, blastocisto temprano (38% y blastocisto (18.5%. Se presentó efecto (p0.05 sobre las demás variables estudiadas. Se presentó efecto (p0.05 de la producción promedio de embriones degenerados y ovocitos sin fecundar entre ambos grupos. No obstante, la proporción de éstos fue mayor en las donadoras con una menor producción de embriones transferibles (50 y 22.4% vs. las donadoras con mayor producción (39.3 y 14% para embriones degenerados y ovocitos sin fecundar respectivamente. Conclusiones. El ganado Brahman tuvo una respuesta superovulatoria eficiente al protocolo P-24 para transferencia de embriones a tiempo fijo.

  15. Productividad y eficiencia energética en el proceso de molienda del mineral laterítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Angulo-Leblanch

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se realiza un análisis energético del proceso de molienda seca del mineral laterítico, considerado como el proceso de mayor consumo de energía eléctrica entre los procesos beneficiadores que se emplean en las plantas niquelíferas, ubicadas al norte de la provincia de Holguín. Son analizadas las particularidades energéticas que exhibe este proceso cuando las máquinas trabajan normalmente con la presencia de mineral y cuando se producen ausencias ocasionales de éste en el sistema, lo que trae como consecuencia el incremento notable de las potencias demandadas por los molinos y por los ventiladores de recirculación . Se analiza además, la influencia del grado de llenado con bolas del molino, sobre la productividad y la estrecha relación de esta última con la eficiencia energética del proceso. El método fundamental de análisis empleado, se basa en la obtención experimental y en las condiciones concretas de explotación, de las características energéticas de las unidades de molienda y de sus agregados, como vía directa para descubrir las reservas de energía del sistema y conocer hasta qué punto es posible mejorar su eficiencia influyendo sobre la productividad. El trabajo revela que, cuando las unidades de molienda son operadas con valores de productividades que oscilan entre un 50 y un 60% de la nominal, si son adoptadas las medidas pertinentes para lograr el aumento de la productividad, entonces esto puede reportar hasta un 55% de mejoramiento de la eficiencia energética del proceso.

  16. EVALUACIÓN DE LA EFICIENCIA Y LA PRODUCTIVIDAD EN EL SECTOR HOTELERO ESPAÑOL: UN ANÁLISIS REGIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberca, Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan la eficiencia nacional y regional y la productividad total de los factores de los hoteles españoles. La metodología frontera no paramétrica DEA se ha empleado para evaluar los niveles de eficiencia con los que operan las empresas hoteleras y los índices de Malmquist para estimar el cambio productivo acaecido en el periodo 2001-2008. Los principales resultados permiten determinar las comunidades autónomas que presentan un comportamiento más eficiente, que resultan más competitivas y los índices de variación de su productividad en el periodo, así como sus principales determinantes: los cambios en la eficiencia y el cambio técnico.

  17. Factores que limitan la posibilidad de elevar la eficiencia de las organizaciones productoras de aguacate: el caso del municipio de Tetela del Volcán, Morelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Bazaldúa Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es describir y analizar algunos de los factores que influyen en la baja producti - vidad de las organizaciones productoras de aguacate, particularmente las que se encuentran localizadas en Tetela del Volcán, estado de Morelos. Las preguntas centrales que guían está investigación son las siguientes: ¿cuáles son algunos de los principales factores que limitan o influyen en el incremento de la eficiencia de las organizaciones empresariales desde el punto de vista teórico y empírico?, ¿cuáles son los niveles de producción y de eficiencia productiva del aguacate que se registran a nivel mundial, estatal y municipal?, y ¿de qué manera la tecnología y el capital humano influyen en la eficiencia de los productores de aguacate?

  18. Cultura de trabajo para garantizar la sostenibilidad; eficiencia e impacto final de las tecnologías

    OpenAIRE

    A. Senra

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de esta ponencia es exponer una cultura o estilo de trabajo para obtener una mayor sostenibilidad y eficiencia en los sistemas de explotación bovinos, principalmente de producción lechera basada en pastizales; en éstos, la finalidad del ajuste sistemático de las tecnologías e innovaciones es para obtener éxito y, simultáneamente, asegurar su impacto productivo final en el ecosistema. Se discute la necesidad de medir, controlar y analizar, sistemáticamente, los índices que se estab...

  19. Utilización de ultracondensadores para la mejora de eficiencia de una instalación fotovoltaica

    OpenAIRE

    González de la Fuente, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    La situación actual de la energía fotovoltaica requiere una reducción de costes de producción para aproximarla a otras tecnologías y consolidarla como una solución viable para el futuro. Se trata fundamentalmente de reducir los costes de los componentes (los costes de explotación y mantenimiento son poco significativos en esta tecnología) y/o mejorar la eficiencia en la captación y conversión de la energía solar. La tesis plantea una propuesta en esta segunda línea. Los inversores fotovoltai...

  20. Factores claves de eficiencia en las pymes andaluzas: especial referencia a los sistemas de información

    OpenAIRE

    Laffarga Briones, Joaquina; Lobo Gallardo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo analizamos el papel de los Sistemas de Información como factor clave empresarial para la eficiencia de las pymes andaluzas. Para ello hemos desarrollado un estudio empírico empleando una doble fuente de datos, por un lado, los económico financieros extraídos de la base de datos SABI y, por otro los aspectos relacionados con los Sistemas de Información a través de un cuestionario. En cuanto a la metodología se han utilizado el análisis de ...

  1. Determinantes de la eficiencia técnica en la agroindustria de aceite de palma en el departamento del Magdalena

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Luna, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    El autor realiza un análisis de las fronteras de producción de la agroindustria de aceite de palma en el departamento del Magdalena con el objetivo de explicar algunos determinantes de la eficiencia técnica de esta agroindustria importante para la región. La metodología aplicada fue la de los mínimos cuadrados ordinarios para una serie de tiempos entre 1995 y 2010, utilizando los datos de la encuesta anual manufacturera del Dane. Los resultados obtenidos por el autor sustentan cómo a mayores ...

  2. Estudio de la mejora del proceso y la eficiencia del departamento de compras indirectas de la empresa SDD

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Recio, Víctor José; Molina Sánchez, Jonatan

    2015-01-01

    Proyecto de mejora del proceso y la eficiencia del departamento de compras indirectas. Aplicación en empresa del sector del automóvil llamada Sistemas de Distribución Directa (SDD). El proyecto trata sobre la aplicación de una reingeniería del proceso de compra indirecta, motivado por un exceso de procesos administrativos y burocráticos que apenas añaden valor al proceso. Dichos procesos deben ser eliminados o minimizados para poder dedicarnos a actividades que sí generen v...

  3. La eficiencia terminal en programas de licenciatura y su relación con la calidad educativa

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez González, Jorge Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Aún cuando la equidad sigue siendo el mayor reto del sistema educativo mexicano y que durante el siglo pasado el gobierno federal dedicó gran parte de sus esfuerzos a la expansión de dicho sistema, lo cierto es que la calidad de los servicios educativos no ha sido atendida con la misma intensidad. La calidad educativa abarca conceptos como el de pertinencia, cobertura, niveles de desempeño, eficacia y eficiencia y bajo este concepto, resulta fácilmente discernible concebir los problemas de ba...

  4. Envolvente de edificios de alta eficiencia energética. Estudio de dos casos concretos en Valladolid

    OpenAIRE

    Sancha de la Mata, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Con el objetivo de analizar de una forma cercana la realidad de la construcción en edificios de alta eficiencia energética, se buscan dos casos de edificios ya construidos, reconocidos, premiados y certificados con la máxima calificación energética en el entorno de Valladolid (España). Se analizará el ENVITE, de promoción privada, y el LUCIA, promovido por la Universidad de Valladolid. Ambos han sido concebidos para conseguir el máximo aprovechamiento energético desde la fase de diseño, reper...

  5. Gestión del conocimiento en el tercer sector: de la competitividad a la eficiencia organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Bedoya-Dorado

    2015-01-01

    El estudio tiene como objetivo presentar una reflexión sobre el aporte de la gestión del conocimiento (GC) a la eficiencia en organizaciones del tercer sector. Para ello se llevó a cabo un análisis de contenido de una recopilación de 35 artículos de revistas indexadas JCR y SJR, y de revistas especializadas en GC. El análisis señala que aunque las organizaciones del tercer sector no están llamadas a competir como las organizaciones tradicionales, ni a generar estrategias de captación y fideli...

  6. Regulación y Eficiencia en el Sector Eléctrico Español: 1988-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez Gómez, Leticia

    2008-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El objetivo general de esta tesis es estudiar el comportamiento de las empresas eléctricas españolas como respuesta a las reformas regulativas implementadas en el sector entre 1987 y 2004. Específicamente, se pretende relacionar las medidas legislativas adoptadas con el desempeño de las empresas desde el punto de vista de su eficiencia. Tras un primer capítulo introductorio y un segundo en el que se ofrece una sucinta re...

  7. La eficacia y eficiencia del sistema educativo mexicano para garantizar el derecho a la escolaridad básica

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Héctor; Escobar, Mariel; Barranco, Arturo; Mexicano, Cristina; Velencia, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    Se aportan indicadores para determinar la eficacia y eficiencia con que el Sistema Educativo Mexicano (SEM) está garantizando el egreso oportuno de primaria y secundaria, niveles educativos obligatorios en México. Aunque el SEM continúa mejorando gradualmente su desempeño, altas proporciones de la población adolescente aún no tienen la primaria o secundaria completas. Estos resultados se deben, en gran parte, a la ineficiencia del SEM en retener a sus alumnos y promoverlos en trayectorias esc...

  8. Mejora de la eficiencia energética en el alumbrado público del casco urbano de Ulea

    OpenAIRE

    López Ayala, Valentín

    2015-01-01

    [SPA]El presente proyecto fin de carrera, define y desarrolla en base a la normativa actual, los estudios necesarios para la mejora de la eficiencia energética en el alumbrado público del casco urbano del Municipio de Ulea, enclavado en la vega media del río Segura en el denominado Valle de Ricote. En el presente trabajo, se hace un profundo análisis del estado actual de alumbrado existente, con definición de tipos de luminarias y lámpara utilizadas, para a continuación, pro...

  9. 1er taller "Eficiencia Energética para la Seguridad y Sostenibilidad de Iberoamérica (EFESOS)"

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Carmen; Yépez, Wilson; Ramírez Pisco, Rodrigo; Osal, William; Doyharzabal, Julio; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Sánchez, Itha; Llosas, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Los estudios de las emisiones de los gases de efecto invernadero causados por la producción de la energía eléctrica con fuentes no renovables incrementan el interés por la Eficiencia Energética. Ésta busca establecer oportunidades de ahorro manteniendo los niveles de bienestar de los clientes del servicio. Debido a su importancia, desde el año 2007 se desarrolla la Acción de Coordinación EFESOS del CYTED con el objeto de potenciar las oportunidades y el intercambio de los resultad...

  10. Eficiencia del proceso de devoluciones al contribuyente que realiza la DIAN para el año 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cruz Montoya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de contribuir al fortalecimiento de la seguridad jurídica del contribuyente en Colombia, se presentan los principales resultados de un estudio que pretendía evaluar el cumplimiento de principios constitucionales (como la igualdad, economía, celeridad, eficiencia, transparencia e imparcialidad en los procesos tributarios de devolución efectuados por la Dirección de Impuestos y Aduanas Nacionales, DIAN. Esto enfocado a los impuestos de renta e IVA durante el 2007 en la ciudad de Cali.

  11. RELACIÓN DE LA EFICIENCIA DEL DISEÑO EXPERIMENTAL EN LA CALIDAD DE LOS EXPERIMENTOS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ruiz Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Un problema recurrente en la experimentación agrícola, es la elección subjetiva del diseño de bloques al azar (DBA y la falta de evaluación de la eficiencia relativa (ER, así como la calidad del experimento. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar si la aplicación correcta o incorrecta del diseño de bloques al azar, influye en la calidad de los experimentos en el cultivo de caña de azúcar. Para ello, se utilizó información de la Eficiencia Relativa y la calidad de 12 experimentos de fertilización establecidos mediante un diseño de bloques al azar, en los años 2002-2004 en los estados de Veracruz y Oaxaca, México. Para evaluar la relación de la eficiencia del diseño experimental y la calidad de los experimentos, se empleó el coeficiente de correlación (r de Kendall, por otro lado, para probar la hipótesis de independencia de la eficiencia del DBA y la calidad de los experimentos, se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher para tablas dicotómicas, ambos métodos se analizaron con el programa STATISTICA. En los resultados se observó baja correlación (r = 0.09759 y con la prueba exacta de Fisher (P = 1.00000 se obtuvo que son independientes la eficiencia del diseño de bloques al azar y la calidad de los experimentos. Se concluye que la eficiencia del diseño experimental es independiente de la precisión de la calidad de los experimentos en el cultivo de caña de azúcar.

  12. Una especie nueva del género Telenomus (Hymenoptera:Scelionidae parasitoide de posturas de Chrysopidae (Neuroptera en Mendoza, Argentina A new species of the genus Telenomus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae egg parasitoid of Chrysopidae (Neuroptera from Mendoza , Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Loiácono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Telenomus chrysoperlae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera que se comporta como parasitoide de huevos de Chrysoperla asoralis (Bank (Neuroptera en Mendoza, Argentina. Se compara con las especies afines T. chrysopae Ashmead y T. tridentatus Johnson & Bin.Telenomus chrysoperlae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera egg parasitoid of Chrysoperla asoralis (Bank (Neuroptera from Mendoza , Argentina , is described and illustrated. It is compared with the congeners T. chrysopae Ashmead and T. tridentatus Johnson & Bin.

  13. Procedimiento para estimar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín//A procedure for estimating of cylindrical worm gear efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo González-Rey

    2013-01-01

    En el trabajo se propone un procedimiento general para estimar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín cilíndrico considerando pérdidas de potencia por fricción entre los flancos conjugados. El referido procedimiento tiene sus bases en dos modelos matemáticos desarrollados con relaciones teóricas y empíricas presentes en el Reporte Técnico ISO 14521. Los modelos matemáticos elaborados son orientados a evaluar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín cilíndrico en función de la ge...

  14. Estado actual del bosque de polylepis y su eficiencia en la captura de CO2 en la provincia de Tarata, departamento de Tacna

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Aranibar, Luis Fortunato

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar las poblaciones actuales de Polylepis y su eficiencia en la captura de CO2 en la Provincia de Tarata (Susapaya, Estique Pueblo, Tarucachi, Sitajara, Ticaco y Tarata). Se establecieron parcelas de 25 x 20 m. (0, 1 ha.); ubicado al azar con la ayuda de estacas, rafia y brújula; luego se levanto información del estado actual para luego calcular su eficiencia de captura de CO2. En una área de 453 km2; la capacidad de captación de CO2 es d...

  15. Modificación de un motor de baja cilindrada para mejorar la eficiencia con el empleo de etanol utilizado en la Shell Eco-Marathon

    OpenAIRE

    BOCANEGRA SÁNCHEZ, DAVID

    2016-01-01

    [ES] En este proyecto se realizara un estudio y modificación de un motor de baja cilindrada para mejorar la eficiencia con el empleo de etanol para la competición Shell Eco-Marathon, en el cual pretendemos consumir la menor cantidad de combustible ya que en esta competición se mide el grado de eficiencia energética alcanzado. El proyecto se concreta en reducir el consumo de combustible de un motor térmico de cuatro tiempos. Bocanegra Sánchez, D. (2016). Modificación de un motor de baja ...

  16. Eficiencia en distribución comercial: influencia de la concentración del mercado y del tamaño empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers Rubio, Ricardo; Mas Ruiz, Francisco José

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en estimar la eficiencia económica con la que operan los intermediarios del sector de distribución comercial español. Adicionalmente, se pretende examinar los determinantes de dicha eficiencia en términos de la concentración del mercado y tamaño. La metodología aplicada se apoya en el Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA), así como en diferentes contrastes no paramétricos para conocer el impacto del tamaño de la empresa y de la concentración del mercado sobre...

  17. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  18. Phylogeography of two parthenogenetic sawfly species (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): relationship of population genetic differentiation to host plant distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, C.; Barker, A.; Boevé, J.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Vos, de H.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the population genetic structure of two obligate parthenogenetic sawfly species, Aneugmenus padi (L.) Zhelochovtsev and Eurhadinoceraea ventralis (Panzer) Enslin (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Allozymes were used to detect genetic differences in larvae collected at different

  19. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  20. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bilo, M. B; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Pumphrey, R; Oude-Elberink, J. N; Lange, J; Jakob, T; Bonadonna, P; Fernandez, J; Kosnik, M; Helbling, A; Mosbech, H; Gawlik, R; Niedoszytko, M; Patella, V; Pravettoni, V; Roigues-Alves, R; Sturm, G. J; Rueff, F

    2016-01-01

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management...

  1. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy in Mastocytosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Golden, David B. K.

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a typical IgE-mediated reaction caused by sensitization to 1 or more allergens of the venom, and accounts for 1.5% to 34% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Patients suffering from mastocytosis are more susceptible to the anaphylactic reactions to an insect sting. This article

  2. Diagnostic value of the basophil activation test in evaluating Hymenoptera venom sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternelj, Andreja; Silar, Mira; Bajrovic, Nissera; Adamic, Katja; Music, Ema; Kosnik, Mitja; Korosec, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of allergy to Hymenoptera venom is usually confirmed with skin testing and measurement of specific serum IgE antibody, tests which are sometimes inconclusive. In these cases, additional in vitro tests are necessary. The aim of this study was to show the applicability of the basophil activation test in detecting sensitization to Hymenoptera venom and to compare the test sensitivity and clinical positive-predictive value with skin prick tests and measurement of allergen-specific serum IgE. This prospective study was conducted between June 2004 and December 2007 and included a large group of 204 patients. All patients had a history of at least one systemic allergic reaction of Müller grades II-IV after a Hymenoptera sting. We compared results of the basophil activation test, specific serum IgE and skin prick tests with patients' clinical history and data on culprit insects. The overall clinical sensitivities of the basophil activation test, specific serum IgE and skin prick tests were 90%, 76% and 64%, respectively; the clinical positive-predictive values of the three tests were 79%, 73% and 78% for bee venom, 86%, 59% and 43% for wasp venom; and 84%, 77% and 22% for both venoms. Our results revealed a higher clinical sensitivity and comparable or better clinical positive-predictive value of basophil activation tests than skin prick tests and allergen-specific serum IgE in the detection of allergy to Hymenoptera venom.

  3. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru. PMID:21594146

  4. Hymenoptera of Niğde province: Studies on Sphecidae fauna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    12 Tem 2010 ... Hymenoptera of Niğde province: Studies on Sphecidae fauna. Ayla Tüzün and Serdar Yüksel. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ankara, Tandogan / Ankara 06100, Turkey. Accepted 19 May, 2010. The present study is based on 1240 specimens obtained from the field studies in the ...

  5. Application of recombinant antigen 5 allergens from seven allergy-relevant Hymenoptera species in diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Eberlein, Bernadette; Moreno Aguilar, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hymenoptera stings can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated venom-allergic patients. A correct diagnosis regarding the relevant species for immunotherapy is often hampered by clinically irrelevant cross-reactivity. In vespid venom allergy, cross-reactivity between venoms of different...

  6. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  7. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae occurring in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolívar Garcete-Barrett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae recorded from Brazil: H. arechavaletae (Brèthes and H. duckei (Bertoni comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  8. Sawflies from the Sălaj County of Romania (Hymenoptera: Symphyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zombori L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 38 sawfly species (Hymenoptera: Symphyta were captured in the two years of 2014–2015 in the Sălaj County of Romania. Most of the species are fairly common far and wide in Transylvania.

  9. The European Pamphiliidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta), with special reference to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Aartsen, van B.

    1986-01-01

    Keys are given to the European genera and species of the Pamphiliidae (Symphyta: Megalodontoidea). Ten species are added to the list of the Dutch Hymenoptera. Cephalcia alashanica europaea Benes, 1976 is synonymized with C. a. alashanica Gussakovskij, 1935 (syn. nov.), Acantholyda parvula Zirngiebl,

  10. An annotated catalogue of Primary types of symphyta (Hymenoptera) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P.L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary types of 48 species of Symphyta (Hymenoptera), described by Van Achterberg & Van Aartsen (2), Benson (7), Cameron (1), Forsius (13), Koornneef (1) and Snellen van Vollenhoven (24), housed in the collections of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie (Leiden), the Instituut voor

  11. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  12. Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bee tribe Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a large, cosmopolitan group of solitary bees that exhibit intriguing nesting behavior. We present the first molecular-based phylogenetic analysis of relationships within Anthidiini using model based methods and a large, multi-locus dataset (fiv...

  13. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Ivich. Fraser

    2010-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T....

  14. Increasing trophic complexity influences aphid attendance by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species that are involved in multitrophic interactions are affected by the trophic levels that are above and below them in both indirect and direct ways. In this experiment, interactions among ants (Formica montana Wheeler; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), aphids (Myzus persicae [Sulzer]; Hemiptera: Aphidi...

  15. De roodrandzandbij Andrena rosae in de Zuid-Hollandse Biesbosch (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der F.; Reemer, M.; Peeters, T.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Andrena rosae in the Zuid-Hollandse Biesbosch (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae) Andrena rosae is a fairly large, black and red mining bee. It has declined dramatically in the 20th century in northwestern Europe. In the Netherlands the species only survived in and around the Biesbosch, at the

  16. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-19

    In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru.

  17. Insect Pupil Mechanisms. I. On the Pigment Migration in the Retinula Cells of Hymenoptera (Suborder Apocrita)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.; Kuiper, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The pupil mechanism of Hymenoptera (suborder Apocrita) has been studied by simultaneous recordings of transmission and reflection from the compound eye of virtually intact animals. It is confirmed that the light flux in the photoreceptors is controlled by pigment granules in the retinula cells; the

  18. The prevalence of Hymenoptera venom allergy in adults: the results of a very crowded city in Euroasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelincik, Aslı; İşsever, Halim; Unal, Derya; Işık, Erol; Demirturk, Mustafa; Gül, Hülya; İliaz, Raim; Kara, Erdal; Ertek, Belkıs; Özşeker, Ferhan; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin; Büyüköztürk, Suna

    2015-01-01

    There are scarce data about the prevalence of Hymenoptera venom allergy in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hymenoptera venom allergy in the general adult population of Istanbul. A total of 17,064 randomly selected telephone numbers were contacted and 11,816 (69.25%) individuals who agreed to participate completed a questionnaire. Those who disclosed hypersensitivity reactions due to Hymenoptera stings in this initial survey were called again and given another questionnaire. Those who were suspected of experiencing hypersensitivity reactions to Hymenoptera stings were invited for a clinical investigation with in vivo and in vitro diagnostic tests. According to the first questionnaire, a total of 1171 (9.9%; 95% CI: 9.38-10.47%) were suspected of having a hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings. 51.75% (n: 606) answered the second questionnaire and 21% (n: 128) of these were still suspected of having a hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.9-1.29%). The confirmed prevalence of hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera stings according to skin tests and in vitro sIgE levels was 0.2% (95% CI: 0.14-0.30%). Nearly all of the participants with systemic reactions were admitted to the emergency department, although only one tenth of them received adrenaline in the emergency room. 2.3% carried an adrenaline injector, whereas none of the patients received venom immunotherapy. The prevalence of Hymenoptera sting reactions in our geographical region is comparable with other European studies. There is a need to increase the awareness of adrenaline in the emergency management of insect sting anaphylaxis and venom immunotherapy in the prophylaxis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Criterios para evaluar la eficiencia: hablan psicoterapeutas psicoanalíticos, conductuales cognitivos, racionales emotivos y psicoanalistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Eugenia Mantilla Lagos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora los criterios para evaluar la eficiencia de los tratamientos psicoterapéuticos individuales con adultos desde la perspectiva de cuaarenta profesionales representativos de cuatro tipos de intervención clínica: psicoterapias conductual-cognitiva, psicoanalítica y racional-emotiva, y psicoanálisis. Asimismo, busca conocer las similitudes y diferencias entre estos tipos de intervención con respecto a dichos criterios. Para ello, se construyó y aplicó una entrevista semiestructurada que explora las consideraciones acerca de la eficiencia del tratamiento. Del análisis cualitativo de datos, se obtuvieron doce temas de análisis con sus correspondientes categorías de respuesta, los cuales fueron sometidos a un análisis estadístico descriptivo y de correspondencia. Los criterios encontrados son numerosos y variados. Las diferencias halladas entre los cuatro grupos se relacionan con la naturaleza del trabajo terapéutico de cada uno y con el paradigma teórico que los define. Los psicoanalistas y los psicoterapeutas conductuales cognitivos constituyen los grupos que más se diferencian entre sí.

  20. Nuevos enfoques de eficiencia, productividad y calidad en la teoría de gestión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Martínez Fajardo

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo parte del análisis clásico de los conceptos de eficiencia, productividad y calidad, teniendo en cuenta los factores tierra, recursos físicos, capital y trabajo. Más allá de ese enfoque el artículo señala el. papel de nuevos factores estratégicos: el management cibernético, la velocidad en el flujo de información y la capacidad de producir conocimiento en las organizaciones, enfoque nuevo que permitió registrar un salto cualitativo y cuantitativo en la competitividad de las grandes empresas corporativas después de los años sesentas, desde una visión más compleja. El avance reciente en el campo de la gestión se apoya en estos tres factores, en un escenario social globalizado y basado en los sistemas de información que incidirá en la capacidad de innovación, mejoramiento de la eficiencia, de los costos de transacción y en el desarrollo del potencial de crecimiento de las organizaciones modernas.

  1. Democracia y dilema eficiencia-equidad en la descentralización local en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar GARCÍA-GUADILLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La descentralización es uno de los mecanismos mediante el cual el Estado central transfiere competencias políticas y administrativas a las localidades, ya sea con la finalidad de fortalecer la participación política, lograr eficiencia estatal o para buscar la gobernabilidad. En algunos países latinoamericanos como Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica se han impulado procesos de descentralización con el fin de racionalizar la actividad estatal y, precisamente, contribuir a la gobernabilidad.En Venezuela la Comisión para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE implementó la descentralización en 1988 como una forma de superar el modelo estado céntrico, caracterísitico de las últimas décadas en el país. El proceso no estuvo acompañado por cambios constitucionales, lo que condujo a conflictos entre diversas normas y al consiguiente retraso en la implementación de las nuevas políticas. El ejercicio descentralizador se está desarrollando principalmente a nivel político, por ejemplo, en los municipios de Chacao, Baruta, El Hatillo y Libertador, que pertenecen al Area Metropolitana Interna de Caracas. Así, el proceso descentralizador se vive con diferencias marcadas resultantes del tipo de administración implementada desde la alcaldía, la mayor o menor disponibilidad de resursos económicos y humanos, la población y la pobreza.ABSTRACT: Decentralization is one of the mechanisms by which the central State transfers political and administrative competences to the localities, sometimes with the purpose of strenghtening political participation, to achieve state efficiency of to look for gobernability. In some Latín American countries such as Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica have been decentralization processes impulsed to rationalize the public activity and, precisely, to contribute to gobernability.In Venezuela the Comission for the State Reform (COPRE implemented the decentralization in 1988 as a way of

  2. Energy efficiency: a necessity in complex surroundings; Eficiencia energetica: una necesidad en un entorno complejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez Perez, E. [Alcion Ingenieria Quimica, S.A. (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    A global analysis of the energy system with reference to the energy case of Spain in comparison to the yield of the European Union is proposed. The analysis discusses the problems originated by the climatic change and exhibits three decisive concepts in energy efficiency (investment, good use and productivity) along with three indicating phenomena of an efficient or incompetent development (mobility, tourism and urbanism). Next, it exemplifies possible evolution criteria of the electrical production systems along with an ideal of evolution in the generation systems simultaneously mentioning measures for the emissions reduction in the industry, particularly in the automotive industry. In addition, it considers the imposition of energy taxes in front of the non fulfillment of the emissions' control as an important restrictive measurement. In between, the solution initiatives that have had a short reach, such as the Kyoto protocol, and categorical conclusions are contemplated: The cleanest energy is the one than is not consumed, not because it is not available but because it is not necessary, therefore it is not demanded. [Spanish] Se propone un analisis global del sistema de energia con referencia al caso energetico de Espana en equiparacion al rendimiento de la Union Europea. El analisis discute las problematicas originadas por el cambio climatico y exhibe tres conceptos decisivos en la eficiencia energetica (inversion, buen uso y productividad) junto con tres fenomenos indicadores de un desarrollo eficiente o incompetente (movilidad, turismo y urbanismo). Enseguida ejemplifica posibles criterios de evolucion de los sistemas de produccion electrica junto con un ideal de evolucion en los sistemas de generacion, a la vez que cita medidas para la reduccion de emisiones en la industria, particularmente en la industria automotriz. Se considera la imposicion de impuestos energeticos frente al incumplimiento en el control de emisiones como una importante medida

  3. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA TUMBUHAN LIAR DI SEKITAR PERTANAMAN PADI DI DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI (DAS CIANJUR, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaherwandi, S. Manuwoto, D. Buchori, P. Hidayat, dan L.B. Prasetyo.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera Parasitoid Community Structure on Non-crops Vegetation Around Rice fields in Cianjur Watershed, West Java. Hymenoptera parasitoids have an important role in agroecosystem because of their ability in suppressing pest population. Their presence in the field is seen as the key to agricultural ecosystem. Their presence can be influenced by the availability of non-crop vegetation. Some adult Hymenoptera parasitoids require food in the form of pollen and nectar of wild flowers to ensure effective reproduction and longevity. The objective of this research was to study Hymenoptera parasitoid communities in non-crop vegetation around rice fields at Cianjur Watershed. Samplings were conducted at three different landscape, i.e. Nyalindung, Gasol and Selajambe West Java. Insects were sampled by two trapping techniques (farmcop and sweep net in two lines of transect for each landscape. A total of 257 species from 25 families of Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected in non-crop vegetation at Cianjur Watershed. Landscape structure, flowering vegetation, and pesticide application affected the species richness, diversity and evenness of Hymenoptera parasitoid in non-crop vegetation.

  4. LA EFICIENCIA DE LOS CENTROS DE SALUD: EL CASO DE LOS HOSPITALES PRIVADOS [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20040302009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Baltazar Silva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 RESUMEN El objetivo de este artículo es comunicar una revisión de la literatura sobre la evaluación de la eficiencia de las organizaciones sanitarias en países Asiáticos, Europeos y de América Latina, en un periodo de diez años, tanto como instrumento de Benchmarking como las diversas posibilidades de aplicación que tiene el mismo. El método de valoración que se propone utilizar es el Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA, cuyos resultados suministrados permiten identificar los factores que explican el comportamiento ineficiente-eficiente de los centros hospitalarios públicos o privados, mediante un análisis sistémico de los procesos de producción - input/output -. El objetivo de este artículo es comunicar una revisión de la literatura sobre la evaluación de la eficiencia de las organizaciones sanitarias en países Europeos y Estados Unidos en un periodo de cinco años tanto como instrumento para Benchmarking como las diversas posibilidades de aplicación que tiene.          Es que los hospitales al igual que cualquier otra empresa, tiene como objetivo último alcanzar el éxito no sólo económicos sino también en relación a la atención de sus pacientes. Esto significar lograr antigüedad, desarrollo de liderazgo, eficiencia de su producción y desde luego la rentabilidad, entre otros aspectos importantes. Para ello se analizan las aplicaciones del modelo de frontera no parametrico DEA. En donde los resultados ponen de relieve la posibilidad del uso en estudios que analicen los hospitales públicos y/o privados mexicanos para la estimación de su eficiencia lo que resulta una herramienta de evaluación en la consultoría. Palabras clave: eficiencia, centros de salud, Calidad de Servicio, hospitales     ABSTRACT The objective of this article is to communicate a literature review on the efficiency evaluation of sanitary organizations in Asian

  5. Maternal care in the parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Hu

    Full Text Available Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior. In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring.

  6. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  7. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010 as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911 and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements.

  8. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Oxidative stress markers in patients with hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patella, Vincenzo; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Oricchio, Carmine; Saitta, Salvatore; Florio, Giovanni; Saija, Antonella; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress occurs in many allergic and immunologic disorders as a result of the imbalance between the endogenous production of free reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or the reduction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and nitrosylated proteins (NPs) can be used as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Our objective was to examine the serum levels of AGEs, AOPPs, and NPs in patients with allergic reactions to hymenoptera venom before and after ultrarush venom immunotherapy (VIT). The study included two groups of patients: 30 patients allergic to yellow jacket or honey bee venom and treated by aqueous preparation of Vespula spp (26 patients) or Apis mellifera (four patients) VIT, and 30 healthy donors as controls. Blood samples were collected to measure serum levels of AGEs, AOPPs, and NPs at baseline (T1), at the end of the incremental phase of the VIT protocol (T2), and after 15 days (T3). Serum AOPP levels at T1 were significantly higher in comparison with controls (p = 0.001), whereas serum levels of NPs at T1 were significantly lower than those in controls (p venom allergy (HVA) is characterized by isolated episodes of reactions to stinging insect venom and is not included among chronic inflammatory diseases, an oxidative stress status occurs in patients suffering from this kind of allergy. Furthermore, VIT does not modify serum levels of these oxidative stress biomarkers.

  10. DIFERENCIAS REGIONALES EN LA EFICIENCIA TÉCNICA DEL SECTOR CONFECCIONES EN COLOMBIA: UN ANÁLISIS DE FRONTERAS ESTOCÁSTICAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Acevedo Villalobos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora el vínculo entre aglomeración y eficiencia técnica en la industria de confecciones colombiana. A través del método del análisis de fronteras estocásticas (SFA se estima la eficiencia para las firmas pertenecientes al sector de confecciones por departamento para probar si la aglomeración empresarial contribuye a acercar más a las unidades productivas a su frontera de producción eficiente. La evidencia sugiere que, al menos en un nivel agregado, existe una relación positiva entre la concentración industrial y la eficiencia en la producción. Este artículo también realiza una contribución metodológica, dado que es el primero en Colombia en aplicar una función de producción estocástica para demostrar el vínculo entre la aglomeración y la eficiencia.

  11. Análisis de la variación de la eficiencia en la producción de biocombustibles en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Morelos Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de investigación tiene como objetivo realizar la medición de las variaciones de eficiencia delos países productores de biocombustibles en Latinoamérica. Se utilizó la metodología no paramétricade análisis envolvente de datos (DEA, que permitió calcular la frontera de eficiencia de Brasil, Colombia,Argentina, Ecuador, México, Paraguay, Perú, Bolivia y Uruguay. La información analizada se obtuvo de labase de datos FAOSTAT a ̃no 2010. Los resultados mostraron el liderazgo de Perú y Brasil, con eficienciasigual a 1 en la producción de biodiésel y bioetanol. De los 9 países analizados, 7 presentaron bajos nivelesde eficiencia en la producción de biocombustibles y solo uno (Paraguay mostró tener eficiencia mediaen la fabricación de bioetanol.

  12. Comparación entre algoritmos recursivos e iterativos y su medición en términos de eficiencia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan de Dios Murillo Morera; Santiago Caamaño Polini

    2013-01-01

    Se llevarán a cabo comparaciones simples entre algoritmos recursivos e iterativos, para determinar el grado de eficiencia de un problema en particular. Se efectuaron pruebas de comparación y análisis utilizando tres ejemplos en ambos tipos de algoritmos, a los cuales se les aplicaron los criterios de análisis de algoritmos. 

  13. Cuantificación del «efecto distrito» a través de medidas no radiales de eficiencia técnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Hernández Sancho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende medir el efecto del Distrito Industrial Marshalliano (DIM a través de medidas no radiales de eficiencia técnica. Tomando como referencia la ubicación espacial de cada empresa (dentro o fuera del DIM, se puede obtener una valiosa información a la hora de valorar tanto la existencia o no de ventajas competitivas (a la Porter derivadas de las aglomeraciones empresariales, así como su intensidad y tipología. En la literatura más reciente este objetivo ha sido abordado haciendo uso de medidas radiales de eficiencia técnica. En este trabajo se pretende superar algunas de las limitaciones que caracterizan a este tipo de estudios, especialmente la obtención de un único indicador de eficiencia para el conjunto de los inputs. La metodología aquí empleada nos permite calcular un índice de eficiencia asociado al uso de cada uno de los inputs individualmente contemplados. Este tipo de información se muestra especialmente relevante en el análisis de las externalidades territoriales ya que contribuye a la identificación y evaluación de los efectos de dichas economías externas en cada una de las facetas de la actividad empresarial. Se lleva a cabo una aplicación empírica para una muestra de pymes industriales españolas.

  14. Creación de base de datos para proyectos multisite de eficiencia energética en el sector de las telecomunicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Balaciart, Berta

    2017-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende crear una base de datos para una ingeniería de eficiencia energética para proyectos en el sector de las telecomunicaciones para optimizar el tratamiento de datos y reducir el tiempo dedicado a ello en cada una de las fases del proyecto.

  15. Eficiencia técnica de los hospitales públicos y de las empresas públicas hospitalarias de Andalucía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Herrero Tabanera

    2015-07-01

    Discusión: La principal causa de la superior eficiencia de las empresas públicas puede radicar en su mayor flexibilidad laboral y presupuestaria. El proceso de convergencia observado apunta, no obstante, a un proceso de aprendizaje mutuo no necesariamente eficiente.

  16. Comparación de la eficiencia técnica de los sistemas de salud en países pertenecientes a la OMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Nevárez-Sida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en información de insumos y productos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS de 2002, se estimó y comparó (con un método determinístico no paramétrico: Data Envelopment Analysis, técnica DEA la eficiencia técnica de 191 países con respecto a los resultados en salud y su relación con la distribución del ingreso y el ingreso per cápita. Se propusieron dos modelos con diferentes variables dependientes. Los países se clasificaron por ingreso per cápita en cuatro categorías y se compararon respecto de su eficiencia técnica. Se encontró correlación negativa entre el nivel de eficiencia técnica e ingreso per cápita. Las comparaciones mostraron que los países con menor ingreso tuvieron mayor eficiencia técnica.

  17. La eficiencia de la política de comunicación social de las instituciones: un análisis de las delegaciones federales en Morelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiris Soledad González Galván

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los factores que influyen en la eficiencia de la política de comunicación social de las delegaciones federales en Morelia durante el 2017. Para ello, se aplica un cuestionario con escala tipo Likert a los servidores públicos del área de comunicación social y otro al público objetivo de las políticas de comunicación social y a partir de los resultados obtenidos, se calcula el nivel de eficiencia de cada institución. Los resultados muestran que los servidores públicos y el público objetivo perciben que la mayoría de las instituciones presentan un nivel de eficiencia regular en su política de comunicación social y que el contexto institucional, el conocimiento de la estructura de la audiencia y la relación con los medios de comunicación son variables que influyen en el nivel de eficiencia. Elementos que son de suma importancia para el diseño de una política de comunicación social.

  18. Análisis del comportamiento de las cotizaciones reales en la bolsa de Madrid bajo la hipótesis de eficiencia

    OpenAIRE

    Flores De Frutos, Rafael

    1993-01-01

    Bajo la hipótesis de eficiencia, se estudia la capacidad del Modelo de Mercados Eficientes, con tipos de interés variables, para explicar el comportamiento de las cotizaciones reales mensuales de la cartera representativa de la Bolsa de Madrid. El aceptable comportamiento del Modelo de Mercados Eficientes apoya su uso como hipótesis de trabajo.

  19. Determinación de vitamina a por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia (clae en bienestarina cruda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Mabel Garnier C.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se valida una técnica de Cromatografía Liquida de Alta Eficiencia (CLAE para la determinación y cuantificación de la vitamina A en Bienestarina cruda (mezcla alimenticia infantil producida por el Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar ICBF.

  20. LA EFICIENCIA TÉCNICA COMO UN NUEVO CRITERIO DE OPTIMIZACIÓN PARA LA GENERACIÓN HIDROELÉCTRICA A CORTO PLAZO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DIAZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se formula un modelo no lineal para representar la eficiencia técnica en la operación de las turbinas de generación hidroeléctrica, partiendo de las gráficas entregadas por sus fabricantes, normalmente conocidas como "diagramas colinares". Se propone un análisis de regresión, no lineal, múltiple para representar la eficiencia de una turbina Francis como una función cuadrática de la cabeza neta y la descarga de agua. Se postula una "trayectoria de máxima eficiencia relativa", que permite encontrar la descarga óptima para una cabeza neta dada, la cual puede observarse en el "diagrama colinar" y calcularse de forma analítica con la función estimada. Se analiza la utilidad de esta trayectoria para la toma de decisiones con respecto a la descarga, como variable de decisión, para una empresa de generación hidroeléctrica operando a máxima eficiencia en el mercado de corto plazo.

  1. Analysis of efficiency of a solar dryer tunnel type of mango pulp; Analisis de la eficiencia de un secador solar tipo tunel para pulpa de mango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagoyan Serrano, Jose [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A new method to assess the performance of a solar dryer is presented. It describes energy efficiency indicators to improve a commercial dryer design. First, a preliminary dryer design procedure is described step by step. Then, two different modes of a tunnel dryer are investigated: Batch and semi-continue operations. The results of the analysis show that, the thermal efficiency is not sufficient to rate de dryer performance. It is necessary to include the productivity of the drying process and the quality of the dried fruit. The drying process and productivity tend to go hand-in-hand but in opposite directions. That is to say, raising the thermal efficiency reduce the process productivity and conversely. The analysis also suggests that an agreement between the efficiency, productivity and the quality must be specified in the drier design. [Spanish] Se presenta un procedimiento nuevo para evaluar la operacion de un secador solar, con el cual se precisan indicadores de la eficiencia que pueden ser utiles para mejorar el diseno del equipo. Se empieza por describir los pasos de un procedimiento de diseno preliminar de un sistema de secado. Despues, se analizan cualitativamente dos secadores: uno que opera por lotes y el otro de modo semicontinuo. Los resultados del analisis muestran que, la eficiencia termica del equipo no es un criterio suficiente para evaluar su operacion; tambien se requiere tomar encuenta la productividad del proceso de secado y la calidad del producto final. Se concluye que la eficiencia termica y la productividad del proceso son conceptos encontrados. Es decir, la eficiencia termica del equipo no es un criterio suficiente para evaluar su operacion; tambien se requiere tomar en cuenta la productividad del proceso de secado y la calidad del producto final. Se concluye que la eficiencia termica y la productividad del proceso son conceptos encontrados. Es decir, la eficiencia termica solo se puede aumentar a costa de la productividad y viceversa

  2. Desarrollo territorial y eficiencia sistémica. El caso de la cuenca lechera caprina de Santiago del Estero (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rau00FAl Gustavo Paz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo nos da un pantallazo general sobre dos aspectos muy estudiados en la actualidad: el desarrollo territorial rural y la eficiencia (como elemento clave para la competitividad y se propone dar visibilidad a la relación existente entre ambos, destacando el papel de la eficiencia a la hora de fortalecer estos procesos de desarrollo. Para abordar estas temáticas, en primera instancia el artículo realiza una breve descripción de la conformación de la cuenca lechera, proceso histórico donde las diversas actividades y micro procesos no surgen de mecánicas preestablecidas y conexas entre los actores locales, sino más bien admiten la idea de que en el territorio se produce la coordinación/descoordinación de las acciones de todos los agentes locales. Como conclusión de este punto se muestra que para el caso estudiado se han sentado las precondiciones tendientes a consolidar el proceso de desarrollo territorial. Entre ellas se pueden citar una identidad tambera caprina, un mercado dinámico que falta profundizar en su conocimiento pero que existe, alianzas que aunque fueron muy limitadas en su accionar, como también en el tiempo, fueron generando una actitud y una acumulación de capital social tendiente a la valoración de las especificidades del propio territorio. A continuación este documento se introduce en el segundo concepto analizado, la eficiencia, mediante estudios prácticos y ejemplos concretos para cada uno de los principales eslabones de la cadena productiva: el ordeñe, la industrialización y la comercialización. A modo de conclusión se plantea que para el diseño de estrategias tendientes a fortalecer el desarrollo territorial como primera medida los actores involucrados deben contar con toda la información y conocimiento posible sobre el proceso productivo. Esto facilitaría el acompañamiento a los distintos eslabones en el proceso de solución de sus ineficiencias, las que habitualmente son trasladadas al resto

  3. Definición y evaluación de métricas de eficiencia de vuelo para trayectorias reconstruidas a partir de datos (masivos) de vigilancia aérea

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Muñoz, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Este proyecto se enmarca en el contexto del Proyecto AIRPORTS: Construcción de un prototipo de plataforma “big data” para el análisis de la eficiencia operacional de vuelos basada en trayectorias, que persigue explotar datos capturados por los sistemas de vigilancia aérea para reconstruir trayectorias de vuelos de las aeronaves y evaluar su eficiencia operacional. En concreto, el trabajo plantea definir nuevos métodos de análisis de datos (métricas de eficiencia) cuyo diseño está condicion...

  4. Diseño y operación racional de engranajes cilíndricos orientado a aumentar la eficiencia y disminuir pérdidas por fricción

    OpenAIRE

    González Rey, Gonzalo; García Toll, Alejandra; García Domínguez, María E.

    2009-01-01

    Los engranes cilíndricos constituyen transmisiones mecánicas de elevada eficiencia pero los actuales requerimientos de lograr aún una eficiencia mayor hacen necesario una precisión en los procedimientos de cálculo de pérdidas de potencia. Los Reportes Técnicos ISO/TR 14179-1:2001 e ISO/TR 14179-2:2001 ofrecen importantes relaciones empíricas y teóricas para evaluar la eficiencia de los engranes considerando perdidas por rozamiento en el contacto diente- diente, por batimie...

  5. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  6. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kUA/L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kUA/L) compared with adults (5.10 kUA/L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kUA/L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  8. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy: Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Gunter J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Roberts, Graham; Mosbech, Holger; Bilò, M Beatrice; Akdis, Cezmi A; Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Gawlik, Radoslaw; Jakob, Thilo; Kosnik, Mitja; Lange, Joanna; Mingomataj, Ervin; Mitsias, Dimitris I; Ollert, Markus; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Pfaar, Oliver; Pitsios, Constantinos; Pravettoni, Valerio; Ruëff, Franziska; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Agache, Ioana; Angier, Elizabeth; Arasi, Stefania; Calderón, Moises A; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Halken, Susanne; Jutel, Marek; Lau, Susanne; Pajno, Giovanni B; van Ree, Ronald; Ryan, Dermot; Spranger, Otto; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Dhami, Sangeeta; Zaman, Hadar; Sheikh, Aziz; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-07-27

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction following a honeybee, vespid or ant sting. Systemic allergic sting reactions have been reported in up to 7.5% of adults and up to 3.4% of children. They can be mild and restricted to the skin or moderate-to-severe with a risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis. Patients should carry an emergency kit containing an adrenaline autoinjector, H1 -antihistamines, and corticosteroids depending on the severity of their previous sting reaction(s). The only treatment to prevent further systemic sting reactions is venom immunotherapy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Venom Immunotherapy as part of the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy initiative. The guideline aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of venom immunotherapy, has been informed by a formal systematic review and meta-analysis and produced using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) approach. The process included representation from a range of stakeholders. Venom immunotherapy is indicated in venom allergic children and adults to prevent further moderate to severe systemic sting reactions. Venom immunotherapy is also recommended in adults with only generalized skin reactions as it results in significant improvements in quality of life compared to carrying an adrenaline auto-injector. This guideline aims to give practical advice on performing venom immunotherapy. Key sections cover general considerations before initiating venom immunotherapy, evidence-based clinical recommendations, risk factors for adverse events and for relapse of systemic sting reaction, and a summary of gaps in the evidence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations.

  10. Recommendations for the use of high efficiency motors; Recomendaciones para la utilizacion de motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitron Sanchez, Horacio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper the most important characteristics of the high efficiency motors are examined and the use of these motors as an alternative for the saving and efficient use of the electrical energy is proposed. The operating cost is analyzed in relation with similar standard motors and several suggestions that can help to justify its application are given. [Espanol] En este trabajo se examinan las caracteristicas relevantes de los motores de alta eficiencia y se plantea su utilizacion como alternativa para el ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia electrica. Se analiza su costo de operacion, en relacion con motores estandar similares y se dan varias sugerencias que pueden ayudar a justificar su aplicacion.

  11. DURACIÓN DEL DESEMPLEO Y EFICIENCIA DE LA BÚSQUEDA DE EMPLEO EN CARTAGENA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Del Río Carrasquilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estiman los determinantes de la duración del desempleo y se evalúa la eficiencia de la búsqueda de empleo en Cartagena, a través de la Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares (tercer trimestre, 2008. Mediante el análisis de duración se calcula el estadístico Kaplan-Meier y un modelo Weibull para ocupados y desocupados. Se encuentra que en la medida en que se prolonga la duración del desempleo más rápido se abandona este estado. Las variables género, experiencia y canal de búsqueda determinan la tasa de salida en los ocupados; escolaridad, experiencia, estrato y género del jefe del hogar, la explican en los desocupados. Se concluye que los canales informales son más eficientes para conseguir trabajo.

  12. DURACIÓN DEL DESEMPLEO Y EFICIENCIA DE LA BÚSQUEDA DE EMPLEO EN CARTAGENA, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Del Río Carrasquilla; Martha Yánez Contreras; Jorge Pérez Arroyo

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se estiman los determinantes de la duración del desempleo y se evalúa la eficiencia de la búsqueda de empleo en Cartagena, a través de la Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares (tercer trimestre, 2008). Mediante el análisis de duración se calcula el estadístico Kaplan-Meier y un modelo Weibull para ocupados y desocupados. Se encuentra que en la medida en que se prolonga la duración del desempleo más rápido se abandona este estado. Las variables género, experiencia y canal de búsq...

  13. Directiva 2012/27/UE de eficiencia energética. Transposición. Auditorias energéticas

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Guerra, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es el análisis parcial de lo dispuesto en la Directiva de Eficiencia Energética (en lo sucesivo, DEE) 2012/27/UE y su transposición al sistema energético español a través del proyecto Real Decreto (en lo sucesivo, pRD) de ley (todavía no aprobado a 20 de Septiembre de 2015). El estudio se enfoca exclusivamente en los puntos relativos a la industria, no se tendrán en cuenta en el análisis los puntos de la Directiva que no se han transpuesto en nuestro paí...

  14. Los límites de la eficiencia económica en una sociedad democrática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Agafonow

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XX, el marxismo y el liberalismo no igualitario o clásico discutieron las propiedades del cálculo económico, es decir, la forma en que las instituciones económicas asignan valores a los diversos fines. Este debate produjo un consenso implícito entre socialistas de mercado y liberales no igualitarios, acerca de la democracia. En este consenso, la voluntad general de Rousseau fue sustituida por voluntades individuales convenientemente jerarquizadas y la soberanía popular reflejada en la soberanía del consumidor. El ensayo adopta una perspectiva rawlsiana para explorar los límites de la eficiencia económica en una sociedad democrática.

  15. Eficiencia técnica y ambiental de la camaronicultura en Nayarit aplicando el índice de Malmquist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Martínez-Cordero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una base de datos no homogénea de 32 granjas de camarón en Nayarit para el periodo 2008-2011, el presente estudio aplica el índice de Malmquist para analizar su eficiencia técnica ET y ambientalmente ajustada EAA de una empresa o industria acuícola sostenible. Los resultados indican que los niveles de ET y EAA se han mantenido arriba de 0.80 y 0.75 en promedio, respectivamente. En general, los resultados confirman estudios regionales previos del cultivo de camarón, en función de que los rendimientos (kg/ha/año pueden ser decrecientes por causa de las enfermedades virales. Se recomienda aplicar estos indicadores de manera continua para asistir la planificación y toma de decisión tanto a nivel empresa como industria.

  16. Eficiencia isoterma de los modelos de ventilación exterior en patios de edificios residenciales. Estudio de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla-Marcos, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many buildings have been designed and built with courtyards to supply the light and healthy air demands to the dwellings. However, confined air quality in many of them is unhealthy for human use due to the diminished ability to renew the air. The purpose of the study is to catalog different models of isolated building courtyards under isothermal conditions, according to their dimensions. The goal is to quantify the efficiency of air exchange in each model and analyze the influence of size in controlled external conditions. In addition, current regulations in Spain are compared with the obtained results. In conclusion, the efficiency of ventilation ratio for courtyards in buildings depends on its design.Muchos edificios han sido diseñados y construidos con patios interiores para satisfacer exigencias de habitabilidad, ya que estos espacios surten de luz y aire a los locales interiores. Sin embargo, la calidad del aire confinado en muchos de ellos es insalubre para el uso humano debido a la mermada capacidad que tienen para renovar su aire. El propósito del estudio es catalogar diferentes modelos de patio interior en edificios aislados, en condiciones isotermas, según sus dimensiones. El objetivo consiste en cuantificar la eficiencia en la renovación del aire en cada modelo y analizar la influencia de sus dimensiones en unas condiciones externas controladas. Adicionalmente, se comparan las normativas vigentes en España con los resultados así obtenidos. Como conclusión se determina la razón de cómo dicha eficiencia de la ventilación de patios interiores de los edificios desciende en función de su diseño.

  17. Energy efficiency and the reform of the mexican electrical sector; Eficiencia energetica y reforma al sector electrico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia Electrica (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    In this work are briefly examined how the power efficiency can bloom to its feasible fullness, under a scheme of reform of the Mexican electrical sector. In here are summarized the policies and experiences of the U.S.A. and other countries in which efforts have been made to assure the perseverance of the activities directed to foment a more efficient use of the energy to see its relevance in the Mexican context. Mechanisms are set out to enable the evolution of the markets of present efficient equipment to mature markets, prosperous and, to a great extent, self-sufficient. It is insisted on the necessity of having an energy policy that contemplates and gives total capacity to the energy efficiency as one of the fundamental ingredients for a sustainable development of the electrical sector as well as of the country. [Spanish] En este trabajo se examina brevemente como puede la eficiencia energetica florecer a su plenitud factible, bajo un esquema de reforma al sector electrico mexicano. Se resumen las politicas y experiencias de los EU.. y otros paises en donde se ha tratado de asegurar la perseverancia de las actividades encaminadas a fomentar un uso mas eficiente de la energia para ver su relevancia en el contexto mexicano. Se propone mecanismos para agilizar la evolucion de los mercados de equipos eficientes actuales a mercados maduros, prosperos y, en gran medida, autosuficientes. Se insiste en la necesidad de tener una politica energetica que contemple y de cabida plena a la eficiencia energetica como uno de los ingredientes fundamentales para un desarrollo sustentable tanto del sector electrico como del pais.

  18. EFICIENCIA DE CONSORCIOS MICROBIANOS PARA TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES EN UN SISTEMA DE RECIRCULACIÓN ACUÍCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN ANDRÉS SÁNCHEZ O

    Full Text Available Los filtros biológicos viabilizan el reuso de aguas residuales (AR en sistemas de recirculación acuícola (SRA, su desempeño depende entre otros factores, del tipo de filtro, medio soporte e inóculo utilizado. Se evaluaron las eficiencias de diferentes inóculos para el tratamiento de AR provenientes del cultivo de trucha arcoiris mediante biofiltros de flujo ascendente en un SRA. Se utilizó un tanque para cultivo con control de nivel, un filtro con bolsas de lienzo para retención de sólidos y seis biofiltros de diámetro 3” con arena como medio soporte y tiempo de retención hidráulica (TRH de 11 min. Los inóculos utilizados fueron: R1-control: aguas del SRA; R2-lodos estación piscícola; R3-agua laguna aereada relleno sanitario Antanas (RSA; R4-sedimentos de acuarios; R5-lodos laguna aereada RSA; R6-lodos reactor sulfidogénico RSA. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los reactores para remoción de DQO, fósforo, amoniaco y nitritos, cuyas remociones medias fueron de 45,3; 15,1; 4,7 y 27,2% respectivamente. Hubo diferencias estadísticas entre reactores para remoción de color y nitratos, las mejores eficiencias fueron para: color R6:38,8% y R1:37,3%; para nitratos R5:47,3% y R6:42,8%; demostrándose la influencia de consorcios microbianos en los SRA

  19. Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera asociados con agallas de Cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid

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    Gómez, J. F.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information about the chalcid wasp parasitoid community (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with galls of Cynipidae in Madrid (Spain is compiled and updated. Studied material includes more than 1000 published and unpublished records from samplings in 80 sites in the Madrid region carried out over twenty three years by the research team. A check-list of 121 species, 19 of them provisionally identified, from 6 families of Chalcidoidea is provided as follows: 26 Eurytomidae, 27 Torymidae, 9 Ormyridae, 33 Pteromalidae, 9 Eupelmidae and 17 Eulophidae. Ormyrus rufimanus Mayr, 1904 and Idiomacromerus semiaeneus (Szelenyi, 1957 are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. For each family and genus of Chalcidoidea data are given on biology, diversity and distribution in Comunidad de Madrid. The composition of the chalcid wasp parasitoid community associated with gall wasps in Comunidad de Madrid is discussed and compared to the same community data from the Iberian Peninsula and the Western Palaearctic. Species from the Iberian community of chalcid parasitoids that are missing from Madrid region, exclusive species and potentially present species are also commented upon. Finally two appendices are presented as follows: a list of the Chalcidoidea species reared from 73 different galls made by 71 cynipid species from Madrid with associated parasitoid records, and a final appendix with full record data of all studied material, including information on the sampling localities with X, Y georeferenced coordinates, host galls and host plants.

    Se compila y actualiza la información existente sobre la comunidad parasitoide de Chalcidoidea, asociada a agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid. Los datos corresponden a más de 1000 registros, tanto de datos publicados, como inéditos, correspondientes a colectas en 80 localidades de Madrid efectuadas por el equipo investigador a lo largo de 23 a

  20. Description and biological features of a new species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae

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    F. Nugnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus lindberginae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, an egg par- asitoid of the leafhopper Lindbergina aurovittata (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, is described from Italy. It is included in the atomus group of Anagrus Haliday and compared with the allied known taxa. The parasitoid’s life cycle is characterized by a long larval diapause from spring to fall, which allows for synchronization with its leafhop- per host; other biological traits of A. lindberginae on the evergreen plant Quercus ilex are discussed.

  1. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    MIROSLAV ANTOV; ANELIA STOJANOVA

    2015-01-01

    This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4...

  2. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  3. Side-effects of pesticides on the generalist endoparasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alc?ntara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Zanuncio, Jos? Cola; Lacerda,Mabio Chrisley; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Fernandes, Fl?vio Lemes; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Sediyama,Carlos Sigueyuki

    2017-01-01

    New plant protection strategies focus on minimizing chemical pesticide use and increasing their compatibility with biological control agents. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate, diflubenzuron, malathion, tebuconazole and triflumuron (at 720, 45, 400, 150 and 20?g ai ha?1, respectively), pesticides authorized for soybean crops in Brazil, on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) reared on Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The emer...

  4. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

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    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  5. Morphology and function of the ovipositor mechanism in Ceraphronoidea (Hymenoptera, Apocrita

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    Andrew Ernst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ovipositor of apocritan Hymenoptera is an invaluable source of phylogenetically relevant characters, and our understanding of its functional morphology stands to enlighten us about parasitoid life history strategies. Although Ceraphronoidea is one of the most commonly collected Hymenoptera taxa with considerable economic importance, our knowledge about their natural history and phylogenetic relationships, both to other apocritan lineages and within the superfamily itself, is limited. As a first step towards revealing ceraphronoid natural diversity we describe the skeletomuscular system of the ceraphronoid ovipositor for the first time. Dissections and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy 3D media files were used to visualize the ovipositor complex and to develop character concepts. Morphological structures were described in natural language and then translated into a character-character state format, whose terminology was linked to phenotype-relevant ontologies. Four unique anatomical phenotypes were revealed: 1. The first valvifer (gonangulum of the genus Trassedia is composed of two articulating sclerites, a condition present only in a few basal insect taxa. The bipartition of the first valvifer in Trassedia is most likely secondary and might allow more rapid oviposition. 2. Ceraphronoids, unlike other Hymenoptera, lack the retractor muscle of the terebra; instead the egg laying device is retracted by the seventh sternite. 3. Also unlike other Hymenoptera, the cordate apodeme and the anterior flange of the second valvifer are fused and compose one ridge that serves as the site of attachment for the dorsal and ventral T9-second valvifer muscles. Overall, the ceraphronoid ovipositor system is highly variable and can be described by discrete, distinguishable character states. However, these differences, despite their discrete nature, do not reflect the present classification of the superfamily and might represent parallelisms driven by host

  6. Hymenoptera “Parasitica” in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Eduardo Mitio Shimbori

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A checklist composed of 105 species of parasitic Hymenoptera, which includes the non-aculeate Apocrita, recorded in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, Brazil, is presented. A new list, containing 153 genera obtained in recent surveys is also presented; out of these 131 are new records. The major knowledge gaps for these organisms in the State and the prospects for future studies for these organisms are discussed.

  7. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L.; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory rec...

  8. Hamburguesas y eficiencia. Del estado de bienestar a la sociedad del bienestar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín García Inda

    2016-05-01

    de administración electrónica, etc. no han tenido efecto sobre la eficiencia. Con la Teoría de las 3S se propone un proceso de reflexión y “adelgazamiento” competencial para que la subsidiariedad del Estado respecto a la sociedad civil sea real y efectiva, sin renunciar al Bienestar. La provisión de Bienestar social habrá de venir por otro camino que conducirá a la Sociedad del Bienestar. Individuos, asociaciones o empresas han de recuperar “la res publica”. Se trata de equilibrar el actual trade off de responsabilidades: la responsabilidad social “activa” (de implicación del sector privado y del llamado “tercer sector” y la responsabilidad “pasiva” (de autolimitación del Sector Público. The crisis that began in 2008 has shown a number of structural problems at different levels of the global economic system and, in particular, in Spanish society. The American ‘subprime’ crisis first, and then the Eurozone crisis, the real estate bubble, etc., have shown some contradictions in Spain, especially in the development and provision of social welfare. This article introduces the so called “Burger’s metaphor” as a theoretical construct that explains the inefficiencies of the public sector and how the solutions fail because of their political and social characteristics. That failure, the demographic trends and the chronic deficits demand answers that guarantee political, civil and social rights. The solutions are summarized in the “3S Theory”: Suppressing public initiatives, Superseding public by private and Simplifying; that is, applying the principle of subsidiarity to the individual to be able to move from Welfare State to Welfare Society. In order to get this –considering the ‘classical’ literature on social policies, social status, the worlds of welfare, post-capitalism and pluralism of welfare– three questions arise: (i. What inefficiencies exist in public and social policies? (ii. Can Spanish society in the European

  9. Simultaneous intradermal testing with hymenoptera venoms is safe and more efficient than sequential testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, B; Aberer, W; Bokanovic, D; Komericki, P; Sturm, G J

    2013-04-01

    According to current guidelines, skin testing for hymenoptera venom allergy should be performed in a stepwise manner, maintaining 15- to 20-min intervals between the injections of venom. Given the long-winded procedure of sequential skin testing, we retrospectively explored the safety of simultaneous intradermal testing. Four hundred and seventy-eight consecutive patients with a convincing history of an anaphylactic reaction after a hymenoptera sting were tested. All venom concentrations (0.02 ml of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 μg/ml of honey bee and wasp venom) were administered simultaneously to the skin. Four hundred and seventy-two (98.7%) patients tolerated the simultaneous intradermal test without any side-effects. Only three subjects (0.6%) had a presumed allergic reaction during the test; another three reactions were considered vasovagal. Our skin test protocol with four simultaneously injected concentrations of two hymenoptera venoms is safe and permits the investigator to draw rapid conclusions about the individual's sensitization pattern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Hymenoptera venom proteins and peptides for diagnosis and treatment of venom allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulrich R

    2011-10-01

    Stings by insects of the order Hymenoptera cause systemic, sometimes life threatening allergic reactions in 1 - 5% of the population in Europe and North America. Responsible for these reactions is an IgE mediated sensitization to proteins of the venoms injected during the stings of social Hymenoptera species, mainly the honey bee (Apis mellifera), vespids like Vespula sp., Polistes sp. and ants, in southern US and central America Solenopsis invicta and in Australia Myrmecia pilosula. The venoms of these insects are composed of low molecular weight substances like biogenic amines, cytotoxic and neurotoxic peptides like melittin, apamin, MCD-peptide and mastoparan, and proteins, mostly enzymes like phospholipase A and hyaluronidase, which are major venom allergens. Immunotherapy with Hymenoptera venoms has been shown to protect 80 to over 95% of patients with a history of systemic allergic sting reaction from further systemic reactions after re-stings. The procedure, safety and efficacy of this treatment and the immune mechanisms involved are discussed. Since ancient times honey bee venom has been used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease, especially arthritis. Anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom have been documented in animal experiments. Most clinical studies suggest an antiinflammatory effect as well, but are uncontrolled. The only few controlled studies could not confirm efficacy of treatment with bee venom so far.

  11. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2015-08-12

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. LA EFICIENCIA DE LOS CENTROS DE SALUD: EL CASO DE LOS HOSPITALES PRIVADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Baltazar Silva

    2004-11-01

    -style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

    RESUMEN

    El objetivo de este artículo es comunicar una revisión de la literatura sobre la evaluación de la eficiencia de las organizaciones sanitarias en países Asiáticos, Europeos y de América Latina, en un periodo de diez años, tanto como instrumento de Benchmarking como las diversas posibilidades de aplicación que tiene el mismo. El método de valoración que se propone utilizar es el Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA, cuyos resultados suministrados permiten identificar los factores que explican el comportamiento ineficiente-eficiente de los centros hospitalarios públicos o privados, mediante un análisis sistémico de los procesos de producción - input/output -. El objetivo de este artículo es comunicar una revisión de la literatura sobre la evaluación de la eficiencia de las organizaciones sanitarias en países Europeos y Estados Unidos en un periodo de cinco años tanto como instrumento para Benchmarking como las diversas posibilidades de aplicación que tiene.          Es que los hospitales al igual que cualquier otra empresa, tiene como objetivo último alcanzar el éxito no sólo económicos sino también en relación a la atención de sus pacientes. Esto significar lograr antigüedad, desarrollo de liderazgo, eficiencia de su producción y desde luego la rentabilidad, entre otros aspectos importantes. Para ello se analizan las

  13. Las “Avispas Bandera” (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae de Colombia

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    Serna Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Evaniidae está representada por un número relativamente pequeño de géneros y especies dentro del
    orden Hymenoptera. Son avispas de tamaño medio, sin aguijón y solitarias que parasitan ootecas de cucarachas.
    Se realizó un estudio de reconocimiento genérico de la familia Evaniidae para Colombia y su distribución a partir de colecciones entomológicas. El primer capítulo, “Sistemática y Taxonomía de Evaniidae”, pretende ser el reflejo de un trabajo realizado por más de un año, de curadoría y determinación de especímenes presentes en colecciones entomológicas, donde se propone una clave taxonómica para la identificación de los seis géneros de evánidos encontrados en Colombia y un análisis de los caracteres utilizados para la misma. El segundo
    capítulo, “Biología de Evaniidae”, es una recopilación de todos los estudios existentes sobre la biología de la familia, en donde se hace evidente la falta de trabajo sobre el tema y el desconocimiento básico de algunos aspectos que podrían ser muy útiles para la implementación de nuevas estrategias de control biológico. El tercer capítulo, “Distribución Geográfica de los Géneros de la Familia Evaniidae”, muestra como los diferentes géneros de la familia se encuentran distribuidos dentro del territorio colombiano y presenta el estado actual del muestreo de la familia dando información para poder definir áreas de concentración de muestras o áreas posteriores
    de muestreo. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones y recomendaciones finales que permiten dar una idea del trabajo que queda por hacer y los pasos a seguir.

  14. Las hormigas Ecitoninae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae de Morelos, México

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    Luis N Quiroz-Robledo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario de las hormigas ecitoninas del estado de Morelos, ubicado en la región centro-sur de la república mexicana. Los muestreos fueron realizados por medio de colectas directas y del uso de trampas de intercepción; ocasionalmente se capturaron también machos atraidos a la luz. Se encontraron 15 especies de hormigas ecitoninas: Labidus coecus (Latreille, 1802; L. praedator s. str. (Fr. Smith, 1858; Neivamyrmex agilis Borgmeier, 1953; N. cornutus (Watkins, 1975; N. fallax Borgmeier, 1953; N. graciellae (Mann, 1926; N. impudens (Mann, 1922; N. macropterus Borgmeier, 1953; N. melanocephalus (Emery, 1985; N. nigrescens (Cresson, 1872; N. opacithorax (Emery, 1894; N. pauxilus (Wheeler, 1903; N. sumichrasti (Norton, 1868; N. swainsoni (Shuckard, 1840 y Nomamyrmex esenbecki mordax (Santschi, 1928. Doce de estos registros son nuevos para la entidad. Las especies más abundantes fueron L. coecus, N. melanocephalus, N. nigrescens y N. esenbecki. Se proporciona también alguna información sobre la distribución de estas especies en el estado y las fechas de vuelo de los machos que fueron recolectados. Por último, se anexa una clave para la identificación de obreras y machos en la cual se incluye una especie adicional (N. fuscipennis, que no fue recolectada por nosotros pero ha sido informada por otro autor para la entidad.The Ecitoninae ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from Morelos, México. To produce an inventory of the Ecitoninae ants from Morelos State (south central Mexico, we used direct capture and pit-fall traps. Occasionally, males were also collected near artificial light sources. Fifteen species were found: Labidus coecus, L. praedator s. str., Neivamyrmex agilis, N. cornutus, N. fallax, N. graciellae, N. impudens, N. macropterus, N. melanocephalus, N. nigrescens, N. opacithorax, N. pauxilus, N. sumichrasti, N. swainsoni and Nomamyrmex esenbecki mordax. Twelve of these species are new records for the state. The most

  15. SAFETY OF VENOMENHAL® VENOM IN MAINTENANCE HYMENOPTERA VENOM IMMUNOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Košnik

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Venomenhal® (V is a new brand ofHymenoptera venom allergen for diagnosis and immunotherapyof venom allergy. We studied the safety of switching thepatients treated with other brands of venom to V. Methods. We performed duplicate skin prick tests with V andALK Reless® (R venom extract (100 μg/ml in 68 patients (50males, 42 ± 15 years on maintenance immunotherapy withhoney bee (26 or wasp (42 venom. On two consecutive maintenanceinjection days 53 patients received in random ordereither 100 μg of R or V venom. Results. Weal diameter in skin prick tests (mean ± st.dev. were3.9 ± 1.1 mm (V and 4.1 ± 1.0 mm (R for bee venom (NSand 3.4 ± 1.0 mm (V and 3.9 ± 1.2 mm (R for wasp venom (p< 0.01. Local reaction 30 minutes after maintenance injectionwere 6.1 ± 1.7 cm (V and 5.4 ± 2.5 cm (R for bee venom(NS and 5.1 ± 1.8 cm (V and 6.1 ± 1.8 cm (R for wasp venom(p < 0.05.Late local reactions (LLR and tiredness (T on the day of injectionand 24 hours after injection were equally distributedamong both groups and were mild (LLR on the day of injection:38% of patients [V] vs. 43% [R]. LLR after 24 hours: 28%[V] vs. 28% [R]. T on the day of injection: 21% [V] vs. 23% [R].T after 24 hours: 0% [V] vs. 6% [R]. Conclusions. V was at least as safe as A. There were no adversereactions due to switching from one brand to another. Slightlybut significantly smaller weal in skin prick tests and immediatelocal reactions might be due to lesser potency or betterpurification of V wasp extract.

  16. Revision of the ant genus Melophorus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Brian E. Heterick

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of the purely Australian formicine ant genus Melophorus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is revised. This project involved integrated morphological and molecular taxonomy using one mitochondrial gene (COI and four nuclear genes (AA, H3, LR and Wg. Seven major clades were identified and are here designated as the M. aeneovirens, M. anderseni, M. biroi, M. fulvihirtus, M. ludius, M. majeri and M. potteri species-groups. Within these clades, smaller complexes of similar species were also identified and designated species-complexes. The M. ludius species-group was identified purely on molecular grounds, as the morphology of its members is indistinguishable from typical members of the M. biroi species-complex within the M. biroi species-group. Most species-complexes sampled were also found to be monophyletic. Sequencing generally supported monophyly in taxa sampled but some species of the M. fieldi complex and M. biroi were not monophyletic and the implications arising from this are discussed in this monograph. Based on morphology, ninety-three species are recognized, 73 described as new. A further new species (here called 'Species K' [TERC Collection] is noted in the taxonomic list, but is not described in this work. One species is removed from Melophorus: M. scipio Forel is here placed provisionally in Prolasius. Six species and five subspecies pass into synonymy. Of the full species, M. constans Santschi, M. iridescens (Emery and M. insularis Wheeler are synonymized under M. aeneovirens (Lowne, M. pillipes Santschi is synonymized under M. turneri Forel, M. marius Forel is synonymized under M. biroi Forel, and M. omniparens Forel is synonymized under M. wheeleri Forel. Of the subspecies, M. iridescens fraudatrix and M. iridescens froggatti Forel are synonymized under M. aeneovirens (Lowne, M. turneri aesopus Forel and M. turneri candidus Santschi are synonymized under M. turneri Forel and M. fieldi propinqua Viehmeyer is synonymized under M

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of ponerine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have revolutionized our understanding of how these ecologically dominant organisms diversified, but detailed phylogenies are lacking for most major ant subfamilies. I report the results of the first detailed phylogenetic study of the ant subfamily Ponerinae, a diverse cosmopolitan lineage whose properties make it an attractive model system for investigating social and ecological evolution in ants. Molecular sequence data were obtained from four nuclear genes (wingless, long-wavelength rhodopsin, rudimentary [CAD], 28S rDNA; total of ~3.3 kb) for 86 ponerine taxa, representing all three ponerine tribes, 22 of the 28 currently recognized genera, and 14 of the 18 informal subgenera of Pachycondyla, a heterogeneous grouping whose monophyly is doubtful on morphological grounds. Phylogenetic reconstructions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference support the monophyly of Ponerinae and tribe Platythyreini, but fail to support the monophyly of the large tribe Ponerini due to its inclusion of the unusual genus Thaumatomyrmex. Pachycondyla is inferred to be broadly non-monophyletic. Numerous novel generic and suprageneric relationships are inferred within Ponerini, which was found to consist of four major multi-generic clades (the Ponera, Pachycondyla, Plectroctena and Odontomachus genus groups) plus the single genera Hypoponera and Harpegnathos. Uncertainty remains in some regions of the phylogeny, including at the base of Ponerini, possibly reflecting rapid radiation. Divergence dating using a Bayesian relaxed clock method estimates an origin for stem Ponerinae in the upper Cretaceous, a major burst of diversification near the K/T boundary, and a rich and continual history of diversification during the Cenozoic. These results fail to support the predictions of the "dynastic-succession hypothesis" previously developed to explain the high species diversity of Ponerinae. Though model

  18. Algorithm for the calculation of a steam generator efficiency; Algoritmo para el calculo de la eficiencia de un generador de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The efficiency calculation of steam generators is not always simple. The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the calculation of steam generators efficiency, easy to understand and carry out, in the form of a series of steps to be followed. It takes as starting point that the person in charge of applying these calculations has knowledge of the combustion processes and thermodynamic principles that rule such processes. [Espanol] El calculo de la eficiencia de los generadores de vapor no siempre es sencillo, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el de proponer un algoritmo de calculo de eficiencia de generadores de vapor, el cual sea facil de entender y de llevar a cabo, en forma de una serie de pasos a seguir. Se toma como punto de partida, que la persona encargada de aplicar estos calculos tenga el conocimiento de los procesos de combustion y principios termodinamicos que rigen tales procesos.

  19. La medida de la eficiencia económica de las inversiones en sistemas automatizados de gestión productiva, SAGP

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Parra Restrepo

    1997-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una idea general de los sistemas automatizados de gestión productiva cuya aplicación industrial ha sido una tendencia irreversible en los últimos años. También propone una metodología para la medición de la eficiencia económica aplicable a las inversiones hechas en automatización y sistematización de procesos industriales y administrativos. De manera simple se entiende por eficiencia económica el cálculo de la relación existente entre los costos de producción de cada un...

  20. Eficacia y eficiencia del Programa de Control de Tuberculosis en Rioja, San Martín-Perú durante el periodo 1996 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mendoza R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y eficiencia del Programa de Control de Tuberculosis (PCT en la Red de Servicios de Salud Rioja (RSSR, San Martín-Perú, durante el período 1996-2000. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo longitudinal, que utiliza como fuente de información retrospectiva los libros de registro y seguimiento de pacientes con tuberculosis (TB del PCT de la RSSR. La muestra incluyó a los pacientes diagnosticados de TB y registrado en el PCT, excluyéndose los pacientes que presentaron reacción adversa a medicamentos que motivó cambio del esquema de tratamiento o pacientes con tratamiento irregular. Se realizó el análisis segun año, microrred (MR y esquema de tratamiento. Resultados: Se incluyeron 355 pacientes. La eficacia a nivel de red fue 99.7% y la eficiencia 93.0%. El porcentaje de abandonos fue 2.0%, fracasos 0.3%, transferencias sin confirmar (TSC 1.4%, y fallecidos 2.8%. No se determinó ninguna tendencia significativa a lo largo del periodo estudiado. A nivel de microrred, la menor eficiencia la presentaron la MR-5 y MR-3; ambas microrredes también tuvieron el mayor porcentaje de abandonos. El mayor porcentaje de fallecidos lo presentaron la MR-5 y MR-6. Se encontró un alto porcentaje de abandonos en pacientes que recibieron Esquema III y el porcentaje de fallecidos fue mayor en los que recibieron Esquema II. Conclusiones: La eficacia y eficiencia presentaron, en general, valores adecuados en la RSSR; sin embargo, pudimos identificar algunas microrredes y subpoblaciones de pacientes con altos porcentajes de fallecimientos, abandonos y TSC, situación que necesita ser corregida.

  1. ¿Influyen los modelos de financiación autonómicos en la eficiencia de las universidades públicas españolas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Larrán-Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Para evaluar la eficiencia aplicamos la metodología Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, desarrollada por Charnes et al. (1978 a partir del trabajo pionero de Farrel en 1957. La muestra está formada por las 47 universidades públicas españolas presenciales con información obtenida de diversas fuentes y relativa a los cursos académicos 2005/2006 a 2009/2010.

  2. Impacto de la gestión administrativa sobre la eficiencia de la actividad pesquera artesanal - cantón Manta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lara Ocaña

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general del estudio fue demostrar que la Gestión Administrativa de los armadores, influye en la eficiencia de la actividad pesquera artesanal del Cantón Manta-Manabí-Ecuador. Para el logro del mismo se desarrolló un proceso investigativo sustentado en una estrategia metodológica cuantitativa analítica, con diseño de investigación no experimental, transversal y correlacional causal. Para recolectar los datos se empleó un cuestionario único mediante la técnica de encuesta, cuya estructura responde a la operacionalización de las variables en estudio. La validez y confiabilidad del cuestionario fueron analizadas estadísticamente mediante prueba binomial y coeficiente Alfa de Cronbach, quedando demostrada su validez y una alta confianza con Rho de 0,993. Los principales resultados obtenidos en la investigación evidencian que existe una correlación positiva de muy fuerte a perfecta entre la gestión administrativa, así como cada una de las dimensiones que la componen y la eficiencia de la actividad pesquera artesanal del Cantón Manta. Palabras clave: gestión administrativa, eficiencia, productividad, calidad, pesca artesanal.

  3. FRONTIER METHODOLOGIES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCIES IN DISTRIBUTION COSTS METODOLOGÍAS FRONTERAS PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE EFICIENCIA EN COSTOS DE DISTRIBUCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Sanhueza Hormazábal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of electric distribution companies is assessed under a productive efficiency criterion viewpoint. The analysis methodology consists of the estimation of frontier production costs functions; a parametric and a non parametric function. Two individual technical efficiency measurements for the distribution business are obtained from these functions. The assessment confirms actions and strategies that result in cost reductions in distribution companies. An application within the framework of the last Chilean regulatory process is illustrated in this work.Este trabajo analiza la eficiencia de empresas de distribución eléctrica, bajo el punto de vista del criterio de la eficiencia productiva. La metodología de análisis consiste en la estimación de funciones de costo de producción frontera, una paramétrica y otra no paramétrica. A partir de las mismas se obtienen dos medidas de la eficiencia técnica individual de cada explotación, lo que deja en evidencia acciones y estrategias que conducen a una reducción de costos para las empresas de distribución. Se ilustra su aplicación dentro del marco del último proceso regulatorio chileno.

  4. ANÁLISIS DE EFICIENCIA EN EL SISTEMA HOTELERO ESPAÑOL: UNA APLICACIÓN AL CASO DE SOL MELIÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Díaz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, bajo la perspectiva de la Economía de los Costes de Transacción, si las distintas prácticas contractuales con las que las cadenas hoteleras organizan sus establecimientos influyen sobre su eficiencia. El análisis se ha llevado a cabo utilizando Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, aplicándolo a la cadena líder en España, Sol Meliá. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que la cadena analizada logra en todos los establecimientos en unos altos niveles de eficiencia, pero no se puede afirmar que los gestionados por bajo otras fórmulas contractuales sean más eficientes que otras. Este trabajo permite concluir que la forma contractual no contribuye a la eficiencia de los establecimientos en el caso de Sol Meliá. Más bien parece depender de otras variables técnicas que del tipo de contrato establecido.

  5. Educación a distancia y eficiencia terminal exitosa : El caso de la sede Tejupilco en la Universidad Virtual del Tecnológico de Monterrey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Edel Navarro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación aborda el fenómeno de la eficiencia terminal en la educación a distancia a través de un estudio de caso, el cual se desarrolló en la sede Tejupilco de la Universidad Virtual del Sistema Tecnológico de Monterrey, en México. Los resultados de la investigación, desde la perspectiva del pluralismo metodológico, pretenden dar respuesta a interrogantes que van desde, ¿ qué factores influyeron para que los alumnos concluyeran el programa académico en la modalidad a distancia ?, ¿ qué condiciones permitieron la eficiencia terminal exitosa dentro de los tiempos académicos predeterminados ?, hasta aproximarse a la respuesta sobre ¿ qué favoreció que los alumnos que concluyeron los programas académicos se titularan ?. Asimismo permitió incursionar de manera exploratoria en la conceptualización de la eficiencia terminal en la educación a distancia, así como en la generación de conocimiento cualitativo sobre los índices y factores que prevalecen actualmente en ésta modalidad de educación en los niveles de postgrado.

  6. Mejoramientos de envolvente para la eficiencia energética de viviendas en el centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escorcia, O.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript is part of the research project "Integrated Design for Energy Efficient Housing Reconstruction." It exposes the diagnosis of energy and construction conditions of dwellings of 3 regions in the south central area of Chile, which was the most affected by the earthquake of February 27th, 2010. With this aim, it reviews predominant characteristics of the building envelopes in 22 cities. It analyzes energy performance and it recommends thermal improvements for dwellings either under construction stage or during occupancy stage, which are critical for energy savings and efficiency. It proposes strategies to improve energy efficiency through vertical envelopes, with a base case and two comparative scenarios. It proposes economic, constructive and architectural planning strategies, with the possibilities of social and financial implementation, which could help substantially to achieve energy efficiency.

    Este manuscrito forma parte del proyecto “Diseño Integrado para la Reconstrucción de Viviendas Energéticamente Eficientes”. Presenta evaluación y diagnóstico de condiciones constructivas y energéticas de viviendas de las tres regiones más afectadas en el centro-sur de Chile por el terremoto del 27 febrero de 2010. A ese propósito revisa e identifica, en el marco de la normativa actual, las condiciones generales y características de las envolventes predominantes en viviendas de 22 ciudades; analiza su comportamiento energético y recomienda medidas de acondicionamiento térmico de viviendas en ejecución o en uso, decisivas para el ahorro y la eficiencia energética. Formula una estrategia de mejoramiento energético residencial en las envolventes verticales con una base y dos escenarios de análisis comparativos. Propone una planeación económica, constructiva y arquitectónicamente efectiva, con posibilidades de implementación social y financiera, que podría colaborar sustancialmente a la eficiencia energética.

  7. Procedimiento para estimar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín//A procedure for estimating of cylindrical worm gear efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo González-Rey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se propone un procedimiento general para estimar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín cilíndrico considerando pérdidas de potencia por fricción entre los flancos conjugados. El referido procedimiento tiene sus bases en dos modelos matemáticos desarrollados con relaciones teóricas y empíricas presentes en el Reporte Técnico ISO 14521. Los modelos matemáticos elaborados son orientados a evaluar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín cilíndrico en función de la geometría del engranaje, de condiciones de la aplicación y características de fabricación del tornillo y la rueda dentada. El procedimiento fue validado por comparación con valores de eficiencia reportados para unidades deengranajes fabricadas por una compañía especializada en engranajes. Finalmente, haciendo uso del referido procedimiento son establecidas soluciones al problema de mejorar la eficiencia de estos engranajes mediante la recomendación racional de parámetros geométricos y de explotación.Palabras claves: eficiencia, engranaje de tornillo sinfín, diseño racional, modelo matemático, ISO/TR 14521._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this study, a general procedure is proposed for the prediction of cylindrical worm gear efficiency taking into account friction losses between worm and wheel gear. The procedure is based in two mathematical models developed with empiric relations and theoretical formulas presented on ISO/TR 14521. Mathematical models are oriented to evaluate the worm gear efficiency with interrelation of gear geometry, manufacturing and working parameters. The validation of procedure was achieved by comparing with values of efficiency for worm gear units referenced by a German gear manufacturer company. Finally, some important recommendations to increase worm gear efficiency by means of rational gear geometry and application parameters are presented.Key words

  8. Influencia de la lubricación en la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín//Influence of oil lubrication on cylindrical worm gear efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo González-Rey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fue desarrollado un procedimiento para estimar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín cilíndrico considerando pérdidas de potencia por fricción entre flancos conjugados, tres bases de lubricantes y sistema de lubricación. El procedimiento fue validado por comparación con valores de eficiencia reportados para engranajes fabricados por una compañía especializada en engranajes. Los resultadosestablecen fuerte dependencia entre el coeficiente de fricción y la velocidad de deslizamiento hasta valores inferiores a 0.4 m/s en engranajes con aceites sintéticos y para engranajes con inmersión en aceites minerales el coeficiente de fricción de ensayo fue observado constante hasta velocidades dedeslizamiento inferiores a 0,9 m/s. Fue determinado que en sistemas de lubricación por inmersión, los aceites sintéticos en sustitución de aceites minerales mejoran como promedio en 44 % la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín. Finalmente, fue formulado un módulo racional del engranaje orientado amaximizar la eficiencia del engranaje lubricado con aceite sintético.Palabras claves: eficiencia, engranaje, tornillo sinfín, lubricante, aceite sintético, ISO/TR 145281._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this study, a general procedure is proposed for the prediction of cylindrical worm gear efficiency takinginto account friction losses between worm and wheel gear, three base oils and lubrication system. Thevalidation of procedure was achieved by comparing with values of efficiency for worm gear unitsreferenced by a German gear manufacturer company. In the case of worm gears lubricated with syntheticbase oils, results show an strong dependency between basic coefficient of friction and sliding velocity up to0,4 m/s and for dip lubrication with mineral oils the basic coefficient of friction was observed constant forsliding velocity below 0,9 m/s. Other results confirm the increase of

  9. Eficiencia técnica de la atención al paciente con diabetes en el primer nivel Technical efficiency in primary care for patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Salinas-Martínez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar en un primer nivel la eficiencia técnica de la atención al paciente con diabetes y distinguir la provisión de servicios y los resultados en salud, además de reconocer las fuentes potenciales de variación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron insumos, actividades clínicas y resultados en salud de 47 clínicas familiares del IMSS Nuevo León. La medida de la eficiencia se realizó mediante el análisis envolvente de datos y se aplicaron modelos de regresión de Tobit. RESULTADOS: Siete clínicas fueron eficientes en cuanto a la provisión de servicios y nueve en salud; dos coincidieron en ambos aspectos. La localización metropolitana y el total de consultas favorecieron la eficiencia en relación con la provisión de servicios, cualesquiera que fueran los atributos del paciente; y la edad del médico, la eficiencia de los resultados en salud. CONCLUSIONES: El desempeño varió en una misma unidad y entre una y otra; algunas fueron eficientes para suministrar servicios y otras para mejorar la salud. Las fuentes de variación también difirieron. Se recomienda incluir ambos productos en el estudio de la eficiencia en diabetes en el primer nivel.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the technical efficiency of diabetes care in family practice settings, characterize the provision of services and health results, and recognize potential sources of variation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used data envelopment analysis with inputs and outputs for diabetes care from 47 family units within a social security agency in Nuevo Leon. Tobit regression models were also used. RESULTS: Seven units were technically efficient in providing services and nine in achieving health goals. Only two achieved both outcomes. The metropolitan location and the total number of consultations favored efficiency in the provision of services regardless of patient attributes; and the age of the doctor, the efficiency of health results. CONCLUSIONS: Performance varied within and

  10. Relación entre productividad y eficiencia de los programas de doctorado en Psicología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Musi-Lechuga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunos estudios han demostrado que la financiación que reciben los programas de doctorado y las universidades influye directamente en su productividad científica. Así, el objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la distribución de los programas de doctorado en Psicología con Mención de Calidad ofrecidos por las universidades españolas en función de la productividad científica de los profesores que participan en ellos y de la financiación que reciben para fomentar la movilidad de profesores y alumnos. Para ello, se calculó, por una parte, la productividad científica en artículos publicados en revistas del Journal Citation Reports y en tesis doctorales dirigidas por los profesores que participan en esos programas. Por otra, la financiación que ha recibido cada programa en función de sus profesores. De esta manera, se distribuyeron los programas en varios grupos según la eficiencia de sus recursos y su productividad científica. Estos resultados son muy relevantes y pueden influir directamente en las decisiones que los futuros alumnos de doctorado, especialmente de Latinoamérica, tomen para elegir qué programas cursar y dónde hacerlo.

  11. NIDIFICACIÓN Y EFICIENCIA REPRODUCTIVA DEL COCODRILO AMERICANO EN UNA RESERVA ECOLÓGICA DE MANATÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Torres Martínez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se caracteriza la variación espacial y temporal de los patrones reproductivos del cocodrilo americano (Crocodylus acutus Cuvier, entre 2008 y 2010, para las localidades de La Isleta y Los Coquitos, en la Reserva Ecológica Bahía de Nuevas Grandes-La Isleta en Manatí, Las Tunas. Se describen las conductas de nidificación, desove y atención al nido. Además, se analiza la dinámica de las puestas, eclosiones y la morfometría de los huevos. Se detectó que las hembras no despliegan la misma conducta para la construcción del nido, pero en todos los casos la nidificación implica la transformación del paisaje. En ambas localidades las curvas de acumulación de puestas y eclosiones se dividen en tres etapas: inicial, aceleración y meseta. En general, existe consistencia de la correlación entre el largo y ancho de los huevos con tendencia a que los huevos largos y pesados incrementen su natalidad y viabilidad. En La Isleta la altura y tipo de suelo aseguran una elevada eficiencia de reproducción, lo que sugiere mayor estabilidad temporal de factores bióticos y abióticos.

  12. EFECTO DEL TIPO DE DESBALANCE SOBRE LA EFICIENCIA Y EL FACTOR DE POTENCIA DE LOS MOTORES ASINCRÓNICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Rafael Viego Felipe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Operar los motores trifásicos asincrónicos con voltajes desbalanceados incrementa sensiblemente suspérdidas y afecta el factor de potencia, con los consecuentes efectos sobre el sistema eléctrico. Eneste trabajo se precisa que ni el factor de desbalance de voltaje de línea - según definición de laNEMA (FDVL -, ni el valor de los componentes de secuencia del voltaje, ni otros factores que seemplean para definir el desbalance, permiten por sí solos evaluar con precisión el efecto cuantitativosobre la eficiencia y el factor de potencia. Se propone aquí una vía para lograr este objetivo en funciónde los componentes de secuencia del voltaje y del FDVL.   Operating three-phase induction motors under unbalanced voltage supply increases losses andaffects the machine power factor, provoking the subsequent effects on the electric systems. Inthis paper is demonstrated that neither the line voltage unbalance rate – as defined by NEMA(FVDL – nor the sequence voltages or other factors used for describing the unbalances, allowa precise quantification of the effect on efficiency and power factor. A way for achieving thatobjective as a function of the sequence voltages and the FDVL is proposed.

  13. La eficiencia relativa del sector real vs. la del sector financiero de la economía colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isabel Rodriguez Lozano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es comparar las empresas del sector real de la economía y las entidades del sector financiero colombiano para el año 2014, en términos de eficiencia relativa, mediante la aplicación de la metodología Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Para un país como Colombia, perteneciente a las economías emergentes, es importante la realización de este estudio para determinar hasta dónde estos dos sectores son eficientes o ineficientes, dada la importancia que tienen en la generación de desarrollo y en la disminución de las desigualdades sociales. Se toman como fuente de información la Superintendencia de Sociedades y la Superintendencia Financiera. Se analizaron 26.799 empresas del sector real y 254 entidades del sector financiero, lo que dio como resultado mejores indicadores para el sector financiero y, dentro de este, se destacó la industria aseguradora. Sin embargo, es necesario que estos dos sectores mejoren su desempeño, ya que solo el 2,6 % de las empresas y entidades estudiadas es eficiente.

  14. REFORMAS LEY N°. 712 DE EQUIDAD FISCAL, EFICIENCIA ECONÓMICA EN LA RECAUDACIÓN IN NICARAGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny del Socorro Villanueva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el año  2009  Nicaragua   vivió  un periodo de crisis  mundial,  obligando al  gobierno  a buscar nuevas medidas para cubrir el déficitpresupuestario, dando lugar a  implementar  una nueva reforma fiscal. El propósito de esta investigación,  consistió  en el análisis de  la Reforma No. 712 de  la Ley de Equidad Fiscal y  la  eficiencia  económica  en la recaudación. Teóricamente  se fundamentó  en las leyes elaboradas por la Asamblea Nacional relacionada con  la Ley de Equidad Fiscal  y  autores  de gran prestigio en la comunidad científica. Metodológicamente, el estudio es documental, descriptivo y de campo,  no experimental  de corte transversal.  Los datos de campo se  obtuvieron a través de entrevistas,  con repuestas abiertas. En conclusión  con la implementación de la  reforma se ha logrado dinamizar la economía

  15. Voltage pre-regulator without insulation with high efficiency; Pre-regulador de tension sin aislamiento con alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ramos, Octaviano

    2003-04-15

    strokes it is illustrated that the results obtained in the proposed topology are satisfactory because it succeeds in maintaining a high efficiency and a high power factor. [Spanish] Actualmente existe una problematica por el uso inadecuado e ineficiente de la energia electrica en los sistemas de alimentacion, esta problematica se va complicando aun mas con el paso del tiempo, debido a la proliferacion de equipos electronicos que no incorporan alguna solucion para dicha problematica. Esto ha ocasionado una tendencia hacia el desarrollo de sistemas que procesen con mayor eficiencia ({eta}) la energia electrica. Ademas para hacer un buen uso de la energia, se les disena para que puedan corregir el factor de potencia (FP) y por lo tanto reducen la contaminacion de armonicos en la red; los cuales provocan fallas o destruccion en otros equipos electronicos. Adicionalmente se les puede disenar para obtener una buena respuesta dinamica, lo cual asegura que podran contrarrestar eficientemente cambios de carga. La caracteristica no lineal que esta presente en todas las fuentes de alimentacion, que basan su entrada en una etapa de rectificacion y filtrado, provocan un bajo factor de potencia (FP) y una alta distorsion armonica total (THD). El factor es contaminar la red electrica, lo cual puede provocar fallas o descomposturas de otros equipos. Desde hace aproximadamente 15 anos la preocupacion por resolver este problema de uso inadecuado de la energia ha tomado importancia, desarrollando convertidores que corrigen el FP (pre-regulador) y que tradicionalmente se conectan en cascada con la tipica etapa de conversion de corriente directa a corriente directa (CD-CD) usada para regular la tension; esta solucion tiene una baja eficiencia ({eta}) y alto costo, por el exceso de componentes conectados en cascada. Sin embargo la respuesta dinamica (RD) es adecuada ya que se cuenta con etapas separadas para la correccion del FP y la regulacion. A partir de una revision del estado del arte, en

  16. Powdered sugar shake to monitor and oxalic acid treatments to control varroa mites (Parasitiformes: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective monitoring and alternative strategies to control the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Truemann (Parasitiformes: Varroidae), (varroa) are crucial for determining when to apply effective treatments to honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies. Using simpl...

  17. Origin and phylogeography of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera : Cephidae): implications for pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    he wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage by this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are not very effective and uncertainties regarding its origin and i...

  18. Two New Species of Egg Parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) of Wood-Boring Beetle Pests from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhou Zhang; Dawei Huang; Tonghai Zhao; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2005-01-01

    Oobius agrili sp.n. and Avetianella xystrocerae sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from China. Morphological characters of the new species are illustrated. O. agrili is an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and A....

  19. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  20. Temperature- and age-dependent survival, development, and oviposition rates of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had...