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Sample records for hymenaea stigonocarpa fabaceae

  1. Phylogeography of the Tree Hymenaea stigonocarpa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) and the Influence of Quaternary Climate Changes in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Ramos, Ana Carolina Simões; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Santos, Fabrício Rodrigues; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Hymenaea stigonocarpa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic tree from the Brazilian cerrado (savanna vegetation), a biome classified as a hotspot for conservation priority. This study investigates the phylogeographic structure of H. stigonocarpa, in order to understand the processes that have led to its current spatial genetic pattern. Methods The polymorphism level and spatial distribution of variants of the plastid non-coding region between the genes psbC and trnS were investigated in 175 individuals from 17 populations, covering the greater part of the total distribution of the species. Molecular diversity indices were calculated and intra-specific relationships were inferred by the construction of haplotype networks using the median-joining method. Genetic differentiation among populations and main geographical groups was evaluated using spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Key Results Twenty-three different haplotypes were identified. The level of differentiation among the populations analysed was relatively high (FST = 0·692). Phylogeographic analyses showed a clear association between the haplotype network and geographic distribution of populations, revealing three main geographical groups: western, central and eastern. SAMOVA corroborated this finding, indicating that most of the variation can be attributed to differences among these three groups (58·8 %), with little difference among populations within groups (FSC = 0·252). Conclusions The subdivision of the geographic distribution of H. stigonocarpa populations into three genetically differentiated groups can be associated with Quaternary climatic changes. The data suggest that during glacial times H. stigonocarpa populations became extinct in most parts of the southern present-day cerrado area. Milder climatic conditions in the north and eastern portions of the cerrado resulted in maintenance of populations in these regions. Thus it is inferred that the most

  2. Short Communication Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in microsatellite loci of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

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    Moraes, M A; Kubota, T Y K; Silva, E C B; Silva, A M; Cambuim, J; Moraes, M L T; Furlani Junior, E; Sebbenn, A M

    2016-07-29

    Hymenaea stigonocarpa is a deciduous and monoecious Neotropical tree species pollinated by bats. Due to overexploitation and habitat destruction, the population size has drastically diminished in nature. No previous study has investigated Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in the available microsatellite markers in this species. So, our aim was to estimate these parameters using six microsatellite loci in a sample of 470 adults and 219 juveniles from two populations of H. stigonocarpa. In addition, 30 seeds per tree from 35 seed-trees were collected. Each seed was kept record of the seed-trees and fruit origin. Based on the six microsatellite loci, we found that only 10.6% of the cases showed significant deviations from Mendelian segregation and 15.3% showed linkage. We detected no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium between the loci in the adult trees or juveniles. Thus, our results suggest that these loci can be used with great accuracy in future genetic analyses of H. stigonocarpa populations.

  3. Ontogênese, anatomia e ultra-estrutura dos nectários extraflorais de Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae Ontogenesis, anatomy, and ultrastructure of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae extrafloral nectaries

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    Élder Antônio Sousa Paiva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne apresenta nectários extraflorais (NEFs, os quais são descritos pela primeira vez no gênero. Neste trabalho foram estudadas a distribuição, ontogênese, estrutura e ultra-estrutura dos nectários extraflorais (NEFs. Amostras de folhas em várias fases de desenvolvimento foram coletadas, fixadas e processadas para estudos em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de transmissão e varredura, segundo técnicas convencionais. Testes histoquímicos foram empregados para determinar a natureza química da secreção. Os NEFs estão distribuídos por todo o limbo, sendo mais concentrados nos terços basal e médio de cada folíolo. Estes nectários são embutidos no mesofilo, apresentam tecido secretor envolvido por uma endoderme e são vascularizados por xilema e floema. A atividade secretora dos NEFs é limitada à fase juvenil da folha. Nas folhas mais velhas, os NEFs tornam-se não funcionais. O tecido secretor dos NEFs é formado a partir da protoderme, enquanto a endoderme tem origem no meristema fundamental. No tecido secretor de nectários funcionais as células apresentam citoplasma denso, núcleo volumoso, mitocôndrias, plastídios com sistema de membranas pouco desenvolvido, gotas de óleo dispersas no citosol, dictiossomos e segmentos de retículo endoplasmático liso. A secreção é liberada por meio de rupturas cuticulares e apresenta polissacarídeos e lipídios.Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne, known as "jatobá-do-cerrado" has extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, which are reported for the first time in Hymenaea genus. In this research the origin, distribution, structure, and ultrastructure of the EFNs were studied. Samples of leaflets at different developmental stages were collected, fixed and processed by standard methods for analyses at light and electronic microscopes; histochemical tests were employed to determine the nature of secretion products. EFNs are distributed all over

  4. Pre-germination treatments for Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne seeds

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    Sérgio Roberto Garcia dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea stigonocarpa, known as Jatoba-do-cerrado, belongs to the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae and is included in the category "near threatened with extinction." It occurs in cerrado and cerradão areas, and its seeds have physical dormancy. Because of this characteristic, the aim of this study was to evaluate different pre-germination treatments and control in H. stigonocarpa seeds, namely: immersion in fire, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, acetone, ether and hot water (100°C, and mechanical scarification of the seed coat by roughing with sandpaper or cutting with nail clippers and washing in running water for 2 hours. The parameters analyzed were percentage of germination, germination speed index (GSI and the percentage of hard and firm seeds and dead seeds. The final results were: a germination: boiling water and sulfuric acid were superior to the control; b GSI: boiling water, sulfuric acid, fire and sandpaper were superior to the control and c percentage of dead seeds was not statistically different between the different treatments and control. In conclusion, boiling water and sulfuric acid, were the best treatments, with regard to the parameters examined.

  5. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. flour

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    Cintia Pereira Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savannah, known as "Cerrado," has an extensive biodiversity, but it is under explored. Among the native vegetables is the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a legume with great potential for exploration for its content of dietary fiber. Legumes are an important source of nutrient compounds, such as phenolic compounds and vitamins that have antioxidant properties. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the jatobá flour. The jatobá flour showed high fiber content (insoluble and soluble fiber 47.8 and 12.8 g.100 g- 1, respectively, significant amounts of carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lutein, and some minerals such as calcium: 145 mg.100 g- 1, magnesium: 125 mg.100 g- 1, and potassium: 1352 mg.100 g- 1. The jatobá flour extracted with different solvents (water, methanol, and acetone exhibited antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods. The solvent used in the extraction affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Acetone extraction produced the best results. Therefore, the jatobá flour is an ingredient that can be used to develop new products with properties that promote health.

  6. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

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    Gustavo Santiago Dimech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE, hydroalcoholic (HE, and aqueous fraction (AF showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity.

  7. Utilização da farinha de jatobá (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. na elaboração de biscoitos tipo cookie e avaliação de aceitação por testes sensoriais afetivos univariados e multivariados

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    SILVA Mara Reis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o aproveitamento da farinha de jatobá (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart na produção de biscoitos tipo cookie. Inicialmente, foi feita a caracterização química da farinha de jatobá. Em seguida foram elaborados cookies com a proporção de farinha mista de trigo e de jatobá de 9:1 e adição de diferentes tipos de açúcares: açúcar mascavo, açúcar mascavo+mel, mel, frutose e açúcar refinado para a formulação controle. Os cookies foram avaliados nas suas características físicas e sensoriais. O grau de aceitação dos produtos elaborados e alguns produtos comerciais similares foram avaliados por consumidores potenciais do produto em duas regiões geográficas distintas: Campinas (SP e Goiânia (GO. A farinha de jatobá apresentou teores de umidade na faixa de 8,44 a 10,9 g/100g e revelou a seguinte composição em base seca: proteínas 6,2±0,1 g/100g, lipídios 4,04±0,08 g/100g, cinzas 3,38±0,03 g/100g, fibra alimentar solúvel 12,6±0,4 g/100g, fibra alimentar insolúvel 36,4±0,3 g/100g, amido 3,1±0,1 g/100g e açúcares 34,28 g/100g. O cookie elaborado com farinha mista de trigo e jatobá e açúcar mascavo foi o mais aceito entre os produtos testados.

  8. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Caesalpinioideae-Fabaceae: espécie de uso medicinal em Caetité-BA Anatomy of vegetative organs of Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae: a species of medicinal use in Caetité-Bahia State, Brazil

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    M.S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae apresenta grande valor na medicina popular em Caetité. A casca, entrecasca do caule e a resina, são utilizadas no tratamento de diversos males. Neste estudo são apresentadas a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos. Amostras foram coletadas e processadas segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal e histoquímica. Todos os órgãos apresentam, em visão transversal, epiderme unisseriada e cavidades secretoras. Cutícula espessa ocorre em todos os órgãos aéreos. A raiz é tetrarca. Colênquima lacunar foi encontrado no caule. Bainha de fibras esclerenquimáticas envolve os feixes vasculares dos órgãos aéreos. Células pétreas ocorrem no pecíolo. Tricomas tectores ocorrem em ambas as faces da folha. A folha é hipoestomática com estômatos paracíticos e o mesofilo é dorsiventral. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio ocorrem no caule, pecíolo e lâmina foliar. Compostos fenólicos ocorrem na raiz, pecíolo e nervura central da folha. Grãos de amido ocorrem na raiz, caule e pecíolo. Lipídios ocorrem em todos os órgãos. Acredita-se que compostos fenólicos e cavidades secretoras de resina podem justificar a utilidade medicinal da espécie pela população de Caetité.Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae shows a great value in folk medicine in Caetité. Its bark, stem-bark and resin are used to treat various ailments. In this study, the anatomical and histochemical characterization of vegetative organs is reported. Samples were collected and processed according to usual techniques of plant anatomy and histochemistry. All organs have, by cross-sectional view, uniseriate epidermis and secretory cavities. Thick cuticle occurs in all aerial organs. The root is tetrarch. Lacunar collenchyma was found in the stem. Sclerenchymatic sheath of fibers surrounds the vascular bundles of the aerial organs. Stone cells occur in the petiole. Trichomes occur

  9. Adulteration and Contamination of Commercial Sap of Hymenaea Species

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    Katyuce de Souza Farias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Hymenaea martiana species, commonly known as “jatobá,” produce a sap which is extracted by perforation of the trunk and is commonly used in folk medicine as a tonic. For this study, the authenticity of commercial samples of jatobá was verified by the identification of the main compounds and multivariate analysis and contamination by microbial presence analysis. The acute toxicity of the authentic jatobá sap was also evaluated. The metabolites composition and multivariate analysis revealed that none of the commercial samples were authentic. In the microbiological contamination analysis, five of the six commercial samples showed positive cultures within the range of 1,700–100,000 CFU/mL and the authentic sap produced no signs of toxicity, and from a histological point of view, there was the maintenance of tissue integrity. In brief, the commercial samples were deemed inappropriate for consumption and represent a danger to the population.

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF JATOBÁ-DO-CERRADO (HYMENAEA STIGONOCARPA Mart. FLOUR AND ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH OF RATS

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    Ângela Giovana BATISTA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of jatobá-do-cerrado fl our and its effects on rat´s growth. The chemical composition of the fl our was determined according to AOAC. The PER, NPR, food effi ciency ratio (FER, food conversion ratio (FCR, dry matter digestibility (DMD and fecal output were evaluated by an assay in which animals were fed according the AIN- 93 diet: casein (CAS diet and another having 50% of its protein source from jatobá fl our (JAT. Chemical analysis showed signifi cant amounts of crude fi bre and minerals (potassium, magnesium, calcium and zinc in the fl our. The CAS group ate more and gained more weight than JAT group (p0.05. Faeces moisture and dried weight for JAT were higher, which corroborated its lower DMD (p<0.05. Although JAT group had to intake more diet to promote weight gain, the protein utilization was acceptable. Therefore, further studies are necessary for better understand nutrient and phytochemical composition, their bioavailability, and metabolic effects of jatobá-do-cerrado fl our.

  11. Annual Growth Bands in Hymenaea courbaril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, J A; Guilderson, T P; Colinvaux, P A

    2004-02-09

    One significant source of annual temperature and precipitation data arises from the regular annual secondary growth rings of trees. Several tropical tree species are observed to form regular growth bands that may or may not form annually. Such growth was observed in one stem disk of the tropical legume Hymenaea courbaril near the area of David, Panama. In comparison to annual reference {Delta}{sup 14}C values from wood and air, the {Delta}{sup 14}C values from the secondary growth rings formed by H. courbaril were determined to be annual in nature in this one stem disk specimen. During this study, H. courbaril was also observed to translocate recently produced photosynthate into older growth rings as sapwood is converted to heartwood. This process alters the overall {Delta}{sup 14}C values of these transitional growth rings as cellulose with a higher {Delta}{sup 14}C content is translocated into growth rings with a relatively lower {Delta}{sup 14}C content. Once the annual nature of these growth rings is established, further stable isotope analyses on H. courbaril material in other studies may help to complete gaps in the understanding of short and of long term global climate patterns.

  12. Estrutura espacial e deposição de sementes de Hymenaea courbaril L. em um fragmento florestal no sudoeste goiano - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5881 Spatial structure and seed deposition of Hymenaea courbaril L. in a forestal fragment in the southeast of the Goiás State - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5881

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    Wilson Pereira Bernasol

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é identificar e descrever o padrão de distribuição espacial de Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabaceae e os fatores condicionantes em um fragmento florestal, denominado Mata do Açude, município de Jataí Estado de Goiás. O procedimento adotado para coleta dos dados espaciais foi o método da distância conhecido como T – Square, utilizado para duas classes de tamanho: jovens e adultos, com circunferência de caule inferior e superior a 15 cm, respectivamente. Os fatores condicionantes analisados foram o padrão espacial de deposição das sementes e as características do substrato (solo e serrapilheira. A estrutura espacial da população foi identificada pelo teste de Hines (ht, a qual apresentou distribuição agregada, tanto para indivíduos adultos (ht = 1,47, p t = 1,88, p The objective of this study was to identify and describe the pattern of spatial distribution of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabaceae and its structuring factors in the Mata do Açude forest fragment in Jataí Municipality, Goiás state. We used two individual size classes: juveniles and adult, with stalk circumference smaller and bigger than 15 cm, respectively. The population spatial data were sampled by the ‘T-Square’ distance method and the structuring factors analyzed were the spatial deposition pattern of seeds and substrate conditions (soil and litter. The Hines statistical test (ht was used to detect the population spatial pattern. The tree population presented aggregated spatial structure, for both adults (ht = 1.47, p t = 1.88, p H. courbaril in the Mata do Açude is strongly structured by the seed deposition pattern and litter conditions.

  13. Estrutura espacial e deposição de sementes de Hymenaea courbaril L. em um fragmento florestal no sudoeste goiano = Spatial structure and seed deposition of Hymenaea courbaril L. in a forestal fragment in the southeast of the Goiás State

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    Matheus Souza Lima-Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é identificar e descrever o padrão dedistribuição espacial de Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabaceae e os fatores condicionantes em um fragmento florestal, denominado Mata do Açude, município de Jataí Estado de Goiás. O procedimento adotado para coleta dos dados espaciais foi o método da distância conhecidocomo T – Square, utilizado para duas classes de tamanho: jovens e adultos, com circunferência de caule inferior e superior a 15 cm, respectivamente. Os fatores condicionantes analisados foram o padrão espacial de deposição das sementes e as características do substrato (solo e serrapilheira. A estrutura espacial da população foi identificada pelo teste de Hines (ht, a qual apresentou distribuição agregada, tanto para indivíduos adultos (ht = 1,47, p The objective of this study was to identify and describe the pattern of spatial distribution of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabaceae and its structuring factors in the Mata do Açude forest fragment in Jataí Municipality, Goiás state. We used two individual size classes: juveniles and adult, with stalk circumference smaller and bigger than 15 cm, respectively. The population spatial data were sampled by the ‘T-Square’ distance method and the structuring factors analyzed were the spatial deposition pattern of seeds and substrate conditions (soil and litter. The Hines statistical test (ht was used to detect the population spatial pattern. The tree population presented aggregated spatial structure, for both adults (ht = 1.47, p < 0.005 and juveniles (ht = 1.88, p < 0.005, with greater seed density at four meters from the plant. The soil conditions were not different among sampled points. On the other hand, the litter conditionspresented significant differences for moisture and dried organic matter. These data suggested that the recruitment and spatial distribution of H. courbaril in the Mata do Açude is strongly structured by the seed deposition pattern

  14. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae).

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    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  15. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae

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    Isys Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, H. courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of H. courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1 for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2 for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1 var. altissima, (2 var. longifolia, and (3 all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  16. nfluência do uso de biorreguladores no crescimento de Hymenaea courbaril (Nota Científica. Hymenaea courbaril growth as affected by plant bioregulators (Scientific Note.

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    Cristiano Bueno de MORAES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a reduzida disponibilidade de trabalhos científicos relacionados com a avaliação de espécies florestais sob o efeito de biorreguladores vegetais, o estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação dos seguintes representantes destas substâncias: paclobutrazol (PBZ, ácido giberélico (GA3 e ethephon em mudas de Hymenaea courbaril. O experimento foi implantado em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (3 biorreguladores x 3 dosagens, sob delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e utilizando quatro plantas por parcela, em condições de viveiro. Para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos no crescimento das plantas, foram medidas as seguintes variáveis: altura da planta, diâmetro do colo, teor de clorofila e teores de proteínas solúveis totais. A aplicação do PBZ promoveu alterações morfológicas nas folhas, como a redução no tamanho e intensidade da cor. Foram verificadas redução na altura das plantas (28% e redução na síntese de proteínas (48%. Já o GA3 promoveu aumento desta variável (12%. O ethephon promoveu morte dos ponteiros apicais, reduzindo a altura das mudas (22%. Concluiu-se que as aplicações dos biorreguladores influenciaram no desenvolvimento vegetativo do jatobá, fornecendo resultados preliminares importantes para a utilização de hormônios sintéticos em espécie arbórea.The study aimed to evaluate the effect of application of plant growth regulators: paclobutrazol (PBZ, gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon in seedlings of Hymenaea courbaril. The experiment was established in randomized block design, three replications, three regulators, three dosages/regulators, plots with four plants and witness treatment. Parameters such as height and diameter, chlorophyll content and total soluble proteins were measured to assess the effect of treatments on plant growth. The application of PBZ promoted morphological changes in leaves as a reduction in size, texture and color intensity. We

  17. SEEDLING PRODUCTION OF Hymenaea courbaril L. IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS, RECIPIENTS AND SUBSTRATE COMPOSITIONS

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    José Luiz Sandes de Carvalho Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two environments, differentsubstrate mixtures and two recipient sizes on emergence and seedling development of Hymenaeacourbaril L. Two environments (full sun and environment protected with 50% black screen, foursubstrate mixtures [soil; soil + bovine manure (2:1; soil + sand (1:1 and soil + sand + bovinemanure (1:2:1] and two recipient sizes (11x18cm and 15x20cm plastic bags were tested.Emergency started 20 days after sowing and prolonged till 180 days. Seed emergency reached41% at full sun and 26% in environment protected with 50% black screen. The substrate mixturesoil + sand + bovine manure (1:2:1 can be used for Hymenaea courbaril seedling production in15x20cm plastic bags and full sun environment.

  18. Révision du genre Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obiang-Mbomio, D.; Breteler, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Revision of the genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae). Th e African genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) of Lower Guinea is revised. Two species, E. tessmannii and E. unijugum, are recognized. Th ey are illustrated and their distributions are mapped. Eurypetalum

  19. Antraquinonas de Vatairea guianensis Aubl. (Fabaceae)

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    Piedade, Luiz Rubens; Wolter Filho, Wilson

    1988-01-01

    As antraquinonas crisofanol, fisciona, emodina e os triterpenos conhecidos como ácido oleanótico e a lactona do ácido diidromacaerinico foram isolados do extrato metanólico das cascas do caule de Vatairea guianensis Aubl., (Fabaceae). A ocorrência das fis-ciona e da forma lactônica do ácido diidromacaerínico no gênero Vataireanão havia ainda sido descrita na literatura. The metanolic extracts from the bark of Vatairea guianensis Aubl. (Fabaceae) yieded physcion, emodin, chrysophanol, oleoa...

  20. Molecular systematics of Indian Alysicarpus (Fabaceae) based

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alysicarpus Necker ex Desvaux (Fabaceae, Desmodieae) consists of ∼30 species that are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of theworld. In India, the genus is represented by ca. 18 species, ofwhich seven are endemic. Sequences of the nuclear Internal transcribed spacer from38 accessions representing 16 ...

  1. Superação de dormência de sementes como estratégia para restauração florestal de pastagem tropical Seed dormancy overcoming as a strategy for forest restoration in tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rahe Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de tratamentos de superação da dormência de sementes sobre a taxa e o tempo de emergência de espécies arbóreas de Fabaceae, e sobre seu estabelecimento, quando reintroduzidas em pastagem, no Cerrado. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação e em campo (pastagem de Urochloa brizantha, com as espécies Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii e Hymenaea stigonocarpa, submetidas ou não aos seguintes tratamentos de superação de dormência: D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, escarificação mecânica; C. langsdorffii e M. caesalpiniifolia, escarificação química com H2SO4; P. nitens, punção do tegumento; e P. dubium, imersão em água a 80ºC. O estabelecimento em campo foi monitorado por 21 meses. A superação de dormência promoveu, em casa de vegetação, maior emergência de quatro das seis espécies avaliadas, e, no campo, de cinco espécies. Além disso, reduziu o tempo de emergência das espécies e aumentou o recrutamento de M. caesalpiniifolia, P. nitens, D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, aos 127 dias, e de H. stigonocarpa aos 659 dias. Os tratamentos de superação de dormência podem aumentar a eficiência da semeadura direta, em projetos de restauração de áreas degradadas no Cerrado, ao promover maior emergência das sementes e o estabelecimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of seed dormancy overcoming treatments on the rate and time of emergence of Fabaceae tree species, and on their recruitment when reintroduced in a tropical pasture, in the Brazilian Cerrado. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse and field (Urochloa brizantha pasture, with the species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea stigonocarpa, subjected or not to the following treatments of dormancy break: D. mollis and

  2. Photodegradation of two tropical wood species: jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril) and tauari (Couratari oblongifolia) submitted to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J. de A.; Gonçalez, J.C.; Camargos, J.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to follow the process of photodegradation of the natural color of wood surface of two tropical species when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. It were used the wood of jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril) with reddish brown coloration, and tauari (Couratari oblongifolia) with yellowish olive coloration. Samples of these woods were subjected to four cycles of ultraviolet radiation (UV) amounting to a total of 168 hours of irradiation and at 350 nm of wave length. Changes of the woods natural color, indicative of the photodegradation process, was monitored by spectrocolorimetry. Both species underwent changes in color caused by photodegradation, since the irradiation caused darkening which was quantified by the intensity of reflected light. Tauari demonstrated greater resistance to UV radiation and jatobá showed greater tendency to redden up. Both species were classified as woods with very appreciable variation in color [pt

  3. Volatile constituents from Samanae saman (Jacq.) Merr. Fabaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... Key words: Samanae saman, Fabaceae, volatile oil, fatty acids, terpenoids, palmitic acid, 1,8-cineole. .... Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses (GC/MS) ... this study, is an important constituent of most vegetable.

  4. A xyloglucan from seeds of the native Brazilian species Hymenaea courbaril for micropropagation of Marubakaido and Jonagored apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Nishimura, N; Quoirin, M; Naddaf, Y G; Wilhelm, H M; Ribas, L L F; Sierakowski, M-R

    2003-01-01

    Xyloglucan was extracted from seeds of Hymenaea courbaril and mixed with agar to prepare a solid culture medium used for micropropagation of the Marubakaido apple rootstock (Malus prunifolia Borkh) and cv. Jonagored (Malus domestica). The performance on gels created from a blend of 0.4%agar and 0.2% xyloglucan (w/v) was compared with that on media gelled with a standard concentration 0.6% (w/v) of agar. The growth of shoots and the multiplication rate were higher on the modified culture medium than on the agar-gelled medium. The occurrence of hyperhydric shoots was lower on the modified medium. In the absence of auxin, shoot rooting reached 70% (Marubakaido) and 66% (Jonagored) on the agar-xyloglucan medium and 6.7% and 10.4%, respectively, on the agar medium. When 0.25 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was added to both media, the modified medium gave better results in terms of rooting percentage and quality of roots than the agar-gelled medium.

  5. PROPIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DE LA MADERA DE ALGARROBO (Hymenaea oblongifolia Huber., DE BAGADÓ-CHOCÓ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica B. Serna Mosquera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las propiedades tecnológicas de la madera de Hymenaea oblongifolia Huber algarrobo, proveniente del municipio de Bagadó-Chocó, Colombia. Las muestras tomadas de los árboles (cilindros de la madera fueron estudiadas para determinar las características microscópicas, la densidad básica y la densidad normal; además, se estimaron las propiedades mecánicas utilizando los valores de densidad básica. Los resultados indicaron que la madera presenta vasos escasos -de medianos a grandes-, las fibras son medianas y los radios son finos a moderadamente largos con células cristalíferas, presenta mala calidad para producción de pulpa para papel, la densidad básica de la madera se clasificó como semipesada, y presenta una resistencia mecánica que varía de alta a muy alta. Puede utilizarse en la elaboración de pisos, muebles y mangos decorativos, entre otros usos.

  6. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  7. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  8. Hydrocarbon phytoremediation in the family Fabaceae--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica; Soole, Kathleen; Bentham, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Currently, studies often focus on the use of Poaceae species (grasses) for phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Research into the use of Fabaceae species (legumes) to remediate hydrocarbons in soils has been conducted, but these plants are commonly overlooked due to slower recorded rates of degradation compared with many grass species. Evidence in the literature suggests that in some cases Fabaceae species may increase total degradation of hydrocarbons and stimulate degradative capacity of the soil microbial community, particularly for contaminants which are normally more recalcitrant to degradation. As many recalcitrant hydrocarbons have negative impacts on human and ecosystem health, development of remediation options is crucial. Reconsideration of Fabaceae species for removal of such contaminants may lead to environmentally and economically sustainable technologies for remediation of contaminated sites.

  9. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  10. Hypoglycemic Effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Fabaceae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of the aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Fabaceae leaves and flowers on alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Methods: The effect of orally administered aqueous extracts (400 mg/kg body weight) of Clitoria ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, ...

  11. New chromosome numbers in the genus Trigonella L. ( Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic chromosome numbers of 45 Trigonella L. (Fabaceae), collected from different localities in Turkey was examined. Chromosome numbers were determined as 2n = 14, 16, 30 and 46. B chromosome was also observed in somatic cells of some taxa (Trigonella arcuata C.A. Meyer and Trigonella procumbens (Besser) ...

  12. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the sieve element occlusion gene family in Fabaceae and non-Fabaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüping, Boris; Ernst, Antonia M; Jekat, Stephan B; Nordzieke, Steffen; Reineke, Anna R; Müller, Boje; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2010-10-08

    The phloem of dicotyledonous plants contains specialized P-proteins (phloem proteins) that accumulate during sieve element differentiation and remain parietally associated with the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in mature sieve elements. Wounding causes P-protein filaments to accumulate at the sieve plates and block the translocation of photosynthate. Specialized, spindle-shaped P-proteins known as forisomes that undergo reversible calcium-dependent conformational changes have evolved exclusively in the Fabaceae. Recently, the molecular characterization of three genes encoding forisome components in the model legume Medicago truncatula (MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3; SEO = sieve element occlusion) was reported, but little is known about the molecular characteristics of P-proteins in non-Fabaceae. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide comparative analysis by screening the M. truncatula, Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Solanum phureja genomes, and a Malus domestica EST library for homologs of MtSEO1, MtSEO2 and MtSEO3 and identified numerous novel SEO genes in Fabaceae and even non-Fabaceae plants, which do not possess forisomes. Even in Fabaceae some SEO genes appear to not encode forisome components. All SEO genes have a similar exon-intron structure and are expressed predominantly in the phloem. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of several subgroups with Fabaceae-specific subgroups containing all of the known as well as newly identified forisome component proteins. We constructed Hidden Markov Models that identified three conserved protein domains, which characterize SEO proteins when present in combination. In addition, one common and three subgroup specific protein motifs were found in the amino acid sequences of SEO proteins. SEO genes are organized in genomic clusters and the conserved synteny allowed us to identify several M. truncatula vs G. max orthologs as well as paralogs within the G. max genome. The unexpected

  13. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahia, Marcus V.; Santos, Jamile B. dos; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M.

    2005-01-01

    The chloroform extract of the leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) yielded the new biflavonoid named caesalflavone, as well as podocarpusflavone A, agathisflavone, apigenin and kaempferol. The chloroform extract of the trunk wood gave 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone, (-)-syringaresinol, and methyl gallate. Biflavonoids were not found in trunk wood. Until now, C. pyramidalis is the first species in the genus to present biflavonoids. The structural elucidation of the ...

  14. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (Fabaceae, Crotalarieae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Sc. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (= Oedmannia Thunb., Vascoa DC., Pelecynthis E. Mey), a relatively poorly known papilionoid legume genus, is presented. Rafnia (family Fabaceae, tribe Crotalarieae) is subendemic to the fynbos region of the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, with one species having a distribution area reaching into KwaZulu-Natal. The species delimitation has been unsatisfactory, and the relationships among the taxa uncertain. Rafnia is ...

  15. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 201.56-6 Section 201.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean...

  16. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Marcus V.; Santos, Jamile B. dos; David, Jorge M. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; David, Juceni P. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2005-11-15

    The chloroform extract of the leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) yielded the new biflavonoid named caesalflavone, as well as podocarpusflavone A, agathisflavone, apigenin and kaempferol. The chloroform extract of the trunk wood gave 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone, (-)-syringaresinol, and methyl gallate. Biflavonoids were not found in trunk wood. Until now, C. pyramidalis is the first species in the genus to present biflavonoids. The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds and their derivatives were based on MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses. (au)

  17. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahia, Marcus V.; Santos, Jamile B. dos; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P.

    2005-01-01

    The chloroform extract of the leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) yielded the new biflavonoid named caesalflavone, as well as podocarpusflavone A, agathisflavone, apigenin and kaempferol. The chloroform extract of the trunk wood gave 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone, (-)-syringaresinol, and methyl gallate. Biflavonoids were not found in trunk wood. Until now, C. pyramidalis is the first species in the genus to present biflavonoids. The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds and their derivatives were based on MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses. (author)

  18. Chemical constituents from Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, "angico"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the roots of Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, known as "angico", afforded sitosterol, lupeol, betuline, the chalcone isoliquiritigenin, the flavonoids, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-benzoate. Both flavones were also isolated from the branches of this plant. Five derivatives of the aldehyde were obtained by diazomethane treatment. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and mass spectral data analysis of natural compounds and some derivatives, and by comparison with literature data.

  19. Chemical constituents from Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, "angico"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the roots of Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, known as "angico", afforded sitosterol, lupeol, betuline, the chalcone isoliquiritigenin, the flavonoids, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-benzoate. Both flavones were also isolated from the branches of this plant. Five derivatives of the aldehyde were obtained by diazomethane treatment. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and mass spectral data analysis of natural compounds and some derivatives, and by comparison with literature data.

  20. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahia, Marcus Vinicius; Santos, Jamile Batista dos; David, Juceni Pereira de Lima; David, Jorge Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    p. 1402-1405 O reestudo do extrato clorofórmico das folhas de Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) forneceu, além do novo biflavonóide denominado caesalflavona, podocarpusflavona A, agathisflavona, apigenina, kaempferol, sitosterol e lupeol. Por outro lado, a partir do extrato clorofórmico do caule foram obtidos 4, 4'-diidroxi-2'-metoxi-chalcona, (-)-siringaresinol e galato de metila. Não foram encontrados biflavonóides nesta parte da planta. Até o presente, C. pyramidalis é...

  1. Crescimento de Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento Growth of Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. é uma espécie clímax tolerante a sombra, ao passo que Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. é uma espécie pioneira. O desenvolvimento destas espécies pode refletir a habilidade de adaptação aos diferentes fatores ambientais (luz, água e temperatura no local em que estão crescendo. O suprimento inadequado de um desses fatores pode reduzir o vigor da planta e limitar seu desenvolvimento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do nível de sombreamento no crescimento e a concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos em duas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Olericultura do Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJI/ULBRA/Rondônia. Durante a formação das mudas, ambas as espécies foram expostas a quatro tratamentos de sombra: 0 % (controle - sol pleno; 30 %; 50 % e 80 %. Cada tratamento foi constituído com três repetições de cada espécie; o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado. Quatro meses após a semeadura, as seguintes análises foram realizadas: número de folhas, altura da planta, comprimento do sistema radicular, massa seca total e concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos. O tratamento sob sol pleno afetou negativamente o crescimento de ambas as espécies. As mudas crescidas sob 50% e 80% apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento. Conforme o aumento do sombreamento houve um decréscimo na razão clorofila a/b e um aumento nas concentrações de clorofila total e carotenóides totais.Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. is a clímax shadow tolerant specie and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., by the other hand, is considered as a pioneer specie. The development of these species may reflect its adaptation ability to different environmental

  2. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae = Biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Gomes da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic selfpollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae e avaliar o papel dos visitantes florais em seu sucesso reprodutivo. Bowdichia virgilioides apresenta padrão de floração anual e do tipo cornucópica. A floração ocorre no início da estação seca, entre os meses de junho e agosto e a frutificação no meio desta estação, entre os meses de julho e outubro. Suas flores são de antese diurna e apresentam néctar como recurso floral. Durante a abertura floral, as anteras se encontram deiscentes e por esta razão há a adesão dos grãos de pólen no estigma da própria flor, promovendo o processo de autopolinização passiva. A esp

  3. Plant antiherbivore defenses in Fabaceae species of the Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T E; Sartori, A L B; Rodrigues, M L M

    2017-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defense - defense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins. Physical defenses occur mainly on branches (78% of the species), leaves (67%), and reproductive organs (56%). The most common physical characters are trichomes and thorns, whose color represents a cryptic character since it does not contrast with the other plant structures. Defense proteins occur in different concentrations and molecular weight classes in the seeds of most species. Protease inhibitors are reported for the first time in seeds of: Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mimosa glutinosa, Prosopis rubriflora, and Poincianella pluviosa. The occurrence of physical and chemical defenses in members of Fabaceae indicate no associations between defense characters in these plant species of the Chaco.

  4. Molecular systematics of selected genera of subfamily mimosoidae-fabaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Jamil, K.; Zahra, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Family Mimosoidae-Fabaceae is of economic importance to local communities for its medicinal usage. It has commercial value, but the parts sold in the market are difficult to identify on the basis of morphological characters and therefore needs molecular systematics approaches. Hence, the utility of potential DNA barcodes for selected Acacia and Albizia species by using three cpDNA regions rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA was tested in this study. Our study suggests that the rbcL region can be used to identify these species and discriminate among them more effectively than matK and trnH-psbA. The latter regions proved to be less successful in sequencing particularly trnH-psbA. Therefore, rbcL is an improved and efficient tool for species identification of these medicinal plants and may be recommended for a broad series of subfamily Mimosoideae (Family: Fabaceae) plants, making it a potential DNA barcode for these taxa. Sequence data obtained from rbcL and matK also indicated that Acacia and Albizia are polyphyletic. The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of rbcL proved that Acacia nilotica and Acacia nilotica ssp. hemispherica are closely related as they form the sister groups. (author)

  5. Checklist of Fabaceae Lindley in Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Gore

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an enumeration of leguminous taxa of Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra along with their habits, phenological deta and voucher specimen numbers. During the present work, a total of 123 species, 4 subspecies and 17 varieties of Fabaceae have been recorded for Balaghat Ranges of Maharashtra, of which 119 taxa are occurring in wild while 25 are under cultivation. The members of Fabaceae are dominant in herbaceous vegetation of the Balaghat Ranges. There are more species in genera like Crotalaria (23 taxa, Indigofera (16 taxa, Alysicarpus (14 taxa, Vigna (11 taxa and Desmodium (8 taxa. Twelve taxa are endemic to India of which Indigofera deccanensis falls into Critically Endangered IUCN Red data category. The legumes of Balaghat Ranges have many actual and potential uses such as food, fodder and sources of edible oil, natural dyes, industrial lubricants, timber and medicines. About 19 leguminous taxa are wild relatives of food and fodder crops have resistance to pests and diseases, and abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity, can be used for crop improvement.

  6. ANÁLISE DE VIABILIDADE DA PRODUÇÃO DE SEMENTE E POLPA DE JATOBÁ ( Hymenaea spp NA REGIÃO SUL DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Brás Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study addressed the sustainable forest management of non-timber forest products (NTFPs and evaluated the technical and economic viability of producing fruits of jatoba in southern Goiás. In the first step it was mapped and georeferenced 931 trees in the genus Hymenaea at Campestre de Goiás, GO state, Nazario, GO state and Trindade, GO state. In a second step, it was estimated the coefficients of production and technical data collected by the producer as to the costs in the production of seed and flour. The production cost was R$ 54,06.kg -1 and the sales price was R$ 67,58.kg -1 . The analysis of the economic viability of jatoba plantations and the implementation of a “Agroind ú stria Rural de Pequeno Porte (ARPP” (Small Rural Agricultural Industry, indicated that from the economic evaluation criteria VPL (Net Present Value, TIR (Internal Return Rate, B/C (Benefit-cost analysis and VAE (Equivalent Annual Value, it is viable to use the fruits in both scenarios as long as the management practices and conservation strategies encourage the sustainable production, providing economic resources while simultaneously promotes the conservation of the jatoba genetic resources.

  7. Identification of Fabaceae plants using the DNA barcode matK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Sun, Zhiying; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Ma, Xinye; Chen, Shilin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the applicability of the core DNA barcode MATK for identifying species within the Fabaceae family. Based on an evaluation of genetic variation, DNA barcoding gaps, and species discrimination power, MATK is a useful barcode for Fabaceae species. Of 1355 plant samples collected from 1079 species belonging to 409 diverse genera, MATK precisely identified approximately 80 % and 96 % of them at the species and genus levels, respectively. Therefore, our research indicates that the MATK region is a valuable marker for plant species within Fabaceae. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  9. Urease inhibitory isoflavonoids from different parts of Calopogonium mucunoides (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndemangou, Brigitte; Sielinou, Valerie Tedjon; Vardamides, Juliette Catherine; Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Lateef, Mehreen; Iqbal, Lubna; Afza, Nigaht; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem

    2013-12-01

    The dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) soluble part of Calopogonium mucunoides (Fabaceae) resulted in the isolation of 10 isoflavones (4'-O-methylalpinumisoflavone, 4'-O-methylderrone, alpinumisoflavone, daidzeine, Calopogonium isoflavone A, atalantoflavone, 2',4',5',7-tetramethoxyisoflavone, 7-O-methylcuneantin, cabreuvin and 7-O-methylpseudobaptigenin) and a rotenoid (6a,12a-dehydroxydegueline). Among these, daidzeine, 7-O-methylcuneantin, atalantoflavone and 6a, 12a-dehydroxydegueline have been isolated for the first time from C. mucunoides while remaining are already reported from this source. Structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. Among all the isolated constituents, nine were evaluated for their urease inhibitory potential. However, six were found potent. These include 4'-O-methylderrone, daidzeine, atalantoflavone, 2',4',5',7-tetramethoxyisoflavone, 7-O-methylcuneantin and 6a, 12a-dehydroxydegueline.

  10. Pollen Viability and Autogamy Fitness in Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Camila Capitani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae occurs in many phytophysiognomies of southern Brazil, however its ecological relevance is not well understood. The present study was developed in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul and aimed to determine variations in pollen viability along flowering, ability to perform autogamy and dye efficiency for the viability test. Pollen viability was determined by colorimetry as well as the ability to perform autogamy by isolating floral buds, being evaluated in eleven matrices. Average pollen viability was 81.43%, with the highest average value obtained with the dye 2,3,5- Triphenyltetrazolium Chloride (TTC (84.11%. Safranin was not a good indicator at the tested concentration. No correlation was found between pollen viability and flowering time. The species demonstrated an inability to perform autogamy.

  11. Use of the psbA-trnH region to authenticate medicinal species of Fabaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Ma, Xinye; Zhu, Xunzhi

    2013-01-01

    Fabaceae is a huge family that contains a large number of medicinal plants, many of which are commonly used in Chinese traditional medicine. However, traditional taxonomy has not been able to meet the complicated demands of species discrimination within Fabaceae. Thus, we employed a famous DNA barcode, the psbA-trnH region, to discriminate commonly used medicinal species of the family Fabaceae. Here, the psbA-trnH regions derived from 152 samples were amplified. These samples represented 104 Fabaceae medicinal species from 60 genera, including 25 authentic Fabaceae species listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia and common adulterant species. The results indicate that the psbA-trnH region performed well in terms of its universality and high variability in length and composition. Species discriminative power analysis of the psbA-trnH region showed that 91.3% of species could be identified successfully by the BLAST1 method in conjunction with the nearest distance method. And, the species resolution rate of the TaxonGap method exceeded 93%. The results provide support for the use of the psbA-trnH plastid region as a sensitive marker to the authentication of Fabaceae medicinal plants.

  12. A New Aggreceride analogue and a peltogynoid isolated from the stem bark of Entada abyssinica (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melong, Raduis; Kapche, Deccaux G F W; Feussia, Michel T; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2014-10-01

    A new monoglyceride, l',26'-bis-[(S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl] hexacosanedioate (1a) and the new peltogynoid, entadanin (3), along with eight known compounds, were isolated from the stem bark of Entada abyssinica (Fabaceae). The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectra, in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry data, and by comparison with related data from the literature. The stereochemistry of la was derived by comparison of the optical rotation with reference data. Peltogynoids have been reported previously from other Fabaceae, however this is the first report ofa peltogynoid from the genus Entada.

  13. Breeding biology of the threadstalk milkvetch, Astragalus filipes (Fabaceae), with a review of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an enormous and diverse plant genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but relatively few breeding biologies are known for its member species. Threadstalk (or basalt) milkvetch, Astragalus filipes Torrey ex. A. Gray, is common and widespread throughout the US Intermountai...

  14. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  15. Breeding biology of the threadstalk milkvetch, Astragalus filipes (Fabaceae), with a review of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristal M. Watrous; James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an enormous and diverse plant genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but relatively few breeding biologies are known for its member species. Threadstalk (or basalt) milkvetch, Astragalus filipes Torrey ex. A. Gray, is common and widespread throughout the U.S. Intermountain West, including the Great Basin. It is being studied and ultimately...

  16. Rationale for using Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae extracts in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Bizimenyera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae is a deciduous tree widespread in southern Africa. The plant has many ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary uses. Root and bark decoctions are used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, sore throat, wounds, back and joint pains, HIV-AIDS, venereal diseases and infertility. Pastoralists and rural farmers use the root and bark extracts to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, infertility, and to promote well-being and resistance to diseases in cattle. To evaluate these ethnobotanical leads, dried leaves, stem bark and root bark were extracted with ethanol, acetone, dichloromethane and hexane. Polyphenols in the extract were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Qualitative antioxidant activity was screened by spraying thin layer chromatograms (TLC of the extracts with 0.2 % 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, and quantified with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and total antibacterial activity (TAA were determined by serial microplate dilution for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, with gentamicin as standard and tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. Acetone and ethanol extracted the largest quantity of material. Polyphenols concentration was 49.2% in acetone extract of the root and 3.8 % in dichloromethane extract of the leaf. Antioxidant activity of at least 5 antioxidant compounds as measured by TEAC ranged from 1.34 (ethanol extract of the root to 0.01 (hexane extract of the leaf. The total antibacterial activity (volume to which active compounds present in 1 g plant material can be diluted and still inhibit bacterial growth was 1263 mℓ/g for ethanol extract of the root against S. aureus, and 800 mℓ/g for acetone extract of the root against P. aeruginosa. There was substantial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values of 0.08 mg/mℓ for S

  17. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN A CERRADO AREA UNDER DIFFERENT ANTROPIZATION LEVELS, RIO PARDO DE MINAS, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Henrique do Couto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate diversity and floristic similarity of Cerrado environments, under different levels of anthropization for agricultural usage and extractivism, and to generate a database to subsidize sustainable development proposals for the North region of Minas Gerais State, and traditional agriculture systems. Four areas with different levels of anthropization were sampled, in the following environments: “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, whose identifications had been made from key informers in the Água Boa Community, in Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, Brazil. The sampled units were distributed in 8 parcels of 20 x 50 m, with 5 subplots. The trees with circumference at ground level of 15 cm or bigger were measured. For analysis of the phytosociology indexes the following parameters were calculated for each environment: density, dominance, frequency, basal area, and importance value. For the floristic diversity the Shannon (H' was calculated, and for the analysis of similarity the index of Jaccard index (Sij. In all the environments, it was found a total of 477 individuals, distributed in 21 families, with 48 botanical species identified, and 27 individuals not identified. The five most important (importance value families was Fabaceae/Papilionoideae, Apocynaceae, Vochysiaceae, Sapotaceae and Fabaceae/Caesalpinoideae. And the ten most important species was Pouteria ramiflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Hancornia speciosa, Macherium opacum, Sclerolobium paniculatum var. subvelutinum, Qualea grandiflora, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Byrsonima pachyphylla, Vochysia thyrsoidea and Hymenaea stigonocarpa. The H' index was of 3.01; 2.72; 2.48 and 2.09 for “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, respectively. The Sij index indicated a small floristic similarity for all the combinations between the environments.

  18. FITOSSOCIOLOGIA E DIVERSIDADE FLORÍSTICA EM ÁREA DE CERRADO SOB VÁRIOS NÍVEIS DE ANTROPIZAÇÃO, RIO PARDO DE MINAS, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Henrique do Couto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate diversity and floristic similarity of Cerrado environments, under different levels of anthropization for agricultural usage and extractivism, and to generate a database to subsidize sustainable development proposals for the North region of Minas Gerais State, and traditional agriculture systems. Four areas with different levels of anthropization were sampled, in the following environments: "Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro", whose identifications had been made from key informers in the Água Boa Community, in Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, Brazil. The sampled units were distributed in 8 parcels of 20 x 50 m, with 5 subplots. The trees with circumference at ground level of 15 cm or bigger were measured. For analysis of the phytosociology indexes the following parameters were calculated for each environment: density, dominance, frequency, basal area, and importance value. For the floristic diversity the Shannon (H' was calculated, and for the analysis of similarity the index of Jaccard index (Sij. In all the environments, it was found a total of 477 individuals, distributed in 21 families, with 48 botanical species identified, and 27 individuals not identified. The five most important (importance value families was Fabaceae/Papilionoideae, Apocynaceae, Vochysiaceae, Sapotaceae and Fabaceae/Caesalpinoideae. And the ten most important species was Pouteria ramiflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Hancornia speciosa, Macherium opacum, Sclerolobium paniculatum var. subvelutinum, Qualea grandiflora, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Byrsonima pachyphylla, Vochysia thyrsoidea and Hymenaea stigonocarpa. The H' index was of 3.01; 2.72; 2.48 and 2.09 for "Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro", respectively. The Sij index indicated a small floristic similarity for all the combinations between the environments.

  19. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 ...

  20. The complete chloroplast genomes of two Wisteria species, W. floribunda and W. sinensis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Seong-Hyun; Yu, Yeisoo; Kim, Young-Dong; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Wisteria floribunda and Wisteria sinensis are ornamental woody vines in the Fabaceae. The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the two species were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of W. floribunda and W. sinensis were 130 960 bp and 130 561 bp long, respectively, and showed inverted repeat (IR)-lacking structures as those reported in IRLC in the Fabaceae. The chloroplast genomes of both species contained same number of protein-coding sequences (77), tRNA genes (30), and rRNA genes (4). The phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes confirmed close taxonomical relationship of W. floribunda and W. sinensis.

  1. Chemical constituents from Astragalus annularis Forssk. and A. trimestris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. El-Hawiet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Astragalus annularis Forssk. and A. trimestris L., Fabaceae, growing in Egypt, resulted in the isolation of eight compounds, for the first time from these two species. These compounds were identified by chemical methods, NMR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy as well as MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans.

  2. The genus Machaerium (Fabaceae): taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Yhiya M; Marzouk, Amani M; Zaghloul, Mona G; Afifi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Machaerium, in the family Fabaceae, predominantly is a genus of a Neotropical distribution of trees, shrubs, and lianas occurring from southern Mexico to Brazil and northern Argentina and as far as South America. Several Machaerium species are widely used in traditional medicine and are considered to have multiple medicinal properties. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities of plants in the genus Machaerium.

  3. Neolasioptera pantaneira, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) associated with Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Catian, G; Leme, F M

    2017-03-01

    A new species of gall midge that induces stem galls on Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) is described based on material collected in Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). This species is unique among the Brazilian congeners in having spatula with three convex teeth, cruciate, with defined anterolateral extensions, four lateral papillae on each side of the spatula, and three pairs of terminal papillae (larva), four-segmented palpi (adult), 17 flagellomeres (female), ovipositor about 11 times length of seventh tergite.

  4. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species 1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Methods and Results: Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata, 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochon...

  5. Nectar robbing in Collaea cipoensis (Fabaceae), an endemic shrub of the Brazilian rupestrian grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Gelvez-Zúñiga, Irene; Aguirre, Armando; Martén-Rodríguez, Silvana; Matos-Gomes, Vanessa; Barbosa, Arleu; Bordignon, Leandra; Rocha, Rosana; Fernandes, Geraldo W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Nectar robbery is common in flowering plants with tubular corollas and can affect plant reproductive success. Our study characterized the interaction between potential pollinators and nectar robbers, and assessed the effects on flower abortion in a population of the restricted endemic Collaea cipoensis (Fabaceae) at Serra do Cipó, Brazil. We conducted observations of floral visitors to identify potential pollinators from nectar robbers and described visitor behavior. We also analyze...

  6. A review on phytochemical, ethnomedical and pharmacological studies on genus Sophora, Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panthati Murali Krishna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sophora is a genus of the Fabaceae family, contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands, in the family Fabaceae of herbaceous (Sophora flavescens Aiton to trees (Sophora japonica L.. More than fifteen species in this genus have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicines. In the last decades the use of this genus in traditional Chinese drugs has led to rapid increase in the information available on active components and reported to posses various pharmacological/therapeutic properties. The paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, the biological activities and the correlated chemical compounds of genus Sophora, Fabaceae. More than 300 compounds has been isolated, among them major are quinolizidine alkaloids particularly matrine and oxymatrine and flavonoids particularly prenylated and isoprenylated flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical studies demonstrated that these chemical constituens possess wide reaching pharmacological actions like anti oxidant, anticancer, anti-asthamatic, anti-neoplastic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antidote, anti pyretic, cardiotonic, antinflammatory, diuretic and in the treatment of skin diseases like eczema, colitis and psoriasis.

  7. Assessing universality of DNA barcoding in geographically isolated selected desert medicinal species of Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fatma; Ahmed, Nisar; Ghorbani, Abdolbaset

    2018-01-01

    In pursuit of developing fast and accurate species-level molecular identification methods, we tested six DNA barcodes, namely ITS2, matK, rbcLa, ITS2+matK, ITS2+rbcLa, matK+rbcLa and ITS2+matK+rbcLa, for their capacity to identify frequently consumed but geographically isolated medicinal species of Fabaceae and Poaceae indigenous to the desert of Cholistan. Data were analysed by BLASTn sequence similarity, pairwise sequence divergence in TAXONDNA, and phylogenetic (neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood trees) methods. Comparison of six barcode regions showed that ITS2 has the highest number of variable sites (209/360) for tested Fabaceae and (106/365) Poaceae species, the highest species-level identification (40%) in BLASTn procedure, distinct DNA barcoding gap, 100% correct species identification in BM and BCM functions of TAXONDNA, and clear cladding pattern with high nodal support in phylogenetic trees in both families. ITS2+matK+rbcLa followed ITS2 in its species-level identification capacity. The study was concluded with advocating the DNA barcoding as an effective tool for species identification and ITS2 as the best barcode region in identifying medicinal species of Fabaceae and Poaceae. Current research has practical implementation potential in the fields of pharmaco-vigilance, trade of medicinal plants and biodiversity conservation. PMID:29576968

  8. A review on phytochemical, ethnomedical and pharmacological studies on genus Sophora, Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panthati Murali Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sophora is a genus of the Fabaceae family, contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands, in the family Fabaceae of herbaceous (Sophora flavescens Aiton to trees (Sophora japonica L.. More than fifteen species in this genus have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicines. In the last decades the use of this genus in traditional Chinese drugs has led to rapid increase in the information available on active components and reported to posses various pharmacological/therapeutic properties. The paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, the biological activities and the correlated chemical compounds of genus Sophora, Fabaceae. More than 300 compounds has been isolated, among them major are quinolizidine alkaloids particularly matrine and oxymatrine and flavonoids particularly prenylated and isoprenylated flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical studies demonstrated that these chemical constituens possess wide reaching pharmacological actions like anti oxidant, anticancer, anti-asthamatic, anti-neoplastic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antidote, anti pyretic, cardiotonic, antinflammatory, diuretic and in the treatment of skin diseases like eczema, colitis and psoriasis.

  9. OCORRÊNCIA DE FABACEAE DA ÁREA DE PROTEÇÃO AMBIENTAL DA FAZENDINHA, MACAPÁ, AMAPÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick de Castro Cantuária

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A família Fabaceae é considerada, por diversos autores, como uma das três maiores famílias de plantas em número de espécies, estando distribuídas por todo o planeta. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a diversidade de espécies da família Fabaceae na Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Fazendinha, localizada no Estado do Amapá, Município de Macapá, em que o ecossistema predominante é a floresta de várzea. As coletas e a herborização das Fabaceae foram realizadas mediante técnicas usuais em botânica e informações ecológicas. Dessa forma, verificou-se no levantamento que a família Fabaceae, o gênero Mora Benth. com maior frequência de espécimes. Tais informações podem auxiliar tanto a elaboração do plano de manejo da unidade de conservação quanto o entendimento do seu nível de perturbação. Palavras-chave: Fabaceae, Fitossociologia, Unidade de Conservação.

  10. Seed Carotenoid and Tocochromanol Composition of Wild Fabaceae Species Is Shaped by Phylogeny and Ecological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Míguez, Fátima; Méndez-Fernández, Leire; Agut, Agustí; Becerril, José M.; García-Plazaola, José I.; Kranner, Ilse; Colville, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoids distribution and function in seeds have been very scarcely studied, notwithstanding their pivotal roles in plants that include photosynthesis and phytohormone synthesis, pigmentation, membrane stabilization and antioxidant activity. Their relationship with tocochromanols, whose critical role in maintaining seed viability has already been evidenced, and with chlorophylls, whose retention in mature seed is thought to have negative effects on storability, remain also unexplored. Here, we aimed at elucidating seed carotenoids relationship with tocochromanols and chlorophylls with regard to phylogenetic and ecological traits and at understanding their changes during germination. The composition and distribution of carotenoids were investigated in seeds of a wide range of wild species across the Fabaceae (the second-most economically important family after the Poaceae). Photosynthetic pigments and tocochromanols were analyzed by HPLC in mature dry seeds of 50 species representative of 5 subfamilies within the Fabaceae (including taxa that represent all continents, biomes and life forms within the family) and at key timepoints during seedling establishment in three species representative of distinct clades. Total-carotenoids content positively correlated with tocopherols in the basal subfamilies Detarioideae, Cercidoideae, and Dialioideae, and with chlorophylls in the Papilionoideae. Papilionoideae lacked tocotrienols and had the highest total-carotenoids, chlorophyll and γ-tocopherol contents. Interestingly, lutein epoxide was present in 72% of the species including several herbs from different subfamilies. Overall, species original from temperate biomes presented higher carotenoids and lower tocochromanols levels than those from tropical biomes. Also shrub species showed higher carotenoids content than herbs and trees. During germination, total content of photosynthetic pigments increased in parallel to changes in relative abundance of carotenoids

  11. Identification of medicinal plants in the family Fabaceae using a potential DNA barcode ITS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Yingjie; Ma, Xinye; Pang, Xiaohui; Xu, Hongxi; Chen, Shilin

    2010-07-06

    To test whether the ITS2 region is an effective marker for use in authenticating of the family Fabaceae which contains many important medicinal plants. The ITS2 regions of 114 samples in Fabaceae were amplified. Sequence assembly was assembled by CodonCode Aligner V3.0. In combination with sequences from public database, the sequences were aligned by Clustal W, and genetic distances were computed using MEGA V4.0. The intra- vs. inter-specific variations were assessed by six metrics, wilcoxon two-sample tests and "barcoding gaps". Species identification was accomplished using TaxonGAP V2.4, BLAST1 and the nearest distance method. ITS2 sequences had considerable variation at the genus and species level. The intra-specific divergence ranged from 0% to 14.4%, with an average of 1.7%, and the inter-specific divergence ranged from 0% to 63.0%, with an average of 8.6%. Twenty-four species found in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, along with another 66 species including their adulterants, were successfully identified based on ITS2 sequences. In addition, ITS2 worked well, with over 80.0% of species and 100% of genera being correctly differentiated for the 1507 sequences derived from 1126 species belonging to 196 genera. Our findings support the notion that ITS2 can be used as an efficient and powerful marker and a potential barcode to distinguish various species in Fabaceae. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant activity of nine Fabaceae species growing in Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godevac, Dejan; Zdunić, Gordana; Savikin, Katarina; Vajs, Vlatka; Menković, Nebojsa

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant capacity of nine Fabaceae species collected on the mountains of Serbia and Montenegro. Antioxidant assays with various reaction mechanisms were used, including total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values by ABTS radical cation and inhibition of liposome peroxidation. The investigated plants exhibited strong antioxidant capacity in all the tested methods, and among them, Lathyrus binatus, Trifolium pannonicum, and Anthyllis aurea were found to be the most active.

  13. The rediscovery of Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) on Mt Tomor, south central Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Gjeta, Ermelinda

    2015-01-01

    Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) placed by Sytin & Podlech in a section of its own (A. sect. Baldaccia) was described from a single specimen in the Barbey-Boissier Herbarium at Geneva. Our observations show that its placement in A. sect. Hololeuce would also be appropriate. The species was first co...... by Markgraf. Information on habitat, ecology and threat status are also detailed for the first time. Mt Tomor is designated as a protected National Park; however, some of the Astragalus populations may be affected by future road construction....

  14. A new species of Astragalus (Fabaceae from west coast of Baikal Lake (Irkutsk Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Stepantsova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Astragalus rytyensis Stepantsova (Fabaceae, growing on the west coast of the lake Baikal, is described. Morphological differences from related taxa – A. versicolor Pall., A. austrosibiricus Schischk., and A. inopinatus Boriss., are discussed and uncertain position of the new species in the system of the genus is emphasized which is intermediate between subg. Phaca (L. Bunge sect. Hemiphaca Bunge and subg. Cercidothrix Bunge sect. Onobrychium Bunge. Ecological and phonological features of A. rytyensis are reported and chromosome numbers of the new (2n = 6x = 48 and related species are counted.

  15. SUKU FABACEAE DI KAMPUS UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH, JAKARTA, BAGIAN 2: TUMBUHAN POLONG BERPERAWAKAN TERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanti Priyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Suku Fabaceae adalah tetumbuhan yang memiliki buah bertipe polong. Suku tersebut selain berperawakan pohon juga berupa terna. Anggota suku Fabaceae (polong banyak ditemukan di sekitar lingkungan manusia termasuk di Kampus Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta. Informasi mengenai keanekaragaman tumbuhan polong yang berupa terna di Kampus UIN Syarif Hidayatullah belum tersedia. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di kampus I dan II serta studi pustaka. Sebanyak 3 jenis tumbuhan polong berperawakan terna telah didapatkan di lingkungan kampus, yaitu Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W. C. Greg., Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle, dan M. pudica L. Jenis-jenis tersebut termasuk ke dalam 2 anak suku (Faboideae, Mimosoideae dan 2 puak (Aeschynomeneae, Mimoseae. Jenis-jenis tersebut tumbuh di lokasi yang berbeda-beda. Tumbuhan polong yang hanya ditemukan di Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Keshatan (FKIK adalah A. pintoi. Mimosa diplotricha ditemukan tumbuh di Pusat Laboratorium Terpadu Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi, Perpustakaan Utama, FKIK, Fakultas Sosial dan Ilmu Politik (FISIP, Wisma Syahida, Pusat Bahasa, dan Sekolah Pascasarjana, sedangkan M. pudica ditemukan Perpustakaan Utama, FISIP, dan Wisma Syahida. Kelengkapan data tentang tumbuhan polong di Kampus UIN Syarif Hidayatullah ini dapat digunakan oleh para mahasiswa untuk mempelajari keanekaragamnnya. Abstract Fabaceae is a plant with a pod-type fruit. A Habit of this family is not only trees but also herb. Fabaceae (legumes is often found on the human environment around campus included in the State Islamic University (UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta. The Information about the legume herbs diversity on the UIN Syarif Hidayatullah yet available. The study was conducted using survey and literature methods. There were 3 species legume herbs in the campus, viz. Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W. C. Greg., Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle, and M. pudica L. All

  16. Estudio de diferentes activantes químicos en la obtención de carbón activado a partir de la cáscara de Hymenaea courbaril L. para la remoción de cadmio (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Poleo, Nelson; Oliveros, Solaida; Colina, Marinela; Rincón, Nancy; Mesa, Johan; Colina, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    El uso de diferentes agentes químicos (ZnCl2, H3PO4, H2SO4, HNO3 y HCl) para la activación de la cáscara del fruto de algarrobo (Hymenaea courbaril L.) permitió evaluar y comparar la capacidad adsortiva de los carbones preparados correspondientes. El precursor fue impregnado con los agentes químicos señalados, por separado y pirolizado a 500°C en cada caso. Las características superficiales de los carbones activados preparados (CAA) se determinaron a través del método convencional de Brunauer...

  17. Determination of a-glucosidase inhibitory activity from selected Fabaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Pitakbut, Thanet

    2015-09-01

    Nineteen plants from Fabaceae family, which were used in Thai traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes, were determined of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity via enzymatic reaction. In this reaction, α-glucosidase was used as enzyme, which, reacted with the substrate, p-nitrophenol-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG). After that the product, p-nitro phenol (pNP) will be occurred and observed the yellow colour at 405 nm. In this study, acarbose was used as positive standard which, inhibited this enzyme with IC₅₀ as 331 ± 4.73 μg/ml. Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves showed the highest activity with IC₅₀ as 436.97 ± 9.44 μg/ml. Furthermore, Bauhinia malabarica leaves presented moderately activity with IC₅₀ as 745.08 ± 11.15 μg/ml. However, the other plants showed mild to none activity of α-glucosidase inhibition. Accordingly, this study can support anti-diabetes of these plants in traditional medicine and it will be the database of the biological activity of Fabaceae plant.

  18. D-Pinitol in Fabaceae: an Oviposition Stimulant for the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema mandarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukae, Shin-Ya; Ohashi, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yuika; Ohta, Shinji; Ômura, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females. A polar subfraction of the aqueous fraction also stimulated high oviposition-stimulatory activity, comparable to the original aqueous fraction, suggesting that E. mandarina females use water-soluble compounds for host recognition. Subsequent activity-directed fractionation by ion exchange chromatography indicated that one of the key substances was contained in the neutral/amphoteric fraction. Chemical analyses revealed that the active fractions of both hosts contained D-(+)-pinitol as the major component. We examined female responses to authentic D-pinitol and found that it induced oviposition responses at concentrations greater than 0.1 %. Since this cyclitol is omnipresent in Fabaceae, we conclude that D-pinitol plays a role in mediating oviposition of E. mandarina on fabaceous plants.

  19. The single evolutionary origin of chlorinated auxin provides a phylogenetically informative trait in the Fabaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M

    2016-07-02

    Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae.

  20. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

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    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  1. Dendrometria de espécies nativas em plantios homogêneos no estado de Roraima: andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl, castanha-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., ipê-roxo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb e jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. Dendrometry of native species in homogeneous stands in the Roraima state: andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl, castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl, ipê-roxo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb and jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o crescimento e a seleção de equações para quatro espécies florestais nativas visando identificar espécies promissoras para o plantio em programas de reflorestamentos e em sistemas agroflorestais no Estado de Roraima. O crescimento da andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., da castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., do ipê-roxo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb. e do jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L., aos sete anos de idade, mostrou-se promissor atingindo incrementos médios anuais em volume comercial de 6.3; 14.6; 6.0 e 2.3 m³.ha-1.ano-1, respectivamente. Em relação ao crescimento em diâmetro, todas as espécies apresentaram incrementos médios anuais em diâmetro maiores do que 1 cm, sendo superiores aos observados para árvores crescendo em florestas naturais. A análise estatística, indicou a equação hipsométrica de Prodan como a de melhor ajuste para estimar a altura em função do diâmetro para as quatro espécies analisadas. No entanto, a análise gráfica indicou que a forma da curva altura/diâmetro variou com a espécie sendo necessário o ajuste em separado. O ajuste de equações de volume comercial com casca e fator de forma comercial mostraram ser necessário o ajuste de diferentes equações em função da espécie. A análise gráfica das curvas de volume comercial e fator de forma indicaram que as espécies diferiram em ambos os parâmetros, indicando que a utilização de um fator de forma médio para todas as espécies deve ser evitado, como forma de aumentar a precisão nas estimativas volumétricas.The growth and selection of equations for four native forest species was studied aiming to identify promising species for homogeneous stands, and agroflorestry systems in the Roraima state. The growth of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., ipê-roxo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb and jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. to the seven years of age

  2. Biological activity and LC-MS/MS profiling of extracts from the Australian medicinal plant Acacia ligulata (Fabaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Simpson, Bradley S.; Ndi, Chi P.

    2018-01-01

    Acacia ligulata A.Cunn. ex Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) is a native Australian plant used traditionally by Australian Aboriginal groups. This study was undertaken to investigate the bioactivity of A. ligulata extracts and to evaluate their chemical composition. Potential antibacterial, cytotoxic...

  3. Is induction ability of seed germination of Phelipanche ramosa phylogenetically structured among hosts? A case study on Fabaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perronne, Rémi; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Dessaint, Fabrice; Reibel, Carole; Le Corre, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Phelipanche ramosa is a major root-holoparasitic damaging weed characterized by a broad host range, including numerous Fabaceae species. In France, the agricultural threat posed by P. ramosa has increased over two decades due to the appearance of a genetically differentiated pathovar presenting a clear host specificity for oilseed rape. The new pathovar has led to a massive expansion of P. ramosa in oilseed rape fields. The germination rate of P. ramosa seeds is currently known to vary among P. ramosa pathovars and host species. However, only a few studies have investigated whether phylogenetic relatedness among potential host species is a predictor of the ability of these species to induce the seed germination of parasitic weeds by testing for phylogenetic signal. We focused on a set of 12 Fabaceae species and we assessed the rate of induction of seed germination by these species for two pathovars based on in vitro co-cultivation experiments. All Fabaceae species tested induced the germination of P. ramosa seeds. The germination rate of P. ramosa seeds varied between Fabaceae species and tribes studied, while pathovars appeared non-influential. Considering oilseed rape as a reference species, we also highlighted a significant phylogenetic signal. Phylogenetically related species therefore showed more similar rates of induction of seed germination than species drawn at random from a phylogenetic tree. In in vitro conditions, only Lotus corniculatus induced a significantly higher germination rate than oilseed rape, and could potentially be used as a catch crop after confirmation of these results under field conditions.

  4. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC–UV–MS. The relationship between phytochemical

  5. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  6. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauteux François

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards, Fabaceae (legumes and Poaceae (grasses using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. and rice (Oryza sativa L. respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination

  7. Tortricid moths (Lepidopotera: Tortricidae) reared from the invasive weed Parkinsonia aculeta (Fabaceae), with comments on their host specificity, biology, and geographic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    During efforts to identify native herbivores of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Fabaceae: Caesalpiniodeae) as potential biological control agents against this invasive weed in Australia, seven species of Tortricidae were reared in Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Venezuela: Amorbia concavana (Zeller), Pla...

  8. Seed storage-mediated dormancy alleviation in Fabaceae from campo rupestre

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    Naïla Nativel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe studied the effects of seed storage on germination and dormancy alleviation in three species of Fabaceae endemic to campo rupestrein southeastern Brazil. Fresh seeds of Collaea cipoensis, Mimosa maguirei and Mimosa foliolosawere set to germinate and germination of seeds after four, five and 13 years of storage was tested. Seed viability was maintained for all species after the full storage period. Seed storage significantly increased germination percentage and decreased germination time for C. cipoensisand M. foliolosa, suggesting the alleviation of physical dormancy with storage. However, we did not find evidence of dormancy alleviation in M. maguirei since stored seeds showed a decrease in germination in comparison to that of fresh seeds. Our data indicate species-specific storage-mediated dormancy alleviation, which will have important implications for restoration of campo rupestre.

  9. Molecular systematics of Indian Alysicarpus (Fabaceae) based on analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Akram; Subramaniam, Shweta; Geeta, R; Pandey, Arun K

    2017-06-01

    Alysicarpus Necker ex Desvaux (Fabaceae, Desmodieae) consists of ~30 species that are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of theworld. In India, the genus is represented by ca. 18 species, ofwhich seven are endemic. Sequences of the nuclear Internal transcribed spacer from38 accessions representing 16 Indian specieswere subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The ITS sequence data strongly support the monophyly of the genus Alysicarpus. Analyses revealed four major well-supported clades within Alysicarpus. Ancestral state reconstructions were done for two morphological characters, namely calyx length in relation to pod (macrocalyx and microcalyx) and pod surface ornamentation (transversely rugose and nonrugose). The present study is the first report on molecular systematics of Indian Alysicarpus.

  10. Evidence That Chlorinated Auxin Is Restricted to the Fabaceae But Not to the Fabeae1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; McAdam, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone, usually occurring in the form of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). However, in maturing pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, the level of the chlorinated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), greatly exceeds that of IAA. A key issue is how plants produce halogenated compounds such as 4-Cl-IAA. To better understand this topic, we investigated the distribution of the chlorinated auxin. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that 4-Cl-IAA is found in the seeds of Medicago truncatula, Melilotus indicus, and three species of Trifolium. Furthermore, we found no evidence that Pinus spp. synthesize 4-Cl-IAA in seeds, contrary to a previous report. The evidence indicates a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA synthesis in the Fabaceae, which may provide an ideal model system to further investigate the action and activity of halogenating enzymes in plants. PMID:25971549

  11. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-05-01

    Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata , 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochondrial loci, two to four alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity ranged from 0.264 to 0.740. Sixteen of the 17 screened markers could be successfully amplified in the related species M. pulchra . The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M. pinnata and 16 presented transferability in the related species M. pulchra , suggesting that these markers will be valuable for genetic studies across M. pinnata and its related species.

  12. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Methods and Results: Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata, 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochondrial loci, two to four alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity ranged from 0.264 to 0.740. Sixteen of the 17 screened markers could be successfully amplified in the related species M. pulchra. Conclusions: The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M. pinnata and 16 presented transferability in the related species M. pulchra, suggesting that these markers will be valuable for genetic studies across M. pinnata and its related species. PMID:28529836

  13. Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo León Cordero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L. Link (Fabaceae, is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented.

  14. The genus Desmodium (Fabaceae)-traditional uses in Chinese medicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueqin; Zheng, Chengjian; Hu, Changling; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping

    2011-11-18

    Plants of the genus Desmodium (Fabaceae), such as Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. and Desmodium gyrans (L. f.) DC., have a long history of medical use in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat various ailments including rheumatism, pyrexia, dysentery, wounds, cough, malaria, hepatitis, hemoptysis, etc. In the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, most species have the effect of relieving internal heat or fever, neutralizing toxins, inhibiting pain, invigorating blood circulation, suppressing cough and alleviating dyspnea. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by analyzing secondary sources including Chinese Herbal Classics, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder) were scrutinized for the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses in Chinese medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Desmodium species. The genus Desmodium is a large member of the Papilionaceae (Fabaceae) family. It contains about 350 plant species used for both feeding stuffs and herbal medicines, of which only about 30 species have been phytochemically or pharmacologically investigated. Desmodium plant extracts, as well as the active principles, have been experimentally studied for their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antinephrolithic, antibacterial, and nootropic activities in vitro or in vivo. And so far, a total of 212 compounds have been isolated from 15 Desmodium species and characterized mainly as flavonoids and alkaloids, followed by terpenoids, steroids, phenols, phenylpropanoids, glycosides and a number of volatile oils. The remaining unrevealed species are recorded chiefly in Asia and Africa being used in empirical treatment for various diseases. Desmodium species have long been used in TCM to treat various ailments. Available scientific references revealed that the traditional medical uses of some important Desmodium species in TCM have been evaluated by modern pharmacological

  15. No evidence for Fabaceae Gametophytic self-incompatibility being determined by Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae S-RNase lineage genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-06-02

    Fabaceae species are important in agronomy and livestock nourishment. They have a long breeding history, and most cultivars have lost self-incompatibility (SI), a genetic barrier to self-fertilization. Nevertheless, to improve legume crop breeding, crosses with wild SI relatives of the cultivated varieties are often performed. Therefore, it is fundamental to characterize Fabaceae SI system(s). We address the hypothesis of Fabaceae gametophytic (G)SI being RNase based, by recruiting the same S-RNase lineage gene of Rosaceae, Solanaceae or Plantaginaceae SI species. We first identify SSK1 like genes (described only in species having RNase based GSI), in the Trifolium pratense, Medicago truncatula, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, and Lupinus angustifolius genomes. Then, we characterize the S-lineage T2-RNase genes in these genomes. In T. pratense, M. truncatula, and C. arietinum we identify S-RNase lineage genes that in phylogenetic analyses cluster with Pyrinae S-RNases. In M. truncatula and C. arietinum genomes, where large scaffolds are available, these sequences are surrounded by F-box genes that in phylogenetic analyses also cluster with S-pollen genes. In T. pratense the S-RNase lineage genes show, however, expression in tissues not involved in GSI. Moreover, levels of diversity are lower than those observed for other S-RNase genes. The M. truncatula and C. arietinum S-RNase and S-pollen like genes phylogenetically related to Pyrinae S-genes, are also expressed in tissues other than those involved in GSI. To address if other T2-RNases could be determining Fabaceae GSI, here we obtained a style with stigma transcriptome of Cytisus striatus, a species that shows significant difference on the percentage of pollen growth in self and cross-pollinations. Expression and polymorphism analyses of the C. striatus S-RNase like genes revealed that none of these genes, is the S-pistil gene. We find no evidence for Fabaceae GSI being determined by Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DE PROPRIEDADES FÍSICAS E MECÂNICAS DE MADEIRAS DE JATOBÁ (Hymenaea stilbocarpa Hayne COM DIFERENTES TEORES DE UMIDADE E EXTRAÍDAS DE REGIÕES DISTINTAS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho objetivou investigar a influência das regiões de extração (Municípios de Caracaraí e Bonfim, Sul de Roraima; Município de Alta Floresta, Norte de Mato Grosso da madeira da espécie jatobá (Hymenaea stilbocarpa. Também, foi avaliada a influência do teor de umidade (madeira saturada e a 12% em 15 propriedades físicas e mecânicas de interesse. Ao todo, foram preparados e ensaiados, segundo as prescrições da Norma Brasileira ABNT NR 7190 (1997, 840 corpos de prova. Os resultados da análise de variância (a 5% de significância revelaram que a região de extração dos corpos de prova não foi significativa nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas, pois foram obtidos valores equivalentes, independentemente da origem, aspecto altamente interessante à medida que nem sempre é possível identificar a região de onde provém a madeira tropical. Essa importância é ainda maior no caso do emprego da madeira como elemento, cujos valores de referência se encontram apontados nos anexos do referido documento normativo. Com relação ao teor de umidade, foi observada diferença significativa em oito das 15 propriedades avaliadas. A condição de 12% de teor de umidade apresentou valores médios superiores à condição saturada nas propriedades de resistência na compressão paralela (37%, resistência na tração paralela (29% e cisalhamento (36% na direção paralela às fibras; módulo de resistência na flexão (26%, módulo de elasticidade na compressão paralela (9% e 200 direções paralelas (35% e normal (28% às fibras; e inferior na densidade aparente.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of Adenanthera pavonina L., Fabaceae, in experimental animals Atividade anti-inflamatória de Adenanthera pavonina L., Fabaceae, em animais experimentais

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    Arzumand Ara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenanthera pavonina L, Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae, Bengali name 'rakta kombol', is an Indian medicinal plant. It is endemic to Southern China and India, and widely naturalized in Malaysia, Western and Eastern Africa as well as in most islands of both the Pacific and Caribbean regions. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, boil, diarrhoea, gout, inflammations, rheumatism, tumour and ulcers, and as a tonic. The dried and ground bark of A. pavonina L. was extracted, successively, with petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and methanol (MeOH, and the resulting extracts were assessed in vivo for anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema as a model of inflammation. The extracts were administered orally at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, and statistically significant (pAdenanthera pavonina L, Fabaceae, conhecida na região de Bengala por "rakta kombol", é uma planta medicinal endêmica do sul da China e da Índia e amplamente difundida na Malásia, África Ocidental e Oriental, bem como na maioria das ilhas de ambas as regiões do Pacífico e Caribe. Esta planta tem sido utilizada na medicina tradicional para o tratamento da asma, febre, diarréia, gota, inflamações, reumatismo tumor, úlceras, e como tônico. Cascas secas e moídas de A. pavonina foi submetida a extração sucessiva com éter de petróleo (PE, diclorometano (DCM, acetato de etila (AcOEt e metanol (MeOH, e os extratos foram avaliados in vivo para atividade anti-inflamatória induzida por carragenina tendo como ensaio modelo de inflamação edema de pata em ratos.. Os extratos foram administrados por via oral em doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg de peso corporal, e foram observadas efeitos anti-inflamatórios de maneira dose-dependente, estatisticamente significativos (p<0,001. O extrato metanólico (400 mg/kg apresentou 37,10% (p<0,01 de inibição da inflamação na primeira hora do

  18. Review of the Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) infesting Fabaceae in Argentina, with descriptions of three new species of Acanthococcus Signoret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Patricia; Claps, Lucía E; Juárez, Andrea; Moreno, Diego

    2017-02-15

    Three new species of Eriococcidae from Argentina, namely Acanthococcus haywardi Juárez & González sp. nov., A. punctatae Juárez & González sp. nov. and A. riojensis Juárez & González sp. nov., are described and illustrated, bringing the total number of eriococcid species now known from Argentina to 12, of which six belong to Acanthococcus Signoret and six to Hempelicoccus Kozár. They are found on 11 species of Fabaceae (subfamilies Mimosoideae and Caesalpinioidae), are widely distributed and are all restricted to the Neotropical region and the South American Transitional Zone. A key to the 12 Eriococcidae species now known on Fabaceae in Argentina is included.

  19. New species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associated with Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Carolina de Almeida Garcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen, 1908 induces leaf galls on Andira humilis (Fabaceae in the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna of Bahia, Mato Grosso and São Paulo states, Brazil. Larva, pupa, female, and male of this new species of gall midge are described and illustrated in this paper. Keywords: Cerrado, Gall maker, Insect–plant interaction, Neotropical region, Taxonomy

  20. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

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    Soledad Molares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60% in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species, mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts.

  1. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species), mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts. PMID:22194774

  2. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

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    Cássia A. O. Feres

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.

  3. Evidence That Chlorinated Auxin Is Restricted to the Fabaceae But Not to the Fabeae.

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    Lam, Hong Kiat; McAdam, Scott A M; McAdam, Erin L; Ross, John J

    2015-07-01

    Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone, usually occurring in the form of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). However, in maturing pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, the level of the chlorinated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), greatly exceeds that of IAA. A key issue is how plants produce halogenated compounds such as 4-Cl-IAA. To better understand this topic, we investigated the distribution of the chlorinated auxin. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that 4-Cl-IAA is found in the seeds of Medicago truncatula, Melilotus indicus, and three species of Trifolium. Furthermore, we found no evidence that Pinus spp. synthesize 4-Cl-IAA in seeds, contrary to a previous report. The evidence indicates a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA synthesis in the Fabaceae, which may provide an ideal model system to further investigate the action and activity of halogenating enzymes in plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Morphofunctional Traits and Pollination Mechanisms of Coronilla emerus L. Flowers (Fabaceae)

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    Aronne, Giovanna; Giovanetti, Manuela; De Micco, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    It is accepted that the papilionaceous corolla of the Fabaceae evolved under the selective pressure of bee pollinators. Morphology and function of different parts of Coronilla emerus L. flowers were related to their role in the pollination mechanism. The corolla has a vexillum with red nectar lines, a keel hiding stamens and pistil, and two wing petals fasten to the keel with two notched folds. Pollinators land on the complex of keel and wings, trigger the protrusion of pollen and finally of the stigma from the keel tip. Data on pollen viability and stigma receptivity prove that flowers are proterandrous. The results of hand-pollination experiments confirmed that insects are fundamental to set seed. Interaction with pollinators allows not only the transport of pollen but also the rupture of the stigmatic cuticle, necessary to achieve both allogamy and autogamy. Field observations showed that Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera visited the flowers. Only some of the Hymenoptera landed on the flowers from the front and elicited pollination mechanisms. Most of the insects sucked the nectar from the back without any pollen transfer. Finally, morphological and functional characteristics of C. emerus flowers are discussed in terms of floral larceny and reduction in pollination efficiency. PMID:22666114

  5. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  6. Molecular Phylogeny of Gueldenstaedtia and Tibetia (Fabaceae) and Their Biogeographic Differentiation within Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ping; Meng, Ying; Sun, Hang; Nie, Ze-Long

    2016-01-01

    Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia are two morphologically similar and small genera in Fabaceae, with distributions largely corresponding to the Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese subkingdoms in eastern Asia, respectively. These two genera have confusing relationships based on morphology; therefore, we aimed to provide a clear understanding of their phylogenetic and biogeographic evolution within eastern Asia. In our investigations we included 88 samples representing five Gueldenstaedtia species, five Tibetia species, and outgroup species were sequenced using five markers (nuclear: ITS; chloroplast: matK, trnL-F, psbA-trnH and rbcL). Our phylogenetic results support (1) the monophyly of Tibetia and of Gueldenstaedtia, respectively; and (2) that Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia are sister genera. Additionally, our data identified that Tibetia species had much higher sequence variation than Gueldenstaedtia species. Our results suggest that the two genera were separated from each other about 17.23 million years ago, which is congruent with the Himalayan orogeny and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau in the mid Miocene. The divergence of Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia is strongly supported by the separation of the Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese region within eastern Asia. In addition, the habitat heterogeneity may accelerate the molecular divergence of Tibetia in the Sino-Himalayan region.

  7. Enantiostyly in Chamaecrista ramosa (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae): floral morphology, pollen transfer dynamics and breeding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, N M de; Castro, C C de; Leite, A V de Lima; Novo, R R; Machado, I C

    2013-03-01

    Enantiostyly is a form of reciprocal herkogamy, in which floral morphs present reciprocal differences in the position of sexual elements, and occurs in monomorphic and dimorphic forms. This polymorphism maximises cross-pollination and reduces self-pollination, being very common within the subtribe Cassiinae (Fabaceae). Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the functionality of enantiostyly, particularly in this plant group. The present study aimed to investigate enantiostyly and its functionality in Chamaecrista ramosa, a monomorphic enantiostylous shrub, in an area of coastal vegetation in northeast Brazil. Pollen deposition and capture on the body of floral visitors, the relationship of these data with floral biology and breeding system, and morph ratio were evaluated. Pollen deposition and capture occurred in specific sites of the floral visitor body, showing the functionality of enantiostyly. The floral architecture, associated with the floral visitor behaviour, resulted in indirect pollen deposition on the floral visitor body. This occurred through a loop made by the pollen upon the inner petal surface, similar that generally reported for other Cassiinae. Chamaecrista ramosa is self-compatible, although no fruit set was observed through spontaneous self-pollination. The occurrence and number of floral morphs was similar within clumps. Enantiostyly seems to be advantageous for this species, as it results in efficient pollen capture and deposition, reduces the chances of autogamy and maximises intermorph pollen flow. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Potent microbial and tyrosinase inhibitors from stem bark of Bauhinia rufescens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Aminu; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2013-10-01

    The stem bark extracts of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Fabaceae) yielded 6-methoxy-7-methyl-8-hydroxydibenz[b,f]oxepin, alpha-amyrin acetate, beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside, 4-(2'-Hydroxyphenethyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylphenol, menisdaurin and sequoyitol. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and comparisons with the literature data. For the antimicrobial assay Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains were tested, while the tyrosinase inhibition assay utilized L-DOPA as a substrate for the tyrosinase enzyme. 6-Methoxy-7-methyl-8-hydroxydibenz[b,f]oxepin, a-amyrin acetate, beta-sitosterol 3-O-D-xylopyranoside, menisdaurin and sequoyitol showed weak to moderate activities with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values in the range of 112.5-900 microg/mL against all bacterial strains, while the MIC values for the fungal strains were in the range of 28.1-450 microg/mL. In the tyrosinase inhibition assay, a-amyrin acetate was found to be moderately active against tyrosinase with an inhibition of 62% at 0.1 mg/mL. This activity was lower than that of the positive control, kojic acid (85%).

  9. Reproduction of Amorpha canescens (Fabaceae) and diversity of its bee community in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Malinda W; Hendrix, Stephen D

    2009-10-01

    Loss of insect pollinators due to habitat fragmentation often results in negative effects on plant reproduction, but few studies have simultaneously examined variation in the bee community, site characteristics and plant community characteristics to evaluate their relative effects on plant reproduction in a fragmented habitat. We examined the reproduction of a common tallgrass prairie forb, Amorpha canescens (Fabaceae), in large (>40 ha) and small (level characteristics can influence the bee community visiting any one species. Site size, a common predictor of plant reproduction in fragmented habitats did not contribute to any models of fruit set and was only marginally related to bee diversity one year. Andrena quintilis, one of the three oligolectic bee species associated with A. canescens, was abundant at all sites, suggesting it has not been significantly affected by fragmentation. Our results show that the diversity of bees visiting A. canescens is important for maintaining fruit set and that bee visitation is still sufficient for at least some fruit set in all populations, suggesting these small remnants act as floral resource oases for bees in landscapes often dominated by agriculture.

  10. Evolution in the Amphi-Atlantic tropical genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Detarioideae), combining NGS phylogeny and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosso, Félicien; Hardy, Olivier J; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Daïnou, Kasso; Kaymak, Esra; Migliore, Jérémy

    2018-03-01

    Tropical rain forests support a remarkable diversity of tree species, questioning how and when this diversity arose. The genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Detarioideae), characterized by two South American and 13 African tree species growing in various tropical biomes, is an interesting model to address the role of biogeographic processes and adaptation to contrasted environments on species diversification. Combining whole plastid genome sequencing and morphological characters analysis, we studied the timing of speciation and diversification processes in Guibourtia through molecular dating and ancestral habitats reconstruction. All species except G. demeusei and G. copallifera appear monophyletic. Dispersal from Africa to America across the Atlantic Ocean is the most plausible hypothesis to explain the occurrence of Neotropical Guibourtia species, which diverged ca. 11.8 Ma from their closest African relatives. The diversification of the three main clades of African Guibourtia is concomitant to Miocene global climate changes, highlighting pre-Quaternary speciation events. These clades differ by their reproductive characters, which validates the three subgenera previously described: Pseudocopaiva, Guibourtia and Gorskia. Within most monophyletic species, plastid lineages start diverging from each other during the Pliocene or early Pleistocene, suggesting that these species already arose during this period. The multiple transitions between rain forests and dry forests/savannahs inferred here through the plastid phylogeny in each Guibourtia subgenus address thus new questions about the role of phylogenetic relationships in shaping ecological niche and morphological similarity among taxa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of Adenanthera pavonina L., Fabaceae, in experimental animals

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    Arzumand Ara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Adenanthera pavonina L, Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae, Bengali name 'rakta kombol', is an Indian medicinal plant. It is endemic to Southern China and India, and widely naturalized in Malaysia, Western and Eastern Africa as well as in most islands of both the Pacific and Caribbean regions. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, boil, diarrhoea, gout, inflammations, rheumatism, tumour and ulcers, and as a tonic. The dried and ground bark of A. pavonina L. was extracted, successively, with petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and methanol (MeOH, and the resulting extracts were assessed in vivo for anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema as a model of inflammation. The extracts were administered orally at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, and statistically significant (p<0.001 anti-inflammatory effects were observed in a dose dependant manner. The MeOH extract (400 mg/kg showed 37.10% (p<0.01 inhibition of inflammation at the first hour of the study and, the DCM extract (400 mg/kg exhibited 33.11% (p<0.001 inhibition of inflammation at the third hour of the study which was comparable with that of reference standard drug dichlofenac sodium. The results of this study supported some of the traditional medicinal uses of this plant.

  12. Molecular Phylogeny of Gueldenstaedtia and Tibetia (Fabaceae) and Their Biogeographic Differentiation within Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ping; Meng, Ying; Sun, Hang; Nie, Ze-Long

    2016-01-01

    Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia are two morphologically similar and small genera in Fabaceae, with distributions largely corresponding to the Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese subkingdoms in eastern Asia, respectively. These two genera have confusing relationships based on morphology; therefore, we aimed to provide a clear understanding of their phylogenetic and biogeographic evolution within eastern Asia. In our investigations we included 88 samples representing five Gueldenstaedtia species, five Tibetia species, and outgroup species were sequenced using five markers (nuclear: ITS; chloroplast: matK, trnL-F, psbA-trnH and rbcL). Our phylogenetic results support (1) the monophyly of Tibetia and of Gueldenstaedtia, respectively; and (2) that Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia are sister genera. Additionally, our data identified that Tibetia species had much higher sequence variation than Gueldenstaedtia species. Our results suggest that the two genera were separated from each other about 17.23 million years ago, which is congruent with the Himalayan orogeny and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau in the mid Miocene. The divergence of Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia is strongly supported by the separation of the Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese region within eastern Asia. In addition, the habitat heterogeneity may accelerate the molecular divergence of Tibetia in the Sino-Himalayan region. PMID:27632535

  13. Anatomical characters of the phyllode and stem of Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae

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    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available The Acacia genus has presented various secondary metabolites, such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and gums. Preparations from different species have been applied for diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory diseases in the traditional medicine and have demonstrated cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae is a small wood, indigenous to Australia and cultivated worldwide for its ornamental feature. This work aimed to characterize the anatomy of the phyllode and stem, in order to contribute to the species identification. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and prepared according to usual light and scanning microtechniques. The epidermal cells, in surface view, are polygonal and coated with striate and thick cuticle, and filaments of epicuticular wax. Paracytic stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes are seen. Palisade and ground parenchymas, and minor collateral bundles with xylem directed alternately to upper and lower sides occur in the blade. The midrib shows two collateral bundles facing each other. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, exhibits epidermis, annular collenchyma, sclerenchymatic sheath and collateral vascular organization. Cells containing phenolic compounds and prisms of calcium oxalate are observed.

  14. Metabolite fingerprinting, pathway analyses, and bioactivity correlations for plant species belonging to the Cornaceae, Fabaceae, and Rosaceae families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Su Young; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Sunmin; Singh, Digar; Kim, Ga Ryun; Lee, Jong Seok; Yang, Hee-Sun; Yeo, Joohong; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-09-01

    A multi-parallel approach gauging the mass spectrometry-based metabolite fingerprinting coupled with bioactivity and pathway evaluations could serve as an efficacious tool for inferring plant taxonomic orders. Thirty-four species from three plant families, namely Cornaceae (7), Fabaceae (9), and Rosaceae (18) were subjected to metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS), followed by multivariate analyses to determine the metabolites characteristic of these families. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed the distinct clustering pattern of metabolites for each family. The pathway analysis further highlighted the relatively higher proportions of flavonols and ellagitannins in the Cornaceae family than in the other two families. Higher levels of phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols were observed among species from the Rosaceae family, while amino acids, flavones, and isoflavones were more abundant among the Fabaceae family members. The antioxidant activities of plant extracts were measured using ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays, and indicated that extracts from the Rosaceae family had the highest activity, followed by those from Cornaceae and Fabaceae. The correlation map analysis positively links the proportional concentration of metabolites with their relative antioxidant activities, particularly in Cornaceae and Rosaceae. This work highlights the pre-eminence of the multi-parallel approach involving metabolite profiling and bioactivity evaluations coupled with metabolic pathways as an efficient methodology for the evaluation of plant phylogenies.

  15. Discovery of cyclotides in the fabaceae plant family provides new insights into the cyclization, evolution, and distribution of circular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Aaron G; Colgrave, Michelle L; Philip, Reynold; Kerenga, Bomai; Daly, Norelle L; Anderson, Marilyn A; Craik, David J

    2011-04-15

    Cyclotides are plant proteins whose defining structural features are a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and three interlocking disulfide bonds, which in combination are known as a cyclic cystine knot. This unique structural motif confers cyclotides with exceptional resistance to proteolysis. Their endogenous function is thought to be as plant defense agents, associated with their insecticidal and larval growth-inhibitory properties. However, in addition, an array of pharmaceutically relevant biological activities has been ascribed to cyclotides, including anti-HIV, anthelmintic, uterotonic, and antimicrobial effects. So far, >150 cyclotides have been elucidated from members of the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, and Cucurbitaceae plant families, but their wider distribution among other plant families remains unclear. Clitoria ternatea (Butterfly pea) is a member of plant family Fabaceae and through its usage in traditional medicine to aid childbirth bears similarity to Oldenlandia affinis, from which many cyclotides have been isolated. Using a combination of nanospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analyses, we examined seed extracts of C. ternatea and discovered cyclotides in the Fabaceae, the third-largest family of flowering plants. We characterized 12 novel cyclotides, thus expanding knowledge of cyclotide distribution and evolution within the plant kingdom. The discovery of cyclotides containing novel sequence motifs near the in planta cyclization site has provided new insights into cyclotide biosynthesis. In particular, MS analyses of the novel cyclotides from C. ternatea suggest that Asn to Asp variants at the cyclization site are more common than previously recognized. Moreover, this study provides impetus for the examination of other economically and agriculturally significant species within Fabaceae, now the largest plant family from which cyclotides have been described.

  16. Three new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-08-04

    Horismenus abnormicaulis sp. nov., H. patensis sp. nov. and H. zuleidae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), all authored by Pikart, Costa & Hansson, are described from material obtained from seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) collected in Northeastern Brazil. The seed pods were infested with larvae of Coleoptera (Chrysomelidae (Bruchinae) and Curculionidae). The associations of the Horismenus species and the beetle larvae have not been established. Morphological similarities between these new species and previously described species with host known suggest that H. patensis and H. zuleidae are primary parasitoids of Bruchinae, whereas H. abnormicaulis may act as a hyperparasitoid on other Horismenus species. The three species are compared with similar species of Horismenus.

  17. Eriosema (Fabaceae) Species Represent a Rich Source of Flavonoids with Interesting Pharmacological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Tane, Pierre; Spiteller, Michael; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2015-07-01

    Many flavonoids have so far been isolated as main secondary metabolites in plant species of the genus Eriosema (Fabaceae), which contains approximately 160 species. A total of 52 flavonoids including isoflavones, dihydroflavonols, flavonols, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, isoflavanone and their pyrano or glucoside derivatives were isolated and characterized from the five species of this genus investigated to date. Total synthesis and semi-synthesis (acetylation, methylation, hydrogenation, and cyclization) of some isolated flavonoids were reported. Due to several significant pharmacological properties (antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, anti-mycobacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, erectile-dysfunction, vasodilatory and hypoglycemic) of the isolated flavonoids and derivatives, more scientists should be interested in investigating Eriosema species. The present review is the first to document all flavonoids that have been reported from the genus Eriosema to date together with their synthetic and semi-synthetic derivatives, and their pharmacological properties. Dihydrochalcones, which are precursors of other classes of flavonoids, are very rare in natural sources and their isolation from Eriosema species may explain the large number of flavonoids found in this genus. It appears that isoflavone could be a marker for species in this genus. The 83 flavonoids (1-83) documented include 52 isolates, 31 semi-synthetic and 3 totally synthetic derivatives. Data were obtained from Google scholar, Pubmed, Scifinder, Sciencedirect, and Scopus. With 52 different flavonoids isolated from only 5 of the approximately 160 species it shows the remarkable chemical diversity of this genus. This compilation of the biological activities and chemical composition may renew the interest of pharmacologists and phytochemists in this genus.

  18. Role of the lens in controlling physical dormancy break and germination of Delonix regia (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, G K; Wu, G-R; Han, Y-Y; Liu, B L

    2017-01-01

    Physical dormancy occurs in all three subfamilies of Fabaceae, namely Mimosoideae, Papilionoideae and Caesalpinioideae, making it one of the largest plant families in terms of number of species with physical dormancy. However, little is known about the water gap structure and germination ecology of species in Caesalpinioideae. Freshly collected seeds of Delonix regia (Caesalpinioideae) did not imbibe water, thus they had physical dormancy. Both dry heat and wet heat were effective in breaking dormancy, however, longer duration was required at 80 °C and shorter duration at 90 °C. Seeds buried in the field for 2 years germinated to 21% and 42% after the first and second summer, respectively, compared with 3% germination in seeds at the time of maturity. Seeds incubated at 15/60 °C in the laboratory (mimicking summer conditions) for 3 months supported this conclusion, as dormancy was relieved in 18% and 24% of seeds stored dry and watered intermediately, respectively. All the dormancy breaking treatments resulted in lifting of palisade layers in the lens region to form a circular lid-like opening, i.e. water gap (Type II simple). Blocking experiments confirmed that water entered only through the lens and no secondary water entry point was observed. No apparent changes in morphology/anatomy of the hilum region were noted in dormant and non-dormant (water permeable) seeds. These results suggest that summer temperatures could open the lens in a proportion of seeds every year and that germination occurs during the subsequent wet season in the tropics. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Large-scale phylogeography of the disjunct Neotropical tree species Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; Cruz, Fernanda; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Simon, Marcelo F; Salgueiro, Fabiano; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-10-01

    Neotropical rainforests exhibit high levels of endemism and diversity. Although the evolutionary genetics of plant diversification has garnered increased interest, phylogeographic studies of widely distributed species remain scarce. Here we describe chloroplast and nuclear variation patterns in Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae), a widespread tree in Neotropical rainforests that harbor two varieties with a disjunct distribution. Chloroplast and nuclear sequence analyses yielded 21 and 4 haplotypes, respectively. Two genetic diversity centers that correlate with the two known varieties were identified: the Southeastern Atlantic forest and the Amazonian basin. In contrast, the populations from southern and northeastern Atlantic forests and Andean-Central American forests exhibited low levels of genetic diversity and divergent haplotypes, likely related to historical processes that impact the flora and fauna in these regions, such as a founder's effect after dispersion and demographic expansion. Phylogeographic and demographic patterns suggest that episodes of genetic isolation and dispersal events have shaped the evolutionary history for this species, and different patterns have guided the evolution of S. parahyba. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that the dry corridor formed by Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions and the Andean uplift acted as barriers to this species' gene flow, a picture that may be generalized to most of the plant biodiversity tropical woodlands and forests. These results also reinforce the importance of evaluating multiple genetic markers for a more comprehensive understanding of population structure and history. Our results provide insight into the conservation efforts and ongoing work on the genetics of population divergence and speciation in these Neotropical rainforests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endoreduplication intensity as a marker of seed developmental stage in the Fabaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewers, Monika; Sliwinska, Elwira

    2012-12-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) can be used to study cell cycle activity in developing, mature and germinating seeds. It provides information about a seed's physiological state and therefore can be used by seed growers for assessing optimal harvest times and presowing treatments. Because an augmented proportion of 4C nuclei usually is indicative of high mitotic activity, the 4C/2C ratio is commonly used to follow the progress of seed development and germination. However, its usefulness for polysomatic (i.e., containing cells with different DNA content) seeds is questioned. Changes in cell cycle/endoreduplication activity in developing seeds of five members of the Fabaceae were studied to determine a more suitable marker of seed developmental stages for polysomatic species based on FCM measurements. Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Pisum sativum, Vicia sativa, and Vicia faba var. minor were collected 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days after flowering (DAF), embryos were isolated and the proportion of nuclei with different DNA contents in the embryo axis and cotyledon was established. The ratios 4C/2C and (Σ>2C)/2C were calculated. Dried seeds were subjected to laboratory germination tests following international seed testing association (ISTA) rules. Additionally, the absolute nuclear DNA content was estimated in the leaves of the studied species. During seed development nuclei with DNA contents from 2C to 128C were detected; the endopolyploidy pattern depended on the species, seed organ and developmental stage. The cell cycle/endoreduplication parameters correlated negatively with genome size. The (Σ>2C)/2C ratio in the cotyledons reflected the seed developmental stage and corresponded with seed germinability. Therefore, this ratio is recommended as a marker in polysomatic seed research and production instead of the 4C/2C ratio, which does not consider the occurrence of endopolyploid cells. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  1. Leishmanicidal Metabolites from Cochliobolus sp., an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Piptadenia adiantoides (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Cota, Betania Barros; Caligiorne, Rachel Basques; Teles Rabello, Ana Lúcia; Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Zani, Carlos Leomar

    2008-01-01

    Protozoan parasites belonging to genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma are the etiological agents of severe neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that cause enormous social and economic impact in many countries of tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. In our screening program for new drug leads from natural sources, we found that the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Cochliobolus sp. (UFMGCB-555) could kill 90% of the amastigote-like forms of Leishmania amazonensis and inhibit by 100% Ellman's reagent reduction in the trypanothione reductase (TryR) assay, when tested at 20 µg mL−1. UFMGCB-555 was isolated from the plant Piptadenia adiantoides J.F. Macbr (Fabaceae) and identified based on the sequence of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of its ribosomal DNA. The chromatographic fractionation of the extract was guided by the TryR assay and resulted in the isolation of cochlioquinone A and isocochlioquinone A. Both compounds were active in the assay with L. amazonensis, disclosing EC50 values (effective concentrations required to kill 50% of the parasite) of 1.7 µM (95% confidence interval = 1.6 to 1.9 µM) and 4.1 µM (95% confidence interval = 3.6 to 4.7 µM), respectively. These compounds were not active against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, TK-10, and UACC-62), indicating some degree of selectivity towards the parasites. These results suggest that cochlioquinones are attractive lead compounds that deserve further investigation aiming at developing new drugs to treat leishmaniasis. The findings also reinforce the role of endophytic fungi as an important source of compounds with potential to enter the pipeline for drug development against NTDs. PMID:19079599

  2. Effects of Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae on the central nervous system in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tubuly Rida A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae, commonly known as ‘raetam’ or ‘broom bush’, is a desert shrub that grows abundantly in North-African countries, Palestine and Syria. Traditionally, this plant has been used as an abortifacient, a purgative and a vermifuge. In the present study, the effect of the methanol (MeOH extract of the aerial parts of R. raetam on the central nervous system (CNS has been evaluated using a mice model. In the photoelectrical cell test, the extract of R. raetam (ERR at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight did not exhibit any effect on the spontaneous motor activity in mice. At a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, ERR increased ambulatory movement, but had no effect on the non-ambulatory movement, while a dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased both ambulatory and non-ambulatory movements. The effect of ERR on the anxiety levels and behaviors of mice was investigated using the elevated plus-maze test. At doses of 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg body weight, ERR decreased anxiety levels without showing an effect on the total activity; it did not affect anxiety levels but increased the total activity; it increased anxiety levels and decreased the total activity, respectively. In the diazepam-induced sleep test, ERR increased the onset of sleep without affecting the duration of sleep at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. The dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased the onset of sleep while increasing the duration of sleep. ERR did not exhibit any effect on the diazepam-induced sleep in the presence of flumazenil or picrotoxin.

  3. Ultrastructure and post-floral secretion of the pericarpial nectaries of Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa

    2009-10-01

    The occurrence of nectaries in fruits is restricted to a minority of plant families and consistent reports of their occurrence are not found associated with Fabaceae, mainly showing cellular details. The present study aims to describe the anatomical organization and ultrastructure of the pericarpial nectaries (PNs) in Erythrina speciosa, a bird-pollinated species, discussing functional aspects of these unusual structures. Samples of floral buds, ovaries of flowers at anthesis and fruits at several developmental stages were fixed and processed by the usual methods for studies using light, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nectar samples collected by filter paper wicks were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography. The PNs are distributed in isolation on the exocarp. Each PN is represented by a single hyaline trichome that consists of a basal cell at epidermal level, stalk cell(s) and a small secretory multicellular head. The apical stalk cell shows inner periclinal and anticlinal walls impregnated by lipids and lignin and has dense cytoplasm with a prevalence of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory cells show voluminous nuclei and dense cytoplasm, which predominantly has dictyosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, mitochondria and free ribosomes. At the secretory stage the periplasmic space is prominent and contains secretion residues. Tests for sugar indicate the presence of non-reducing sugars in the secretory cells. Nectar samples from PNs contained sucrose, glucose and fructose. The secretory stage of these PNs extends until fruit maturation and evidence suggests that the energetic source of nectar production is based on pericarp photosynthesis. Patrolling ants were seen foraging on fruits during all stages of fruit development, which suggests that the PNs mediate a symbiotic relationship between ants and plant, similar to the common role of many extrafloral nectaries.

  4. A review of the taxonomy, ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of Sutherlandia frutescens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, B-E; Albrecht, C

    2008-10-28

    Sutherlandia frutescens (tribe Galegeae, Fabaceae), a popular plant in traditional medicine, is indigenous to South Africa, Lesotho, southern Namibia and southeastern Botswana. It is chemically, genetically and geographically extremely variable and has been divided into three subspecies and several regional forms. A second species, Sutherlandia tomentosa, is localized along the Cape coast. Sutherlandia is sometimes treated as part of the genus Lessertia. There are numerous vernacular names and a wide diversity of uses, including poor appetite, indigestion, stomach complaints, dysentery, colds, influenza, kidney conditions, fever, diabetes, internal cancers, uterine troubles, liver conditions, backache, rheumatoid arthritis, urinary tract infections, stress and anxiety, dropsy and heart failure. Notable is the use as a bitter tonic ("blood purifier"), anti-stress medication ('musa-pelo) and, at least since 1895, specifically as a cancer tonic (both as treatment and as prophylaxis). Externally it is applied to haemorrhoids, inflamed wounds and eye infections. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown antiproliferative, anti-HIV, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, anti-stress, anticonvulsant and antithrombotic activities. Aqueous extracts often differ in activity from organic solvent extracts. The presence of high levels of free amino acids, non-protein amino acids such as canavanine and GABA, the cyclitol pinitol, flavonols and triterpenes (including SU1, a cycloartane-type triterpene saponin) provide plausible hypotheses on how these compounds, individually or collectively, may be responsible for the reputed efficacy in a wide range of ailments. Results of animal studies, as well as a phase I clinical study, have shown no indications of toxicity. Sufficient preclinical data are now available to justify controlled clinical studies.

  5. Ecology and management of Pericopsis elata (Harms Meeuwen (Fabaceae populations: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourland, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae is a valuable timber species occurring in moist semi-deciduous African forests. While it is at present substantially reduced, the tree's natural distribution previously covered several distinct areas from Côte d'Ivoire to the Democratic Republic of Congo. This species has been logged since the second half of the 20th century. Because it suffers from a lack of regeneration, P. elata is now included in CITES Appendix II and is recorded as "Endangered A1cd" on the IUCN Red List. As with other long-lived light-demanding species, the survival of P. elata may have been favored by important disturbances that occurred in the Congo Basin during the last millennia. While both international trade and industrial uses of the wood of P. elata are well documented, information about its ecology are very sparse or contradictory, and even absent in some cases (e.g., regarding its effective flowering diameter. Furthermore, data describing the management of P. elata are scarce, including potential solutions to compensate for the deficit of natural regeneration. Along the same lines, genetic studies still remain at an early stage and only vague hypotheses have been offered to explain the origins of the tree's populations. We emphasize the need for new research on those topics. Further studies would be useful in deciding whether P. elata populations can continue to be logged without the species being threatened with extinction. Finally, such research needs to target effective and inexpensive management procedures that could secure the future of the species in a logging context.

  6. Insect Seed Predators in Erythrina falcata (Fabaceae): Identification of Predatory Species and Ecological Consequences of Asynchronous Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C M; Moura, M O; Da-Silva, P R

    2014-06-01

    Seed predation by insects exerts negative effects on plant reproduction by limiting the supply of seeds and preventing germination. Seed predators of the family Fabaceae are usually generalists, which increases the rate of predation. One strategy to minimize seed predation, developed by plants from temperate regions, is "escape in time," i.e., flowering before or after the peak of predation. For tropical species, few studies have investigated the strategies used by plants to minimize seed predation. Here, using Erythrina falcata, a tropical species of Fabaceae, we test three main hypotheses: (i) escape in time is a mechanism used by E. falcata to minimize seed predation, (ii) the predators of E. falcata seeds are generalists, and (iii) the biometric variables of the pods can influence seed predation. In order to test these hypotheses, we determined the flowering time of E. falcata, rate of seed predation, the predators insects, and biometric variables of the pods. The analyzed trees were grouped into three classes: "early," "peak," and "late" flowering. The average seed predation rates on trees in the early and late classes were 65% and 50%, respectively, and in the peak class, 80%; thus, our first hypothesis can be accepted. Three species of Lepidoptera and two of Coleoptera were found preying on E. falcata seeds. These species were observed to be generalist predators; thus, our second hypothesis can be accepted. The biometric variables of the pods cannot influence seed predation rate. The ecological consequences of asynchronous flowering on plants and insects are discussed.

  7. Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) Is Not Monophyletic - Evidence from Phylogenetic Analyses Based on Five Nuclear and Five Plastid Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Wen, Jun; Duan, Lei; Arslan, Emine; Ertuğrul, Kuddisi; Chang, Zhao-Yang

    2017-01-01

    The legume family (Fabaceae) exhibits a high level of species diversity and evolutionary success worldwide. Previous phylogenetic studies of the genus Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) showed that the nuclear and the plastid topologies might be incongruent, and the systematic position of the Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade was uncertain. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of Hedysarum were investigated based on the nuclear ITS, ETS, PGDH, SQD1, TRPT and the plastid psbA-trnH, trnC-petN, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG, petN-psbM sequences. Both nuclear and plastid data support two major lineages in Hedysarum: the Hedysarum s.s. clade and the Sartoria clade. In the nuclear tree, Hedysarum is biphyletic with the Hedysarum s.s. clade sister to the Corethrodendron + Eversmannia + Greuteria + Onobrychis clade (the CEGO clade), whereas the Sartoria clade is sister to the genus Taverniera DC. In the plastid tree, Hedysarum is monophyletic and sister to Taverniera. The incongruent position of the Hedysarum s.s. clade between the nuclear and plastid trees may be best explained by a chloroplast capture hypothesis via introgression. The Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade is resolved as sister to the H. sect. Hedysarum clade in both nuclear and plastid trees, and our analyses support merging Stracheya into Hedysarum. Based on our new evidence from multiple sequences, Hedysarum is not monophyletic, and its generic delimitation needs to be reconsidered.

  8. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquetti, Roberto K; Gonçalves, José Francisco C

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  9. Pollen grain morphology of Fabaceae in the Special Protection Area (SPA) Pau-de-Fruta, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Maki, Erica S; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper considered the pollen morphology of thirteen species belonging to seven genera of the Fabaceae family occurring in the Pau-de-Fruta Special Protection Area (SPA), Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The pollen grains of six species of Chamaecrista [C. cathartica (Mart.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. debilis Vogel, C. flexuosa (L.) Greene, C. hedysaroides (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. glandulosa (L.) Greene, and C. papillata H.S. Irwin & Barneby] have a similar morphology, characterized by three long colporated apertures with a central constriction. The species share specific morphological features regarding pollen size, endoaperture type (circular, lalongate or lolongate) and SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (rugulate with perforations or perforate). Andira fraxinifolia Benth., Dalbergia miscolobium Benth, Galactia martii DC, Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub., Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S. Irwin & Barneby and Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers showed different pollen types in small to large size; oblate spheroidal to prolate form; colpus or colporus apertures; circular, lalongate or lolongate endoapertures and distinctive SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (perforate, microreticulate, reticulate or rugulate with perforations). Only Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville presents polyads. The pollen morphology variation of these species allowed the Fabaceae family to be characterized as eurypalynous in the SPA Pau-de-Fruta.

  10. Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) Is Not Monophyletic – Evidence from Phylogenetic Analyses Based on Five Nuclear and Five Plastid Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Wen, Jun; Duan, Lei; Arslan, Emine; Ertuğrul, Kuddisi; Chang, Zhao-Yang

    2017-01-01

    The legume family (Fabaceae) exhibits a high level of species diversity and evolutionary success worldwide. Previous phylogenetic studies of the genus Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) showed that the nuclear and the plastid topologies might be incongruent, and the systematic position of the Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade was uncertain. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of Hedysarum were investigated based on the nuclear ITS, ETS, PGDH, SQD1, TRPT and the plastid psbA-trnH, trnC-petN, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG, petN-psbM sequences. Both nuclear and plastid data support two major lineages in Hedysarum: the Hedysarum s.s. clade and the Sartoria clade. In the nuclear tree, Hedysarum is biphyletic with the Hedysarum s.s. clade sister to the Corethrodendron + Eversmannia + Greuteria + Onobrychis clade (the CEGO clade), whereas the Sartoria clade is sister to the genus Taverniera DC. In the plastid tree, Hedysarum is monophyletic and sister to Taverniera. The incongruent position of the Hedysarum s.s. clade between the nuclear and plastid trees may be best explained by a chloroplast capture hypothesis via introgression. The Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade is resolved as sister to the H. sect. Hedysarum clade in both nuclear and plastid trees, and our analyses support merging Stracheya into Hedysarum. Based on our new evidence from multiple sequences, Hedysarum is not monophyletic, and its generic delimitation needs to be reconsidered. PMID:28122062

  11. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO K. JAQUETTI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  12. Andiroxylon Thanobolensis Sp.Nov. A New Species of Fossil Wood of Family Fabaceae from Manchar Formation Exposed Near Thanobola Khan, District Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S. A.; Ahmed, B.; Tahir, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Andiroxylon thanobolensis sp. nov., a new silicified wood has been described and identified from Tertiary Manchar formation exposed near Thanobola Khan, district Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. The xylotomical features of present fossil shows close resemblance with the genus Andira of the Family Fabaceae. The absence of growth ring indicated that plants were growing in tropical type of climate. (author)

  13. Description of the early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a defoliator of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC (Fabaceae) in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biology and early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry are described and illustrated for the first time; details of the adults also are provided. Under outbreak conditions, the species has become a serious pest of algarrobo tree (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Fabaceae) in Colombia. Al...

  14. Divergence and diversification in North American Psoraleeae (Fabaceae) due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Ashley N; Crandall, Keith A

    2008-01-01

    Background Past studies in the legume family (Fabaceae) have uncovered several evolutionary trends including differential mutation and diversification rates across varying taxonomic levels. The legume tribe Psoraleeae is shown herein to exemplify these trends at the generic and species levels. This group includes a sizable diversification within North America dated at approximately 6.3 million years ago with skewed species distribution to the most recently derived genus, Pediomelum, suggesting a diversification rate shift. We estimate divergence dates of North American (NAm) Psoraleeae using Bayesian MCMC sampling in BEAST based on eight DNA regions (ITS, waxy, matK, trnD-trnT, trnL-trnF, trnK, trnS-trnG, and rpoB-trnC). We also test the hypothesis of a diversification rate shift within NAm Psoraleeae using topological and temporal methods. We investigate the impact of climate change on diversification in this group by (1) testing the hypothesis that a shift from mesic to xeric habitats acted as a key innovation and (2) investigating diversification rate shifts along geologic time, discussing the impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on diversification. Results NAm Psoraleeae represents a recent, rapid radiation with several genera originating during the Pleistocene, 1 to 2 million years ago. A shift in diversification rate is supported by both methods with a 2.67-fold increase suggested around 2 million years ago followed by a 8.73-fold decrease 440,000 years ago. The hypothesis that a climate regime shift from mesic to xeric habitats drove increased diversification in affected taxa was not supported. Timing of the diversification rate increase supports the hypothesis that glaciation-induced climate changes during the Quaternary influenced diversification of the group. Nonrandom spatial diversification also exists, with greater species richness in the American Southwest. Conclusion This study outlines NAm Psoraleeae as a model example of a recent, rapid

  15. Assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae plants--implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    This study, based on a greenhouse pot culture experiment conducted with 15-day-old rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. cv. Pusa Gold; family Brassicaceae) and moong bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Pusa Ratna; family Fabaceae) plants treated with cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) soil), investigates their potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance, and dissects the underlying basic physiological/biochemical mechanisms. In both species, plant dry mass decreased, while Cd concentration of both root and shoot increased with increase in soil Cd. Roots harbored a higher amount of Cd (vs. shoot) in B. campestris, while the reverse applied to V. radiata. By comparison, root Cd concentration was higher in B. campestris than in V. radiata. The high Cd concentrations in B. campestris roots and V. radiata shoots led to significant elevation in oxidative indices, as measured in terms of electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, and lipid peroxidation. Both plants displayed differential adaptation strategies to counteract the Cd burden-caused anomalies in their roots and shoots. In B. campestris, increasing Cd burden led to a significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content but a significant increase in activities of GSH reductase (GR), GSH peroxidase (GPX), and GSH sulfotransferase (GST). However, in V. radiata, increasing Cd burden caused significant increase in GSH content and GR activity, but a significant decline in activities of GPX and GST. Cross talks on Cd burden of tissues and the adapted Cd tolerance strategies against Cd burden-accrued toxicity indicated that B. campestris and V. radiata are good Cd stabilizer and Cd extractor, respectively, wherein a fine tuning among the major components (GR, GPX, GST, GSH) of the GSH redox system helped the plants to counteract differentially the Cd load-induced anomalies in tissues. On the whole, the physiological/biochemical characterization of the B. campestris and V. radiata responses to varying Cd

  16. Biogeochemistry and biodiversity interact to govern N2 fixers (Fabaceae) across Amazon tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto

    2015-04-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2

  17. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae seeds

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    Carolina Maria Luzia Delgado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and non-treated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15ºC was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed

  18. Divergence and diversification in North American Psoraleeae (Fabaceae due to climate change

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    Crandall Keith A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past studies in the legume family (Fabaceae have uncovered several evolutionary trends including differential mutation and diversification rates across varying taxonomic levels. The legume tribe Psoraleeae is shown herein to exemplify these trends at the generic and species levels. This group includes a sizable diversification within North America dated at approximately 6.3 million years ago with skewed species distribution to the most recently derived genus, Pediomelum, suggesting a diversification rate shift. We estimate divergence dates of North American (NAm Psoraleeae using Bayesian MCMC sampling in BEAST based on eight DNA regions (ITS, waxy, matK, trnD-trnT, trnL-trnF, trnK, trnS-trnG, and rpoB-trnC. We also test the hypothesis of a diversification rate shift within NAm Psoraleeae using topological and temporal methods. We investigate the impact of climate change on diversification in this group by (1 testing the hypothesis that a shift from mesic to xeric habitats acted as a key innovation and (2 investigating diversification rate shifts along geologic time, discussing the impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on diversification. Results NAm Psoraleeae represents a recent, rapid radiation with several genera originating during the Pleistocene, 1 to 2 million years ago. A shift in diversification rate is supported by both methods with a 2.67-fold increase suggested around 2 million years ago followed by a 8.73-fold decrease 440,000 years ago. The hypothesis that a climate regime shift from mesic to xeric habitats drove increased diversification in affected taxa was not supported. Timing of the diversification rate increase supports the hypothesis that glaciation-induced climate changes during the Quaternary influenced diversification of the group. Nonrandom spatial diversification also exists, with greater species richness in the American Southwest. Conclusion This study outlines NAm Psoraleeae as a model example

  19. Ormosioxylon chinjiensis sp. nov., a new fossil wood of family Fabaceae from the Chinji formation Salt Range Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, N.; Arain, B. A.; Rajput, T. M.; Tahir, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    The present work deals with anatomical study of fossil wood collected from the Chinji formation (72 degree 22 min E, 32 degree 4 min N) of Miocene age exposed at the Chinji National Reserve at salt Range Punjab, Pakistan. The material consisted of a single piece of petrified wood. Taxonomical characters of the fossil wood were compared with modern and fossil wood. The sample wood was found comparable to the family Fabaceae. The closest resemblance of the fossil wood was with the wood of Ormosia. The fossil wood under investigation showed close resemblance of vessels, fibers, parenchyma and xylem rays, with the genus Ormosia but shows differences from already reported species of this genus. Hence it is described as a new species as Ormosioxylon chinjiensis sp. nov. The specific epithet refers to Chinji Formation from which the fossil wood is collected. (author)

  20. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; den Besten, Heidy M W; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2017-07-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC-UV-MS. The relationship between phytochemical composition, including different types of skeletons and substitutions, and antibacterial properties of extracts was investigated. Extracts rich in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids showed potent antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1% (w/v). Prenylated phenolic compounds were significantly (p<0.01) correlated with the antibacterial properties of the extracts. Furthermore, the position of the prenyl group within the phenolic skeleton also influenced the antibacterial activity. Overall, prenylated phenolics from legume seedlings can serve multiple purposes, e.g. as phytoestrogens they can provide health benefits and as natural antimicrobials they offer preservation of foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The concept of ’Musa-pelo and the medicinal use of shrubby legumes (Fabaceae in Lesotho

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    A. Moteetee

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Lesotho, 20 plant species are commonly known as  'Musa-pelo. The term literally means ‘the one who brings back or tums around the heart’.  'Musa-pelo is traditionally used as a sedative and is given as a first aid treatment to bereaved people who are under severe psychological duress or stress. Of the 20 species known as  'Musa-pelo, 17 belong to nine genera of the Fabaceae  (Argyrolobium, Crotalaria, Indigofera, Lessertia, Lotononis, Melolobium, Sutherlandia, Tephrosia and  Trifolium. The three remaining species namely Cleome monophylla, Heliophila carnosa and  Cysticapnos pruinosa, belong to the families Capparaceae, Brassicaceae and Fumariaceae, respectively. In this paper, the concept of 'Musa-pelo in traditional medicine is explored.

  2. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Platymiscium floribundum VOG. (FABACEAE SOB A INFLUÊNCIA DA LUZ E TEMPERATURAS

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    Magnólia Martins Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Platymiscium floribundum Vog., a forest species belonging to the family Fabaceae, has great potential for economic exploitation and can be used both in landscape and in reforestation, in the restoration of degraded areas and permanent preservation.given its importance, this work was, it was aimed to study the influence of light and temperature on seed germination of Platymiscium floribundum . We evaluate the germination and vigor Under constant and alternate temperatures of 25 and 30 0 C in different light regimes: White (LB, green (LV, red-far (LVD, red (LV and absence light (A. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 3 x 5 with four replications of 25 seeds. The variables analyzed were: germination, first count of germination, germination speed index (IGV, length and seedling dry weight (root length, shoot length of seedlings. The seeds of Platymiscium floribundum express their maximum force in illuminated environment independent of the temperature.

  3. Caracterização farmacognóstica da espécie Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae

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    Emanuel Eustáquio Almeida

    Full Text Available Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae, conhecida popularmente no Brasil pelos nomes de mulungu, sapatinho-de-judeu, corticeira-da-serra, muchoco, é usada pela população como planta medicinal indicada como sedativo, ansiolítico ou para doenças do aparelho respiratório. Seu uso indiscriminado, no entanto, pode trazer consequências graves à saúde, devido à forte presença de alcaloides, particularmente nas sementes e na casca. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudos fitoquímicos para identificação dos principais grupos de substâncias existentes na espécie, além de estudos morfológicos e histológicos para diferenciação entre outras espécies do gênero.

  4. Tolerancia a la desecación de semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae

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    Marcelo Nahuel Morandini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La elevada diversidad de especies y endemismos, conjuntamente con la acelerada pérdida de biodiversidad por deforestaciones, destaca la importancia de emprender acciones combinadas de conservación in situ y ex situ. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la tolerancia a la desecación de las semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens, para su conservación ex situ a largo plazo en el BGEN. El contenido de humedad (CH se determinó colocando las semillas de cada población en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. Se realizaron ensayos de germinación en distintos CH: semillas frescas, 10-12%, 3-5%, y en semillas mantenidas seis meses a -20ºC y a 3-5% de CH. El CH de las semillas frescas de P. ferox fue de 14.2% y el de P. nitens de 10% para las dos poblaciones estudiadas. Las semillas de P. ferox llegaron a peso constante a las 17hr y las de P. nitens a las 3hr de secado. La germinación de las semillas de P. ferox fue mayor en los tratamientos con escarificación y la diferencia aumento con la reducción del CH y el almacenamiento. Las semillas de P. nitens con el CH reducido, requieren escarificación. Se concluye que las semillas de ambas especies son probablemente ortodoxas ya que la germinación superó el 80% en las semillas desecadas al 3-5% CH y almacenadas durante seis meses a -20°C.Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopis ferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae. The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P. ferox and P. nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN of the National University of Salta (Argentina. The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P

  5. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  6. Aves explorando flores de Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae durante a estação seca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso Exploitation of Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae flowers by birds during the dry season in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Ricardo Parrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm evidenciado a importância de flores como recurso alimentar de diversas espécies de aves neotropicais. Este estudo teve o objetivo de listar espécies e descrever o comportamento das aves que se alimentaram de recursos florais de Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae no Pantanal Mato-Grossense. Para isso, foram acompanhadas aves que se alimentaram em 14 árvores floridas dessa espécie em um total de cerca de 25 horas de observação. Como resultados, 20 espécies de aves pertencentes a sete famílias taxonômicas foram observadas alimentando-se de recursos florais de E. fusca. Apesar de várias espécies de aves terem apresentado comportamentos destrutivos em maior proporção, algumas espécies, sobretudo das famílias Trochilidae e Icteridae, apresentaram estratégias alimentares compatíveis com o transporte de pólen. O cruzamento dos dados obtidos neste estudo com os da literatura indicam que a família Icteridae pode ter relevante papel na polinização dessa espécie vegetal.Recent studies reported the importance of flowers in the diet of many Neotropical bird species. In this paper we identify and describe the feeding behaviour of bird species that feed on flower resources of Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae in the Pantanal Mato-Grossense, Brazil. We recorded birds foraging in 14 flowered individuals of E. fusca during 25 hours of observation. We recorded 20 bird species belonging to seven families feeding on the flowers. Several of the observed behaviours were destructive, despite some species, especially the Trochilidae and Icteridae, showed feeding strategies that preserve the integrity of the flowers and are compatible with pollen transportation. The comparison of the data gathered in this study with the available literature indicates that the Icteridae may play an important role in pollination of this tree species.

  7. A study of the fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Fabaceae (Leguminosae plants from Turkey I

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    Sahim, Ahmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol, tocotrienol and plastochromanol-8 contents of some selected Fabaceae (Leguminosae species belonging to different genera (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella from Turkey were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. Some of the studied species are endemic to Turkey. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. Palmitic and stearic acids are the major saturated fatty acids in the seed oils. Vicia and Onobrychis patterns showed high similarity in means of qualitative fatty acid concentration. The tocopherol and tocochromanol patterns of the seed oils were also found to be highly variable among the genera investigated here. The total tocopherols was higher than the total tocotrienols. Alpha and gamma tocopherols were also the highest tocopherols present in the whole species. Beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols were not found in most of the studied leguminous patterns. The results are discussed in view of renewable sources and chemotaxonomy.En este estudio, los contenidos en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, tocotrienoles y plastocromanol-8 de algunas especies seleccionadas de Fabaceae (Leguminosae, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella de Turquía, fueron determinadas usando técnicas de GLC y HPLC. Algunas de las especies estudiadas son endémicas de Turquía. Los aceites de semillas de los diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico, oleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Las proporciones de estos ácidos grasos fueron muy variables entre los géneros de leguminosas. Los ácidos palmítico y esteárico son los principales ácidos grasos saturados en los aceites de semillas. Los patrones

  8. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae

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    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol, 0.5% (water:methanol and 1.5% (diethyl ether. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12.Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico. Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga, tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol, 0.5% (agua:metanol y

  9. Associação micorízica em espécies arbóreas, atividade microbiana e fertilidade do solo em áreas degradadas de cerrado

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    Márcia Helena Scabora

    2011-01-01

    growth, where 50 mL of preserved cerrado soil was applied as inoculum of microorganisms. Seedlings of 11 tree species were planted: Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg ('angico-preto', Acacia polyphylla D.C. ('monjoleiro', Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville ('barbatimão', Dimorphandra mollis Benth ('faveiro', Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne ('jatobá-de-cerrado', Dipteryx alata Vog. ('baru', Machaerium acutifolium Vogel ('jacarandá- do-campo', Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi ('aroeirapimenteira', Magonia pubescens St. Hil. ('tingui', Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. ('dedaleira' and Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook ('ipê-amarelo'. Twelve months later, root samples were colleted at the depth of 0-0.10 m and used for evaluations. The subsoil, as compared to pasture soil, was poor in organic matter and presented less microbial activity. The highest mycorrhizal colonization was seen in the species Acacia polyphylla D.C. (monjoleiro, Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (tingui, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (jatobá-de-cerrado and Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (aroeira-pimenteira. These species could be indicated in revegetation projects in 'cerrado' degraded areas. Plants from both areas showed seedlings form high mycorrhizal colonization and low numbers of spores.

  10. Geographical isolation caused the diversification of the Mediterranean thorny cushion-like Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardion, Laurent; Dumas, Pierre-Jean; Abdel-Samad, Farah; Bou Dagher Kharrat, Magda; Surina, Bostjan; Affre, Laurence; Médail, Frédéric; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Baumel, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of Mediterranean vascular flora within the long-term context of climate change requires a continuous study of historical biogeography supported by molecular phylogenetic approaches. Here we provide new insights into the fascinating but often overlooked diversification of Mediterranean xerophytic plants. Growing in some of the most stressing Mediterranean environments, i.e. coastal and mountainous opened habitats, the circum-Mediterranean Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae) gathers several thorny cushion-like taxa. These have been the subjects of recent taxonomical studies, but they have not yet been investigated within a comprehensive molecular framework. Bayesian phylogenetics applied to rDNA ITS sequences reveal that the diversification of A. sect. Tragacantha has roots dating back to the Pliocene, and the same data also indicate an eastern-western split giving rise to the five main lineages that exist today. In addition, AFLP fingerprinting supports an old east-west pattern of vicariance that completely rules out the possibility of a recent eastern origin for western taxa. The observed network of genetic relationships implies that contrary to what is widely claimed in the taxonomic literature, it is range fragmentation, as opposed to a coastal-to-mountain ecological shift, that is likely the main driver of diversification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gelatinous fibers and variant secondary growth related to stem undulation and contraction in a monkey ladder vine, Bauhinia glabra (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jack B; Blanco, Mario A

    2014-04-01

    Some of the most striking stem shapes occur in species of Bauhinia (Fabaceae) known as monkey ladder vines. Their mature stems are flattened and develop regular undulations. Although stems have variant (anomalous) secondary growth, the mechanism causing the undulations is unknown. We measured stem segments over time (20 mo), described stem development using light microscopy, and correlated the changes in stem shape with anatomy. Growing stems are initially straight and bear tendrils on short axillary branches. The inner secondary xylem has narrow vessels and lignified fibers. As stems age, they become flattened and increasingly undulated with the production of two lobes of outer secondary xylem (OX) with wide vessels and only gelatinous fibers (G-fibers). Similar G-fibers are present in the secondary phloem and the cortical sclerified layer. In transverse sections, the concave side of each undulation has a greater area and quantity of G-fibers than the opposite convex side. Some older stems are not undulated and have less lobing of OX. Undulation causes a shortening of the stem segments: up to 28% of the original length. Uneven distribution of G-fibers produces tensions that are involved in the protracted development of undulations. While young extending shoots attach by lateral branch tendrils, older stems may maintain their position in the canopy using undulations and persistent branch bases as gripping devices. Flattened and undulated stems with G-fibers produce flexible woody stems.

  12. An acyltransferase gene that putatively functions in anthocyanin modification was horizontally transferred from Fabaceae into the genus Cuscuta

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    Ting Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT refers to the flow of genetic materials to non-offspring, and occasionally HGT in plants can improve the adaptation of organisms in new niches due to expanded metabolic capability. Anthocyanins are an important group of water-soluble red, purple, or blue secondary metabolites, whose diversity results from modification after the main skeleton biosynthesis. Cuscuta is a stem holoparasitic genus, whose members form direct connection with hosts to withdraw water, nutrients, and macromolecules. Such intimate association is thought to increase the frequency of HGT. By transcriptome screening for foreign genes in Cuscuta australis, we discovered that one gene encoding a putative anthocyanin acyltransferase gene of the BAHD family, which is likely to be involved in anthocyanin modification, was acquired by C. australis from Fabaceae through HGT. The anthocyanin acyltransferase-like (AT-like gene was confirmed to be present in the genome assembly of C. australis and the transcriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona. The higher transcriptional level in old stems is consistent with its putative function in secondary metabolism by stabilizing anthocyanin at neutral pH and thus HGT of this AT-like gene may have improved biotic and abiotic resistance of Cuscuta.

  13. Effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (Fabaceae) on haematological profile in normal and haloperidol treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Busayo, Fadeyibi I

    2011-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (Fabaceae) is a climbing plant claimed in traditional medicine to possess anti-anaemic effect. The study is to investigate the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of M. pruriens (MP) on haematological profile in normal and haloperidol treated rats. MP was administered p.o. at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg to groups of rats daily for 28 days. Control animals received distilled water. Rats were sacrificed on the 28th day and blood samples collected for evaluation of haematological parameters and serum iron. Another set of animals received MP p.o. at same doses but along with haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 4 days. Three other groups of rats received distilled water, haloperidol, and MP at 400 mg/kg alone. Haematological parameters and serum iron were determined. Extract iron content, phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity studies were also carried out. MP administered to normal rats for 28 days significantly (p Mucuna pruriens possibly possess beneficial effects in anaemic conditions especially associated with iron deficiency.

  14. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PRE-GERMINATIVE METHODS FOR THREE TREE SPECIES OF THE FABACEAE FAMILY IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

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    R N Costa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. and Cassia grandis L.f. species belong to the Fabaceae family, are characterized by their seeds present a dormant state, which limits the germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments to overcome dormancy these species. Seeds were collected from matrix trees, located in Agreste of Alagoas and the research developed at the Federal University of Alagoas – Campus de Arapiraca. Overcoming of dormancy was studied in laboratory and greenhouse, where they were employed eight treatments with four replications of 25 seeds, in a completely randomized design: immersion in sulfuric acid (in three periods of immersion, depending on species, scarification with sandpaper, immersion in hot water at 80 °C (2.5 and 5 minutes, imbibition for 24 hours in distilled water and control (seeds without the application of any treatment. The evaluation of the results was made through of germination and emergence percentage; germination and emergence speed index and germination and emergence average time. The pre-germination treatments, mechanical scarification with sandpaper and chemical scarification with sulfuric acid in different immersion times were the most efficient to overcome the seeds dormancy of Sesbania virgata, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia and Cassia grandis Independent of the studied environments.

  15. Aspectos étnicos, biológicos e químicos de Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae

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    T. M. KANEKO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Senna occidentalis (sin. Cassia occidentalis é um arbusto perene nativo da América do Sul e distribuída em regiões tropicais ao redor do mundo, frequentemente contaminando pastos e culturas de cereais. Inúmeros estudos demonstraram que esta planta é tóxica para animais. Na medicina popular, tribos americanas, africanas e indianas usam preparações da S. occidentalis como tônico, estomáquico, febrífugo, laxante e antimicrobiano. Diversas propriedades biológicas da espécie já foram comprovadas, tais como a antibacteriana, antifúngica, antimalárica, antitumoral e hepatoprotetora. As análises fitoquímicas evidenciaram que as antraquinonas, os flavonóides e outros derivados fenólicos são os seus principais constituintes. Esta revisão apresenta dados etnofarmacológicos, químicos e biológicos publicados na literatura sobre S. occidentalis. Palavras-chave: Senna occidentalis. Cassia occidentalis. Fabaceae. Leguminosae. Caesalpinioideae. Fedegoso.

  16. Transferencia de algunos marcadores moleculares microsatélites de la familia Fabaceae en tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet

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    Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar la transferencia de 15 iniciadores microsatélites de la familia Fabaceae en Lupinus mutabilis Sweet “tarwi”, escogidos por presentar transferibilidad entre especies y géneros, por su alto índice de contenido polimórfico (PIC y alto grado de heterocigosidad observada y esperada. Se extrajo el ADN de 300 plantas de tarwi, se estandarizaron las condiciones PCR haciendo gradientes de los diferentes componentes del master mix. Para el screening se corrieron los iniciadores en gel de agarosa 3% con algunas muestras. Finalmente se amplificó la población y se corrieron en gel de poliacrilamida 6% por su mayor resolución. Sólo el 6,67% de iniciadores amplificaron pero resultaron ser monomórficos, por lo que no pueden usarse en caracterización molecular. Se propone ocho iniciadores microsatélites para tarwi, los cuales deben ser probados en condiciones de laboratorio.

  17. Efeito de Brachiaria decumbens na herbivoria e no desenvolvimento de duas leguminosas nativas de cerrado Effect of Brachiaria decumbens on herbivory and development of two cerrado native leguminosae species

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    A.C.V. Pires

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o impacto da presença da gramínea exótica (Brachiaria decumbens na herbivoria e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de espécies nativas (Hymenaea stigonocarpa e Dipteryx alata de Cerrado. Para avaliar o impacto da presença da gramínea, 10 blocos em pastagem (antiga área de Cerrado na Embrapa Gado de Corte (Campo Grande-MS foram demarcados em janeiro de 2009. As gramíneas foram mantidas intactas em metade dos blocos e, na outra metade, foram removidas. Em cada tratamento, foram avaliados a herbivoria, a altura e o diâmetro na altura do solo (DAS de 25 plântulas de cada espécie ao longo do ano. O conteúdo de carbono, nitrogênio e água das folhas também foi quantificado. Plântulas de Hymenaea stigonocarpa nos tratamentos com gramínea tiveram maior taxa de crescimento em diâmetro que as plântulas no tratamento sem gramíneas. As plântulas de Dipteryx alata que estavam no tratamento sem gramíneas tiveram maiores taxas de crescimento em altura que as do tratamento com gramíneas. Houve diferença na taxa de herbivoria de D.alata entre os tratamentos. As plântulas das duas espécies que estavam no tratamento com gramínea mostraram maiores concentrações de carbono e menores de água. O conteúdo de nitrogênio foliar foi maior no tratamento com gramíneas que no sem gramíneas em D.alata; já o nitrogênio em H. stigonocarpa não variou entre os tratamentos. Esses resultados mostram que cada espécie nativa possui distintas respostas fisiológicas e suscetibilidade à herbivoria em ambientes sob competição de recursos com a gramínea exótica, B. decumbens.This study evaluated the impact of the presence of the exotic grass (Brachiaria decumbens on the herbivory and development of seedlings of native species (Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Dipteryx alata of the Cerrado. Thus, 10 pasture plots (former Cerrado at the Embrapa Gado de Corte (Campo Grande-MS were demarcated in January 2009. The grasses were kept intact

  18. Distribution of the endophytic fungi community in leaves of Bauhinia brevipes (Fabaceae Distribuição da comunidade de fungos endofíticos em folhas de Bauhinia brevipes (Fabaceae

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    Mariana Patrícia Amorim Hilarino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi represent large, yet unexplored components of biodiversity. This work evaluated the richness and the distribution of endophytes in the leaves of Bauhinia brevipes (Fabaceae. A total of 1110 colonies were recovered from the samples and grouped by their morphological traits into 126 taxa. The total number of taxa according to leaf development was: 102 in mature leaves, 93 in recently expanded leaves and 79 for unfolded leaves. The major endophyte genera were Phomopsis, followed by Dothiorella, Pestalotiopsis and Acremonium. The richness and the isolate numbers of endophytes were not statistically affected by leaf region. However, some taxa were leaf-age specific; six were isolated only from unfolded leaves, nine from recently expanded leaves and 17 were exclusively found in mature leaves. The composition of endophytes varied with leaf region; the similarities (Jaccard's Index among the leaf regions of different leaf ages ranged from 0.36 to 0.46, indicating a high spatial variation in the community of endophytic fungi inside the leaves. The high richness of endophytes in this host plant highlights a significant contribution of fungi to tropical biodiversity and the need for further research in this area.Fungos endofíticos representam um grande e ainda pouco explorado componente da biodiversidade. O trabalho avaliou a riqueza e a distribuição endofítica nas folhas de Bauhinia brevipes (Fabaceae. Foram obtidas 1110 colônias que foram agrupadas, por suas características morfológicas em 126 táxons. O número total de táxons por estágio foliar foi: 102 em folhas maduras, 93 em folhas recém-expandidas e 79 em não expandidas. O principal gênero de endofítico encontrado foi Phomopsis, seguido por Dothiorella, Pestalotiopsis e Acremonium. A riqueza e o número de isolados não foram estatisticamente influenciadas pela região foliar. Contudo, alguns táxons foram específicas de um estágio foliar; seis foram isoladas apenas

  19. Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae cultivada organicamente

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    M.A. Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae can avoid foraging on plants of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae after the issuance of floral buds, when the prey of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this plant. This reduces the predation and favors increasing the number of adults and eggs of this defoliator on crops of this plant. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate some biological and ecological aspects of C. externa and U. ornatrix on the organic crop of C. juncea in the EMBRAPA Maize and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chrysoperla externa and U. ornatrix were more abundant in the vegetative and flowering stages of C. juncea, respectively, with caterpillars of this defoliator feeding on leaves and seeds of this plant. The duration of the stages/instars, survival, lifetime fecundity, and oviposition showed that the branches of C. juncea are a suitable food for U. ornatrix. The abundance of adults and larvae of C. externa was lower in the flowering and pods stages of C. juncea, respectively, when the postures of U. ornatrix are present, probably due to the toxicity of the eggs of this prey to this predator. During these stages, C. externa may be reared with alternative hosts, and when the crops of C. juncea are scarce, an artificial diet should be used for rearing this defoliator in the laboratory for biological research and the development of biological control tactics.Larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae podem evitar o forrageamento sobre plantas de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae após a emissão de botões florais, quando presas de Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporam alcalóides pirrolizidínicos tóxicos dessa planta. Isso reduz a predação e favorece o aumento do número de adultos e ovos desse desfolhador sobre cultivos dessa planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos e ecológicos de C

  20. Impact of a gall midge Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on the Amazonian plant Parkia pendula (Fabaceae Impacto do galhador Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae sobre a planta da Amazônia Parkia pendula Benth. ex Walp. (Fabaceae

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    G. Wilson Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed the occurrence of large numbers of galls induced by Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on the leaflets of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae in northern Para, Brazil. We addressed two questions in this study: i what is the proportion of attacked plants in the field, and nursery conditions?; and ii what is the impact of galls on the host plant? An average of 86% of the plants were galled in the field. Galled P. pendula were distinct from healthy individuals due to their prostrated architecture and death of terminal shoots. Approximately 50% of the total available leaves and 35% leaflets were attacked by P. paraensis on saplings under nursery conditions. Each one-year old plant supported an average of 1,300 galls, and an average of 60g allocated to galled tissue. Otherwise, attacked individuals were taller and heavier than healthy plants. Attacked plants weighed five times more than healthy plants. When the weight of the galls was removed, the total weight (aerial part without galls of attacked plants was drastically reduced, indicating that most of the biomass of attacked plants was due to the attack by P. paraensis galls. Although the data indicate a paradox, as young plants attacked by the galling herbivore appear to develop more vigorously than unattacked plants, we suggest that P. paraensis negatively affect P. pendula development.Observou-se a ocorrência de um grande número de galhas induzidas por Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae nos folíolos de Parkia pendula (Fabaceae no norte do Pará, Brasil. Este estudo foi direcionado para responder duas perguntas: i qual é a proporção de plantas atacadas no campo e em condições de estufa? e ii qual é o impacto das galhas na planta hospedeira? Uma média de 86% das plantas apresentaram galhas no campo. Indivíduos com galhas de P. pendula eram distintos dos indivíduos saudáveis devido à arquitetura curvada e pela morte dos ramos terminais. Aproximadamente 50% do

  1. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Cyclotides Originated from Chimeric Precursors Consisting of Albumin-1 Chain a and Cyclotide Domains in the Fabaceae Family*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang Kien Truc; Zhang, Sen; Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim; Nguyen, Phuong Quoc Thuc; Chiu, Ming Sheau; Hardjojo, Antony; Tam, James P.

    2011-01-01

    The tropical plant Clitoria ternatea is a member of the Fabaceae family well known for its medicinal values. Heat extraction of C. ternatea revealed that the bioactive fractions contained heat-stable cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). The CRP family of A1b (Albumin-1 chain b/leginsulins), which is a linear cystine knot CRP, has been shown to present abundantly in the Fabaceae. In contrast, the cyclotide family, which also belongs to the cystine knot CRPs but with a cyclic structure, is commonly found in the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, and Cucurbitaceae families. In this study, we report the discovery of a panel of 15 heat-stable CRPs, of which 12 sequences (cliotide T1–T12) are novel. We show unambiguously that the cliotides are cyclotides and not A1bs, as determined by their sequence homology, disulfide connectivity, and membrane active properties indicated by their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and cytotoxicities to HeLa cells. We also show that cliotides are prevalent in C. ternatea and are found in every plant tissue examined, including flowers, seeds, and nodules. In addition, we demonstrate that their precursors are chimeras, half from cyclotide and the other half from Albumin-1, with the cyclotide domain displacing the A1b domain in the precursor. Their chimeric structures likely originate from either horizontal gene transfer or convergent evolution in plant nuclear genomes, which are exceedingly rare events. Such atypical genetic arrangement also implies a different mechanism of biosynthetic processing of cyclotides in the Fabaceae and provides new understanding of their evolution in plants. PMID:21596752

  2. Importance of nickel in Fabaceae. Pt. 1. Comparative studies on the content of nickel and certain other elements in vegetative parts and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1985-02-28

    Vegetative parts and seeds of 15 Fabaceae were analyzed with respect to concentrations of Ni as well as K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. The distribution pattern of the examined elements is different. For the macronutrients and iron mostly a significant higher concentration could be found in the shoot, whilst micronutrients frequently were accumulated in the seed. Nickel is that element, which is accumulated relatively highest in the seed. This is a criterion for a specific importance of nickel, which is a compound of urease and in this function could be involved in the mobilization of nitrogen storage substances of the seed.

  3. Diversidade de angiospermas e espécies medicinais de uma área de Cerrado

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    A.F. SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a diversidade vegetal de uma área de Cerrado em Prudente de Morais, MG, bem como suas indicações medicinais. Foram feitas nove excursões à reserva da Fazenda Experimental Santa Rita da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (FESR/EPAMIG (19°26’20”’ S e 44°09’15”’ W. O material vegetal coletado foi herborizado, identificado e incorporado ao acervo do Herbário PAMG/EPAMIG. O sistema de classificação utilizado foi o APG III. Após a identificação, realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica buscando dados sobre a utilização medicinal das espécies. Coletaram-se 108 espécies pertencentes a 47 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Fabaceae, com 16 espécies, Myrtaceae com sete espécies, Asteraceae e Rubiaceae com seis espécies cada, Malpighiaceae e Solanaceae com cinco espécies cada, Erythroxylaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com quatro espécies cada, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae e Sapindaceae com três espécies cada, Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae e Primulaceae com duas espécies cada. Vinte e nove famílias foram monoespecíficas. Das 108 espécies, 39 são árvores (36%, 43 arbustos (40%, seis subarbustos (5,5%, 14 lianas (13% e seis são ervas (5,5%. Sessenta e seis (61% espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias (83% são utilizadas popularmente, para o tratamento de alguma doença. As famílias com maior número de espécies medicinais foram: Fabaceae com oito espécies; Rubiaceae com cinco espécies e Solanaceae com quatro espécies. As espécies que apresentaram mais finalidades terapêuticas foram: Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae, Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Caryocaraceae, Cochlospermum regium (Mart. ex Schrank Pilg. (Bixaceae, Croton urucurana Bail. (Euphorbiaceae, Gomphrena officinalis Mart. (Amaranthaceae, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae, Lithrea molleoides (Vell. Engl. (Anacardiaceae

  4. Phylogeny, biogeography and character evolution in the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae), with special emphasis on the New Caledonian endemic genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Florian; Gaudeul, Myriam; Lambourdière, Josie; Ramstein, Guillaume; Hassanin, Alexandre; Labat, Jean-Noël; Sarthou, Corinne

    2018-01-01

    The nearly cosmopolitan tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae) includes many important genera for medicine and forage. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the infratribal groups circumscribed using morphological traits are still poorly known. In this study, we used chloroplast (rbcL, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (ITS-1) DNA sequences to investigate the molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of Desmodieae, and infer ancestral states for several vegetative and reproductive traits. Three groups, corresponding to the Desmodium, Lespedeza, and Phyllodium groups sensu Ohashi were retrieved in the phylogenetic analyses. Conflicts in the topologies inferred from the chloroplast and nuclear datasets were detected. For instance, the Lespedeza clade was sister to the groups Phyllodium+Desmodium based on chloroplast DNA, but nested within the Desmodium group based on ITS-1. Moreover, the New Caledonian endemic genera Arthroclianthus and Nephrodesmus were not monophyletic but together formed a clade, which also included Hanslia and Ohwia based on chloroplast DNA. The hypothetical common ancestor of Desmodieae was dated to the Middle Oligocene (ca. 28.3Ma) and was likely an Asian shrub or tree producing indehiscent loments. Several colonization events towards Oceania, America, and Africa occurred (all less than ca. 17.5Ma), most probably through long distance dispersal. The fruits of Desmodieae repeatedly evolved from indehiscence to dehiscence. We also showed that indehiscent loments allow for more variability in the number of seeds per fruit than indehiscent legumes. Modularity seems here to allow variability in the number of ovules produced in a single ovary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Seed colour affects light and temperature requirements during germination in two Lotus species (Fabaceae) of the Arabian subtropical deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Arvind; Gairola, Sanjay; El-Keblawy, Ali A

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneity in seeds mostly occurs due to physiological, environmental and genetic factors, and these could affect seed dormancy and germination. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of seed colour on germination behavior. For this, both light and temperature requirements were assessed in Lotus glinoides and Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) from the hyper-arid deserts of the United Arab Emirates. Germination was assessed in terms of both final germination level (percentage) and germination rate, as expressed by Timson’s germination velocity index. Lotus glinoides produces black and yellow-colored seeds, and L. halophilus produces green and yellow seeds. Different seed lots were germinated in both light and darkness at different temperatures. Yellow seeds of the two species attained significantly lower germination, compared to black and green seeds. There was no specific light or temperature requirements for the germination of the two coloured seeds of L. glinoides; the effect of interactions between seed colour and both light and incubation temperature, were not significant on the final germination percentage. In L. halophilus, green seeds germinated significantly more in both light and darkness at lower temperatures (15/25 °C) and in light at higher temperatures (25/35 °C), compared to yellow seeds. Yellow seeds germinated faster, compared to black at 15/25 °C in L. glinoides and compared to green seeds at 15/25 °C and 25/35 °C in L. halophilus. Seed colour variation, at least in L. halophilus, could be a survival strategy that would determine the time of germination throughout the year in the unpredictable desert environment.

  6. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  7. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  8. Screening of the anticonvulsant activity of some plants from Fabaceae family in experimental seizure models in mice

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    S Sardari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "n  Background and purpose of the study: Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants. Lack of essential oils in the plants of this family can be an advantage in search for safe and effective medicines. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Albizzia julibrissin, Acacia juliflora, Acacia nubica and aerial parts of Astragalus obtusifolius was evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES seizure tests. "n  Methods: The hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were obtained by percolation. Different doses of the extracts were injected to the mice intraperitoneally (i.p. and occurrence of clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p. or tonic seizures induced by MES (50 mA, 50Hz, 1sec were monitored up to 30 min after administration. Acute toxicity of the extracts was also assessed. The safe and effective extract was then fractionated by dichloromethane and anticonvulsant activity of the fractions was determined. Finally, the constituents of the extract and the fractions were screened by thin layer chromatography. "n  Results: Among the extracts, only A. obtusifolius extract showed low toxicity and protective effect against clonic seizures with ED50 value of 3.97 g/kg. Fractionation of the extract led to increase in anticonvulsant activity and ED50 value of 2.86 g/kg was obtained for the aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthrones and saponins in the aqueous fraction. "n  Major conclusion: The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in A. obtusifolius suggests further activity-guided fractionation and analytical studies to find out the potential of this plant as a source of anticonvulsant agent.

  9. Density dependent interactions between VA mycorrhizal fungi and even-aged seedlings of two perennial Fabaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, N; Stock, W D

    1992-08-01

    The interaction of density and mycorrhizal effects on the growth, mineral nutrition and size distribution of seedlings of two perennial members of the Fabaceae was investigated in pot culture. Seedlings of Otholobium hirtum and Aspalathus linearis were grown at densities of 1, 4, 8 and 16 plants per 13-cm pot with or without vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal inoculum for 120 days. Plant mass, relative growth rates, height and leaf number all decreased with increasing plant density. This was ascribed to the decreasing availability of phosphorus per plant as density increased. O. hirtum was highly dependent on mycorrhizas for P uptake but both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal A. linearis seedlings were able to extract soil P with equal ease. Plant size distribution as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) of shoot mass was greater at higher densities. CVs of mycorrhizal O. hirtum plants were higher than those of non-mycorrhizal plants. CVs of the facultatively mycorrhizal A. linearis were similar for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Higher CVs are attributed to resource preemption by larger individuals. Individuals in populations with high CVs will probably survive stress which would result in the extinction of populations with low CVs. Mass of mycorrhizal plants of both species decreased more rapidly with increasing density than did non-mycorrhizal plant mass. It is concluded that the cost of being mycorrhizal increases as plant density increases, while the benefit decreases. The results suggest that mycorrhizas will influence density-dependent population processes of faculative and obligate mycorrhizal species.

  10. Current Status of the Systematics of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae with Special Reference to the Himalayan Species in India

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    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus is considered one of the most diverse genera in the family Leguminosae (nom. alt. Fabaceae. Although a large number of works have been carried out on the genus, no monograph is available except some regional accounts and revisions chiefly at sectional level. It may be due to the sheer size of the genus (ca. 3000 spp. and diverse nature, the genus is quite variable in habit and habitats, size of the plants, nature of indumentums, stipules, leaf rachis, types of inflorescence, relative length of petals, pods etc. Usually, genus is divided into eight to ten subgenera and more than 245 sections. In recently conducted molecular phylogenetic studies it has been shown that none of the subgenera and large sections are monophyletic. However, it has been clearly demonstrated that Astragalus is monophyletic except some outlier species. The chromosome numbers are also quite interesting and significant in Astragalus for its phylogenetic studies. There is a strong correlation between its geographic distribution and chromosome numbers. Currently about 80 species have been recorded from India chiefly from the Himalayas. Except some of our recent publications, not much studies have been carried out on the genus in India after 'The Flora of British India'. Astragalus is not of much economic importance, however, some of its species are well known for commercial gum tragacanth production especially in Iran and China. In India, A. candolleanus is a well known drug as ‘Rudanti’ or ‘Rudravanti’used for tuberculosis, skin diseases, coughs and blood purifier. The aim of this article is to review the entire work carried out on Astragalus and to bring out scattered information at one place for better understanding of the subject and to find out the future prospective of the research in India on the genus.

  11. Tolerância à inundação: aspectos da anatomia ecológica e do desenvolvimento de Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. (Fabaceae

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    Viviane M. Davanso-Fabro

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de Sebania virgata (Cav. Pers. (Fabaceae cultivadas em casa de vegetação foram alagadas por 40 dias. Plantas alagadas apresentaram aumento do peso da matéria seca e comprimento, acentuadas rachaduras corticais e intumescimento cortical esponjoso em caules e raízes, raízes superficiais e raízes adventícias. É possível que a plasticidade morfo-anatômica apresentada por esta espécie esteja contribuindo para o seu estabelecimento em solos hipóxicos.Twenty days seedlings of Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. (Fabaceae cultivated in green house were flooded by forty days. Flooded plants presented increasing of dry weight and lenght, evident cortical fissures and spongy cortical swelling on the stem basis and root, superficial roots on the soil and adventitious roots. It is possible that the morpho-anatomic plasticity presented by this specie is contribuiting for its hipoxic soils stablishment.

  12. Aberration of mitosis by hexavalent chromium in some Fabaceae members is mediated by species-specific microtubule disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Michalopoulou, Vasiliki A; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S

    2015-05-01

    Because the detrimental effects of chromium (Cr) to higher plants have been poorly investigated, the present study was undertaken to verify the toxic attributes of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to plant mitotic microtubules (MTs), to determine any differential disruption of MTs during mitosis of taxonomically related species and to clarify the relationship between the visualized chromosomal aberrations and the Cr(VI)-induced MT disturbance. For this purpose, 5-day-old uniform seedlings of Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis and Vigna angularis, all belonging to the Fabaceae family, were exposed to 250 μM Cr(VI) supplied as potassium dichromate (K₂Cr₂O₇) for 24, 72 and 120 h and others in distilled water serving as controls. Root tip samples were processed for tubulin immunolabelling (for MT visualization) and DNA fluorescent staining (for chromosomal visualization). Microscopic preparations of cell squashes were then examined and photographed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Cr(VI) halted seedling growth turning roots brown and necrotic. Severe chromosomal abnormalities and differential disturbance of the corresponding MT arrays were found in all mitotic phases. In particular, in V. faba MTs were primarily depolymerized and replaced by atypical tubulin conformations, whereas in P. sativum, V. sinensis and V. angularis they became bundled in a time-dependent manner. In P. sativum, the effects were milder compared to those of the other species, but in all cases MT disturbance adversely affected the proper aggregation of chromosomes on the metaphase plate, their segregation at anaphase and organization of the new nuclei at telophase. Cr(VI) is very toxic to seedling growth. The particular effect depends on the exact stage the cell is found at the time of Cr(VI) entrance and is species-specific. Mitotic MT arrays are differentially deranged by Cr(VI) in the different species examined, even if they are taxonomically related, while their

  13. The inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) against Bothrops atrox envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; da Silva, Wania Cristina Rodrigues; Raposo, Juliana D A; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana A; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena

    2016-05-13

    Ethnobotanical studies have shown that Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) has been widely used in cases of snake envenomation, particularly in Northern Brazil. In light of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction obtained from the bark of P. reticulata against the main biological activities induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV). The chemical composition of the aqueous extract of P. reticulata (AEPr) was first investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the extract was then fractionated by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. This yielded five main fractions (Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5), which were analyzed by colorimetry to determine their concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and condensed tannins and to assess their potential for blocking the phospholipase activity of BaV. The Pr5 fraction was defined as the fraction rich in condensed tannins (CTPr), and its inhibitory potential against the activities of the venom was evaluated. CTPr was evaluated in different in vivo and in vitro experimental protocols. The in vivo protocols consisted of (1) pre-incubation (venom:CTPr, w/w), (2) pre-treatment (orally administered) and (3) post-treatment (orally administered) to evaluate the effect on the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV; in the in vitro protocol the effect on phospholipase and coagulant activity using pre-incubation in both tests was evaluated. There was statistically significant inhibition (p<0.05) of hemorrhagic activity by CTPr when the pre-incubation protocol was used [55% (1:5, w/w) and 74% (1:10, w/w)] and when pre-treatment with doses of 50 and 100mg/kg was used (19% and 13%, respectively). However, for the concentrations tested, there was no statistically significant inhibition in the group subjected to post-treatment administered orally. CTPr blocked 100% of phospholipase activity and 63.3% (1:10, w/w) of coagulant activity when it was pre

  14. Toxicity of Millettia ferruginea darasana (family: Fabaceae) against the larvae and adult ticks of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius a three-host tick in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Manash Kumar; Shiferaw, Yoseph; Hussen, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro toxicity of Millettia ferruginea darasana (family: Fabaceae) was tested against the larvae adult male and female of a three-host tick, Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (family: Ixodidae or hard tick), known as 'tropical bont tick' parasitic mainly to cattle found in Ethiopia and other equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % concentrations of the seed oil extracted with petroleum ether were found to kill all (100 % mortality) larvae after 12, 9, 6, 3 and 1.5 h respectively. The results summarized in the Table 1 was found to be statistically significant at the probability level of p = 0.05. The 100 % concentration of the oil caused 100 % mortality of adult male, adult female and fully engorged female tick after 5, 7 and 12 h respectively. The root and root bark showed less toxicity. The leaves did not show any toxicity. [Table: see text].

  15. Differentiation in a geographical mosaic of plants coevolving with ants: phylogeny of the Leonardoxa africana complex (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, C; McKey, D; Douzery, E J P

    2004-05-01

    Comprising four allopatric subspecies that exhibit various grades of ant-plant interactions, from diffuse to obligate and symbiotic associations, the Leonardoxa africana complex (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) provides a good opportunity to investigate the evolutionary history of ant-plant mutualisms. A previous study of the L. africana complex based on chloroplast DNA noncoding sequences revealed a lack of congruence between clades suggested by morphological and plastid characters. In this study, we analysed phylogenetic relationships within the L. africana complex using a Bayesian probability approach on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. The results reported permit partial validation of the four subspecies of L. africana previously defined by morphological and ecological markers. Incongruences between phylogenies based on chloroplast DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers are discussed in the light of morphological and ecological data, and confronted with hypotheses of convergence, lineage sorting and introgression.

  16. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae

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    Camile Giaretta Sachetti

    Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.

  17. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina

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    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    . occidentalis utilizan la planta en forma temporal y oportunista en Prepuna, mientras que la presencia de F. gemina en Puna es esporádica. Se amplía el número de especies de tisanópteros asociadas al cultivo de haba en ArgentinaThysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina. The different phenological stages of Vicia faba provide food resources and substrates for the development of a significant diversity of insects. This study aimed to identify the complex of anthophyllous thrips, analyze the species population fluctuations, to obtain some bioecological aspects and the role they play in this association. The study and sampling was conducted during the flowering-fruiting bean crop stages in two phytogeographical regions of Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479m asl on a weekly basis, from October-December 1995-1996 and Puna (3 367m asl every two weeks, from December 2007-March 2008. Each sample consisted of 25 flowers taken at random; only at Prepuna a complementary sampling of three hits per plant (n=10 plants was conducted. Observations were made on oviposition sites, admission to the flower, pupation sites, feeding behavior and injuries caused. In Prepuna, the Thysanoptera complex consisted of Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei and Thrips tabaci; in Puna, the specific diversity was restricted to F. australis and F. gemina. Although the planting-harvest period in both areas did not match, the fluctuations in populations showed the same pattern: as flowering progressed, the number of thrips coincided with the availability of food resources. In both areas, F. australis was the dominant species and maintained successive populations; it layed eggs in flower buds, and larvae hatched when flowers opened; feeding larvae and adults brought about silvery stains with black spots. In Prepuna, F. australis went through the mobile immature stages on flowers, while quiescent stages were on the ground; in the Puna, all

  18. Estudo químico de duas plantas medicinais da amazônia: Philodendron scabrum k. Krause (araceae e Vatairea guianensis aubl. (fabaceae Chemical study of two Amazonian medicinal plants: Philodendron scabrum K. Krause (Araceae and Vatairea guianensis Aubl. (Fabaceae

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    Ivonei Ottobelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata o estudo químico de duas plantas medicinais da Amazônia: Philodendron scabrum K. krause (Araceae e Vatairea guianensis Aubl. (Fabaceae. As composições dos óleos essenciais dos cipós de P. scabrum e dos frutos de V. guianensis, respectivamente, foram analisadas em CG-DIC e CG-EM. Os constituintes majoritários dos cipós de P. scabrum foram óxido de cariofileno (19,42%, α-copaeno (16,08% e β-bisaboleno (10,01%; e nos frutos de V. guianensis foram o ácido (9Z-octadecenoico (24,95% e o ácido docosahexaenoico (24,17%. β-sitosterol e o alquilresorcinol 1-hexadecanoil-2,6-dihidroxibenzeno foram isolados do extrato etanólico dos cipós de P. scabrum; e do extrato etanólico dos frutos de V. guianensis, foram isoladas as antraquinonas crisofanol e fisciona. As determinações estruturais foram baseadas em dados de RMN de ¹H e 13C. RMN, uni e bidimensional e comparação com dados da literatura.This work describes the chemical study of two medicinal plants of the Amazon Philodendron scabrum K. Krause (Araceae and Vatairea guianensis Aubl. (Fabaceae. Essential oils composition from stems of Philodendron scabrum K. Krause (Araceae and fruits of Vatairea guianensis Aubl. (Fabaceae, respectively were analyzed in GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents from stems of P. scarabum were caryophyllene oxide (22.42%, α-copaene (16.08% and β-bisabolene (12.01% and from fruits of V. guianensis were (9Z-octadecenoic acid (24.95% and docosahexenoic acid (24.17%. β-sitosterol and alkylresorcinol 1-hexadecanoyl-2,6-dihydroxybenzene were isolated from ethanolic extracts from stems of P. scabrum and from ethanolic extracts from fruits of V. guianensis, the athraquinones chrysophanol and physcion were isolated. The structure of isolated compounds we determinate wered based on data from ¹H and 13C NMR, including two dimensional analyses and comparison with literature data.

  19. Seasonal variation of phenolic content in galled and non-galled tissues of Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae Variação sazonal do conteúdo fenólico em tecidos galhados e não-galhados de Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae

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    Michelle de Lima Detoni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti and T. mecanga, induce distinct galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, a globose and a fusiform gall morphotype. Seasonal changes of phenolic content in the tissues of the two distinct galls were compared to those of non-galled leaves and stems of the host plants over one year. The variation in the phenolic content profiles was similar in both non-galled and galled tissues, and was primarily associated with changes in the levels of rainfall, indicating a direct response to hydric stress. In periods of drastic changes in water precipitation, the alterations were significantly higher in non-galled than in galled tissues suggesting that the gall inducers might limit the variation in the phenolic concentration for their own benefit.Duas espécies, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti e T. mecanga, induzem galhas distintas em Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, um morfotipo globoso e um fusiforme. Mudanças sazonais no conteúdo fenólico nos tecidos das duas galhas foram comparadas àquelas de folha e caule não galhados das plantas hospedeiras por um ano. A variação no perfil de conteúdo fenólico foi similar em tecidos galhados e não galhados, sendo associada primariamente às mudanças nos níveis de chuva, constituindo uma resposta direta ao estresse hídrico. Nos períodos de mudanças drásticas na precipitação de água, as alterações foram significativamente maiores em tecido não galhados do que em tecidos galhados, sugerindo que os galhadores estariam limitando a variação do conteúdo fenólico em seu próprio benefício.

  20. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  1. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae) on the Growth and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sâmia, R R; de Oliveira, R L; Moscardini, V F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered a pest of maize crops throughout the Western Hemisphere. We report on the effects of aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae) on the biology of S. frugiperda, as an alternative source of natural bioactive molecules for the sustainable management of this pest. Second instars were sprayed with aqueous extracts prepared with 5% (w/v) plant material and/or fed on an artificial diet containing extracts at a concentration equivalent to 0.25% (w/v) for 17 days. Both leaf and bark extracts of C. langsdorffii significantly reduced S. frugiperda food intake, feces, and larval weight and caused a delay in larval development. Additionally, C. langsdorffii-based extracts increased the oviposition period; induced morphological changes in the eggs, including deformation of the corium and malformation of the micropylar and aeropylar regions; and reduced egg viability. But, aqueous extracts of C. langsdorffii exhibited no negative effects on larval and pupal survival, duration of the pupal stage, survival of pupae, sex ratio, longevity, duration of pre-oviposition period, and female fecundity. Aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of C. langsdorffii are promising alternatives for the control of S. frugiperda in maize crops.

  2. Selective fishing and analysis of xanthine oxidase binders from two Fabaceae species by coupling enzyme functionalized core-shell magnetic nanoparticles with HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangliang; Shi, Shuyun; Zhao, Huading; Yu, Jingang; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-15

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) immobilized core-shell magnetic silica (Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD) nanoparticles coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was developed to fish out and analyze XOD binders from two Fabaceae species, Puerariae lobata flower and Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. The prepared Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD nanoparticles exhibited good specificity for XOD binders, better dispersion in aqueous solution and reusability than those of Fe3O4-XOD nanoparticles. The amount of XOD immobilized onto Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles was 339.9μg/mg and the activity of Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD nanoparticles remained 95% after ten times usage. The optimum conditions of selective fishing were optimized, and finally incubating pH was set at 7, incubating temperature at 25°C and adsorption time at 30min. Twelve XOD binders were successfully identified from ethyl acetate extract of P. lobata flower and G. uralensis root. The developed method provides a rapid, purposeful and effective way to identify active compounds from natural complex mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Análise da pluviosidade e do efeito de borda sobre os teores de flavonóides em Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud., Fabaceae

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    Tadeu J. da S. Peixoto Sobrinho

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a influência do efeito de borda e da pluviosidade sobre a produção de flavonóides em indivíduos de Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud., Fabaceae, em uma área de caatinga no estado de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Foi utilizada metodologia analítica por complexação com cloreto de alumínio para quantificar a concentração de flavonóides contidos nos extratos foliares de B. cheilantha, por meio de espectrofotometria no visível. De forma geral, o efeito de borda afeta a produção de flavonóides, entretanto, não foi possível correlacionar a produção de flavonóides e a pluviosidade, demonstrando que a espécie avaliada utiliza outra estratégia como resposta às pressões ambientais.

  4. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae in the Atlantic forest

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    CAIO C.C. MISSAGIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae, endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337. Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  5. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae en Argentina

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    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01

  6. Taxonomic study of Onobrychis transcaspica V. Nikitin (Fabaceae in northeastern of Iran with emphasis on altitudinal effect on morphological characters using floristic marker

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    Zeinab Toluei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Onobrychis Miller is the second largest genus of Fabaceae in Iran with nearly 60 species. These species are used as valuable forage plants. Onobrychis sect. Onobrychis with nearly 15 species in Iran is one of the important sections of the genus. Onobrychis transcaspica V. Nikitin, is one of the species of this section that is distributed in NE of Iran. To determine intraspecific variations in O. transcaspica from taxonomic point of view and effective ecological factor, data were collected using special station method. In this way, four special stations were recognized for O. transcaspica in NE of Iran. Results from floristic data (Floristic composition of each special station analysis with MVSP software by PCO method, led to identification of 3 separate groups that was indicative of existence of intraspecific diversity. Morphometric data analysis of individual collected from each special station, by using 65 vegetative and reproductive characters, with PCO and UPGMA methods, confirmed 3 mentioned floristic groups. Ecologic data analysis with CCA Method showed the presence of 3 phenoecodeme based on 3 morphologic groups resulting from altitudinal variations.

  7. Co-processed extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, and Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, for production of high load tablets

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    Verônica M. L. Alves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a co-processing technique for improving the manufacturing properties of Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, and Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, extracts in order to obtain tablets containing a high dose of such extracts. An experimental mixture design was used to optimise the formulation composition. Flowability parameters, such as compressibility index, time flow and angle of repose, were determined. Additional important industrial parameters, such as granulometry, bulk density and moisture stability, were also studied. The results demonstrated that co-processing technique was able to improve the flowability of vegetal extracts, making these materials suitable for a direct compression process. The contour plots revealed that formulations with a higher amount of lactose produced the best flow results as well as a larger particle size and a greater bulk density. Tablets from co-processed extracts containing lactose as majority diluent showed appropriate physical-chemical characteristics and presented a more stable moisture sorption behaviour compared to commercial gelatine capsules.

  8. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. G. Don. (Fabaceae by Flow Injection Analysis — Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

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    Wagner Vilegas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the chemical composition of the African plant Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae roots and barks by Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization and Direct Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis. Mass spectral data indicated that B-type oligomers are present, namely procyanidins and prodelphinidins, with their gallate and glucuronide derivatives, some of them in different isomeric forms. The analysis evidenced the presence of up to 40 proanthocyanidins, some of which are reported for the first time. In this study, the antiradical activity of extracts of roots and barks from Parkia biglobosa was evaluated using DPPH method and they showed satisfactory activities.

  9. Hexavalent chromium-induced differential disruption of cortical microtubules in some Fabaceae species is correlated with acetylation of α-tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Michalopoulou, Vasiliki A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on the cortical microtubules (MTs) of five species of the Fabaceae family (Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis, Vigna angularis, and Medicago sativa) were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy after immunolocalization of total tubulin with conventional immunofluorescence techniques and of acetylated α-tubulin with the specific 6-11B-1 monoclonal antibody. Moreover, total α-tubulin and acetylated α-tubulin were quantified by Western immunoblotting and scanning densitometry. Results showed the universality of Cr(VI) detrimental effects to cortical MTs, which proved to be a sensitive and reliable subcellular marker for monitoring Cr(VI) toxicity in plant cells. However, a species-specific response was recorded, and a correlation of MT disturbance with the acetylation status of α-tubulin was demonstrated. In V. faba, MTs were depolymerized at the gain of cytoplasmic tubulin background and displayed low α-tubulin acetylation, while in P. sativum, V. sinensis, V. angularis, and M. sativa, MTs became bundled and changed orientation from perpendicular to oblique or longitudinal. Bundled MTs were highly acetylated as determined by both immunofluorescence and Western immunoblotting. Tubulin acetylation in P. sativum and M. sativa preceded MT bundling; in V. sinensis it followed MT derangement, while in V. angularis the two phenomena coincided. Total α-tubulin remained constant in all treatments. Should acetylation be an indicator of MT stabilization, it is deduced that bundled MTs became stabilized, lost their dynamic properties, and were rendered inactive. Results of this report allow the conclusion that Cr(VI) toxicity disrupts MTs and deranges the MT-mediated functions either by depolymerizing or stabilizing them.

  10. Phylogeny of palaeotropic Derris-like taxa (Fabaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences shows reorganization of (infra)generic classifications is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirichamorn, Yotsawate; Adema, Frits A C B; Gravendeel, Barbara; van Welzen, Peter C

    2012-11-01

    Palaeotropic Derris-like taxa (family Fabaceae, tribe Millettieae) comprise 6-9 genera. They are well known as important sources of rotenone toxin, which are used as organic insecticide and fish poison. However, their phylogenetic relationships and classification are still problematic due to insufficient sampling and high morphological variability. Fifty species of palaeotropic Derris-like taxa were sampled, which is more than in former studies. Three chloroplast genes (trnK-matK, trnL-F IGS, and psbA-trnH IGS) and nuclear ribosomal ITS /5.8S were analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian methods. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of individual and combined markers show more or less similar tree topologies (only varying in terminal branches). The old-world monophyletic genera Aganope, Brachypterum, and Leptoderris are distinct from Derris s.s., and their generic status is here confirmed. Aganope may be classified into two or three subgeneric taxa. Paraderris has to be included in Derris s.s. to form a monophyletic group. The genera Philenoptera, Deguelia, and Lonchocarpus are monophyletic and distinct from each other and clearly separate from Derris s.s. Morphologically highly similar species of Derris s.s. are shown to be unrelated. Our study shows that previous infrageneric classifications of Derris are incorrect. Paraderris elliptica may contain several cryptic lineages that need further investigation. The concept of the genus Derris s.s. should be reorganized with a new generic circumscription by including Paraderris but excluding Brachypterum. Synapomorphic morphological features will be examined in future studies, and the status of the newly defined Derris and its closely related taxa will be formalized.

  11. Antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol seed extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (Fabaceae) is mediated through calcium antagonism induced vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getiye, Yohannes; Tolessa, Tesfaye; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2016-08-02

    Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subsp. aurea (CASA) (Fabaceae) seeds are used to treat hypertension in Ethiopian folklore medicine, particularly by Shinasha, Agew-awi and Amhara people in northwest Ethiopia. However, the claim has so far not been substantiated scientifically. The study was conducted to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of 80% methanol extract of CASA in animal model of hypertension as well as its vasorelaxant effect and possible underlying mechanisms in isolated guinea pig aorta. Hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of CASA extract was determined in vivo through the intravenous (iv) route in normotensive and hypertensive anesthetized rats using 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Ex vivo, guinea pig thoracic aortic rings were isolated and suspended in organ bath, and the vasodepressor effects as well as the mechanism of action of the extract were studied by means of isometric tension recording experiments. The blood pressure fell dose-dependently and significantly in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats following i.v. administration, suggesting that the hydroalcoholic extract possesses hypotensive and antihypertensive effects. The extract also caused a dose-dependent relaxation of aorta pre-contracted with KCl at a concentration of 5-250mg/L, with a maximum relaxation of 92.1% achieved at 250mg/L. The relaxation mechanism was found to be independent of the muscarinic receptors, histamine receptors, ATP dependent K(+) channels, cyclooxygenase enzymes, cGMP/NO pathway and the endothelium system. The extract caused rightward shift of the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that caused by verapamil, indicating that it produced vasorelaxation by inhibiting extracellular Ca(2+) influx. The findings demonstrate that the plant is endowed with antihypertensive effect, providing evidence for its traditional use. The effect may be, at least in part, due to dilation of blood vessels through blockage of Ca(2+) channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  12. Observations préliminaires de la variabilité entre quelques morphotypes de voandzou (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., Fabaceae de Côte d'Ivoire

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    Zoro Bi IA.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary observations of variability between some morphotypes of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., Fabaceae from Côte d’Ivoire. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc., is a food legume mainly cultivated by women for whom it represents a source of income for the household. In Côte d’Ivoire, the cultivation of bambara groundnut is located in the western and northern parts of the country. These zones are characterised by contrasted agroecology including tropical rain forest and dry savanna. In these zones, bambara groundnut plays a key role in both food and culture of peoples. Four morphotypes of Côte d’Ivoire (ICU, BPR, RBU, NFU were used in a preliminary study to assess the phenotypic variability between morphotypes. For each morphotype, 100 individuals were sampled to analyse 26 agromorphological traits selected from the list of bambara groundnut descriptors. Results of statistical analyses showed an important variability among morphotypes suggesting that 22 of these characters could be powerful to distinguish diversity among bambara groundnut morphotypes of Côte d’Ivoire. Three morphotypes (ICU, BPR and RBU show a shorter reproductive cycle than the other (NFU. In our experimental conditions, morphotypes with a shorter reproductive cycle give a higher percentage of matured pods (87 to 95%, compared to morphotype NFU (60%. The morphotype ICU was particularly earlier, maturing 90 days after sowing (DAS, whereas the long reproductive cycle morphotype (NFU required about 137 days. Based on the analysed agronomic traits, possibilities to improve bambara groundnut yield and to promote its cultivation in Côte d’Ivoire are discussed.

  13. Ecologie et gestion des espèces multi-usages du genre Erythrophleum (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae en Afrique (synthèse bibliographique

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    Gorel, AP.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecology and management of the multipurpose Erythrophleum species (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae in Africa. A review. Introduction. Widespread in Africa, the Erythrophleum genus includes four tropical tree species with a high economic and socio-cultural value: Erythrophleum ivorense, Erythrophleum suaveolens, Erythrophleum africanum and Erythrophleum lasianthum. Appropriate knowledge of the ecology and the distribution of these species is required for their sustainable management. This paper is based on an extensive literature review and summarizes the available information on the African Erythrophleum species in terms of botany, phylogeography, ecology, forestry and ethnobotany. Literature. Erythrophleum ivorense, E. suaveolens, E. africanum and E. lasianthum are morphologically different and occur in distinct climatic areas. They are non-pioneer light demander (E. ivorense and E. suaveolens or pioneer species (E. africanum. Their primary mode of dispersal is via ballochore. The seeds have a dormancy period and can remain in the soil for several years. Their reproductive and foliar phenologies are regular and annual. Growth rate varies between species, ranging from 0.65 cm per year for E. ivorense to 0.16 cm per year for E. africanum. These trees are used in traditional medicine. Only E. ivorense and E. suaveolens (Tali are mainly logged for timber. Conclusions. Erythrophleum species ecological data are better informed for E. ivorense and E. suaveolens because of their economic importance. This review highlights the existing lack of knowledge regarding the phenology (effects of climate, fructification periods, the minimum diameter of fructification and the mechanisms of natural seed dormancy breakage. Targeting such weaknesses is required to create or re-evaluate methods of conservation and/or enhancement of populations and logging practices.

  14. Effects of the parasitism of Struthanthus flexicaulis (Mart. Mart. (Loranthaceae on the fitness of Mimosa calodendron Mart. (Fabaceae, an endemic shrub from rupestrian fields over ironstone outcrops, Minas Gerais State, Brazil Efeitos do parasitismo de Struthanthus flexicaulis (Mart. Mart. (Loranthaceae na aptidão de Mimosa calodendron Mart. (Fabaceae, um arbusto endêmico dos campos rupestres sobre canga, em Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Fabiana Alves Mourão

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic plants (mistletoes may alter the growth, reproduction and physiology of their hosts. Mimosa calodendron (Fabaceae is a legume abundant in rupestrian fields on ironstone outcrops, frequently attacked by the hemiparasite Struthanthus flexicaulis (Loranthaceae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of parasitism by S. flexicaulis on the fitness of M. calodendron. The intensity of parasitism and mortality on hosts of different sizes was evaluated, and foliage cover, fruit and seed set in parasitized and non-parasitized individuals were compared. More than 65% of a population of 1820 individuals was attacked. Host density positively influenced parasitism. The mortality and number of attacked hosts increased with their crown diameter. Heavily parasitized individuals showed 75 to 95% reduction of leaf cover and fruit production of 25% of those non-parasitized. Although no statistical difference was detected between the number of seeds per fruit, seed weight was lower in attacked plants. Parasitism by S. flexicaulis on M. calodendron may alter its population structure and dynamics, by reducing survival and fecundity rates.As plantas parasitas (ervas-de-passarinho podem alterar o crescimento, reprodução e fisiologia das hospedeiras. Mimosa calodendron (Fabaceae é uma leguminosa abundante nos campos rupestres sobre canga, freqüentemente atacada pela hemiparasita Struthanthus flexicaulis (Loranthaceae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as conseqüências do parasitismo de S. flexicaulis na aptidão de M. calodendron. Foram avaliadas a intensidade de parasitismo e mortalidade em mimosas de diferentes tamanhos, e comparadas a cobertura foliar e a produção de frutos e sementes em indivíduos parasitados e não parasitados. Mais de 65% da população de 1.820 indivíduos estavam parasitados. A densidade de mimosas influenciou positivamente o parasitismo. As taxas de parasitismo e de mortalidade foram maiores nas

  15. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

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    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers further declined, apparently following the pattern of nectar availability. The manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. E. speciosa seemed best suited for pollination by long-billed hummingbirds but some short to medium-billed species may play some role on its pollination.Nove espécies de aves - sete beija-flores (Trochilidae e duas aves Passeriformes - foram observados visitando as flores de Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, uma espécie polinizada por beija-flores presente no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. O néctar em flores ensacadas apresentou pouca relação com aquele em flores expostas aos visitantes, tanto em termos de quantidade como em temos de padrão diurno de disponibilidade. As aves foram mais freqüentes de manhã e sua atividade nas flores diminuiu no transcorrer do dia, coincidindo com o padrão de disponibilidade de néctar. O comportamento de visita das aves e, em conseqüência, sua atuação na polinização da espécie foram em grande parte determinadas por características morfológicas e comportamentais destas. E. speciosa parece ser adaptada para polinização por beija-flores de bicos longos, embora espécies com bicos de comprimento curto a médio possam ter algum papel em sua polinização.

  16. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Leonaldo Alves de Andrade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental deexóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidosrevelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrubtree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of thecommunities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  17. Superação de dormência e influência da temperatura, substrato e fotoperíodo na germinação de sementes de Erythrina crista-galli L. (FABACEAE

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    Luciano Moura de Mello

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina crista-galli L. (FABACEAE é uma árvore nativa do Brasil, Uruguai, Paraguai, Bolívia e Argentina. As Regras de Análises de Sementes - RAS não possuem orientações para a realização de testes de germinação para a espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o desempenho de tratamentos para a superação de dormência das sementes e recomendar condições adequadas de substrato, temperatura e fotoperíodo para a realização de testes de germinação. O tratamento indicado para a superação da dormência foi a escarificação mecânica e a temperatura ótima para os testes de germinação de 30ºC constantes. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos em relação aos substratos testados nem quanto aos fotoperíodos indicando-se assim o substrato entre papel e com 8h de luz por sua praticidade e economia. Superação de dormência e influência da temperatura, substrato e fotoperíodo na germinação de sementes de Erythrina crista-galli L. (FABACEAE

  18. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition.

  19. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornos, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Iglesias, Rebeca; Jiménez, Teresa; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2012-11-07

    Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the described group of 20 to 40

  20. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Mark G.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. Methods The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972–2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. Key Results A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (<20 %). Prolonged exposure at higher humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33–55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Conclusions Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic

  1. La semilla de Campsiandra angustifolia (Fabaceae:Caesalpiniodeaecomo un reflejo de las presiones selectivas sobre su dispersión y establecimiento

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    Alejandro G Farji-Brener

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluamos indirectamente las presiones selectivas sobre la dispersión y el establecimiento en Campsiandra angustifolia, un árbol de la Amazonía Peruana dispersado por agua, analizando variaciones de la relación entre el volumen ocupado por las estructuras de dispersión y de establecimiento en sus semillas. Medimos un total de 535 semillas de 13 árboles ubicados en tres hábitats diferentes, las cuales presentaron una gran variación en su volumen total. Independientemente del tamaño de la semilla y de la ubicación del árbol de origen, la relación entre el volumen asignado a estructuras de establecimiento y a estructuras de dispersión fue relativamente constante (~1 y presentó una distribución normal con baja asimetría, indicando selección estabilizante. Este resultado sugiere que los procesos de dispersión y establecimiento poseen una importancia relativa similar para C.angustifolia en los hábitats estudiados. En especies con semillas empaquetadas, el volumen relativo ocupado por estructuras relacionadas con la dispersión o el establecimiento podría ser una medida más adecuada de la solución de compromiso entre estos dos procesos que la variación del tamaño de la semillaThe seeds of Campsiandra angustifolia (Fabaceae:Caesalpiniodeae as a reflex of selective pressures on dispersal and establishment. We indirectly evaluated the selective pressures on dispersal and establishment of Campsiandra angustifolia, a common water-dispersed tree from the Peruvian Amazon, analyzing the variation in the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures in a total of 535 seeds from 13 trees located at three different habitats. The seeds differed one order of magnitude in their total volume. However, independently of their size and the location of the maternal tree, the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures was relatively constant (~1 and showed a normal

  2. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Mark G; Ooi, Mark K J

    2014-09-01

    Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972-2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33-55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic approach to modelling this variation in population studies. Forecast changes in climate have

  3. Soil organisms associated to the weed suppressant Crotalaria juncea (fabaceae and its importance as a refuge for natural enemies Organismos de solo associados à supressora de plantas daninhas Crotalaria juncea (fabaceae e sua importância como refúgio para inimigos naturais

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    W.S Tavares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organisms play an important role in organic crops of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae and are associated with the natural conservation of the environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the population of soil organisms in the organic culture of C. juncea, as well as its importance as a refuge for natural enemies. Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Diabrotica sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, Gryllus assimilis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Lagria villosa (Coleoptera: Lagriidae, Melanotus sp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae, Meloidogyne incognita (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae, Nephila clavipes (Araneae: Nephilidae, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Myrmicidae, Phyllophaga sp. (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae, Procornitermes sp. (Isoptera: Termitidae, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae were identified in C. juncea. The organisms that were found during a 3-month period in 144 trenches in C. juncea were pest species (84.47% and natural enemies (15.53% as well. Natural enemies had an average of 11.89 individuals per 1.08 m³ of soil cultivated with C. juncea. The abundance of organisms in the pod stage (5.49% of C. juncea was lower than that in the vegetative (83.50% and flowering (11.01% stages. Crotalaria juncea plants can be used as part of a crop system for Integrated Pest Management.Organismos de solo desempenham um importante papel em cultivos orgânicos de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae e estão associados com a conservação natural do ambiente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a população de organismos de solo no cultivo orgânico de C. juncea, bem como sua importância como um refúgio para inimigos naturais. Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Diabrotica sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, Gryllus assimilis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Lagria villosa (Coleoptera

  4. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae en Argentina

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    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01Las arañas son depredadoras capaces de reducir las poblaciones de insectos plaga en agroecosistemas. Para medir la selectividad frente a distintas presas, se realizaron ensayos de consumo diario, efecto de los depredadores aisladamente y en conjunto sobre el número de presas y efecto indirecto de los depredadores sobre la vegetación; se utilizaron jaulas experimentales de 1x1m cubiertas con una fina malla plástica. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus y

  5. Caracterización y variación espacio-temporal del néctar en anarthrophyllum desideratum (Fabaceae: Influencia del clima y los polinizadores

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    Valeria Paiaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizó el volumen, la concentración y la composición de azúcares del néctar floral en Anarthrophyllum desideratum (DC Benth., un arbusto endémico de la estepa Patagónica polinizado por aves Passeriformes, y se evaluó su variación espacio-temporal. Se analizaron las diferencias entre áreas ecológicas, poblaciones, plantas y años, y las relaciones entre rasgos, la temperatura, precipitación y tasa de visitas de las poblaciones. El néctar mostró un volumen promedio de 8,1 µl, una concentración de 28% y estuvo dominado por hexosas, como en otras especies ornitófilas. Los atributos del néctar estuvieron correlacionados a nivel poblacional, y las diferencias entre poblaciones explicaron la mayor parte de su variabilidad espacial. El volumen y la concentración variaron entre años, mientras que la composición de azúcares se mantuvo constante. La proporción de glucosa disminuyó con el aumento de la temperatura, pero el resto de los caracteres no se asoció con las variaciones climáticas de la región. El volumen de néctar disminuyó a medida que aumentó la tasa de visitas de las poblaciones. Los resultados sugieren la existencia de una importante variación espacio-temporal del néctar en A. desideratum que no respondería a gradientes ambientales simples sino a un escenario complejo con múltiples factores.Characterization and spatio-temporal variation of nectar in Anarthrophyllum desideratum (Fabaceae: Influence of climate and pollinators. In this study we characterized the volume, concentration and sugar composition of floral nectar in Anarthrophyllum desideratum (DC Benth., an endemic shrub from the Patagonian steppe pollinated by Passerine birds, and we evaluated it spatio-temporal variation. We analyzed the differences among ecological areas, populations, plants and years, and the relationships between traits, the temperature, rainfall and visitation rate of populations. Nectar showed an average

  6. Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. Fabaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Désinfection en surface des graines et préparation de l'explant. Les graines ont subi un trempage rapide (1min) dans l'éthanol 70 % (v/v), suivi de l'immersion pendant 30 min dans l'hypochlorite de calcium 7 % (m/v). Elles ont ensuite été abondamment rincées dans de l'eau distillée stérile. Après 48 heures d'imbibition à ...

  7. IN Hedysarum coronarium L. (FABACEAE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 1 : A picture showing an erect plant of H. coronarium at flowering stage. This phenotype is ... LOS : mean height of principal stem at the end of plant development (cm) ;. LHS : mean length of ..... classification factor. Mahalanobis distan-.

  8. and Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) increased the activity of pyruvate kinase in the liver when compared with the diabetic control group. Conclusion: ... include single ring phenolic acids and monomeric flavonoids ... antioxidant properties. The present ..... such as ALT indicates the concentration of .... Joubert E, Gelderblom WC, Louw A, de Beer D. South.

  9. Caracterização de solos de duas formações de restinga e sua influência na constituição química foliar de Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceaee Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae Soil characterization of two restinga formations and its influence on leaf chemistry in Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceae and Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehová Lourenço Junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As hipóteses sobre o posicionamento das formações de restinga são diversas sendo o gradiente salino e a fertilidade do solo as mais difundidas. Buscando elucidar essas questões, foram analisadas as propriedades dos solos das formações psamófila-reptante (FPR e Palmae (FP bem como a constituição química foliar de C. rosea (Sw. DC. restrita à FPR e P. mucronata Lam., na FP. O solo da FP destacou-se pela maior fertilidade. Maiores teores dos metais Fe, Zn e ISNa foram encontrados em solos da FPR. Não foi detectada a presença de Al nas duas formações. O pH dos solos é alcalino sem diferenças entre as duas formações. Os elementos químicos P, S, Cu e Zn acumulam-se em maiores concentrações em folhas de P. mucronata. C. rosea destacou-se pelos maiores teores foliares de N, Fe e B. Essa Fabaceae mostrou valores superiores do fator de concentração para o Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu e B enquanto que P. mucronata, para o P e Zn. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que as características pedológicas têm papel chave no estabelecimento de C. rosea na FPRe de P. mucronata na FP.Hypotheses as to the position of restinga formations are many, the most widespread being the salinity gradient and soil fertility. In order to elucidate these questions, soil properties of the creeping psammophyte (CPF and Palmae formations (PF as well as leaf chemistry of C. rosea (Sw. DC. restricted to the former and P. mucronata Lam. in the latter were analyzed. The PF soil was more fertile. Higher content of Fe, Zn and ISNa was found in CPF soil. The presence of Al in these two formations was not detected. Soil pH is alkaline, with no difference found between the two formations. The chemical elements P, S, Cu and Zn accumulate in greater concentrations in P. mucronata leaves. C. rosea was distinguished by a higher leaf content of N, Fe and B. This legume showed greater factor of concentration values for Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and B whereas P. mucronata, for P and Zn. The results

  10. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of acetone leaf extracts of nine under-investigated Fabaceae tree species leads to potentially useful extracts in animal health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, Jean P; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2014-05-05

    The Fabaceae family is the second largest family of medicinal plants, containing more than 490 species which are being used as traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity as well as the cytotoxicity of acetone leaf extracts of nine tree species from the Fabaceae family that have not been investigated well previously for possible use in animal health and production. The antibacterial activity was determined by a serial microdilution method against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical scavenging assays. The safety of the extracts was ascertained using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on Vero African green monkey kidney cells. Six of the nine acetone extracts had significant antibacterial activity against at least one of the six bacterial species with (MIC 20-80 μg/mL). The Crotalaria capensis extract had the highest activity against Salmonella typhimurium, followed by Indigofera cylindrica with MICs of 20 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL respectively. The Dalbergia nitidula extract had free radical scavenging capacity (IC50 of 9.31±2.14 μg/mL) close to that of the positive control Trolox in the DPPH assay. The Xylia torreana extract also had high activity (IC50 of 14.56±3.96 μg/mL) in the ABTS assay. There was a good correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (R2 values>0.8). The extracts had weak or no toxicity to Vero cells, compared to the positive control doxorubicin with the LC50 varying from 10.70±3.47 to 131.98±24.87 μg/mL at the concentrations tested. Extracts of D. nitidula, X. torreana, C. capensis and I. cylindrica had a low cytotoxicity and high antimicrobial and/or antioxidant activity. These species are therefore promising candidates for the development of useful antimicrobial/antioxidant preparations with a low cytotoxicity that may be useful in promoting

  11. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535 Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraiba, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental de exóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidos revelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrub-tree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of the communities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  12. An Ecological Comparison of Floristic Composition in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Southeast Brazil: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Sérgio de Faria; Schiavini, Ivan; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Vale, Vagner Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We examined floristic patterns of ten seasonal semideciduous forest sites in southeastern Brazil and conducted a central sampling of one hectare for each site, where we took samples and identified all individual living trees with DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.30 m) ≥4.8 cm. Arboreal flora totaled 242 species, 163 genera, and 58 families. Fabaceae (38 species) and Myrtaceae (20 species) were families with the largest number of species. Only Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea courbaril occ...

  13. Parâmetros fitossociológicos de um cerrado no Parque Nacional Da Serra Do Cipó, MG Phytosociological parameters of a cerrado in "Serra Do Cipó" national park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza de espécies e os fatores determinantes da ocorrência da vegetação de cerrado há muito têm despertado o interesse de pesquisadores. Muitos cerrados protegidos em unidades de conservação ainda não foram investigados florística e estruturalmente. Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (19º22'01''S e 43º37'10''W. Foram instaladas 12 parcelas de 150 m² e foram amostrados todos os indíviduos lenhosos com circunferência do caule à altura do solo maior ou igual a 10 cm. Foram relacionadas 44 espécies de 37 gêneros e 30 famílias. Entre estas, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae e Guttiferae, com três espécies cada, foram as mais ricas. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis e Piptocarpha rotundifolia.The diversity of species and the factors determining the occurrence of cerrado vegetation have long called the attention of researchers. Many protected cerrados in Conservation Units have not been floristically and structurally studied. This work conducted a floristic and phytosociological survey of the Parque Nacional da "Serra do Cipó" ("Serra do Cipó" National Park (19º22'01''S and 43º37'10''W. Twelve quadrats of 150 m² were established and all individuals with a stem circumference at ground level larger than or equal to 10 cm were sampled. A total of 44 species of 37 genera and 30 families were found. The richest families were Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae and Guttiferae, with three species each. The most important species (VI were Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis and Piptocarpha rotundifolia.

  14. Associação micorízica em espécies arbóreas, atividade microbiana e fertilidade do solo em áreas degradadas de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Helena Scabora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A recuperação de áreas de obras das barragens, em especial de "áreas de empréstimos", é difícil e consiste em um processo lento, visto que toda a vegetação e a camada fértil do solo foram removidas. Intervenções nessas áreas poderiam acelerar o processo de revegetação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a associação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA em espécies arbóreas, atividade microbiana pela respiração basal e fertilidade em áreas degradadas de cerrado. Utilizou-se solo de duas áreas, solo de pastagem e subsolo exposto. Adubações orgânica e mineral, além da calagem, foram efetuadas nas covas, visando a um melhor crescimento inicial das mudas, assim como, 50 mL de solo de cerrado preservado como inoculante de microrganismos. Mudas de 11 espécies arbóreas foram plantadas ou seja: Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (angico-preto, Acacia polyphylla D.C. (monjoleiro, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville (barbatimão, Dimorphandra mollis Benth (faveiro, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (jatobá-de-cerrado, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Machaerium acutifolium Vogel (jacarandá-do-campo, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (aroeira-pimenteira, Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (tingui, Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (dedaleira e Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. (ipê-amarelo. Doze meses após a instalação do experimento, amostras de raízes foram coletadas na camada de 0-0,10 m para as avaliações. O subsolo, em relação ao solo de pastagem, continuou pobre em matéria orgânica e com menor atividade microbiana. As maiores porcentagens de colonização micorrízica por FMA foram observados nas espécies Acacia polyphylla D.C. (monjoleiro, Magonia pubescens St. Hil. (tingui, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (jatobá-de-cerrado e Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (aroeira-pimenteira. Tais espécies podem ser indicadas para projetos de revegetação em áreas degradadas de cerrado. As plantas das duas

  15. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  16. Large-scale pattern of genetic differentiation within African rainforest trees: insights on the roles of ecological gradients and past climate changes on the evolution of Erythrophleum spp (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duminil, Jerome; Brown, Richard P; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B K; Mardulyn, Patrick; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Hardy, Olivier J

    2013-09-12

    The evolutionary events that have shaped biodiversity patterns in the African rainforests are still poorly documented. Past forest fragmentation and ecological gradients have been advocated as important drivers of genetic differentiation but their respective roles remain unclear. Using nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) and chloroplast non-coding sequences (pDNA), we characterised the spatial genetic structure of Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) forest trees in West and Central Africa (Guinea Region, GR). This widespread genus displays a wide ecological amplitude and taxonomists recognize two forest tree species, E. ivorense and E. suaveolens, which are difficult to distinguish in the field and often confused. Bayesian-clustering applied on nSSRs of a blind sample of 648 specimens identified three major gene pools showing no or very limited introgression. They present parapatric distributions correlated to rainfall gradients and forest types. One gene pool is restricted to coastal evergreen forests and corresponds to E. ivorense; a second one is found in gallery forests from the dry forest zone of West Africa and North-West Cameroon and corresponds to West-African E. suaveolens; the third gene pool occurs in semi-evergreen forests and corresponds to Central African E. suaveolens. These gene pools have mostly unique pDNA haplotypes but they do not form reciprocally monophyletic clades. Nevertheless, pDNA molecular dating indicates that the divergence between E. ivorense and Central African E. suaveolens predates the Pleistocene. Further Bayesian-clustering applied within each major gene pool identified diffuse genetic discontinuities (minor gene pools displaying substantial introgression) at a latitude between 0 and 2°N in Central Africa for both species, and at a longitude between 5° and 8°E for E. ivorense. Moreover, we detected evidence of past population declines which are consistent with historical habitat fragmentation induced by Pleistocene climate changes. Overall

  17. Efeito da temperatura e luz na germinação de sementes de Luetzelburgia auriculata (Alemão Ducke - Fabaceae The effect of temperature and light on Luetzelburgia auriculata (Alemão Ducke seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Barboza Nogueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Luetzelburgia auriculata (Alemão Ducke é uma espécie arbórea nativa do Brasil, pertencente à família das Fabaceae, importante pela utilidade econômica de sua madeira na construção civil, marcenaria e produção de lenha e carvão. O experimento foi conduzido em laboratório para avaliar o processo germinativo de suas sementes, na ausência e presença de luz, submetido às temperaturas constantes de 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C e alternada de 20-40 °C, sob fotoperíodo de 12 horas e escuro contínuo. As variáveis avaliadas foram porcentagem, velocidade e tempo médio de germinação. As sementes germinaram na presença e na ausência de luz, com as maiores médias alcançadas em 20-40 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C e 35 °C e as menores em 40 °C. Suas sementes são indiferentes à luz. A faixa ótima de temperatura entre 25 a 30 °C possibilitou alta germinabilidade e menor tempo médio de germinação.Luetzelburgia auriculata (Alemão Ducke is a native tree species in Brazil with wood that is economically important in construction, carpentry and production of firewood and charcoal. A laboratory experiment was carried out to analyze seed germination of L. auriculata in the presence and absence of light, as well as constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C and alternating temperatures of 20-45 °C, all under a photoperiod of 12 hours and continuous darkness. The variables evaluated were: percentage, speed and medium time of germination. The seeds germinated in the presence and absence of light, the highest percentages of germination were at 20-40, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the lowest at 40 °C. The seeds were indifferent to light. The optimum temperature range was between 25 and 30 °C, which promoted a high germination rate and a lower average germination time.

  18. Descripción, distribución, anatomía, composición química y usos de Mimosa tenuiflora (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lucía Camargo-Ricalde

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una serie de catástrofes ocurridas en México durante la década de 1980, se popularizó el uso de la corteza del "tepescohuite" contra heridas y quemaduras de la piel. Los medios de comunicación masiva manejaron la escasa información hasta entonces conocida y desinformaron a la sociedad, propagando una serie de mitos alrededor de esta planta. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la identidad taxonómica e investigar la distribución y anatomía de la corteza y de la madera de esta especie. También se investigaron sus usos actuales e históricos y se recopiló información sobre la farmacología y toxicidad de la corteza. Su identidad taxonómica se determina como Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae. Florece y fructifica de noviembre a junio y se localiza en México (estados de Oaxaca y Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela y Brasil, en altitudes de 0-1110 (-1520 msnm. En México se establece en selvas bajas, matorrales espinosos, en bosques de Pinus y de Pinus-Quercus, pudiendo formar matorrales casi puros de esta especie, así como a la orilla de caminos y en terrenos de cultivo en descanso o abandonados. Su distribución es agregada en los bosques y en las selvas y uniforme en los matorrales. Presenta una densidad promedio de 9 individuos por m², con 0.45 individuos de frecuencia por cuadrante y una cobertura promedio de 1.69 m²; además, tiene una gran amplitud de tolerancia a factores climáticos y edáficos, ratificando que es una especie de carácter oportunista y típicamente secundaria. Regionalmente, se utiliza como fuente de madera para combustible y postes para cercas, en medicina popular se usa contra heridas y quemaduras de la piel (infusión, polvo y/o pomada a partir de la corteza; además, se comercializan diversos productos como champúes, cremas, cápsulas, jabones, etc. La corteza es rugosa, de color café rojizo a grisácea, de textura

  19. Availability and use of woody plants in a agrarian reform settlement in the cerrado of the state of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pessanha Tunholi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are important sources providing plant resources for human populations, and contributing to the livelihood and income of families. To test the ecological apparency hypothesis, that there is positive relationship between the visibility of a species and its use, we conducted an ethnobotanical survey in the protected area of the Itaúna rural settlement in the municipality of Planaltina, in the state of Goiás, in central Brazil. The phytosociological parameters were obtained in 5.6 ha area of the Brazilian cerrado (savanna, and the ethnobotanical survey conducted with semi-structured interviews with 75 people. There was a weak positive correlation between the use value and the phytosociological parameters. A principal component analysis showed that seven species (Pterodon pubescens, Hancornia speciosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Eugenia dysenterica, Annona crassiflora, Stryphnodendron adstringens and Solanum lycocarpum have high use value, despite having low density, dominance and frequency. Nineteen species showed a positive relationship between their use value and their phytosociological parameters. The relationship between vegetation structure and use value differed among species in the protected area, indicating that more attention should be paid to those under more pressure, with low abundance. Further studies of these seven species should be conducted to determine whether human pressure is affecting populations structures and to define management strategies.

  20. Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (11), pp. ... Full Length Research Paper ... of Millettia versicolor Baker, a medicinal plant used in the traditional ... The spectral analysis enabled us to identify 4 known .... evidence for participation of protein kinase C and protein kinase A ... Neoplasma 51(6): 407-414.

  1. Rhizobial infection in Adesmia bicolor (Fabaceae) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Luciana

    2014-09-01

    The native legume Adesmia bicolor shows nitrogen fixation efficiency via symbiosis with soil rhizobia. The infection mechanism by means of which rhizobia infect their roots has not been fully elucidated to date. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to identify the infection mechanism in Adesmia bicolor roots. To this end, inoculated roots were processed following conventional methods as part of our root anatomy study, and the shape and distribution of root nodules were analyzed as well. Neither root hairs nor infection threads were observed in the root system, whereas infection sites-later forming nodules-were observed in the longitudinal sections. Nodules were found to form between the main root and the lateral roots. It can be concluded that in Adesmia bicolor, a bacterial crack entry infection mechanism prevails and that such mechanism could be an adaptive strategy of this species which is typical of arid environments.

  2. Indigofera tinctoria Linn (Fabaceae) attenuates cognitive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cognitive-enhancing activity of the ITE (5, 10 and 20 μg/mL) was studied by passive avoidance response, elevated plus ... preserving brain functions and forestalling ... °C until use. Animals .... scopolamine-induced decreased percentage.

  3. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  4. Indigofera tinctoria Linn (Fabaceae) attenuates cognitive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits were significantly reversed by ITE (p < 0.001 at 20 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent fashion in all the behavioral paradigms tested. Furthermore, ITE dosedependently scavenged lipid peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals with 50 % inhibition concentration (IC50) of 7.28 ...

  5. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae) = Biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Gomes da Silva; Samyra Ramos Chaves; Jéfferson Mesquita Brito

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flowe...

  6. An Ecological Comparison of Floristic Composition in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Southeast Brazil: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Faria Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined floristic patterns of ten seasonal semideciduous forest sites in southeastern Brazil and conducted a central sampling of one hectare for each site, where we took samples and identified all individual living trees with DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.30 m ≥4.8 cm. Arboreal flora totaled 242 species, 163 genera, and 58 families. Fabaceae (38 species and Myrtaceae (20 species were families with the largest number of species. Only Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea courbaril occurred at all sites. Multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN indicated the formation of a group containing seven fragments in which Siparuna guianensis was the indicator species. This analysis revealed that similarities between studied fragments were due mainly to the successional stage of the community.

  7. (Fabaceae) based on analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-28

    Oct 28, 2016 ... The 50% majority rule consensus trees resulting from the two searches are similar ... picta following the work of Bailey and Doyle (1997). ... confirming their distinctness, the latter being a new species to science (Gholami and.

  8. Diploflavone, a New Flavonoid from Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto G.S. [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Cabral, Analucia G.S.; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Silva, Marcelo S. da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica]. E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br; Da Cunha, Emidio V. Leitao [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Silene C. do [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2005-11-15

    The chemical examination of Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. resulted in the isolation of a new 3-methoxyflavone, 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6,6-dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone, to which was given the trivial name diploflavone (1); as well as the known 3,6-dimethoxy-6,6- dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone (2). The structure of the new compound was established by spectral analyses. Cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against the cells NClH292 (lung carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and KB (oral epidermoid carcinoma). The cells HEp-2 were the most affected by the substances tested. (author)

  9. Novelties in secretory structures and anatomy of Rhynchosia (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vargas, Wanderleia; Sartori, Ângela L B; Dias, Edna S

    2015-03-01

    A comparative anatomical study was carried out on the secretory structures of leaflets from taxa belonging to the genus Rhynchosia - taxa difficult to delimit because of uncertain interspecific relations - in order to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of these anatomical traits for taxonomic assignment. A further objective was to establish consensual denomination for these secretory structures. The new anatomical features found in these taxa were sufficiently consistent to separate the species evaluated. The presence and localization of glandular-punctate structures bulbous-based trichomes, the number of layers in the palisade parenchyma and the arrangement of vascular units distinguish the taxa investigated and these characteristics can be extended to other species of Papilionoideae. The trichomes analyzed were described and classified into five types. Depicted in diagrams, photomicrographs, and by scanning electron microscopy, and listed for the first time at the genus and species levels. The information obtained served to effectively distinguish the taxa investigated among species of Papilonoideae.

  10. Diploflavone, a New Flavonoid from Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. (Fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto G.S.; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Cabral, Analucia G.S.; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Silva, Marcelo S. da; Da Cunha, Emidio V. Leitao; Nascimento, Silene C. do; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2005-01-01

    The chemical examination of Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. resulted in the isolation of a new 3-methoxyflavone, 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6 , 6 - dimethylchromene-(7,8,2 , 3 ) -flavone, to which was given the trivial name diploflavone (1); as well as the known 3,6-dimethoxy-6 , 6 - dimethylchromene-(7,8,2 , 3 ) -flavone (2). The structure of the new compound was established by spectral analyses. Cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against the cells NClH292 (lung carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and KB (oral epidermoid carcinoma). The cells HEp-2 were the most affected by the substances tested. (author)

  11. [Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopisferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Marcelo Nahuel; Giamminola, Eugenia Mabel; de Viana, Marta Leonor

    2013-03-01

    The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P ferox and P nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN) of the National University of Salta (Argentina). The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P ferox at the National Park Los Cardones and from two sites (Orán and Rivadavia) for P nitens. Desiccation tolerance was assessed following previous established methodologies. The moisture content (MC) of the seeds was determined by keeping them in oven at 103 degreeC and weighting the samples at different intervals till constant weight. Germination essays were carried out with two treatments (control and scarification), with different seed MC (fresh, 10-12%, 3-5%) and in desiccated seeds (3-5% MC) stored six months at -20 degreeC. The MC in P ferox seeds was 14.2% and 10% in P nitens, for both populations studied. Percentage germination in P ferox was higher in the scarification treatments (<82%). The difference between treatments increased with the reduction in MC and the storage for six months at -20 degreeC. Fresh seeds of P nitens do not need scarification treatment, but it is required with the reduction in MC and storage. Mean germination percentage of desiccated seeds stored six months at -20 degreeC was similar in both populations and greater than 82%.We concluded that both species are probably orthodox because seeds tolerated desiccation to 3-5% and storage for six months at -20 degree C.

  12. Pollination ecology of the rare desert species Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pollination ecology of Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass., a rare desert species endemic to central Asia, was examined by a series of observational studies and manipulative experiments in two natural populations during 2007–2008. Results showed that the duration of flowering lasted 21 and 23 ...

  13. Enantiostylous types of Cassiinae species (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, N M; Cotarelli, V M; Souza, D P; Novo, R R; Siqueira Filho, J A; Oliveira, P E; Castro, C C

    2015-05-01

    Species of the subtribe Cassiinae present a wide diversity of floral types. Until recently it was considered that this diversity did not extend to their reproductive mechanisms. However, studies have recorded some variations in the enantiostylous pattern in this plant group. This study aims to investigate the morphological and functional variations of enantiostyly in species of the subtribe Cassiinae. Additionally, it proposes the recognition of enantiostylous types (ET) based on pollen deposition and capture mode. Morphological data were collected in fresh and fixed (alcohol 70%) buds and flowers, and also using photos and rehydrated material from herbarium sheets, for a total of 59 species. The parameters used to establish the ETs were pollination type, nature of pollen deposition on the pollinator body, deposition type, number of petals involved in pollen deposition, and pollen pathway. Morpho-functional features allowed the recognition of seven enantiostylous types (Flexuosa, Cana, Macranthera, Martiana, Amiciella, Repens and Ramosa) that present several levels of complexity. The type Ramosa was the most common and the Cana type was the least common. The types Repens, Martiana and Flexuosa do not have reciprocal pollen deposition, thus species with these types may be considered atypical. The groups resulting from similarity analysis partially coincide with the clades proposed in phylogenetic studies of Cassiinae. The recognition of functional ETs is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive strategies of Cassiinae species, and indicates an interesting line of investigation of enantiostyly in other plant groups. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Savy, Davide; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2017-02-04

    Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus , could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.). In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p -coumarate (PCA), ferulate (FA) and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J) were only detected in wheat isolated lignin.

  16. Vignapandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Gore, Ramchandra; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. A new species, Vignapandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vignayadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vignadalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers.

  17. Effect of Spatholobus suberectus (Fabaceae) extract on second ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tissue histopathology was assessed by hematoxylin & eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, lipid .... of the dermal layer, phagocytic cell infiltration, absence of sebaceous .... Remodelling and repair of tissue requires collagens ...

  18. Genetic characterization of three varieties of Astragalus lentiginosus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Knaus; Rich C. Cronn; Aaron. Liston

    2005-01-01

    Astragalus lentiginosus is a polymorphic species that occurs in geologically young habitats and whose varietal circumscription implies active morphological and genetic differentiation. In this preliminary study, we evaluate the potential of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to resolve infraspecific taxa in three varieties of...

  19. Hypoglycemic Effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Fabaceae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    capable of reducing blood sugar level belong to two chemical classes - sulfonylureas and biguanides [3]. ... treatment of cancer, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure [7]. Clitoria ternatea Linn ... was collected from the heart using a syringe, transferred to sodium fluoride bottles bottles, allowed to clot and ...

  20. Free radical scavenging activity of Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... As part of our ongoing research on antioxidant agents from Brazilian flora, twenty extracts .... The qualitative test was carried out according to the method of .... ethnography of mobility among the Mbya-Guaraní (Northeastern.

  1. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Schrire

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysicarpus and Lespedeza is given for southern Africa.

  2. Fatty acids isolated from Milletia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-17

    Aug 17, 2006 ... anthelminthiques du Congo Brazzaville. Rev. Méd. Pharm. Afr. 18: 161-167. Ongoka PR (2005). Etude Ethnobotanique, Pharmacologique et chimique des plantes. Anthelminthiques du Congo Brazzaville. Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat, Faculté lira des Sciences. Université Marien. Ngouabi, Brazzaville – Congo.

  3. New Microsatellite Loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia F. Bessega

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection.

  4. New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessega, Cecilia F; Pometti, Carolina L; Miller, Joe T; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C

    2013-05-01

    As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection.

  5. Osmopriming on Sesbania virgata (CAV. PERS (Fabaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the osmopriming on germination and vigour of Sesbania virgata seeds. Seeds were chemically scarified in concentrated sulphuric acid for 40 minutes and put to germinate either directly or after being submitted to osmopriming, drying and accelerated aging. Osmopriming was carried out with polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG 8000 at the following osmotic potentials-0.2; -0.4; -0.6 and -0.8 MPa for 12, 24 and 48 hours. After osmopriming, seeds were dried in silica gel until the initial moisture content was reached, and then submitted to the accelerated aging (48 h/100% RH. The effects of osmopriming and accelerated aging were evaluated through germination test, first counting germination and germination speed index. The osmopriming, followed or not by accelerated aging, positively influenced germination and vigour of Sesbania virgata seeds.

  6. Effect of Ethanol Extract of Indigofera tinctoria Linn (Fabaceae) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    variety of epileptic disorders in Indian traditional system of medicine. The present study was ... 30 min of continuous seizure activity, or two or more sequential ... at lower costs. Indigofera .... The supernatant was assayed based on the reaction ...

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Savy, Davide; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.). In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p-coumarate (PCA), ferulate (FA) and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J) were only detected in wheat isolated lignin. PMID:28165411

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Domínguez-Robles

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.. In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p-coumarate (PCA, ferulate (FA and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J were only detected in wheat isolated lignin.

  9. Molecular systematics of Indian Alysicarpus (Fabaceae) based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AKRAM GHOLAMI

    Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract ...... easy separation of seeds from the pod whereas Alysicarpus species having ... Research and Development grant support to Arun K. Pandey from University of Delhi is ...

  10. New chromosome numbers in the genus Trigonella L. (Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    10 Jan 2011 ... b: Subgenus Trifoliastrum: Calyx campanulate and pod inflated. c: Subgenus Foenum-graecum: Calyx tubular and pod not inflated. Several investigators have attempted to employ the taxonomy of the genus Trigonella; Sirjaev (1935) has given in Latin an elaborate and systematic account of its taxonomy.

  11. A kaempferol triglycoside from Tephrosia preussii Taub. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba Nguekeu, Yves Martial; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Tane, Pierre; Nguedia Lando, Marius Roch; Kodama, Takeshi; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract of twigs and leaves of Tephrosia preussi was carried out to give a new kaempferol triglycoside, named tephrokaempferoside (1), together with five known compounds: tephrosin (2), betulinic acid (3), lupeol (4), β-sitosterol (5) and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside of β-sitosterol (6). The structure of the new compound was characterised by analyses of NMR (1D and 2D) and MS data, and chemical conversion. Tephrokaempferoside (1) had weak antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae with an MIC value of 150 μg/mL.

  12. Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizzini (Fabaceae: distribution, habitat and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moreira Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizzini is a rare species. Although cited as endemic to the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, it has been recorded only for the municipalities of Paraopeba and Caetanópolis and therefore has not been extensively studied. This long-term, intensive survey, conducted from 2004 to 2012 in the central region of the state, was aimed at assessing its distribution, describing its habitat, and verifying its endemism, as well as assessing threats and determining its conservation status. Given the considerable size of the area to be studied and the difficulty of locating individuals of the species, we adopted popular participation as a complementary tool and we employed spatial distribution modeling. Communities were mobilized through the dissemination of print materials, and interviews were conducted. We visited 74 municipalities and addressed 900 people in search of this species. We found that D. wilsonii is endemic to the cerrado (savanna and Atlantic Forest in the central region of Minas Gerais, occurring in 16 municipalities. Is not present in any fully protected conservation area, and its population (fewer than 250 individuals is declining due to habitat destruction, caused mainly by agricultural/livestock and urban expansion, and its conservation status is "critically endangered".

  13. Two Trypanocidal Dipeptides from the Roots of Zapoteca portoricensis (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Justina Nwodo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq HM Hernández is used with remarkable efficacy in ethnomedicinal management of tonsillitis in the Eastern part of Nigeria. Previous pharmacological studies have validated the antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the crude extract. In this study, two dipeptides, saropeptate (aurantiamide acetate and anabellamide, were isolated from the methanol root extract of Zapoteca portoricensis and their chemical structures deduced by one dimensional and two dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry. These compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant, and no report has been found on their previous isolation from the genus Zapoteca. Evaluation of their trypanocidal activity showed that compound 1 exhibited potent activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense with an IC50 value of 3.63 μM and selectivity index of 25.3.

  14. Plant regeneration of Lotononis bainesii Baker (Fabaceae) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    María Laura Vidoz

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... than are synthetic fertilizers due to their ability to fix .... have observed that these compounds have also failed to ... 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid; TDZ, thidiazuron, 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3- thiadiazol-5- ..... Characterization of.

  15. Proteomic studies of drought stress response in Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja ZADRAŽNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious threat to crop production that influences plant growth and development and subsequently causes reduced quantity and quality of the yield. Plant stress induces changes in cell metabolism, which includes differential expression of proteins. Proteomics offer a powerful approach to analyse proteins involved in drought stress response of plants. Analyses of changes in protein abundance of legumes under drought stress are very important, as legumes play an important role in human and animal diet and are often exposed to drought. The presented results of proteomic studies of selected legumes enable better understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought stress response. The study of drought stress response of plants with proteomic approach may contribute to the development of potential drought-response markers and to the development of drought-tolerant cultivars of different legume crop species.

  16. Flower and fruit development of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Desenvolvimento de flores e frutos de Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Piechowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkia pendula occurs in Brazil in Amazonia and in the northeastern Atlantic Forest. In the latter, its buds, nectar, and seedpod gum are discussed to be keystone resources for the mammalian fauna. To enhance the knowledge about these important nourishment sources, the aim of this study was to detect and describe distinct phases in the flower and pod development. The study was conducted in a 306 ha forest fragment in Igarassu, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Six morphometrical variables were measured weekly at five inflorescences of two individuals from September 2003 to January 2004. Eleven distinct developmental phases were identified in the 21 weeks lasting development from the very first inflorescences to mature pods and are described in detail. These phases are good predictors for the flowering and fruiting phenology of P. pendula, since they are easily distinguishable from the forest floor. Furthermore, highly synchronized abortions of inflorescences, buds, and pods were observed which support the previously assumed predator satiation defense strategy in Parkia.Parkia pendula ocorre no Brasil, tanto na Amazônia como na Mata Atlântica nordestina. Seus botões, néctar e goma da vagem são recursos chave para a mastofauna da Mata Atlântica nordestina. Para aumentar o conhecimento sobre estes importantes recursos alimentares, este estudo teve como objetivo detectar e descrever as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de flores e frutos. Este trabalho foi realizado em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica de 306 ha em Igarassu, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Entre setembro de 2003 e janeiro de 2004, seis variáveis morfométricas foram medidas semanalmente em cinco inflorescências de dois indivíduos. Onze fases distintas de desenvolvimento puderam ser identificadas e descritas em detalhe nas 21 semanas desde o desenvolvimento das primeiras inflorescências até as vagens maduras. Essas fases são boas preditoras da fenologia de floração e frutificação de P. pendula porque são distinguíveis facilmente do solo da floresta. Além disto, a observação de abortos sincronizados de inflorescências, botões e vagens corrobora a estratégia de defesa previamente sugerida para Parkia, de saciedade de predadores.

  17. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasora ou ruderal? Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasive or ruderal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicola Martorano Neves da Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de espécies exóticas em plantios de recuperação de áreas degradadas tem sido condenada com base no argumento de que tais espécies podem se comportar como invasoras e contaminar os ecossistemas naturais ao redor das áreas onde forem plantadas. Leucaena leucocephala (leucena é espécie leguminosa exótica que tem sido frequentemente cultivada no Brasil para recuperação florestal, uma vez que apresenta simbiose com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio, melhorando a fertilidade dos solos. O potencial de invasão e persistência da leucena foi analisado a partir de um plantio misto, efetuado em 1983 em terreno com afloramento rochoso, parte do mosaico de uma paisagem dominada por matriz agrícola, com alguns fragmentos remanescentes de floresta estacional semidecidual e plantios arbóreos diversos. Em uma área de 200 ha, cada uma das 11 unidades do mosaico foi amostrada por meio de seis parcelas de 16 x 3 m (48 m², em que foram identificados e medidos (DAP todos os indivíduos de espécies arbóreas (altura mínima de 50 cm, para verificar se a área ocupada pela espécie está se expandindo. Na área em que foi utilizada leucena no plantio, analisou-se a estrutura da comunidade, com base na distribuição dos indivíduos em classes de tamanho, para verificar se a proporção da espécie exótica tende a aumentar com o tempo, configurando a persistência no ecossistema. Uma vez que nenhum indivíduo de L. leucocephala foi registrado entre os 4.599 amostrados além dos limites da área onde a espécie foi plantada, a conclusão é de que a espécie não está se comportando como invasora de ecossistemas naturais nessa condição ambiental, enquadrando-se melhor como ruderal. A análise da comunidade em regeneração sob as árvores plantadas evidenciou que a proporção da espécie exótica, que é intolerante à sombra, tende a diminuir com o tempo, ainda que lentamente, perdendo espaço para espécies nativas tolerantes, que poderão ocupar o dossel no futuro.Exotic species have not been recommended for degraded lands reforestation, since they are reported to invade natural ecosystems in the surrounding areas. Leucena leucocephala, a leguminous N fixing species, was introduced in Brazil and has been widely cultivated, especially to recover degraded soils. The potential of L. leucocephala to expand over the landscape and its persistence in the plant community in the long term was analyzed. A stand planted in 1983 was assessed, which was installed on a rocky soil, immerse in an agricultural matrix, where some native and planted forest patches exists. Over a 200 ha area, eleven distinct patches were surveyed, where all individuals from arboreal species (minimum height 50 cm were identified and measured (dbh, to verify if the exotic species is expanding over areas where it has not been planted. In the stand where the species was planted, the community structure was assessed on the basis of relative density in size classes to verify if the proportion of the exotic species tends to increase with time, confirming persistence. Since, among the total of 4,599 individuals surveyed, not even a single individual of the species was recorded beyond the limits of the planted stand, invasion of natural ecosystems by Leucena leucocephala was refuted, the species being locally considered as ruderal. Even though a huge number of young individuals of L. leucocephala are regenerating under the planted trees, the relative density of the exotic species in the understorey tends to decrease with time. Apparently, some shade tolerant native species can slowly dominate the community in the future, taking advantage under light competition.

  18. Sobrevivência e crescimento inicial de espécies arbóreas nativas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca

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    Fernando Martinotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento inicial de seis espécies arbóreas do Cerrado em consórcio com mandioca (Manihot esculenta, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 6x2x2, com quatro repetições. As variáveis consideradas foram as espécies: Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (angico-vermelho, Anacardium occidentale (caju, Dipteryx alata (cumbaru, Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Sclerolobium paniculatum var. rubiginosum (taxi-branco, em monocultivo ou em consórcio com mandioca, com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Uma distância fixa de 3x3 m foi usada para as espécies arbóreas e de 1,00x0,60 m para a mandioca. Até a idade de 20 meses, as espécies arbóreas foram avaliadas quatro vezes quanto à altura e ao diâmetro do coleto. A produção de biomassa da mandioca foi avaliada aos 20 meses. A taxa média de sobrevivência das espécies arbóreas foi crescente na seguinte ordem: cumbaru (79%, taxi-branco (86%, jatobá (95%, mangaba (98%, angico (99% e caju (100%. O taxi-branco apresentou maiores taxas de crescimento relativo em diâmetro e altura, enquanto jatobá e cumbaru apresentaram os menores valores. A adubação fosfatada favoreceu apenas ao taxi-branco. A produtividade de mandioca não foi afetada pelo consórcio. Caju, angico-vermelho e taxi-branco são as espécies mais indicadas para o consórcio com mandioca no Cerrado.

  19. Etnobotânica de Plantas Medicinais no Assentamento Monjolinho, município de Anastácio, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the Monjolinho settlement, Anastácio, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Alves da Cunha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar um estudo etnobotânico sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas pelos moradores do assentamento Monjolinho, Anastácio, Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram entrevistados através do método bola de neve 35 moradores (33 mulheres. As espécies (210 pertencem a 72 famílias, destacando-se as nativas do Cerrado, sendo o restante cultivado próximos das casas. Fabaceae e Asteraceae foram as mais citadas. Das 23 espécies de Fabaceae, 20 são nativas. As espécies que obtiveram o maior número de citações foram jatobá (Hymenaea spp. e o barbatimão (Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. e as com índice de concordância de uso (CUP alto foram barbatimão (S. obovatum e cancorosa (Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch. As folhas foram as partes mais utilizadas. As doenças do aparelho respiratório e geniturinário foram as mais citadas. A diversidade (H'= 5,03 de uso das espécies é alta. O conhecimento foi adquirido entre amigos (37%, cursos (17% ou família (39% e mostra que, ao longo do tempo, há expressivo aproveitamento das espécies medicinais e conhecimento da comunidade.This work carried out an ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used by the inhabitants of the Monjolinho settlement in Anastácio city, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The goal of this work was to verify how residents congregate information brought from their place with information obtained where they live now, and to verify how the knowledge of spontaneous and native species from cerrado varies in relation to the specie cultivated. A total of 35 inhabitants were interviewed using the snowball method (33 women. The species (210 recorded belong to 72 families. Of these, many are native Cerrado species and the remaining species are cultivated next to the houses. Fabaceae and Asteraceae were the most cited families. Of the 23 species of Fabaceae, 20 are native. The species with the highest number of citations were jatobá (Hymenaea spp. and

  20. The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: A retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Michael; Neupane, Prem R; Lotfiomran, Neda

    2017-01-01

    The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime. We developed time series of diameter growth and related annual carbon accumulation for 61 trees of the species Cedrela odorata L. (Meliacea), Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabacea) and Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiacea). The trees grew in unmanaged tropical wet-forests of Suriname and reached ages from 84 to 255 years. Most of the trees show positive trends of diameter growth and carbon accumulation over time. For some trees we observed fluctuating growth-periods of lower growth alternate with periods of increased growth. In the last quarter of their lifetime trees accumulate on average between 39 percent (C. odorata) and 50 percent (G. glabra) of their final carbon stock. This suggests that old-growth trees in tropical forests do not only contribute to carbon stocks by long carbon resistance times, but maintain high rates of carbon accumulation at later stages of their life time.

  1. Alterações em algumas propriedades de um latossolo degradado com uso de lodo de esgoto e resíduos orgânicos Alterations in some properties of a degraded oxisol by sewage sludge and organic residue application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Torres Modesto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A recuperação de áreas muito impactadas, como as oriundas da construção de hidrelétricas, é um processo lento e, usualmente, requer a adição de resíduos orgânicos, como fonte de matéria orgânica, e de nutrientes, como condicionador das propriedades do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da adição de lodo de esgoto e resíduos orgânicos (maravalha e torta de filtro de cana-de-açúcar sobre o crescimento de duas espécies arbóreas de Cerrado na recuperação de um subsolo de uma área degradada pela construção da Usina Hidrelétrica de Ilha Solteira, localizada em Selvíria - MS. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com oito tratamentos, seis repetições e uma planta por repetição, para cada planta-teste. Cada repetição (saco plástico teve 3,3 L e as proporções em volume da mistura de cada resíduo foram de: 30 % de lodo de esgoto, 20 % de torta de filtro e 10 % de maravalha de madeira. Foram mensuradas a fertilidade, a micorrização, a atividade microbiana (C-CO2 liberado do subsolo, a massa do sistema radicular e parte aérea e a altura de plantas de duas espécies nativas do Cerrado [monjoleiro (Acacia polyphylla DC. e jatobá-do-Cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart]. Os tratamentos com lodo de esgoto proporcionaram maior atividade microbiana no substrato e maior crescimento para as duas espécies arbóreas. A presença do lodo de esgoto promoveu melhora na fertilidade do subsolo, com aumento dos teores de matéria orgânica, P, K, Ca e Mg. A matéria orgânica e o P tiveram seus teores elevados nos tratamentos com mistura de lodo de esgoto e demais resíduos. Os resultados permitem concluir que as misturas contendo lodo associado a resíduos promoveram melhores incrementos na qualidade do subsolo, com perspectivas de sua recuperação.The recovery of intensively impacted areas, as originated by the construction of a hydroelectric

  2. Phytochemical study and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignoato, Marlene Capelin; Fabrao, Rodrigo Monteiro; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Botelho, Marcos Felipe Pinatto; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Souza, Maria Conceicao de, E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2{beta} ->7, 4{beta} ->8)- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated (author)

  3. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface, whereas cells with a striate cuticle at the base of the trichomes are a shared trait of L. montanus and L. reflexus. Differences found on blade and mesophyll thickness as well as the abundance of epicuticular waxes could be an environmental effect. The petiole of the 4 species differed in the number and distribution of vascular bundles, and could be useful to distinguish them if these results are confirm by studying a larger number of species of Lupinus.

  4. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliacao da atividade antibacteriana de Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Leoncio M. de; Gois, Roberto W. da S.; Lemos, Telma L. G.; Arriaga, Angela M. C.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P., E-mail: gil@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias; Costa, Jose G.M. da; Rodrigues, Fabiola F.G. [Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Biologica

    2013-11-01

    The chemical investigation of the stems and branches of Macroptilium lathyroides led to the isolation of a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The extracts from the roots allowed the isolation of lasiodiplodin, a mixture of stigmast-4-en-6{beta}-ol-3-one and stigmast-4,22-dien-6{beta}-ol-3-one, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin, genistein and lupinalbin A. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their NMR data, including comparison of their spectral data with values described in the literature. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from stems, branches and roots was evaluated. This is the first report involving the chemical investigation of this species. (author)

  5. Biologia reprodutiva de Acacia mearnsii de wild. (Fabaceae IV: visitantes florais Reproductive biology of Acacia mearnsii de wild. (Fabaceae IV: flower visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Maria Stiehl Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para que as estratégias de melhoramento genético em espécies arbóreas tenham sucesso, o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva da espécie envolvida é indispensável. Um dos fatores críticos ao sucesso reprodutivo das espécies do gênero Acacia é a presença de vetores para a polinização. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar os visitantes florais em um plantio comercial de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. e quantificar as políades aderidas à superfície corporal dos insetos. As observações foram realizadas em uma torre localizada no plantio comercial durante o período de floração de 2002 e 2003. Os visitantes florais foram capturados no período diurno com o auxílio de rede entomológica e de um cesto aéreo instalado em um trator. No período noturno, os insetos foram capturados com o auxílio de armadilhas luminosas instaladas entre as copas florescidas. Foram observados insetos pertencentes às ordens Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera e Lepidoptera. Os besouros da espécie Macrodactylus suturalis foram considerados como dispersores do pólen de acácia-negra, pela alta frequência de indivíduos presentes no povoamento estudado e pela grande quantidade de políades aderidas no corpo dos insetos capturados (X=229,36 políades/inseto. As abelhas da espécie Apis mellifera, embora tenha sido quantificada uma grande quantidade de políades nos indivíduos capturados (X=448,50 políades/inseto, não foram observadas com frequência na área analisada. Uma das formas recomendadas para aumentar a frequência de abelhas e vespas nos plantios comerciais de acácia-negra é a manutenção de fontes de néctar e a introdução de caixas com abelhas A. mellifera.To ensure the success of the strategies of genetic improvement in tree species, knowledge of the reproductive biology of the species involved is essential. One of these critical factors in reproductive success of the genus Acacia is the presence of vectors to pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify flower visitors to a commercial plantation of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. and quantify the polyads attached to the body surface of the insects. The observations were made from a tower in a commercial stand during flowering, in 2002 and 2003. During the day, flower visitors were captured with an entomological net and an air basket installed on a tractor. At night, insects were caught with light traps installed between the flowering crowns. Insects belonging to orders Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera were observed. Beetles of the species Macrodactylus suturalis were considered dispersers of black wattle pollen, based on the high frequency of individuals in the population studied and the high quantity of polyads adhered to the body of the caught insects (X=229,36 polyads/insect. The amount of polyads verified on bees of the species Apis mellifera was significantly greater (X=448,50 polyads/insect, but the frequency in the study area was insignificant. One of the recommended ways to increase the frequency of bees and wasps in black-watle commercial plantations is the maintenance of sources of nectar and the introduction of bee hives.

  6. Higher seed size and germination rate may favour autotetraploids of Vicia cracca L. (Fabaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-73 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Vicia * autotetraploid * seed size * germination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  7. Pharmacological properties and related constituents of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Wamtinga, Sawadogo Richard; André, Tibiri; Christine, Bayet; Marius, Lompo; Emmanuelle, Hay A; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Geneviève, Dijoux; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2012-01-01

    To screen methanol and dichloromethane extracts of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced-edema of mice paw and croton oil-induced edema of mice ear; analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing. Phytochemical screening of extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography. The chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of main active components as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin. The structures were established by TLC and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Both methanol and dichloromethane extracts, friedelin, lupeol and epicatechin showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect using croton oil induced-ear edema. Furthermore, the action of dichloromethane extract was more important. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the methanol extract was able to reduce the carrageenan induced-hind paw edema, while at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, it showed an important analgesic effect against writhing induced by acetic acid injection of 38.8%, 68.0% and 74.3%, respectively. Antioxidative properties of methanol extract and its dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were assessed by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The methanol extract showed the stronger radical scavenging activity than dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, with an antiradical power of 5, 3.5 and 2 respectively. The main components isolated from these extracts as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin were responsible of these activities. The results suggest that the stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed important anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and strong antioxidant properties, therefore, they could be used as potential natural ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Horticulture hybrid cultivars and exotic plant invasion: A case study of Wisteria (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Trusty; B.G. Lockaby; W.C. Zipperer; L.R. Goertzen

    2008-01-01

    Ornamental plant horticulture has had a long history in the USA, beginning with the first botanical garden started by John Bartram in Philadelphia in 1728 (Hedrick, 1988). From this modest start, the nursery and horticulture business in the USA was flourishing by the early 19th century. The growth and sale of useful and attractive plant species inspired American plant...

  9. Comparative polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities of Genista tinctoria L. and Genistella sagittalis (L.) Gams (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanganu, Daniela; Olah, Neli Kinga; Benedec, Daniela; Mocan, Andrei; Crisan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Popica, Iulia; Oniga, Ilioara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was focused on the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Genista tinctoria L. and Genistella sagittalis (L.) Gams. A qualitative and quantitative characterization of the main phenolic compounds from the extracts were carried out using a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was spectrophotometrically determined. The antioxidant activity towards various radicals generated in different systems was evaluated usingDPPH bleaching method, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC) and Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and all indicated that G. tinctoria extract was more antioxidant than G. sagittalis extract.That was in good agreement with the total polyphenolic and flavonoidic content.Chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, isoquercitrin and apigenin were identified in bothspecies. Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin and luteolin were found only in G. tinctoria, while quercetin was determined in G. sagittalis.

  10. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Leoncio M. de; Gois, Roberto W. da S.; Lemos, Telma L. G.; Arriaga, Angela M. C.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Costa, Jose G.M. da; Rodrigues, Fabiola F.G.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the stems and branches of Macroptilium lathyroides led to the isolation of a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The extracts from the roots allowed the isolation of lasiodiplodin, a mixture of stigmast-4-en-6β-ol-3-one and stigmast-4,22-dien-6β-ol-3-one, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin, genistein and lupinalbin A. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their NMR data, including comparison of their spectral data with values described in the literature. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from stems, branches and roots was evaluated. This is the first report involving the chemical investigation of this species. (author)

  11. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  12. Oberholzeria (Fabaceae subfam. Faboideae), a new monotypic legume genus from Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Wessel; le Roux, M Marianne; Wojciechowski, Martin F; van Wyk, Abraham E

    2015-01-01

    Oberholzeria etendekaensis, a succulent biennial or short-lived perennial shrublet is described as a new species, and a new monotypic genus. Discovered in 2012, it is a rare species known only from a single locality in the Kaokoveld Centre of Plant Endemism, north-western Namibia. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from the plastid matK gene resolves Oberholzeria as the sister group to the Genisteae clade while data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region showed that it is sister to a clade comprising both the Crotalarieae and Genisteae clades. Morphological characters diagnostic of the new genus include: 1) succulent stems with woody remains; 2) pinnately trifoliolate, fleshy leaves; 3) monadelphous stamens in a sheath that is fused above; 4) dimorphic anthers with five long, basifixed anthers alternating with five short, dorsifixed anthers, and 5) pendent, membranous, one-seeded, laterally flattened, slightly inflated but indehiscent fruits.

  13. Antioxidant responses of Annelids, Brassicaceae and Fabaceae to pollutants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Brulle, F; Dumez, S; Lemiere, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2015-04-01

    Pollutants, such as Metal Trace Elements (MTEs) and organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides), can impact DNA structure of living organisms and thus generate damage. For instance, cadmium is a well-known genotoxic and mechanisms explaining its clastogenicity are mainly indirect: inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and/or induction of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Animal or vegetal cells use antioxidant defense systems to protect themselves against ROS produced during oxidative stress. Because tolerance of organisms depends, at least partially, on their ability to cope with ROS, the mechanisms of production and management of ROS were investigated a lot in Ecotoxicology as markers of biotic and abiotic stress. This was mainly done through the measurement of enzyme activities The present Review focuses on 3 test species living in close contact with soil that are often used in soil ecotoxicology: the worm Eisenia fetida, and two plant species, Trifolium repens (white clover) and Brassica oleracea (cabbage). E. fetida is a soil-dwelling organism commonly used for biomonitoring. T. repens is a symbiotic plant species which forms root nodule with soil bacteria, while B. oleracea is a non-symbiotic plant. In literature, some oxidative stress enzyme activities have already been measured in those species but such analyses do not allow distinction between individual enzyme involvements in oxidative stress. Gene expression studies would allow this distinction at the transcriptomic level. A literature review and a data search in molecular database were carried out on the basis of keywords in Scopus, in PubMed and in Genbank™ for each species. Molecular data regarding E. fetida were already available in databases, but a lack of data regarding oxidative stress related genes was observed for T. repens and B. oleracea. By exploiting the conservation observed between species and using molecular biology techniques, we partially cloned missing candidates involved in oxidative stress and in metal detoxification in E. fetida, T. repens and B. oleracea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial genetic structure within populations and management implications of the South American species Acacia aroma (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina; Bessega, Cecilia; Cialdella, Ana; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz; Vilardi, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations. With 401 loci, the mean heterozygosity (HE = 0.2) and the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 62.1%) coefficients indicated that the genetic variation is relatively high in A. aroma. The analysis with STRUCTURE showed that the number of clusters (K) was 3. With Geneland analysis, the number of clusters was K = 4, sharing the same grouping as STRUCTURE but dividing one population into two groups. When studying SGS, significant structure was detected in 3 of 6 populations. The neighbourhood size in these populations ranged from 15.2 to 64.3 individuals. The estimated gene dispersal distance depended on the effective population density and disturbance level and ranged from 45 to 864 m. The combined results suggest that a sampling strategy, which aims to maintain a considerable part of the variability contained in natural populations sampled here, would include at least 3 units defined by the clusters analyses that exhibit particular genetic properties. Moreover, the current SGS analysis suggests that within the wider management units/provinces, seed collection from A. aroma should target trees separated by a minimum distance of 50 m but preferably 150 m to reduce genetic relatedness among seeds from different trees.

  15. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Adnan; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Sanda, Murad Aydin; Uysal, Tuna

    2014-03-01

    Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials). The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20 degrees C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g) was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g). The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (microg/mL) (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%). The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061 microg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5). Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing power with an EC50 of 871.25 microg/mL. The metal chelating activity of the extracts increased with concentration. Chelating effect was 83.60% for fruit extract at 1mg/mL concentration. Oil content of fruit and mixed parts were detected as 6.71 and 6.14%, respectively. A total of 32 fatty acids were found in the oil. Essential fatty acids (linoleic and a-linolenic acid) were identified as the most abundant fatty acids in the oil. These results demonstrated that this plant species can be considered as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants. Likewise, the oil obtained from the plant can be used as a source of essential fatty acids for food and pharmacological applications.

  16. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 17. The genus Dalbergia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.; Ohashi, H.; Sunarno, B.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic treatment of the genus Dalbergia for the Flora Malesiana (FM) region is presented. The treatment includes a genus description, two keys to the species, an enumeration of the species present in the FM-area with names and synonyms, details of distribution, habitat and ecology and where

  17. Anatomical, biochemical, and photosynthetic responses to recent allopolyploidy in Glycine dolichocarpa (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Jeremy E; Luciano, Amelia K; Seralathan, Vasu; Minchew, Kevin J; Owens, Tom G; Doyle, Jeff J

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyploidy has pronounced effects on photosynthesis. Most of these studies have focused on synthetic or recently formed autopolyploids, and comparatively little is known about the integrated effects of natural allopolyploidy, which involves hybridity and genome doubling and often incorporates multiple genotypes through recurrent origins and lineage recombination. Glycine dolichocarpa (designated T2) is a natural allotetraploid with multiple origins. We quantified 21 anatomical, biochemical, and physiological phenotypes relating to photosynthesis in T2 and its diploid progenitors, G. tomentella (D3) and G. syndetika (D4). To assess how direction of cross affects these phenotypes, we included three T2 accessions having D3-like plastids (T2(D3)) and two accessions having D4-like plastids (T2(D4)). T2 accessions were transgressive (more extreme than any diploid accession) for 17 of 21 phenotypes, and species means differed significantly in T2 vs. both progenitors for four of 21 phenotypes (higher for guard cell length, electron transport capacity [J(max)] per palisade cell, and J(max) per mesophyll cell; lower for palisade cells per unit leaf area). Within T2, four of 21 parameters differed significantly between T2(D3) and T2(D4) (palisade cell volume; chloroplast number and volume per unit leaf area; and J(max) per unit leaf area). T2 is characterized by transgressive photosynthesis-related phenotypes (including an ca. 2-fold increase in J(max) per cell), as well as by significant intraspecies variation correlating with plastid type. These data indicate prominent roles for both nucleotypic effects and cytoplasmic factors in photosynthetic responses to allopolyploidy.

  18. Influence of chronic low intensively irradiation on the basic metabolic processes in leguminous plants (fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.V.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of the incorporated radionuclides on the basic metabolic processes in leguminous plants growth in inspected conditions was studied. There were findings of the accelerated course of a stage development in ontogenesis, increase of the photosynthetic activity of leaf and peroxidase activity along with a rise of the contents of photosynthetic pigments and lipid peroxidation products. The data are indicative of the distinct stimulation effect induced by the incorporated radionuclides. (authors)

  19. Selenium hyperaccumulation by Astragalus (Fabaceae) does not inhibit root nodule symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Elan R; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Fakra, Sirine C; Paschke, Mark W

    2012-12-01

    A survey of the root-nodule symbiosis in Astragalus and its interaction with selenium (Se) has not been conducted before. Such studies can provide insight into how edaphic conditions modify symbiotic interactions and influence partner coevolution. In this paper plant-organ Se concentration ([Se]) was investigated to assess potential Se exposure to endophytes. • Selenium distribution and molecular speciation of root nodules from Se-hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus was determined by Se K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to characterize the response of root-nodule symbiosis in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators. • Nodules in three Se-hyperaccumulators (Astragalus crotalariae, A. praelongus, and A. preussii) are reported for the first time. Leaves, flowers, and fruits from Se-hyperaccumulators were routinely above the hyperaccumulator threshold (1,000 µg Se g(-1) DW), but root samples rarely contained that amount, and nodules never exceeded 110 µg Se g(-1) DW. Nodules from A. bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus had Se throughout, with a majority stored in C-Se-C form. Finally, an evaluation of nodulation in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators indicated that there was no nodulation inhibition because of plant Se tolerance. Rather, we found that in Se-hyperaccumulators higher levels of Se treatment (up to 100 µM Se) corresponded with higher nodule counts, indicating a potential role for dinitrogen fixation in Se-hyperaccumulation. The effect was not found in nonhyperaccumulators. • As the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation in Astragalus developed, root-nodule symbiosis may have played an integral role.

  20. First records of Melilotus albus Medik. (Fabaceae, Faboideae) in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Ramos Ferreira, João Paulo; Adriano Funez, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Melilotus albus Medik. is a cosmopolite and invasive species, native to the Old World, which in Brazil had its occurrence hitherto recorded only in the states of São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. This study extends its distribution to Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, due to the recen...

  1. INBREEDING EFFECTS IN WILD LUPINE (FABACEAE): DOES POPULATION SIZE MATTER? (R826596)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Antiproliferative mechanism of the methanolic extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, Abimbola; Venables, Luanne; Odedeji, Modeola; Koekemoer, Trevor; van de Venter, Maryna; Hongbing, Liu

    2015-01-15

    Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. is a tropical tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases including cancer. To explore the ethnopharmacological claims against cancer, the cytotoxicity of the methanolic extract of the leaves, was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality assay, MTT assay using cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines, cell cycle analysis and Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. In the brine shrimp lethality assay, the extract showed cytotoxic activity with LC50 value of 31.63 µg/mL. Significant growth inhibition was observed in both cell lines with IC50 values of 2.07 ± 1.30 µg/mL and 11.84 ± 1.18 µg/mL for HeLa and MCF7, respectively. Cell cycle analysis indicated that HeLa cells were arrested in the G2/M phase while MCF7 cells arrested in the G1/G0 phase. The Annexin V-FITC/PI assay revealed phosphatidylserine translocation in both cell lines and thus apoptosis induction upon treatment with the extract. The study demonstrated the potential antiproliferative activity of Enterolobium cyclocarpum thereby supporting the traditional claim and provides basis for further mechanistic studies and isolation of active constituents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of eight compounds isolated from Entada abyssinica (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, Jean P; Melong, Raduis; Tsamo, Armelle T; Tchinda, Alembert T; Kapche, Deccaux G W F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2017-03-06

    Entada abyssinica is a plant traditionally used against gastrointestinal bacterial infections. Eight compounds including three flavonoids, three terpenoids, a monoglyceride and a phenolic compound isolated from E. abyssinica were investigated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Compounds 7 and 2 had remarkable activity against Salmonella typhimurium with the lowest respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1.56 and 3.12 µg/mL. The antioxidant assay gave IC 50 values varied from 0.48 to 2.87 μg/mL in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, from 2.53 to 17.04 μg/mL in the 2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay and from 1.43 to 103.98 µg/mL in the FRAP assay. Compounds had relatively low cytotoxicity (LC 50 values ranging from 22.42 to 80.55 µg/mL) towards Vero cells. Ursolic acid had the most potent cytotoxicity against THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells with LC 50 values of 9.62 and 4.56 μg/mL respectively, and selectivity index values of 7.32 and 15.44 respectively. Our findings suggest that among the terpenoid and flavonoid compounds studied, entadanin (compound 7) possess tremendous antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium and could be developed for the treatment of bacterial diseases.

  4. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae–Papilionoideae). 9. The genus Paraderris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Paraderris (Miq.) Geesink is discussed, mainly for the Malesian area. Two new species P. luzoniense and P. ornithocephalus are described. A key to the Malesian species is given. All currently recognized species are enumerated. All obligatory new combinations have been made.

  5. Phytochemical study and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignoato, Marlene Capelin; Fabrao, Rodrigo Monteiro; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Botelho, Marcos Felipe Pinatto; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Souza, Maria Conceicao de

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-β-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2β ->7, 4β ->8)- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR 1 H and 13 C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated (author)

  6. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in central Asian mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Wen, Zhi-Bin; Fritsch, Peter W; Sanderson, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried out in order to confirm its taxonomic status and reconstruct its evolutionary history. We employed BEAST Bayesian inference for dating, and S-DIVA and BBM for ancestral area reconstruction, to study its spatiotemporal evolution. Our results show that Calophacais monophyletic and nested within Caragana. The divergence time of Calophaca is estimated at ca. 8.0 Ma, most likely driven by global cooling and aridification, influenced by rapid uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau margins. According to ancestral area reconstructions, the genus most likely originated in the Pamir Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot and hypothesized Tertiary refugium of many Central Asian plant lineages. Dispersals from this location are inferred to the western Tianshan Mountains, then northward to the Tarbagatai Range, eastward to East Asia, and westward to the Caucasus, Russia, and Europe. The spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca provides a case contributing to an understanding of the flora and biodiversity of the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions.

  7. First record of Sesbania punicea (Fabales: Fabaceae) as a host plant for Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Numerous known non-crop hosts of C. hilaris that exist in field edges bordering cotton are sources of this stink bug in this crop. Sesbania punicea plants in a field border su...

  8. Effect of clonal reproduction on genetic structure in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Keith D; Zukin, Helen L; Dieterich, Inca A; Braker, Elizabeth; Sork, Victoria L

    2014-06-01

    The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in Northeastern Costa Rica dominated by the species Pentaclethra macroloba, which sprouts from the root mass of fallen trees and from snapped trunks. We examined the population structure of juvenile P. macroloba growing in different soil types and across an elevational gradient. Using seven molecular markers, we genotyped 173 juvenile P. macroloba from 18 plots (six plots in seasonally inundated swamps, and 12 plots in upland non-swamp) spanning 50-300m in elevation at La Selva Biological Station and the adjacent Reserva Ecológica Bijagual in Northeastern Costa Rica. We answered two specific questions: (1) How extensive is clonal reproduction? and (2) what is the distribution of genetic diversity and structure? We found that clonal reproduction occurred exclusively within inundated swamp areas. However, there was no significant difference between genetic diversity measures in swamp and non-swamp plots, which were both generally low when compared with other tropical forest species. Genetic structure was significant across all plots (F(ST) = -0.109). However, genetic structure among swamp plots (F(ST) = 0.128) was higher than among non-swamp upland plots (F(ST) = 0.093). Additionally, spatial autocorrelation among individuals within non-swamp upland plots was significant from the 25 to 100m spatial scale, but not within swamp plots. The degree of overall genetic structure we found in P. macroloba is high for a tropical forest tree. The incidence of clonal reproduction is a contributing factor in genetic differentiation, but the high structure among plots without clonal reproduction indicates that other factors contribute as well.

  9. The generalist Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana (Fabaceae): negative effect of floral visitors on reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R; Pinheiro, M; Sazima, M

    2015-05-01

    Inga species are characterised by generalist or mixed pollination system. However, this feature does not enhance reproductive rates in species with very low fruit set under natural conditions. Some ecological and genetic factors are associated with this feature, and to test the effect of massive visits on pollination success in Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana, we studied the efficacy of polyads deposited on stigmas of flowers isolated from visitors and polyads exposed to visitors. The proportion of polyads fixed in stigmas decreased after exposure to visitors (24 h) in comparison to stigmas isolated from visitors (hummingbirds, bees, wasps, hawkmoths and bats), and fruit set was very low. Furthermore, nectar production, sugar composition and other floral biology traits were evaluated. Increased nectar production, sugar availability and sucrose dominance during the night indicates adaptation to nocturnal visitors and supports their role as main pollinators; although the brush-flower morphology, time of anthesis, nectar dynamics and chemical composition also allow daytime visitors. Thus the species is an important resource for a diverse group of floral visitors. We conclude that excess visits (diurnal and nocturnal) are responsible for the decrease in fixed polyads in stigmas of I. subnuda subsp. luschnathiana flowers, thus contributing, with others factors, to its low fruit set. Therefore, the generalist pollination system does not result in reproductive advantages because the low fruit set in natural conditions could be the result of a negative effect of visitors/pollinators. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 1. The genus Erythrina L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1996-01-01

    Erythrina L. is reviewed for the Flora Malesiana region. Six species are recognised. Erythrina merrilliana is reduced to E. insularis and E. microcarpa Koord. & Valeton to E. stricta. A key to the species is presented.

  11. Morphology and genetics of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae) tree from salta (Northwestern Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viana, Marta L; Giamminola, Eugenia; Russo, Roberta; Ciaccio, Mirella

    2014-06-01

    Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is an important tree species for its cultural, economic, and medicinal uses in South America. In order to characterize A. colubrina populations, we collected fruits from four different sites (San Bernardo, El Cebilar, Metán and El Gallinato) within the species distribution area in Salta Province, Northwestern Argentina. For this, a total of 75 fruits and seeds per site were collected and described using morphological (fruits size and weight; seed weight and number per fruit) and genetic descriptors (ribosomic DNA extraction and PCR; nucleotide alignment and phylogenetic analysis) with standard protocols. Our results showed that the San Bernardo population had the heaviest fruits and seeds (7.89 +/- 0.2g and 0.19 +/- 0.002, respectively), and the Cebilar population the lightest (6.25 +/- 0.18g and 0.15 +/- 0.002g, respectively). Fruits and seeds from Metán and El Gallinato showed similar and intermediate values. The proportion viable (39 to 55%) and aborted (43 to 57%) seeds was different, while the proportion of predated (1.7 to 4.2%) seeds was similar among populations. The genetic analysis showed variability of ITS sequences within the especies, and also when compared with the same Brazilian species. Both, morphologic and genetic descriptors showed a high level of similarity between San Bernardo and Metán, and between El Cebilar and El Gallinato populations. Further studies are needed to assess levels of phenotypic and genetic variability within and between populations of different plant species, since this information is crucial for biodiversity and germplasm long-term conservation.

  12. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of the seven cultivated Vigna species (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, C-W; Jiang, X-H; Ou, L-J; Liu, J; Long, K-L; Zhang, L-H; Duan, W-T; Zhao, W; Hu, J-C

    2015-01-01

    The genomic organisation of the seven cultivated Vigna species, V. unguiculata, V. subterranea, V. angularis, V. umbellata, V. radiata, V. mungo and V. aconitifolia, was determined using sequential combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining and dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. For phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomic in situ hybridisation (cGISH) onto somatic chromosomes and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 45S rDNA were used. Quantitative karyotypes were established using chromosome measurements, fluorochrome bands and rDNA FISH signals. All species had symmetrical karyotypes composed of only metacentric or metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Distinct heterochromatin differentiation was revealed by CPD staining and DAPI counterstaining after FISH. The rDNA sites among all species differed in their number, location and size. cGISH of V. umbellata genomic DNA to the chromosomes of all species produced strong signals in all centromeric regions of V. umbellata and V. angularis, weak signals in all pericentromeric regions of V. aconitifolia, and CPD-banded proximal regions of V. mungo var. mungo. Molecular phylogenetic trees showed that V. angularis and V. umbellata were the closest relatives, and V. mungo and V. aconitifolia were relatively closely related; these species formed a group that was separated from another group comprising V. radiata, V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis and V. subterranea. This result was consistent with the phylogenetic relationships inferred from the heterochromatin and cGISH patterns; thus, fluorochrome banding and cGISH are efficient tools for the phylogenetic analysis of Vigna species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Fossil woods of Detarioideae subfamily (Fabaceae) from El Palmar Formation (Late Pleistocene) in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, R. Soledad; Brea, Mariana; Kröhling, Daniela M.

    2017-11-01

    The main aim of the present paper is to describe the first Detarioideae fossil woods from El Palmar Formation (Late Pleistocene) in the Uruguay River Basin (Entre Ríos, Argentina). This study is based on five silicified wood specimens preserved in fluvial deposits, which were transported from their growth site. Two new genera and species are described: Paraoxystigma concordiensis gen. nov and sp. nov. has medium-sized vessels, paratracheal axial parenchyma, heterocellular and multiseriate rays, and diffuse axial canals similar in size and shape to vessels, and Gossweilerodendroxylon palmariensis gen. nov and sp. nov. has medium-sized vessels, alternate intervessel pits, paratracheal and apotracheal axial parenchyma, homocellular and uni to-multiseriate rays, and small diffuse axial canals. These Detarioideae fossil records in south-eastern South America support the existence of a very old relationship with the extant West African forests. Eco-anatomical features observed in these fossil woods, along with the climatic information available from the Nearest Living Relatives (NLRs) comparison, suggest warm and humid climatic conditions for the upper-middle basin of the Uruguay River during some periods of the Late Pleistocene.

  14. Dust deposition effects on growth and physiology of the endangered Astragalus jaegerianus (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Scoles-Sciulla, Sara J.; Defalco, Lesley A.

    2009-01-01

    Human expansion into the Mojave Desert is a significant threat to rare desert plants. While immediate habitat loss is often the greatest concern, rare plants situated near areas where soil surfaces experience frequent disturbance may be indirectly impacted when fine particulate dust accumulates on leaf surfaces. Remaining populations of the federally listed Astragalus jaegerianus (Lane Mountain milkvetch) occur on land open to expanding military activities and on adjacent public land with increasing recreational use. This study was initiated to determine whether dust accumulation could decrease the vigor and fitness of A. jaegerianus through reduced growth. Beginning in early May 2004, plants located on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land were dusted bimonthly at canopy-level dust concentrations ranging from 0 to 32 g/m2, and physiology and growth were monitored until late June when plants senesced. The maximum experimental dust level simulates dust concentrations of Mojave Desert perennials neighboring military activities at a nearby army training center. Average shoot growth declined with increasing dust accumulation, but seasonal net photosynthesis increased. Further investigation of plants grown in a greenhouse supported similar trends. This pattern of greater net photosynthesis with increasing dust accumulation may be explained by higher leaf temperatures of dusted individuals. Ambient dust deposition measured in traps near field plants (May 2004–July 2004) ranged from 0.04–0.17 g/m2/ d, which was well below the lowest level of dust on experimental plants (3.95 g/m2/d). With this low level of ambient deposition, we expect that A. jaegerianus plants in this population were not greatly affected by the dust they receive at the level of recreational use during the study.

  15. Cytological and histochemical gradients on two Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae)--Cecidomyiidae gall systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Previous ultrastructural and histochemical analysis proposed patterns in the accumulation of substances in galls of Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in some plant species of the temperate region. Similar analyses were done to verify the conservativeness of these patterns in the Neotropical region, where a great number of species of Cecidomyiidae is responsible for a wide diversity of morphotypes. Two gall morphotypes induced by Cecidomyiidae in a unique host plant, Copaifera langsdorffii, were studied. The gradients of carbohydrates and the activity of invertases and acid phosphatases were similar, but the cytological gradients and distribution of proteins evidenced that the sites of the induction as well as the amount of neoformed tissues may be peculiar to each gall system. The production of lipids just in the secretory cavities either in the non-galled or galled tissues indicated a potentiality of the host plant which could not be manipulated by the galling insects. Further, the absence of nucleus in the nutritive tissue, an exclusive feature of the horn-shaped galls, indicates cell death attributed to the feeding habit of the galling herbivore.

  16. Molecular identification and genetic variation of varieties of Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) using SRAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R X; Zhang, C H; Zheng, Y Q; Zong, Y C; Yu, X D; Huang, P

    2016-05-06

    Thirty-four Styphnolobium japonicum varieties were analyzed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers, to investigate genetic variation and test the effectiveness of SRAP markers in DNA fingerprint establishment. Twelve primer pairs were selected from 120 primer combinations for their reproducibility and high polymorphism. We found a total of 430 amplified fragments, of which 415 fragments were considered polymorphic with an average of 34.58 polymorphic fragments for each primer combination. The percentage of polymorphic fragments was 96.60%, and four primer pairs showed 100% polymorphism. Moreover, simple matched coefficients ranged between 0.68 and 0.89, with an average of 0.785, indicating that the genetic variation among varieties was relatively low. This could be because of the narrow genetic basis of the selected breeding material. Based on the similarity coefficient value of 0.76, the varieties were divided into four major groups. In addition, abundant and clear SRAP fingerprints were obtained and could be used to establish DNA fingerprints. In the DNA fingerprints, each variety had its unique pattern that could be easily distinguished from others. The results demonstrated that 34 varieties of S. japonicum had a relatively narrow genetic variation. Hence, a broadening of the genetic basis of breeding material is necessary. We conclude that establishment of DNA fingerprint is feasible by means of SRAP markers.

  17. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 16. The genus Mucuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiriadinata, H.; Ohashi, H.; Adema, F.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Mucuna is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Several characters are discussed in some detail. The subdivision of the genus is discussed. We accept two subgenera: subg. Mucuna and subg. Stizolobium. Several groups of species showing similarity in some characters are discussed. A

  18. Pollen source and resource limitation to fruit production in the rare species Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. is a rare, central Asian desert species which shows lower fruit set and seed set (<16%) than most hermaphroditic species. We hypothesized that fruit production was limited by pollen and resources. To evaluate potential fruit abortion due to pollen limitation, su...

  19. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae–Papilionoideae). 10. The genus Alysicarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    2003-01-01

    Alysicarpus Desv. is revised for the Flora Malesiana area. The recently described species A. aurantiacus Pedley is recorded for several localities in Papua New Guinea. Alysicarpus monilifer L. is recorded for Luzon (Philippines). The variability of A. vaginalis is discussed. A key for the Malesian

  20. EFFECTS OF PLANT SIZE ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER RELATIONS IN THE DESERT SHRUB PROSOPIS GLANDULOSA (FABACEAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Jornada del Muerto basin of the Chihuahuan Desert of southern New Mexico, USA, has undergone a marked transition of plant communities. Shrubs such as mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) have greatly increased or now dominate in areas that were previously dominated by perennial gra...

  1. Morpho-anatomy, imbibition, viability and germination of the seed of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Rodolfo Omar; Albornoz, Patricia Liliana

    2013-09-01

    Seed biology is a relevant aspect of tropical forests because it is central to the understanding of processes of plant establishment, succession and natural regeneration. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is a timber tree from South America that produces large seeds with thin weak teguments, which is uncommon among legumes. This study describes the morphology and anatomy of the seed coat, the viability, imbibition, and germination in this species. Seeds used during the essays came from 10 trees that grow naturally in Horco Molle, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Seed morphology was described from a sample of 20 units. The seed coat surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Transverse sections of hydrated and non-hydrated seeds were employed to describe the histological structure of the seed coat. Hydration, viability and germination experiments were performed under laboratory controlled conditions; and the experimental design consisted of 10 replicas of 10 seeds each. Viability and germination tests were conducted using freshly fallen seeds and seeds stored for five months. Morphologically the seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are circular to subcircular, laterally compressed, smooth, bright brown and have a horseshoe fissure line (= pleurogram) on both sides. The seed coat comprises five tissue layers and a double (external and internal) cuticle. The outer cuticle (on the epidermis) is smooth and interrupted by microcracks and pores of variable depth. The epidermis consists of macroesclereids with non-lignified secondary walls. This layer is separated from the underlying ones during seed hydration. The other layers of internal tissues are comprised of osteosclereids, parenchyma, osteosclereids, and macrosclereids. The percentage of viable seeds was 93%, decreasing to 75% in seeds with five months old. Seed mass increased 76% after the first eight hours of hydration. Germination percentage was 75% after 76 hours. Germination of seeds stored for five months decreased to 12%. The results showed that seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are highly permeable and germinate directly without a dormant period.

  2. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae–Papilionoideae). 12. The genus Crotalaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Crotalaria are discussed. Two new species: C. aiantha Adema and C. luzoniensis Adema and one new variety: C. assamica Benth. var. philippinensis Adema are described. A key to the species in the Flora Malesiana area is presented. Notes on species not included in the Flora Malesiana

  3. New Cytotoxic Bibenzyl and Other Constituents from Bauhinia ungulata L. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Leôncio M; de Carvalho, Jarbas L; da Silva, Horlando C; Lemos, Telma L G; Arriaga, Angela M C; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Militão, Gardênia C G; Silva, Thiago D S; Ribeiro, Paulo R V; Santiago, Gilvandete M P

    2016-12-01

    A new bibenzyl, 2'-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylbibenzyl (1) and four known compounds identified as 2'-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (2), liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4) and fisetinidol (5) were isolated from the roots of Bauhinia ungulata L. Phytochemical investigations of the stems of B. ungulata led to the isolation of the known compounds identified as liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4), fisetinidol (5), taraxerol (6), betulinic acid (7), taraxerone (8), glutinol (9), a mixture of sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11), pacharin (12), naringenin (13) and eriodictyol (14). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The cytotoxicity of the bibenzyl 1 has been evaluated against four human cancer cell lines, showing the IC 50 values of 4.3 and 6.5 μg ml -1 against pro-myelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HEP-2) cell lines, respectively. This article also registers for the first time the 13 C-NMR data of the known bibenzyl 2. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Effects of phyllotaxy on biomechanical properties of stems of Cercis occidentalis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bergman, Brett A; Stanfield, Ryan C; Ewers, Madeleine M; Bobich, Edward G; Ewers, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Phyllotaxy, the arrangement of leaves on a stem, may impact the mechanical properties of woody stems several years after the leaves have been shed. We explored mechanical properties of a plant with alternate distichous phyllotaxy, with a row of leaves produced on each side of the stem, to determine whether the nodes behave as spring-like joints. Flexural stiffness of 1 cm diameter woody stems was measured in four directions with an Instron mechanical testing system; the xylem of the stems was then cut into node (former leaf junction) and nonnode segments for measurement of xylem density. Stems had 20% greater flexural stiffness in the plane perpendicular to the original leaf placement than in the parallel plane. The xylem in the node region was more flexible, but it had significantly greater tissue density than adjacent regions, contradicting the usual correlation between wood density and stiffness. Nodes can behave as spring-like joints in woody plants. For plagiotropic shoots, distichous phyllotaxy results in stems that resist up-and-down bending more than lateral back-and-forth movement. Thus, they may more effectively absorb applied loads from fruits, animals, wind, rain, and snow and resist stresses due to gravity without cracking and breaking. Under windy conditions, nodes may improve damping by absorbing vibrational energy and thus reducing oscillation damage. The effect of plant nodes also has biomimetic design implications for architects and material engineers.

  5. Breeding biology and incremental benefits of outcrossing for the restoration wildflower, Hedysarum boreale (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern sweetvetch, Hedysarum boreale, is an herbaceous perennial of the Rocky Mountains whose seed is desired for rehabilitating degraded plant communities. Through experimental manual pollinations, the necessity of pollinators was shown by the failures of autopollination and wind pollination, ev...

  6. Uromyces ciceris-arietini, the cause of chickpea rust: new hosts in the Trifolieae, Fabaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants of Medicago polymorpha in Riverside and San Diego, California were collected with severe rust caused by Uromyces ciceris-arietini. Reported hosts of U. ciceris-arietini are Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Medicago polyceratia. To confirm the potential new host range, a monouredinial isolate RM...

  7. Resource allocation in Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae): how supra-annual fruiting affects plant traits and herbivory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fernanda Vieira; de Queiroz, Antônio César Medeiros; Maia, Maria Luiza Bicalho; Júnior, Ronaldo Reis; Fagundes, Marcilio

    2016-06-01

    Plants have limited resources to invest in reproduction, vegetative growth and defense against herbivorous. Trade-off in resources allocation promotes changes in plant traits that may affect higher trophic levels. In this study, we evaluated the trade-off effect between years of high and low fruiting on the investment of resources for growth and defense, and their indirect effects on herbivory in Copaifera langsdorffii. Our questions were: (i) does the resource investment on reproduction causes a depletion in vegetative growth as predicted by the Carbon/Nutrient Balance hypothesis (CNBH), resulting in more availability of resources to be allocated for defense?, (ii) does the variation in resource allocation for growth and defense between years of high and low fruiting leads to indirect changes in herbivory? Thirty-five trees located in a Cerrado area were monitored during 2008 (year of high fruiting) and 2009 (year of no fruiting) to evaluate the differential investment in vegetative traits (biomass, growth and number of ramifications), plant defense (tannin concentration and plant hypersensitivity) and herbivory (galling attack and folivory). According to our first question, we observed that in the fruiting year, woody biomass negatively affected tannin concentration, indicating that fruit production restricted the resources that could be invested both in growth as in defense. In the same way, we observed an inter-annual variation in herbivorous attack, and found that plants with higher leaf biomass and tannin concentration, experienced higher galling attack and hypersensitive reaction, regardless years. These findings suggested that plants’ resistance to herbivory is a good proxy of plant defense and an effective defense strategy for C. langsdorffii, besides the evidence of indirect responses of the third trophic level, as postulated by the second question. In summary, the supra-annual fruiting pattern promoted several changes on plant development, demonstrating the importance of evaluating different plant traits when characterizing the vegetative investment. As expected by theory, the trade-off in resource allocation favored changes in defense compounds production and patterns of herbivory. The understanding of this important element of insect-plant interactions will be fundamental to decipher coevolutionary life histories and interactions between plant species reproduction and herbivory. Besides that, only through long-term studies we will be able to build models and develop more accurate forecasts about the factors that trigger the bottom-up effect on herbivory performance, as well the top-down effect of herbivores on plant trait evolution.

  8. Chemical profiling with cytokine stimulating investigations of Sutherlandia frutescens L.R. (Br.) (Fabaceae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Faleschini, MT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available gave the best performance in recruiting various inflammatory cytokines to the site of infection upon stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, where essentially the non-polar compounds present in the ethanol extract contributed to most...

  9. Seed germination of three species of Fabaceae typical of seasonally dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meira Arruda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seeds germination of Anadenanthera colubrina, Acacia polyphylla and Bauhinia cheilantha, typical species of deciduous forests. Seeds were submitted to pre-germination treatments and attack of native insects. The seeds of each species were grouped in: seeds scarified with sandpaper; seeds immersed in water heated to 70 °C, seeds with signs of attack by herbivore insects and the control group. The largest proportion of germinated seeds occurred in the first week of incubation and germination peak, ranged from first to third day. All groups of A. polyphylla and B.cheilantha showed high germination rate (> 90%, being reduced only when seeds were attacked by insects (< 25%. Mechanic scarification was efficient in A. polyphylla by enhancing germination to maximum (100% and accelerating germination. A. colubrina showed no difference among groups, and germination rate was lower (< 50%, which was attributed to infestation by fungi, commonly reported in this species and apparently independent of usual hygiene procedures. Finally, except the fungi infestation in A. colubrina, evaluated species were independent of pre-germination treatment to obtain a high rate of germination.

  10. Leaf venation pattern to recognize austral South American medicinal species of "cow's hoof" (Bauhinia L., Fabaceae

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    Renée H. Fortunato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaves extracts of some species of Bauhinia L. s.l. are consumed to treat diabetes, inflammation, pains and several disorders in traditional medicine in austral South America. Despite its wide use and commercialization, sale is not controlled, and botanical quality of samples is not always adequate because of plant misidentification and adulteration. Here, we characterized leaf vein pattern in nineteen taxa to contribute to the recognition and commercial quality control of plant material commercially available. The vein characters intercostal tertiary and quinternary vein fabric, areole development and shape, free ending veinlet branching and marginal ultimate venation allowed to distinguish the main medicinal species in the region.

  11. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (Fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Peter W. Fritsch; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried...

  12. How Tightly Linked Are Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae Patches to Anthropogenic Disturbances in Southeastern Cameroon?

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    Nils Bourland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While most past studies have emphasized the relationships between specific forest stands and edaphic factors, recent observations in Central African moist forests suggested that an increase of slash-and-burn agriculture since 3000–2000 BP (Before Present could be the main driver of the persistence of light-demanding tree species. In order to examine anthropogenic factors in the persistence of such populations, our study focused on Pericopsis elata, an endangered clustered timber species. We used a multidisciplinary approach comprised of botanical, anthracological and archaeobotanical investigations to compare P. elata patches with surrounding stands of mixed forest vegetation (“out-zones”. Charcoal samples were found in both zones, but were significantly more abundant in the soils of patches. Eleven groups of taxa were identified from the charcoals, most of them also present in the current vegetation. Potsherds were detected only inside P. elata patches and at different soil depths, suggesting a long human presence from at least 2150 to 195 BP, as revealed by our charcoal radiocarbon dating. We conclude that current P. elata patches most likely result from shifting cultivation that occurred ca. two centuries ago. The implications of our findings for the dynamics and management of light-demanding tree species are discussed.

  13. Breeding biology and incremental benefits of outcrossing for the restoration wildflower, Hedysarum boreale Nutt. (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Swoboda; James H. Cane

    2012-01-01

    Northern sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale Nutt.) is an herbaceous perennial legume of the Rocky Mountains, USA, whose seed is desired for rehabilitating degraded plant communities. Through experimental pollinations, the necessity of pollinators was shown by the failure of autogamy, despite stigmas first becoming receptive in the bud in close proximity to the dehiscing...

  14. Notas sobre frutos y semillas de plantas colombianas I. Parkia (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Linares

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se llevó a cabo el estudio de los frutos y sernillas de los géneros de Parkia distribuidos en Colombia. En dicho estudio, realizado con ejemplares de colección del Herbario Nacional Colombiano, se encontraron siete especies pertenecientes a dicho genero (P. igneif1ora, P. discolor, P. multijuga, P. nitido, P. panarensis, P. pendulo, P. velutina, a cada una de las cuales se le realizó la descripción detallada de los frutos y las semillas y se elaboraron dibujos en los cuales se resaltan los caracteres más sobresalientes.

  15. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae from Turkey

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    Adnan Berber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials. The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20°C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g. The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (μg/mL (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%. The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061μg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5. Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing power with an EC50 of 871.25μg/mL. The metal chelating activity of the extracts increased with concentration. Chelating effect was 83.60% for fruit extract at 1mg/mL concentration. Oil content of fruit and mixed parts were detected as 6.71 and 6.14%, respectively. A total of 32 fatty acids were found in the oil. Essential fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acid were identified as the most abundant fatty acids in the oil. These results demonstrated that this plant species can be considered as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants. Likewise, the oil obtained from the plant can be used as a source of essential fatty acids for food and pharmacological applications. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (1: 337-346. Epub 2014 March 01.

  16. Effect of clonal reproduction on genetic structure in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae

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    Keith D. Gaddis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in Northeastern Costa Rica dominated by the species Pentaclethra macroloba, which sprouts from the root mass of fallen trees and from snapped trunks. We examined the population structure of juvenile P. macroloba growing in different soil types and across an elevational gradient. Using seven molecular markers, we genotyped 173 juvenile P. macroloba from 18 plots (six plots in seasonally inundated swamps, and 12 plots in upland non-swamp spanning 50-300m in elevation at La Selva Biological Station and the adjacent Reserva Ecológica Bijagual in Northeastern Costa Rica. We answered two specific questions: (1 How extensive is clonal reproduction? and (2 what is the distribution of genetic diversity and structure?. We found that clonal reproduction occurred exclusively within inundated swamp areas. However, there was no significant difference between genetic diversity measures in swamp and non-swamp plots, which were both generally low when compared with other tropical forest species. Genetic structure was significant across all plots (F ST=0.109. However, genetic structure among swamp plots (F ST=0.128 was higher than among non-swamp upland plots (F ST=0.093. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation among individuals within non-swamp upland plots was significant from the 25 to 100m spatial scale, but not within swamp plots. The degree of overall genetic structure we found in P. macroloba is high for a tropical forest tree. The incidence of clonal reproduction is a contributing factor in genetic differentiation, but the high structure among plots without clonal reproduction indicates that other factors contribute as well.

  17. Development of 12 Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae and Amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Lei Pan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. Methods and Results: Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The number of alleles per locus varied between two and four, the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.123 to 0.497, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.114 to 0.369. In cross-species amplifications, nine of these markers showed polymorphism in 29 P. vulgaris individuals. Conclusions: The newly developed chloroplast microsatellite markers exhibit variation in V. unguiculata as well as their transferability in P. vulgaris. These markers can be used to investigate genetic diversity and evolution in V. unguiculata and P. vulgaris.

  18. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

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    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  19. Taxonomic Study of Endemic Species of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae of India

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    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to provide a comprehensive taxonomic account of 12 endemic species of Astragalus occurring in India. The north-west Himalayan region harbors more endemic species (11 spp. than eastern Himalaya where only two species have been noticed from Sikkim. Jammu & Kashmir with seven species occupies first position in the list of endemic species. Five species are strictly confined to Jammu & Kashmir, while two species to Uttaranchal and one species to Sikkim. Only one species (A. tenuicaulis is found in both the Himalayas, otherwise the elements of both the Himalayas are quite distinct from each other. Most of the endemic species of Astragalus have been observed quite rare in the nature except A. uttaranchalensis. In the present investigation, A. turgidus, a newly described species from Jammu & Kashmir, has been found conspecific to A. kashmirensis. For each species nomenclature, description, distribution, phenology, taxonomic notes, list of the investigated materials, distribution map and figures are given. A new combination A. falconeri var. pilosus (Ali Chaudhary has been proposed based on A. hoffmeisteri var. pilosus Ali. A new endemic species A. nainitalensis from Kumaon Himalaya has also been described here along with illustrations.

  20. Biología floral, sistema reproductivo y éxito reproductivo de Macroptilium fraternum (Fabaceae

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    Patricia S. Hoc

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron observaciones de la biología floral y el sistema reproductivo de Macroptilium fraternum en dos poblaciones de la Argentina, con diferentes condiciones edáficas, localizadas en el extremo Sur del área de distribución de esta especie. En ambas poblaciones y en material de herbario de distintas procedencias se determinó la coexistencia en una misma planta de dos tipos florales: a flores cleistógamas preantesis y b flores pseudocleistógamas. Las flores cleistógamas preantesis con alas mayores de 5 mm, dispuestas en racimos pubescentes, erectos, expuestos sobre el nivel del follaje. La antesis duraba aproximadamente 5 horas en los días soleados y 9 horas en los días lluviosos, el ala derecha cubría al ala izquierda, adquiriendo la corola aspecto bilabiado, ofreciendo el ala izquierda como plataforma de aterrizaje; producían escasa cantidad de néctar (0.18 ± 0.13 µl y no recibieron visitas de polinizadores; aproximadamente cuatro horas después del inicio de la antesis en días soleados el ovario comenzaba a crecer; en el capullo, el estigma receptivo se encontraba cubierto con granos de polen de la misma unidad floral germinando. Las flores pseudocleistógamas con alas menores de 5 mm, dispuestas en racimos breves, hirsutos y postrados, no subterráneos como en otras especies de Macroptilium. El estandarte comenzaba a desplegarse exponiendo parcialmente las alas, el limbo del ala izquierda rodeaba la quilla y nunca se desplegaba; el ala derecha comenzaba a desplegarse y a los 2 segundos se replegaba y marchitaba, inmediatamente el ovario comenzaba a crecer; la flor no ofrecía ninguna superficie donde algún visitante pudiera posarse; en los capullos el estigma estaba receptivo y con los granos de polen de la misma unidad floral emitiendo sus tubos polínicos. El éxito reproductivo relativo fue bajo (polinización natural = 8%, autopolinización espontánea = 3%, debido probablemente a la baja viabilidad polínica, el alto porcentaje de aborto de semillas y la falta de visitas de polinizadores. La producción de ambos tipos de flores no está condicionada por factores edáficos, ya que se encontraron en plantas provenientes de distintos ambientes. El estudio de la progenie de ambos tipos florales provenientes de ambas poblaciones, ha demostrado que cada uno produce una cantidad semejante de semillas aportando a la próxima generación plantas con similares características (desarrollo lento, baja resistencia a enfermedades y alta mortalidad. La ausencia de polinizadores en estas flores (en parte porque preferían visitar flores de otras especies, con mayor recompensa y en parte por la fragmentación de los habitats, estaría produciendo una depresión por autogamia en las poblaciones estudiadas; si no es preservada la variabilidad del germoplasma, estas poblaciones situadas en el extremo Sur de distribución de la especie podrían extinguirse.Observations about the floral biology and the reproductive system of Macroptilium fraternum were made in two populations in Argentina, with different edaphic conditions, situated at the southern area of distribution of the species. The coexistence of two kind of flowers in the same plant was detected in both populations and in herbarium material from other localities: a cleistogamous preanthesis flowers and b pseudocleistogamous flowers. The cleistogamous preanthesis flowers possesed wings longer than 5 mm and were disposed in pubescent, erect, racemes exposed above the level of the foliage. The anthesis lasted approximately 5 hours on sunny days or 9 hours on rainy days, the right wing covered the left wing, the corolla acquired a bilabiate aspect, offering the left wing as landing platform; they produced a low quantity of nectar (0.18 ± 0.13 µl; they did not receive pollinator visits; approximately four hours after the beginning of the anthesis on sunny days the ovary started to grow; in the bud, the receptive stigma was covered with germinating pollen grains from the same floral unit. The pseudocleistogamous flowers possesed wings shorter than 5 mm that were disposed in brief, hirsute and prostrate racemes, non subterranean as in other Macroptilium species; the banner started to spread exposing partially the wings, the left wing limb surrounded the keel and never spread; the right wing started to spread and after 2 seconds refolded and began to wither, the ovary began to grow immediately; the flower did not offer a surface to allow visitors to settle; in the buds the stigma was receptive and found with pollen grains from the same floral unit emiting their tubes. The relative reproductive success was low (natural pollination = 8%; spontaneous self-pollination = 3%, probably due to the low pollen viability, the high percentage of seed abortion and the lack of pollinator’s visits. The production of both flower types is not conditioned by edaphic factors, as they were found in plants belonging to different environments. Study of the progeny of both floral types in both populations has demonstrated that each one produces a similar amount of seeds contributing to the next generation with plants of similar characteristics (slow development, low resistance to infections and high mortality. The absence of pollinators in these flowers (in part because they preferred to visit flowers of other species with more reward and in part because of the fragmentation of the habitats, would be producing inbreeding depression in the studied populations; if the germplasm variability is not preserved, these populations situated at the Southern end of the distribution range of the species could become extinguished.

  1. Erythrina velutina Willd. - Fabaceae: Árvore de múltiplos usos no nordeste brasileiro

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    Laércio Wanderley dos Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 800x600  O mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. é uma árvore que ocorre no nordeste do Brasil e usada como medicinal, madeireira, artesanal, ornamental e como componente de sistema agroflorestais. A partir de consulta a Bases Bibliográficas foi realizada uma revisão sobre a espécie tratando os aspectos taxonômicos e botânicos, composição química e aplicações na fitoterapia, propagação e conservação. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";}

  2. Bionomics of Neolasioptera aculeatae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, a promising biological control candidate against Parkinsonia aculeata (Fabaceae

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    Fernando Mc KAY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspecciones de campo realizadas sobre Parkinsonia aculeata L. en el Norte-centro de Argentina entre 2008 y 2011 revelaron la presencia del mosquito agallícola Neolasioptera aculeatae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. La presencia de las agallas de N. aculeatae está restringida a la distribución norte de P. aculeata. La disección de agallas recolectadas a lo largo del año, reveló la presencia de larvas y/o pupas en distintos estados fenológicos de P. aculeata. La emergencia de adultos de N. aculeatae tuvo lugar 13 a 34 días desde la recolección en el campo y se extendió por un período promedio de 22 días. Entre once especies de leguminosas inspeccionadas en el campo, adultos de N. aculeatae emergieron únicamente de agallas recolectadas sobre P. aculeata. Los atributos biológicos y el restringido conjunto de plantas hospederas utilizadas en el campo, hacen de N. aculeatae un agente promisorio para el control biológico de P. aculeata.

  3. Free radical scavenging potential and HPTLC analysis of Indigofera tinctoria linn (Fabaceae

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    Sakthivel Srinivasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging potential and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC fingerprinting of Indigofera tinctoria (I. tinctoria. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods, and free radical scavenging activity of the plant was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO and superoxide anion (O2− radical scavenging capacities. HPTLC plate was kept in CAMAG TLC Scanner 3 and the Rf values at fingerprint data were recorded by WINCATS software. Aqueous extract of I. tinctoria reliably showed the total phenolics (267.2±2.42 mg/g, flavonoids (75.43±3.36 mg/g and antioxidants (349.11±8.04 mg/g. The extract was found to have DPPH (52.08%, NO (23.12% and O2− (26.79% scavenging activities at the concentration of 250 μg/mL and the results were statistically significant compared with ascorbic acid standard (p<0.05. HPTLC results confirmed that the extract contained several potential active components such as phenols, flavonoids, saponins and terpenoids as the slides revealed multi-colored bands of varying intensities. This study confirmed that the plant had multipotential antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activities.

  4. Biología floral y sistema reproductivo dePhaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (Fabaceae

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    Patricia S. Hoc

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Las observaciones realizadas sobre la biología floral y los experimentos realizados para conocer el sistema reproductivo permiten concluir que: 1. la antesis dura de 9-13 horas y pueden reconocerse dos fases florales, en la segunda el estigma no está receptivo; 2. el estigma se encuentra receptivo en los capullos, cuando las anteras no están dehiscentes, por lo tanto las flores son protóginas; 3. el néctar es secretado durante la fase 1; 4. la composición del néctar reúne las características de las plantas melitófilas; 5. ni la lluvia ni la llovizna afectan la composición del néctar o la viabilidad polínica debido a que se encuentran protegidos, pero afectan el trabajo de los polinizadores; 6. las flores son papilionadas, están adaptadas a himenópteros medianos y la transferencia polínica es nototriba; ell polen es presentado en los tricomas estilares, 7. los valores obtenidos del ISI y del RRS muestran que la variedad es parcialmente autocompatible, por lo tanto su éxito reperoductivo aumenta si trabajan los polinizadores; 8. individuos de Centris sp. y una casta de Bombus atratus son los visitantes legítimos más importantes, porque trabajan en todas las plantas conespecíficas y liban néctar en pocas flores (en fase 1 por planta durante cada visita, mientras que individuos de Bombus opifex, otra casta de Bombus atratus y Megachile spp., aunque son visitantes legítimos, trabajan con menor frecuencia y constancia; 9. algunos lepidópteros son ladrones de néctar porque liban pero no desencadenan el mecanismo de transferencia polínica.Observations made in Salta, northern Argentina, for a complete flowering season of five plants from several patches, allowed the authors to conclude: 1. anthesis lasts 9-13 hours and consists of two floral phases, in the last of which the stigma is not receptive; 2. stigma is receptive in the bud when anthers are not dehiscent, hence the flowers are protogynous; 3. nectar is secreted during phase 1 only; 4. the nectar composition fits that of melittophylous plants; 5. rain or drizzle do not affect the nectar composition or pollen viability because they are highly protected but do affect visitation by pollinators; 6. flowers are flag-blossom pollination units with pollen presented on stylar subapical trichomes, adapted to medium-sized hymenopterans, which transfer the pollen on their heads; 7. the ISI and RRS reproductive indeses show that the variety is partially self-compatible, but insect visitation increases reproductive success; 8. individuals of Centris sp. and a breed of Bombus atratus are the most important legitimate visitors because they work on all conspecific plants and suck nectar in few flowers ( phase 1 per plant during each visit, while individuals of Bombus opifex, the other breed of B.atratus and Megachile spp. are also legitimate pollinators but less frequent or not constant; 9. some Lepidoptera are nectar robbers because they suck nectar but do not trigger the pollen transfer mechanism.

  5. Estudo preliminar da atividade antibacteriana das cascas de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae (Leguminosae

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    S. Virtuoso

    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina é popularmente conhecida como suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga dentre outros. Das várias espécies distribuídas pelo mundo cerca de doze estão no Brasil. A casca é utilizada, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro, pelas propriedades sudorífica, calmante, emoliente, peitoral, anestésica local e outras. Considerando-se que não existem estudos sobre o potencial microbiológico das cascas de Erythrina velutina este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliá-lo preliminarmente contra oito bactérias patogênicas. Foram utilizados os métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima para o extrato etanólico bruto e difusão em disco para a fração hexano. A atividade contra o Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes foi evidenciada para ambas as amostras. A viabilidade de futuras pesquisas com outras frações e substâncias isoladas na busca de novas alternativas, visando uma terapêutica racional a partir de fontes naturais foi apontada pelos resultados.

  6. Comparative genetic analysis of trichome-less and normal pod genotypes of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, S S; Rai, G K; Darokar, M P; Lal, R K; Misra, H O; Khanuja, S P S

    2011-09-15

    Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) seeds contain the catecholic amino acid L-DoPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is a neurotransmitter precursor and used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and mental disorders. The great demand for L-DoPA is largely met by the pharmaceutical industry through extraction of the compound from wild populations of this plant; commercial exploitation of this compound is hampered because of its limited availability. The trichomes present on the pods can cause severe itching, blisters and dermatitis, discouraging cultivation. We screened genetic stocks of velvet bean for the trichome-less trait, along with high seed yield and L-DoPA content. The highest yielding trichome-less elite strain was selected and indentified on the basis of a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method (RAPD), using deca-nucleotide primers. A genetic similarity index matrix was obtained through multivariant analysis using Nei and Li's coefficient. The similarity coefficients were used to generate a tree for cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Analysis of amplification spectra of 408 bands obtained with 56 primers allowed us to distinguish a trichome-less elite strain of M. pruriens.

  7. SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE Parkia gigantocarpa (FABACEAE - MIMOSIDAE

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    Ademir Kleber Morbeck de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to determine the best dormancy overcoming methods for Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke seeds and their influence on seedlings quality. The seeds were submitted to the following methods: immersion in boiling water for 10 minutes; acid scarification, in which the seeds were immersed in sulfuric acid (H2SO4 98 % for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes; mechanical scarification, with sandpaper for 15 seconds, and control (no treatment. The seedling quality was evaluated through primary root dry matter. Experiment was entirely random designed, with eight methods. Evaluating all the parameters, the acid scarification, for 30 and 40 minutes, showed the best dormancy overcoming results to the species, providing better vigor into germination and greater biomass allocation mean values to primary root.

  8. Plastid Genome Evolution in the Early-Diverging Legume Subfamily Cercidoideae (Fabaceae

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    Yin-Huan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Cercidoideae is an early-branching legume lineage, which consists of 13 genera distributed in the tropical and warm temperate Northern Hemisphere. A previous study detected two plastid genomic variations in this subfamily, but the limited taxon sampling left the overall plastid genome (plastome diversification across the subfamily unaddressed, and phylogenetic relationships within this clade remained unresolved. Here, we assembled eight plastomes from seven Cercidoideae genera and conducted phylogenomic-comparative analyses in a broad evolutionary framework across legumes. The plastomes of Cercidoideae all exhibited a typical quadripartite structure with a conserved gene content typical of most angiosperm plastomes. Plastome size ranged from 151,705 to 165,416 bp, mainly due to the expansion and contraction of inverted repeat (IR regions. The order of genes varied due to the occurrence of several inversions. In Tylosema species, a plastome with a 29-bp IR-mediated inversion was found to coexist with a canonical-type plastome, and the abundance of the two arrangements of isomeric molecules differed between individuals. Complete plastome data were much more efficient at resolving intergeneric relationships of Cercidoideae than the previously used selection of only a few plastid or nuclear loci. In sum, our study revealed novel insights into the structural diversification of plastomes in an early-branching legume lineage, and, thus, into the evolutionary trajectories of legume plastomes in general.

  9. Lotus alianus, a new species from Cabo Verde and nomeenclatural notes on Lotus section Pedrosia (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotus alianus J.H. Kirkbr., sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a rare endemic species from the Republic of Cape Verde, and is found in dry habitats on just two islands, Ilhas de Santo Antao and Sao Vicente. In addition, two species names are synonymized with L. creticus L., and a lectotyp...

  10. Effect of Senna alata (L) Roxb (Fabaceae) Leaf Extracts on alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effect of S. alata leaf extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and its potential for reducing postprandial blood glucose level of rats. Methods: The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of acetone, ethylacetate and hexane extracts of S. alata were investigated by reacting ...

  11. Biología floral, sistema reproductivo y éxito reproductivo de Macroptilium fraternum (Fabaceae

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    Patricia S. Hoc

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron observaciones de la biología floral y el sistema reproductivo de Macroptilium fraternum en dos poblaciones de la Argentina, con diferentes condiciones edáficas, localizadas en el extremo Sur del área de distribución de esta especie. En ambas poblaciones y en material de herbario de distintas procedencias se determinó la coexistencia en una misma planta de dos tipos florales: a flores cleistógamas preantesis y b flores pseudocleistógamas. Las flores cleistógamas preantesis con alas mayores de 5 mm, dispuestas en racimos pubescentes, erectos, expuestos sobre el nivel del follaje. La antesis duraba aproximadamente 5 horas en los días soleados y 9 horas en los días lluviosos, el ala derecha cubría al ala izquierda, adquiriendo la corola aspecto bilabiado, ofreciendo el ala izquierda como plataforma de aterrizaje; producían escasa cantidad de néctar (0.18 ± 0.13 µl y no recibieron visitas de polinizadores; aproximadamente cuatro horas después del inicio de la antesis en días soleados el ovario comenzaba a crecer; en el capullo, el estigma receptivo se encontraba cubierto con granos de polen de la misma unidad floral germinando. Las flores pseudocleistógamas con alas menores de 5 mm, dispuestas en racimos breves, hirsutos y postrados, no subterráneos como en otras especies de Macroptilium. El estandarte comenzaba a desplegarse exponiendo parcialmente las alas, el limbo del ala izquierda rodeaba la quilla y nunca se desplegaba; el ala derecha comenzaba a desplegarse y a los 2 segundos se replegaba y marchitaba, inmediatamente el ovario comenzaba a crecer; la flor no ofrecía ninguna superficie donde algún visitante pudiera posarse; en los capullos el estigma estaba receptivo y con los granos de polen de la misma unidad floral emitiendo sus tubos polínicos. El éxito reproductivo relativo fue bajo (polinización natural = 8%, autopolinización espontánea = 3%, debido probablemente a la baja viabilidad polínica, el alto porcentaje de aborto de semillas y la falta de visitas de polinizadores. La producción de ambos tipos de flores no está condicionada por factores edáficos, ya que se encontraron en plantas provenientes de distintos ambientes. El estudio de la progenie de ambos tipos florales provenientes de ambas poblaciones, ha demostrado que cada uno produce una cantidad semejante de semillas aportando a la próxima generación plantas con similares características (desarrollo lento, baja resistencia a enfermedades y alta mortalidad. La ausencia de polinizadores en estas flores (en parte porque preferían visitar flores de otras especies, con mayor recompensa y en parte por la fragmentación de los habitats, estaría produciendo una depresión por autogamia en las poblaciones estudiadas; si no es preservada la variabilidad del germoplasma, estas poblaciones situadas en el extremo Sur de distribución de la especie podrían extinguirse.

  12. Tolerancia a la desecación de semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae

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    Marcelo Nahuel Morandini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La elevada diversidad de especies y endemismos, conjuntamente con la acelerada pérdida de biodiversidad por deforestaciones, destaca la importancia de emprender acciones combinadas de conservación in situ y ex situ. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la tolerancia a la desecación de las semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens, para su conservación ex situ a largo plazo en el BGEN. El contenido de humedad (CH se determinó colocando las semillas de cada población en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. Se realizaron ensayos de germinación en distintos CH: semillas frescas, 10-12%, 3-5%, y en semillas mantenidas seis meses a -20ºC y a 3-5% de CH. El CH de las semillas frescas de P. ferox fue de 14.2% y el de P. nitens de 10% para las dos poblaciones estudiadas. Las semillas de P. ferox llegaron a peso constante a las 17hr y las de P. nitens a las 3hr de secado. La germinación de las semillas de P. ferox fue mayor en los tratamientos con escarificación y la diferencia aumento con la reducción del CH y el almacenamiento. Las semillas de P. nitens con el CH reducido, requieren escarificación. Se concluye que las semillas de ambas especies son probablemente ortodoxas ya que la germinación superó el 80% en las semillas desecadas al 3-5% CH y almacenadas durante seis meses a -20°C.

  13. Inferring ancestral distribution area and survival vegetation of Caragana (Fabaceae) in Tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingli Zhang; Juanjuan Xue; Qiang Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    Caragana, a leguminous genus mainly restricted to temperate Central and East Asia, occurs in arid, semiarid, and humid belts, and has forest, grassland, and desert ecotypes. Based on the previous molecular phylogenetic tree and dating, biogeographical analyses of extant species area and ecotype were conducted by means of four ancestral optimization approaches: S-DIVA,...

  14. New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessega, Cecilia F.; Pometti, Carolina L.; Miller, Joe T.; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25202541

  15. Approaches to gene pool conservation of medicinal plant Oxytropis lanata (Pall. DC. (Fabaceae

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    A. B. Kholina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to preserve the gene pool of medicinal plant Oxytropis lanata (Pall. DC. we analyzed allozyme polymorphism and identified reliable and informative marker enzyme systems of this species; also we studied the response of seeds to deep freezing in liquid nitrogen (–196 ºС. Population has an average level of polymorphism (P95 = 41,2 %, P99 = 52,9 %, A = 1,58, Ho = 0,158, He = 0,171 in general typical for herbaceous legumes, and can serve as a source of material for gene pool conservation of the species. Deep freezing has not led to the death of the seeds; it was marked stimulatory effect of ultralow temperatures, expressed as an acceleration of germination and sharp increase of germinability (98,6 ± 2,3 % compared to the control (12,0 ± 3,5 % that is associated with overcoming physical dormancy. There were no abnormalities in the development of seedlings from seeds passed cryopreservation.

  16. Effect of methanol leaf extract of Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f (fabaceae on renal function

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    Fatima Ismail Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1 received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively daily for 28 days. Body weight changes were estimated by weighing the rats twice weekly using digital weighing balance. After 28 days, blood samples were obtained for evaluation of renal indices and the kidney was used for histopathology. Data were analysed using one–way and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS version 20. Results: Significant weight increase in all groups were observed (p

  17. The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haoyou; Liu, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies. PMID:28135314

  18. Effect of clonal reproduction on genetic structure in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaddis, Keith D.; Zukin, Helen L.; Dieterich, Inca A.; Braker, Elizabeth; Sork, Victoria L.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in North...

  19. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

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    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  20. Development and Characterization of 37 Novel EST-SSR Markers in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae

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    Xiaofeng Zhuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat markers were developed based on expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR and screened for polymorphism among 23 Pisum sativum individuals to assist development and refinement of pea linkage maps. In particular, the SSR markers were developed to assist in mapping of white mold disease resistance quantitative trait loci. Methods and Results: Primer pairs were designed for 46 SSRs identified in EST contiguous sequences assembled from a 454 pyrosequenced transcriptome of the pea cultivar, ‘LIFTER’. Thirty-seven SSR markers amplified PCR products, of which 11 (30% SSR markers produced polymorphism in 23 individuals, including parents of recombinant inbred lines, with two to four alleles. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.43 and from 0.31 to 0.83, respectively. Conclusions: These EST-SSR markers for pea will be useful for refinement of pea linkage maps, and will likely be useful for comparative mapping of pea and as tools for marker-based pea breeding.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for Canavalia cathartica and C. lineata (Fabaceae

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    Asuka Yamashiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the sea-dispersed legume Canavalia cathartica to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure. We also applied these microsatellite markers to the closely related species C. lineata. Methods and Results: Ten primer sets were developed for C. cathartica, and all of the primers were amplified in C. lineata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13 and one to 10 for C. cathartica and C. lineata, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.375 to 0.870 and from 0.071 to 0.877 for C. cathartica and C. lineata, respectively. Conclusions: The 10 microsatellite markers developed in this study can be used to analyze the population genetic structure of C. cathartica and other related taxa.

  2. A New Flavonol Triglycoside and Other Flavonol Glycosides from Astragalus armatus Willd. (Fabaceae

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    Assia Khalfallah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Astragalus armatus, a new acylated flavonol triglycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-(5'''-p-hydroxybenzoyl-β-apiofuranosyl-(1→2[ α -rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]- β -galactopyranoside (1 which we named astrarmatuside, has been isolated and structurally elucidated together with seven known flavonol glycosides: tamarixetin-3-O- α -apiofuranosyl-(1→2[ α -rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]- β -galactopyranoside (2 (m illettias p ec oside D , isorhamnetin-3-O-β-apiofuranosyl-(1→2[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-galacto-pyranoside (3, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-glucopyranoside (4, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-galactopyranoside (mauritianin (5, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-galactopyranoside (6, kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-glucopyranoside (nikotiflorin (7 and isorhamnetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-glucopyranoside (narcissin (8 . The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of 2D NMR experiments, HPLC-DADMS, HR-MS and UV spectral analyses. Pivotal role in the structure elucidation and in particular in the determination of sugar sequence, played HSQC-TOCSY and ROESY experiments whereas those of the known compounds (2–8 were established by spectral comparison with those published in the literature.

  3. Antinociceptive Activity of the Chloroform Fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich. Amshoff (Fabaceae in Mice

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    Vanine Gomes Mota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute treatment with the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich. Amshoff (CFDv in mice produced decreased ambulation and sedation in the behavioral pharmacological screening. Doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg CFDv decreased latency of sleep onset in the test of sleeping time potentiation. In the open field, animals treated with CFDv reduced ambulation and rearing (250 mg/kg, as well as defecation (125; 250 mg/kg. Regarding the antinociceptive activity, CFDv (125, 250, 500 mg/kg increased latency to first writhing and decreased the number of writhings induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, CFDv (250 mg/kg decreased paw licking time in the first and second phases indicating antinociceptive activity that can be mediated both peripherally and at the central level. CFDv did not affect motor coordination until 120 minutes after treatment. CFDv shows psychopharmacological effects suggestive of CNS-depressant drugs with promising antinociceptive activity.

  4. Sutherlandia frutescens (Fabaceae extracts used for treating tuberculosis do not have high activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis

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    Itumeleng H. Mabusa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sutherlandia frutescens (L R. Br. contains several essential, bioactive compounds with clinically proven pharmacological activities. Sutherlandia is prescribed for people with tuberculosis but it is still not known what compounds in this plant act against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its mode of action. This study is aimed at determining if S. frutescens extracts contain antimycobacterial compounds. Aerial parts of S. frutescens were dried, ground and extracted with ethanol, dichloromethane: methanol 1:1 (v/v and water. The chemical profiling was done using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC. TLC plates were developed in butanol:acetic acid:water (BAW to the ratio of 21:6:3; chloroform:methanol:water:formic acid (CMWF1 [60:15:2:1] and (CMWF2 [21:9:1:0.3]. Qualitative antioxidant activity was done, using 2.2-diphenylpacryl-1-hydrazyl (DPPH. Antimycobacterial activity of the plant extracts was evaluated, using micro-dilution and bioautographic methods against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Low antimycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis was observed on the bioautograms. The ethanol extracts contained more compounds compared to water extracts on HPLC-MS chromatographic profiles. The average Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values for all the extracts were 0.61 mg/mL units and the DCM:MeOH (1:1 extract had the lowest MIC value of 0.28 mg/mL. The results showed that the plant could be further explored for possible antimycobacterial agents. Low activity was observed, possibly due to low replication of bacilli and non-replicating organisms. The study provides preliminary scientific validation of the traditional medicinal use of this plant. Further studies are required to identify the bioactive compounds in the DCM:MeOH 1:1 extract which showed significant antimycobacterial activities.   Research correlation: This article is the original version, of which an Afrikaans translation was made available to provide access to a larger readership, available here: https://doi.org/10.4102/satnt.v36i1.1494

  5. MORFOBIOMETRIA E GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Parkia multijuga Benth. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae

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    Cartiane Rubishirley Macêdo Rocha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos métodos para a análise de sementes de muitas espécies estarem descritos nas Regras para Análises de Sementes, para a maioria das sementes das espécies brasileiras não há, ainda, métodos para o teste de germinação. Assim, os objetivos dessa pesquisa foram determinar as dimensões das sementes e as características das plântulas de Parkia multijuga e estabelecer o substrato e a temperatura para a germinação. As dimensões das sementes avaliadas foram: comprimento, largura e espessura. Para avaliação da germinação, em diferentes temperaturas e substratos, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em fatorial duplo (dois substratos, entre areia e entre papel, e quatro temperaturas, 20, 25 e 30ºC com luz contínua e 25-30°C com alternância de luz. As sementes de Parkia multijuga são elipsoidais, com tamanho médio de 46,4 × 11,8 × 8,8 mm. A germinação das sementes é do tipo hipógea e criptocotiledonar. As temperaturas adequadas para o teste de germinação são 25 ou 30ºC, em substrato areia, em luz contínua. Palavras-chave: Faveira-benguê, plântula normal; temperatura, substrato. MORPHOBIOMETRY AND GERMINATION OF Parkia multijuga Benth. SEEDS ABSTRACT Many species have the seed analysis method described in rules for seed testing, however some Brazilian native species do not have studies related about germination methods. The aims of this study were characterize the size of Parkia multijuga Benth. seeds and determine the substrate and temperature for the germination test. The sizes assessed were the length, the width and the thickness. To indicate the best temperature and substrate for the germination test the completely randomized design was used in factorial (two substrate, between sand and between paper, and four temperatures, 20, 25 and 30ºC with light and 25-30°C, with alternated light. Parkia multijuga seeds are ellipsoids shape and its mean size is 46.4 × 11.8 × 8.8 mm. The germination is hypogeal and cryptocotylar. The germination test should be made either 25ºC or 30ºC using sand as substrate, in continuous light condition. Keywords: Faveira-benguê; normal seedling; temperature, substrate. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14583/2318-7670.v02n01a08

  6. Within-field spatial distribution of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean (Fabales: Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Nicholas J; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-12-01

    The recently introduced plataspid Megacopta cribraria (F.) can infest fields of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) in the southeastern United States. Grid sampling in four soybean fields was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to study the spatial distribution of M. cribraria adults, nymphs, and egg masses. Peak oviposition typically occurred in early August, while peak levels of adults occurred in mid-late September. The overall sex ratio was slightly biased at 53.1 ± 0.2% (SEM) male. Sweep samples of nymphs were biased toward late instars. All three life stages exhibited a generally aggregated spatial distribution based on Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, and spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE). Interpolation maps of local SADIE aggregation indices showed clusters of adults and nymphs located at field edges, and mean densities of adults were higher in samples taken from field edges than in those taken from field interiors. Adults and nymphs were often spatially associated based on SADIE, indicating spatial stability across life stages.

  7. Alkaloid profile, antibacterial and allelopathic activities of Lupinus jaimehintoniana B.L. Turner (Fabaceae

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    Ruiz-González Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe some aspects of the ethnobotanical use and the first alkaloid profile of Lupinus jaimehintoniana, the 5 to 8 m high arboreous lupine. Five quinolizidine alkaloids identified as sparteine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, lupanine, nuttalline, and d-thermopsine, were characterized by the respective elution order according to their electronic impact spectra, lupanine being the most abundant in the four different tissues analyzed. Simultaneously, an antibacterial assessment of the four corresponding crude methanolic extracts, as well as the four semi-purified alkaloids was performed on specific Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains. These experiments resulted in MIC ranges of 37-61 µg mL-1 and 130-146 µg mL-1, respectively. for both bacterial species. Finally, the allelopathic activity of these extracts on the germination of Lactuca sativa seeds was demonstrated to be in the range of 50-300 µg mL-1 for both semi-purified alkaloid and methanolic extracts.

  8. Mosquito adulticidal properties of Delonix elata (Family: Fabaceae against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the adulticidal activity of hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Methods: The bioassay was conducted in an experimental kit consisting of two cylindrical plastic tubes both measuring 125 mm×44 mm following the WHO method; mortality of the mosquitoes was recorded after 24 h. Results: The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of D. elata against Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 162.87 and 309.32 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: From this result, it can be concluded the crude extract of D. elata was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  9. Morphological response to competition for light in the clonal Trifolium repens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittebiere, Anne-Kristel; Renaud, Nolwenn; Clément, Bernard; Mony, Cendrine

    2012-04-01

    Plant communities in temperate zones are dominated by clonal plants that can plastically modify their growth characteristics in response to competition. Given that plants compete with one another, and the implications this has for species coexistence, we conducted a study to assess how clonal species morphologically respond to competition for light depending on its intensity and heterogeneity, which are determined by the competitor species. We assessed the morphological response to competition for light of the clonal species Trifolium repens L. by measuring its growth performance, and vertical and horizontal growth traits. We used five competitive environments, i.e., one without competitor and four differing by their competitor species creating different conditions of competition intensity and heterogeneity. The morphological response of Trifolium repens to competition for light depended on the competitor identity. Competition intensity and heterogeneity, determined by competitor identity, had an interactive effect on most traits. The increase in petiole elongation and specific leaf area due to increased competition intensity was observed only at low to intermediate competition heterogeneity. Competition heterogeneity promoted the elongation of clone connections allowing space exploration. Our results demonstrated that the intensity and heterogeneity of competition, which depended on competitor identity, are of primary importance in determining the plastic response of Trifolium repens. This emphasizes that it is important to consider the fine-scale spatial distribution of individuals when studying their interactions within plant communities.

  10. Effect of Senna alata (L) Roxb (Fabaceae) Leaf Extracts on alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of acetone, ethylacetate and ... in the treatment of digestion-related ailments ... starch (extra pure) was obtained from JT Baker ... and cooled to room temperature and the reaction.

  11. Spatial variation in pollinator communities and reproductive performance of Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae

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    Asif Sajjad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in an effort to understand the effects of spatial variations in pollinator assemblage due to habitat isolation on the reproductive performance of perennial plant species. Variations in pollinator assemblage structure (abundance, diversity and Shannon-Wiener index were studied at three widely isolated (100 to 200 km apart nature reserves of Southern Punjab, Pakistan, in order to explore its effects on reproductive performance of Prosopis juliflora. Species richness and abundance were highest in Pirowal Sanctuary followed by Chichawatni Sanctuary and Chak Katora forest reserve. The pollination system of P. juliflora was highly generalized with 77 insect visitor species in four orders among all the three sites. However, pollinator assemblage varied significantly in composition among the sites. Out of the four reproductive parameters considered, the number of pods per raceme and germination varied significantly among the three locations. The reproductive performance of P. juliflora in terms of number of pods per raceme and germination improved with abundance of pollinators.

  12. Pollination ecology of Acacia gerrardii Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae under extremely hot-dry conditions

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    Abdulaziz Saad Alqarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth. are acacias that are native to the arid and semiarid Africa and west Asia. We investigated the flowering biology, pod set and flower visitors of Talh and discussed the role of these visitors in pollen transfer. The Talh trees blossomed laterally on the nodes of one-year-old twigs. Each node produced 21 flower buds seasonally. Each flower bud opened to a flower head (FH of 60 florets. The bagged FHs podded significantly (p ⩽ 0.05 less than did the unbagged FHs. The FHs were visited by 31 insect species (25 genera, 16 families and 5 orders. The major taxa were honeybees, megachilids, butterflies, ants, beetles and thrips. Each of honeybees, megachilids and beetles showed a significant (p ⩽ 0.05 hourly pattern, while each of butterflies, ants and thrips had no hourly pattern (p > 0.05. Furthermore, some birds and mammals touched the Talh FHs. Talh trees evolved a mass flowering behavior to face pre- and post-flowering obstacles. Megachilids seemed to play the major effort of zoophily because of their relatively high numbers of individuals and species and their effective movement behavior on the FH surface. Nevertheless, honeybees and other insects and vertebrate taxa also contributed to the pollen transfer. These results greatly contribute to our understanding of the pollination ecology of acacias, especially Arabian acacias.

  13. Ultrastructural Studies on Root Nodules of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raiha Qadri; A. Mahmood; Mohammad Athar

    2007-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies were conducted on Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb) Benth. root nodules collected from trees growing under natural conditions. Rhizobial infection on root surface of P. dulce started with curling of root hair. Both curled and straight root hairs were observed. The internal structure of a mature nodule showed an epidermis, cortex, vascular region and a bacteriod region. Vascular bundles were amphicribral. A distinct periderm consisted of sclereid tissue could be observed in t...

  14. Estudo etnobotânico na comunidade de Conceição-Açu (alto da bacia do rio Aricá Açu, MT, Brasil Ethnobotany study in community of Conceição-Açu (on the upper basin of the River Aricá Açu, MT, Brazil

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    Maria Corette Pasa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar o levantamento etnobotânico de plantas classificadas em diferentes categorias de uso na comunidade de Conceição-Açu, no município de Cuiabá, MT, Brasil e estimar o valor de uso das espécies botânicas em matas de galeria. Entrevistas estruturadas e semi-estruturadas, o uso do questionário foram aplicados em 59 residentes adultos de ambos os sexos. Identificou-se as unidades de paisagem: quintais, roças e matas de galeria e o número total de espécies utilizadas foi de 180. A maioria das plantas foi coletada durante a entrevista e depositadas no Herbário da UFMT. Nos quintais das residências identificou-se 86 espécies, pertencentes a 43 famílias, a maioria cultivada e utilizada como alimento (48,1% e como remédio (44,5%. Nas roças os principais cultivos são: Manihot esculenta L. (100%, Carica papaya L. (76,2%, Musa paradisiaca L. (71,4%, Saccharum officinarum L. (57,1%. Na mata de galeria destacou-se a categoria medicinal (65%, com as espécies: Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (2,5, Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg. (2,5, Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart. (2,33, Diptychandra aurantiaca Tul. (2,0, Cariniana rubra Gardner ex. Miers (20 e as famílias botânicas Mimosaceae, Bignoniaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae e Sapindaceae. Os resultados demonstram que a população possui vasto conhecimento das plantas e de suas propriedades de cura.This paper aims at doing the ethnobotany survey of plants classified in different categories of use in the community of Conceição-Açu, in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil and estimate the value of use of the species botanic in the gallery forest. Structured and non-structured interviews and the questionnaire were used in 59 adult dwellers of both sexes. Were identified the landscape units: backyards, husbandry and gallery forest and the total number of used species is the 180. The majority of the plants was collected during the interview and is kept in the

  15. Estrutura florestal em projeto de assentamento, comunidade São Mateus, município de Placas, Pará, Brasil

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    Renato Bezerra da Silva Ribeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial e a estrutura florestal de uma Floresta Ombrófila Densa de terra firme, da Comunidade São Mateus, município de Placas, Pará. A avaliação foi realizada em dois tipos de ambiente, sendo, um, em Floresta Manejada (FM e, outro, em Floresta Não Manejada (FNM. Foram alocadas 20 unidades amostrais, sendo nove em FM e 11 em FNM. Em cada unidade amostral, os indivíduos foram inventariados em três classes de tamanho (CT: CT1 - 10 cm 50 cm (50 m x 200 m. As formas de utilização de todas as espécies arbóreas registradas foram verificadas por meio de entrevistas com assentados, no comércio, nas feiras livres e no mercado municipal de Santarém. Foram amostrados 472,6 árvores/ha na FM, distribuídas em 134 espécies e, na FNM, 508,0 árvores/ha, distribuídas em 146 espécies. As espécies de maior valor de importância nos dois tipos florestais foram: Licania kunthianamm Hook. f. (Chrysobalanaceae e Mezilaurus itauba Taubert ex Mez (Lauraceae. As espécies que mais se destacaram com diferentes possibilidades de uso foram: Protium cf. heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand (Burseraceae, Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabaceae e Caryocar villosum (Aubl. Pers (Caryocaraceae. Após quatro anos de colheitas, não ocorreu diferenciação estrutural entre FM e FNM.

  16. Substrate for tests of seedlings emergency and seed vigor of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae/ Substratos para testes de emergência de plântulas e vigor de sementes de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae

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    Edson de Almeida Cardoso

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as objective to evaluate the effect of different substrates on emergence and seedlings development of Erythrina velutina Willd. The experiment was carried out at the greenhouse of the Laboratory of Vegetable Ecology in the Center of Agrarian Sciences - Federal University of Paraíba. The substrates evaluated were washed sand; washed sand + vermiculite in the proportions of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:3; vegetable earth, vegetable earth + washed sand in the proportions of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:3, vegetable earth + vermiculite in the proportions of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:3, vermiculite, bioclone®, bioplant® and plugmix®. The experimental design was completely randomized with fifteen treatments (substrates and four replications of 25 seeds. The effect was evaluated through percent of emergence, first count, emergence velocity index, medium time and relative frequency of emergency, length and dry mass of the root and it leaves aerial of the seedling. The substrates sand and vermiculite had the best results and are recommended for conduction of tests of emergency of mulungu seedlings.Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes substratos na emergência e desenvolvimento de plântulas de Erythrina velutina Willd. foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação pertencente ao Laboratório de Ecologia Vegetal do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba. Foram comparados os substratos areia lavada; areia lavada + vermiculita na proporção de 1:1, 3:1 e 1:3; terra vegetal, terra vegetal + areia lavada na proporção de 1:1, 3:1 e 1:3, terra vegetal + vermiculita na proporção de 1:1, 3:1 e 1:3, vermiculita, bioclone®, bioplant® e plugmix®. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 15 tratamentos (substratos e quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem, índice de velocidade, tempo médio e frequência relativa de emergência, comprimento e massa seca da raiz e parte aérea das plântulas. Constatou-se que os substratos areia e vermiculita foram responsáveis pelos melhores desempenhos, sendo recomendados para condução de testes de emergência de plântulas de mulungu.

  17. Fenologia reprodutiva de Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd (Fabaceae em duas áreas de floresta na Amazônia Central Reproductive phenology of Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd (Fabaceae in two forest areas in the Central Amazon

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    Antonio Moçambite Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos fenológicos de longa duração em florestas tropicais são raros. Foi realizado o acompanhamento fenológico de Dipteryx odorata, no período de 1974 à 2000, em duas áreas de floresta amazônica: a Reserva Florestal Ducke (RFD e Estação Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical (EEST. O objetivo foi observar os padrões fenológicos nas duas áreas, verificar a regularidade da floração e frutificação num período de 27 anos e a influência dos fatores climáticos nestes eventos. Foram marcados cinco indivíduos na RFD e cinco na EEST e observados quanto à produção de flores, frutos imaturos e maduros. A floração e a produção de frutos imaturos apresentaram padrão irregular nas duas áreas observadas, variando quanto a época de ocorrência e a duração entre anos e estações, mas apresentaram freqüência de ocorrência similar nos 27 anos observados. Para a fenofase frutos maduros este padrão foi diferente, com intervalos de até três anos sem ocorrência de frutos maduros, na RFD e de sete anos na EEST. Conclui-se que a freqüência de ocorrência das fenofases de floração e frutos imaturos foi anual e a de frutos maduros supra-anual, todas com padrão irregular e duração de intermediária a prolongada. Ocorreu variação de um a três anos entre episódios de floração e frutos imaturos e de um a sete anos entre episódios de frutos maduros, não ficando evidente, nesta análise, a influência dos fatores climáticos nos padrões observados. Sugere-se o uso racional dos produtos derivados de Dipteryx odorata, o cumaru, especialmente quanto à exploração de seus frutos e o desenvolvimento de mais estudos de longa duração, fundamentais para entender os padrões fenológicos reprodutivos e de oferta de recursos em florestas tropicais.Long term phenological studies in tropical forests are scarce. A phenological study of Dipteryx odorata was carried out from 1974 to 2000 in two areas of Amazon Forest: Reserva Florestal Ducke (RFD and Estação Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical (EEST. The objective was to compare the phenological patterns between the two areas, to verify the regularity of flowering and fruiting over a period of 27 years, and to verify the influence of climatic factors in these events. Five trees were marked in the RFD and five in the EEST; and were observed monthly for the presence of flowers, unripe and ripe fruits. The flowering and unripe fruiting presented an irregular pattern in both areas, and also varied with regard to duration and period of occurrence between years and seasons. Nevertheless, they presented similar frequency of occurrence during the 27 years of observation. On the other hand, the production of ripe fruits presented a different pattern, with three year intervals without ripe fruits in the RFD, and seven year intervals in the EEST. We concluded that the frequency of flowering and unripe fruiting was annual, and the frequency of occurrence of ripe fruiting was supra-annual, with an irregular pattern, and a duration from intermediate to extended. We also observed the occurrence of one to three year intervals between flowering and unripe fruiting episodes, and one to seven year intervals between episodes with ripe fruiting. The influence of climatic factors in the patterns observed was not clear. We suggest the rational use of natural products extracted from Dipteryx odorata, the "cumaru", especially the fruits, and the development of more long term studies, fundamental for understanding the reproductive phenological patterns as well as the resource offering patterns in tropical forests.

  18. Biological aspects of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) on Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), under laboratory conditions; Aspectos biologicos de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) em Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), sob condicoes de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Lisiane Taiatella; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare, E-mail: lisi@bio.ufpr.b, E-mail: stra@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva, E-mail: paulo@cpafrr.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Roraima, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Entomologia

    2003-12-15

    Zabrotes subfasciatus is a serious pest of common beans, P. vulgaris L.. In Brazil there are several studies dealing with resistance of bean genotypes to this insect, while other studies have emphasized the utilization of oils and powders from plants to repel their attack. In this paper, fecundity, fertility, pattern of oviposition, life cycle and longevity were evaluated for a Brazilian stock from the Goias State on P. vulgaris cv. Carioca, at 30 deg C and 70% R.H. The mean fecundity was 38 eggs per female and 73% of viability. Egg laying showed an aggregated pattern. Males and females lived an average of 13 and 9 days, respectively. The total life cycle lasted for about 28 days. (author)

  19. Germinação de sementes de dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae no armazenamento Germination of Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (jacarandá-da-bahia, espécie de alto valor econômico pela qualidade da madeira e potencial ornamental em razão da copa bem formada e à delicadeza da folhagem, está na lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção. Em função disso, conduziu-se este trabalho, visando à avaliação da qualidade de suas sementes, submetidas a períodos crescentes de armazenamento. Os frutos foram coletados em outubro de 2003, e as sementes armazenadas em geladeira a 6º C ± 2, em sacos de plástico transparente fechados. Mensalmente, durante 690 dias, foram retiradas 200 sementes, sendo que 100 foram utilizadas nos ensaios de germinação (quatro repetições de 25 sementes e 100 para a determinação do teor de água. Os ensaios germinativos foram conduzidos em estufa tipo B.O.D., a 25º C e com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. As variáveis analisadas foram a porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e massa seca das plântulas originadas. Os resultados indicaram que, até 360 dias de armazenamento, as sementes apresentaram porcentagem de germinação próxima de 50%, com redução de cerca da metade do índice de velocidade de germinação, porém, com maior comprometimento do acúmulo da massa seca das plântulas. A porcentagem de germinação inicial e final foram de 87% e 36%, respectivamente. As sementes de D. nigra têm comportamento ortodoxo e podem ser armazenadas por um período de até dois anos em sacos de plástico a baixa temperatura, com redução em cerca de 50% de sua capacidadeDalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Brazilian rosewood is a highly economically valuable species because of its wood quality and ornamental potential, mainly due to its well formed canopy and the delicacy of its foliage. Unfortunately, these features contributed to list it as an endangered Brazilian species (IBAMA Regulation number 06/92. This work had as its objective to study the quality of Dalbergia nigra seeds submitted to increasing storage periods. Fruits from trees located at the Botanical Institute of Sao Paulo were collected in October 2003. After harvested, the fruits were sun dried and the seeds manually separated. The seeds were stored in closed transparent plastic bags under refrigeration (6º C ± 2. Monthly, during 690 days, 200 seeds were removed from the refrigerator. One hundred (100 seeds were used in germination tests, which consisted of four repetitions with 25 seeds each; and the other 100 were used in the determination of water content. The germination tests were conducted in a B.O.D. chamber at 25º C under a 12 hour photoperiod. The analyzed variables were; the germination percentage, germination velocity index, and dry mass of the seedlings. The results indicated that after 360 days of storage, the seeds showed germination percentage close to 50% and reduction of the germination velocity index to half, whereas the dry mass accumulation was the most compromised. The initial and final germination percentages were 87% and 36%, respectively. We concluded that Dalbergia nigra seeds present orthodox behavior and can be stored for a period of approximately two years in plastic bags at low temperature, compromising 50% of their germination capacity.

  20. Testes de vigor na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes Erythrina velutina Willd. (FABACEAE - PAPILIONOIDEAE Vigor tests in the evaluation of physiological quality of Erythrina velutina Willd. (FABACEAE- PAPILIONOIDEAE seeds

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    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de testes de vigor de sementes tem sido fundamental para determinação da qualidade fisiológica de forma rápida e eficaz, destacando-se, os testes baseados no desempenho das plântulas como uma das opções disponíveis. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de testes de vigor para determinação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Erythrina velutina. Determinou-se em cinco lotes de sementes de E. velutina o teor de água e o peso de mil sementes e realizou-se os testes de germinação, emergência em campo, índice de velocidade de germinação e de emergência, comprimento e massa seca de plântulas do laboratório e campo. Os testes de campo (emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas e massa seca da parte aérea das plântulas são eficientes na separação dos lotes de sementes de E. velutina em níveis de vigor.The application of vigor tests of seeds has been fundamental as a fast and efficient form of determination of physiological seed quality, highlighting the tests based on the performance of seedlings as one of the available options. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different vigor tests for the determination of the physiologic quality of Erythrina velutina seeds. In five lots of E. velutina seeds, water content and seed weight were determined. Tests for germination were performed for field seedling emergence, speed germination and emergence index, and length and dry matter weight of seedlings from both the laboratory and from the field. Field tests (seedling emergence, speed emergence index, and dry matter weight of the aerial part of seedlings are efficient in the separation of the seed lots of E. velutina in vigor levels.

  1. Potencial alelopático da parte aérea de Senna occidentalis (L. Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae: bioensaios em laboratório Allelopathic potential of aerial parts of Senna occidentalis (L. Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae: Laboratory bioassays

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    Ana Carina da Silva Cândido

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade das frações semipurificadas (hexânica, acetato de etila e etanol-água do extrato etanólico das partes aérea de S. occidentalis foi avaliada através de ensaios de germinação e de crescimento de Lactuca sativa (alface, Lycopersicon esculentum (tomate, Allium cepa (cebola e Triticum aestivum (trigo, em laboratório. Foram utilizadas três concentrações (250, 500, 1000 mg L-1 de cada fração e um controle não tratado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os bioensaios de germinação revelaram que todas as frações atrasaram a germinação de alface, tomate e cebola, e as frações hexânica e acetato de etila reduziram a germinabilidade de tomate e cebola. Nos bioensaios de crescimento, a fração hexânica estimulou o crescimento da raiz e inibiu o crescimento do hipocótilo das eudicotiledôneas. A mesma fração inibiu o crescimento da raiz e do coleóptilo das monocotiledôneas. A fração acetato de etila inibiu o crescimento da raiz das plântulas-alvo e o hipocótilo/coleóptilo de tomate e cebola. A fração etanol-água estimulou o crescimento da raiz de tomate e do hipocótilo de alface e inibiu o crescimento da raiz de cebola e trigo e, também, do coleóptilo de cebola, na concentração de 1000 mg L-1. Nos bioensaios com herbicidas comerciais foram observados efeitos semelhantes àqueles obtidos na germinação pelas frações e no crescimento pelas frações hexânica e acetato de etila. Na cromatografia em camada delgada, foram detectados terpenos na fração hexânica, compostos fenólicos e alcalóides na fração acetato de etila. A análise espectrofotométrica revelou que a fração acetato de etila possui o maior conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e flavonóides.The bioactivity of semipurified fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol-water obtained from S. occidentalis aerial-part ethanol extract was evaluated by germination and growth bioassays using Lactuca sativa (lettuce, Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato, Allium cepa (onion and Triticum aestivum (wheat, in the laboratory. Three concentrations of each fraction (250, 500, 1000 mg L-1 and untreated control were used, on four replicates of 50 seeds each. Germination bioassays revealed that lettuce, tomato and onion germination were delayed by all tested semipurified fractions, and tomato and onion germination were inhibited by the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions. In growth bioassays, the hexane fraction stimulated root growth and inhibited hypocotyl growth in the eudicots. The same fraction inhibited root and coleoptile growth of the assayed monocots. The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited seedling roots and hypocotyl/coleoptile growth, of tomato and onion. The ethanol-water fraction stimulated tomato root growth and lettuce hypocotyl growth, and inhibited onion and wheat root and onion coleoptile development at 1000 mg L-1. Bioassays performed with commercial herbicides presented similar results to those observed in germination to the semipurified fractions in the growth by hexane and ethyl acetate fractions. The layer chromatography revealed that the tested hexane fraction contains terpenes, and the ethyl acetate fraction has phenolic compounds and alkaloids. The spectrophotometric analysis revealed greater yields of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the ethyl acetate fraction.

  2. Scarification with sulphuric acid of Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke seeds - FABACEAE Escarificação com ácido sulfúrico de sementes de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke - FABACEAE

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    Eniel David Cruz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat impermeability to water occurs in many species, including Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. To promote germination in seeds with coat impermeability the use of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 is recommended. The objective of this study was to identify a better time for the scarification with sulphuric acid for S. amazonicum seeds. The effect of scarification with sulphuric acid for 20, 40 and 60 min on germination and speed germination was studied for seeds that were either sowed immediately after scarification or after a 24-hour period of immersion in water. Seeds were sown on a mix of sand and sawdust (1:1. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 50 seeds. The statistical analysis of germination was carried out at six, nine, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after sowing, in a factorial scheme. For speed germination the means were compared by the Tukey test. There was an interaction between treatments to overcome dormancy and immersion time after scarification in most evaluations. Immersion in water accelerated the beginning of germination. All treatments to overcome dormancy promoted seed germination. However, scarification for 60 min, showed better germination, 92% when immediately sown and 86.5% when sown after 24 hours. Speed germination index was highest for scarified seeds for 60 min followed by immersion in water. Scarification for 60 min was the most efficient treatment to promote germination in S. amazonicum seeds.Impermeabilidade do tegumento da semente à água ocorre em muitas espécies, inclusive em Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. Para promover a germinação de sementes com tegumento impermeável um dos métodos recomendados é o uso de ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar o melhor tempo de escarificação com ácido sulfúrico na superação da dormência em sementes de S. amazonicum, escarificadas durante 20, 40 e 60 minutos. Parte das sementes foi semeada imediatamente após a escarificação e parte após 24 horas de imersão em água, em uma mistura de areia e serragem (1:1, onde foram quantificadas a porcentagem e a velocidade de germinação. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. A análise estatística da germinação foi efetuada aos seis, nove, 12, 15, 18, 21 e 24 dias após a semeadura em esquema fatorial. Para a velocidade de germinação as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Foi observada interação entre tratamentos para superação da dormência e o tempo de imersão em água após a escarificação na maioria das avaliações. A imersão em água acelerou o início da germinação. Os tratamentos para superação da dormência promoveram a germinação das sementes, entretanto, as sementes escarificadas durante 60 minutos apresentaram melhor germinação, 92 e 86,5% quando semeadas imediatamente e após 24 horas, respectivamente. O índice de velocidade de germinação foi superior nas sementes escarificadas durante 60 minutos e imersas em água. A escarificação durante 60 minutos constitui uma alternativa para redução da dormência das sementes.

  3. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

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    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defined, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that significantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fixation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability.

  4. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003 Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003

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    Samyra Ramos Chaves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.

  5. Aspectos clínico-patológicos da intoxicação experimental pelas sementes de Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae seeds in cattle

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    Murilo R. Boghossian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Sementes moídas de Crotalaria mucronata Desv. (=Crotalaria striata DC., Crotalaria pallida Ait., Crotalaria saltiana, com nomes populares de "xique-xique" ou "guizo-de-cascavel", foram administradas por via oral a 9 bovinos. As doses diárias de 1g/kg, 2g/kg, 3g/kg cada uma a um bovino, e 5g/kg em dois de três bovinos, dadas durante 61 a 63 dias, não causaram intoxicação. A dose de 5g/kg em um bovino, 7,5g/kg em dois bovinos e 10g/kg em um bovino, dadas durante 47-61 dias, causaram sintomas entre 47 e 80 dias após o início da administração e a morte entre 3 horas e 5 dias após o início dos sintomas. Os principais sintomas foram pulso venoso positivo da veia jugular, respiração abdominal, taquicardia, inapetência, fezes ressequidas, edema sub-mandibular e fraqueza. Os achados de necropsia foram palidez pulmonar, hidropericárdio, hidrotórax, hidroperitôneo, edema de mesentério, aumento da consistência hepática, alterações de cor do fígado, dilatação de ventrículo cardíaco direito e edema da parede ruminal. As principais alterações histológicas concentraram-se nos pulmões, sob forma de espessamento das paredes alveolares e da parede das arteríolas com diminuição da luz e fibrose periarteriolar; havia também lesões hepáticas e cardíacas de menor importância. Pode-se concluir que as principais lesões causadas pela ingestão das sementes de C. mucronata durante períodos prolongados, devem-se à dificuldade de passagem do sangue pelos vasos pulmonares em função da hipertensão arterial decorrente de fibrose e espessamento arteriolar determinada pela ação pneumotóxica da planta.Experiments were performed to define the clinical and pathological picture of prolonged administration of the seeds of Crotalaria mucronata Desv. to cattle, in order to obtain additional information about this toxicosis. The ground seeds were administered orally to 9 bovines. Doses of 1g/kg/day, 2g/kg/day, 3g/kg/day each in one bovine, and 5g/kg/day in two of three bovines, given for 61- 63 days, did not cause poisoning. Doses of 5g/kg, in one bovine, 7.5g/kg in two bovines and 10g/kg in one bovine, given for 47-61 days, caused symptoms between 47 and 80 days after the first administration and caused death between 3 hours and 5 days after the onset of symptoms. The main clinical signs were positive venous pulse of the jugular vein, abdominal breath, tachycardia, loss of appetite, dry feces, sub-mandibular edema and weakness. Bovines that did not die, were slaughtered 8 or 9 months after first administration. At necropsy pulmonary paleness, hydropericardium, hydrothorax, hydroperitoneum, mesenteric edema, augmented hepatic consistency, discoloration of the liver, right cardiac ventricle dilatation and ruminal wall edema were seen. The main histological lesions were thickening of the alveolar walls and of the arterioles with narrowing of their lumen, and periarteriolar fibrosis, besides hepatic and cardiac lesions of minor importance. It is concluded, that the lesions caused by ingestion of the seeds of C. mucronata over a long period are caused by the difficulties of blood passage through the pulmonar vessels due to fibrosis and thickening of the arteriolar walls through the pneumotoxic action of the plant.

  6. A new genus and species of gall midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Um novo gênero e espécie de mosquito galhador (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associado com Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkiamyia paraensis, a new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae that induces galls on Parkia pendula is described (larva, pupa, male,female and gall based on material from Pará (Brazil.Parkiamyia paraensis, um novo gênero e espécie de Cecidomyiidae é descrita (larva, pupa, macho e fêmea com base em material do Pará (Brasil.

  7. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae- Papilionoidae na região de Petrolina, Pernambuco Floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae-Papilionoidae in region of Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos da biologia da polinização e do sistema de reprodução de Gliricidia sepium foram estudados no período de março a dezembro de 1999, entre 05:30 e 17:00h., em uma população introduzida na Embrapa Semi-Árido (Petrolina, estado de Pernambuco. Quinze indivíduos da população foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se a freqüência, o horário e a duração de suas visitas. G. sepium apresenta floração anual do tipo "cornucópia", com pico desta fenofase no mês de agosto. As flores estão reunidas em racemos axilares, com desenvolvimento centrípeto, ocorrendo a antese de 5 a 45 flores/dia. As flores apresentam a formação típica das papilionáceas, com corola de cor magenta, com a parte central do estandarte de cor creme, o qual funciona como guia de néctar. A antese é diurna, ocorrendo por volta da 06:00h, e a duração das flores é de aproximadamente 10 horas. Abelhas Apidae e Anthophoridae e lepidópteros Hesperiidae são os visitantes mais freqüentes, sendo Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis e Eulaema nigrita consideradas como principais polinizadores desta espécie. Quanto ao sistema de reprodução, G. sepium é xenôgama obrigatória, produzindo frutos e sementes somente após polinização cruzada (51,6%.The aspects of floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium were studied from March to October of 1999, from 5:30am to 5:00pm, in an introduced population at Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit set. The visitors of flowers were observed during all time of the experiment, when frequency, time and duration of their visits were registered. G. sepium has a cornucopia pattern of flowering and the peak of this phenophase occurs in August. The flowers are grouped in axilar racemes, with centripetal development, and the anthesis occurs at 5 to 45 flowers/day. The flowers have the typical organization of papilionaceae, corolla of magenta color and the central region of flag of cream color, which functions as nectar guide. The anthesis is diurnal, occurring at around 6:00am, and the lifetime of flowers is around 10 hours. Apidae and Anthophoridae bees and Hesperiidae moths are the most frequent visitors. Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis and Eulaema nigrita were considered the main pollinators of this species. G. sepium is a species which produces fruits only after cross-pollination (51.6%.

  8. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families

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    Devesh Tewari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees, Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus. Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission, phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver.

  9. Explosive pollination mechanism in Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Andressa Cavalcante Meireles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p71 Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. has papilionaceous flowers with a complex pollination mechanism. This study examined pollination and reproduction in P. mediterranea from November 2009 to October 2011 at the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil. The petals are modified in a keel that protects the stamens and stigma; two wings surround the keel, and a standard that serves as landing platform for floral visitors. Periandra mediterranea exhibits an explosive type pollination mechanism in which the bee species Xylocopa frontalis, Acanthopus excellens and Epicharis sp., land on the standard and, due to body weight, expose the reproductive organs in the wing-keel complex. As a result, the reproductive organs of the flower come into contact with the dorsal region of the bee body, depositing pollen (i.e., nototríbic pollination. Reproductive assays showed 20% fruiting in spontaneous auto-pollination, 33% in manual auto-pollination, 33% in manual cross-pollination, and 100% in the control group, with no reproductive success while in apomixis. These results demonstrate self-compatibility in this species, however it depends on pollinators to ensure reproductive success.

  10. Explosive pollination mechanism in Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Andressa Cavalcante Meireles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. has papilionaceous flowers with a complex pollination mechanism. This study examined pollination and reproduction in P. mediterranea from November 2009 to October 2011 at the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil. The petals are modified in a keel that protects the stamens and stigma; two wings surround the keel, and a standard that serves as landing platform for floral visitors. Periandra mediterranea exhibits an explosive type pollination mechanism in which the bee species Xylocopa frontalis, Acanthopus excellens and Epicharis sp., land on the standard and, due to body weight, expose the reproductive organs in the wing-keel complex. As a result, the reproductive organs of the flower come into contact with the dorsal region of the bee body, depositing pollen (i.e., nototríbic pollination. Reproductive assays showed 20% fruiting in spontaneous auto-pollination, 33% in manual auto-pollination, 33% in manual cross-pollination, and 100% in the control group, with no reproductive success while in apomixis. These results demonstrate self-compatibility in this species, however it depends on pollinators to ensure reproductive success.

  11. Concordance between phylogeographical and biogeographical patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado: diversification of the endemic tree Dalbergia miscolobium (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Renan Milagres Lage; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the phylogeography of species of the Cerrado, the largest savanna biome of South America. Here we aimed to investigate the phylogeographical structure of Dalbergia miscolobium, a widespread tree from the Cerrado, and to verify its concordance with plant phylogeographical and biogeographical patterns so far described. A total of 287 individuals from 32 populations were analyzed by sequencing the trnL intron of the chloroplast DNA and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Analysis of population structure and tests of population expansion were performed and the time of divergence of haplotypes was estimated. Twelve and 27 haplotypes were identified in the cpDNA and nrDNA data, respectively. The star-like network configuration and the mismatch distributions indicated a recent spatial and demographic expansion of the species. Consistent with previous tree phylogeographical studies of Cerrado trees, the cpDNA also suggested a recent expansion towards the southern Cerrado. The diversity of D. miscolobium was widespread but high levels of genetic diversity were found in the Central Eastern and in the southern portion of Central Western Cerrado. The combined analysis of cpDNA and nrDNA supported a phylogeographic structure into seven groups. The phylogeographical pattern showed many concordances with biogeographical and phylogeographical studies in the Cerrado, mainly with the Cerrado phytogeographic provinces superimposed to our sampling area. The data reinforced the uniqueness of Northeastern and Southeastern Cerrados and the differentiation between Eastern and Western Central Cerrados. The recent diversification of the species (estimated between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene) and the 'genealogical concordances' suggest that a shared and persistent pattern of species diversification might have been present in the Cerrado over time. This is the first time that an extensive 'genealogical concordance' between phylogeographic and phytogeographic patterns is shown for the Cerrado biome.

  12. The Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (Fabaceae), a paradox in Denmark – an invasive plant or endangered native species?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmeier, Lars; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2013-01-01

    Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius, spreads rapidly in parts of Denmark and is considered an invasive species by some authors. However, the species has been present in the Danish flora for centuries and is therefore considered native to Denmark. In the present study we explore whether Danish Scotch ...

  13. Honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos l. (Fabaceae)) invasion effect on temperature, light and metabolism of a Pampean Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, Adonis David; Vilches, Carolina; Rodriguez Castro, Maria Carolina; Zunino, Eduardo; Debandi, Juan; Kravetz, Sebastian; Torremorell, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of invader species in a region generally modifies the ecosystems where they are introduced. In this study we analyze the effect produced by a gleditsia triacanthos (Honey locust) invasion on a Pampean Stream. This organism modifies the temperature and the light reaching the stream. Thermal range shows significant differences between reaches but mean tem between 85 and 95 % down the trees. These modifications reduce the primary gross production of 2.7 to 1.7 g 02. M"2 at spring and of 25 to 20 g 02. M"2 at summer. Respiration in spring and summer is halved at invaded reaches, but net ecosystem metabolism is similar in both reach and seasons. Moreover, the reach invaded by honey locust show scarce macrophytes. We argue that the honey locust reduces the diversity by reduction of macrophytes and their associated organisms but also reduce the primary production causing changes in the food web

  14. Phylogeography and genetic structure of endemic Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus (Fabaceae) across the California Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lisa E; Wheeler, Gregory L; McGlaughlin, Mitchell E; Bresowar, Gerald; Helenurm, Kaius

    2017-05-01

    Taxa inhabiting the California Channel Islands exhibit variation in their degree of isolation, but few studies have considered patterns across the entire archipelago. We studied phylogeography of insular Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus to determine whether infraspecific taxa are genetically divergent and to elucidate patterns of diversification across these islands. DNA sequences were collected from nuclear (ADH) and plastid genomes ( rpL16 , ndhA , psbD-trnT ) from >450 samples on the Channel Islands and California. We estimated population genetic diversity and structure, phylogenetic patterns among populations, and migration rates, and tested for population growth. Populations of northern island A. argophyllus var. niveus are genetically distinct from conspecific populations on southern islands. On the southern islands, A. argophyllus var. argenteus populations on Santa Catalina are phylogenetically distinct from populations of var. argenteus and var. adsurgens on the other southern islands. For A. dendroideus , we found the varieties to be monophyletic. Populations of A. dendroideus var. traskiae on San Clemente are genetically differentiated from other conspecific populations, whereas populations on the northern islands and Santa Catalina show varying degrees of gene flow. Evidence of population growth was found in both species. Oceanic barriers between islands have had a strong influence on population genetic structure in both Acmispon species, although the species have differing phylogeographic patterns. This study provides a contrasting pattern of dispersal on a near island system that does not follow a strict stepping-stone model, commonly found on isolated island systems. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  15. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  16. Mosquito repellent properties of Delonix elata (L. gamble (Family: Fabaceae against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Delonix elata (D. elata leaf and seed against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm伊30 cm伊25 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Repellent activity was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of D. elata were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the strength of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided over 150 min and 120 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts of D. elata exhibit the potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of filariasis.

  17. Comparison of the effects of temperature and water potential on seed germination of Fabaceae species from desert and subalpine grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao Wen; Fan, Yan; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Wang, Yan Rong

    2015-05-01

    Temperature and water potential for germination based on the thermal and hydrotime models have been successfully applied in predicting germination requirements of physiologically dormant seeds as well as nondormant seeds. However, comparative studies of the germination requirements of physically dormant seeds from different ecosystems have not been done. Germination of scarified seeds of four legume species collected from the Qing-Tibetan Plateau and of four collected in the Alax Desert in China was compared over a range of temperatures and water potentials based on thermal time and hydrotime models. Seeds of species from the Qing-Tibetan Plateau had a lower base temperature (T b) and optimal temperature (T o) for germination than those from the Alax Desert. Seeds of the four species from the Qing-Tibetan Plateau germinated to high percentages at 5°C, whereas none of the four desert species did so. Seeds of species from the Alax Desert germinated to a high percentage at 35°C or 40°C, while no seeds of species from the Qing-Tibetan Plateau germinated at 35°C or 40°C. The base median water potential [Ψ b(50)] differed among species but not between the two habitats. The thermal time and hydrotime models accurately predicted the germination time course of scarified seeds of most of the eight species in response to temperature and water potential; thus, they can be useful tools in comparative studies on germination of seeds with physical dormancy. Habitat temperatures but not rainfall is closely related to germination requirements of these species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Microsatellite Primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) Reveal that a Single Plant Sires All Seeds Per Pod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod.  Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched...

  19. COGNITIVE-ENHANCING PROPERTIES OF MORINDA LUCIDA (RUBIACEAE) AND PELTOPHORUM PTEROCARPUM (FABACEAE) IN SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED AMNESIC MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Elufioye Taiwo; Halimah A, Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive disorders associated with aging have been successfully managed by African traditional medical practitioners using various plants. This study evaluated the cognitive enhancing potentials of Morinda lucida (L) Rubiaceae and Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC) ex. K Heyne in scopolamine induced amnesic animals. The anti-amnesic activity of the ethyl acetate extracts of Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum at doses of 4 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg were assessed in scopolamine induced amnesic mice using Morris water maze test model. Effect of the extracts on the histology of the hippocampus was also evaluated. The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum ameliorated scopolamine induced memory deficit in the animals under study. There was no effect of the extract on the histology of the hippocampus. However, there was an increase in the density of cells in the hippocampus of treated group as compared to the untreated. Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum showed considerable enhancement of cognition in scopolamine induced amnesic mice.

  20. In vitro and in vivo antimalarial potential of oleoresin obtained from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Fabaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovana A G; da Silva, Nazaré C; de Souza, Juarez; de Oliveira, Karen R M; da Fonseca, Amanda L; Baratto, Leopoldo C; de Oliveira, Elaine C P; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla; Moraes, Waldiney P

    2017-01-15

    In view of the wide variety of the flora of the Amazon region, many plants have been studied in the search for new antimalarial agents. Copaifera reticulata is a tree distributed throughout the Amazon region which contains an oleoresin rich in sesquiterpenes and diterpenes with β-caryophyllene as the major compound. The oleoresin has demonstrated antiparasitic activity against Leishmania amazonensis. Because of this previously reported activity, this oleoresin would be expected to also have antimalarial activity. In this study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial potential of C. reticulata oleoresin. In vitro assays were done using P. falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains and the human fibroblast cell line 26VA Wi-4. For in vivo analysis, BALB/c mice were infected with approximately 10 6 erythrocytes parasitized by P. berghei and their parasitemia levels were observed over 7 days of treatment with C. reticulata; hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed at the end of experiment. The oleoresin of C. reticulata containing the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (41.7%) and β-bisabolene (18.6%) was active against the P. falciparum W2 and 3D7 strains (IC 50  = 1.66 and 2.54 µg/ml, respectively) and showed low cytotoxicity against the 26VA Wi-4 cell line (IC 50  > 100 µg/ml). The C. reticulata oleoresin reduced the parasitemia levels of infected animals and doses of 200 and 100 mg/kg/day reached a rate of parasitemia elimination resembling that obtained with artemisinin 100 mg/kg/day. In addition, treatment with oleoresin improved the hypoglycemic, hematologic, hepatic and renal parameters of the infected animals. The oleoresin of C. reticulata has antimalarial properties and future investigations are necessary to elucidate its mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Edge effects enhance selfing and seed harvesting efforts in the insect-pollinated Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, R; Sebbenn, A M; Kageyama, P Y; Vencovsky, R

    2013-06-01

    Edge effects may affect the mating system of tropical tree species and reduce the genetic diversity and variance effective size of collected seeds at the boundaries of forest fragments because of a reduction in the density of reproductive trees, neighbour size and changes in the behaviour of pollinators. Here, edge effects on the genetic diversity, mating system and pollen pool of the insect-pollinated Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii were investigated using eight microsatellite loci. Open-pollinated seeds were collected from 17 seed trees within continuous savannah woodland (SW) and were compared with seeds from 11 seed trees at the edge of the savannah remnant. Seeds collected from the SW had significantly higher heterozygosity levels (Ho=0.780; He=0.831) than seeds from the edge (Ho=0.702; He=0.800). The multilocus outcrossing rate was significantly higher in the SW (tm=0.859) than in the edge (tm=0.759). Pollen pool differentiation was significant, however, it did not differ between the SW (=0.105) and the edge (=0.135). The variance effective size within the progenies was significantly higher in the SW (Ne=2.65) than at the edge (Ne=2.30). The number of seed trees to retain the reference variance effective size of 500 was 189 at the SW and 217 at the edge. Therefore, it is preferable that seed harvesting for conservation and environmental restoration strategies be conducted in the SW, where genetic diversity and variance effective size within progenies are higher.

  2. Chemical Composition, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oil from the Tunisian Ononis angustissima L. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghribi, Lotfi; Ben Nejma, Aymen; Besbes, Malek; Harzalla-Skhiri, Fethia; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Ononis angustissima from south Tunisia has been evaluated. The oil yield was 0.04% (w/w). The chemical composition, determined by GC and GC-MS is reported for the first time. Forty-five components, accounting for 93.7% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%) and apocarotenoids (10.3%). The main components of the oil were α-eudesmol (22.4%), 2-tridecanone (9.3%) and acetophenone (7.4%). The essential oil was tested for its possible cytotoxic activity towards the human cervical cell line HeLa using the MTT assay and the antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and the clinical strain Acinetobacter sp. This oil exerted a cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL and a significant antibacterial effect against P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis.

  3. Effects of Dichrostachys cinerea (l. Wight & Arn (Fabaceae on herbaceous species in a semi-arid rangeland in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Mudzengi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic alteration of an environment and other disturbance regimes may enable the expansion of some native species into new geographical areas, a phenomenon observed with Dichrostachys cinerea. Five D. cinerea invaded sites, each approximately one hectare in size were assessed for the effects of D. cinerea on native herbaceous species diversity, richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper and plant vigour. The same attributes were studied in five uninvaded sites adjacent to, and equal in size to each invaded site. Forty herbaceous species were identified in the area. There were significant differences (P < 0.05 noted in species richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper, plant vigour, and species diversities between invaded and uninvaded sites, with uninvaded sites recording higher values than invaded sites. Altitude, erosion and the edaphic variables pH, N, P and K, which were included as explanatory variables, also differed significantly (P<0.05 between invaded and uninvaded sites. Of the 30 D. cinerea invaded plots established for herbaceous species assessments, 26 were positively correlated with altitude, erosion, pH, P, N and K. It is imperative to find ways of managing D. cinerea in order to reduce its adverse effects on herbaceous species.

  4. Developmental and morphological studies of the suspensor and coleorhizae in some taxa of the subfamily mimosoideae (fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, C.Q.; Liu, M.; Zhang, X.X.; Cheng, X.Y.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The embryo development of Mimosa pudica and the seedling development of Acacia farnesiana, Albizzia julibrissin, Leucaena glauca and Mimosa pudica were studied by wax method in this paper. The results showed that M. pudica has a suspensor composed of about ten cells which degenerate and integrate into the embryo proper during the cotyledons development. The coleorhiza in M. pudica is from the residual suspensor cells and the cells produced by periclinal and anticlinal divisions of the meristematic cells in the embryo development. The coleorhiza in the four studied taxa is broken by the elongation of the primary root, withdraws and finally falls off during the seedling development. (author)

  5. Antioxidant and orofacial anti-nociceptive activities of the stem bark aqueous extract of Anadenanthera colubrina (Velloso) Brenan (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damascena, N P; Souza, M T S; Almeida, A F; Cunha, R S; Damascena, N P; Curvello, R L; Lima, A C B; Almeida, E C V; Santos, C C S; Dias, A S; Paixão, M S; Souza, L M A; Quintans Júnior, L J; Estevam, C S; Araujo, B S

    2014-01-01

    The anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of the Anadenantheracolubrina stem bark aqueous extract (AEAC) were investigated. AEAC (30 μg/mL) reduced 94.8% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and prevented 64% (200 μg/mL) of lipid peroxidation caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride-induced peroxyl radicals. AEAC treatment (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) reduced mice orofacial nociception in the first (61.4% and 62.6%, respectively) and second (48.9% and 61.9%, respectively) phases of the formalin test. Nociception caused by glutamate was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by up to 79% at 400 mg/kg, while 56-60% of the nociceptive behaviour induced by capsaicin was significantly inhibited by AEAC (100-400 mg/kg). Mice treated with AEAC did not show changes in motor performance in the Rota-rod apparatus. It appears that AEAC is of pharmacological importance in treating pain due to its anti-nociceptive effects, which were shown to be mediated by central and peripheral mechanisms.

  6. Growth responses and accumulation of soluble sugars in Inga marginata Wild. (Fabaceae) subjected to flooding under contrasting light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, B; Capellesso, E S; Lottici, M E; Sentkovski, J; Mielniczki-Pereira, A A; Rosa, L M G; Sausen, T L

    2017-01-01

    Flood events in riparian forests of southern Brazil, can be characterized as unpredictable and of low magnitude with an average duration of less than 15 days. Inga marginata is an evergreen tree which grows in Southeast South America on a wide range of environments, including riparian forests. In this paper, the interactive effects of the light environment and soil flooding on morphological parameters of I. marginata were examined. Seedlings were acclimated in two contrasting light conditions: sun or shade for 30 days. Sun and shade plants were subjected to soil flooding for two periods; five or 15 days. After 5 days, the interaction between flooding and light did not affect growth, chlorophyll content and dry mass or the root-shoot ratio. After 15 days, flooded plants from the sunny treatment had a lower shoot dry mass compared to control sun plants and flooded plants from the shaded treatment. Moreover, the higher dry mass observed for shade plants compared to sun plants, following flooding, can also be directly associated with a higher content of soluble sugars. Shade plants of I. marginata showed a greater acclimation to soil waterlogging. This acclimation appears to be associated with a larger accumulation of soluble sugars compared to non-flooded plants. The responses observed on the shade plants appear to be decisive to indicate the use of I. marginata in degraded areas.

  7. [Signaling Systems of Rhizobia (Rhizobiaceae) and Leguminous Plants (Fabaceae) upon the Formation of a Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis (Review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyan'ko, A K

    2015-01-01

    Data from the literature and our own data on the participation and interrelation of bacterial signaling Nod-factors and components of the calcium, NADPH-oxidase, and NO-synthase signaling systems of a plant at the preinfection and infectious stages of the formation of a legume-rhizobium symbiosis are summarized in this review. The physiological role of Nod-factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium (Ca2+), NADPH-oxidase, nitric oxide (NO), and their cross influence on the processes determining the formation of symbiotic structures on the roots of the host plant is discussed.

  8. Population dynamics and clonal growth of Spartocytisus supranubius (Fabaceae), a dominant shrub in the alpine zone of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyncl, Tomáš; Suda, J.; Wild, Jan; Wildová, Radka; Herben, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 186, - (2006), s. 97-108 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/1445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : dendrochronology * isozymes * population projection matrix Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.383, year: 2006

  9. Estado da arte de Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae como alternativa terapêutica para o tratamento do Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Silvestre Marques

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O Diabetes mellitus, por tratar-se de uma doença crônica e por apresentar um crescimento acentuado na sociedade brasileira, tornou-se alvo da comunidade científica na busca de novas alternativas terapêuticas. Diversos estudos estão sendo desenvolvidos com o objetivo de comprovar as aparentes propriedades farmacológicas de espécies vegetais empregadas no tratamento desta enfermidade. Sendo assim, a Bauhinia forficata Link, comumente conhecida como pata-de-vaca, figura entre as espécies mais utilizadas para esse fim. Dentre os representantes de Bauhinia, a que apresenta maior número de estudos referentes à atividade hipoglicemiante e antidiabética é a espécie referida. Isto, pois, devido as suas atividades farmacológicas, diversos estudos relatam seus aspectos botânicos, composição química e eficácia. Esse constante interesse em seu estudo se mostra imperioso para sua utilização de forma segura e eficaz, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de formas farmacêuticas para o tratamento de diabetes.

  10. Role of the flavonoid-rich fraction in the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Bauhinia forficata Link. (Fabaceae) leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Natalizia; Buongiorno, Luigina Pasqualina; Celi, Maria Grazia; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Taviano, Maria Fernanda

    2016-06-01

    Bauhinia forficata Link. is utilised as an antidiabetic in Brazilian folk-medicine; furthermore, its antioxidant properties suggest a potential usefulness in the prevention of diabetes complications associated with oxidative stress. The contribution of a flavonoid-rich fraction (FRF), HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS characterised, to the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of B. forficata hydro-alcoholic leaves extract was evaluated for the first time. Both extract and FRF showed radical-scavenging activity and reducing power with a strong relationship with the flavonoid content found; hence, flavonoids are mainly responsible for the primary antioxidant activity of B. forficata extract. The extract significantly decreased FO-1 cell viability at the higher concentrations. FRF did not exert any effect; thus, flavonoids do not appear to be responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extract. The extract resulted virtually non-toxic against both Artemia salina and normal human lymphocytes, demonstrating potential selectivity in inhibiting cancer cell growth. Finally, no antimicrobial activity was observed against the bacteria and yeasts tested.

  11. Effect of Ovule Position within the Pod on the Probability of Seed Production in Bauhinia ungulata (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENA-ALÍ, JORGE I.; ROCHA, OSCAR J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims It has been claimed that ovules linearly ordered within a fruit differ in their probabilities of reaching maturity. This was investigated by studying the effect the position of an ovule within the pod has on seed abortion and seed production in Bauhinia ungulata. • Methods Fruits collected during the dry seasons of 1999, 2000 and 2001 were opened, and the number, position and status of each ovule within the fruit were recorded. A GLM model was used to assess the effects of population, tree identity and ovule position within the pod on ovule fertilization, seed abortion, seed damage and seed maturation in two populations of B. ungulata. • Key Results Nearly 30 % of the ovules were not fertilized in 1999; this percentage dropped to 5 % the following two years. Seed abortion (50 %) and seed damage (15 %) were the same every year during the study period. Only 15 % of the initial ovules developed into mature seeds in 1999; this value increased to 35 % in 2000 and 2001. However, seed survivorship was dependent on the position of the ovule within the pod; non-fertilized and early aborted ovules were found more often near the basal end of the ovary. The frequency of seed damage was not affected by position. Mature seeds were found mainly in the stylar half of fruits, where ovules are likely to be fertilized by fast pollen tubes. • Conclusions The pattern of seed production in B. ungulata is non-random but is dependent upon the position of the ovule within the pod. The results suggest that the seeds produced within a fruit might differ in their vigour. PMID:15596452

  12. Autecology and ex situ growth of Onobrychis pindicola Hausskn. subsp. urumovii Deg. & Dren. (Fabaceae) – endemic with medicinal potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kozuharova, Ekaterina; Nash, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Onobrychis pindicola subsp. urumovii Degen & Dren. is an endemic with very restricted distribution on just two mountains Pirin Mts. and Slavjanka Mts. SW Bulgaria. The taxon is evaluated as least concerned by the IUCN criteria but it is an element in several Natura 2000 habitats with conservation significance. The aim of this study is to investigate the microhabitat specifics of O. pindicola subsp. urumovii, namely slope, exposure, bed rock, soils, and vegetation as well as spatia...

  13. Autecology and ex situ growth of Onobrychis pindicola Hausskn. subsp. urumovii Deg. & Dren. (Fabaceae – endemic with medicinal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozuharova, E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Onobrychis pindicola subsp. urumovii Degen & Dren. is an endemic with very restricted distribution on just two mountains Pirin Mts. and Slavjanka Mts. SW Bulgaria. The taxon is evaluated as least concerned by the IUCN criteria but it is an element in several Natura 2000 habitats with conservation significance. The aim of this study is to investigate the microhabitat specifics of O. pindicola subsp. urumovii, namely slope, exposure, bed rock, soils, and vegetation as well as spatial distribution and phenology regarding the possible future cultivation. Basically O. pindicola subsp. urumovii demonstrates high tolerance to its environment although it is a calciphilous species. It grows successfully ex situ in experimental plots in the foothills of the mountains, which indicates prospects for successful cultivation. This will be important in case of future industrial necessity of the plant substance for medicinal purposes.

  14. High levels of genetic differentiation and selfing in the Brazilian cerrado fruit tree Dipteryx alata Vog. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tarazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteryx alata is a native fruit tree species of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna that has great economic potential because of its multiple uses. Knowledge of how the genetic variability of this species is organized within and among populations would be useful for genetic conservation and breeding programs. We used nine simple sequence repeat (SSR primers developed for Dipteryx odorata to evaluate the genetic structure of three populations of D. alata located in central Brazil based on a leaf sample analysis from 101 adults. The outcrossing rate was evaluated using 300 open-pollinated offspring from 25 seed-trees. Pollen dispersal was measured by parentage analysis. We used spatial genetic structure (SGS to test the minimal distance for harvesting seeds in conservation and breeding programs. Our data indicate that the populations studied had a high degree of genetic diversity and population structure, as suggested by the high level of divergence among populations . The estimated outcrossing rate suggested a mixed mating system, and the intrapopulation fixation index was influenced by SGS. We conclude that seed harvesting for genetic conservation and breeding programs requires a minimum distance between trees of 196 m to avoid collecting seeds from related seed-trees.

  15. Neuroprotective and nootropic activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn.(Fabaceae leaves on diabetes induced cognitive decline in experimental animals

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    Karuna A Talpate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea (EECT was evaluated in diabetes-induced cognitive decline rat model for its nootropic and neuroprotective activity. Materials and Methods: Effect on spatial working memory, spatial reference memory and spatial working-reference memory was evaluated by Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Neuroprotective effects of EECT was studied by assaying acetylcholinesterase, lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total nitric oxide (NO, catalase (CAT and glutathione (GSH levels in the brain of diabetic rats. Results: The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg was found to cause significant increase in spatial working memory ( P < 0.05, spatial reference memory ( P < 0.001 and spatial working-reference ( P < 0.001 in retention trials on Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Whereas significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity ( P < 0.05, lipid peroxide ( P < 0.001, total NO ( P < 0.001 and significant increase in SOD, CAT and GSH levels was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg compared to diabetic control group. Conclusions: The present data indicates that Clitorea ternatea tenders protection against diabetes induced cognitive decline and merits the need for further studies to elucidate its mode of action.

  16. Short-Term Effects of Reduced-Impact Logging on Copaifera spp. (Fabaceae Regeneration in Eastern Amazon

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    Carine Klauberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Timber management directly influences the population dynamics of tree species, like Copaifera spp. (copaíba, which provide oil-resin with ecological and economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure and population dynamics of Copaifera in unmanaged and managed stands by reduced-impact logging (RIL in eastern Amazon in Pará state, Brazil. Based on a stem map of the study area, 40 Copaifera trees were randomly selected, where an equal number of trees were selected in managed and unmanaged stands. A transect of 10 × 100 m was centered at each tree (50 m each side to assess Copaifera regeneration. Transects were subdivided into ten plots, of which six were systematically chosen to assess the height, diameter and number of Copaifera seedlings and saplings. The field assessment occurred in 2011 and 2013. To estimate the amount of sunlight transmitted to the forest floor, we computed canopy cover from airborne LiDAR data. According to the results, the abundance of Copaifera seedlings/saplings was higher in managed than unmanaged stands. About 5% of Copaifera regeneration was found between 45–50 m from the Copaifera tree while ~73% of regeneration was concentrated within a 10 m radius of the Copaifera tree. We verified that the diameter distribution of Copaifera regeneration was not a negative exponential distribution, as is typical of most tree species in natural forest. Rather, the Copaifera regeneration had a spatially aggregated distribution. In this short-term analysis, the impact of timber management is not negatively affecting the population structure or dynamics of Copaifera regeneration.

  17. Short-term effects of reduced-impact logging on Copaifera spp. (Fabaceae) regeneration in eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carine Klauberg; Edson Vidal; Carlos Alberto Silva; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Manuela Oliveira; Pedro Higuchi

    2017-01-01

    Timber management directly influences the population dynamics of tree species, like Copaifera spp. (copaíba), which provide oil-resin with ecological and economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure and population dynamics of Copaifera in unmanaged and managed stands by reduced-impact logging (RIL) in eastern Amazon in Pará state, Brazil....

  18. First record of Bruchidius raddianae in Italy: infested seeds of Vachellia karroo from Lampedusa island (Coleoptera: Bruchidae; Fabales: Fabaceae

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    Luciano Toma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bruchidius raddianae (Anton & Delobel 2003, a species of seed beetle spread in Northern Africa, was detected for the first time in Europe in some localities of the Southern Iberian Peninsula in 2007. In Spain this coleopteran lives on the shrubs of the South African acacia tree, Vachellia karroo (Hayne Banfi & Galasso, currently present in the Southern Iberian Peninsula. From seeds of V. karroo collected in October 2015, in Lampedusa island, Italy, where this plant is widely spread, 45 specimens of this coleopteran emerged. This observation represents the first record of B. raddianae in Italy and the second one for Europe.

  19. Feasibility of nuclear ribosomal region ITS1 over ITS2 in barcoding taxonomically challenging genera of subtribe Cassiinae (Fabaceae

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    Priyanka Mishra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the Study The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region is situated between 18S and 26S in a polycistronic rRNA precursor transcript. It had been proved to be the most commonly sequenced region across plant species to resolve phylogenetic relationships ranging from shallow to deep taxonomic levels. Despite several taxonomical revisions in Cassiinae, a stable phylogeny remains elusive at the molecular level, particularly concerning the delineation of species in the genera Cassia, Senna and Chamaecrista. This study addresses the comparative potential of ITS datasets (ITS1, ITS2 and concatenated in resolving the underlying morphological disparity in the highly complex genera, to assess their discriminatory power as potential barcode candidates in Cassiinae. Methodology A combination of experimental data and an in-silico approach based on threshold genetic distances, sequence similarity based and hierarchical tree-based methods was performed to decipher the discriminating power of ITS datasets on 18 different species of Cassiinae complex. Lab-generated sequences were compared against those available in the GenBank using BLAST and were aligned through MUSCLE 3.8.31 and analysed in PAUP 4.0 and BEAST1.8 using parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference (BI methods of gene and species tree reconciliation with bootstrapping. DNA barcoding gap was realized based on the Kimura two-parameter distance model (K2P in TaxonDNA and MEGA. Principal Findings Based on the K2P distance, significant divergences between the inter- and intra-specific genetic distances were observed, while the presence of a DNA barcoding gap was obvious. The ITS1 region efficiently identified 81.63% and 90% of species using TaxonDNA and BI methods, respectively. The PWG-distance method based on simple pairwise matching indicated the significance of ITS1 whereby highest number of variable (210 and informative sites (206 were obtained. The BI tree-based methods outperformed the similarity-based methods producing well-resolved phylogenetic trees with many nodes well supported by bootstrap analyses. Conclusion The reticulated phylogenetic hypothesis using the ITS1 region mainly supported the relationship between the species of Cassiinae established by traditional morphological methods. The ITS1 region showed a higher discrimination power and desirable characteristics as compared to ITS2 and ITS1 + 2, thereby concluding to be the locus of choice. Considering the complexity of the group and the underlying biological ambiguities, the results presented here are encouraging for developing DNA barcoding as a useful tool for resolving taxonomical challenges in corroboration with morphological framework.

  20. Reproduction, pollination and seed predation of Senna multijuga (Fabaceae in two protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    Marina Wolowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One important subject is to determine the effectiveness of conservation areas, where different management categories are being applied, to maintain effective sexual reproduction in plants and their interactions with animal groups. To evaluate this issue, we compared the phenology, reproductive success, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation of the legume tree Senna multijuga in two differently managed protected areas in Southeastern Brazil: the Itatiaia National Park and the Environmental Protection Area of Serrinha do Alambari, from December 2007 to December 2008. Vegetative and reproductive phenodinamycs were registered monthly in 80 individuals; other evaluations included 104 observation hours for pollination (March-May 2008 in 51 inflorescences; besides, fruit counts, fecundity and seed predation. Sexual reproduction of S. multijuga depends on the transfer of pollen by large bees (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Xylocopa, as the species is self-incompatible. Bruchidae species of the genus Acanthoscelides and Sennius predate seeds. Vegetative and reproductive phenodynamics differed among sites. Our results indicated that ecological interactions were lower at the protected area, but the reproductive processes in S. multijuga were not ruptured or critically degraded. This reinforces the idea that landscape areas with intermediate levels of protection, such as environmental protection areas, are suitable as buffer zones, and thus, relevant to the conservation of ecological processes when associated with more strictly protected areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1939-1948. Epub 2011 December 01Es importante determinar la eficacia de las áreas de conservación cuando se están implementando diferentes categorías de manejo, y una forma de hacerlo es conociendo si se mantiene una reproducción sexual efectiva en las especies de plantas y sus interacciones con grupos de animales. Para evaluar esta cuestión, se comparó la fenología, el éxito reproductivo, la polinización y la pre-dispersión de semillas depredadas de la leguminosa Senna multijuga en dos áreas protegidas sometidas a diferente tipos de manejo en el sureste de Brasil: el Parque Nacional de Itatiaia y el Área de Protección Ambiental de Serrinha de Alambari, de diciembre 2007 a diciembre 2008. La fenodinámica vegetativa y reproductiva fue registrada mensualmente en 80 individuos; otras evaluaciones incluyeron 104 horas de observación de la polinización (marzo-mayo 2008 en 51 inflorescencias, además del conteo de frutos, fecundidad y depredación de semillas. S. multijuga tiene una reproducción sexual que depende de la polinización de abejas grandes (Bombus, Centris, Epicharis y Xylocopa y se considera una especie auto-incompatible. Las semillas son depredadas por especies de Bruchidae de los géneros Acanthoscelides y Sennius. La fenodinámica vegetativa y reproductiva difirió entre sitios. Nuestros resultados indican que las interacciones ecológicas fueron menores en el área protegida, pero los procesos reproductivos de S. multijuga no se vieron interrumpidos ni degradados de manera crítica. Esto refuerza la idea de que las zonas de paisaje con niveles intermedios de protección, tales como las áreas de protección ambiental, son adecuadas como zonas de amortiguamiento, y por lo tanto, relevantes para la conservación de los procesos ecológicos cuando se asocian con áreas en las que se da una protección más estricta

  1. Water deficit modifies the carbon isotopic composition of lipids, soluble sugars and leaves of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae

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    Angelo Albano da Silva Bertholdi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water deficit is most frequent in forest physiognomies subjected to climate change. As a consequence, several tree species alter tissue water potential, gas exchange and production of carbon compounds to overcome damage caused by water deficiency. The working hypothesis, that a reduction in gas exchange by plants experiencing water deficit will affect the composition of carbon compounds in soluble sugars, lipids and vegetative structures, was tested on Copaifera langsdorffii. Stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and CO2 assimilation rate declined after a period of water deficit. After rehydration, leaf water potential and leaf gas exchange did not recover completely. Water deficit resulted in 13C enrichment in leaves, soluble sugars and root lipids. Furthermore, the amount of soluble sugars and root lipids decreased after water deficit. In rehydration, the carbon isotopic composition and amount of root lipids returned to levels similar to the control. Under water deficit, 13C-enriched in root lipids assists in the adjustment of cellular membrane turgidity and avoids damage to the process of water absorption by roots. These physiological adjustments permit a better understanding of the responses of Copaifera langsdorffi to water deficit.

  2. Enhanced daidzin production from jasmonic and acetyl salicylic acid elicited hairy root cultures of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae).

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    Zaheer, Mohd; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Giri, Charu Chandra

    2016-07-01

    Daidzin (7-O-glucoside of daidzein) has several pharmacological benefits in herbal remedy, as antioxidant and shown antidipsotropic activity. Hairy root culture of Psoralea corylifolia L. was developed for biomass and enhanced daidzin production using signalling compounds such as jasmonic acid (JA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Best response of 2.8-fold daidzin (5.09% DW) with 1 μM JA treatment after second week and 7.3-fold (3.43% DW) with 10 μM JA elicitation after 10th week was obtained from hairy roots compared to untreated control. ASA at 10 μM promoted 1.7-fold increase in daidzin (1.49% DW) content after seventh week compared to control (0.83% DW). Addition of 25 μM ASA resulted in 1.44% DW daidzin (1.5-fold increase) with 0.91% DW in control after fifth week and 1.44% DW daidzin (2.3-fold increase) after eighth week when compared to untreated control (0.62% DW). Reduced biomass with increased daidzin content was facilitated by elicited hairy root cultures.

  3. Ecological consequences of primary and secondary seed dispersal on seed and seedling fate of Dipteryx oleifera (Fabaceae

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    Javier Ruiz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of primary and secondary seed dispersal to plant demography have received little investigation. Evidence on these seed dispersal types, on seed fate and seedling recruitment of the tropical rain forest tree Dipteryx oleifera, is presented. The study was conducted in a 6.37ha permanent plot where seeds and seedlings were located and tagged for the 2007 cohort. A total of 2 814 seeds were threaded and their fate was followed one year after germination. Primary seed dispersal by bats protected seeds from insect larval predation below the adult tree. Bats congregated seeds in bat seed piles located at a mean distance of 40.94±1.48m from the nearest adult individual of D. oleifera. Terrestrial vertebrates congregated seeds in caches located 41.90±2.43m from the nearest adult individual of D. oleifera. The results of the fitted proportional hazard model suggested that primary seed dispersal decreased seed hazard probability by 1.12% for each meter from the adult conspecific (pPresentamos evidencia de la contribución relativa de la dispersión primaria y secundaria de semillas en la suerte que corren las mismas y en el reclutamiento de plántulas de la especie de bosque húmedo tropical Dipteryx oleifera. Este estudio fue realizado en una parcela permanente de 6.37 ha en la que semillas y plántulas del cohorte del 2007 fueron localizadas y mapeadas. Etiquetamos 2 814 semillas para evaluar su suerte un año después de la germinación. Encontramos que la dispersión primaria por murciélagos libera a las semillas de la depredación bajo la copa del árbol adulto causada por la fase larval de un insecto. Los murciélagos dispersan semillas bajo la copa de palmas usadas como comederos, localizados a 40.94±1.48m del árbol de D. oleifera más cercano y vertebrados terrestres congregaran las semillas en caches localizados aproximadamente a 41.90±2.43m del árbol de D. oleifera. Un modelo proporcional de riesgos fue ajustado a los datos de semillas y los resultados sugieren que la dispersión decrece la probabilidad de mortalidad de las semillas 1.16% por cada metro del árbol conspecífico más cercano (p<0.001 y la dispersión secundaria de semillas decrece la probabilidad de mortalidad 23.94% por cada metro (p<0.001. Los modelos de regresión de quebrados muestran que las semillas inviables reducen la tasa de depredación de las viables. Por cada semilla inviable depositada por los murciélagos en las agrupaciones de semillas, la tasa de depredación por vertebrados terrestres decreció 6% (p<0.001. Por cada semilla dañada por vertebrados en las agrupaciones, la tasa de germinación decreció 4% (p<0.001. Por cada semilla germinada en las agrupaciones, la tasa de reclutamiento incrementó 16% (p=0.000. La sobrevivencia de plántulas con dispersión secundaria fue estadísticamente diferente a la de aquellas que únicamente tuvieron dispersión primaria (F=0.153, p=0.697, df=1.98. Ambos tipos de dispersión contribuyeron con una alta sobrevivencia de plántulas lejos del árbol congénere más cercano (r²=0.713, n=578, p=0.004. Concluimos que la distribución de las plántulas de D. oleifera es consistente con la Hipótesis de Janzen- Connell y depende de la dispersión primaria por murciélagos, dispersión secundaria por vertebrados terrestres, el efecto de enmascaramiento y el constante ataque de insectos herbívoros a las plántulas.

  4. Effect of biologically treated petroleum sludge on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. (Fabaceae

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    Jeyabalan Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the response of different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge on seed germination, root and shoot length and tolerance of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The biologically treated petroleum sludge with bacterial consortium showed 54.8% reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons. Treated sludge was utilized with agricultural soil in known concentration for the assessment of growth of V. unguiculata. A remarkable absence of seed germination was observed at higher sludge concentration. The different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge showed severe decline on the length, weight and vigour index of the tested seedlings with increasing sludge concentrations. The results showed that the difference in rate of seed germination was significant among various concentrations. Under environmental stress condition, germination is the most critical phase of life cycle in crop plants. In this present study, the high oil content found to alter the osmotic relation between seed and water and thus reduce the amount of water absorbed. It was concluded that the concentration of nutrients and oil present in the treated sludge were toxic to the plant.

  5. Natural and Experimental Poisoning of Cattle by Enterolobium contortisiliquum Pods (Fabaceae Mimosoideae in Central-Western Brazil

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    Fábio de Souza Mendonça

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterolobium contortisiliquum pods are commonly identified as being the cause of abortions and photosensitivity in cattle. This paper describes the clinical and pathological aspects of a natural outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization by the pods of E. contortisiliquum in Brazil and the results of experimental poisoning in three bovines. The history of natural poisoning was obtained at the site of the outbreak. Clinical examinations were carried out and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. A post-mortem examination was carried out at the outbreak location on a cow that had died. Several samples were collected from the animal's internal organs to carry out histopathological examinations. E. contortisiliquum pods were given to cows in order to reproduce the disease. The natural poisonings were characterized by photosensitization and aborted young. Enterolobium photosensitization was not experimentally reproduced, but the animals fell sick and recovered after 52 days.

  6. Lethality of cytochalasin B and other compounds isolated from fungus Aspergillus sp. (Trichocomaceae) endophyte of Bauhinia guianensis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, André de O; Dias, Amanda Cristina S; Ramos, Gisele da C; Bitencourt, Heriberto R; Siqueira, José Edson S; Marinho, Patrícia Santana B; Barison, Andersson; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Marinho, Andrey Moacir do R

    Endophytic fungi are fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants; several biologically active compounds have been isolated from these fungi. There are few studies of compounds isolated from endophytic fungi of Amazon plants. Thus, this study aimed the isolation and structural identification of ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), mevalonolactone (3), cytochalasin B (4) and cytochalasin H (5) from Aspergillus sp. EJC 04, an endophytic fungus from Bauhinia guianensis. The cytochalasin B (4) and the diacetate derivative of cytochalasin B (4a) showed high lethality in the brine shrimp assay. This is the first occurrence of cytochalasins in Amazonian endophytic fungi from B. guianensis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. CHANGES IN HARDSEEDEDNESS AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIFOLIUM RESUPINATUM VAR. TYPICUM FIORI ET PAOL. (FABACEAE SEEDS STORED IN UNCONTROLLED CONDITIONS

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    Ali Servet Tekeli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out at Analyses Laboratory of field Crops Department in Agricultural Faculty, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey. The germination experiments, which were set up as completely randomized blocks with three replicates, were performed from seed harvest to end in 15 day intervals. In the experiment, the hardseededness (%, dead seed (%, germination speed (% and vigor (% ratios in Trifolium resupinatum var. typicum Fiori et Paol. which has different seed color such as yellow, red, green and mixed were determined and their variations in a year were examined. It was determined that seed color and time after harvest could affect all characteristics found out. While the highest hardseededness was determining green seeds (68.4%, the highest dead seed ratio was 2.4% in red seeds. The germination speed was 31.0% in yellow seed and their vigor was found high (38.9%. While the highest hard seed ratio was found in 10th (94.3% germination period, the highest dead seed ratio was 3.1% in 18th germination period. The highest germination speed and vigor were counted in 21st – 26th period and the lowest values were obtained from 10th period.

  8. New Microsatellite Loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia F. Bessega; Carolina L. Pometti; Joe T. Miller; Richard Watts; Beatriz O. Saidman; Juan C. Vilardi

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymo...

  9. AVALIAÇÃO E GEOREFERENCIAMENTO DE ÁRVORES DE Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg (Fabaceae PARA COLETA DE SEMENTES

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    Kelmer Mozer Moro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Floresta Atlântica é um dos principais biomas brasileiros e, ao longo do desenvolvimento econômico do país vem sendo antropologicamente modificada, com consequências graves para a manutenção da biodiversidade. O desmatamento é um dos principais fatores que contribuem para a perda deste bioma. Assim sendo, medidas que venham a reverter esse quadro são fundamentais. O reflorestamento de áreas devastadas é uma técnica importante para reverter o esse quadro ambiental alarmante. O plantio de mudas nativas vem sendo utilizado com frequência em atividades de reflorestamento. Dentre as espécies com potencial de utilização Anadenanthera peregrina se destaca por ser pioneira e que também se mantém nas fases posteriores de sucessão ecológica. Este trabalho teve como objetivo localizar, avaliar dendrometricamente e georeferenciar árvores de A. peregrina com potencial de produção de sementes. Um total de trinta e cinco indivíduos foram localizados, avaliados e georeferenciados, sendo que todos apresentavam potencial para a produção de sementes.

  10. The invasive species Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) shows high dynamism in a fragmented landscape of south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Adison; Cely, Jenny Paola; Etter, Andrés; Miranda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Acevedo, Patricio; Salas, Christian; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Ulex europaeus (gorse) is an invasive shrub deemed as one of the most invasive species in the world. U. europaeus is widely distributed in the south-central area of Chile, which is considered a world hotspot for biodiversity conservation. In addition to its negative effects on the biodiversity of natural ecosystems, U. europaeus is one of the most severe pests for agriculture and forestry. Despite its importance as an invasive species, U. europaeus has been little studied. Although information exists on the potential distribution of the species, the interaction of the invasion process with the spatial dynamic of the landscape and the landscape-scale factors that control the presence or absence of the species is still lacking. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the landscape and how these relate to U. europaeus invasion in south-central Chile. We used supervised classification of satellite images to determine the spatial distribution of the species and other land covers for the years 1986 and 2003, analysing the transitions between the different land covers. We used logistic regression for modelling the increase, decrease and permanence of U. europaeus invasion considering landscape variables. Results showed that the species covers only around 1 % of the study area and showed a 42 % reduction in area for the studied period. However, U. europaeus was the cover type which presented the greatest dynamism in the landscape. We found a strong relationship between changes in land cover and the invasion process, especially connected with forest plantations of exotic species, which promotes the displacement of U. europaeus. The model of gorse cover increase presented the best performance, and the most important predictors were distance to seed source and landscape complexity index. Our model predicted high spread potential of U. europaeus in areas of high conservation value. We conclude that proper management for this invasive species must take into account the spatial dynamics of the landscape within the invaded area in order to address containment, control or mitigation of the invasion.

  11. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina

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    Ignacio M Barberis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival. In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm² in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks. Seedling survival of A. praecox was slightly higher in quadrats with bromeliads in only one of the three plots. No seedling survived inside the bromeliad tanks. Apparently, bromeliad colonies have no effect on seedling regeneration of A. praecox. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 377-385. Epub 2005 Oct 3.En varios bosques tropicales y subtropicales, las plantas del sotobosque actúan como filtro ecológico que afecta diferencialmente la regeneración de las especies leñosas. En los bosques de Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae del Chaco Oriental existen densas colonias de bromeliáceas terrestres que afectarían su regeneración al interceptar el agua de lluvia y los propágulos dentro de sus tanques. Estas bromeliáceas tienen distribución agrupada dejando espacios libres entre ellas. Describimos la heterogeneidad de tres colonias y analizamos como afectan la regeneración de Acacia praecox. En enero 1996, colocamos en cada colonia tres transectos con 150 parcelas de 100 cm². En cada parcela registramos el tipo de cobertura (i.e. bromeliáceas, hierbas, hojarasca ó suelo desnudo y la presencia de semillas o plántulas de A. praecox. En julio 1996, registramos la supervivencia de plántulas. Las colonias de bromiliáceas mostraron una alta heterogeneidad interna. Casi la mitad de las 450 parcelas estuvo cubierto por dos bromeliáceas terrestres. Aechmea distichantha se registró en 81% de las parcelas con bromeliáceas y Bromelia serra en las otras. Todas las parcelas estuvieron cubiertas por hojarasca. La mitad de ellas estuvieron cubiertas por hojas de bromeliáceas y el resto ocupado por sus bases. Donde no había bromeliáceas, el suelo estuvo cubierto por mantillo (83%, herbáceas (11%, u otros. En enero registramos 127 semillas y 176 plántulas de A. praecox. La densidad de ambas fue similar en parcelas con y sin bromeliáceas, pero su variabilidad fue mayor dentro de cada colonia que entre ellas. La densidad de semillas fue mayor debajo de las hojas de bromeliáceas que dentro de las plantas. La supervivencia de plántulas fue superior en parcela con bromeliáceas en sólo una de las tres colonias. Ninguna plántula sobrevivió dentro de las bromeliáceas. Aparentemente, las colonias de bromeliáceas no tienen efecto sobre la regeneración de A. praecox. Se presentan argumentos para explicar el patrón observado.

  12. A Green Protocol for Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Oil Terpenes from Pterodon emarginatus Vogel. (Fabaceae

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    Giuliana M. Vila Verde

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction of volatile oils (MAE potentially offers a more efficient and bio-sustainable method than conventional extraction by Clevenger apparatus (CE. This study aimed to optimise the MAE of the volatile oil from Pterodon emarginatus fruits and characterise the volatile compounds. A 23 full-factorial central composite design and response surface methodology were used to evaluate the effects of time (min, moisture (% and microwave power (W on the extraction yield. The process optimisation was based on the desirability function approach. The reaction time and moisture conditions were standardised in these analyses. The volatile oil composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS in order to compare techniques extractions influences. Microwave irradiation showed excellent performance for extraction of the volatile oil from Pterodon emarginatus and there were some advantages in compare to conventional method with respect to the time (14 times, energy (6 times, reagents amounts and waste formation. About chemical composition presents significant differences with the type of extraction. Caryophyllene (25.65% and trans-α-bisabolol (6.24% were identified as major components in MAE sample while caryophyllene (6.75% and γ-elemene (7.02% are the components with higher relative percentage in CE samples. The microwaves assisted process shown an increase of economic interested compounds present in volatile oil.

  13. Alometria e arquitetura de Copaifera langsdorffii (Desf. Kuntze (Fabaceae em fitofisionomias neotropicais no sul de minas gerais

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    Malcon do Prado Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985729O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar padrões alométricos e feições arquiteturais de Copaifera langsdorffii em diferentes fisionomias de uma região de tensão ecológica. As fisionomias de floresta, corredor, cerrado e cerrado rupestre foram estudadas nos municípios de Lavras e Carrancas, sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram estudadas as relações entre diâmetro do tronco, altura, área da copa, grau de deflexão e deslocamento relativo da copa, sendo analisado o grau de semelhança, entre as fisionomias, por meio de regressões e análise covariância. Foi realizada uma análise de componentes principais (PCA com variáveis biométricas coletadas e morfométricas calculadas, para caracterização de grupos mais homogêneos que evidenciem a plasticidade morfológica da espécie e suas diferentes estratégias e investimento em recursos. Como resultado das análises de regressão e covariância, encontraram-se padrões distintos, principalmente entre as fisionomias de floresta e cerrado, das fisionomias de cerrado rupestre e corredor. Um padrão de crescimento com maior investimento em altura na floresta, objetivando a garantia de espaço no dossel, e outro mais ligado ao crescimento horizontal da copa, nas fisionomias de cerrado rupestre e corredor. A PCA apresentou um gradiente de plasticidade morfológica para a espécie. A fisionomia de floresta apresentou maiores valores de altura total, largura de copa e diâmetro do tronco, e a fisionomia de cerrado rupestre mostrou valores mais elevados de grau de deflexão da copa (assimetria. O cerrado e o corredor formaram uma transição entre floresta e cerrado rupestre, no gradiente de feições morfológicas da espécie nas fisionomias.

  14. Dynamic extrafloral nectar production: the timing of leaf damage affects the defensive response in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian M; Koptur, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    • Extrafloral nectar (EFN) mediates food for protection mutualisms between plants and defensive insects. Understanding sources of variation in EFN production is important because such variations may affect the number and identity of visitors and the effectiveness of plant defense. We investigated the influence of plant developmental stage, time of day, leaf age, and leaf damage on EFN production in Senna mexicana var. chapmanii. The observed patterns of variation in EFN production were compared with those predicted by optimal defense theory.• Greenhouse experiments with potted plants were conducted to determine how plant age, time of day, and leaf damage affected EFN production. A subsequent field study was conducted to determine how leaf damage, and the resulting increase in EFN production, affected ant visitation in S. chapmanii.• More nectar was produced at night and by older plants. Leaf damage resulted in increased EFN production, and the magnitude of the response was greater in plants damaged in the morning than those damaged at night. Damage to young leaves elicited a stronger defensive response than damage to older leaves, in line with optimal defense theory. Damage to the leaves of S. chapmanii also resulted in significantly higher ant visitation in the field.• Extrafloral nectar is an inducible defense in S. chapmanii. Developmental variations in its production support the growth differentiation balance hypothesis, while within-plant variations and damage responses support optimal defense theory. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  15. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae) - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Andre Luiz Gomes da; Universidade Federal do Maranhão; Chaves, Samyra Ramos; Universidade Federal do Maranhão; Brito, Jéfferson Mesquita; Universidade Federal do Maranhão

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flowe...

  16. Caracterização farmacognóstica das folhas e sementes de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Cláudia G. Miranda

    Full Text Available Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. é popularmente conhecida no Brasil por coração-de-negro. É uma espécie aclimatada nesse país. As sementes dessa espécie são utilizadas no tratamento de diarréia, disenteria e hemorróidas e as folhas, no tratamento de úlceras e nas conjuntivites alérgicas. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas e sementes dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó das folhas e sementes de A. lebbeck. Saponinas, alcalóides e cumarinas foram detectados nas folhas e sementes; flavonóides foram também identificados nas folhas. O teor de umidade foi 6,78% e 7,91%, respectivamente, para o pó das folhas e sementes. Os valores de cinzas totais e cinzas insolúveis em ácido foram 9,60% e 0,62% para as folhas e 4,13% e 0,21% para as sementes. Os dados obtidos são importantes para o controle de qualidade dessa planta medicinal. O extrato bruto da planta não apresentou atividade antibacteriana.

  17. AUTEKOLOGI PURNAJIWA (EUCHRESTA HORSFIELDII (LESCH. BENN. (FABACEAE DI SEBAGIAN KAWASAN HUTAN BUKIT TAPAK CAGAR ALAM BATUKAHU BALI

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    Sutomo -

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purnajiwa, which lives in highland jungles in Bali, is a famous medicinal plant in Bali and its presence in the wild is now under threat due to over exploitation and the destruction of its habitat. Batukahu nature reserves are one of its remaining habitats. This preliminary study aimed to describe purnajiwa’s habitat in Batukahu nature reserves. Purnajiwa was found in shaded areas with light intensity range from 55-65%. It grows under the shading of Laportea sp., Ficus sp., Syzygium zollingerianum, and Sauraria sp. Purnajiwa grows on soil with 6,7-6,8 range of pH with litter thickness of 3-7 cm. Purnajiwa also associated with the surrounding understorey vegetation such as Diplazium proliferum (IVI = 54,6 and Oplismenus compositus L. (IVI = 40. Result from this study gave usefull information for the purpose of its acclimatization and propagation in ex-situ conservation for its sustainable resources.

  18. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K

    2004-03-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis.

  19. Biological aspects of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) on Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Lisiane Taiatella; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Zabrotes subfasciatus is a serious pest of common beans, P. vulgaris L.. In Brazil there are several studies dealing with resistance of bean genotypes to this insect, while other studies have emphasized the utilization of oils and powders from plants to repel their attack. In this paper, fecundity, fertility, pattern of oviposition, life cycle and longevity were evaluated for a Brazilian stock from the Goias State on P. vulgaris cv. Carioca, at 30 deg C and 70% R.H. The mean fecundity was 38 eggs per female and 73% of viability. Egg laying showed an aggregated pattern. Males and females lived an average of 13 and 9 days, respectively. The total life cycle lasted for about 28 days. (author)

  20. Surtos de dermatite ulcerativa causados por espinhos de Mimosa setosa, M. debilis e M. pudica (Fabaceae em equinos

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    Saulo A. Caldas

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Descrevem-se, na pele de equídeos, lesões de natureza mecânico-traumática causadas por espinhos de Mimosa spp. Dentre as três espécies da planta identificadas como responsáveis pelas lesões, M. setosa estava presente em maior quantidade (80% e M. debilis e M. pudica encontravam-se em menor proporção na pastagem. Ocorreram três surtos de dermatite ulcerativa em períodos chuvosos de abril a maio de 2013, dezembro de 2013 a fevereiro de 2014 e abril a maio deste mesmo ano. Vinte e cinco equinos do Setor de Reprodução Animal da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro apresentaram, na pele, lesões ulcerativas com contornos irregulares, exsudato hemorrágico, recobertas por crostas. As lesões localizavam-se sobretudo nas regiões de quartela, boleto, articulação escapulo-umeral, lábios superior e inferior, focinho, narinas, bochechas e chanfro. Sete animais foram biopsiados e o exame histopatológico revelou ulceração da epiderme e infiltrado inflamatório constituído por macrófagos e neutrófilos, delimitado por tecido de granulação subjacente. Em alguns casos, foram observados microespículos das referidas plantas (tricomas hirsutos em meio à reação inflamatória. O diagnóstico de dermatite cutânea causada pela ação traumática da planta baseou-se na presença de Mimosa spp. na pastagem, nas características e localização das lesões na pele dos equinos, nos achados histopatológicos e na recuperação após a retirada dos animais do pasto.

  1. Growing Periandra mediterranea on post-mining substrate: native Fabaceae with potential for revegetation of degraded rupestrian grasslands in Brazil

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    Maurilio Assis Figueiredo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recovery of degraded areas of rupestrian grasslands is hampered mainly by the limited knowledge regarding substrate management and the biology of native species suitable for revegetation of these areas. The aim of our study was to examine the establishment and growth of Periandra mediterranea in different textures of lateritic substrate from a mining-degraded area. The growth of P. mediterranea was evaluated using fine and coarse laterite, both with and without the addition of topsoil. Survival, dry biomass, content of chemical elements and nodulation were evaluated in ten individuals per treatment sixteen months after planting. Although the substrate has low nutrient content, yet high metal concentrations, all plants survived. Plants growing on coarse laterite had 140 % greater biomass than those growing on fine laterite. The addition of topsoil increased biomass in coarse and fine laterite by 46 and 151 %, respectively, and doubled the number of nodulated plants, regardless of grain size. The biomass accumulation of P. mediterranea to a dystrophic substrate revealed its potential for use in the revegetation of degraded areas of rupestrian grasslands. Furthermore, the addition of topsoil facilitated the association of P. mediterranea with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and increased its growth and capacity to improve substrate fertility.

  2. BIOLOGIA FLORAL E REPRODUTIVA DE CENOSTIGMA MACROPHYLLUM TUL. (FABACEAE NO PARQUE ZOOBOTÂNICO DE TERESINA, PIAUÍ

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    Bruno Ayron de Souza Aguiar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. é conhecido popularmente como caneleiro, possui hábito arbóreo, caule sulcado, sendo considerada planta símbolo da capital Teresina (PI. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a biologia floral e Reprodutiva de Cenostigma macrophyllum no Parque Zoobotânico de Teresina, Piauí. Foram selecionados 15 indivíduos e analisados quanto à morfologia e morfometria floral, período de antese, receptividade estigmática, deiscência das anteras, volume de néctar, comportamento dos visitantes florais na eficácia da polinização e o sistema reprodutivo. As flores são monóclinas, dispõem-se em cerca de 81,28±25,74 flores por inflorescência racemosas. Néctar produzido e armazenado no hipanto com média de produção de 1,75 μL. A antese floral teve duração de dois dias, com pétalas totalmente distendidas às 6h, estigma receptivo as 7h e deiscência iniciando as 9h, abrindo em grupos no decorrer do dia. Os polinizadores e pilhadores iniciaram as visitas por volta das 6h até às 17h em flores do primeiro dia de antese forrageando em busca de néctar. Os polinizadores efetivos foram abelhas, com maior frequência (64%, Xylocopa sps, Apis mellifera e Centris sp., que utilizavam a pétala estandarte para acessar o néctar. Os polinizadores ocasionais foram lepidópteros, pois nem sempre contactavam as partes reprodutivas. Como pilhadoras, abelhas Trigona spinipes e o beija-flor Amazilia fimbriata que não tocavam os órgãos reprodutivos ao coletarem néctar. A espécie é Xenogâmica e apresenta sistema reprodutivo dicogâmico protogínico, uma vez que, ocorre a separação temporal de maturação dos verticilos reprodutivos. O Tratamento de escarificação mecânica apresentou maior pontecial para rápida germinação das sementes.

  3. Fenologia reprodutiva e biologia da polinização de Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae

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    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-08-01

    trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia e biologia da polinização de C. brasiliensis. Quinze indivíduos foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se freqüência, horário e comportamento de suas visitas. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrou padrão de floração anual, contínua, de longa duração com períodos de maior atividade fenológica de floração na estação seca. As inflorescências são do tipo paniculada, com flores cujos atributos florais estão relacionados à síndrome da melitofilia. A antese é diurna, com início às 05h00. Há néctar desde a fase de pré-antese, com concentração de açúcares em torno de 44-60%. Os visitantes florais observados foram abelhas (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta e X. sp. Apis mellifera e Centris similis e pássaros (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura e Coereba flaveola. Xylocopa frontalis atuou como polinizadora efetiva, enquanto que os pássaros restringem-se a pilhar o néctar.

  4. The pollination ecology of Hedysarum boreale Nutt. (Fabaceae) and evaluation of its pollinating bees for restoration seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine A. Swoboda

    2007-01-01

    Federal land managers desire a consistent and cost-effective source of Hedysarum boreale Nutt. seed for rangeland restoration in the Great Basin and adjacent ecosystems. The breeding biology of H. boreale was assessed via hand pollination experiments at 2 sites in Cache County, Utah, USA in 2003. H. boreale was found to be self-compatible, but did not produce fruit and...

  5. Logging impacts on forest structure and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera (Fabaceae) dominated tropical rain forest (Talamanca, Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; Rocha, Oscar J

    2014-03-01

    The factors that determine the existence of tropical forests dominated by a single species (monodominated forests) have been the subject of debate for a long time. It has been hypothesized that the low frequency of disturbances in monodominated forests and the tolerance to shade of the monodominant species are two important factors explaining the prolonged dominance of a single species. We determined the role of these two factors by examining the effects of logging activities on the floristic composition and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera dominated forest in Southeastern Costa Rica. We determined the floristic composition for trees > or = 2.5cm DBH and the associated recruitment, survival and mortality of tree canopy seedlings in two sites logged two (L-02) and 12 years (L-12) prior to sampling and an unlogged forest (ULF). Our results showed that L-02 stands had lower species richness (25 species) than the L-12 and ULF stands (49 and 46 species, respectively). As expected, we found significant logging effects on the canopy structure of the altered forests, particularly when comparing the L-02 and the ULF stands. Seedling density was higher in ULF (0.96 seedlings/ m2) than in the L-02 and L-12 stands (0.322 and 0.466 seedlings/m2, respectively). However, seedling mortality was higher in the ULF stands (54%) than in the L-02 (26%) and L-12 (15%) stands. P. macroloba in L-02 was the only species with abundant regeneration under P. copaifera in L-02 stand, where it accounted for 35% of the seedlings. Despite the reduction in seedling abundance observed after logging, P. copaifera seems to maintain large seedling populations in these forests, suggesting that this species maintains its dominance after logging disturbances. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that the regeneration of monodominant species is not likely to occur under heavily disturbed canopy conditions.

  6. Logging impacts on forest structure and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera (Fabaceae dominated tropical rain forest (Talamanca, Costa Rica

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    Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The factors that determine the existence of tropical forests dominated by a single species (monodominated forests have been the subject of debate for a long time. It has been hypothesized that the low frequency of disturbances in monodominated forests and the tolerance to shade of the monodominant species are two important factors explaining the prolonged dominance of a single species. We determined the role of these two factors by examining the effects of logging activities on the floristic composition and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera dominated forest in Southeastern Costa Rica. We determined the floristic composition for trees ≥2.5cm DBH and the associated recruitment, survival and mortality of tree canopy seedlings in two sites logged two (L-02 and 12 years (L-12 prior to sampling and an unlogged forest (ULF. Our results showed that L-02 stands had lower species richness (25 species than the L-12 and ULF stands (49 and 46 species, respectively. As expected, we found significant logging effects on the canopy structure of the altered forests, particularly when comparing the L-02 and the ULF stands. Seedling density was higher in ULF (0.96 seedlings/m² than in the L-02and L-12 stands (0.322 and 0.466 seedlings/m², respectively. However, seedling mortality was higher in the ULF stands (54% than in the L-02 (26% and L-12 (15% stands. P. macroloba in L-02 was the only species with abundant regeneration under P. copaifera in L-02 stand, where it accounted for 35% of the seedlings. Despite the reduction in seedling abundance observed after logging, P. copaifera seems to maintain large seedling populations in these forests, suggesting that this species maintains its dominance after logging disturbances. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that the regeneration of monodominant species is not likely to occur under heavily disturbed canopy conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (1: 347-357. Epub 2014 March 01.

  7. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant...

  8. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Govindarajan Marimuthu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions. Results: The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC 50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  9. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    M Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  10. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Rajeswary, M; Sivakumar, R

    2013-01-01

    In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  11. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan Marimuthu; Rajeswary Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005). The larval mor...

  12. Adulticidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Family: Fabaceae against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the toxicity of mosquito adulticidal activity of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Methods: Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h under the laboratory conditions. Results: Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the leaf and seed methanol extract. The LC 50 and LC90 values of P. dulce leaf and seed extract against adults of Ae. aegypti were 218.64, 257.99 mg/L and 426.05, 507.73 mg/L, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of P. dulce leaf and seed was an excellent potential for controlling dengue vector mosquito, Ae. aegypti.

  13. Adulticidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the toxicity of mosquito adulticidal activity of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. The adult mortality was observed...

  14. Identification of some chemical constituents of Indigofera hirsuta Linn. (Fabaceae) by HPLC-ESI-MS (TOF) and evaluation of the anti radical activity; Identificacao de alguns constituintes quimicos de Indigofera hirsuta Linn. (Fabaceae) por de alguns constituintes quimicos de Indigofera hirsuta Linn. (Fabaceae) por CLAE-IES-EM (TOF) e avaliacao da atividade antirradicalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Vilegas, Wagner; Santos, Lourdes Campaner dos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica.Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2011-07-01

    A rapid analytical approach, suitable to characterize the compounds present in the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Indigofera hirsute, was developed. The method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, electrospray positive ionization and detection by time of flight (HPLC-ESI-MS-TOF) identified, tryptophan, uracil, rutin, kempferol-3-O{beta}{sub -}-D-glucopyranoside, gallic acid and methyl gallate. The antiradical activity of this extract was evaluated using DPPH assay, with gallic acid as antiradical pattern. The study revealed the antiradical activity of methyl galatte (EC{sub 50} = 5 {+-} 0.3 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 5 {+-} 0.2 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and rutin (EC{sub 50} = 21.6 {+-} 0.6 {mu}g m L{sup -1}), isolated from methanol extract (EC{sub 50} = 67.7 {+-} 0.9 {mu}g mL{sup -1}), which showed strong antiradical activity. (author)

  15. Breeding biologies, pollinators and seed beetles of two prairie-clovers, Dalea ornata and D. searlsiae (Fabaceae: Amorpheae), from the Intermountain West USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two prairie-clovers, Dalea ornata and D. searlsiae, are perennial forbs that flower during early summer throughout the Colombia Plateau and Great Basin of the western USA, respectively. Their seed is desirable for use in rangeland restoration. We experimentally characterized the breeding biologies ...

  16. Alpinumisoflavone and abyssinone V 4'-methylether derived from Erythrina lysistemon (Fabaceae) promote HDL-cholesterol synthesis and prevent cholesterol gallstone formation in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvondo, Marie A; Njamen, Dieudonné; Kretzschmar, Georg; Imma Bader, Manuela; Tanee Fomum, Stephen; Wandji, Jean; Vollmer, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Erythrina lysistemon was found to improve lipid profile in ovariectomized rats. Alpinumisoflavone (AIF) and abyssinone V 4'-methylether (AME) derived from this plant induced analogous effects on lipid profile and decreased atherogenic risks. To highlight the molecular mechanism of action of these natural products, we evaluated their effects on the expression of some estrogen-sensitive genes associated with cholesterol synthesis (Esr1 and Apoa1) and cholesterol clearance (Ldlr, Scarb1 and Cyp7a1). Ovariectomized rats were subcutaneously treated for three consecutive days with either compound at the daily dose of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight (BW). Animals were sacrificed thereafter and their liver was collected. The mRNA of genes of interest was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Both compounds downregulated the mRNA expression of Esr1, a gene associated with cholesterogenesis and cholesterol gallstone formation. AME leaned the Apoa1/Scarb1 balance in favour of Apoa1, an effect promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol formation. It also upregulated the mRNA expression of Ldlr at 1 mg/kg/BW per day (25%) and 10 mg/kg/BW per day (133.17%), an effect favouring the clearance of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Both compounds may also promote the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids as they upregulated Cyp7a1 mRNA expression. AIF and AME atheroprotective effects may result from their ability to upregulate mechanisms promoting HDL-cholesterol and bile acid formation. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-09-07

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food.

  18. Identification of some chemical constituents of Indigofera hirsuta Linn. (Fabaceae) by HPLC-ESI-MS (TOF) and evaluation of the anti radical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Vilegas, Wagner; Santos, Lourdes Campaner dos

    2011-01-01

    A rapid analytical approach, suitable to characterize the compounds present in the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Indigofera hirsute, was developed. The method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, electrospray positive ionization and detection by time of flight (HPLC-ESI-MS-TOF) identified, tryptophan, uracil, rutin, kempferol-3-Oβ - -D-glucopyranoside, gallic acid and methyl gallate. The antiradical activity of this extract was evaluated using DPPH assay, with gallic acid as antiradical pattern. The study revealed the antiradical activity of methyl galatte (EC 50 = 5 ± 0.3 μg mL -1 ) gallic acid (EC 50 = 5 ± 0.2 μg mL -1 ) and rutin (EC 50 = 21.6 ± 0.6 μg m L -1 ), isolated from methanol extract (EC 50 = 67.7 ± 0.9 μg mL -1 ), which showed strong antiradical activity. (author)

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-POLLINATION AND MATERNAL RESOURCES ON REPRODUCTION AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN THE WILD LUPINE, LUPINUS PERENNIS (FABACEAE). (R826596)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Characterization of the papilionoid-Burkholderia interaction in the Fynbos biome: The diversity and distribution of beta-rhizobia nodulating Podalyria calyptrata (Fabaceae, Podalyrieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Benny; Van Cauwenberghe, Jannick; Verstraete, Brecht; Chimphango, Samson; Stirton, Charles; Honnay, Olivier; Smets, Erik; Sprent, Janet; James, Euan K; Muasya, A Muthama

    2016-02-01

    The South African Fynbos soils are renowned for nitrogen-fixing Burkholderia associated with diverse papilionoid legumes of the tribes Crotalarieae, Hypocalypteae, Indigofereae, Phaseoleae and Podalyrieae. However, despite numerous rhizobial studies in the region, the symbiotic diversity of Burkholderia has not been investigated in relation to a specific host legume and its geographical provenance. This study analyzed the diversity of nodulating strains of Burkholderia from the legume species Podalyria calyptrata. Diverse lineages were detected that proved to be closely related to Burkholderia taxa, originating from hosts in other legume tribes. By analyzing the genetic variation of chromosomal (recA) and nodulation (nodA) sequence data in relation to the sampling sites we assessed the geographical distribution patterns of the P. calyptrata symbionts. Although we found a degree of genetically differentiated rhizobial populations, a correlation between genetic (recA and nodA) and geographic distances among populations was not observed, suggesting high rates of dispersal and rhizobial colonization within Fynbos soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Qualitative aspects of the effectiveness of Culpeo foxes (Lycalopex culpaeus) as dispersers of Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) in a Bolivian dry valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, D. E.; Loayza, A. P.; Garcia, E.; Pacheco, L. F.

    2018-02-01

    Foxes disperse several plant species in arid and semi-arid environments, but their effectiveness as dispersal agents still remains unclear. In this study, we examined qualitative components of the effectiveness of L. culpaeus as a disperser of P. alba seeds in an inter-Andean dry valley of La Paz, Bolivia. Specifically, we determined seed deposition microhabitats, and the probabilities of germination, seed removal and seedling recruitment in these microhabitats. Additionally, we assessed the effect of gut-passage on P. alba germination. We collected 159 scats, which contained a total of 3402 endocarps fragments. Foxes dispersed seeds into two microhabitats: open areas and under woody vegetation, but more frequently in the former. The probability of germination did not differ between gut-passed and control seeds, but control seeds germinated faster than gut-passed ones. The likelihood of removal was greater for endocarps fragments in open microhabitats than under woody vegetation. Only a small percentage of the seeds in each microhabitat germinated, but none survived more than a week. We conclude that although the Culpeo fox can defecate intact P. alba seeds, it does not provide effective dispersal services.

  2. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N’Dri Yao, Denis; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d’Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d’Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  3. (-)-7-hydroxycassine: a new 2,6-dialkylpiperidin-3-ol alkaloid and other constituents isolated from flowers and fruits of Senna spectabilis (Fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas Junior, Claudio; Pivatto, Marcos; Rezende, Amanda de; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemical study of flowers and green fruits of Senna spectabilis furnished a new substituted 2,6-dialkylpiperidin-3-ol alkaloid, named (–)-7-hydroxycassine, along with five known piperidine alkaloids: (–)-cassine, (–)-spectaline, (–)-3-O-acetylspectaline, (–)-7-hydroxyspectaline and (–)-iso-6-spectaline. In addition to non-alkaloidal, chemical constituents from other chemical classes were also identified, including the steroid β-sitosterol, the flavonoids luteolin and 3-methoxyluteolin, the triterpene betulinic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. To our knowledge, compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. (author)

  4. Occurrence of coccinellids that prey on Diaphorinia citri (Hemiptera:Liviidae) on Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiacea) and Chamaecrista fasciculata (Fabaceae) in a south Florida residential area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding plant-based nutritional resources to a landscape may help to recruit and retain predaceous and parasitic arthropods. As a first step in determining whether the addition of nectary plants can increase the abundance and diversity of biocontrol agents of Diaphorina citri and psyllid suppression ...

  5. Mechanisms of combined effects of salt and alkaline stresses on seed germination and seedlings of melilotus officials (fabaceae) in northeast of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VU, T. S.; Zhang, D.; Xiao, W.; Chi, C.; Xing, Y.; Fu, D.; Yuan, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In line with the salt-alkalinized soils found in the northeast of China, the conditions were simulated to investigate the mechanisms associated with this combination of stresses on Melilotus officinalis. The effects of salinity (NaCl: 0-300mM) in combination with alkali (pH: 7.1-9.8) on the seed germination and seedlings of M. officinalis were investigated. The results showed that germination was not inhibited completely by the salt-alkali conditions tested. The recovery germinations were significant higher than the control or had no significant differences with the control under the conditions of NaCl less than 200mM and pH=9.0, suggesting that non-germinated seeds may have a strategy to get through and resist the stress during germination stage. For the seedling growth, M. officinalis was capable of surviving at high pH (pH=9.8) and the salinity (NaCl=200mM) (seedling survival rate: 84.77 ± 8.62 percentage). The characteristic feature for combined salt-alkali stresses is the reciprocal enhancement between salt and alkali stresses. The combined action of salinity and pH should be considered when evaluating the effects of salt-alkali stresses. Correlation and regression analyses showed that salinity was the dominant stress factor, while pH was a secondary factor. From the physiological and ecological parameters, we suggested that M. officinalis is a salt-alkali tolerant species which can be used in vegetative restoration of saline soils in the northeast of China. (author)

  6. Breeding system and its consequence on fruit set of a rare sand dune shrub Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae): implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breeding system and its consequence on fruit set of Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass., a rare shrubby legume occurring in moving or semi-fixed sand dunes of Central Asian deserts, were examined by manipulative experiments and observational studies in natural populations during the period of ...

  7. Differential parasitism of seed-feeding Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by native and alien wasp species relative to elevation in subalpine Sophora (Fabaceae) forests on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Banko, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control agent for pepper weevil, did not vary significantly with elevation. Results are contrasted with a previous study of this system with implications for the conservation of an endangered bird species that feed on Cydia larvae. Interpretation of results is hindered by lack of knowledge of autecology of moths and wasps, origins, phylogeny, systematics, competitive ability, and physiological limitations of each wasp species. These factors should be incorporated into risk analysis for biological control introductions and invasive species programs. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  8. INFLUÊNCIA DAS CONCENTRAÇÕES DE ÁCIDO SULFÚRICO NA GERMINAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Pterogyne nitens TUL. (FABACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Nazareth Rosa Trindade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido sulfúrico na desinfestação, oxidação e germinação in vitro de sementes de Pterogyne nitens. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais do IFMG. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 12 sementes, sendo estudado o efeito de cinco concentrações de ácido sulfúrico. A avaliação do número de sementes germinadas, oxidadas e desinfestadas foi feita três vezes por semana, por 20 dias. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância. As maiores porcentagens de desinfestação 27,08 e 16,67% foi observado nas sementes tratadas com 25 e 100% do ácido. Os tratamentos com 75 e 100% de ácido sulfúrico não se diferenciaram e apresentaram maiores porcentagens de germinação (93,75 e 83,33%, respectivamente e oxidação (89,58 e 83,33 %, respectivamente. A concentração de 100% de ácido sulfúrico apresentou os melhores resultados para a desinfestação e germinação.

  9. Morfología polínica de especies del género Senna (Fabaceae del Sureste del Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Fernandez-Pacella

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de esteros y lagunas del Iberá, en la provincia de Corrientes abarcan aproximadamente 12 000km² de superficie y es considerado uno de los humedales más importantes de Latinoamérica. Dada la gran diversidad de las comunidades tropicales en esta área, es importante generar nueva información sobre las diferentes especies de este ecosistema, a través de la morfología del polen, ya que los sedimentos lacustres constituyen un medio ácido, pobre en oxígeno y favorable a la conservación de granos de polen que se depositan en su superficie. Con el objetivo de promover futuras investigaciones sobre la sistemática, historia de la vegetación y melisopalinología de esta región, el estudio trató de describir la morfología polínica del género Senna, que se halla bien representado en la zona. Se elaboró un listado de especies pertenecientes a la Provincia de Corrientes. Este listado se realizó mediante recolectas botánicas realizadas en el Sureste del Iberá, durante 5 a 8 días de cada mes entre 2009 y 2011, adicionalmente, se consultó literatura especializada y bases de datos de herbario del Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste Argentino. En cuanto al estudio morfológico del polen, se tomaron manualmente los botones florales de ejemplares en la zona de estudio. Para aquellas especies que no pudieron ser muestreadas en campo, se precisó de la toma de botones florales del herbario del IBONE. La preparación del material palinológico se llevó a cabo por la técnica modificada de acetólisis de Erdtman. Las descripciones palinológicas consideran el diámetro polar y ecuatorial, grosor de la exina, aberturas y elementos esculturales. Los resultados muestran que el género Senna es euripolínico, compuesto de granos 3-colporados pequeños a medianos, radiosimétricos, isopolares, oblatos-esferoidales a prolatos, ámbito subcircular, subtriangular a triangular; colpos largos. Aquí, se describen por primera vez para la zona, la morfología polínica de 17 especies del género Senna, del sureste del sistema Iberá, reconociéndose dos grupos teniendo en cuenta endoaperturas: lalongadas y circulares. El listado de especies pertenecientes al género Senna presentado en este trabajo debe ser considerado en las actividades de restauración y recuperación de los diferentes tipos de vegetación. Una limitación importante para la correcta interpretación del impacto de las variaciones ambientales en la vegetación, ya sean climáticas y/o antropogénicas, es el conocimiento de la morfología polínica de las especies tropicales, por lo tanto, se debe contar con una base de datos palinológica a nivel morfológico que ayude a la interpretación y determinación de especies vegetales.

  10. (-)-7-hydroxycassine: a new 2,6-dialkylpiperidin-3-ol alkaloid and other constituents isolated from flowers and fruits of Senna spectabilis (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegas Junior, Claudio, E-mail: viegas@unifal-mg.edu.br, E-mail: cvjviegas@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Laboratorio de Fitoquimica e Quimica Medica; Pivatto, Marcos [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Rezende, Amanda de; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (NuBBE/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Nucleo de Bioensaios, Biossintese e Ecofiologia de Produtos Naturais

    2013-02-15

    The phytochemical study of flowers and green fruits of Senna spectabilis furnished a new substituted 2,6-dialkylpiperidin-3-ol alkaloid, named (-)-7-hydroxycassine, along with five known piperidine alkaloids: (-)-cassine, (-)-spectaline, (-)-3-O-acetylspectaline, (-)-7-hydroxyspectaline and (-)-iso-6-spectaline. In addition to non-alkaloidal, chemical constituents from other chemical classes were also identified, including the steroid {beta}-sitosterol, the flavonoids luteolin and 3-methoxyluteolin, the triterpene betulinic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. To our knowledge, compounds are being reported for the first time in this species. (author)

  11. Taxonomy, phylogenetics and biogeography of Chesneya (Fabaceae), evidenced from data of three sequences, ITS, trnS-trnG, and rbcL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Xiao-Li Hao; Vyacheslav V. Byalt; Alexander P. Sukhorukov; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    Plants of Central Asia have played a significant role in the origin of floras of Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Chesneya, a small leguminous genus occurring in Central Asia, western Asia, and Tibet, is used to establish phylogenetic relationships and discuss the evolutionary and biogeographical history based on sequence data of ITS and trnS-trnG and rbcL.We...

  12. EXPLORANDO EL PAPEL DE LA HORMIGA GENERALISTA SOLENOPSIS GEMINATA (FORMICIDAE: MYRMICINAE EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE SENNA SPECTABILIS (FABACEAE: CAESALPINIOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La colonización de los potreros por especies vegetales diferentes a los pastos está limitada por la escasez de dispersores primarios y la poca disponibilidad de sitios adecuados para la germinación de las plantas. Las hormigas generalistas de potrero podrían promover la dispersión secundaria de árboles de interés para la rehabilitación ecológica mediante la manipulación y el transporte de semillas hacia sus nidos. En este estudio se examinó la necesidad de la escarificación mecánica para la germinación de semillas de tres especies de árboles de interés para la rehabilitación ecológica: Guazuma ulmifolia, Pithecellobium dulce y Senna spectabilis en condiciones de laboratorio. La escarificación potenció la germinación de G. ulmifolia (5% vs. 37% y S. spectabilis (0% vs. 98.5% y disminuyó la germinación de P. dulce (94% vs. 87%. Se concluye que la escarificación mecánica es necesaria para la germinación de S. spectabilis y G. ulmifolia. Con el objeto de explorar si las hormigas inciden en la germinación, en el laboratorio se ofrecieron semillas de S. spectabilis sin escarificar a colonias de la hormiga de fuego Solenopsis geminata. No se obtuvo germinación, lo que sugiere que esta especie de hormiga no realiza escarificación mecánica ni química a las semillas, pero tampoco hubo evidencia de daño físico a las semillas. Finalmente, se comparó la germinación de semillas escarificadas de S. spectabilis en suelo de nidos inactivos de S. geminata y en suelo adyacente al nido, en invernadero y campo. En invernadero la germinación fue mayor en suelo de nidos que en suelo adyacente (98% vs. 86%, respectivamente pero en el campo sucedió lo contrario (24% vs. 43%, respectivamente. No se encontró evidencia que los cambios provocados al suelo por S. geminata favorezcan la germinación de S. spectabilis. Se recomienda evaluar la contribución del suelo de nidos en etapas post-germinación de establecimiento, supervivencia y crecimiento de plántulas.

  13. SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING EMERGENCE OF Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Griseb. Altschut, FABACEAE, ESTABLISHED IN FOREST FRAGMENTS OF CERRADO, MINAS GERAIS STATE

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    Marieta Caixeta Dorneles

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810541 The seed germination strategy is important for the survival of species, allowing their maintenance and regeneration in the environment. Seed germination and seedling emergence of Anadenanthera colubrina were studied to examine the reproductive efficiency of this species, typical of Cerrado biome. The fruits were collected in ‘Vale do Rio Araguari’, in MG state. The water content at 105 °C, the germination in controlled laboratory conditions and seedling emergence in semi-open greenhouse were analyzed. The seeds had low water content between 6.7 to 10.7%. The germinating ability and the emergence percentage were high for almost all studied individuals, being registered 68 for seeds of individual number 2 and 85 - 94% for the others; 38% (individual number 2 and 78 - 91% (for the others, respectively. The speed of the processes was high, with the end of germination within 12.8 days and emergence within 18.8 days. The processes were heterogeneous, with values of coefficient of variation of the germination or emergence time above 28.5%; asynchronous, with values of uncertainty above 1.5 bits and synchrony below 0.3812. The seeds of this species were efficient in both processes and the heterogeneity and asynchrony may indicate the effects of environmental fluctuations during the seed formation, besides the genetic variability, intrinsic to each individual of the population. The speed and the high potential of seed germination of this species may also facilitate the programs of reforestation with the production of large numbers of seedlings in short time.  

  14. Análisis numérico de las especies de Prosopis L. (Fabaceae de las costas de Perú y Ecuador

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    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes revisiones coinciden en señalar 2 o 3 especies de Prosopis para el sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú: P. juliflora (SW DC, P. pallida (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Kunth y P. affinis Sprengel. En el presente trabajo se informa del análisis cuantitativo de caracteres foliares de especímenes del genero Prosopis, recolectados a lo largo de la costa desde Arequipa (Perú a Manta (Ecuador. Los resultados señalan tres grupos bien definidos. Del análisis comparativo de los tipos y ejemplares de herbario de todas las especies y sinónimos citados para la zona de estudio surge que los taxones existentes son: P. pallida, P. limensis Bentham, ambos de amplia distribución, y P. chilensis (Molina Stuntz emend Burkart restringido al valle del río Camaná. Estos tres taxones se corresponden con los tres grupos obtenidos del análisis numérico. Debe señalarse la exclusión del área de P. juliflora y P. affinis. Se sugiere no utilizar las numerosas variedades señaladas para P. pallida.

  15. Impact of fishing with Tephrosia candida (Fabaceae) on diversity and abundance of fish in the streams at the boundary of Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epa, Udaya Priyantha Kankanamge; Mohotti, Chamari Ruvandika Waniga Chinthamanie

    2016-09-01

    Local communities in some Asian, African and American countries, use plant toxins in fish poisoning for fishing activities; however, the effects of this practice on the particular wild fish assemblages is unknown. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effects of fish poisoning using Tephrosia candida, on freshwater fish diversity and abundance in streams at the boundary of the World Natural Heritage site, Sinharaja Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka. A total of seven field trips were undertaken on a bimonthly basis, from May 2013 to June 2014. We surveyed five streams with similar environmental and climatological conditions at the boundary of Sinharaja forest. We selected three streams with active fish poisoning practices as treatments, and two streams with no fish poisoning as controls. Physico-chemical parameters and flow rate of water in selected streams were also measured at bimonthly intervals. Fish were sampled by electrofishing and nets in three randomly selected confined locations (6 x 2 m stretch) along every stream. Fish species were identified, their abundances were recorded, and Shannon-Weiner diversity index was calculated for each stream. Streams were clustered based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix for fish composition and abundance. Physico-chemical parameters of water were not significantly different among streams (P > 0.05). A total of 15 fish species belonging to four different orders Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes were collected; nine species (60 %) were endemic, and six (40 %) were native species. From these, 13 fish species were recorded in streams with no poisoning, while five species were recorded in streams where poisoning was practiced. Four endemic and one native fish species were locally extinct in streams where fish poisoning was active. Fish abundance was significantly higher in control streams (32-39/m2) when compared to treatment streams (5-9/m2) (P fish poisoning with T. candida may have resulted in a significant reduction in species richness, total abundance and Shannon-Weiner diversity index of fish species in the studied streams at the boundary of Sinharaja forest. We recommend that this fishing practice should be strictly regulated, and to inform local communities about the legal status of fish poisoning, its consequences and the importance of fish diversity for local livelihoods and conservation purposes.

  16. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade anti-inflamatória de Aeschynomene fluminensis vell. (Fabaceae

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    Marlene Capelin Ignoato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercitin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercitin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-β-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2β→7, 4β→8- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR ¹H and 13C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated.

  17. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae Faboideae) em bovinos e experimental em ovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Raquel A.S.; Oliveira, Leonardo P. de; Caldeira, Flavio H.B.; Mendonça, Fábio S.; Bacha, Flávia B.; Pott, Arnildo; Lemos, Ricardo A.A.; Colodel, Edson M.

    2012-01-01

    Relatam-se mortalidades de bovinos nos Estados de Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul relacionadas ao consumo de folhas de Pterodon emarginatus. Três surtos ocorreram no período de seca na região Centro-Oeste, após a queda de árvores devido a ventos fortes ou após serem derrubadas para aproveitamento da madeira. Morreram 40 bovinos em três diferentes surtos. A intoxicação foi reproduzida com administração de folhas de P. emarginatus; a dose tóxica mínima foi 20g/kg para ovinos e 6g/kg para bovin...

  18. Hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) in antitubercular drugs and alcohol models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obogwu, Mercy B; Akindele, Abidemi J; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O

    2014-04-01

    Hepatotoxicity is a significantly increasing health problem worldwide, and the extent of the problem has stimulated interest in the search for hepatotherapeutic agents from plants. This study investigated the hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens leaves in antitubercular and alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity assays in rats. In each of the models used, seven groups were allotted. The different groups received normal saline (10 mL·kg(-1), p.o.); hepatotoxicant (isoniazid-rifampicin, INH-RIF, 100 mg·kg(-1), i.p. or 20% ethanol 5 g·kg(-1), p.o.) and normal saline (10 mL·kg(-1), p.o.); hepatotoxicant and extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg(-1) p.o.; hepatotoxicant and silymarin 50 mg·kg(-1) p.o.; and extract at 400 mg·kg(-1) p.o. On the 21(st) day of treatment, blood was collected for assessment of serum biochemical parameters and harvested liver samples were assessed for antioxidants. The hepatotoxicants significantly (P pruriens significantly reversed (P pruriens (100-400 mg·kg(-1)) elicited significant reduction (P Mucuna pruriens leaves possesses hepatoprotective activity with enhancement of in vivo antioxidants as a possible mechanism of action. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel protodioscin-enriched fenugreek seed extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum, family Fabaceae improves free testosterone level and sperm profile in healthy volunteers

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    Debasis Bagchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A novel, patent-pending 20% protodioscin-enriched extract has been developed in our laboratories from fenugreek seeds(Furosap®. We assessed the efficacy of Furosap®in 50 male volunteers (age: 35-65 yearson free and total increased testosterone levels, sperm profile, mental alertness, cardiovascular health, mood, libido,and quality of life. Methods: Furosap®(500 mg/day/subjectwas administered to the 50 male volunteers over a period of 12 weeks in aone-arm, open-labelled study, to determine the efficacy on free and total testosterone levels, sperm profile andsperm morphology, libido and erectile dysfunction, mood and mental alertness and broad spectrum safety parameters. Institution Review Board approval was obtained for this study and the study was registered at the clinicaltrials.gov(NCT02702882.Results: A statistically significant increase in freetestosterone levels were observed in these volunteers following supplementation of Furosap®. Sperm morphology, sperm counts, mental alertness, mood, cardiovascular health,and libidoperformancewere significantly improved. Extensive blood chemistry analyses revealed broad spectrum safety. No significant changes were observed in serum lipid function, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDLlevels,andhemogram.Conclusions: Results confirmedthat this protodioscin-enriched extract from fenugreek seeds (Furosapis safe and efficacious in boosting serum free testosterone levels, healthy sperm profile, mental alertness, cardiovascular health,and overall performance in male volunteers

  20. A tight relationship between the solitary bee Calliopsis (Ceroliopoeum laeta (Andrenidae, Panurginae and Prosopis pollen hosts (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae in xeric South American woodlands

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    Favio Gerardo Vossler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The large genus Calliopsis (Andrenidae, Panurginae is composed of ten subgenera with polylectic and presumably oligolectic species. These categories have been mainly developed from floral visits of female bees collecting pollen. In the present study, pollen analyses of nest provisions and scopal loads from museum specimens of the monotypic subgenus Ceroliopoeum were carried out to assess its degree of specialization to pollen host-plants. Despite the great variety of floral resources close to two active nest aggregations in the Chaco sites (83 and 44 melittophilous taxa from 36 and 17 families, respectively, the only host-plant recorded in all nest pollen samples was Prosopis. This genus was represented by six species and their hybrids, all having similar pollen morphology. The nesting sites in Monte scrub also contained several Prosopis species, some of which had different pollen morphology from those of the Chaco forest. Two different Prosopis pollen types were identified in all samples. Since the whole geographic distribution of C. laeta matches with the range of Prosopis, its strong association with this pollen host seems to be well supported. However, the low number of study populations (four could erroneously indicate oligolectism. A broader sampling is necessary to ensure the character of specialization. Most Calliopsis species have been identified as oligolectic. Yet, this categorization has mainly been based on floral visits and a large diversity of floral hosts has been recorded for each bee species. Further analyses are necessary to confirm the relationship of this genus with its pollen hosts. Moreover, as most of them have short to medium phenologies (up to 4 months their presumably oligolecty can be due to a local specialization (i.e. variable according to location typical of polylecty.

  1. Efecto y tolerancia de semillas de Helianthus Annuus (Asteraceae), Mentha Pepirita (Lamiaceae) y Medicago Sativa (Fabaceae) a diferentes concentraciones de Cadmio

    OpenAIRE

    Panchi Campues, Fabiola Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which by their nature have a high threat to not be chemically or biologically degradable, why is one of the causes of environmental degradation, and causes direct damage in man. In Ecuador this metal is as a result of industrial activities present in the effluents and soil, causing an environmental impact due to their involvement to be directly related to water sources. At present there are proposed various types of wastewater treatment for removal of ...

  2. Intoxicação espontânea por Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae em bovinos no estado de Goiás

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    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Pterodon emarginatus em bovinos no Estado de Goiás. De um lote de 84 bovinos que comeram avidamente folhas e os frutos da planta após a queda acidental de uma árvore, todos os animais adoeceram e sete morreram. Os sinais clínicos observados foram eriçamento dos pelos, retração do flanco, apatia profunda, prostração, tremores musculares, ressecamento do focinho, tenesmo, incoordenação, relutância em movimentar-se e decúbito esternal prolongado. As atividades séricas de AST, ALT e GGT e os teores de bilirrubina estavam acentuadamente elevados. As principais alterações macroscópicas consistiam de hepatomegalia e áreas multifocais de necrose no fígado, além de hemorragias no coração, pleura parietal, mesentério, omento, serosa do rúmen, baço, pulmão, subcutâneo e musculatura esquelética intercostal e torácica. Microscopicamente, observou-se degeneração e necrose hepatocelular massiva moderada a acentuada, hiperplasia biliar multifocal moderada e bilestase multifocal leve. Adicionalmente, notou-se degeneração vacuolar multifocal moderada nos túbulos contorcidos dos rins.

  3. Floral nectar of the obligate outcrossing Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. (Fabaceae) contains only one predominant protein, a class III acidic chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X L; Milne, R I; Zhou, H X; Fang, J Y; Zha, H G

    2017-09-01

    Floral nectar can affect the fitness of insect-pollinated plants, through both attraction and manipulation of pollinators. Self-incompatible insect-pollinated plants receive more insect visits than their self-compatible relatives, and the nectar of such species might face increased risk of infestation by pathogens carried by pollinators than self-compatible plants. Proteins in nectar (nectarins) play an important role in protecting the nectar, but little is known regarding nectarins in self-incompatible species. The nectarins from a self-incompatible and insect-pollinated leguminous crop, Canavalia gladiata, were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis and analysed using mass spectrometry. The predominant nectarin gene was cloned and the gene expression pattern investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Chitinolytic activity in the nectar was tested with different substrates. The C. gladiata nectar proteome only has one predominant nectarin, an acidic class III chitinase (CaChi3). The full-length CaChi3 gene was cloned, coding for a protein of 298 amino acids with a predicted signal peptide. CaChi3 is very similar to members of the class III chitinase family, whose evolution is dominated by purifying selection. CaChi3 was expressed in both nectary and leaves. CaChi3 has thermostable chitinolytic activity according to glycol-chitin zymography or a fluorogenic substratem but has no lysozyme activity. Chitinase might be a critical protein component in nectar. The extremely simple nectar proteome in C. gladiata disproves the hypothesis that self-incompatible species always have more complex nectar proteomes. Accessibility of nectar might be a significant determinant of the evolutionary pressure to develop nectar defence mechanisms. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Food for honeybees? Pollinators and seed set of Anthyllis barba-jovis L. (Fabaceae in arid coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin

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    Giovanni Benelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abundance and diversity of insect pollinators are declining in many ecosystems worldwide. The abundance and diversity of wild and managed bees are related to the availability of continuous floral resources. In particular, in Mediterranean basin countries, the presence of wildflower spots enhances the establishment of social Apoidea, since coastal regions are usually characterized by pollen and nectar shortage in early spring and late summer. Anthyllis barba-jovis produces both nectar and pollen as important food source for bees helping them to overcome early spring period food shortage. We investigated flowering, seed set, and pollinator diversity of A. barba-jovis in arid coastal environments of the Mediterranean basin. Pollinator abundance reached a maximum in early April. Honeybees were the most common pollinators followed by bumblebees and solitary bees. Plants prevented from entomophilous pollination showed inbreeding depression with a strong decrease in seed-set. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on pollination ecology of A. barba-jovis.

  5. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  6. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

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    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  7. [Clonal micropropagation of a rare species Hedysarum theinum Krasnob (Fabaceae) and assessment of the genetic stability of regenerated plants using ISSR markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erst, A A; Svyagina, N S; Novikova, T I; Dorogina, O V

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a protocol was developed for the in vitro propagation of a rare medicinal plant, Hedysarum theinum (tea sweetvetch), from axillary buds, and identification of the regenerants was performed with the use of ISSR markers. It was demonstrated that Gamborg and Eveleigh medium supplemented with 5 μM 6-benzylaminopurine was the best for H. theinum for initial multiplication. On the other hand, half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 7 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid proved to be the best for explant rooting. Molecular genetic analysis of the H. theinum mother plants and the obtained regenerants was performed with six ISSR markers. Depending on the primer, four to ten amplified fragments with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 bp were identified. Our results confirmed the genetic stability of regenerants obtained in five passages and their identity to the mother plant.

  8. Rare species of the genus Oxytropis DC. (Fabaceae) from the flora of the Republic of Bashkortostan under cultivation within the city of Ufa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, N. V.; Elizaryeva, O. A.; Galikeeva, G. M.; Tyutyunova, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations introducing eight rare species of the genus Oxytropis DC. from the flora of the Republic of Bashkortostan into the city of Ufa. Seven species are characterized as promising ornamental plants. According to the integrated evaluation scale of introduction effectiveness based on seven indices, two species were considered as very promising (O. spicata (Pall.) O. et B. Fedtsch., O. knjazevii Vasjukov), five species as promising (O. approximata Less., O. baschkirensis Knjasev, O. hippolyti Boriss., O. gmelinii Boriss., O. kungurensis Knjasev) and one species as non-promising (O. sordida (Willd.) Pers.). The ornamental quality assessment of rare species of the genus Oxytropis based on ten indices showed that these species can be used to create ornamental compositions in the landscape design style.

  9. GERMINAÇÃO E PROPAGAÇÃO IN VITRO DE CEREJEIRA (Amburana acreana (Ducke A.C. Smith - FABACEAE

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    Paulo Cesar Poeta Fermino Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerejeira (Amburana acreana is a woody native tree species from south-western Amazon Region of a great importance and endangered. The propagation by tissue culture of this species is of a great importance because the difficulties of its seed collection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro germination and to establish a protocol for in vitro multiplication and rooting. For in vitro germination, the salt concentrations of MS and WPM (Woody Plant Medium were evaluated. For in vitro multiplication of shoots it was used nodal segments of in vitro seedlings. The propagation media were composed of WPM salts, supplemented with different BAP concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 mg.L-1 and 0.1 mg L-1 of NAA. The in vitro rooting was induced in half strength WPM salts, plus 0.2 mg L-1 activated charcoal and supplemented with different IBA concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg.L- 1. The highest percentage of in vitro germination was obtained in the MS/2 medium. The formation of largest number of shoots occurred with 4.0 mg L-1 BAP. The formation of a greater number of roots occurred with 0.5 mg L-1 of IBA. The plantlets were air-conditioned in a greenhouse with 54% of survival rate. The in vitro propagation of Cerejeira is a viable technology for the production of seedlings in spite of the difficulties in the survival of plants in the greenhouse.

  10. MÉTODOS DE CONTROLE DE Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (FABACEAE EM ÁREAS INVADIDAS NO SEMIÁRIDO DO BRASIL

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    Gerlândio Suassuna Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different methods to control Prosopis juliflora , invasive alien species in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized in triple factorial scheme 2x2x8 (two populations of the species, two growth stages - regenerating and adult individuals and eight control treatments, with 10 repetitions. The treatments were: control, girdling of the stem, girdling and brushing of used lubricating oil; girdling and application of 2,4-D + picloram, clear cutting, clear cutting followed by burning of the stump; clear cutting and brushing of used lubricating oil; and clear cutting and application of 2,4-D + picloram. In total 320 individuals were monitored, among these, 160 regenerates and 160 adults individuals. The variables evaluated were: percentage of control, number of shoots, diameter and length of shoots. According to the results among the treatments, those who were more effective in controlling Prosopis juliflora were clear cutting followed by burning of the stump and application of 2,4-D + picloram in cut and girdled plants. The brushing lubricating oil on the basis of girdled plants also showed a promising strategy to control invasive.

  11. Long-term effect of carbohydrate reserves on growth and reproduction of Prosopis denudans (Fabaceae): implications for conservation of woody perennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Alejandra E.; Agüero, Paola R.; Ravetta, Damián; González-Paleo, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis denudans, an extreme xerophyte shrub, is consumed by ungulates and threatened by firewood gathering, because it is one of the preferred species used by Mapuche indigenous people of Patagonia. In a scenario of uncontrolled use of vegetation, it is very difficult to develop a conservation plan that jointly protects natural resources and its users. We performed a field experiment to assess the impact of defoliation on growth, reproduction and stores of a wild population of P. denudans. We imposed four levels of defoliation (removal of 100, 66, 33 and 0% of leaves) and evaluated the short- and long-term (3 years) effects of this disturbance. Seasonal changes in shoot carbohydrates suggested that they support leaf-flush and blooming. Severely defoliated individuals also used root reserves to support growth and leaf-flush after clipping. Vegetative growth was not affected by defoliation history. Leaf mass area increased after the initial clipping, suggesting the development of structural defenses. The depletion of root reserves at the end of the first year affected inflorescence production the following spring. We conclude that P. denudans shrubs could lose up to one-third of their green tissues without affecting growth or inflorescence production. The removal of a higher proportion of leaves will diminish stores, which in turn, will reduce or completely prevent blooming and, therefore, fruit production the following seasons. Very few studies integrate conservation and plant physiology, and we are not aware, so far, of any work dealing with long-term plant carbon economy of a long-lived perennial shrub as an applied tool in conservation. These results might help the development of management strategies that consider both the use and the conservation of wild populations of P. denudans. PMID:27293747

  12. Use of Strategic Placement of Dredged Sediments to Support Horseshoe Island in the Atchafalaya River, Louisiana: A Preliminary Ecological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    cowpea (Vigna luteola), broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia), invasive Chinese tallowtree (Triadica sebifera), rosemallow (Hibiscus lasiocarpos), and...Benth. hairypod cowpea Fabaceae N Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cowpea Fabaceae - Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle waterthyme Hydrocharitaceae I

  13. El género Bauhinia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae en la península de Yucatán (México, Belice y Guatemala The genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae in Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, Belice and Guatemala

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    Rafael Torres-Colín

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información del género Bauhinia, tribu Cercideae en la provincia biótica de la península de Yucatán. Se reconocen 5 especies nativas: Bauhinia divaricata L., B. erythrocalyx Wunderlin, B. jenningsii P. Wilson, B. herrerae (Britton et Rose Standl. et Steyerm. y B. ungulata L., así como 2 introducidas: B. monandra Kurz y B. variegata L. Se presenta una clave para identificación, descripciones morfológicas, mapas de distribución, fotografías de las especies e información de los nombres comunes y uso en la región.General information about the genus Bauhinia in the Yucatán Peninsula Biotic Province is presented. Five native species, B. divaricata L, B. erythrocalyx Wunderlin, B. jenningsii P. Wilson, B. herrerae (Britton et Rose Standl. et Steyerm., B. ungulata L. and 2 exotic species, B. monandra Kurz and B. variegata L., are recognized. Species identification key, morphological descriptions, distribution maps, and photographs are presented. Additional information of common names and uses in the region is included.

  14. Alocação de recursos (carboidratos no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S.F. Blake (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae Resource allocation (carbohydrates in the inicial development of seedlings of Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S.F. Blacke (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae

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    Emanuela Wehmuth Alves Weidlich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se Schizolobium parahyba, objetivando analisar a alocação dos teores de açúcares solúveis totais e de reserva (amido e biomassas no desenvolvimento das plântulas. Após a quebra de dormência, 200 sementes foram semeadas em substrato composto por casca de arroz carbonizada e areia. Em cada coleta foram utilizadas 10 amostras para dosagem de açúcares solúveis totais e amido e 10 para mensuração das massas frescas e secas (MS e MF no 7º, 14º, 21º, 28º, 35º e 42º dia após a germinação (DAG. As sementes apresentaram 94,5% de germinação. Os açúcares solúveis totais estão em maiores quantidades nas raízes, hipocótilo e epicótilos. Os cotilédones apresentaram maiores teores de amido, já que este é um órgão de reserva. O aumento da MF é diretamente proporcional ao incremento de açúcares solúveis e amido nas estruturas analisadas. As relações de biomassa e teores de açúcares solúveis totais e amido encontrados ressaltaram a mobilização dos compostos de reserva dos cotilédones nas outras partes da planta, à medida que a redução da biomassa e de açúcares dos cotilédones reflete o aumento na produção de biomassa de epicótilos, hipocótilos e raízes da plântula.The allocation of resources in Schizolobium parahyba was analyzed measuring the total soluble sugars, starch levels and biomass. After breaking dormancy, 200 seeds were sown in substrate composed of rice rind and sand (1:1. Ten seedlings were collected to measure the soluble sugar and starch level and ten were used to measure the fresh biomass (MF and dry biomass (MS on the 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after germination (DAG. The seeds showed a 94.5% germination rate. The total soluble sugar levels were greater in roots, stems and epicotyls. The cotyledons had the greatest starch level because they are the store organs of this plant. The increase of MF is directly proportional to the increment of total soluble sugars and. The relation between biomass, total soluble sugar and starch have shown the mobilization of the store from cotyledons to the other structures of the plant while the reduction of biomass and sugars of cotyledons result in an increase of biomass in epicotyls, stems and roots of the seedling.

  15. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae

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    Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  16. Phytotoxicity of the extracts of Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus Hassl. (Fabaceae leaflets and galls on seed germination and early development of lettuce Fitotoxidade diferencial dos extratos aquosos de folíolos e galhas de Lonchocarpus muelhbergianus Hassl. (Fabaceae na germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de alface

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    Denis Coelho de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Galls induced by Euphalerus ostreoides (Hemiptera: Psyllidae cause structural and chemical alterations on Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus leaflets. Healthy and galled leaflet tissues of this plant species are rich in secondary metabolites with potential allelopathic effects. This research compares the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of L. muehlbergianus leaflets and galls on seeds and seedlings of Lactuta sativa, and evaluates the chemical impact produced by a gall-inducing insect on the other trophic levels associated with it. The extracts were obtained through static maceration in distilled water (5% p/v. The treatments consisted of aqueous crude extracts and those previously filtered in polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP. After seven days, seedling height was measured, and the radicles were fixed in FAA50 for anatomical analyses. Healthy leaflet and gall aqueous extracts, and those filtered in PVP, significantly inhibited seed germination, with no significant differences between the two groups. Treatments with aqueous extracts reduced seed germination speed and vegetative axis length. Plant tissue alterations confirm the phytotoxicity of allelochemical substances present in the extracts. The differences among the treatments indicated that gall formation altered L. muehlbergianus leaflet metabolism, and this could influence the other trophic levels associated with this gall inducing-host plant system.Galhas induzidas por Euphalerus ostreoides (Hemiptera: Psyllidae produzem alterações estruturais e químicas nos folíolos de Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus. As galhas, em geral, atuam como drenos de fotoassimilados podendo acumular tanto compostos do metabolismo primário, associados à alimentação do inseto quanto do metabolismo secundário, relacionados às inter-relações da planta-hospedeira com o galhador e demais níveis tróficos associados. Tecidos sadios e galhados de L. muehlbergianus são ricos em metabólitos com efeito alelopático potencial. Este trabalho compara efeitos alelopáticos dos extratos aquosos de folíolos sadios e galhas de L. muehlbergianus nas sementes e plântulas de Lactuta sativa, avalia o impacto químico produzido pelo inseto galhador e níveis tróficos associados. Os resultados obtidos podem lançar novas perspectivas sobre o impacto químico produzido pelo inseto indutor nos demais níveis tróficos associados à planta hospedeira. Os extratos foram obtidos através de maceração estática em água destilada (5% p/v. Os tratamentos consistiram de extratos aquosos e seus filtrados em polivinilpirrolidona (PVP. Depois de sete dias, as plântulas foram medidas e as raízes fixadas em FAA50 para análises anatômicas. Extratos aquosos de folíolos sadios e galhas, e seus filtrados em PVP, inibiram significativamente a germinação de sementes, não apresentando diferenças entre os dois grupos. Tratamentos com extratos aquosos reduziram a velocidade de germinação das sementes e o comprimento do eixo vegetativo. As alterações nos tecidos vegetais confirmam os sintomas de fitotoxidade de substâncias aleloquímicas evidenciados pela não diferenciação dos pêlos absorventes, colapso das demais células epidérmicas e desorganização do córtex. A diferença entre os tratamentos indica que a formação da galha altera o metabolismo do folíolo sadio e isso poderia influenciar outros níveis tróficos associados ao sistema galhador-planta hospedeira.

  17. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

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    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira, às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (jurema-preta ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da madeira relacionando-os com o ambiente caatinga e apresentar o potencial energético que sua madeira possui. O estudo anatômico e a determinação da densidade da madeira foram realizados com amostras ao nível do peito (1,30 m acima do solo e em dois galhos com diferentes diâmetros, de espécimes ocorrentes nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, Pernambuco, Brasil. As espécies apresentam distinção expressa através do tipo de casca, coloração do cerne e do alburno, além das características peculiares da madeira. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, constituídas por linhas de parênquima axial contendo cristais, parênquima axial escasso e menor quantidade de raios por mm². Já Mimosa tenuiflora apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, porém sem cristais, parênquima axial vasicêntrico, em faixas ou aliforme confluente, e maior percentagem de raios. Ambas apresentam algumas estruturas da madeira com as características anatômicas comuns às diversas espécies do gênero Mimosa, contribuindo assim para uma melhor caracterização do gênero. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos da madeira e pela elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que as duas espécies apresentam perspectivas seguras para a produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal desde a fase de lenho juvenil. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta maior potencial energético, pela maior percentagem de fibras e por possuir parênquima escasso e menor percentagem de raios.Due to the economic importance of the wood of Mimosa L. species in Northeastern Brazil's caatinga and to the fact that Mimosa ophtalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. ("jurema-de-imbira" is confused with Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. ("jurema-preta" and vice versa, this research aimed to present new data related to the anatomy and basic density of the wood of both species; to contribute to the taxonomic study for differentiating them; to identify anatomical characters of the wood relating them to the caatinga environment; and to present the energetic potential that they possess. The anatomical study and wood density determination were carried out with samples at dbh level and with two branches of individuals within the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco. The species both differed in bark type, color of heartwood and sapwood, besides the different anatomical characteristics found in the wood. Mimosa ophtalmocentra has distinct growth layers consisting of parenchyma lines containing crystals, scarce parenchyma and smaller quantity of rays. Mimosa tenuiflora, on the other hand, also has growth layers, but without crystals, axial parenchyma vasicentric, confluent and in bands, and greater percentage of rays. Both species have some wood elements with anatomical characteristics typical of representatives of Mimosa, contributing therefore to a better taxonomic understanding of the genus. Based on wood anatomical parameters and elevated basic density (> 0.84 g/cm³, the conclusion was reached that both species have great perspectives for the production of fuel alcohol and charcoal since juvenile wood age. Because Mimosa ophthalmocentra has scarce parenchyma and fewer rays, it shows greater energetic potential than Mimosa tenuiflora.

  18. Crecimiento y supervivencia de plántulas de cinco especies de Acacia (Fabaceae, que coexisten en bosques secos neotropicales de Argentina, en distintas condiciones de disponibilidad de luz y agua Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae species that coexists in neotropical semiarid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions

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    Paula Venier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de la plántula es una de las etapas más riesgosas para las plantas, especialmente en zonas áridas y semiáridas donde la sequía y alta radiación solar influyen sobre su emergencia, desarrollo y supervivencia. Se evaluó en invernadero la supervivencia y variables de crecimiento en plántulas sometidas a estrés hídrico y a distintas condiciones de luz, en cinco especies de Acacia (A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii y A. praecox que coexisten en los bosques xerófilos de Córdoba, Argentina. Aunque se encontraron diferencias entre las especies (F=5.66, p=0.001, todas tuvieron altos porcentajes de supervivencia en las distintas condiciones de luz y agua, sugiriendo que serían tolerantes al estrés hídrico y podrían establecerse bajo luz o sombra. Si bien todas las especies mejoraron el crecimiento con luz y sin estrés hídrico, A. aroma, A. caven y A. atramentaria mostraron una tendencia hacia un mayor crecimiento en la mayoría de las variables consideradas (F=41.9, pSeedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F=5.66, p=0.001, all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand, although all species showed an increase in growth in light conditions and without water stress, we have found some trends towards a greater growth in the seedlings of A. aroma, A. caven and A. atramentaria when compared to those of A. praecox and A. gilliessi in most of the variables considered (F=41.9, p<0.0001; F=7.06, p<0.0001; F=53.59, p<0.0001. This pattern was confirmed through a cluster analysis that classified the species in two main groups. These results, together with others already reported, would indicate a regenerative niche differentiation that might be favoring the regional coexistence of these five species in semiarid forests in central Argentina.

  19. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

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    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching germination percentage of 59% and germination speed of 0.68 seeds d-1. In contrast, C. pulcherrima had high germination percentages at all temperatures tested, with highest germinability from 20 to 40ºC. Seeds of L. leucocephala had the lowest germination percentage and optimal germination temperature was 35ºC. The germination performance of this exotic is not outstanding, and factors such as propagule pressure, natural scarification and good performance in other life stages must contribute to its invasiveness.

  20. Estratégias fenológicas de Senna cana (Nees & Mart. H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae como mecanismo eficiente para atração de polinizadores Phenological strategies of Senna cana (Nees & Mart. H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae as efficient mechanisms for attracting pollinators

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    Isys Mascarenhas Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho verificou a importância das estratégias fenológicas de Senna cana na atração de visitantes e polinizadores na mata ciliar do rio Lençóis, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia. As observações fenológicas foliares (queda foliar e brotamento e reprodutivas (botão, flor, fruto imaturo e fruto maduro foram mensais (18 meses em 10 indivíduos marcados. Para a biologia floral observou-se: antese, duração das flores, receptividade estigmática, viabilidade polínica, presença de osmóforos e pigmentos que refletem raios ultravioleta. Foram realizados testes de autopolinização manual, espontânea e polinização cruzada. Os visitantes e polinizadores foram determinados observando-se: horário, duração, freqüência das visitas e comportamento de forrageio. Senna cana é uma espécie perenifólia episódica, com eventos reprodutivos sazonais e altamente sincrônicos (floração intermediária no período chuvoso e frutificação longa no período seco. Tais características na floração, somadas à síndrome de melitofilia, configuram importantes estratégias para atração de visitantes florais, dentre os quais Xylocopa frontalis e X. grisescens foram classificadas enquanto potenciais polinizadores. A autoincompatibilidade e o máximo de frutos produzidos após polinização cruzada são mecanismos reprodutivos favorecidos pelas estratégias fenológicas e síndrome de polinização apresentadas pela espécie.The present work evaluated the importance of the phenological strategies of Senna cana in attracting floral visitors and pollinators in an riparian forest along the Lençóis River, in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Vegetative and reproductive phenological observations (leaf fall, leaf flushing, flowering, and fruiting were made on a monthly basis among a group of 10 individuals. The floral biology patterns observed included: anthesis, duration of the flowers, stigma receptivity, pollen viability, and the presence of osmophores and pigments that reflect UV light. Reproductive mechanisms were examined by testing manual and natural self-pollination as well as cross-pollination. Visitors and pollinators were identified, and the time, duration, and frequency of their visitation, as well as their behavior, were noted. Senna cana is an episodic evergreen species showing seasonal and highly synchronous reproductive events (intermediate flowering after a rainy period, and long fruiting during the dry period. These flowering characteristics, in addition to the syndrome of melittophily, are important strategies for attracting floral visitors (including Xylocopa frontalis and X. grisescens, which are potential pollinators. The self-incompatibility and maximization of fruit production through cross-pollination represent reproductive mechanisms favored by the phenological strategies and the pollination syndrome demonstrated by this species.

  1. Estructura y estado de conservación de los bosques de Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae en el noreste de Mendoza (Argentina Structure and conservative condition of the Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamily: Mimosoideae woodlands in northeast Mendoza (Argentina

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    JUAN AGUSTÍN ALVAREZ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La recomendación de normas de manejo que regulen el uso de los recursos forestales debe estar basada en el conocimiento de la estructura y dinámica de los mismos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la estructura poblacional de las principales unidades boscosas del bosque de Prosopis flexuosa del noreste de Mendoza, sus condiciones sanitarias y su potencial productivo. Se muestrearon un total de 1.471 algarrobos en las cuatro unidades boscosas más representativas. La densidad total de algarrobos fue la siguiente: bosque semicerrado de P. flexuosa con Atriplex lampa y Lycium tenuispinosum en valles intermédanos (Bosque 1: 181 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con Trichomaria usillo y Suaeda divaricata en ondulaciones (Bosque 2: 155 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con T. usillo (Bosque 3: 233 árboles ha-1 y bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con A. lampa en ondulaciones suaves (Bosque 4: 215 árboles ha-1. El análisis de componentes principales de la estructura diamétrica agrupó los sitios relevados en las distintas unidades boscosas según la proporción de árboles de diámetro basal mayor a 25 cm. Los sitios del Bosque 1 (mayor proporción de árboles grandes, se separaron de los sitios con mayor proporción árboles pequeños (bosques 2 y 4. Debido al hábito de crecimiento de los algarrobos, la cantidad de productos maderables de estos bosques es baja. Además, P. flexuosa presenta en el área un porcentaje alto de individuos con más de dos fustes, la forma en muchos casos es decumbente y la altura de los fustes es menor a un metro. Por lo tanto, el potencial forestal del bosque es bajo y el posible aprovechamiento debería realizarse a escala local, considerando la inclusión de otras actividades complementarias en zonas establecidas para tal finThe recommendation of management rules that regulate the use of forest resources must be based on the knowledge of the structure and dynamics of forests. This work allowed to find out about the population structure of the Prosopis flexuosa woodlands of the northeast of Mendoza, as well as their sanitary conditions and the management potential. A total of 1,471 Prosopis individuals were sampled in the four most representative woodlands units. The total Prosopis density was as follows: P. flexuosa semi-closed woodland with Atriplex lampa and Lycium tenuispinosum in valleys in-between dunes (Woodland 1: 181 trees ha-1; P. flexuosa open woodland with Trichomaria usillo and Suaeda divaricata in the undulations (Woodland 2: 155 trees ha-1; P. flexuosa open woodland with T. usillo (Woodland 3: 233 trees ha-1, and P. flexuosa open woodland with A. lampa in soft undulations (Woodland 4: 215 trees ha-1. The principal components analysis on the diametric structure grouped the sites surveyed in the different woodland units as per the proportion of individuals with larger basal diameter. The sites from Woodland 1 (larger proportion of big trees, were separated from the sites with a higher proportion of small trees (Woodland 2 and 4. Due to the Prosopis growth habit, the quantity of wood products from these forests is low. Besides P. flexuosa presents in the area a high percentage of individuals with more than two stems, the tree shape is generally decumbent and the bole height is less than a meter. Therefore, the possible use should be done at local scale, taking into account the inclusion of other complementary activities

  2. Relationships between Prosopis flexuosa (Fabaceae and cattle in the Monte desert: Seeds, seedlings and saplings on cattle-use site classes Interacciones entre Prosopis flexuosa (Fabaceae y el ganado en el desierto de Monte: Semillas, plántulas y renovales en los sitios de uso del ganado

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    CLAUDIA M CAMPOS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The fate of Prosopis flexuosa seeds dispersed by cattle is dependant on the spatial pattern of dung deposition and foraging movements. We hypothesised that cattle-use site classes explain the response variables related to seed input and fate of seeds, seedlings and saplings (small plants more than one year old. We defined sites with heavy cattle traffic ("trails" and "periphery of trails", sites used for resting and foraging ("under Prosopis", and sites where isolated individuals only walk ("under shrubs" and "bare soil". Considering the established cattle-use site classes, our specific goals were to quantify and compare: (1 seeds transported in cattle dung; (2 seedlings 10 months after dung deposition; (3 established saplings; and (4 germinated and remaining seeds, and seedling survival in dung immediately after dung deposition. In a grazed field at Ñacuñán (Mendoza, Argentina we worked in four similar areas, each consisting of 25-ha plots 2 km apart. Space use by cattle caused differential seed input: "under Prosopis" and in the "periphery of trails" animals deposited the largest amounts of dung and seeds. Ten months after dung deposition, the highest number of seedlings occurred on "trails", "under Prosopis" and in the "periphery of trails". In the long term, the highest number of established saplings occurred only in the "periphery of trails". The number of seeds germinated immediately after fruit production and dung deposition was very low. Survival of seedlings sprouting from dung-germinated seeds did not exceed one week. On "trails" and in the "periphery of trails" the persistence of seeds in dung was low because of dung disintegration by the action of cattle trampling. The seeds that did not remain in dung were probably the source of seeds that will germinate in the next wet season (i.e. 10 months after dung deposition. With different effects depending on cattle site activity and on the stage of the P. flexuosa plant (seed, seedling, or sapling, defecation and trampling appear to be important processes in the seed dispersal cycle. In this sense, cattle could benefit the establishment of P. flexuosa.El destino de las semillas de Prosopis flexuosa dispersadas por ganado depende de los patrones de deposición de excrementos y movimientos de forrajeo. Nuestra hipótesis es que las variables respuesta relacionadas con el aporte y el destino de semillas, plántulas y renovales son explicadas por diferencias entre los sitios de actividad del ganado. Definimos sitios con alto tránsito de animales ("senderos" y "periferia de senderos", sitios utilizados para descanso y alimentación ("bajo Prosopis" y sitios de paso para animales aislados ("bajo arbustos" y "suelo descubierto". Considerando los sitios de actividad establecidos, nuestros objetivos fueron cuantificar y comparar: (1 semillas transportadas en los excrementos, (2 plántulas 10 meses después de la deposición, (3 renovales establecidos, (4 semillas germinadas en los excrementos, supervivencia de plántulas y semillas que permanecieron en los excrementos. El trabajo se realizó en un campo ganadero de Ñacuñán (Mendoza, Argentina, dentro de cuatro áreas donde se establecieron parcelas de 25 ha. En los sitios se encontró un aporte diferencial de semillas: en sitios de descanso y alimentación ("bajo Prosopis" y de tránsito intenso ("periferia" los animales depositaron las mayores cantidades de semillas. Diez meses después, las semillas germinaron con las primeras lluvias; el mayor número de plántulas se registró en sitios de tránsito intenso ("senderos" y "periferia" y de descanso y alimentación ("bajo Prosopis". A largo plazo, en la "periferia" se establece la mayor cantidad de renovales. Inmediatamente después de la deposición, germinó un número muy bajo de semillas y las plántulas no sobrevivieron más de una semana. En los sitios más transitados por el ganado, los excrementos se desintegraron por pisoteo y la persistencia de las semillas en los excrementos fue baja o nula. Probablemente, las semillas que retornaron al suelo luego de la desintegración de los excrementos son las que germinaron 10 meses después. Con diferentes efectos, dependiendo del sitio de actividad del ganado y el estado de vida de la planta (semilla, plántula, renoval, la defecación y el pisoteo parecen ser procesos importantes en el ciclo de dispersión. En este sentido, el ganado podría beneficiar el establecimiento de P. flexuosa.

  3. Odonatos asociados al curso superior y medio del río Suquía, Córdoba, Argentina

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    Adriana I. ZAPATA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la primera lista de la odonatofauna regional de Córdoba con 24 especies. Acanthagrion lancea Selys, Telebasis willinki Fraser (Zygopte- ra: Coenagrionidae, Erythrodiplax nigricans (Rambur, E. umbrata (Linnaeus, Mi- athyria marcella (Selys in Sagra, Orthemis nodiplaga Karsch, Pantala flavencens (Fabricius y P. hymenaea (Say (Anisoptera: Libellulidae constituyen primeros re- gistros de la provincia.

  4. Differential gene expression and mitotic cell analysis of the drought tolerant soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista under two water deficit induction systems

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    Polyana K. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought cause serious yield losses in soybean (Glycine max, roots being the first plant organ to detect the water-stress signals triggering defense mechanisms. We used two drought induction systems to identify genes differentially expressed in the roots of the drought-tolerant soybean cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista and characterize their expression levels during water deficit. Soybean plants grown in nutrient solution hydroponically and in sand-pots were submitted to water stress and gene expression analysis was conducted using the differential display (DD and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Three differentially expressed mRNA transcripts showed homology to the Antirrhinum majus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH, the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol transfer protein PITP and the auxin-independent growth regulator 1 (axi 1. The hydroponic experiments showed that after 100 min outside the nutrient solution photosynthesis completely stopped, stomata closed and leaf temperature rose. Both stress induction treatments produced significant decrease in the mitotic indices of root cells. Axi 1, PITP and bHLH were not only differentially expressed during dehydration in the hydroponics experiments but also during induced drought in the pot experiments. Although, there were differences between the two sets of experiments in the time at which up or down regulation occurred, the expression pattern of all three transcripts was related. Similar gene expression and cytological analysis results occurred in both systems, suggesting that hydroponics could be used to simulate drought detection by roots growing in soil and thus facilitate rapid and easy root sampling.

  5. A new subgenus of the weevil genus Otiorhynchus Germar, 1822 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae for a new species from Mediterranean Turkey associated with the carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae

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    Genrik E. Davidian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species Otiorhynchus ceratoniae Davidian, Gültekin & Korotyaev sp. nov. is described from eastern Mediterranean Turkey. A new monotypic subgenus Arnoldinus Davidian, Gültekin & Korotyaev subgen. nov. is erected for this species. The new species was found o