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Sample records for hygrophila polysperma acanthaceae

  1. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explant of Dwarf Hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb. T. Anderson

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    Mehmet Karataş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10–1.60 mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/L IBA and 500 mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10 mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80+0.10 mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10+0.10 mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20–1.00 mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6–9 for the best plant growth and development.

  2. Epidermal hairs of Acanthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, Khwaja J.

    1978-01-01

    Structure and distribution of the foliar epidermal hairs of 109 species and two varieties belonging to 39 genera of the family Acanthaceae have been studied. Both glandular and non-glandular epidermal hairs have been recorded in the investigated taxa. The glandular hairs may be subsessile or

  3. Anti-endotoxin effects of terpenoids fraction from Hygrophila auriculata in lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Md Sarfaraj; Azam, Faizul; Ahamed, K F H Nazeer; Ravichandiran, V; Alkskas, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine (Acanthaceae) has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as inflammation, rheumatism, jaundice and malaria. The present study aims to separate terpenoid fraction (TF) from alcohol (70%) extract of the whole plant of Hygrophila auriculata and assess its anti-inflammatory activity. HPTLC analysis of TF was performed for the estimation of lupeol. Edema was induced in Wistar albino rats by subplanter injection of 0.1 ml of 1% (w/v) carrageenan into the right hind paw after 1 h of TF administration (100 and 200 mg/kg oral). Septic shock was induced by intraperitoneal administration of LPS (100 μg/kg) in rats and interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in serum. AutoDock 4.2 was used for molecular docking. Administration of TF significantly (p < 0.005) restored the serum levels of cytokines, LPO (7.77 ± 0.034 versus 4.59 ± 0.059 nmole of TBARS), NO (9.72 ± 0.18 versus 4.15 ± 0.23 µmol nitrite/mg of wet tissue), and SOD (4.89 ± 0.036 versus 7.83 ± 0.033 Unit/mg protein) compared with the LPS-challenged rats. Analysis of in silico results revealed that TNF-α is the most appropriate target in eliciting anti-inflammatory activity. The present findings suggest that TF of Hygrophila auriculata possesses great promise as an anti-inflammatory agent which may be due to its antioxidant effect. Molecular docking results could be exploited for lead optimization and development of suitable treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  4. Evaluation of cytotoxic, analgesic, antidiarrheal and phytochemical properties of Hygrophila spinosa (T. Anders) whole plant.

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    Bellah, S M Faysal; Islam, Md Nur; Karim, Md Rezaul; Rahaman, Md Masudur; Nasrin, Mst Samima; Rahman, Md Atiar; Reza, A S M Ali

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic drugs are going to be replaced by plant-derived traditional drugs due to their cost effectiveness, relatively less harmfulness, and efficacy against multidrug resistance organisms. Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) has been used in a wide range of ailments including flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, and menorrhagia. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic, antinociceptive, and antidiarrheal effects of H. spinosa ethanol extract (EExHs). Preliminary phytochemical screening was accomplished by established methods modified in experimental protocol. EExHs was undertaken for cytotoxic assay by Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, antinociceptive action by acetic acid induced writhing test, and antidiarrheal activity by castor oil induced antidiarrheal test. Data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6.0 software using Dunnett's test for multiple comparisons. Reducing sugar, steroid, glycoside, tannin, alkaloid, saponins, and flavonoids were found to be present in EExHs. Lethal concentration (LC50) of EExHs for brine shrimps was 50.59 µg/mL which was relatively lower than that of the standard drug vincristine sulfate. In acetic acid induced writhing test, oral administration of EExHs at three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) decreased writhing in dose-dependent manner while the highest dose (500 mg/kg) achieved the maximum percentages of pain inhibition (58.8%). Diclofenac sodium (25 mg/kg) was used as a reference antinociceptive drug. The antidiarrheal action of EExHs was not found to be very promising for further use; however, the pure compounds from EExHs could be analyzed to justify the effects. This research demonstrates that the secondary metabolites guided cytotoxic and analgesic effects could be extensively studied in multiple models to confirm the effects.

  5. Acianthera hygrophila(Orchidaceae, nuevo registro para Uruguay

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    Andrés J. Rossado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para la flora de Uruguay la orquídea epífita Acianthera hygrophila (Barb. Rodr. Pridgeon & M.W. Chase. La misma fue hallada en el bosque ribereño del Río Yaguarón en el este del departamento de Cerro Largo próximo al límite con Brasil. Este registro representa el límite sur de distribución de la especie. Se presenta una descripción ampliada, ilustración y mapa de distribución de A. hygrophila, así como una clave para la identificación de las especies de Acianthera presentes en Uruguay

  6. Qualitative phytochemical screening of Hygrophila spinosa plant extract

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    S. Mandal

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the phytochemicals present in Hygrophila spinosa plant extract. Fresh leaves and aerial parts of botanically identified plant was collected and were processed for preparation of plant extract using specified technique. The plant extract was then subjected for different qualitative chemical tests to investigate the chemical profile of H. spinosa extracts. Analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and tannins in the extact as confirmed by implying different qualitative tests specified for these phytochemicals. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 367-368

  7. Three new species of Barleria Sect. Somalia (Acanthaceae) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Three new species and one new subspecies are described in Barleria sect. Somalia (Acanthaceae) from western Tanzania and their affinities are discussed. The conservation status of each species is evaluated.

  8. STUDIES ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, PHENOL AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF THE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT HYGROPHILA AURICULATA

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    M. Prasanna and S. Sridhar*

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoid content of the leaf of Hygrophila auriculata collected from three geographically distant regions of Tamil Nadu (Kanchipuram, Gummidipondi and Chengalpattu) were examined using extracts of aqueous, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and petroleum ether. Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT), Gallic acid (GA) and Quercetin (Q) were taken as standard in case of antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid content respectively. The acetone leaf extract of Hygrop...

  9. Analyse de la distribution spatiale des Acanthaceae en Afrique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci-Nat

    Analyse de la distribution spatiale des Acanthaceae en Afrique Centrale et comparaison avec les théories phytogéographiques de Robyns,. White et Ndjele. Kouao J. KOFFI 1*, Dominique CHAMPLUVIER 2, Danho F. R. NEUBA 3, Charles DE CANNIERE 1, Traoré DOSSAHOUA 4,. Jean LEJOLY 1, Elmar ROBBRECHT 2 ...

  10. A phytopharmacological review on Justicia picta (Acanthaceae: A well known tropical folklore medicinal plant

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    Pradeep Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthaceae family is an important source of therapeutic drugs and the ethno pharmacological knowledge of this family requires urgent documentation as several of its species are near extinction. Justicia is the largest genus of Acanthaceae with approximately 600 species. Aim of the present review is to present literature for the traditional uses & pharmacological review of Justicia picta (Family: Acanthaceae and to discuss further priorities of research yet to be discovered.

  11. Analyse de la distribution spatiale des Acanthaceae en Afrique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci-Nat

    choix des Acanthaceae se justifie par le fait que c'est une famille qui a été largement étudiée de. 1888 à 2001 par environ 427 collecteurs au cours des missions organisées en R.D. Congo, au. Rwanda et au Burundi. La plupart des échantillons de ces différentes récoltes sont conservés dans l'herbier du Jardin Botanique.

  12. A synopsis of Peristrophe (Acanthaceae in southern Africa

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    K. Balkwill

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available A synopsis of Peristrophe Nees (Acanthaceae in southern Africa is provided. Peristrophe comprises nine species, one with two subspecies in southern Africa. A key for identification and descriptions of species not included in recent literature are provided. Morphology of tertiary bracts,indumentum on stems and distribution is illustrated and diagnostic characters, distribution, habitat, flowering  time and conservation status are discussed for each species.

  13. A synopsis of Peristrophe (Acanthaceae in southern Africa

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    K. Balkwill

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A synopsis of Peristrophe Nees (Acanthaceae in southern Africa is provided. Peristrophe comprises nine species, one with two subspecies in southern Africa. A key for identification and descriptions of species not included in recent literature are provided. Morphology of tertiary bracts,indumentum on stems and distribution is illustrated and diagnostic characters, distribution, habitat, flowering  time and conservation status are discussed for each species.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL AND SEWAGE TREATMENT OF SYNTHESISED SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM LEAF EXTRACT OF HYGROPHILA AURICULATA (SCHUMSCH) HEINE.

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    S.R.Sivakumar*, V.Sridhar and K.Abdul

    2017-01-01

    In present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Hygrophila auriculata plant leaf extracts will be collected were used and compared for their extracellular of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles formed to be treated aqueous by solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent Ag-to Ag+ . UV spectroscopy is used to monitor the quantitative formation of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles is characte...

  15. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIMICROBIAL AND SEAWEGE TREATMENT OF SYNTHESISED SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM LEAF EXTRACT OF HYGROPHILA AURICULATA (SCHUMSCH) HEINE.

    OpenAIRE

    S.R.Sivakumar*, V.Sridhar and K.Abdul

    2017-01-01

    In present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Hygrophila auriculata plant leaf extracts will be collected were used and compared for their extracellular of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles formed to be treated aqueous by solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent Ag-to Ag+ . UV spectroscopy is used to monitor the quantitative formation of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles is characte...

  16. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

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    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

    2013-11-01

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  17. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

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    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen); Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  18. Cytotoxic, thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing and anti-oxidant activities of Hygrophila schulli

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    Md. Abu Sufian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude methanol extract of Hygrophila schulli and its petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous soluble Kupchan partitionates were investigated for in vitro cytotoxic, thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing and anti-oxidant activities. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the petroleum ether soluble extract of H. schulli showed significant cytotoxicity (LC50 = 0.1 µg/mL and LC90 = 15 µg/mL as compared to vincristine sulfate (LC50 = 0.4 µg/mL and LC90 = 9 µg/mL. Among all the partitionates, chloroform soluble fraction demonstrated the highest thrombolytic activity with 10.5% clot lyses. Moreover, in hypotonic- and heat-induced conditions, the chloroform soluble extractive inhibited hemolysis of human erythrocyte by 113.7% and 14.3%, respectively as compared to 71.9% and 42.2% demonstrated by standard acetylsalicylic acid. On the other hand, in anti-oxidant activity test, chloroform soluble fraction revealed mild antioxidant activity (IC50 = 195.1 µg/mL as compared to standard tert-butyl-1-hydroxytoluene (IC50 = 27.5 µg/mL.

  19. Leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae

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    Maria Regina T. Boeger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae, with emphasis on cystoliths, which are very abundant in this species. Leaves fully expanded from five mature individuals were collected in the teaching garden of the “Setor de Ciências Biológicas” (UFPR and fixed in FAA 70. The cystoliths were located in the epidermal cells of the adaxial face (litocysths and also among the collenchyma cells of the midrib and petiole. The cystoliths were cylindrical, long, with several small projections. They sometimes occurred in pairs and varied greatly in size, with an average length of 163.4±68.8 µm and a density of 23±9.97 cystoliths.mm-2 (n=10. The foliar lamina presented a uniseriate epidermis, dorsiventral mesophyll, and palisade parenchyma, which was continuous along the lamina. In the midrib, arc-shaped vascular veins were surrounded by fundamental parenchyma. Glandular trichomes occurred on both faces of the leaf, while non-glandular trichomes and diacytic stomata were present only on the abaxial face. The great number and size of the cystoliths observed could be related to defenses against herbivory and to mechanisms of removal of excess calcium absorbed from the soil.

  20. INTERACCIÓN ENTRE EL EXTRACTO DE Hygrophila tyttha Y LA ESCOPOLAMINA EN UNA PRUEBA DE MEMORIA EPISÓDICA EN RATAS

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    N LAMPREA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la interacción entre el extracto etanólico concentrado de la planta Hygrophila tyttha (500 mg/kg, vía oral y el antagonista colinérgico escopolamina (0,3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal en un modelo animal de memoria episódica. El extracto de la planta se obtuvo mediante percolación a partir del material vegetal fresco y se administró 30 minutos antes que la escopolamina. Treinta minutos después de ésta los animales se entrenaron en la tarea de reconocimiento del contexto espacial y una hora más tarde se evaluó la exploración del campo y de los objetos en él contenidos. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de escopo-lamina, asociada o no al extracto de Hygrophila tyttha, deterioró el reconocimiento del contexto espacial, impidió la habituación al campo abierto, pero no afectó la exploración de los objetos. El único efecto de la asociación del extracto con escopolamina fue un aumento significativo de la actividad exploratoria del campo abierto. Estos resultados sugieren que el extracto de Hygrophila tyttha no tuvo interacciones significativas sobre el efecto amnésico de la escopolamina, pero si potenció su actividad estimulante de la actividad exploratoria.

  1. Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae: chemistry, traditional, medicinal uses and its pharmacological activities - a review

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    Nagendra Singh Chauhan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae, is a source of the ayurvedic drug, 'Kokilaaksha' and the Unani drug, Talimakhana. The seeds are acrid, bitter, aphrodisiac, tonic, sedative, used for diseases of the blood. The plant is known to possess antitumor, hypoglycemic, aphrodisiac, antibacterial, free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation, hepatoprotective and haematopoietic activity. It contains lupeol, stigmasterol, butelin, fatty acids, and alkaloids. The present review article is focused on phytochemical, pharmacological and other important aspects of Talimakhana.

  2. LC-DAD-MS-based metabolite profiling of three species of Justicia (Acanthaceae).

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    Calderón, Angela I; Hodel, Adam; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gupta, Mahabir P; Correa, Mireya; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Olean-12-en-3β-24 diol (A), auranamide (B), aurantiamide acetate (C), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (D) and quindoline (E) were isolated from the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) extract of the stems of Justicia secunda (Acanthaceae). Liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection was used to acquire more knowledge of the chemical composition of this extract and to monitor variations in profiles of both the isolated and the other non-identified compounds in Justicia refractifolia and Justicia graciliflora. The compound classes, phenolic and olefinic amides, feruloyltyramine amides, 2,5-diaryl-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuranoid lignans, peptide alkaloids, phenylalanine derivatives, conjugated ynones, indolquinoline alkaloids, triterpenes and pigments, were tentatively identified based on the LC-DAD-APCI-MS analysis. The most frequently encountered compound among the species was auranamide while the distribution of quindoline was limited to J. secunda. Moreover, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds was determined.

  3. Comparative anatomy, morphology, and molecular phylogenetics of the African genus Satanocrater (Acanthaceae).

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    Tripp, Erin A; Fatimah, Siti

    2012-06-01

    Anatomical and morphological features of Satanocrater were studied to test hypotheses of xeric adaptations in the genus, which is endemic to arid tropical Africa. These features, together with molecular data, were used to test the phylogenetic placement of Satanocrater within the large plant family Acanthaceae. We undertook a comparative study of four species of Satanocrater. Carbon isotope ratios were generated to test a hypothesis of C(4) photosynthesis. Molecular data from chloroplast (trnG-trnS, trnG-trnR, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (Eif3E) loci were used to test the placement of Satanocrater within Acanthaceae. Anatomical features reflecting xeric adaptations of species of Satanocrater included a thick-walled epidermis, thick cuticle, abundant trichomes and glandular scales, stomata overarched by subsidiary cells, tightly packed mesophyll cells, and well-developed palisade parenchyma on both leaf surfaces. Although two species had enlarged bundle sheath cells, a feature often implicated in C(4) photosynthesis, isotope ratios indicated all species of Satanocrater use the C(3) pathway. Molecular data resolved Satanocrater within tribe Ruellieae with strong support. Within Ruellieae, our data suggest that pollen morphology of Satanocrater may represent an intermediate stage in a transition series. Anatomical and morphological features of Satanocrater reflect adaptation to xeric environments and add new information about the biology of xerophytes. Morphological and molecular data place Satanocrater in the tribe Ruellieae with confidence. This study adds to our capacity to test hypotheses of broad evolutionary and ecological interest in a diverse and important family of flowering plants.

  4. Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae: chemistry, traditional, medicinal uses and its pharmacological activities - a review Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae: química, usos tradicionais e medicinais e suas atividades farmacológicas - uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Singh Chauhan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae, is a source of the ayurvedic drug, 'Kokilaaksha' and the Unani drug, Talimakhana. The seeds are acrid, bitter, aphrodisiac, tonic, sedative, used for diseases of the blood. The plant is known to possess antitumor, hypoglycemic, aphrodisiac, antibacterial, free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation, hepatoprotective and haematopoietic activity. It contains lupeol, stigmasterol, butelin, fatty acids, and alkaloids. The present review article is focused on phytochemical, pharmacological and other important aspects of Talimakhana.Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae, é a fonte do medicamento ayurvédico "Kokilaaksha", e da droga Unani, Talimakhana. As sementes têm de sabor acre e amargas, são afrodisíacas, tônicas, calmantes, e usadas para doenças do sangue. A planta é conhecida por possuir propriedades antitumorais, hipoglicêmica, afrodisíaca, anti-bacteriana, na eliminação de radicais livres e peroxidação lipídica, atividade hepatoprotetora e hematopoiéticas. Ele contém lupeol, estigmasterol, butelina, ácidos graxos e alcaloides. Este trabalho apresenta estudos químicos, farmacológicos e outros aspectos importantes da Talimakhana.

  5. Acanthaceaes do Bioma Cerrado: Identificação dos fitoquímicos das folhas da espécie justicia thunbergioides (lindau) leonard (acanthaceae) ocorrente no parque estadual Serra dos Pireneus, Pirenópolis, GO.

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    Raíssa Suelem Gomes da Silva; Josana de Castro Peixoto

    2013-01-01

    A família Acanthaceae compreende cerca de 250 gêneros e 2.500 espécies com distribuição predominantemente tropical. O gênero Justicia compreende o maior gênero desta família possuindo cerca de 900 espécies, onde várias espécies desse gênero são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular por possuírem uma grande diversidade de classes químicas são encontrados nas espécies de Justicia, principalmente alcalóides, lignanas, flavanóides e terpenóides que possui potencial farmacológico, sendo utiliz...

  6. N-H.N hydrogen bonding in 4,6-diphenyl-2-pyrimidinylamine isolated from the plant Justicia secunda (Acanthaceae).

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    Gallagher, John F; Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Chatterjee, Baidyanath; Jana, Subrata; Dutta, Kalyani

    2004-04-01

    The title compound, C(16)H(13)N(3), isolated from Justicia secunda (Acanthaceae), comprises two molecules (which differ slightly in conformation) in the asymmetric unit of space group P-1. Intermolecular N(amino)-H.N(pyrm) interactions (N(pyrm) is a pyrimidine ring N atom) involve only one of the two donor amino H atoms and pyrimidine N atoms per molecule, forming dimeric units via R(2)(2)(8) rings, with N.N distances of 3.058 (2) and 3.106 (3) A, and N-H.N angles of 172.7 (18) and 175.8 (17) degrees. The dimers are linked by C-H.pi(arene) contacts, with an H.centroid distance of 2.77 A and a C-H.centroid angle of 141 degrees.

  7. A rich fossil record yields calibrated phylogeny for Acanthaceae (Lamiales) and evidence for marked biases in timing and directionality of intercontinental disjunctions.

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    Tripp, Erin A; McDade, Lucinda A

    2014-09-01

    More than a decade of phylogenetic research has yielded a well-sampled, strongly supported hypothesis of relationships within the large ( > 4000 species) plant family Acanthaceae. This hypothesis points to intriguing biogeographic patterns and asymmetries in sister clade diversity but, absent a time-calibrated estimate for this evolutionary history, these patterns have remained unexplored. Here, we reconstruct divergence times within Acanthaceae using fossils as calibration points and experimenting with both fossil selection and effects of invoking a maximum age prior related to the origin of Eudicots. Contrary to earlier reports of a paucity of fossils of Lamiales (an order of ∼ 23,000 species that includes Acanthaceae) and to the expectation that a largely herbaceous to soft-wooded and tropical lineage would have few fossils, we recovered 51 reports of fossil Acanthaceae. Rigorous evaluation of these for accurate identification, quality of age assessment and utility in dating yielded eight fossils judged to merit inclusion in analyses. With nearly 10 kb of DNA sequence data, we used two sets of fossils as constraints to reconstruct divergence times. We demonstrate differences in age estimates depending on fossil selection and that enforcement of maximum age priors substantially alters estimated clade ages, especially in analyses that utilize a smaller rather than larger set of fossils. Our results suggest that long-distance dispersal events explain present-day distributions better than do Gondwanan or northern land bridge hypotheses. This biogeographical conclusion is for the most part robust to alternative calibration schemes. Our data support a minimum of 13 Old World (OW) to New World (NW) dispersal events but, intriguingly, only one in the reverse direction. Eleven of these 13 were among Acanthaceae s.s., which comprises > 90% of species diversity in the family. Remarkably, if minimum age estimates approximate true history, these 11 events occurred within

  8. Effect of the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) on ovarian folliculogenesis and fertility of female rats.

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    Telefo, Phelix Bruno; Tagne, Simon Richard; Koona, Olga Elodie Sandrine; Yemele, Didiane M; Tchouanguep, Félicité M

    2012-01-01

    Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant whose leaves and those of three other plants are mixed for the preparation of a concoction used to improve fertility and to reduce labour pains in women of the Western Region of Cameroon. Previous studies have demonstrated the inducing potential on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis of the aqueous extract of the leaf mixture (ADHJ) of four medicinal plants (Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis) among which the later represented the highest proportion. This study was aimed at evaluating the ovarian inducing potential of J. insularis in immature female rats. Various doses of the aqueous extract of J. insularis were daily and orally given, for 20 days, to immature female rats distributed into four experimental groups of twenty animals each. At the end of the experimental period some biochemical and physiological parameters of ovarian function were assayed. The administration of the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis significantly induced an early vaginal opening in all treated groups (P Justicia insularis induces ovarian folliculogenesis thus justifying its high proportion in the leaf mixture of ADHJ.

  9. The Tetramerium lineage (Acanthaceae: Justicieae) does not support the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis for South American seasonally dry forests.

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    Côrtes, Ana Luiza A; Rapini, Alessandro; Daniel, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    The Tetramerium lineage (Acanthaceae) presents a striking ecological structuring in South America, with groups concentrated in moist forests or in seasonally dry forests. In this study, we investigate the circumscription and relationships of the South American genera as a basis for better understanding historic interactions between dry and moist biomes in the Neotropics. We dated the ancestral distribution of the Tetramerium lineage based on one nuclear and four plastid DNA regions. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for this study using 104 terminals. Phylogenetic divergences were dated using a relaxed molecular clock approach and ancestral distributions obtained from dispersal-vicariance analyses. The genera Pachystachys, Schaueria, and Thyrsacanthus are nonmonophyletic. A dry forest lineage dispersed from North America to South America and reached the southwestern part of the continent between the end of the Miocene and beginning of the Pleistocene. This period coincides with the segregation between Amazonian and Atlantic moist forests that established the geographic structure currently found in the group. The South American genera Pachystachys, Schaueria, and Thyrsacanthus need to be recircumscribed. The congruence among biogeographical events found for the Tetramerium lineage suggests that the dry forest centers currently dispersed throughout South America are relatively old remnants, probably isolated since the Neogene, much earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum postulated by the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis. In addition to exploring the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis, this research also informs evolution in a lineage with numerous geographically restricted and threatened species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Justicia pectoralis Jacq: , Acanthaceae: preparation and characterisation of the plant drug including chromatographic analysis by HPLC-PDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco N. Fonseca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb popularly known in Brazilian northeast as "chambá" and used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory tract conditions such as asthma, cough and bronchitis. This species is included in the National Register of Plants of Interest to the National Health System. The aim of the present study was to develop a protocol for the preparation of the plant drug from J. pectoralis and to characterise the plant drug for its use as a pharmaceutical raw material. The aerial parts of J. pectoralis, after drying chamber with forced air circulation (35 °C for different periods of time (1-5 days, presented after one day a moisture content below the maximum allowed for plant drugs. The powder of the plant drug was classified as moderately coarse, and the total ashes content and the water- or ethanol-soluble extractives were determined. Analysis of hydroalcoholic (ethanol 20% extract of J. pectoralis by high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA determined the content of coumarin and umbelliferone (16.2 and 0.81 mg/g plant drug, respectively. The preparation conditions of the plant drug and the quality control parameters established for J. pectoralis in this study are of interest for the development of phytomedicines which use this active raw material.

  11. Justicia pectoralis Jacq: , Acanthaceae: preparation and characterisation of the plant drug including chromatographic analysis by HPLC-PDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco N. Fonseca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb popularly known in Brazilian northeast as "chambá" and used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory tract conditions such as asthma, cough and bronchitis. This species is included in the National Register of Plants of Interest to the National Health System. The aim of the present study was to develop a protocol for the preparation of the plant drug from J. pectoralis and to characterise the plant drug for its use as a pharmaceutical raw material. The aerial parts of J. pectoralis, after drying chamber with forced air circulation (35 °C for different periods of time (1-5 days, presented after one day a moisture content below the maximum allowed for plant drugs. The powder of the plant drug was classified as moderately coarse, and the total ashes content and the water- or ethanol-soluble extractives were determined. Analysis of hydroalcoholic (ethanol 20% extract of J. pectoralis by high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA determined the content of coumarin and umbelliferone (16.2 and 0.81 mg/g plant drug, respectively. The preparation conditions of the plant drug and the quality control parameters established for J. pectoralis in this study are of interest for the development of phytomedicines which use this active raw material.Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, é uma erva conhecida popularmente no Nordeste como chambá e, utilizada tradicionalmente no tratamento de doenças do trato respiratório, como a asma, tosse e bronquite. Essa espécie encontra-se na Relação Nacional de Plantas Medicinais de Interesse para o SUS. O objetivo do presente estudo foi elaborar protocolo para a preparação da droga vegetal a partir de J. pectoralis e realizar a sua caracterização visando seu emprego como matéria-prima farmacêutica. A parte aérea de J. pectoralis, após secagem em estufa com circulação e renovação de ar (35 °C durante diferentes per

  12. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  13. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslin Osathanunkul

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus, which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  14. and Ruellia coerulea (Acanthaceae

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    Cecilia Ezcurra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruellia simplex, el nombre de una especie de Ruellia descripta para Cuba en 1870, es el nombre más antiguo para una especie neotropical generalmente conocida como Ruellia tweediana, Ruellia coerulea y Ruellia malacosperma. Por lo tanto Ruellia simplex tiene prioridad y reduce estos últimos nombres a la sinonimia. Esta especie tiene una distribución anfitropical en el Nuevo Mundo, encontrándose en el sur de Estados Unidos, México y las Antillas, y en el oeste de Bolivia, sudoeste de Brasil, Paraguay, Uruguay, y noreste de Argentina.

  15. Water-Wisteria as an ideal plant to study heterophylly in higher aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaojie; Hu, Shiqi; Yang, Jingjing; Schultz, Elizabeth A; Clarke, Kurtis; Hou, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    The semi-aquatic plant Water-Wisteria is suggested as a new model to study heterophylly due to its many advantages and typical leaf phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental factors and phytohormones. Water-Wisteria, Hygrophila difformis (Acanthaceae), is a fast growing semi-aquatic plant that exhibits a variety of leaf shapes, from simple leaves to highly branched compound leaves, depending on the environment. The phenomenon by which leaves change their morphology in response to environmental conditions is called heterophylly. In order to investigate the characteristics of heterophylly, we assessed the morphology and anatomy of Hygrophila difformis in different conditions. Subsequently, we verified that phytohormones and environmental factors can induce heterophylly and found that Hygrophila difformis is easily propagated vegetatively through either leaf cuttings or callus induction, and the callus can be easily transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These results suggested that Hygrophila difformis is a good model plant to study heterophylly in higher aquatic plants.

  16. Preliminary studies on diuretic effect of hygrophila auriculata (schum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medicine widely used in the treatment of urinary infection, gout, hepatic obstruction and as a diuretic. This study was conducted to examine the diuretic effect of whole plant extracts and its fractions. Methods: The diuretic effect was examined by treating different groups of wistar albino rats with single (200 mg/kg) oral doses ...

  17. Antidiabetic effects of Justicia spicigera Schltdl (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Cabañas-Wuan, Angel; Arana-Argáez, Víctor E; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Domínguez, Fabiola; Chávez, Marco; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2012-09-28

    Justicia spicigera is a plant species used for the Teenak (Huesteca Potosina) and Mayan (Yucatan peninsula) indigenous for the empirical treatment of diabetes, infections and as stimulant. To evaluate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of J. spicigera. The effects of ethanolic extracts of J. spicigera (JSE) on the glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine 3T3-F442A and human subcutaneous adipocytes was evaluated. The antioxidant activities of the extract of JSE was determined by ABTS and DPPH methods. Additionally, it was evaluated the antidiabetic properties of JSE on T2DM model. JSE stimulated 2-NBDG uptake by insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant human and murine adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner with higher potency than rosiglitazone 1mM. JSE showed antioxidant effects in vitro and induced glucose lowering effects in normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effects of administration of J. spicigera are related to the stimulation of glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes and this evidence justify its empirical use in Traditional Medicine. In addition, J. spicigera exerts glucose lowering effects in normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Petal anatomy of four Justicia (Acanthaceae) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Noraini, T.; Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2013-11-01

    Comparative anatomical study on flower petals was studied in four selected Justicia species from Peninsular Malaysia, i.e. J. comata (L.) Lam., J. carnea Lindl. J. betonica Linn. and J. procumbens L with the objective to provide useful data for species identification and differentiation within the genus of Justicia. Methods used in this study are mechanical scrapping on the leaf surfaces and observation under light microscope. Finding in this study has shown that all species are sharing similar type of anticlinal walls pattern, which is sinuous pattern. Two or more type of trichomes is present in all species studied and this character can be used to differentiate Justicia species. Simple multicellular trichomes are found to be present in all species studied. Justicia betonica can be isolated from other species by the existence of cyclo-paracytic stomata on the petal surfaces.

  19. Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of Justicia spicigera Schltdl (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Domínguez, Fabiola; Arana-Argáez, Victor; Juárez-Vázquez, Maria del Carmen; Chávez, Marco; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; López-Toledo, Gabriela; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2012-06-14

    Medicinal plants are an important source of antitumor compounds. This study evaluated the acute toxicity in vitro and in vivo, as well as the cytotoxic, antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extracts of Justicia spicigera leaves (JSE). The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of JSE was evaluated with comet assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and acute toxicity in mice, according to the Lorke procedure, respectively. The apoptotic effect of JSE on human cancer cells and human noncancerous cells was evaluated using flow cytometry with annexin-Alexa 488/propidium iodide. Also, different doses of JSE were injected intraperitoneally daily into athymic mice bearing tumors of HeLa cells during 18 days. The growth and weight of tumors were measured. The in vitro immunomodulatory effects of JSE were evaluated estimating the effects of JSE on the phagocytosis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NO production and H(2)O(2) release in macrophages, as well as the proliferation of splenocytes and NK activity. The comet assay showed that only JSE tested at 200 and 1000 μg/ml induced a significantly DNA damage in PBMC, compared to untreated cells, whereas the LD(50) was >5000 mg/kg by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) and by oral route. JSE showed pro-apoptotic (Annexin/PI) effects by 35% against HeLa cells, but lack toxic effects against human normal cells. JSE administrated at 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. inhibited the tumor growth by 28%, 41% and 53%, respectively, in mice bearing HeLa tumor. JSE stimulated, in a concentration dependent manner, the phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, the NO production and H(2)O(2) release by human differentiated macrophages. In addition, JSE stimulated the proliferation of murine splenocytes and induced the NK cell activity. Justicia spicigera shows low toxic effects in vitro and in vivo, exerts apoptotic effects on HeLa cells, has antitumor effects in mice bearing HeLa tumor and induces immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Notes on the presence of Justicia secunda (Acanthaceae in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pavel García-Lahera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed and illustrated characterization of the botanical species denominated Justicia secunda, exotic plant cultivated as medicinal and ornamental in Cuba, probably of recent introduction, is presented, in order to facilitate its identification and differentiation from the plants with it is usually confused: Justicia spicigera and Justicia candicans. The work trait to get the attention of the Cuban scientific community about the promissory ethnobotany of the plant, because of the interesting medicinal properties that people attributed, as well as on its possible naturalization in the country and potentialities as an invasive plant.

  1. A taxonomic study of the Blepharis edulis complex (Acanthaceae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variable species Blepharis edulis, as well as the recently described B. boranensis, is investigated in Eastern Africa using phenetic analysis of gross morphological data supplemented with field observations and pollen morphology studies. Two species, B. edulis and B. boranensis, occuring in the drylands of Eastern ...

  2. Antioxidant, phenolic and antifungal profiles of Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Carlos; Leyton, Miguel; Osorio, Mauricio; Silva, Viviana; Fleming, Francisco; Paz, Marilyn; Madrid, Alejandro; Mellado, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Acanthus mollis is used as ornamental and medicinal plant. The ethnopharmacology reports indicate that extracts have anti-inflammatory activity. Phytoconstituents profile was evaluated by estimating the content of anthraquinones, flavonoids and phenols. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated using four methods: Hydrogen atoms transfer (TRAP, ORAC and DPPH assays), and single electron transfer (FRAP assay). Finally, antifungal activity was determined by the M27-A2 test. The results shown that ethanol extracts have the highest concentration of phenols, anthraquinones and flavonoids. Total antioxidant capacity, extracts of ethyl acetate and ethanol are those with the highest activity, which correlates strongly with the presence of phenols. The antifungal activity measured in various strains of Candida is concentrated in ethyl acetate extracts of flower and leaf ethanol, a phenomenon may be related to antioxidant activity.

  3. The distribution of Monechma (Acanthaceae species in southern Africa

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    Joan Munday

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of 19 species of Monechma in southern Africa is given and the manner in which their occurrence is related to rainfall is discussed. The possibility of a centre of speciation lying in south-west Namibia/South West Africa is considered.

  4. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  5. Três novas espécies de Aphelandra R. Br. (Acanthaceae para o Brasil Three new species of Aphelandra R. Br. (Acanthaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Regina Profice

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritas e ilustradas três novas espécies brasileiras do gênero Aphelandra, A. grazielae Profice e A. hymenobracteata Profice ocorrentes no Estado do Espírito Santo e A. wasshausenii Profice exclusiva do Estado de Minas Gerais.Three new Brazilian species of the genus Aphelandra, A. grazielae Profice and A. hymenobracteata Profice that occur in Espírito Santo State and A. wasshausenii Profice from the Minas Gerais State are described and illustrated.

  6. HPTLC Bioautography Guided Isolation of α-Glucosidase Inhibiting Compounds from Justicia secunda Vahl (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiler, Barbara A; Istvanits, Stefanie; Zehl, Martin; Marcourt, Laurence; Urban, Ernst; Caisa, Lugardo O Espinoza; Glasl, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    α-Glucosidase inhibitors form an essential basis for the development of novel drugs in diabetes type 2 treatment. Searching for α-glucosidase inhibitors in plants, TLC bioautographic assays have been established and improved within the last years. In traditional medicine, extracts from the leaves of Justicia secunda Vahl are used to treat diabetes mellitus symptoms. To screen for α-glucosidase inhibitors in J. secunda via HPTLC bioautography. Methodology - Extracts from the leaves of J. secunda and fractions thereof were evaluated in terms of their α-glucosidase inhibiting potential by subjecting them to HPTLC bioautography. The aqueous (AQ) fraction deriving from the methanol extract was further fractionated via column chromatography on polystyrene Diaion® HP-20. Two AQ subfractions revealed active compounds, which were isolated via preparative HPTLC and semipreparative HPLC. Their identification and structure elucidation was achieved employing HPLC-ESI-MS n , HRESI-MS, and NMR analyses. α-Glucosidase inhibitors were visualised as white zones on violet background on the TLC plate. The crude water extract, the methanol extract, and the methanol extract derived AQ fraction showed α-glucosidase inhibiting effects. In the latter, two diastereomeric mixtures responsible for the α-glucosidase inhibition were enriched. They were identified as the novel 2-caffeoyloxy-4-hydroxy-glutaric acid and the diastereomers secundarellone B and C. The current study presents the α-glucosidase inhibiting potential of J. secunda supporting its traditional medicinal use in diabetes mellitus treatment. HPTLC bioautography screening for α-glucosidase inhibitors provides a simple and effective method for the investigation of complex samples, such as plant extracts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Genetic and environmental integration of the hawkmoth pollination syndrome in Ruellia humilis (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, John S; Michalski, Joseph S; McCann, Braden K; Russo, Amber D; Andres, Kara J; Hall, Allison R; Middleton, Tessa C

    2017-05-01

    The serial homology of floral structures has made it difficult to assess the relative contributions of selection and constraint to floral integration. The interpretation of floral integration may also be clouded by the tacit, but largely untested, assumption that genetic and environmental perturbations affect trait correlations in similar ways. In this study, estimates of both the genetic and environmental correlations between components of the hawkmoth pollination syndrome are presented for chasmogamous flowers of Ruellia humilis , including two levels of control for serial homology. A greenhouse population for quantitative genetic analysis was generated by a partial diallel cross between field-collected plants. An average of 634 chasmogamous flowers were measured for each of eight floral traits that contribute to the hawkmoth syndrome. Genetic correlations (across parents) and environmental correlations (across replicate flowers) were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. Stigma height, anther height and floral tube length were very tightly integrated in their responses to both genetic and environmental perturbations. The inclusion of floral disc width as a control for serial homology suggests this integration is an adaptive response to correlational selection imposed by pollinators. In contrast, integration of non-homologous traits was low. Furthermore, when comparisons between the dimensions of serially homologous structures were excluded, the genetic and environmental correlation matrices showed little congruence. The results suggest that hawkmoths have imposed strong correlational selection on floral traits involved in the deposition and removal of pollen, and that this is a consequence of stabilizing selection on the relative positions of stigmas and anthers in the face of substantial flower size variation. Low integration of other floral traits, and conflicting patterns of genetic and environmental correlations among these traits, suggest weak or no correlational selection within the range of variability expressed within a population.

  8. Healing and Antisecretory Effects of Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Unhealed Gastric Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amang, A. P.; Mezui, C.; Siwe, G. T.; Emakoua, J.; Mbah, G.; Nkwengoua, E. Z.; Enow-Orock, G. E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This work investigated the healing and antisecretory effects of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa on “unhealed gastric ulcers” associated with gastric acid hypersecretion. Materials and Methods “Unhealed gastric ulcers” were induced using indomethacin following the establishment of acetic-acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, per os) was administered concomitantly with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously). The effects of the extract on both basal and histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion were determined. Mucus secretion and oxidative stress parameters were measured, and histological assessment of ulcer healing was carried out. Results The extract significantly promoted the healing process in rats subjected to “unhealed gastric ulcers” (82.4–88.5% healing rates). Treatment with the extract significantly reduced the basal (25.95–49.51% reduction rates) and histamine-stimulated (24.25–47.41%) acid secretions. The healing effect of the extract was associated with a significant (p ulcers.” PMID:29234676

  9. Enraizamento e morfo-anatomia de estacas caulinares de Odontonema strictum kuntze (Acanthaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Odontonema strictum Kuntze é uma espécie ornamental bastante utilizada no Brasil, cultivada em renques ou isoladamente, devido a coloração vermelha de suas inflorescências e seu porte arbustivo, podendo atingir cerca de dois metros de altura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o enraizamento e a morfoanatomia de estacas herbáceas de O. strictum plantadas em tubetes de enraizamento, utilizando vermiculita de granulometria fina e pó de casca de coco como substratos. O experimento foi conduzido em casade- vegetação na Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Curitiba - PR. As estacas foram preparadas com mcomprimento de 12 cm e duas folhas cortadas pela metade, na porção apical. Estas foram distribuídas em quatro parcelas com 10 estacas, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após 44 dias da instalação do experimento, o enraizamento foi de 100% nos dois substratos estudados. O substrato vermiculita apresentou o maior número de raízes por estaca (22,49 raízes, enquanto o pó de casca de coco apresentou a maior média de comprimento das cinco maiores raízes por estaca (11,67 cm. Estruturalmente, as estacas de O. strictum se caracterizam por apresentar epiderme unisseriada, com paredes pouco espessadas; córtex composto de colênquima, parênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary; cilindro central em estrutura secundária, com periciclo apresentando grupos isolados de fibras, câmbio ativo e medula parenquimática. A região provável de origem das raízes adventícias é na periferia do floema. Os resultados indicam que esta espécie pode ser considerada de fácil enraizamento, não sendo necessária a aplicação de fitorreguladores. As características anatômicas das estacas facilitam a formação de raízes adventícias.

  10. Studies in the southern African species of Justicia and Siphonoglossa (Acanthaceae: seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Immelman

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of all species of Justicia (except J. thymifolia (Nees C.B. Cl. and Siphonoglossa in the southern African region (as defined by the Flora of southern Africa were examined with the Scanning Electron Microscope. A wide range of different seed surfaces were seen, many of which could be correlated with other characters to further reinforce grouping of species into sections. However, some species that on other characters, would be placed together, had widely differing seed testas. Gross surface morphology varied from smooth to colliculate, irregularly rugose, reticulate with the ridges variously arranged, wheel-shaped (radiate or ammonite-like, with a central ridge or with multicellular barbed scales. The seeds were without hairs, unlike some American species sometimes considered to belong in Justicia (Graham 1989. Micromorphology also provided useful characters, with seeds being reticulate, papillate, minutely or deeply rugose or with one to many crystals visible. Critical-point drying was sometimes helpful in viewing microstructure.

  11. A new species of Blepharis Juss. (Acanthaceae) from Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giri, G.S.; Banerjee, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    During identification and study of the materials of the genus Blepharis Juss. in the Central National Herbarium (CAL) of the Botanical Survey of India the authors came across some specimens (Lawson 314) from Tavancore, which was identified as B. molluginifolia aff But critical study revealed that

  12. Antifungal potential of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leech. (Acanthaceae) against Cladosporium and Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin, K M; Young, M C M

    2015-07-01

    There is significant interest in research to develop plant extracts with fungicidal activities that are less harmful to the environment and human health than synthetic fungicides. This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the extracts of Avicennia schaueriana against Colletotrichum and Cladosporium species and to identify the compounds responsible for the activity. Leaves and stems of A. schaueriana were extracted with ethanol and partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antifungal activity of such extracts was tested by bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Colletotrichum lagenarium. Ethanolic extracts, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of stems had the highest antifungal activity with several active bands (Rf = 0·72 and Rf = 0·55). In the agar dilution assay, ethanolic extract, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of stems were the most efficacious, presenting 85, 62 and 63% growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeopsporioides and minimum inhibitory concentration values between 1 and 1·5 mg ml(-1) , respectively. Analysis carried out using gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry of petroleum ether and chloroform fractions allowed the identification of fatty acids methyl esters, lupeol and naphthoquinones such as lapachol, α-lapachone, naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, 2-isopropyl- and avicenol-C. We may infer that the antifungal activity of A. schaueriana is due to the abundance of these compounds. This study shows that Avicennia schaueriana extracts have a high potential for the growth inhibition of Colletotrichum and Cladosporium ssp. and will provide a starting point for discovering new natural products with antifungal activity. Their development is of particular interest to organic production systems where synthetic fungicides cannot be used. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Developmental variation in a species of Isoglossa (Acanthaceae: Ruellioideae over a season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Poriazis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In his appraisal of Isoglossa Oerst., Clarke (1901 placed major emphasis on the sizes of leaves and inflorescences in the key to species, but efforts to sort herbarium material have shown a great deal of variation in leaf size and inflorescence length that is very difficult to interpret. Specimens of a species of Isoglossa were collected from wild subpopulations from the Hartebeespoort Dam and Hartebeeshoek areas, at intervals over a season. Leaves and inflorescences were measured, and frequencies of hair types on bracts and calyces were recorded photographically Results indicate that leaf size within a species increases over the vegetative phase of the plant and that inflorescence size within a species increases over the reproductive phase of the plant. Therefore, caution should be applied when these characters are used for species identification in Isoglossa. Bract and calyx indumenta also change over a season, thus making it necessary to use wisdom when applying this character taxonomically.

  14. Genetic variation in the response of the weed Ruellia nudiflora (Acanthaceae) to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Zapata, José Alberto; Campos-Navarrete, María José; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge

    2010-04-01

    The main goal of this work was to test for plant genetic variation in the phenotypic plasticity response of the weed Ruellia nudiflora to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation. We collected plants in the field, kept them under homogeneous conditions inside a nursery, and then collected seeds from these parent plants to generate five inbred lines (i.e., genetic families). Half of the plants of each inbred line were inoculated with AM fungi while the other half were not (controls); a fully crossed experimental design was then used to test for the effects of treatment (with or without AM fungi inoculation) and inbred line (genetic family). For each plant, we recorded the number of leaves produced and the number of days it survived during a 2-month period. Results showed a strong positive treatment effect (plastic response to AM fungi inoculation) for leaf production and survival. Moreover, in terms of survival, the treatment effect differed between genetic families (significant genetic family by treatment interaction). These findings indicate that the positive effect of AM fungi on plant survival (and potentially also growth) differs across plant genotypes and that such condition may contribute to R. nudiflora's capacity to colonize new environments.

  15. Is floral specialization an evolutionary dead-end? Pollination system transitions in Ruellia (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Erin A; Manos, Paul S

    2008-07-01

    Pollination systems frequently reflect adaptations to particular groups of pollinators. Such systems are indicative of evolutionary specialization and have been important in angiosperm diversification. We studied the evolution of pollination systems in the large genus Ruellia. Phylogenetic analyses, morphological ordinations, ancestral state reconstructions, and a character mapping simulation were conducted to reveal key patterns in the direction and lability of floral characters associated with pollination. We found significant floral morphological differences among species that were generally associated with different groups of floral visitors. Floral evolution has been highly labile and also directional. Some specialized systems such as hawkmoth or bat pollination are likely evolutionary dead-ends. In contrast, specialized pollination by hummingbirds is clearly not a dead-end. We found evidence for multiple reverse transitions from presumed ancestral hummingbird pollination to more derived bee or insect pollination. These repeated origins of insect pollination from hummingbird-pollinated ancestors have not evolved without historical baggage. Flowers of insect-pollinated species derived from hummingbird-pollinated ancestors are morphologically more similar to hummingbird flowers than they are to other more distantly related insect-pollinated flowers. Finally, some pollinator switches were concomitant with changes in floral morphology that are associated with those pollinators. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that some transitions have been adaptive in the evolution of Ruellia.

  16. Species specificity of resistance to oxygen diffusion in thin cuticular membranes from amphibious plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost-Christensen, Henning; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Floto, Franz

    2003-01-01

    oxygen, diffusion, cuticula, amphibious plants, Hygrophila, Berula, Lobelia, Mentha, Potamogeton, Veronica, aquatic plants, submerged plants......oxygen, diffusion, cuticula, amphibious plants, Hygrophila, Berula, Lobelia, Mentha, Potamogeton, Veronica, aquatic plants, submerged plants...

  17. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish

  18. Especie nueva de Justicia (Acanthaceae del bosque tropical caducifolio de la costa de Oaxaca, México A new species of Justicia (Acanthaceae from the tropical deciduous forest of the Oaxacan coast, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Acosta-Castellanos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Justicia salma-margaritae del bosque tropical caducifolio de la costa de Oaxaca, México. La nueva especie se agrupa en Justicia sección Sarotheca y se caracteriza por la combinación de sus inflorescencias espigadas compuestas, cáliz desigualmente 5-lobado, tecas de las anteras sin apéndices, polen 2-colporado con 4 filas de ínsulas en el área tremal, cápsulas pubescentes y semillas tuberculadas. Sin embargo, se puede diferenciar claramente de las especies previamente descritas por la peculiar pubescencia glandular que presentan las brácteas, bractéolas y segmentos del cáliz.Justicia salma-margaritae is described from the tropical deciduous forest of the Oaxacan coast, Mexico. It is placed in Justicia sect. Sarotheca on account of a combination of morphological characters: compound spicate inflorescences, unequally 5-lobed calyces, unappendaged anther thecae, 2-colporate pollen with 4 rows of insulae in the trema area, pubescent capsules and tuberculate seeds. However, it may be clearly differentiated from the previously described species of that section by the peculiar glandular pubescence of bracts, bracteoles and calyces.

  19. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Tewari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees, Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus. Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission, phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver.

  20. PROPAGACIÓN ASEXUAL DE AZUL DE MATA (Justicia tinctoria (OERST. D. N. GIBSON, FAM. ACANTHACEAE POR MEDIO DE ESTACAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Solís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de dosis de ácido indolbutírico (0, 500, 1000 o 1500 ppm, la posición de donde se toma la estaca (basal, medial o terminal, el tamaño de la estaca (6, 10 o 14 cm, la ausencia o presencia de hojas, y el tipo de sustrato (arena de río, fibra de coco o carbón de granza de arroz, sobre el enraizamiento de estacas de azul de mata bajo ambiente protegido. Las variables evaluadas fueron el porcentaje de brotación y de enraizamiento, número de brotes, cantidad y longitud de raíces. Las estacas terminales presentaron los mayores valores para todas las variables, excepto porcentaje de enraizamiento: mayor número de brotes (17,5, longitud (0,17 y cantidad de raíces (0,65 que las estacas mediales y basales, lo que estaría asociado a una mayor velocidad de enraizamiento. Las dosis de AIB 1000 y 1500 ppm indujeron una mayor cantidad de raíces por estaca (8,40 y 9,24 respectivamente que las dosis menores. Hubo mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento con 1000 ppm de AIB (69% que sin ese compuesto (41%. Al utilizar estacas sin hojas aumentó la magnitud de cada una de esas variables. Con arena se obtuvo una mayor brotación aérea (96%, enraizamiento (92% y longitud de raíz (5,1 cm que con los otros sustratos. Las estacas de 14 cm presentaron consistentemente, mayor número de brotes (3,71, raíces más largas (3,56 cm y en mayor número (10,71 que las de 10 y 6 cm.

  1. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  2. Anti-depressant-like effect of kaempferitrin isolated from Justicia spicigera Schltdl (Acanthaceae) in two behavior models in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Julia; Dorantes-Barrón, Ana María; Novales, Lilian Mayagoitia; Real, Guadalupe Alva; Estrada-Reyes, Rosa

    2014-12-19

    We evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of kaempferitrin (Km) isolated from the plant Justicia spicigera (Asteraceae), which is used in traditional medicine for relieving emotional disorders, such as "la tristeza" (sadness or dysthymia) and "el humor" (mood changes). The actions of Km were evaluated in a forced swimming test (FST) and a suspension tail test (TST) in mice. We explored the involvement of the serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis (HPA) in the antidepressant-like effect of Km. To evaluate nonspecific effects of Km on general activity, the open field test (OFT) was performed. Km at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg induced an antidepressant-like effect. Sub-effective dose of Km (1 mg/kg) produced a synergistic effect with imipramine (6.25 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) but not with desipramine (3.12 mg/kg). Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, N-{2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl}-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexecarboxamide (WAY-100635), a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, and 8OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT1A agonist, but not pindolol (10 mg/kg) blocked the anti- immobility effect induced by Km. Taken together, these results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of Km is related to the serotonergic system, principally 5-HT1A. This effect was not related to changes in locomotor activity.

  3. Estratégias de propagação para espécies subarbustivas de Acanthaceae Juss. com potencial ornamental

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Mayara Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    O Cerrado apresenta grande diversidade vegetal e múltiplos potenciais de uso, inclusive o ornamental. O emprego de espécies nativas no mercado regional de plantas ornamentais pode tornar esse mercado mais competitivo, pois as espécies são adaptadas ao ambiente do Cerrado, reduzindo os custos de produção e manutenção. Além disso, a propagação de espécies nativas é uma forma de conservação desse bioma, que tem sofrido redução da biodiversidade em função de vários fatores, tais como a agricultur...

  4. Anti-Depressant-Like Effect of Kaempferitrin Isolated from Justicia spicigera Schltdl (Acanthaceae in Two Behavior Models in Mice: Evidence for the Involvement of the Serotonergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Cassani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of kaempferitrin (Km isolated from the plant Justicia spicigera (Asteraceae, which is used in traditional medicine for relieving emotional disorders, such as “la tristeza” (sadness or dysthymia and “el humor” (mood changes. The actions of Km were evaluated in a forced swimming test (FST and a suspension tail test (TST in mice. We explored the involvement of the serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis (HPA in the antidepressant-like effect of Km. To evaluate nonspecific effects of Km on general activity, the open field test (OFT was performed. Km at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg induced an antidepressant-like effect. Sub-effective dose of Km (1 mg/kg produced a synergistic effect with imipramine (6.25 mg/kg and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg but not with desipramine (3.12 mg/kg. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, N-{2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl-1-piperazinyl}-N-(2-pyridinylcyclohexecarboxamide (WAY-100635, a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, and 8OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT1A agonist, but not pindolol (10 mg/kg blocked the anti- immobility effect induced by Km. Taken together, these results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of Km is related to the serotonergic system, principally 5-HT1A. This effect was not related to changes in locomotor activity.

  5. Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. (Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the larvicidal and ovicidal efficacy of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The ovicidal activity was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of A. paniculata was found to be more effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The LC(50) values were 112.19, 137.48, 118.67, 102.05, 91.20 ppm and 119.58, 146.34, 124.24, 110.12, 99.54 ppm respectively. Among five tested solvent, methanol and ethyl acetate crude extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against two mosquito species. The extract of methanol and ethyl acetate exerted 100% mortality at 200 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus and at 250 ppm against Ae. aegypti. From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of A. paniculata was a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sistema reprodutivo e polinização de Lepidagathis sessilifolia (Pohl Kameyama ex Wassh. & J.R.I. Wood (Acanthaceae, em remanescente florestal da região sudoeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil Breeding system and pollination of Lepidagathis sessilifolia (Pohl Kameyama Wassh ex. & J.R.I.Wood (Acanthaceae in remnant forest in the southwest region of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celice Alexandre Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Lepidagathis apresenta distribuição pantropical com cerca de 100 espécies. No Brasil ocorrem 16 espécies, a maioria nas regiões Centro - Oeste e Sudeste. O estudo foi realizado em sub - bosque de remanescente florestal do município de Tangará da Serra - MT e teve como objetivo analisar a fenologia de floração, descrever a morfologia e biologia floral, verificar os visitantes florais e avaliar o sistema e o sucesso reprodutivo por meio de polinizações manuais. Lepidagathis sessilifolia apresenta inflorescências espiciformes, terminais, com cálice de cor rósea vistosa e corola de coloração branco-rósea. A floração ficou restrita aos meses de março a abril, durante a estação chuvosa. A senescência floral ocorreu após 24 ou 48 horas. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi elevada (92,5%. O único polinizador observado visitando as flores de L. sessilifolia foi a abelha Partamona nhambiquara (Apidae - Meliponini. O sistema reprodutivo misto da espécie é caracterizado pela formação de frutos por meio de agamospermia, autopolinização e polinização cruzada. Esse sistema reprodutivo flexível é vantajoso, pois, garante a manutenção da espécie na área de estudo mesmo na ausência de polinizadores.The genus Lepidagathis has pantropical distribution and about 100 species, 16 occurring in Brazil, mostly in the Midwest and Southeast regions. The research was carried out to evaluate in the understory of a forest remnant in Tangará da Serra County - MT to examine the flowering phenology, describe the floral morphology and biology and verify the floral visitors to evaluate the system and reproductive success through hand pollination tests. Lepidagathis sessilifolia shows spiciform and terminal inflorescence with calyx of pink color and corolla whitish-pink. Flowering was restricted from March to April, during the rainy season. Floral senescence occurred after 24 or 48 hours. The viability of pollen grains was high (92.5%. The effective pollinator of L. sessilifolia was Partamona nhambiquara (Apidae - Meliponini. The mixed mating system of the species is characterized by the formation of fruits by agamospermy, self and cross-pollination, spontaneous self-pollination, agamospermy and outcrossing. This flexible reproductive system is advantageous because it ensures the maintenance of species in the study area even in the absence of pollinators.

  7. Research studies on tropical hardwoods for pulp and paper manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escolano, J.O.; Tamolang, F.N.

    1981-01-01

    Kraft cooking of hardwood mixtures containing combinations of Shorea polysperma, S. negrosensis, Pentocone contorta, S. squamata, Dipterocarpus grandifluorus, Anisoptera thurifera, S. blume, and Hopea acuminata at 170 degrees gave pulp in 48% yield, with permanganate No. 13.8, burst factor 70-80, tear factor 129-130, MIT double folds 475-700, and breaking length 8500-9800 m. Physiochemical and strength characteristics of tropical hardwoods and their pulps are also reviewed.

  8. Specificity of herbivore-induced responses in an invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu; Zhou, Fang; Pan, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhijie; Traw, Milton B; Li, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Herbivory-induced responses in plants can both negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores and mitigate the effect of herbivory on the host. However, it is still less known whether plants exhibit specific responses to specialist and generalist herbivores in non-secondary metabolite traits and how specificity to specialists and generalists differs between invasive and native plant populations. We exposed an invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, to Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; specialist), Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae; generalist), manual clipping, or application of exogenous jasmonic acid and examined both the specificity of elicitation in traits of fitness (e.g., aboveground biomass), morphology (e.g., root:shoot ratio), and chemistry (e.g., C/N ratio and lignin), and specificity of effect on the subsequent performance of A. hygrophila and S. litura. Then, we assessed variation of the specificity between invasive and native populations (USA and Argentina, respectively). The results showed S. litura induced higher branching intensity and specific leaf area but lower C/N ratio than A. hygrophila, whereas A. hygrophila induced higher trichome density than S. litura. The negative effect of induction on subsequent larval growth was greater for S. litura than for A. hygrophila. Invasive populations had a weaker response to S. litura than to A. hygrophila in triterpenoid saponins and C/N ratio, while native populations responded similarly to these two herbivores. The specific effect on the two herbivores feeding on induced plants did not vary between invasive and native populations. Overall, we demonstrate specificity of elicitation to specialist and generalist herbivores in non-secondary metabolite traits, and that the generalist is more susceptible to induction than the specialist. Furthermore, chemical responses specific to specialist and generalist herbivores only exist in the invasive populations, consistent

  9. Phytochemical Observation on Leaf of Justicia Tranquebariesis. L.F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilandeswari, S.; Mainmaran, S.; Valarmathi, R.; Kumara, S. Karpagam; Loganathan, Sundari V.

    2001-01-01

    Photochemical studies of leaf of the herbs Justicia tranquebariensis. (Acanthaceae) carried out in the presence of phytosterols, flavonoids, Glycosides and absence of triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins tannins have been reported in this herb for the first time. PMID:22557013

  10. Application for the post of Lecturer in Zoology for FDP Vacancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    om

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Citronella. Myrtus caryophyllus. Myrtaceae. Clove. Eucalyptus globules. Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus. Pelargonium graveollens. Geraniaceae. Geranium. Citrus limon. Rutaceae. Lemon. Cybopogon flexuosus. Poaceae. Lemongrass. Citrus aurantifolia. Rutaceae. Lime. Gaultheria frgagrantissima. Acanthaceae.

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Somalia (Acanthaceae) from the miombo woodlands of western Tanzania Abstract · Vol 98, No 1 (2009) - Articles Aspects of the floral and fruit biology of Allanblackia stuhlmannii (Clusiaceae), an endemic Tanzanian tree. Abstract.

  12. Some new or noteworthy species of Mortierella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gams, W.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Mortierella are described and distributed over the sections defined by Gams (1970) which include the following new species: Section Pusilla: M. roseo-nana; Section Alpina: M. globalpina and M. polygonia Section Simplex: M. amoeboidea; Section Hygrophila : M. elongatula, M.

  13. Activation of charcoal from wood of some Philippine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanega, S.M.; Villanueva, E.P.; Banag-Laxamana, N.F.

    1974-01-01

    In further studies on the adsorptive capacity of charcoals made from Philippine woods, charcoals of Agathis philippinesis and Terminalia copelandii were sufficiently activated by heating with ZnCl/sub 2/ at 700/sup 0/C for 4 hours to make them as adsorptive as the commercial active carbons tested. ZnCl/sub 2/ was not, however, as effective in activating charcoals of Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, Leucaena leucocephaloa (L. glauca), Shorea squamata, S. polysperma and Samanea saman. Factors affecting development of adsorptive capacity in the charcoals studied probably included the chemical activator used, the temperature and the duration of heating; an intrinsic factor characteristic of each wood species may also have been involved.

  14. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Corps of Engineers Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Research. Annual Report for FY 1981. Biological and Chemical Control Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    more to a loss of the plants than to the direct lethal effects of the low temperatures on the insects. By March, populations were again dispersing...34 ot I albigutfis population intensities as influenced by latitude and pattu in both north and south Florida, but alack of seasonality in the central...philozeroide. (Mart.) Griseb. Cabomba Cabomba carolinian. Gray Cham Chara spp. Dckweed Lemna spp. Hydrifla Hydrill aer t Royle I iypphila Hygrophila

  15. Broncodilatory effect of Adatoda shimperina leaf extract on isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    asthma. Typical examples of these compounds are theophilline and ephedrine. Many medicinal plants including A. shimperiana have been documented as remedy for the treatment of asthma in the Ethiopian traditional medicine (4). A. shimperiana (Hochst). Nees Acanthaceae, Synonym Justicia shimperiana. (Nees in DC) ...

  16. Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-10-01

    The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimutagenic potential of Justicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the ethanolic extract of Justicia adhatoda (Acanthaceae) leaves was prepared by successive extraction procedure in increasing polarity order. Moreover, there are no antimutagenic evaluation reports found. In the present study our aim was to determine the antioxidant and antimutagenic potential of different ...

  18. Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Justicia insularis T. Anders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant whose leaves and those of three other plants are mixed for the preparation of a concoction used to improve fertility and to reduce labour pains in women of the Western Region of Cameroon. Previous studies have demonstrated the inducing potential on ovarian ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koona, OES. Vol 9, No 2 (2012) - Articles Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) on Ovarian Folliculogenesis and Fertility of Female Rats Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  20. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) on Ovarian Folliculogenesis and Fertility of Female Rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PB Telefo, SR Tagne, OES Koona, DM Yemele, FM Tchouanguep, 197-203.

  1. Andrographia paniculata a Miracle Herbs for cancer treatment: In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... Abstract Background: The history of natural products used in ancient times and in folk medicine these days, around the world, is the basis for the use of many therapeutic drugs in modern day med- icine. Andrographia paniculata belongs to the family Acanthaceae or Kalmegh and is commonly known as ...

  2. Environ: E00695 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00695 Strobilanthes nemorosus root Crude drug Strobilanthes nemorosus, Strobilanth...es [TAX:24051] Acanthaceae (acanthus family) Strobilanthes nemorosus root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] D...icot plants: others Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) E00695 Strobilanthes nemorosus root ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of the aqueous and hexane extracts of Mondia whitei on the sexual behaviour and some fertility parameters of sexually inexperienced male rats. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 2 (2012) - Articles Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) on Ovarian Folliculogenesis and Fertility of Female ...

  4. Environ: E00363 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00363 Indigo Crude drug Indigo, Indican [CPD:C08481], Indoxyl [CPD:C05658] Indigof...oria [TAX:161756], Isatis indigotica [TAX:161756] Fabaceae (pea family) Indigofera, Acanthaceae (acanthus fa...tard family) Isatis extract (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) E00363 Indigo ...

  5. Andrographia paniculata a Miracle Herbs for cancer treatment: In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The history of natural products used in ancient times and in folk medicine these days, around the world, is the basis for the use of many therapeutic drugs in modern day medicine. Andrographia paniculata belongs to the family Acanthaceae or Kalmegh and is commonly known as 'king of bitters'. It is extensively ...

  6. Weed management in banana production: The use of Nelsonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    The effects of this Acanthaceae on banana yield parameters, snails' population and weed species ... The coffee farmers manage the growth of these plants and use them as green fertilizers and for weed suppression. Rye (Secale cereale L.) is an excellent example of a ..... also found in pot experiments in Australia, that.

  7. Background Bioaerosols and Aerosols at Two Sites in Northern Australia: Preliminary Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Identification of pollens was restricted in most cases to families ( Poaceae , Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Acanthaceae, Myrtaceae) and genera (Acacia...concentration in the air above a grass- seed field in Oregon, USA, was about 27 to 222 times greater than that of culturable airborne bacteria. The Canadian

  8. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits; Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This new volume of the Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon deals with: Acanthaceae by L.H. Cramer; Rubiaceae by C.E. Ridsdale; Sapindaceae by B.M. Wadhwa & Willem Meijer. Each treatment includes: Family description, keys to the genera and species, and with the taxa: accepted name, synonym(s),

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okogun, JI. Vol 11 (2006) - Articles Pharmacognostic standardizaion of Andrographis paniculata. Nees. (Acanthaceae) Abstract PDF · Vol 14 (2009) - Articles Phytochemical and Anti-sickling Activities of Terminalia catappa Linn. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1118-1028. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  10. Floristic Diversity and Composition of Sheko Forest, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Orchidaceae (28) had the highest number of species followed by Rubiaceae (26), Euphorbiaceae (19), Moraceae (18) and Acanthaceae (16). A total of 24,321 individuals of woody plants (16,433 individuals per ha) were counted in the sampled plots. Twenty plant species alone constituted more than 80% of the ...

  11. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 97, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three new species of Barleria Sect. Somalia (Acanthaceae) from the miombo woodlands of western Tanzania · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Darbyshire, HJ Ndangalasi. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317-97.2.123 ...

  12. Effet de la teneur en protéines alimentaires sur la croissance de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caricaceae), Brassica oleracea (Brassicaceae), de Cecropia peltata (Moraceae), Laportea aestuans (Urticaceae) et de Phaulopsis falcisepala (Acanthaceae). Le régime R2, en plus des feuilles utilisées pour le régime R1, est additionné de ...

  13. Apoptosis Inducing Effect Of Andrographolide On TF-47 Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata Ness (Acanthaceae) at 0.35 mM , 0.70 mM and 1.40 mM induced DNA fragmentation and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells when TD-47 human breast cancer cell line was treated for 24 , 48 and 72 h. The results demonstrated that andrographolide can ...

  14. A preliminary floristic inventory in the Sierra de Mazatan, Municipios of Ures and Mazatan, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Manuel Espericueta-Betancourt; Reyna Amanda Castillo-Gamez

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the flora of the Sierra de Mazatán contains 357 species of vascular plants distributed in 248 genera and 80 families. The families with the most species are Asteraceae (48), Fabaceae (45), Poaceae (28), Euphorbiaceae (18), and Acanthaceae, Cactaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Solanaceae (11 each). The results show that the flora of the Sierra de Mazat...

  15. Palynological evolutionary trends within the tribe Mentheae with special emphasis on subtribe Menthinae (Nepetoideae: Lamiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon, H.-K.; Vinckier, S.; Smets, E.F.; Huysmans, S.

    2008-01-01

    The pollen morphology of subtribe Menthinae sensu Harley et al. [In: The families and genera of vascular plants VII. Flowering plants.dicotyledons: Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). Springer, Berlin, pp 167-275, 2004] and two genera of uncertain subtribal affinities

  16. Sciaphyllum, Genus Novum Acanthacearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1942-01-01

    Among the Acanthaceae grown in the glasshouses of the University Botanic Garden, Utrecht, a plant labelled Aphelandra velutina drew my attention, first, because it obviously belonged to an entirely different genus, and secondly, because a description under this name could nowhere be found. The

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 1250 ... Jing-tao Wu, Gui-wen Yang, Cui-hua Qi, Lei Zhou, Jian-guo Hu, Mao-shan Wang. Vol 8, No 4 (2011), Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae), Abstract PDF. WR Sawadogo, M Lompo, N Somé, IP Guissou, O-G Nacoulma-Ouedraogo.

  18. Weed management in banana production: The use of Nelsonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a survey of weeds in the Tiko banana plantations, the plant Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng was found to have invaded large areas of the plantation with no visible adverse effects on the banana crop. The effects of this Acanthaceae on banana yield parameters, snails' population and weed species diversity and ...

  19. Chemical constituents and biological activities of species of Justicia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geone M. Corrêa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthaceae family is an important source of therapeutic drugs, and the ethnopharmacological knowledge of this family requires urgent documentation as several of its species are near extinction. Justicia is the largest genus of Acanthaceae, with approximately 600 species. The present work provides a review addressing the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus Justicia. In addition, the biological activities of compounds isolated from the genus are also covered. The chemical and pharmacological information in the present work may inspire new biomedical applications for the species of Justicia, considering atom economy, the synthesis of environmentally benign products without producing toxic by-products, the use of renewable sources of raw materials, and the search for processes with maximal efficiency of energy.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF THE FLOWER OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS NEES IN ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarty Sharmistha; Kalita Jogen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants contains a variety of chemical substances with important therapeutic properties that can be utilised in the treatment of human diseases. Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees of family Acanthaceae is used in folklore remedies for treatment of Cough, Bronchitis, Fever, Asthama, Cancer and many other ailments. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees. The phytochemica...

  1. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants: Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Magos-Guerrero, Gil Alfonso; Santiago-Mej?a, Jacinto; Carrasco, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl. and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. Methods: The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each e...

  2. Prevention of toxic effects of mercuric chloride on Some male accessory organs in mice with a Multiherbal drug “Speman”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    Adult Swiss albino male mice exposed to mercuric chloride via drinking water at 5 μg/ml for 100 days revealed significant reduction in the wet weight and severe histopathological changes in male accessory organs, poor level of serum testosterone and infertility. These effects were reduced remarkable and fertility was restored when drug (12.50 mg/mouse/day orally) was administered during mercury exposure for 100days or after Hg-exposure for next 60 days (Post therapy). Natural recovery after mercury exposure for 60 days remind ineffective. Probable action of herbal drug based on the presence of the active principles of constituents (i.e Orchis mascula, Mucuna pruriens, parmelia perlata, Argyreia speciosa, Tribulus terristris, Leptadenia reticulate, Lactuca scariola and Hygrophila spinosa) is discussed in detail. PMID:22556990

  3. Prevention of toxic effects of mercuric chloride on Some male accessory organs in mice with a Multiherbal drug "Speman".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, H S

    2000-07-01

    Adult Swiss albino male mice exposed to mercuric chloride via drinking water at 5 μg/ml for 100 days revealed significant reduction in the wet weight and severe histopathological changes in male accessory organs, poor level of serum testosterone and infertility. These effects were reduced remarkable and fertility was restored when drug (12.50 mg/mouse/day orally) was administered during mercury exposure for 100days or after Hg-exposure for next 60 days (Post therapy). Natural recovery after mercury exposure for 60 days remind ineffective. Probable action of herbal drug based on the presence of the active principles of constituents (i.e Orchis mascula, Mucuna pruriens, parmelia perlata, Argyreia speciosa, Tribulus terristris, Leptadenia reticulate, Lactuca scariola and Hygrophila spinosa) is discussed in detail.

  4. Biominerals doped nanocrystalline nickel oxide as efficient humidity sensor: A green approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kennedy, L. [Materials Division, School of Advanced Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) Chennai, Chennai 600 048, Tamil Nadu (India); Magesan, P. [Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Judith Vijaya, J. [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College (Autonomous), Chennai 600 034, Tamil Nadu (India); Umapathy, M.J. [Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Aruldoss, Udaya, E-mail: udayaevs@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new resistive type of sensor was prepared by green synthesis. • The mineral oxide from seed part of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (HST) plant is chosen as a dopant in NiO. • The HST plant is found abundantly and commercially available in many countries. • The band gap of NH2 (Ni:HST of 0.5:0.5 weight ratio) sample is greater than prepared bulk NiO due to quantum effects. • The NH2 sample shows remarkable changes in the humidity sensing properties. - Abstract: The simple and green method is adopted for the preparation of biominerals (derived from the Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders plant seeds) doped nanocrystalline NiO. The prepared samples were subjected to instrumental analysis such as XRD, FT-IR, HR-SEM, EDX, UV–vis–DRS techniques. The surface area of all the samples was calculated from the Williamson–Hall's plot. The humidity sensitivity factor (S{sub f}) of the prepared samples was evaluated by two probe dc electrical resistance method at different relative humidity levels. The change in the resistance was observed for the entire sensor samples except pure NiO (NH0). Compared to all the other composition, HST of 0.5% in NiO (NH2 sample) enhances the sensitivity factor (S{sub f}) of about 90,000. The NH2 sample exhibited good linearity, reproducibility and response and recovery time about 210 ± 5 s and 232 ± 4 s, respectively. It is found that the sensitivity largely depends on composition, crystallite size and surface area.

  5. Notas sobre las especies de los pastizales entre Iquitos y Nauta, Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Tovar-Serpa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el año 2006 fueron recolectadas especies que conforman los pastizales cercanos a la carretera entre Iquitos y Nauta. Se identificaron 69 especies. El tipo de vegetación que caracteriza esta región es el bosque tropical lluvioso, donde el estrato bajo es habitado por los pastos constituidos básicamente por las Gramineas (Poáceas y en pequeña proporción por especies de otras Familias como: Fabáceas, Malváceas, Acanthaceas, Amaranthaceas, etc. Se presentan claves para la identificación de Familias, Géneros y Especies.

  6. Asystasia mosaic Madagascar virus: a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting the weed Asystasia gangetica in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Alexandre; Harimalala, Mireille; Hoareau, Murielle; Ranomenjanahary, Sahondramalala; Reynaud, Bernard; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2015-06-01

    Here, we describe for the first time the complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus in Madagascar isolated from the weed Asystasia gangetica (Acanthaceae), for which we propose the tentative name asystasia mosaic Madagascar virus (AMMGV). DNA-A and -B nucleotide sequences of AMMGV were only distantly related to known begomovirus sequence and shared highest nucleotide sequence identity of 72.9 % (DNA-A) and 66.9 % (DNA-B) with a recently described bipartite begomovirus infecting Asystasia sp. in West Africa. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this novel virus from Madagascar belongs to a new lineage of Old World bipartite begomoviruses.

  7. Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Narayanan, Raman; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2017-04-01

    Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. They increased repellency (maximum repellency at 100 ppm) in host-seeking adult females using the "arm-in cage assay." Histopathological examination showed the extracts led to serious midgut cell damage. Justicia adhatoda extracts led to reduced fecundity and oviposition of gravid females compared to controls. The extracts led to substantially reduced A. aegypti survival. We infer that the extracts have potential to reduce pathogen transmission by suppressing population growth of A. aegypti, and possibly other mosquito species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pharmacognostical evaluation of aerial parts of Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff. (Syn: Justicia picta Linn.): A well-known folklore medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep; Khosa, Ratan L; Mishra, Garima; Jha, Keshri K

    2015-01-01

    Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff. (Family-Acanthaceae) occupies a key role in traditional system of medicine. Since an extensive literature survey did not provide any information about studies on its standardization. Therefore, we designed the current study to establish the quality control parameters of G. pictum aerial parts. The investigation included determination of various standardization parameters such as macroscopic and microscopic studies, physicochemical parameters as well as phytochemical analysis of the crude drug. The microscopy study of aerial parts revealed that stem shows typical dicotyledonous characters with prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the cortical region and dorsiventral leaf. Physicochemical constants such as moisture content, ash values, fluorescence analysis, and extractive values were established. Preliminary phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, etc. The present study suggests establishing the parameters for pharmacopoeial standardization of G. pictum.

  9. Hairy root cultures for the production of anti-cancer naphthoquinone compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorek, Małgorzata; Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

    2017-08-21

    Anti-cancer studies of naphthoquinone derivatives are devoted to compounds isolated from natural plants or plant in vitro cultures, and also synthesized molecules. In this review, we focused on biotechnological efforts for optimization in vitro hairy root cultures for the production of anti-cancer naphthoquinones. Focusing on last decade tendencies we discovered that the most promising and intensively investigated compounds are shikonin and its derivatives, plumbagin and also rhinacanthin group or ramentaceone. We summarized most recent activity studies undertaken on anti-cancer naphthoquinones which could be produced in hairy root cultures. Reviewed natural plant compounds come from species of Boraginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Droseraceae and Acanthaceae families. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Bi-Fong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Nees (Acanthaceae is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and anti-hepatotoxic; 14-deoxyandrographolide is immunomodulatory and anti-atherosclerotic. Among the less abundant compounds from A. paniculata, andrograpanin is both anti-inflammatory and anti-infective; 14-deoxy-14,15-dehydroandrographolide is anti-inflammatory; isoandrographolide, 3,19-isopropylideneandrographolide and 14-acetylandrographolide are tumor suppressive; arabinogalactan proteins are anti-hepatotoxic. The four flavonoids from A. paniculata, namely 7-O-methylwogonin, apigenin, onysilin and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid are anti-atherosclerotic.

  11. Climate influence on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Justicia pectoralis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh Jairo Méndez Arteaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the altitude in the phenols and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant activity of the extracts of different polarities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq(Acanthaceae was evaluated. There was found that the plants cultivated under the Ibagué-Tolima's climate and soil conditions, can be a source of antioxidant compounds, especially in water preparations. The chromatographic analysis revealed that J. pectoralis extracts have mainly flavonoids of the flavonone type, as apigenine. A greater (or The greatest content of flavonoids was detected in the ethanolic extract of the plant samples grown at 1 265 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level (2 748,03 mg/L. The altitude level does not seem to have any influence on the functional properties, neither on the phytophenols content. The J. pectoralis Jacq can be considered one species with a high therapeutic potential and with good commercial opportunities.

  12. Stability of Tilo® tablets formulation obtained from dry extract of Justice pectoralis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Rodríguez-Chanfrau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb known popularly in Cuba as Tilo and used traditionally as sedative. The development in a solid pharmaceutical (Tablets 100 mg using dry extract of Justicia pectolaris aqueous extract is of interest for the development of phytomedicines, which uses this active raw material. The aim of the present study was to carry out chemical and biological stability studies to the formulation. A method of coumarin determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used and validated. The stability studies during different periods of time (24 months showed a stability of the product stored at 32 ± 2 °C, and protected of the light.

  13. Sub-Saharan Botanical Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Beentje, Henk; Cheek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    with independence of former European colonies in Africa, fewer were built on well-established herbaria from the colonial period. There are many gaps in collecting coverage, not least with regard to areas of high plant diversity; this is often caused by poor access or political instability. High species diversity...... exists in both humid and arid parts of Africa. Lack of collections from and knowledge about areas of high species diversity makes it difficult to prioritise conservation efforts. Gaps in taxonomic knowledge exist in certain large families, such as Rubiaceae, or in large genera, such as Cyphostemma...... (Vitaceae), Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae), Polystachya (Orchidaceae), and Barleria (Acanthaceae). Newly collected specimens are now mainly kept in African herbaria, but lack of training and resources in tropical African herbaria are important challenges to prevent African botanists...

  14. ITS2 barcoding DNA region combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of Hyoscyami Semen, the mature seed of Hyoscyamus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chao; Hu, Zhi-Gang; Tu, Yuan; Liu, He-Gang; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Ming-Ming; SHIi, Yu-Hua; Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-12-01

    Hyoscyami Semen, the mature dried seed of Hyoscyamus niger L., has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat human diseases. Hyoscyami Semen is found in local markets in China. In markets, sellers and buyers commonly inadvertently mix the seeds of H. niger with the seeds of related species such as Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees, Astragalus complanatus R. Br., Cuscuta australis R. Br., Cuscuta chinensis Lam., and Impatiens balsamina L. because of their similar morphologies or similar names. Thus, developing a reliable method for discriminating H. niger seeds from its adulterants is necessary to reduce confusion and ensure the safe use of Hyoscyami Semen. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of high-resolution melting analysis combined with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) with internal transcribed spacer 2 to discriminate H. niger. Our results show that Bar-HRM successfully identified the adulterants and detected the proportion of H. niger DNA extract within an admixture. In particular, HRM detected H. niger DNA extract in A. complanatus DNA extract at concentrations as low as 1%. In conclusion, the Bar-HRM method developed in the present study for authenticating H. niger is rapid and cost-effective. It can be used in the future to guarantee the purity of Hyoscyami Semen for the clinical use. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomphalaria glabrata Metallothionein: Lacking Metal Specificity of the Protein and Missing Gene Upregulation Suggest Metal Sequestration by Exchange Instead of through Selective Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Niederwanger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The wild-type metallothionein (MT of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and a natural allelic mutant of it in which a lysine residue was replaced by an asparagine residue, were recombinantly expressed and analyzed for their metal-binding features with respect to Cd2+, Zn2+ and Cu+, applying spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric methods. In addition, the upregulation of the Biomphalaria glabrata MT gene was assessed by quantitative real-time detection PCR. The two recombinant proteins revealed to be very similar in most of their metal binding features. They lacked a clear metal-binding preference for any of the three metal ions assayed—which, to this degree, is clearly unprecedented in the world of Gastropoda MTs. There were, however, slight differences in copper-binding abilities between the two allelic variants. Overall, the missing metal specificity of the two recombinant MTs goes hand in hand with lacking upregulation of the respective MT gene. This suggests that in vivo, the Biomphalaria glabrata MT may be more important for metal replacement reactions through a constitutively abundant form, rather than for metal sequestration by high binding specificity. There are indications that the MT of Biomphalaria glabrata may share its unspecific features with MTs from other freshwater snails of the Hygrophila family.

  16. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  17. ECOLOGICAL AND FAUNISTIC REVIEW OF COCCINELLIDAE (COLEOPTERA, COCCINELLIDAE IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

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    G. M. Mukhtarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to conduct ecological and faunal studies of coccinellidae in Dagestan as well as to consider the chorologic, trophic and phenological aspects in connection with the peculiarities of the environment.Materials and methods. As the basis for the research we used the materials obtained by the authors from 1999 to 2016 in various parts of Dagestan. We also conducted expeditions, stationary and semi-stationary studies using traditional methods of entomological research.Results. Inventory of coccinellidae fauna in Dagestan allowed identifying 27 species from 18 genera. It also revealed multiple and rare species. We carried out an analysis on distribution of the species in the high altitude range; identified environmental groups by biotopic preferendum: xerophyllous, mesophyll meadow-steppe, mesophyll forest, and Hygrophila and polytopic species; according to trophic adaptation: Aphidophages, Coccidophages, Mycetophages, Entomophages and Phytophages; We held a zoogeographical analysis of coccinellidae of Dagestan and according to habitat type, 8 zoogeographic groups were identified; We conducted phenological observations of the study sites, stages and timing of winter and winter dormancy, the beginning of mating, egg-laying, the duration of certain stages, the number of generations and other features.Conclusion. This research represents the first comprehensive summary of ladybugs (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae of Dagestan and includes the findings of the composition study, ecological and zoogeographical aspects of coccinellidae fauna of the study area.

  18. Integrated Multi-Trophic Recirculating Aquaculture System for Nile Tilapia (Oreochlomis niloticus

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    Puchong Sri-uam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three densities of the sex-reversed male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (20, 25, 50 fish/m3 were cultivated in an integrated multi-trophic recirculating aquaculture system (IMRAS that involves the ecological relationship between several living organisms, i.e., phytoplankton, zooplankton, and aquatic plants. The results indicated that, by providing proper interdependency between various species of living organisms, the concentrations of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate in the system were maintained below dangerous levels for Nile tilapia throughout the cultivation period. The highest wet weight productivity of Nile tilapia of 11 ± 1 kg was achieved at a fish density of 50 fish/m3. The aquatic plants in the treatment tank could effectively uptake the unwanted nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P compounds with the highest removal efficiencies of 9.52% and 11.4%, respectively. The uptake rates of nitrogen and phosphorus by aquatic plants could be ranked from high to low as: Egeria densa > Ceratophyllum demersum > Vallisneria spiralis and Vallisneria americana > Hygrophila difformis. The remaining N was further degraded through nitrification process, whereas the remaining P could well precipitate in the soil sediment in the treatment tank.

  19. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

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    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-04

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  20. Climate influence on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Influencia del clima en la composición química y la actividad antioxidante de Justicia pectorales Jacq

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    Jonh Jairo Méndez Arteaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the altitude in the phenols and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant activity of the extracts of different polarities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq(Acanthaceae was evaluated. There was found that the plants cultivated under the Ibagué-Tolima's climate and soil conditions, can be a source of antioxidant compounds, especially in water preparations. The chromatographic analysis revealed that J. pectoralis extracts have mainly flavonoids of the flavonone type, as apigenine. A greater (or The greatest content of flavonoids was detected in the ethanolic extract of the plant samples grown at 1 265 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level (2 748,03 mg/L. The altitude level does not seem to have any influence on the functional properties, neither on the phytophenols content. The J. pectoralis Jacq can be considered one species with a high therapeutic potential and with good commercial opportunities.En este trabajo se evaluó la influencia de la altitud en el contenido de fenoles y flavonoides y la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de diferentes polaridades provenientes de Justicia pectorales (Acanthaceae. Se halló que las plantas cultivadas en las condiciones del suelo y el clima de la zona Ibagué-Tolima pueden constituirse en compuestos antioxidantes, especialmente en preparados acuosos. El análisis cromatográfico reveló que los extractos de J. pectorales poseen en lo fundamental flavonoides del tipo flavona como es la apigenina. Un mayor contenido (sino el mayor de flavonoides se detectó en el extracto etanol obtenido de las muestras de la planta cultivadas a 1 265 metros por encima del nivel del mar (2 748,03 mg/L. La altitud no parece influir en las propiedades funcionales, ni en el contenido de fitofenoles del extracto. La J. pectorales puede considerarse una especie de gran potencial terapéutico y buenas posibilidades de comercialización.

  1. Urban vegetation change after a hundred years in a tropical city (San José de Costa Rica

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    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban vegetation is of key importance because a large proportion of the human population lives in cities. Nevertheless, urban vegetation is understudied outside central Europe and particularly, little is known about the flora of tropical Asian, African and Latin American cities. We present an estimate of how the vegetation has changed in the city of San José, Costa Rica, after about one century, with the repeat photography technique (based on a collection of 19th and early 20th century photographs by José Fidel Tristán and others and with data from the Costa Rican National Herbarium. We found little vegetation change in the landscape of San José during the 20th century, where a total of 95 families and 458 species were collected in the late 19th and early 20th century. The families with most species were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Cyperaceae, Acanthaceae, Malvaceae, Piperaceae and Verbenaceae. Similar results have been found in Europe, where the number of plant species often is stable for long periods even when the individual species vary. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1367-1386. Epub 2010 December 01.La vegetación urbana es de vital importancia ya que una proporción importante de la población humana vive en ciudades. Sin embargo, esta vegetación es poco estudiada fuera del centro de Europa y se sabe particularmente poco sobre la flora urbana de las ciudades tropicales de Asia, África y América Latina. Aquí presentamos una estimación de cómo ha cambiado la vegetación en la ciudad de San José, Costa Rica, durante un siglo, con la técnica de la fotografía repetida (sobre la base de una colección de fotografías del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX hechas por José Fidel Tristán y otros y con los datos del Herbario Nacional de Costa Rica. Encontramos pocos cambios en el paisaje de San José durante el siglo XX. En la ciudad se recolectaron 95 familias y 458 especies entre finales del siglo

  2. Anti-HIV diphyllin glycosides from Justicia gendarussa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Jie; Rumschlag-Booms, Emily; Guan, Yi-Fu; Liu, Kang-Lun; Wang, Dong-Ying; Li, Wan-Fei; Nguyen, Van Hung; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Fong, Harry H S; Rong, Lijun

    2017-04-01

    In a search for new anti-HIV active leads from over several thousands of plant extracts, we have identified a potent plant lead. The active plant is determined as Justicia gendarussa (Acanthaceae), a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of injury, arthritis and rheumatism in Asia including China. Our bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the stems and barks of the plant led to the isolation of two anti-HIV compounds, justiprocumins A and B. The compounds are identified as new arylnaphthalide lignans (ANL) glycosides. We further determined that the ANL glycosides are the chemical constituents that contribute to the anti-HIV activity of this plant. Justiprocumin B displayed potent activity against a broad spectrum of HIV strains with IC 50 values in the range of 15-21 nM (AZT, IC 50 77-95 nM). The compound also displayed potent inhibitory activity against the NRTI (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)-resistant isolate (HIV-1 1617-1 ) of the analogue (AZT) as well as the NNRTI (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)-resistant isolate (HIV-1 N119 ) of the analogue (nevaripine). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Promising anticancer activities of Justicia simplex D. Don. in cellular and animal models.

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    Joseph, Litty; Aranjani, Jesil Mathew; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath; Srinivasan, K K

    2017-03-06

    Justicia simplex D. Don. belonging to the family of Acanthaceae has been traditionally used for treatment of rheumatism, inflammation and bronchitis. The plant is traditionally considered as an anticancer medicine and is used by healers of Karnataka to treat various types of cancers. The present study aims at the elucidation of anticancer activity of various extracts of J. simplex, isolation of its active constituents and assessment of the role in growth inhibition and angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Extracts of J. simplex was evaluated for the in vitro cytotoxic effect by Brine Shrimp Lethality assay, Trypan Blue dye exclusion assay and antiproliferative assay. In vivo cytotoxicity of the extracts were determined by liquid tumor model in Swiss albino mice. Tumor prognosis, metastasis and angiogenesis were assessed by VEGF expression of the solid tumor. Phytochemical analysis afforded the isolation of a compound, the chemical structure of which was established using IR, NMR and TOF-MS spectral method. The compound was also evaluated for the growth inhibitory and angiogenic effects. The petroleum ether extract revealed potent anticancer activity in in vitro and in vivo studies. The anti-angiogenic effect is due to the down regulation of VEGF expression. The growth inhibitory assay revealed that the isolated compound namely triacontanoic ester of 5''-hydroxyjustisolin is responsible for the anticancer activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of microscopic structure of Justicia wynaadensis and the stability of its color extracted by using conventional and microwave extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nital; Nigudkar, Manjusha; Sane, Ramesh; Ajitkumar, B S; Datar, Ajit

    2015-10-01

    Justicia wynaadensis locally known as Moddu Soppu belongs to the family Acanthaceae. The aqueous bluish purple color extracted from the leaves and stems of Justicia is used in the preparation of a sweet dish by the natives of Kodagu district, Karanataka, India, exclusively during the monsoons. This traditional practice is believed to keep the people healthy throughout the year. Owing to its potential to be used as a natural colorant there is a strong need to develop efficient extraction method for maximum yield of colorant and preliminary scientific study of stability. Microscopy was carried out to find out the location of purple color in both leaves and stem and to study the anatomical details. An optimized microwave extraction method for extraction of colorant from Justicia has been developed. The microwave oven extraction yield of colorant is 9.41 % (±0.8598) under the optimized conditions of extraction time 30 min., extraction temperature 150 °C and ratio of liquid to solid 30 ml/g. The study demonstrated that the purple extract of the plant was stable against pH range 6.0-8.0, low temperature (4 °C), high temperature (≥50 °C) and sensitive to light. Thus these observations recommend the use of J. wynaadensis extract as a food colorant in neutral or slightly alkaline products (bakery, milk, egg etc.) and could be the potential source for the food colorant market.

  5. Screening for cytotoxic chemical constituents from Justicia procumbens by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and NMR.

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    Liu, Bo; Yang, Yanfang; Liu, Hongbin; Xie, Zhoutao; Li, Qun; Deng, Meng; Li, Fangping; Peng, Jingling; Wu, Hezhen

    2018-01-25

    The Acanthaceae family is an important source of therapeutic drugs and ethno medicines. There are many famous medicinal plants from this family, such as Andrographis paniculata, Baphicacanthus cusia, and Dicliptera chinensis. Justicia procumbens (J. procumbens) is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical of the world. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for cancer. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed the ethyl acetate extract of J. procumbens had a cytotoxic activity. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical constituents in the ethyl acetate extract was important for understanding its pharmacological mechanism. A high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry procedure was established. Eleven dibenzylbutanes and four arylnaphthalenes were confirmed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. A novel dibenzylbutane (5-methoxy-4,4'-di-O-methylsecolariciresinol-9'-monoacetate) and seven isomers of arylnaphthalene were isolated and characterized by NMR and QTOF-MS. Compounds 1, 2, and 13 were detected for the first time. The content of six lignans were determinated in the ethyl acetate extract. This study showed that the cytotoxic activity assay of J. procumbens could be mainly attributed to the constituents of lignans. The bioactivity of the ethyl acetate extract and determined compounds support the traditional use of this plant in cancer. These chemical constituents may be developed as novel therapeutics.

  6. Anxiolytic-like effects of standardized extract of Justicia pectoralis (SEJP) in mice: Involvement of GABA/benzodiazepine in receptor.

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    Venâncio, E T; Rocha, N F M; Rios, E R V; Feitosa, M L; Linhares, M I; Melo, F H C; Matias, M S; Fonseca, F N; Sousa, F C F; Leal, L K A M; Fonteles, M M F

    2011-03-01

    Justicia pectoralis (Acanthaceae) is used as an antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and bronchodilator, and its extract exerts an anxiolytic-like effect profile in animal models. This work presents the behavioral effects of an aqueous standardized extract of Justicia pectoralis (SEJP) in animal models, such as the elevated plus maze (EPM), light/dark, open field, rota rod and pentobarbital sleep time. The extract was administered intragastrically to male mice at single doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, while diazepam 1 or 2 mg/kg was used as a standard drug and flumazenil 2.5 mg/kg was used to evaluate the participation of benzodiazepinic receptors. The results showed that, similar to diazepam (1 mg/kg), SEJP significantly modified all the observed parameters in the EPM test, without altering the general motor activity in the open field, rota rod and pentobarbital sleep time tests. Flumazenil reversed not only the diazepam effect but also the SEJP effect. In the same way, all doses of SEJP increased the time of permanence in the light box in the light/dark test. The results showed that SEJP presented an anxiolytic-like effect, disproving sedative effects. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Ethanol extract of Justicia gendarussa inhibits lipopolysaccharide stimulated nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in murine macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, R Sandeep; Ashok, G; Vidyashankar, S; Patki, P; Nandakumar, Krishna S

    2011-06-01

    Justicia gendarussa Burm (Acanthaceae) is a plant used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory properties of this plant has not been studied well. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of Justicia gendarussa leaves (J-01) are studied here for the first time. The ethanol extract, J-01 was prepared from the leaves of Justicia gendarussa. The inhibitory effect of J-01 in nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene expressions were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. J-01 in a concentration dependent manner (200-50 μg/mL) attenuated NO production from macrophage stimulated with LPS (1 μg/mL). Further, J-01 significantly suppressed iNOS mRNA expression in these cells. J-01 has also downregulated the MMP-9 gene expression in LPS stimulated macrophage. The modulatory function of J-01 in inhibiting NO, iNOS, and MMP-9 as obtained from the present in vitro studies provide first scientific evidence to support the anti-inflammatory properties of Justicia gendarussa. This plant may have potential use in the management of inflammatory conditions such as arthritis.

  8. Rhinacanthin C Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption: Roles of TRAF6/TAK1/MAPKs/NF-κB/NFATc1 Signaling.

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    Mineko Tomomura

    Full Text Available Rhinacanthin C is a naphthoquinone ester with anti-inflammatory activity, found in Rhinacanthus nasutus (L Kurz (Acanthaceae. We found that rhinacanthin C inhibited osteoclast differentiation stimulated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL in mouse bone marrow macrophage cultures, although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanisms of rhinacanthin C in osteoclastogenesis. Rhinacanthin C suppressed RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1 expression. Phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and NF-κB, but not p38, was inhibited by rhinacanthin C, which also inhibited RANKL-stimulated TRAF6-TAK1 complex formation. Thus, the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of rhinacanthin C is mediated by a cascade of inhibition of RANKL-induced TRAF6-TAK1 association followed by activation of MAPKs/NF-κB; this leads to suppression of c-Fos and NFATc1, which regulate transcription of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation. In vivo, rhinacanthin C also reduced RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption in mouse calvaria. Rhinacanthin C also suppressed LPS-stimulated osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Rhinacanthin C may provide a novel therapy for abnormal bone lysis that occurs during inflammatory bone resorption.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of three herbal extracts on aflatoxin B1-intoxicated rat liver.

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    Shyamal, S; Latha, P G; Suja, S R; Shine, V J; Anuja, G I; Sini, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Rajasekharan, S

    2010-04-01

    Roots of Ixora coccinea (Rubiaceae), and Rhinacanthus nasuta (Acanthaceae) and whole plants of Spilanthes ciliata (Asteraceae) are extensively used by tribal communities in South India to treat liver diseases. However, the veracity of these tribal claims has not been investigated scientifically using the liver toxin, aflatoxin. This study reports on the protective effects of these three herbal ethanolic extracts on the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-intoxicated livers of albino male Wistar rats. Biochemical parameters, including serum hepatic enzymes (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase), were studied. Hepatic tissues were processed for assay of reduced glutathione (GSH) and histological alterations. Pre-treatment of the rats with oral administration of the plant ethanolic extracts, Ixora coccinea (IC), Rhinacanthus nasuta (RN), Spilanthes ciliata (SC), prior to AFB1 was found to provide significant protection against toxin-induced liver damage, determined 72 hours after the AFB1 challenge (1.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as evidenced by a significant lowering of the activity of the serum enzymes and enhanced hepatic reduced GSH status. Pathological examination of the liver tissues supported the biochemical findings. The three plant extracts, IC, RN and SC, showed significant antilipid peroxidant effects in vitro. It was concluded that the hepatoprotective effects of the three plant extracts observed in this study might result from their potent antioxidative properties.

  10. The efficient flight of Ruellia ciliatiflora seeds

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    Whitaker, Dwight; Marsh, Franklin; Chen, Peter; Vejar, David; Babb, Patrick; Castillo, Josue; Cordero, Sabrina; Lumban-Gaol, Maharani; Mora, Irlanda; Partida, Tania; Pineda, Julian; Rodriguez, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    The seeds of Ruellia ciliatiflora are small disks measuring approximately 3 mm in diameter and 0.3 mm in height, which are launched from exploding fruits at speeds exceeding 10 m/s. The seeds fly with backspin such that the axis of symmetry is parallel to the ground. With rotation rates that exceed 1 kHz they keep an aerodynamic profile and move through the air with a extremely low drag. Using high-speed video we have learned that the drag coefficients for these flying seeds can measure less than 0.01 for those launched with the least wobble. To understand the role of seed morphology and rotation rate on the flight of the seeds, we will also present work using 3D printed models of the seeds for studies in wind tunnels. Three-dimensional models are created by photographing seeds from many angles and inferring a shape using commercial software, which also creates a printable model. These studies should help guide work that compares explosions from fruits within the Acanthaceae family to which R. ciliatiflora belongs. This family consists of over 2000 species with exploding fruit with diverse habitats and morphologies.

  11. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  12. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants: Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension.

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    Magos-Guerrero, Gil Alfonso; Santiago-Mejía, Jacinto; Carrasco, Omar F

    2017-01-01

    Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg ., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl . and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each explored plant were administrated to conscious and unconscious male Wistar rats with and without glucose-induced hypertension. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated before and after the extract administration. Vascular reactivity experiments were conducted in rat aortic rings obtained from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. After oral administration in normotensive conscious rats all tested extracts decreased the HR, such effect was only observed in hypertensive conscious rats after the administration of B. simaruba ; only A. mexicana and B. simaruba decreased the BP after oral administration. All extracts administrated by intravenous injection diminished the mean arterial pressure. Dose-response curves to cumulative concentrations of all the extracts promote vascular relaxation in precontracted aortas from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension. The present study indicated that B. simaruba is worthy of further investigation as a potential phytotherapeutic agent for treating hypertension.

  13. CYTOTOXICITY OF JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA BURM F. LEAF EXTRACTS ON MOLT-4 CELL

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    Prihartini Widiyanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Justicia gendarussa Burm f. (Acanthaceae is known for its activity as a male contraceptive and anti-HIV properties. The present study was designed to evaluate extracts of J. gendarussa for cytotoxicity activity against MOLT-4 cells. The cytotoxic activity of the fractionated-extract and 70% ethanol extracts of J. gendarussa leaves on MOLT-4 cells were evaluated using a WST-1 assay. The treatment cells, control cells without treatment and control media were also tested in duplicate. The absorbance was measured at a wavelength of 450 nm using a microplate absorbance reader (Bio-Rad. The average absorbance measures formazan produced by viable cells that metabolize the WST-1 reagent. Then the data was analyzed with regression analysis Microsoft Excel 2007 program to determine the concentration with 50% cell viability (50% Cytotoxicity Concentration, CC50. The CC50 values of the fractionated-extract and 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves were 94 μg/ml and 78 μg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity of fractionated-extract and 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves were not significantly different (p > 0.05. It can be concluded that the fractionated-extract and 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves are not toxic to MOLT-4 cells.

  14. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India

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    M. JAYAKARA BHANDARY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bhandary MJ, Chandrashekar KR. 2014. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 89-93. A study was undertaken in Coastal Karnataka, a culturally and floristically diverse region between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea in India, to document the diversity and uses of ethnomedicinal plants of the area. This study resulted in the documentation of ethnomedicinal uses of 342 species of plants belonging to 34 families. The dominant families of ethnomedicinal plants were: Fabaceae (38 species, Euphorbiaceae (22 species, Rubiaceae (11 species, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae and Rutaceae (10 species each. Among the plants used, 30% are herbs, 27% trees, 25% climbers and 18% shrubs. Majority of the plants are used against several diseases, either alone or in combination with other plants. The most popular medicinal plants, in terms of the number of diseases against which they are used, are Cyclea peltata, Aristolochia indica, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica, Asparagus racemosus, Ficus racemosa, Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus religiosa, Calotropis gigantea, Vitex negundo, Aegle marmelos and Leucas aspera. A list of 50 important ethnomedicinal plants of the region which are used in the treatment of 5 or more disorders is provided.

  15. Anti-Tumor Action, Clinical Biochemistry Profile and Phytochemical Constituents of a Pharmacologically Active Fraction of S. crispus in NMU-Induced Rat Mammary Tumour Model.

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    Nik Soriani Yaacob

    Full Text Available Cancer patients seek alternative remedies such as traditional medicinal plants for safe and effective treatment and help overcome the side effects of conventional therapy. Current knowledge indicates that extracts of Strobilanthes crispus of the Acanthaceae family exhibit potent anticancer properties in vitro and are non-toxic in vivo. S. crispus was also reported to be protective against chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. We previously showed that a bioactive fraction of S. crispus leaves also synergized with tamoxifen to cause apoptosis of human breast cancer cell lines without damaging non-malignant epithelial cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor effect of S. crispus dichloromethane fraction (F3 using N-methyl-N-Nitrosourea (NMU-induced rat mammary tumor model. Tumor regression was observed in 75% of the rats following 8-week oral administration of F3 with no secondary tumour formation and no signs of anemia or infection. However, no improvement in the liver and renal function profiles was observed. Major constituents of F3 were identified as lutein, 131-hydroxy-132-oxo-pheophytin a, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, pheophytin a and 132-hydroxy-pheophytin a. These compounds however, may not significantly contribute to the antitumor effect of F3.

  16. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants: Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension

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    Magos-Guerrero, Gil Alfonso; Santiago-Mejía, Jacinto; Carrasco, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl. and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. Methods: The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each explored plant were administrated to conscious and unconscious male Wistar rats with and without glucose-induced hypertension. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated before and after the extract administration. Vascular reactivity experiments were conducted in rat aortic rings obtained from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. Results: After oral administration in normotensive conscious rats all tested extracts decreased the HR, such effect was only observed in hypertensive conscious rats after the administration of B. simaruba; only A. mexicana and B. simaruba decreased the BP after oral administration. All extracts administrated by intravenous injection diminished the mean arterial pressure. Dose-response curves to cumulative concentrations of all the extracts promote vascular relaxation in precontracted aortas from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension. Conclusions: The present study indicated that B. simaruba is worthy of further investigation as a potential phytotherapeutic agent for treating hypertension. PMID:28894625

  17. Potent Insecticidal Secondary Metabolites from the Medicinal Plant Acanthus montanus

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    Elham Amin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acanthus montanus (Nees T. Anders. (Family: Acanthaceae is a small shrub with sparse branches and soft stems, widespread in Africa, the Balkans, Romania, Greece and Eastern Mediterranean. Documented evidence showed that the leaves of the plant possess spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. In our ongoing research project; aimed at identifying new natural compounds with insecticidal activity, the alcohol extract of the aerial parts of A. montanus exhibited a significant activity against adult Aedes aegypti. Phytochemical study of the plant has resulted in isolation of nine compounds, eight of which exhibit variable degrees of insecticidal activity. β-sitosterol-3-O- β –D-glucoside (1 exhibited potent mosquitocidal activity (100% mortality against adult Aedes aegypti at 1.25 μg/mg concentration, followed by palmitic acid (2 (90%, linaroside (3 (80%, and acetoside (9 (70% respectively. It is noteworthy that this is the first report of insecticidal activity of β-sitosterol-3-O- β –D-glucoside, linaroside and acetoside.

  18. Observations on traditional usage of ethnomedicinal plants in humans and animals of Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh in North-Western Himalaya, India.

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    Thakur, Meenakshi; Asrani, R K; Thakur, Shalini; Sharma, P K; Patil, R D; Lal, Brij; Parkash, Om

    2016-09-15

    Medicinal plants are frequently used by Gaddi and Gujjar tribes of Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh, India to cure various ailments in humans and livestock. Therefore, extensive field work was conducted to document the traditional use of ethnomedicinal plants by these tribes. Direct interviews of 208 informants were conducted. The data generated through interviews was analysed using quantitative tools such as use-value (UV), factor informant consensus (Fic) and fidelity level (Fl). A total of 73 plant species in 67 genera and 40 families were observed to be medicinal and used to cure 22 ailment categories. The highest number of ethnomedicinal plants was recorded from the family Asteraceae followed by Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Acanthaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part used to treat various ailments followed by whole plant and roots or rhizomes. Ajuga parviflora, Berberis lycium, Viola canescens, Vitex negundo and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most important medicinal plants used for treating human diseases, whereas Achyranthes bidentata, Aloe sp., Cassia fistula, Podophyllum hexandrum and Pogostemon benghalensis were the most important medicinal plants used for treating animal diseases as per use value. The important ailment categories classified on the basis of factor informant consensus were gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. The present study revealed that people of the study area are extensively using the ethnomedicinal plants to cure various ailments. Plants with high use value and fidelity level should be subjected to pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Harnessing the medicinal properties of Andrographis paniculata for diseases and beyond: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology

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    Agbonlahor Okhuarobo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata Wall (family Acanthaceae is one of the most popular medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, ulcer, leprosy, bronchitis, skin diseases, flatulence, colic, influenza, dysentery, dyspepsia and malaria for centuries in Asia, America and Africa continents. It possesses several photochemical constituents with unique and interesting biological properties. This review describes the past and present state of research on Andrographis paniculata with respect to the medicinal usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicity profile and therapeutic usage, in order to bridge the gap requiring future research opportunities. This review is based on literature study on scientific journals and books from library and electronic sources. Diterpenes, flavonoids, xanthones, noriridoides and other miscellaneous compounds have been isolated from the plant. Extract and pure compounds of the plant have been reported for their antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective, anti-angiogenic, hepato-renal protective, sex hormone/sexual function modulation, liver enzymes modulation insecticidal and toxicity activities. The results of numerous toxicity evaluations of extracts and metabolites isolated from this plant did not show any significant acute toxicity in experimental animals. Detailed and more comprehensive toxicity profile on mammalian tissues and organs is needed in future studies.

  20. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

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    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  1. Harvest time influences on coumarin and umbelliferone contents in extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (tilo

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    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    Full Text Available Introduction: Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae is medicinal plant species commonly used in Cuba for the treatment of nervous disorders because of its sedative effect. Coumarin is one of its main active phytochemicals present in the extracts obtained from this plant and used as analytic marker in quality control. On the other hand, this compound contributes to the sedative effect attributed to this plant. Objective: to evaluate the influence of harvest time on the coumarin and umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin in Justicia pectoralis extracts. Methods: the experiment lasted two years. The harvest was performed at 4, 6 and 8 months after planting. Aqueous and hydroalcohol extracts were produced and the coumarin and umbelliferone contents were determined by high resolution liquid chromatography. Results: the achieved results showed the presence of coumarin and umbelliferone in both extracts. Both methods can be used for the extraction of these components from the plant, although in the case of umbelliferone, the best extraction results were achieved by using aqueous extract. In both cases, the recovery percentages were more than 98 %. This study confirmed that the harvest time significantly influences on the coumarin and umbelliferone contents. Conclusions: the best results are observed in the first two harvests (4 and 6 months at summer time, which indicates that the industry should process the vegetal material in these two periods of the year.

  2. Justicia pectoralis, a coumarin medicinal plant have potential for the development of antiasthmatic drugs?

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    Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a medicinal plant found Central America. In the Northeast of Brazil, it is popularly known as “chambá” being extensively used in homemade preparations for the treatment of cough, bronchitis and asthma. The species is part of a public phytotherapy program in Brazil entitled “Farmácias Vivas”, National Record of Plants of Interest to the National Health System and the National Formulary of Herbal medicines. This paper aims to critically review the available scientific literature regarding the health promoting effects of J. pectoralis var. stenophylla. The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology, quality control and potential interactions with conventional drugs were included in the present review. Botanical, chemical and pharmacognostical studies stablished several parameters useful for quality control of plant drug, extracts and phytomedicine from aerial parts of J. pectoralis using as markers two bioactive coumarins. A wide range of evidence have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, anti-spasmodic, smooth muscle relaxant and anxiolytic effects of J. pectoralis and its chemical constituents. Pilot clinical studies showed the efficacy of a syrup preparation of J. pectoralis in the treatment of mild and moderate asthma. The pharmacological potential make these medicinal plants good candidates for the development of new phytomedicine for the treatment of asthma. However, a strong collaboration to bridge the gap between preclinical and clinical study is still necessary for the development of an effective medicine from J. pectoralis.

  3. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Ammannia baccifera and Blepharis maderaspatensis leaf extracts on rats

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    Aiyalu Rajasekaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing activity of the leaf extracts of Ammannia baccifera L., Lythraceae, and Blepharis maderaspatensis (L. B.Heyne ex Roth., Acanthaceae, was investigated by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major constituents of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of ethanolic leaf extracts. The excision and incision models were used to assess the effect of the plant extracts on wound healing in rats. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a standard drug Framycetin cream. Significant wound healing activity was observed for the creams prepared with 5% ethanol fraction of B. maderaspatensis and 5% chloroform fraction of A. baccifera ethanolic leaf extracts. The results of histopathological evaluation supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. Ethanolic fraction of B. maderaspatensis and chloroform fraction of A. baccifera exhibited marked wound healing activity. B. maderaspatensis extract displayed a remarkable wound healing activity compared to A. baccifera.

  4. Clinacanthus nutans: a review on ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological properties.

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    Zulkipli, Ihsan N; Rajabalaya, Rajan; Idris, Adi; Sulaiman, Nurul Atiqah; David, Sheba R

    2017-12-01

    Medicinal plants have attracted global attention for their hidden therapeutic potential. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f) Lindau (Acanthaceae) (CN) is endemic in Southeast Asia. CN contains phytochemicals common to medicinal plants, such as flavonoids. Traditionally, CN has been used for a broad range of human ailments including snake bites and cancer. This article compiles the ethnomedicinal uses of CN and its phytochemistry, and thus provides a phytochemical library of CN. It also discusses the known pharmacological and biological effects of CN to enable better investigation of CN. This literature review was limited to articles and websites published in the English language. MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were searched from December 2014 to September 2016 using the following keywords: "Clinacanthus nutans" and "Belalai gajah". The results were reviewed to identify relevant articles. Information from relevant selected studies was systematically analyzed from contemporary ethnopharmacological sources, evaluated against scientific literature, and extracted into tables. The literature search yielded 124 articles which were then further scrutinized revealing the promising biological activities of CN, including antimicrobial, antiproliferative, antitumorigenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Few articles discussed the mechanisms for these pharmacological activities. Furthermore, CN was beneficial in small-scale clinical trials for genital Herpes and aphthous stomatitis. Despite the rich ethnomedicinal knowledge behind the traditional uses of CN, the current scientific evidence to support these claims remains scant. More research is still needed to validate these medicinal claims, beginning by increasing the understanding of the biological actions of this plant.

  5. In vitro propagation of the aromatic herb Strobilanthes tonkinensis Lindau

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    Niyomsri Srikun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Strobilanthes tonkinensis Lindau is a rare aromatic herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae. Its plant extract has been confirmed as a major source of squalene. In this research, a protocol for micropropagation was developed that can support ex situ conservation and will benefit plant material production. Shoot explants were provided from plants grown in the greenhouse and trickle irrigated for 1 mth and then effectively sterilized by shaking in NaOCl at a concentration of 1.2% for 10 min, followed by 0.6% for 15 min, which produced 70% good-growing, healthy shoots. Increasing thidiazuron and N6-benzyladenine (BA concentrations did not promote shoot multiplication. Shoot multiplication was the best on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 16 μM BA. The highest shoot number (12 shoots/explant was obtained at 8 wk of culture. The highest shoot elongation was obtained on the medium added with 16 μM BA for 4 wk and subsequent subculturing to hormone-free MS medium for another 4 wk. High frequency rooting (21 roots/shoot was obtained on MS medium fortified with 7.5 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Complete plantlets that were transferred to pots under greenhouse conditions produced healthy plants with 100% survival after 5 wk.

  6. Use of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase tool for biomonitoring marine environment pollution in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

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    Zeinali, Farrokhzad; Homaei, Ahmad; Kamrani, Ehsan; Patel, Seema

    2018-01-16

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the pivotal antioxidant enzyme that defends organisms against the oxidative stresses of superoxide radicals. In this experimental study, purification of SOD from the leaves of Avicennia marina (grey mangrove or white mangrove) from the family Acanthaceae, located in Sirik mangrove forest on the shore of the Gulf of Oman was performed, for the intended characterization of SOD. The Sirik AmSOD (A. marina SOD) expressed optimum activity in the pH range of 6-9 with the maximum activity at pH 8. The optimal temperature for Sirik AmSOD activity was 70°C. Comparison of the pH and temperature optima in two regions (the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman) showed significant differences with Padaption to this environment, which is harsher. The evidence from these results suggests that AmSOD has different characteristics in each place, and mangroves undergo different adaptations and require different protections. The results of the enzymatic research can be useful for ecological management of organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antigiardial activity of flavonoids from leaves of Aphelandra scabra

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    Gloria Ivonne Hernández-Bolio

    Full Text Available AbstractAphelandra scabra (Vahl Sm., Acanthaceae, is a shrub widely used by some Mayan communities as carminative, antidote, and remedy for some infections. Bio-guided isolation of the methanol extract of leaves led us to the purification of the anti-giardial metabolites cirsimaritin and sorbifolin, along with the inactive metabolites cirsimarin, sorbifolin-6-O-β-glucopyranoside, and squalene. Cirsimaritin displayed high activity in the anti-giardial bioassay with an IC50 = 3.8 μM, being considered as outstanding when compared to previous reported metabolites, while sorbifolin showed a low activity with an IC50 = 75.6 μM. Additionally, both compounds proved not to be cytotoxic in an in vitro bioassay against HEK-293, a normal cell line. This is the first investigation on anti-giardial properties of A. scabra and its phytochemistry as well, thus the isolated compounds are considered as new for the plant genus and for the species.

  8. Flowering phenology and pollination of ornithophilous species in two habitats of Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

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    Faria, Rogério R; Araújo, Andréa C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to describe interactions between hummingbirds and ornithophilous species at Serra da Bodoquena in midwest Brazil, with focus on flowering phenology and pollination of these plant species. In two habitats, gallery forest and semi-deciduous forest, data on flowering phenology of ornithophilous species were collected monthly over 14 months. In addition, data on morphology and floral biology, as well as visitor frequency and hummingbird behavior, were recorded. The studied community contained eight ornithophilous plant species and six hummingbird species. The ornithophilous species flowered throughout the year, and the greatest abundance of flowers was at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry one. The herit huingbird Phaethornis pretrei and feales of Thalurania furcata, were the most similar in floral resource use. Acanthaceae is the most representative family of ornithophilous plant species in Serra da Bodoquena and, thus, represents the main food source for hummingbirds. Ruellia angustiflora is especially important because it flowers continuously throughout the year and is a significant food resource for P. pretrei, which is the main visitor for this plant guild.

  9. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America

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    Diego E. Gutiérrez Gregoric

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b- for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean

  10. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  11. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

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    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  12. Análisis corológico de la flora endémica de la Serranía de Perijá, Colombia

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    Rivera Díaz, Orlando

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A commented sy nopsis of the endemic taxa of Colombian slope of the Serranía of Perijá is presented, after the revisión of the collections of vascular plants deposited in the Colombian National Herbarium (COL and an additional analysis of their distribution range. A total of 69 endemic taxa was located in the Massif of Perijá; we found 54 taxa for the Colombian slope (48 species, 5 subspecies and 1 variety belonging to 16 families and 41 genera, and they represent 3.6% of the total vascular plants registered for the Colombian slope (1510 taxa. The richest families in endemic species are: Asteraceae (18 taxa, Acanthaceae (8 taxa, Labiatae (6 taxa and Scrophulariaceae (4 taxa; most of the genera (70.7% have neotropical affinities. The Paramo zone hold 46% of the endemic taxa. With reference to the biotypes, the herbaceous and shruby plants are the most diverse making up 46% and 41 % of all endemic taxa. Additionally, we reported 15 taxa that formerly were considered endemic either of the Colombian side of Perijá or Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and now are present in both áreas.Con base en la revisión de las colecciones de plantas vasculares provenientes de la vertiente colombiana de la Serranía de Perijá depositadas en el Herbario Nacional Colombiano (COL, y del análisis de su rango de distribución, se elaboró una sinopsis comentada de los táxones endémicos de esta zona de los Andes. Se localizó un total de 69 táxones endémicos en el Macizo de Perijá; de los cuales se registran 54 para la vertiente colombiana (48 especies, 5 Subespecies y 1 variedad pertenecientes a 16 familias y 41 géneros, que representan el 3,6% del total de plantas vasculares registradas para el flanco colombiano (1510 táxones. Las familias con mayor endemismo en este flanco son: Asteraceae (18 táxones, Acanthaceae (8 táxones, Labiatae (6 táxones y Scrophulariaceae (4 táxones; la mayoría de los géneros (70,7% son neotropicales. La zona de vida p

  13. Flowering phenology and pollination of ornithophilous species in two habitats of Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Rogério R. Faria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe interactions between hummingbirds and ornithophilous species at Serra da Bodoquena in midwest Brazil, with focus on flowering phenology and pollination of these plant species. In two habitats, gallery forest and semi-deciduous forest, data on flowering phenology of ornithophilous species were collected monthly over 14 months. In addition, data on morphology and floral biology, as well as visitor frequency and hummingbird behavior, were recorded. The studied community contained eight ornithophilous plant species and six hummingbird species. The ornithophilous species flowered throughout the year, and the greatest abundance of flowers was at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry one. The herit huingbird Phaethornis pretrei and feales of Thalurania furcata, were the most similar in floral resource use. Acanthaceae is the most representative family of ornithophilous plant species in Serra da Bodoquena and, thus, represents the main food source for hummingbirds. Ruellia angustiflora is especially important because it flowers continuously throughout the year and is a significant food resource for P. pretrei, which is the main visitor for this plant guild.O objetivo deste estudo é descrever as interações entre beijaflores e espécies ornitófilas na Serra da Bodoquena na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, com foco na fenologia de floração e polinização destas espécies vegetais. Em dois habitats, mata ciliar e floresta semi-decídua, dados de fenologia de floração de espécies ornitófilas foram coletados mensalmente ao longo de 14 meses. Além disso, dados de morfologia e biologia floral bem como a frequência dos visitantes e o comportamento dos beija-flores foram registrados. A comunidade estudada contém oito espécies de plantas ornitófilas e seis espécies de beija-flores. As espécies ornitófilas floresceram todo o ano, e a maior abundância de flores foi no final da esta

  14. Synergistic anticancer effects of andrographolide and paclitaxel against A549 NSCLC cells.

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    Yuan, Huihui; Sun, Bo; Gao, Feng; Lan, Minbo

    2016-11-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is widely used in chemotherapy for cancer treatment; however, it has some serious side effects. Andrographolide (Andro) is a potential cancer therapeutic agent isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae). The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of PTX combined with Andro against A549 cells. The effects of 24-48 h treatment with 0.48-60.75 nM PTX and 5.10-328.0 μM Andro on cellular proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by sulphorhodamine B assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection, PI staining and ROS assay, respectively. Synergy was determined using combination index. The antitumour efficacy of 20 mg/kg PTX with 100 mg/kg Andro was studied in a xenograft murine model. IC50 value of the PTX combined with Andro against A549 cells was 0.5-7.4 nM, which was significantly lower than that of PTX (15.9 nM). PTX with 10 μM Andro caused (1.22-1.27)-fold apoptosis and 1.7-fold ROS accumulation compared with PTX alone. N-Acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, blocked this synergy in vitro. In contrast, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest resulting from PTX was not potentiated by Andro. Moreover, PTX in combination with Andro inhibited the growth of A549 transplanted tumours by 98%. The results indicate that the combination of PTX and Andro exert significant synergistic anticancer effect on A549 cells in vitro and in vivo. The synergy may be the result of the accumulation of ROS. The combination of Andro and PTX represents a potential strategy for the treatment of A549 cells.

  15. Cytotoxic activity of Justicia spicigera is inhibited by bcl-2 proto-oncogene and induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Cortés, J R; Cantú-Garza, F A; Mendoza-Mata, M T; Chavez-González, M A; Ramos-Mandujano, G; Zambrano-Ramírez, I R

    2001-12-01

    Identification of organic compounds from plants is of clinical significance because of the effect that they might have in patients with haematopoietic disorders. We studied the effect of the plant extract Justicia spicigera (Acanthaceae) in different haematopoietic cells: human leukaemic cell lines, umbilical cord blood cells, and mouse bone marrow cells. By examining colony formation and performing the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay it was shown that the plant extract of Justicia spicigera contains cytotoxic factors for leukaemic cells and has no proliferative activity on normal haematopoietic progenitor cells. Our results show that this plant extract induces apoptosis in the human leukaemia cell line TF-1, but not in the bcl-2 transfectant cell line TB-1. Similar results were obtained using a haemopoietic cell line 32D and 32DBcl2. The cultures of umbilical cord blood cells and mouse bone marrow that contain granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) do not proliferate or become terminally differentiated in the presence of the infusion of Justicia spicigera. GM-CSF that acts by abrogating programmed cell death is not sufficient to inhibit the apoptotic stimulus in TF-1 and 32D cells. Moreover mouse fibroblasts (3T3) and two cervical carcinoma cell lines CALO and INBL, undergo apoptosis in the presence of different concentrations of an infusion from the plant. Our data show that there is a strong correlation between the cytotoxic effect and cell proliferation. Together, these results indicate that the plant infusion of Justicia spicigera does not contain any haematopoietic activity, induces apoptosis inhibited by bcl-2 and is linked to cell proliferation. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Estrogenic and progestagenic effects of extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq., an herbal medicine from Costa Rica used for the treatment of menopause and PMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklear, Tracie D; Huang, Yue; Frasor, Jonna; Doyle, Brian J; Perez, Alice; Gomez-Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail B

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the biological activities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae), an herbal medicine used in Costa Rica (CR) for the management of menopausal symptoms and dysmenorrhea. The aerial parts of J. pectoralis were collected, dried and extracted in methanol. To establish possible mechanisms of action of JP for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, the estrogenic and progesterone agonists, and antiinflammatory activities were investigated. The methanol extract (JP-M) was tested in ER and PR binding assays, a COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, the ERbeta-CALUX assay in U2-OS cells, as well as reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 K1 cells. The JP-M extract inhibited COX-2 catalytic activity (IC(50) 4.8 microg/mL); bound to both ERalpha and ERbeta (IC(50) 50 microg/mL and 23.1 microg/mL, respectively); induced estrogen-dependent transcription in the ERbeta-CALUX; and bound to the progesterone receptor (IC(50) 22.8 microg/mL). The extract also modulated the expression of endogenous estrogen responsive genes pS2, PR, and PTGES in MCF-7 cells at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Activation of a 2 ERE-construct in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells by the extract was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that the effects were mediated through the estrogen receptor. Finally, the extract weakly enhanced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, however this was not statistically significant as compared with DMSO controls. Extracts of J. pectoralis have estrogenic, progestagenic and anti-inflammatory effects, and thus have a plausible mechanism of action, explaining its traditional use for menopause and PMS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties of Justicia hypocrateriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Longo, Frida; Makong, Estelle A; Tarkang, Protus Arrey

    2014-09-01

    Justicia hypocrateriformis Vahl (Acanthaceae) is used as an herbal remedy for diarrhea in Cameroon folk medicine. This study evaluates the antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of J. hypocrateriformis (JH). Preliminary phytochemical screening and an acute toxicity testing of the extract were carried out. The antidiarrheal activity of JH extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was assessed at curative and preventive levels in castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content, and radical scavenging activity. A high lethal dose (LD50) of 14.35 g/kg obtained in acute toxicity implies the extract is not toxic. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, and anthocyanins. JH showed a significant protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea as evidenced by a decrease in the number of defecation and wet stool. JH (100-500 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a non-significant dose-dependent decrease in castor oil-induced intestinal transit in the preventive study. In the curative and in healthy mice study, the decrease was only significant at 500 mg/kg. JH possessed a radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 9.93 mg/ml compared to 4.90 mg/ml for catechin. JH FRAP of 2703.77 ± 0 mg/g (catechin equiv) and phenolic concentration of 14 169.99 ± 612.39 mg/g (catechin equiv) were also obtained. Justicia hypocrateriformis extract possesses antidiarrheal activity supported by its antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents.

  18. Short Communication An efficient method for simultaneous extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from various plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R R; Viana, A J C; Reátegui, A C E; Vincentz, M G A

    2015-12-29

    Determination of gene expression is an important tool to study biological processes and relies on the quality of the extracted RNA. Changes in gene expression profiles may be directly related to mutations in regulatory DNA sequences or alterations in DNA cytosine methylation, which is an epigenetic mark. Correlation of gene expression with DNA sequence or epigenetic mark polymorphism is often desirable; for this, a robust protocol to isolate high-quality RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample is required. Although commercial kits and protocols are available, they are mainly optimized for animal tissues and, in general, restricted to RNA or DNA extraction, not both. In the present study, we describe an efficient and accessible method to extract both RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample of various plant tissues, using small amounts of starting material. The protocol was efficient in the extraction of high-quality nucleic acids from several Arabidopsis thaliana tissues (e.g., leaf, inflorescence stem, flower, fruit, cotyledon, seedlings, root, and embryo) and from other tissues of non-model plants, such as Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), Paspalum notatum (Poaceae), and Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae). The obtained nucleic acids were used as templates for downstream analyses, such as mRNA sequencing, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite treatment, and others; the results were comparable to those obtained with commercial kits. We believe that this protocol could be applied to a broad range of plant species, help avoid technical and sampling biases, and facilitate several RNA- and DNA-dependent analyses.

  19. Organización de la comunidad de colibríes ermitaños (Trochilidae phaethorninae y sus flores en bosques de tierra firme del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu (Amazonas, Colombia

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    Rodríguez Flores Claudia Isabel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la organización de la comunidad de colibríes ermitaños y sus recursos en bosques de tierra firme de la Amazonia colombiana, a partir de observaciones directas a las flores, cargas de polen de los ermitaños, medidas morfológicas de colibríes y flores, y conteo de flores
    en cinco sitios diferentes. La comunidad la conformaron siete especies de ermitaños (Phaethornis malaris, P. hispidus, P. bourcieri, P. atrimentalis, P. ruber, Glaucis hirsuta y Threnetes leucurus, y 44 especies vegetales (Heliconiaceae, Gesneriaceae, Rubiaceae, Acanthaceae y Costaceae, fueron las familias con mayor número de especies. Los patrones de forrajeo de los colibríes permitieron separar la comunidad en cuatro grupos de ermitaños y plantas, donde el ajuste morfológico y la intensidad de uso del recurso aparecieron como factores explicativos de las agrupaciones: Phaethornis bourcieri, P. atrimentalis y P. ruber, junto con los recursos más intensamente visitados por estos, formó cada uno una asociación; mientras que Glaucis hirsuta, Threnetes leucurus,
    Phaethornis hispidus y P. malaris, junto a 33 recursos, conformaron un cuarto grupo. Los patrones de forrajeo de las especies estuvieron influenciados adicionalmente por la oferta del recurso (número de flores y las características del hábitat. Interacciones más fuertes entre grupos de
    colibríes con ciertos grupos de plantas apoyaron la hipótesis de la coevolución difusa como mecanismo modelador de las interacciones en esta comunidad.

  20. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  1. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  2. Preliminary pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of Blepharis sindica-T. anders seeds

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    Apurva Priyadarshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blepharis sindica – T. Anders of family Acanthaceae is an important medicinal plant which is mainly used as an invigorating tonic, given to cattle to increase milk production and its roots are used for urinary discharge and dysmenorrhea. It is commonly known as “Bhaṅgāī”. It is extensively used traditionally as Vāīkāraka and Vṛṣya (Aphrodisiac by vaidyas of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The seeds of Blepharis sindica T. Anders are the parts of the plant valued for their medicinal value. Aims: The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the root, stem, seed and seed powder. Materials and Methods: The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical analysis and physicochemical evaluation using methods given in Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Results: Physicochemical parameters such as total ash value, acid insoluble ash value and water soluble ash value were determined to be 21.449 ౩ 2.629%w/w, 0.986%w/w, 18.746%w/w respectively. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of extracts were carried out. Different extracts contain carbohydrate, protein, alkaloids, phenols, saponins and steroids prominently. Calcium, zinc, potassium and iron were also present. These secondary metabolites are the active constituents and may be responsible for B. sindica's pharmacological activities. Chief characters of transverse section of stem include ringed vascular bundles, radial striped pith rays and parenchymal pith. Seed shows presence of scalariform tracheids and lignified walls. Conclusions: The result of the present study can be useful for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.

  3. Taxonomic research priorities for the conservation of the South African flora

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    Lize von Staden

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic revisions, monographs and floras are the most important, and often the only source of data for assessing the extinction risk of plants, with recent revisions contributing to more accurate assessments. The recently completed Red List of South African plants involved an overview of the taxonomic literature pertaining to the South African flora, providing an opportunity to identify critical gaps in taxonomic coverage. In this study we identified taxonomic research priorities for effective conservation of South African plants. Priorities were identified at genus level, according to time since last revision, level of endemism, collecting effort, proportion of taxa included in revisions, and specimen identification confidence. Although the results indicate that 62% of the flora has been recently revised, revisionary taxonomic output has declined drastically, particularly in the past 10 years. This decline is a result of a decrease in revisionary productivity per taxonomist and not a result of a decline in the number of working taxonomists. The family Aizoaceae is the top priority for taxonomic research with 55% of taxa in need of revision, followed by Hyacinthaceae with 34% of taxa not yet revised. Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Malvaceae, Asteraceae and Acanthaceae are also priorities with over 30% of taxa last revised before 1970. We recommend the reinstatement of the Flora of Southern Africa project in an online format in order to centralise South Africa's existing taxonomic information and reinvigorate revisionary taxonomic study. This project will allow South Africa to fulfil its commitments to the Convention on Biodiversity by achieving Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

  4. Callus Induction of Gendarussa (Justicia gendarussa by Various Concentration of 2,4-D, IBA, and BAP

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    Dwi Kusuma Wahyuni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia gendarussa Burm.f., a medicinal plant, is Acanthaceae that has many functions. Furthermore, the compounds in gendarussa must be produced in high quantity and quality by applying callus culture method. Accordingly, it is important to study the effects of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP on callus induction of gendarussa leaves. This research design utilized a factorial design with two factors (2,4-D and IBA: 0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/L and BAP: 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mg/L. The experiment consisted of 24 treatments, each of which was repeated 3 times. Observation was carried out in 6 weeks. Data on the time of callus formation, percentage of explants formed callus, and callus morphology were analyzed descriptively,while data on fresh and dry weight were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA (α = 0.5. Interestingly, the results showed that various concentration of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP affected callus induction from leaf explants of gendarussa. We concluded that the most optimal treatment combination of concentration of plant growth regulators in inducing callus from leaf explants of gendarussa is 1.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2 mg/L BAP with a relatively long period of callus formation at the earliest, i.e. on day 5, 2.247 g of fresh weight, 0.108 gof dry weight, white callus translucent, and friable. Moreover, the optimum treatment will be used to produce secondary metabolite and seed synthetic by cell suspension culture.

  5. Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India

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    Anjali Rawani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae, Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae, Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5% of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against I st to IV th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level revealed the LC 50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (% of crude extracts at 24 h against III rd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 % at 1.5 per cent crude extract against II nd instar larvae having LC 50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC 50 =1.84%, G. carinata (LC 50 = 2.11 and T. orientalis (LC 50 = 2.95%. The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y was positively correlated with the concentration (X. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms.

  6. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.

  7. Preparation and Characterizations of RSPP050-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Using Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Poly(ε-caprolactone) and Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Poly(D,L-lactide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eawsakul, Komgrit; Chinavinijkul, Panarin; Saeeng, Rungnapha; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-01-01

    RSPP050 (AG50) is one of the semi-synthetic andrographolide that is isolated from Andrographis paniculata NEES (Acanthaceae). The anti-proliferation effects of AG50 against cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCT1) were displayed high cytotoxicity. Unfortunately, poor water solubility of AG50 limited its clinical applications. This study aimed to increase the concentration of AG50 in water and drug loading and release study in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in the absence/presence of pig liver esterase enzyme. Cytotoxicity of AG50-loaded polymeric micelles was evaluated against HuCCT1. AG50 loaded micelles were prepared by film sonication and encapsulated by polymers including poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) or poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEG-b-PLA). Micelle properties were characterized such as solubility, drug loading, drug release and in vitro cytotoxicity against HuCTT1. AG50 was successfully loaded into both types of polymeric micelles. The best drug-polymer (D/P) ratio was 1 : 9. AG50/PCL and AG50/PLA-micelles had small particle size (36.4±5.1, 49.0±2.7 nm, respectively) and high yield (58.2±1.8, 58.8±2.9, respectively). AG50/PLA-micelles (IC50=2.42 µg/mL) showed higher cytotoxicity against HuCCT1 than AG50/PCL-micelles (IC50=4.40 µg/mL) due to the higher amount of AG50 released. Nanoencapsulation of AG50 could provide a promising development in clinical use for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

  8. Phytosterols isolated from Clinacanthus nutans induce immunosuppressive activity in murine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cheng-Foh; Kailaivasan, Thina Hareesh; Chow, Sek-Chuen; Abdullah, Zunoliza; Ling, Sui-Kiong; Fang, Chee-Mun

    2017-03-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a traditional medicinal plant belonging to the Acanthaceae family. Its therapeutic potentials have been increasingly documented particularly the antiviral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. However, majority of these studies used crude or fractionated extracts and not much is known about individual compounds from these extracts and their biological activities. In the present study, we have isolated four compounds (CN1, CN2, CN3 and CN4) from the hexane fractions of C. nutans leaves. Using NMR spectroscopic analysis, these compounds were identified to be shaftoside (CN1), stigmasterol (CN2), β-sitosterol (CN3) and a triterpenoid lupeol (CN4). To determine the immunosuppressive potential of these compounds, their effects on mitogens induced T and B lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of helper T cell cytokines were examined. Among the four compounds, stigmasterol (CN2) and β-sitosterol (CN3) were shown to readily inhibit T cell proliferation mediated by Concanavalin A (ConA). However, only β-sitosterol (CN3) and not stigmasterol (CN2) blocks the secretion of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Both compounds have no effect on the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ), suggesting that β-sitosterol treatment selectively suppresses Th2 activity and promotes a Th1 bias. CN3 was also found to significantly reduce the proliferation of both T helper cells (CD4+CD25+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+CD25+) following T cell activation induced by ConA. These results suggested that phytosterols isolated from C. nutans possess immunomodulatory effects with potential development as immunotherapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural characterization of flavonoid C- and O-glycosides in an extract of Adhatoda vasica leaves by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Awantika; Kumar, Sunil; Bajpai, Vikas; Reddy, T Jagadeshwar; Rameshkumar, K B; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-06-30

    Adhatoda vasica Nees is a well-known Ayurvedic medicinal plant, belonging to the family Acanthaceae. This study aims to seek identification and characterization of flavonoid C- and O-glycosides in the aqueous fraction of the plant leaves. A method was developed for simultaneous characterization of flavonoids and their glycosides using high-pressure liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). The chromatographic separation was carried on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 2.7 µm) operated with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as the mobile phase. The fragmentations of the studied [M-H](-) ions of C-glycosides were shown to be cross-ring cleavages of the glycoside moiety [M-H-(60/90/120)](-) whereas O-glycosides were shown to eliminate the sugar moiety (Y0 (-) or [Y0 -H](-) ) from the aglycone unit; 6-C-glycosides exhibited [M-H-18](-) , a characteristic ion, and also a higher abundance of (0,3) X6 or 8 ions in comparison to 8-C glycosides; flavonoid 6,8-di-C-glycosides exhibited cross-ring cleavages of the sugar attached to the C-6 position preferentially. This method was successfully applied for analysis of flavonoids and their glycosides in Adhatoda vasica leaves. A total of 29 compounds were tentatively identified including 17 C-, nine O-glycosides and three flavonoids. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Anti-Streptococcus mutans efficacy of Thai herbal formula used as a remedy for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joycharat, Nantiya; Limsuwan, Surasak; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Pratumwan, Saranyabhong; Madahin, Idris; Nuankaew, Wanlapa; Promsawat, Atchariya

    2012-08-01

    Traditional knowledge of herbal remedies plays an important role in the search for more effective alternative treatment of a variety of disorders. The ethnobotanical surveys in southern Thailand have revealed that 35 Thai herbal formulas have been used by Thai traditional healers against dental caries. However, the scientific evaluation to confirm their rational uses is scarce. To test in vitro anti-Streptococcus mutans activity of Thai herbal formulas used against dental caries (THF-DC). Ethanol extracts of Thai herbal formulas were evaluated for antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Agar disc diffusion was employed as a preliminary screening assay, followed by broth microdilution assay to assess minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Furthermore, medicinal plants contained in the most active THF-DC were investigated for their phytochemicals. Eleven THF-DC extracts exhibited clear inhibition zones of 7.0-22.5 mm against S. mutans. Subsequent determination of their MIC revealed that the formula containing Albizia myriophylla Benth. (Leguminosae), Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. (Zingiberaceae), Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (Acanthaceae), and Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) was the most active, with MIC at 250 µg/mL. Among these medicinal plants, A. myriophylla gave the strongest activity with MIC at 3.9 µg/mL, followed by A. marina with MIC at 62.5 µg/mL. Various classes of bioactive phytochemicals including tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids were found in these extracts. Anti-S. mutans activity of THF-DC extracts was established. Further investigations may be required for the isolation and chemical characterization of the active ingredients in A. myriophylla.

  11. Chemical constituents, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of Anisotes trisulcus

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    Mohamed A. El-Shanawany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anisotes trisulcus (Forssk. Nees. (family Acanthaceae aerial part is used in folk medicine in the Arabian peninsula for treatment of hepatic conditions. It showed different activities such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, and cytotoxicity. It is a rich source of alkaloids and is used as an antidiabetic, bronchodilator, hypotensive, and local anesthetic. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the phenolic constituents of A. trisulcus. Therefore, this study aims to identify the constituents and establish antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the total methanolic extract and different fractions. One new benzoyl flavonol: 7,8,3′-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-4′-benzoyl flavonol (5, along with eight known compounds: α-amyrin (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, (2S,3S,4R-2[(2′R-2′-hydroxytetracosanoyl amino]-octadecane-1,3,4-triol (4, allopateuletin (6, veratric acid (7, vanillic acid (8, and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (9 were isolated from A. trisulcus aerial parts. Their structures were established by physical, chemical, and spectral data (UV, IR, MS, and 1D NMR, as well as comparison with authentic samples. The anti-inflammatory activity of the total methanolic extract and different fractions was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema method at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Also, the antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH assay at concentrations 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL. The total MeOH extract and EtOAc fraction showed high antioxidant activity 75% and 68% (Conc. 1 mg/mL, respectively while, the n-hexane and EtOAc fractions exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects.

  12. Arqueobotânica de um sambaqui sul-brasileiro: integrando indícios sobre o paleoambiente e o uso de recursos florestais

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    João Carlos Ferreira de Melo Júnior

    Full Text Available Resumo Madeiras in natura são testemunhos raros em sítios arqueológicos de tipologia sambaqui. A partir da evidência de estacas encharcadas de madeira na base do sítio, objetivou-se conhecer as espécies vegetais e a sua funcionalidade no contexto arqueológico do sambaqui Cubatão I, localizado na região norte de Joinville, Santa Catarina, e com base datada de 3480 ± 60 AP. A caracterização da madeira foi realizada por meio de preparações histológicas e seguiu a terminologia proposta pela International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA. A determinação dos táxons deu-se mediante comparação em coleção de referência. Foram reconhecidas diferentes espécies madeiráveis de ocorrência natural nos ambientes de manguezal, floresta de terras baixas e restinga. Destacaram-se os seguintes táxons: Andira sp. (Fabaceae, Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae, Bauhinia sp. (Fabaceae, Buchenavia sp. (Combretaceae, Handroanthus sp. (Bignoniaceae, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae, Schinus sp. (Anacardiaceae e Xylopia (Annonaceae. Entre as propriedades físicas que conferem qualidade às madeiras identificadas, destaca-se a densidade básica, com valores médios a altos em sua maioria, indicando seu uso potencial em elementos com função estrutural. Dentre as possíveis interpretações, os resultados evidenciam o uso de madeiras para a construção de uma plataforma projetada para dar sustentação ao sítio, possivelmente em função das características plásticas dos solos de manguezal.

  13. Role of Blepharis maderaspatensis and Ammannia baccifera plant extracts on in vitro oxygen radical scavenging, secretion of gastric fluid and gastroprotection on ulcer induced rats.

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    Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Sivakumar, Vellaichamy; Darlinquine, Sabarimuthu

    2012-09-01

    Blepharis maderaspatensis L. Roth (BM) (Acanthaceae) and Ammannia baccifera L. (AB) (Lythraceae) are used in folk medicine for various stomach disorders. The chloroform and ethanol extracts of both plants were evaluated for antioxidant, gastric antisecretory, and gastroprotective properties. Antioxidant properties of the extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay. The gastric antisecretory properties of the extracts were assessed, at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, using aspirin-pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer models and the gastroprotective activity of the extracts was assessed, at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, using HCl-ethanol induced ulcer models in rats. Ethanol extract of BM (EBM) possessed good antioxidant property with IC₅₀ values of 37.4 and 44.1 µg/mL in DPPH and NO scavenging assays respectively, where 25-250 µg/mL concentration in DPPH assay and 30-300 µg/mL concentration in NO scavenging assay were used. Ethanol extract of AB (EAB) at a dose of 200 mg/kg reduced the free acidity to 142.66 mEq/L and total acidity to 451.22 mEq/L. It reduced the gastric secretion with increase in pH from 2.2 to 3.15. Possessing good antisecretory activity, it also reduced the ulcer by 92.2% in aspirin and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer models. EAB increased the mucus secretion and adherent mucus in the tissues with a 71.43% reduction of ulcerin HCl-ethanol induced ulcer models, at a dose of 200 mg/kg. This activity can be attributed to the various flavonoids like rutin and kaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, and the phytosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, and phenolics present in the extracts. EBM possessed significant antioxidant property while EAB possessed good antisecretory and gastroprotective activity.

  14. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

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    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  15. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities of iridoids fraction from Barleria prionitis Linn.

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    Ghule, B V; Yeole, P G

    2012-05-07

    Barleria prionitis Linn. (Family: Acanthaceae), one of the important Ayurvedic medicinal plant in India, has long been used to treat variety of ailments including swellings, gout, arthritic and rheumatic disorders, nervine and skin diseases, and also acts as immunorestorative. The present study was aimed to explore in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities of the iridoids fraction i.e. n-butanol fraction of methanol extract from Barleria prionitis aerial parts (IFBp). IFBp was studied for in vitro [nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test and neutrophils candidacidal assay] and in vivo immunomodulatory activity on cellular and humoral immune responses to the antigenic challenge by sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and by neutrophil adhesion test, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. The study comprised the preliminary phytochemical screening, HPTLC standardization and maximum tolerable dose determination of IFBp. IFBp (50, 100 and 200μg/ml) significantly (P≤0.01) increased the intracellular killing activity of stimulated neutrophils assayed by in vitro NBT reduction test and neutrophils candidacidal assay. Pretreatment of IFBp (100 and 200mg/kg; p.o.) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophils and neutrophils adhesion to nylon fibres. Oral administration of IFBp augmented the humoral immune response to SRBCs, evidenced by increase in antibody titres and dose dependently potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by SRBCs in mice. IFBp potentiated significantly (P≤0.01) the macrophage phagocytic activity and ameliorated the red blood cells, total white blood cells and platelets count and haemoglobin concentration, and also restored the myelosuppressive effects induced by cyclophosphamide. The content (% w/w; mean±SD, n=3) of main iridoids i.e. shanzhiside methyl ester and barlerin was found to be 21.55±2.40 and 10.03±1.69 in IFBp of BP, respectively. The present investigation reveals that IFBp is a

  16. Análisis florístico y fitogeográfico de un bosque secundario pluvial andino, cañón del río Santo Domingo, cordillera Central (Antioquia, Colombia

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    Diego Giraldo Cañas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed floristic inventory as well as a preliminary phytogeographical analysis was conducted in an Andean secondary wet forest of NW of Colombia, in order to know the vascular species richness and the phytogeographical relationships. The floristic inventory revealed the presence of 712 vascular species distributed among 129 families, of which 17 belong to ferns and allies, with 69 species and 30 genera; 18 monocotyledon families, with 153 species and 87 genera, and 94 dicotyledon families, with 490 species and 290 genera. The best-represented plant families are Melastomataceae (36 species, Rubiaceae (36, Orchidaceae (30, Asteraceae (28, Poaceae (28, Piperaceae (24, Araceae (23, Fabaceae (20, Clusiaceae (18, Moraceae (18, Gesneriaceae (17, Mimosaceae (16, Solanaceae (15, Acanthaceae (14, and Polypodiaceae (13. The richest genera are Piper (17 species, Ficus (11, Psychotria (11, Inga (10, Anthurium (9, Miconia (9, Peperomia (7, Asplenium (6, Blechnum (6, Clidemia (6, Costus (6, Mikania (6, Selaginella (6, and Solanum (6. Regarding life forms, herbs are the best represented with 344 species (48,2%, followed by shrubs and trees (291 species, 41%, lianas (62 species, 8,7%, palms (12 species, 1,7% and by arborescent herbs (3 species, 0,4%. There are 101 epiphytic or hemiepiphytic species belonging to 23 families. The richest families in epiphytes are Orchidaceae (23 species, Araceae (10, Bromeliaceae (8, Piperaceae (7 and Gesneriaceae (6, while the most common epiphytic genera are Peperomia (7 species, Anthurium (6, Elaphoglossum (5, Huperzia (4 and Trichomanes (4. There are 9 endemic species (1,3%. Some of the species collected are new to science or are new records for the flora of NW of South America. Nine species and 3 genera exhibit a disjunct distribution. The analyzed forest is floristically similar to lowland Neotropical forests. The phytogeographic analysis shows that 62,4% of the genera are neotropical, 25,8% are pantropical, 10% are

  17. Quantitative mapping of elemental distribution in leaves of the metallophytes Helichrysum candolleanum, Blepharis aspera, and Blepharis diversispina from Selkirk Cu–Ni mine, Botswana

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    Koosaletse-Mswela, Pulane, E-mail: pulane.mswela@mopipi.ub.bw [Environmental Sciences Department, University of Botswana, Private Bag 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, National Research Foundation, PO Box 722, 7129 Somerset West (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics & Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Cloete, Karen J., E-mail: kcloete@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, National Research Foundation, PO Box 722, 7129 Somerset West (South Africa); Barnabas, Alban D., E-mail: alban@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, National Research Foundation, PO Box 722, 7129 Somerset West (South Africa); Torto, Nelson, E-mail: ntorto@bitri.co.bw [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta, E-mail: mesjasz@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, National Research Foundation, PO Box 722, 7129 Somerset West (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    Multi-element profiling is essential in understanding the metal-tolerant behavior of metallophytes. Although previous reports using multi-elemental analyses show that the metallophytes Blepharis aspera, Blepharis diversispina (Acanthaceae) and Helichrysum candolleanum (Asteraceae) take up metals, no information exists on elemental spatial distribution and concentrations in specific tissues of these plants. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the spatial distribution and concentration of copper, nickel and other elements in leaf tissues of these plants using micro-PIXE. Whole plants were collected with soil in pots from an operational copper and nickel mine (i.e., a copper and nickel mineralized area), Selkirk, about 40 km north-east of Francistown, Botswana. On the same day the samples were transported by air to iThemba LABS in South Africa. Leaf specimens were cryofixed in liquid propane cooled by LN2. Parallel samples were embedded in resin for anatomical studies to facilitate interpretation of elemental maps. The distribution and concentration of copper, nickel, and other elements in leaf tissues were determined using micro-PIXE and proton backscattering spectrometry. Data evaluation was performed using GeoPIXE II software. Micro-PIXE showed that H. candolleanum had the highest whole leaf content of copper (70 ± 3 μg g{sup −1} DW) and nickel (168 ± 5 μg g{sup −1} DW), followed by B. aspera (Cu: 25 ± 1 μg g{sup −1} DW; Ni: 166 ± 4 μg g{sup −1} DW) and B. diversispina (Cu: 3 ± 1 μg g{sup −1} DW; Ni, below detection limit). For specific leaf tissues, the highest levels of copper were found in the vascular bundle for H. candolleanum (167 ± 7 μg g{sup −1} DW) and the lower epidermis for B. aspera (70 ± 9 μg g{sup −1} DW). The highest levels of nickel were present in the vascular bundle of B. aspera (479 ± 10 μg g{sup −1} DW) and H. candolleanum (90 ± 5 μg g{sup −1} DW). Elemental maps showed a similar distribution pattern

  18. Quantitative mapping of elemental distribution in leaves of the metallophytes Helichrysum candolleanum, Blepharis aspera, and Blepharis diversispina from Selkirk Cu-Ni mine, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosaletse-Mswela, Pulane; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J.; Cloete, Karen J.; Barnabas, Alban D.; Torto, Nelson; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta

    2015-11-01

    Multi-element profiling is essential in understanding the metal-tolerant behavior of metallophytes. Although previous reports using multi-elemental analyses show that the metallophytes Blepharis aspera, Blepharis diversispina (Acanthaceae) and Helichrysum candolleanum (Asteraceae) take up metals, no information exists on elemental spatial distribution and concentrations in specific tissues of these plants. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the spatial distribution and concentration of copper, nickel and other elements in leaf tissues of these plants using micro-PIXE. Whole plants were collected with soil in pots from an operational copper and nickel mine (i.e., a copper and nickel mineralized area), Selkirk, about 40 km north-east of Francistown, Botswana. On the same day the samples were transported by air to iThemba LABS in South Africa. Leaf specimens were cryofixed in liquid propane cooled by LN2. Parallel samples were embedded in resin for anatomical studies to facilitate interpretation of elemental maps. The distribution and concentration of copper, nickel, and other elements in leaf tissues were determined using micro-PIXE and proton backscattering spectrometry. Data evaluation was performed using GeoPIXE II software. Micro-PIXE showed that H. candolleanum had the highest whole leaf content of copper (70 ± 3 μg g-1 DW) and nickel (168 ± 5 μg g-1 DW), followed by B. aspera (Cu: 25 ± 1 μg g-1 DW; Ni: 166 ± 4 μg g-1 DW) and B. diversispina (Cu: 3 ± 1 μg g-1 DW; Ni, below detection limit). For specific leaf tissues, the highest levels of copper were found in the vascular bundle for H. candolleanum (167 ± 7 μg g-1 DW) and the lower epidermis for B. aspera (70 ± 9 μg g-1 DW). The highest levels of nickel were present in the vascular bundle of B. aspera (479 ± 10 μg g-1 DW) and H. candolleanum (90 ± 5 μg g-1 DW). Elemental maps showed a similar distribution pattern for copper and nickel in B. aspera and B diversispina, with these

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sofia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Ayub, Muhammad; Khan, Mir Ajab; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2015-05-26

    Present study was commenced with an aim to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. This is the first contribution to the quantitative ethnobotany of this region, as no reported data focusing on shrubs and trees from the area have been published. Study reported the ethnobotanical significance of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases. Study was conducted during 2012-2014 following standard ethnobotanical methods. The ethnomedicinal data was collected through informed consent semi- structured interviews of 160 key informants. Documented data was analyzed by using quantitative indices of informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV) and relative frequency citation (RFC). A total of 73 shrub and tree species belonging to 56 genera and 37 families were reported to be used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various ailments. Medicinal plant diversity showed that Rosaceae was dominating family with (9 spp.) followed by Moraceae (7 spp.), Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Pinaceae, Rhamnaceae (4 spp. each), Oleaceae (3 spp.), Apocynaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Ebenaceae, Fagaceae, Lythraceae, Papilionaceae, Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae (2 spp. each) while remaining 22 families were represented by one species each. Leaves (23%) were highly utilized plant parts, followed by fruits (22%), bark (18%), seeds (10%), roots (9%), flowers (8%), whole plant and aerial parts (4% each) and stem (2%). Modes of preparation fall into 14 categories including powder (33 reports) followed by decoction (29 reports), paste (22 reports), juice (18 reports), infusion (12 reports), raw (8 reports), extract and latex (5 reports each), gum and oil (4 reports each), fresh part and pulp (2 reports each), chewed and cooked (1 report each). The highest FIC was recorded for Gastro-intestinal disorders (0.58) followed by nail, skin and hair disorders (0.44). Maximum fidelity level (FL

  20. Acanthus montanus: An experimental evaluation of the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunological properties of a traditional remedy for furuncles

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    Nwoye Anthonia C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthus montanus (Nees T. Anderson (Acanthaceae is a shrub widespread in Africa, the Balkans, Romania, Greece and Eastern Mediterranean. It is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of urogenital infections, urethral pain, endometritis, urinary disease, cystitis, leucorrhoea, aches and pains. In southeastern Nigeria, the root is popular and acclaimed highly effective in the treatment of furuncles. This study was undertaken to experimentally evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of the root extract as well as its effect on phagocytosis and specific cell-mediated immune response which may underlie the usefulness of the roots in treatment of furuncles. Methods The aqueous root extract (obtained by hot water maceration of the root powder was studied for effects on the growth of clinically isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using acute topical edema of the mouse ear induced by xylene, acute paw edema induced by agar in rats, formaldehyde arthritis in rats, vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice and heat- and hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of ox red blood cells (RBCs. Also evaluated were the effects on in vivo leukocyte migration induced by agar, phagocytic activity of macrophages on Candida albicans and specific cell-mediated immune responses (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR induced by sheep red blood cell (SRBC. The acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 in mice and phytochemical constituents of the extract were also determined. Results The extract moderately inhibited the growth of the test organisms and significantly (P P P P C. albicans at 800 mg/kg dose, and significantly (P 50 greater than 5,000 mg/kg. Conclusion The effectiveness of the root of A. montanus in the treatment of furuncles may largely derive from mobilization of leukocytes to the site of the infection and activation

  1. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest Estrutura do estrato herbáceo sob diferentes regimes de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana

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    RAF. Lima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots, small and medium canopy gaps (11 and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness Kunth (12. Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae. There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas

  2. Botanical and Chemical Fingerprinting of Medicinal Roots of Justicia gendarussa Burm f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Deepa; Reshi, Mohd Salim; Uthra, Chhavi; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Srivastava, Nalini; Narayana, Sunil Kumar Koppala; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    Background: Justicia gendarussa Burm f. of family Acanthaceae is medicinally important herb used in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, asthma, hepatic injuries, pathogenic infection and also shows antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical evaluation (macro-microscopy, physicochemical analysis and preliminary phytochemical analysis), high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting and chemical profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) of dried roots of J. gendarussa were done according to quality standard procedures. Results: Microscopic analysis revealed the compact arrangement of cells in cork region and thin-walled cortex beneath epidermis. Parenchymatous cells with xylem vessel were observed in the roots of J. gendarussa. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (10.474%), total ash (2.990%), acid-insoluble ash (0.099%), water-soluble ash (1.528%), alcohol-soluble extractive value (0.564%) and water-soluble extractive value (4.11%) of the raw drug. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa showed the presence of alkaloid, steroid, flavonoid, phenol, carbohydrate, saponin and quinone. Rf, color of the spots and densitometric scan were recorded by HPTLC fingerprinting using toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (5.0:4.0:1.0). On photodocumentation, six spots were visualized under 254 nm, nine spots under 360 nm and six spots at 620 nm. Identification of components in ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa was done by GC-MS. GC-MS results in the presence of oleic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid and estra-1, 3,5 (10)-trein-17-β-ol in ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa. Conclusion: These specific identities will be useful in identification and authentication of the raw drug in dried form. SUMMARY Transverse section and powder of dried roots of Justicia gendarussa were examined microscopically. Microscopic

  3. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro

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    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and