WorldWideScience

Sample records for hygienic chemical studies

  1. Chemical hygiene plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  2. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  3. Chemical process based reconstruction of exposures for an epidemiological study. III. Analysis of industrial hygiene samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Thomas A; Esmen, Nurtan A; Jones, Elizabeth P; Basara, Heather; Phillips, Margaret L; Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Leonard, Robin C

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (beta-CD) and other substances, all available industrial hygiene exposure monitoring data were collected and summarized. From discussions with on-site industrial hygiene personnel, it was apparent that these data were not collected for epidemiological purposes and, therefore, their use in characterization of exposures was problematic as the data mostly pertained to samples collected to investigate the performance of specific tasks. These data were, however, informative for validating the exposure modeling process used to estimate historical exposures. The data summarized below clearly indicate that exposures to beta-CD were lowered across the time period of this study. Typically, the exposures recorded were less than the occupational exposure limits of the periods in which the exposures were recorded. Additionally, exposure measurements recorded in the recent past do not represent the exposure actually experienced by the worker as a strict personal protective equipment use program has been in place for the facilities studied since the mid-1980s.

  4. [Hygienic aspects of elimination of chemical weapons in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkodich, P E; Klauchek, V V

    2003-01-01

    A specialized and unified package of measures has been developed for hygienic provision of work on the elimination of chemical weapons. The optimum algorithms of hygienic studies have been defined at all stages of the elimination of chemical weapons from the start of design of operations to conversion and transition for national economic needs. Guidelines for safe work at the objects of elimination of chemical weapons and for the protection of the environment and human health in the areas where they are located--have been developed.

  5. An observational study of hand hygiene compliance in paediatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Jacqueline; Firth, Joseph; Vaughan, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    To measure healthcare workers', children's and visitors' hand hygiene compliance in a paediatric oncology ward and a paediatric respiratory ward in an English hospital. Children are especially vulnerable to healthcare-associated infections, yet few studies have reported on hand hygiene compliance in paediatric clinical areas. This was an observational study. We measured hand hygiene compliance over an eight-hour period in two hospital wards using the 'five moments of hand hygiene' observation tool. We monitored a total of 407 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall opportunities for compliance were 74% for healthcare workers (n = 315) and children and visitors 23% (n = 92). Compliance was 84% for allied health professionals, 81% for doctors, 75% for nurses and 73% for ancillary and other staff. Hand hygiene compliance varied depending on which of the five moments of hygiene healthcare workers were undertaking (p oncology ward, hand hygiene compliance was higher (p < 0·05). Owing to the nature of the clinical environments, we are unable to draw conclusions about children's hand hygiene compliance; however, visitors' compliance was low. Among healthcare workers, levels of compliance were higher compared with previous reported estimates. Visitors had the lowest level of compliance yet owing to the nature of the clinical environments, nearly a quarter of care is delivered by them rather than healthcare workers, and so, this offers opportunities for specific future interventions aimed at families and carers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Comparative study of presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution versus traditional presurgical hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Martín, M Beatriz; Erice Calvo-Sotelo, Alejo

    To compare presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol with traditional presurgical hand hygiene. Cultures of the hands of surgeons and surgical nurses were performed before and after presurgical hand hygiene and after removing gloves at the end of surgery. Cultures were done in 2different days: the first day after traditional presurgical hand hygiene, and the second day after presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol. The duration of the traditional hand hygiene was measured and compared with the duration (3min) of the WHO protocol. The cost of the products used in the traditional technique was compared with the cost of the hydroalcoholic solution used. The variability of the traditional technique was determined by observation. Following presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution, colony-forming units (CFU) were detected in 5 (7.3%) subjects, whereas after traditional presurgical hand hygiene CFU were detected in 14 subjects (20.5%) (p < 0.05). After glove removal, the numbers of CFU were similar. The time employed in hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution (3min) was inferior to the time employed in the traditional technique (p < 0.05), its cost was less than half, and there was no variability. Compared with other techniques, presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution significantly decreases CFU, has similar latency time, a lower cost, and saves time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Hand hygiene and health: an epidemiological study of students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hands may be the most important means by which enteric pathogens are transmitted. Skin hygiene particularly of the hands, has been accepted as a primary mechanism to control the spread of infectious agents. Therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the number and type of enteric bacterial pathogens ...

  8. A Community Based Study on Menstrual Hygiene among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community‑based study conducted among 200 women of reproductive age group (15‑45 years) in a rural field practice area, VMKV ... waste management. There is a cyclical causal relationship between the neglect of menstrual hygiene and low levels of awareness amongst communities, practitioners, and policymakers, ...

  9. A Community Based Study on Menstrual Hygiene among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Women suffer due to their ignorance on hygienic requirement during menstruation. Hygiene‑related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it has a health impact in terms of increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections (RTI). Aims: This study aims to assess the ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Practices in Medical Students: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, Sajad Ahmad; Al Kadi, Azzam

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The study was conducted to study the impact of various measures instituted to improve hand hygiene practices of the medical students after having documented poor hand hygiene awareness and compliance in a study conducted in 2012. Methods. A self-designed questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications of hand hygiene. Compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) sessions. Fifty-one students participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The awareness and compliance of hand hygiene among the medical students in 2014 had shown statistically significant improvement (P hand hygiene practices in medical students.

  11. Hand Hygiene Practices in Medical Students: A Follow-Up Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salati, Sajad Ahmad; Al Kadi, Azzam

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The study was conducted to study the impact of various measures instituted to improve hand hygiene practices of the medical students after having documented poor hand hygiene awareness and compliance...

  12. An elicitation study of critical care nurses' salient hand hygiene beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Susan E; Lauderdale, Jana; Minnick, Ann

    2017-10-01

    To describe critical care nurses' hand hygiene attitudinal, normative referent, and control beliefs. Hand hygiene is the primary strategy to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Social influence is an underdeveloped hand hygiene strategy. This qualitative descriptive study was conducted with 25 ICU nurses in the southeastern United States. Data were collected using the Nurses' Salient Belief Instrument. Thematic analysis generated four themes: Hand Hygiene is Protective; Nurses look to Nurses; Time-related Concerns; and Convenience is Essential. Nurses look to nurses as hand hygiene referents and believe hand hygiene is a protective behaviour that requires time and functional equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hand Hygiene Practices in Medical Students: A Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Salati, Sajad Ahmad; Al Kadi, Azzam

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The study was conducted to study the impact of various measures instituted to improve hand hygiene practices of the medical students after having documented poor hand hygiene awareness and compliance in a study conducted in 2012. Methods. A self-designed questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of ?Five Moments for Hand Hygiene? was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications of hand hygiene. Compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Exami...

  14. [HYGIENE: STRUCTURE OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES IN RUSSIA (2000-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimov, V I; Popov, V I; Rut, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was analyzed the array of 1548 dissertations on the scientific specialty 14.02.01 (former specification 14.00.07) "Hygiene". Over period of 2000-2014 to the Dissertation Committee in Russia there were annually submitted (103 ± 10) theses, which include (21 ± 3) doctoral dissertations and (83 ± 8) candidate dissertations. Doctoral dissertations accounted for 20,1%, dissertations in medicine--89.3%. There was established not only the decline in the number of theses in hygiene, but the reduction of their proportion in the total array of all medical and biological dissertations in Russia. The conjugacy of the trend curves of the total stream of dissertations in medicine and biology in Russia and in hygiene is considered to be not very high (r = 0.54). In the total structure of dissertation works on General Hygiene accounted for 22.7%, Community Hygiene--15.45%, Occupational Hygiene--19.6%, Children's and Adolescents' Hygiene--24.7%, Nutrition Hygiene--8.2%, Radiation Hygiene--2.3%, in Rural Hygiene--1.2%, Hospital Hygiene-- 3.4%, Military Hygiene--2.3% correspondingly. There is pointed the development gap between the research studies in hygiene and tendency in training of high class health care professionals' in Russia.

  15. Consistency of Dental Hygiene Therapy Utilizing Various Dental Hygiene Instrumentation and Its Effect on Peri-implant Health and Survival of Dental Implants: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerler, Sarah B; Nietz, Sandra K; Zook, Victoria L; Lohse, Christine M; Salinas, Thomas J; Carr, Alan B; Assad, Daniel A

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to provide practice-based evidence to determine if the consistency of dental hygiene therapy, despite utilizing instrumentation literature that has proven to cause alterations to implant surfaces, affects peri-implant health or survival. The study sample comprised patients with implant-supported full-arch fixed dental prostheses who were distributed into two groups. The consistent hygiene group patients had dental hygiene therapy at a minimum biannually and were exposed to at least three dental hygiene instrument materials. The inconsistent hygiene group patients had dental hygiene therapy at a minimum once every 3 to 10 years and were exposed to at least three dental hygiene instrument materials. Years of survival free of soft tissue pathology and/or implant failure were estimated. Continuous features were summarized with medians, interquartile ranges (IQRs), and ranges; categorical features were summarized with frequency counts and percentages. Among 48 patients in the consistent hygiene group, 11 patients experienced soft tissue pathology or implant failure at a median of 11.3 years; among 99 patients in the inconsistent hygiene group, 17 patients experienced soft tissue pathology or implant failure at a median of 4.8 years. The survival free of soft tissue pathology or implant failure rate at 5 years was 94% for the consistent hygiene group and 91% for the inconsistent hygiene group. The survival free of soft tissue pathology or implant failure rate at 20 years was 70% for the consistent hygiene group and 79% for the inconsistent hygiene group (P = .91). Although no statistical differences were found between the groups, this practice-based evidence suggests more consistent dental hygiene therapy increases the median in years in which soft tissue pathology or implant failure is present.

  16. Predictors of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette in a large community in Korea: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Sil; Kim, Kyung Mi

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the level of knowledge about and practice of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette among the general population of Korea and to identify the factors that may influence the practice of respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. The mean correct answer rate for knowledge of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette was 56.1%. Predictors of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette practice were carrying a handkerchief or tissues, prior education on respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette, awareness level of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette, daily frequency of handwashing, and knowledge level of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hand Hygiene Adherence Among Health Care Workers at Japanese Hospitals: A Multicenter Observational Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakihama, Tomoko; Honda, Hitoshi; Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Shimizu, Taro; Kamiya, Toru; Sato, Yumiko; Arakawa, Soichi; Lee, Jong Ja; Iwata, Kentaro; Mihashi, Mutsuko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-03-01

    Although proper hand hygiene among health care workers is an important component of efforts to prevent health care-associated infection, there are few data available on adherence to hand hygiene practices in Japan. The aim of this study was to examine hand hygiene adherence at teaching hospitals in Japan. An observational study was conducted from July to November 2011 in 4 units (internal medicine, surgery, intensive care, and/or emergency department) in 4 geographically diverse hospitals (1 university hospital and 3 community teaching hospitals) in Japan. Hand hygiene practice before patient contact was assessed by an external observer. In a total of 3545 health care worker-patient observations, appropriate hand hygiene practice was performed in 677 (overall adherence, 19%; 95% confidence interval, 18%-20%). Subgroup rates of hand hygiene adherence were 15% among physicians and 23% among nurses. The ranges of adherence were 11% to 25% between hospitals and 11% to 31% between units. Adherence of the nurses and the physicians to hand hygiene was correlated within each hospital. There was a trend toward higher hand hygiene adherence in hospitals with infection control nurses, compared with hospitals without them (29% versus 16%). The hand hygiene adherence in Japanese teaching hospitals in our sample was low, even lower than reported mean values from other international studies. Greater adherence to hand hygiene should be encouraged in Japan.

  18. Insights from two industrial hygiene pilot e-cigarette passive vaping studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, John C; Thompson, Michael K; Oldham, Michael J; Stiff, Charles L; Lilly, Patrick D; Patskan, George J; Shafer, Kenneth H; Sarkar, Mohamadi A

    2016-01-01

    While several reports have been published using research methods of estimating exposure risk to e-cigarette vapors in nonusers, only two have directly measured indoor air concentrations from vaping using validated industrial hygiene sampling methodology. Our first study was designed to measure indoor air concentrations of nicotine, menthol, propylene glycol, glycerol, and total particulates during the use of multiple e-cigarettes in a well-characterized room over a period of time. Our second study was a repeat of the first study, and it also evaluated levels of formaldehyde. Measurements were collected using active sampling, near real-time and direct measurement techniques. Air sampling incorporated industrial hygiene sampling methodology using analytical methods established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Active samples were collected over a 12-hr period, for 4 days. Background measurements were taken in the same room the day before and the day after vaping. Panelists (n = 185 Study 1; n = 145 Study 2) used menthol and non-menthol MarkTen prototype e-cigarettes. Vaping sessions (six, 1-hr) included 3 prototypes, with total number of puffs ranging from 36-216 per session. Results of the active samples were below the limit of quantitation of the analytical methods. Near real-time data were below the lowest concentration on the established calibration curves. Data from this study indicate that the majority of chemical constituents sampled were below quantifiable levels. Formaldehyde was detected at consistent levels during all sampling periods. These two studies found that indoor vaping of MarkTen prototype e-cigarette does not produce chemical constituents at quantifiable levels or background levels using standard industrial hygiene collection techniques and analytical methods.

  19. Reactivity in Rapidly Collected Hygiene and Toilet Spot Check Measurements: A Cautionary Note for Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F.; Khush, Ranjiv S.; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Durairaj, Natesan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford Jr., John M.

    2015-01-01

    Discreet collection of spot check observations to measure household hygiene conditions is a common measurement technique in epidemiologic studies of hygiene in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine whether the collection of spot check observations in longitudinal studies could itself induce reactivity (i.e., change participant behavior). We analyzed data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in rural Tamil Nadu, India that was conducted in the absence of any hygiene or toilet promotion activities. Our data included hygiene and toilet spot checks from 10,427 household visits. We found substantial evidence of participant reactivity to spot check observations of hygiene practices that were easy to modify on short notice. For example, soap observed at the household's primary handwashing location increased from 49% at enrollment to 81% by the fourth visit and remained at or above 77% for the remainder of the study. PMID:25385856

  20. Evaluation of Tunisian milk quality in dairy herds: Inter-relationship between chemical, physical and hygienic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Ahmed; Hamed, Houda; Ben Ali, Besma; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the global milk quality in Tunisian dairy herds. Samples of milk were analyzed for chemical, physical and hygienic parameters. Milk total solids, fat content and density were consistently correlated and one of them can be used as a chemical indicator of milk quality. The somatic cell count value of 689 × 10(3) /mL was higher than the recommended threshold. All milk samples were positive for the major pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. These hygienic parameters were related more closely with chloride content, minerals and electrical conductivity, which allows them to be used as indicators of mammary gland infection. It was concluded that milk producers have at hand rapid and easy tools for assessing the overall quality of milk. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Environmental factors and their association with emergency department hand hygiene compliance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eileen J; Wyer, Peter; Giglio, James; Jia, Haomiao; Nelson, Germaine; Kauari, Vepuka E; Larson, Elaine L

    2016-05-01

    Hand hygiene is effective in preventing healthcare-associated infections. Environmental conditions in the emergency department (ED), including crowding and the use of non-traditional patient care areas (ie, hallways), may pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance. We examined the relationship between these environmental conditions and proper hand hygiene. This was a single-site, observational study. From October 2013 to January 2014, trained observers recorded hand hygiene compliance among staff in the ED according to the World Health Organization 'My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene'. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between environmental conditions and hand hygiene compliance, while controlling for important covariates (eg, hand hygiene indication, glove use, shift, etc). A total of 1673 hand hygiene opportunities were observed. In multivariable analyses, hand hygiene compliance was significantly lower when the ED was at its highest level of crowding than when the ED was not crowded and lower among hallway care areas than semiprivate care areas (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.55; OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.97). Unique environmental conditions pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the ED setting and should be considered by ED hand hygiene improvement efforts. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of these environmental conditions on actual rates of infection transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Marked variability in adherence to hand hygiene: a 5-unit observational study in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Sanjay; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Virgili, Gianni; Mannelli, Francesco; Fumagalli, Stefano; di Martino, Paolo; Conti, Andrea A; Kaufman, Samuel R; Gensini, Gian Franco; Conti, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    International authorities recommend that the hand hygiene of health care workers be improved to prevent health care-associated infection. In 2005, Tuscany, a region in central Italy, initiated a campaign to improve hand hygiene that focused on raising awareness and educating health care workers. We assessed hand hygiene rates approximately 3 years after the campaign was initiated in 5 units of 2 hospitals in Florence, Italy, the capital of Tuscany. We also were curious whether variability would exist in the hand hygiene rates despite the close proximity of the units. We conducted a 3-month observational study in 2008 to assess hand hygiene adherence of doctors and nurses. Four of the units (ophthalmology, cardiology, geriatrics, and infectious diseases) were within one hospital, and the fifth unit (an emergency department) was in another hospital located less than 1 km away. External observers were used to assess the hand hygiene adherence of doctors and nurses before patient contact. A total of 665 doctor-patient observations and 1147 nurse-patient observations were made. Doctors used some type of hand hygiene before touching the patient in 28% of their patient interactions (soap and water in 16% and alcohol-based handrub in 12%). Nurses used some type of hand hygiene in 34% of their interactions (soap and water in 27% and alcohol-based handrub in 7%). Hand hygiene adherence varied substantially across the units, from a low of 6% to a high of 66% for doctors and from 19% to 56% for nurses. The correlation between nurse adherence and doctor adherence was 0.90. The overall rates of hand hygiene adherence observed were similar to those found when Tuscany initiated a hand hygiene campaign 3 years earlier. Focusing on overall rates may be misleading, however, because substantial variability existed between units. Furthermore, these rates come only from the "first moment" (before touching the patient) and can only be compared with rates from studies using the same

  3. Improving physician hand hygiene compliance using behavioural theories: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Janet E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-associated infections affect 10% of patients in Canadian acute-care hospitals and are significant and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is among the simplest and most effective preventive measures to reduce these infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers, specifically among physicians, is consistently suboptimal. We aim to first identify the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance, and then to develop and pilot a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to increase physicians’ compliance with best hand hygiene practice. Design The study consists of three phases. In Phase 1, we will identify barriers and enablers to hand hygiene compliance by physicians. This will include: key informant interviews with physicians and residents using a structured interview guide, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework; nonparticipant observation of physician/resident hand hygiene audit sessions; and focus groups with hand hygiene experts. In Phase 2, we will conduct intervention mapping to develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to improve physician hand hygiene compliance. Finally, in Phase 3, we will pilot the knowledge translation intervention in four patient care units. Discussion In this study, we will use a behavioural theory approach to obtain a better understanding of the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance. This will provide a comprehensive framework on which to develop knowledge translation interventions that may be more successful in improving hand hygiene practice. Upon completion of this study, we will refine the piloted knowledge translation intervention so it can be tested in a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial.

  4. Children's hand hygiene behaviour and available facilities: an observational study in Dutch day care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeck, A H Elise; Zomer, Tizza P; van Beeck, Eduard F; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Voeten, Helene A C M; Erasmus, Vicki

    2016-04-01

    Children attending day care centres are at increased risk of infectious diseases, in particular gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Hand hygiene of both caregivers and children is an effective prevention measure. This study examined hand hygiene behaviour of children attending day care centres, and describes hygiene facilities at day care centres. Data were collected at 115 Dutch day care centres, among 2318 children cared for by 231 caregivers (August to October 2010). Children's hand hygiene behaviour was observed and data on hand hygiene facilities of the day care centres collected by direct unobtrusive observation. National guidelines indicate hand hygiene is required before eating, after toilet use and after playing outside. Among 1930 observed hand hygiene opportunities for children, overall adherence to hand hygiene guidelines was 31% (95% CI: 29-33%). Adherence after both toilet use and playing outside was 48%. Hands were less frequently washed before eating, where guideline adherence was 15%. In 38% of the playrooms there was no soap within reach of children and 17% had no towel facilities. In over 40% of the playrooms, appropriate hand hygiene facilities for children were lacking. Adequate hand washing facilities were available for children in only half of the participating day care centres in our study and children washed their hands in only 15-48% of the occasions defined by official guidelines. More attention is needed to hand hygiene of children attending day care centres in the prevention of infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. VERBAL HYGIENE AND ETHNIC POLITICS IN NIGERIA: A STUDY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    hygiene, hate speech, electoral violence and ethnicity in Nigeria. This work also found out that the speeches ..... supposed to be in the same ethnic “ingroup” solidarity with President. Jonathan, a traitor. Amaechi's .... caustic remarks against Buhari and APC, using such words and phrases as “dementia”, “often irresponsible, ...

  6. Assessing Critical Thinking Outcomes of Dental Hygiene Students Utilizing Virtual Patient Simulation: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Joanna L

    2015-09-01

    Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.

  7. Hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-I; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Chuang, Yeu-Hui

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in Taiwanese freestanding nursing homes. A descriptive observational research design was used. A total of 782 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed by one trained research assistant in two freestanding nursing homes. The hand-hygiene observation tool was used to assess hand hygiene practice. The overall hand hygiene compliance among nursing staff in nursing homes was only 11.3%. Results further showed that the compliance was greater after contact with body fluids (odds ratio = 6.9, confidence interval (CI) = 3.75-9.88, P = 0.000) and lower before the performance of aseptic procedures (odds ratio = 0.15, CI = 0.04-0.63, P = 0.003) when compared with other activities. Hand hygiene compliance was relatively low among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan. To comprehensively analyze this issue, further research involving a larger number of nursing homes and strategies to improve compliance with hand hygiene among the nursing staff at these institutions is needed. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  9. Study on Analysis and Countermeasure of China's Legal System of Food Safety and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study is to solve the food safety problems existing in the real life, ensuring the food health safety, based on the “ Food Hygiene Law of the People's Republic of China” promulgated in 1995 by China, starting from the aspects such as production, marketing, regulatory to the integrate the standards of edible farm product quality safety standards, food hygiene standards, food quality standards and relevant food industry mandatory standards, establishing scientific and standardized fo...

  10. The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: the Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Blomberg, Marie; Olhager, Elisabeth; Gunnervik, Christina; Lenrick, Raymond; Thrane, Malena Tiefenthal; Isaksson, Barbro; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of hand hygiene practice among Saudi nursing students: A cross-sectional self-reported study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonas P; Bashtawi, Meshrif A

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control, which is critical to ensuring patients' safety in hospitals. Nursing students are regarded as healthcare workers in training and can also be vehicles of cross-contamination within the hospital. Thus, this study aimed to identify the predictors of hand hygiene practice among Saudi nursing students. A descriptive, cross-sectional, self-reported study was conducted among 198 Saudi nursing students. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of hand hygiene were assessed using the WHO Hand Hygiene Knowledge Questionnaire for Health-Care Workers and its adopted scales. A regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of hand hygiene practice. The respondents demonstrated moderate knowledge of hand hygiene (mean 13.20±2.80). The majority displayed a moderate attitude toward hand hygiene (52.1%), while only a few reported a poor attitude (13.1%). Approximately 68.7%, 29.8%, and 1.5% of the respondents reported moderate, good, and poor practice of hand hygiene, respectively. Having a good attitude toward hand hygiene, being male, being aware that hand hygiene is an effective intervention in preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), attendance at hand hygiene trainings and seminars, and being in the lower academic level of nursing education were identified as predictors of better hand hygiene practice. The importance of ensuring a positive attitude toward hand hygiene and improving awareness of hand hygiene is emphasized, as are educational interventions. Educational interventions should be implemented to reinforce knowledge and instill a positive attitude toward hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Claudia H; Springston, Elizabeth E; Sohn, Min-Woong; Mason, Iyana; Gadola, Emily; Damitz, Maureen; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2012-05-15

    Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4-14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers' perceptions of students' hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P = 0.002, P Teachers (n = 23) agreed that hand hygiene is not

  13. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P = 0.002, P < 0

  14. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... phenomenological approach of Dahlberg, Dahlberg, and Nyström. The essence of the phenomenon, oral hygiene, is described as a challenge: a mixture of ability and assigning priority; a challenge in which significant others, for better or worse, play an important role. We recommend a systematic cooperation between...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  15. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Claudia H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14. Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design. Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days. Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P

  16. "The dirty hand in the latex glove": a study of hand hygiene compliance when gloves are worn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christopher; Savage, Joanne; Besser, Sarah; Hayward, Andrew; Cookson, Barry; Cooper, Ben; Stone, Sheldon

    2011-12-01

    Wearing of gloves reduces transmission of organisms by healthcare workers' hands but is not a substitute for hand hygiene. Results of previous studies have varied as to whether hand hygiene is worse when gloves are worn. Most studies have been small and used nonstandardized assessments of glove use and hand hygiene. We sought to observe whether gloves were worn when appropriate and whether hand hygiene compliance differed when gloves were worn. Observational study. Healthcare workers in 56 medical or care of the elderly wards and intensive care units in 15 hospitals across England and Wales. We observed hand hygiene and glove usage (7,578 moments for hand hygiene) during 249 one-hour sessions. Observers also recorded whether gloves were or were not worn for individual contacts. Gloves were used in 1,983 (26.2%) of the 7,578 moments for hand hygiene and in 551 (16.7%) of 3,292 low-risk contacts; gloves were not used in 141 (21.1%) of 669 high-risk contacts. The rate of hand hygiene compliance with glove use was 41.4% (415 of 1,002 moments), and the rate without glove use was 50.0% (1,344 of 2,686 moments). After adjusting for ward, healthcare worker type, contact risk level, and whether the hand hygiene opportunity occurred before or after a patient contact, glove use was strongly associated with lower levels of hand hygiene (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65 [95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.79]; P hand hygiene was significantly lower when gloves were worn. Hand hygiene campaigns should consider placing greater emphasis on the World Health Organization indications for gloving and associated hand hygiene. National Research Register N0256159318.

  17. Assessment and pedagogy: a case study of two oral hygiene lecturers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergotine, G

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence that most South African oral hygiene lecturers lack appropriate qualifications in the field of education. Their teaching skills are based mainly on clinical and practical experience, and this may impact on their understanding of the educational foundations of teaching, learning and assessment. To explore oral hygiene lecturers' knowledge and use of pedagogy and assessment and its alignment. A qualitative descriptive study design was used and case studies of two oral hygiene lecturers, each with qualifications in Education, were analyzed according to three themes: curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The results showed that both participants had a good understanding of formative assessment (FA) and summative assessment (SA). They made use of FA but in neither case was the application ideal. Both used a range of teaching and assessment strategies but felt accountable to external demands of meeting outcomes. They linked their understanding of pedagogy and assessment to assist in the development of their courses and reported that this alignment had improved the quality of their programmes. This alignment by oral hygiene lecturers can influence curricular and pedagogic strategies. The professional educational development of lecturers in oral hygiene could be influential in improving the profession within the country.

  18. Nail Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing & Nail Hygiene Keeping Hands Clean Nail Hygiene ...

  19. Assessment of oral hygiene habits, oral hygiene practices and tooth wear among fertilizer factory workers of Northern India: A Cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek V; Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Philip-George, Pradeep; Chitkara, Neha; Patel, Maulikkumar-Natubhai; Shinde, Kushal; Sidhu, Prabhjot-Kaur

    2015-12-01

    The association between oral hygiene habits & practices and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. The present study was conducted with to assess oral hygiene habits & practices and tooth wear among fertilizer factory workers of Punjab, India. A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted among 965 male workers who were aged between 19-58 years, who were the workers of fertilizers factory of Bathinda, India. An interview on the demographic profile, oral hygiene practices, and adverse habits followed a clinical examination for recording the Tooth Wear (Smith and Knight Index 1984) using Type III examination. The Chi-square test and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Confidence interval and p-value set at 95% and ≤ 0.05 respectively. In the present study majority (47.2%) of the study population used chew sticks for cleaning their teeth. Overall prevalence of adverse habits was reported (92.4%). Study population showed higher prevalence of tooth wear (77.1%). Best predictors identified for Tooth Wear were oral hygiene practices, adverse habits, years of work experience and age respectively. Considerable percentages of fertilizer factory workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of tooth surface loss. This may be useful in designing the investigations that aim to further explore the causes for these findings and more importantly to plan oral health promotion program implementing both preventive and curative strategies. Tooth wear, smith & knight index, fertilizer factory.

  20. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social

  1. A comparative study of the oral hygiene status of smokers and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tobacco smoking on gingival health and the oral hygiene status of respondents. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional survey of 213 adults from three communities in the Ibadan North local government was carried out. Respondents were divided into two groups ...

  2. Study of oral hygiene status and prevalence of gingival diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was carried out to assess the oral hygiene status and to determine the prevalence of gingival and periodontal diseases in 10-12-year-old school children in Sholapur City, India. Method: A total of 1045 children (560 boys and 485 girls) aged 10-12 years were evaluated by questionnaires related to oral ...

  3. A Preliminary Study of Classroom Motivators and De-Motivators from a Motivation-Hygiene Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, James A.; Condly, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to begin answering two simple questions: "What motivates our students?" and its corollary, "What prevents our students from being motivated?" The motivation-hygiene theory (F. Herzberg, "Work and the nature of man," World Publishing, Cleveland, OH, 1966), a well-tested theory from organizational…

  4. Pilot study of digital tools to support multimodal hand hygiene in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirkell, Gary; Chambers, Joanne; Gilbart, Wayne; Thornhill, Kerrill; Arbogast, James; Lacey, Gerard

    2017-10-24

    Digital tools for hand hygiene do not share data, limiting their potential to support multimodal programs. The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom, worked with GOJO (in the United States), MEG (in Ireland), and SureWash (in Ireland) to integrate their systems and pilot their combined use in a clinical setting. A 28-bed medical oncology unit piloted the system for 5 weeks. Live data from the tools were combined to create a novel combined risk status metric that was displayed publicly and via a management Web site. The combined risk status reduced over the pilot period. However, larger and longer duration studies are required to reach statistical significance. Staff and especially patient reaction was positive in that 70% of the hand hygiene training events were by patients. The digital tools did not negatively impact clinical workflow and received positive engagement from staff and patients. The combined risk status did not change significantly over the short pilot period because there was also no specific hand hygiene improvement campaign underway at the time of the pilot study. The results indicate that integrated digital tools can provide both rich data and novel tools that both measure impact and provide feedback to support the implementation of multimodal hand hygiene campaigns, reducing the need for significant additional personnel resources. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An exploratory study of safety culture, biological risk management and hand hygiene of healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Biron, Alain; Lavigne, Geneviève; Frechette, Julie; Bernard, Agnès; Mitchell, Jonathan; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie

    2017-11-08

    The objectives of the study were to: (1) examine the relationships between three different qualitative perceptions of safety culture and the Canadian Patient Safety Climate Survey factors; (2) determine whether these perceptions are associated with different hand hygiene practices. Healthcare-associated infections and safety cultures are a worldwide issue. During the A/H1N1 Influenza pandemic, Europe and North America did not have the same responses. Importantly, healthcare professionals' perceptions can influence patient safety through infection prevention practices like hand hygiene. A cross-sectional design was used with data collected in 2015. The Canadian Patient Safety Culture Survey and hand hygiene observations were gathered from three healthcare centres (two Canadian and one European). Descriptive analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to explore healthcare professionals' safety perceptions and practices. The rates of hand hygiene practices varied widely between the three sites, ranging from 35-77%. One site (Site 3) was found to have the highest scores of management follow-up, feedback about incidents, supervisory leadership for safety, unit learning culture and senior leadership support for safety, and the highest levels of overall patient safety grades for the unit and organization. The quantitative results of this study support the previously described model based on qualitative results: individual culture, blaming culture and collaborative culture. Differences between continents emerged regarding infection prevention practices and the way we qualify infections. The results raise concerns about infection practices and about safety cultures and challenges worldwide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Impact of health education intervention on food safety and hygiene of street vendors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ansk Kumar; Dudeja, Puja; Kaushal, Nitin; Mukherji, Sandip

    2016-07-01

    Street foods are major source of food to millions of people. However, these are frequently associated with food-borne illnesses. It is imperative that street food vendors are educated to maintain hygiene and hence safety of food. With this background, a pilot study was undertaken to assess the impact of health education intervention on food safety and hygiene of street vendors. The aim of this study was to assess impact of health education intervention on food safety of street vendors. It was a before and after study conducted in twenty street vendors of an urban area. Tool based on Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 2012 was prepared with scoring system to rate hygiene and sanitation of street vendors (score 0-156). Health education was given to all and scores of these vendors on same tool were reassessed after four weeks. Mean age of the study subjects was 35 ± 13.2 years. Highest score attained in BIS tool for food safety was 104 out of 156 (66.6%). No vendor was found to have achieved excellent score. Reasons for poor score were poor condition of vending cart, location, lack personal hygiene and incorrect and unsafe food handling practices. After intervention, it was observed that there was no significant improvement in overall score of vendors. However, scores in domains of personal habits, hygiene and food handling practices improved significantly after intervention (p street vendors do not meet required standards given by BIS for food safety. Health education alone can only partly improve food safety practices of street vendors.

  7. Occupational health nurses and occupational hygiene: a study of South African nurses' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, R; Rees, D

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the current occupational hygiene practices of occupational health nurses and to assess their attitudes to the identification and initial quantification of workplace hazards. A questionnaire was mailed to all occupational health nurses registered with the South African Society of Occupational Health Nurses. Responses were obtained from 221 (53.7%). Responders and non-responders did not differ on key characteristics. Only 14 (6%) of the respondents performed occupational hygiene tasks as part of their routine work and only 31 (14%) volunteered hazard identification and quantification as tasks that would significantly improve practice. Nevertheless, when asked directly, 120 (54%) agreed that occupational hygiene fell into the ambit of occupational health nursing. Over 70% were positive about receiving theoretical and practical hygiene training. Constraints to greater hazard identification included limited time and resources and concern about intruding into the domains of other practitioners. Sufficient numbers of occupational health nurses were interested in identifying hazards in the workplace for training courses to be planned and offered now; however, restraints to practice need to be clarified and removed for these new skills to be used effectively.

  8. Knowledge and Practice of Personal Hygiene and Sanitation: A Study in Selected Slums of Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayela Farah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: : Slum dwellers are likely to be among the most deprived people in urban areas. Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries like ours. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice about personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in selected slums of Dhaka city. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was conducted in purposively selected urban slum areas of Moghbazar slum, Bashabo slum and T&T slum of Dhaka city during February 2014 to April 2014. Convenient sampling technique was applied. Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used and face to face interview was conducted. Total 475 subjects, irrespective of age and sex, were included in this study. Results: Out of 475 respondents, more than fifty percent slum dwellers resided in tin shaded room while 21.7% in ‘kacha’ houses. Sixty six percent of the respondents used to drink water from tube-well and 24% used supplied water provided by the city corporation. The study revealed that near 59% of the respondents used sanitary latrine. About 67% slum dwellers regularly practiced hand washing before taking meal and 59.2% respondents used soap after defecation. About fifty percent respondents brushed their teeth regularly with tooth paste. Regarding personal cleanliness, 81% subjects took bath regularly while 78% washed clothes irregularly. A statistically significant relation was found between washing of hands before meal (p=0.001, washing of hands after defecation (p=0.02, tooth brushing (p=0.001, bathing (p=0.009, washing of cloths (p=0.001, use of footwear (p=0.63 with knowledge of personal hygiene of the slum dwellers. Conclusion: Continuous community hygiene education along with adequate access to water supply and sanitation improves hygiene behaviour and policy makers and health care providers should have definite strategy and implementation.

  9. A Study of Nutrition in Entry-Level Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to document the extent of nutritional content in U.S. dental hygiene program curricula; identify program directors' opinions, perceptions, and barriers to expanding nutritional content; and evaluate if a proposed nutrition curriculum model would be beneficial. This mixed methods study involved quantitative and qualitative aspects. An invitation letter was sent to all 335 directors of entry-level U.S. dental hygiene programs. In response, 55 directors submitted nutrition course syllabi from their programs (16.4% of the total) for the quantitative analysis. In addition, 14 nutrition instructors and ten program directors were interviewed regarding their perceptions and opinions of nutrition education for dental hygiene students. All aspects of the content analysis results revealed that nutrition content in entry-level dental hygiene programs is diverse. Some programs did not include nutrition content, while others provided oral and systemic nutrition intervention subject matter. Some programs offered multiple clinical nutrition applications and patient contact opportunities while most required none. The interview results disclosed a variety of opinions and perceptions of dental hygienists' role in nutrition. Several interviewees viewed dental hygienists' role in nutrition to be an integral part of patient care, while others indicated no role or providing caries prevention counseling only. Although dental hygienists are expected to provide nutrition assessments and interventions, no standards or standardized competencies exist for nutrition in dental hygiene education. A standardized nutrition model could be beneficial for entry-level programs to ensure dental hygienists possess basic knowledge to perform nutrition assessments and intervention to address Healthy People 2020's intervention initiatives.

  10. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... hygiene and by frequently washing parts of the body and hair with soap and clean, running water ( ...

  11. Program Evaluation of a Distance Master's Degree Dental Hygiene Program: A Program Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensabaugh, Cynthia F; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Overman, Pamela R; Van Ness, Christopher J; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program (MSDH). This evaluation examined long-term outcomes in the context of stakeholders (the profession, the student, and the degree-granting institution).Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to gather data from the 28 graduates from the MSDH program. An electronic questionnaire included both open- and closed-ended questions including demographic and practice data, and data related to alumni preparedness to reach their career goals. Virtual focus groups provided valuable insight into whether the program has achieved its goals, and prepared the graduates to meet their program competencies and future goals.Results: Out of a total of 28 individuals who have successfully completed the distance program (2001-2011), 19 participated in an online survey (67.8%). The majority of the participants (73.7%) participated in one of 3 focus groups. Sixty-three percent of the graduates are currently employed in dental hygiene education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents have published their research conducted while in the program, thereby contributing to the dental hygiene body of knowledge. Sixty-eight percent indicated that had the distance option not existed, they would not have been able to obtain their advanced degree in dental hygiene. Twenty-one percent of the respondents report either being currently enrolled in a doctoral program, or having completed a doctoral degree.Conclusion: These results suggest that the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program is meeting its goals from the perspective of all stakeholders and providing its graduates with access to education and educational resources to meet the program competencies and ultimately achieve their career goals. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  12. Influencing factors on hand hygiene behavior of nursing students based on theory of planned behavior: A descriptive survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to prevent transmission of infection, but the compliance rate of healthcare workers is relatively low. This study was conducted to identify the knowledge, beliefs, behavior, and affecting factors about hand hygiene among nursing students. A descriptive survey study. The study was carried out in two South Korean nursing schools. A total 208 nursing students participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The percentage of correct answers in the survey section concerning hand hygiene knowledge was 68.1%. No significant difference in the knowledge, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, or control beliefs data was found related to general characteristics. Behavioral beliefs correlated with normative beliefs (r=.25, phand hygiene behavior (r=.17, p=.017), and control beliefs correlated with hand hygiene behavior (r=.18, p=.010). The results suggest that knowledge is not enough to change the beliefs related to hand hygiene; positive behavioral beliefs and strong control beliefs are also needed to increase hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A

    2015-02-01

    In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  14. M-OSCE as a method to measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Martha J; Wright, Rebecca A; Mann, Nancy K; Cooper, Mary D; Jacks, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Educators in all academic disciplines have been encouraged to utilize assessment strategies to evaluate students' critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of the modified objective structured clinical examination (m-OSCE) to evaluate critical thinking in dental hygiene education. This evaluation utilized a convenience sample of senior dental hygiene students. Students participated in the m-OSCE in which portions of a patient case were revealed at four stations. The exam consisted of multiple-choice questions intended to measure students' ability to utilize critical thinking skills. Additionally, there was one fill-in-the-blank question and a treatment plan that was completed at the fifth station. The results of this study revealed that the m-OSCE did not reliably measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking. Statistical analysis found no satisfactory reliability within the multiple-choice questions and moderately reliable results within the treatment planning portion of the examination. In addition, the item analysis found gaps in students' abilities to transfer clinical evidence/data to basic biomedical knowledge as demonstrated through the multiple-choice questioning results. This outcome warrants further investigation of the utility of the m-OSCE, with a focus on modifications to the evaluation questions, grading rubric, and patient case.

  15. Hospital hand hygiene opportunities: where and when (HOW2)? The HOW2 Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Connie; Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; Boeker, Sue; Diller, Thomas; Alper, Paul; Larson, Elaine

    2011-02-01

    Measurement and monitoring of health care workers' hand hygiene compliance (i.e., actions/opportunities) is a key component of strategies to eliminate hospital-acquired infections. Little data exist on the expected number of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) in various hospital settings, however. The purpose of this study was to estimate HHOs in 2 types of hospitals--large teaching and small community--and 3 different clinical areas-medical-surgical intensive care units, general medical wards, and emergency departments. HHO data were collected through direct observations using the World Health Organization's monitoring methodology. Estimates of HHOs were developed for 12-hour AM/PM shifts and 24-hour time frames. During 436.7 hours of observation, 6,640 HHOs were identified. Estimates of HHOs ranged from 30 to 179 per patient-day on inpatient wards and from 1.84 to 5.03 per bed-hour in emergency departments. Significant differences in HHOs were found between the 2 hospital types and among the 3 clinical areas. This study is the first to use the World Health Organization's data collection methodology to estimate HHOs in general medical wards and emergency departments. These data can be used as denominator estimates to calculate hand hygiene compliance rates when product utilization data are available. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A qualitative study of senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Phillips, Rosemary; Middleton, Sandy; Gould, Dinah

    2014-11-18

    Despite universal recognition of the importance of hand hygiene in reducing the incidence of healthcare associated infections, health care workers' compliance with best practice has been sub-optimal. Senior hospital managers have responsibilities for implementing patient safety initiatives and are therefore ideally placed to provide suggestions for improving strategies to increase hand hygiene compliance. This is an under-researched area, accordingly the aim of this study was to identify senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance. Qualitative design comprising face-to-face interviews with thirteen purposively sampled senior managers at a major teaching and referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. Data were analysed thematically. Seven themes emerged: culture change starts with leaders, refresh and renew the message, connect the five moments to the whole patient journey, actionable audit results, empower patients, reconceptualising non-compliance and start using the hammer. To strengthen hand hygiene programmes, strategies based on the five moments of hand hygiene should be tailored to specific roles and settings and take into account the whole patient journey including patient interactions with clinical and non-clinical staff. Senior clinical and non-clinical leaders should visibly champion and mandate best practice initiatives and articulate that hand hygiene non-compliance is culturally and professionally unacceptable to the organization. Strategies that included a disciplinary component and which conceptualise hand hygiene non-compliance as a patient safety error may be worth evaluating in terms of staff acceptability and effectiveness.

  17. Promoting a Hand Hygiene Program Using Social Media: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sung-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tien, Kuei-Lien; Chien, Kuang-Tse; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shawn-Chwen

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component in infection control to protect patient safety and reduce health care-associated infection. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of different social media on the promotion of a hand hygiene (HH) program. The observational study was conducted from May 5 to December 31, 2014, at a 2600-bed tertiary care hospital. A 3-minute video of an HH campaign in 8 languages was posted to YouTube. The Chinese version was promoted through three platforms: the hospital website, the hospital group email, and the Facebook site of a well-known Internet illustrator. The video traffic was analyzed via Google Analytics. HH compliance was measured in November 2013 and 2014. There were 5252 views of the video, mainly of the Chinese-language version (3509/5252, 66.81%). The NTUH website had 24,000 subscribers, and 151 of them viewed the video (connection rate was 151/24,000, 0.63%). There were 9967 users of the hospital email group and the connection rate was 0.91% (91/9967). The connection rate was 6.17% (807/13,080) from Facebook, significantly higher than the other 2 venues (both Psocial media such as Facebook should be considered for future programs that promote hand hygiene and other healthy behaviors.

  18. Pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Deborah; Thoma, Myriam V; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Attin, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2016-03-24

    Increased levels of anxiety may affect a patient's receptiveness to treatment, health care information and behaviour modification. This study was undertaken to assess pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population maintaining a schedule of regular preventive care appointments. The sample population consisted of 46 consecutive adult recall patients waiting for their regularly scheduled dental hygiene appointment. Pre-treatment state (current) anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), State form; dental anxiety with the Hierarchical Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ); subjective stress using a visual analogue scale (VAS); and mood/alertness/calmness using the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire (MDMQ). Two distinct groups, based on state anxiety scores, were formed; one displaying increased levels of pre-treatment anxiety (n = 14), the other low anxiety (n = 32). The HA group was characterized by significantly higher dental anxiety and subjective stress levels prior to treatment; as well as worse mood, lower alertness, and less calmness in the dental office setting. There was no correlation between anxiety level and years in dental hygiene recall. A high level of pre-treatment anxiety was present in about one third of the sample population. The prevalence of this anxiety demonstrates the need for both early recognition and patient management strategies (psychological and pain management) to positively influence their treatment experience.

  19. The Impact of Motivation and Hygiene Factors on Research Performance: An Empirical Study from A Turkish University

    OpenAIRE

    Oya Tamtekin Aydın

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the differences of the effect of motivation factors and hygiene factors on research performance of Foundation University members in Turkey on the number of articles published in Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index. The study was conducted on 150 academics in a Turkish Foundation University. The following results are obtained from the study: i) The perception of academics on the effect of hygiene factors which include salary, job securi...

  20. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic...

  1. How to escape from the host nest: imperfect chemical mimicry in eucharitid parasitoids and exploitation of the ants' hygienic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Bartolo-Reyes, Juan Carlos; Quiroa-Montalván, Claudia M; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Lenoir, Alain; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    Communication in ants is based to a great extent on chemical compounds. Recognition of intruders is primarily based on cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile matching but is prone to being cheated. Eucharitid wasps are specific parasitoids of the brood of ants; the immature stages are either well integrated within the colony or are protected within the host cocoons, whereas adult wasps at emergence must leave their host nest to reproduce and need to circumvent the ant recognition system to escape unscathed. The behavioral interactions between eucharitid wasps and workers of their host, the Neotropical ant Ectatomma tuberculatum, are characterized. In experimental bioassays, newly emerged parasitoids were not violently aggressed. They remained still and were grabbed by ants upon contact and transported outside the nest; host workers were even observed struggling to reject them. Parasitoids were removed from the nest within five minutes, and most were unharmed, although two wasps (out of 30) were killed during the interaction with the ants. We analyzed the CHCs of the ant and its two parasitoids, Dilocantha lachaudii and Isomerala coronata, and found that although wasps shared all of their compounds with the ants, each wasp species had typical blends and hydrocarbon abundance was also species specific. Furthermore, the wasps had relatively few CHCs compared to E. tuberculatum (22-44% of the host components), and these were present in low amounts. Wasps, only partially mimicking the host CHC profile, were immediately recognized as alien and actively removed from the nest by the ants. Hexane-washed wasps were also transported to the refuse piles, but only after being thoroughly inspected and after most of the workers had initially ignored them. Being recognized as intruder may be to the parasitoids' advantage, allowing them to quickly leave the natal nest, and therefore enhancing the fitness of these very short lived parasitoids. We suggest that eucharitids take advantage

  2. The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

  3. Millennial Dental Hygiene Students' Learning Preferences Compared to Non-Millennial Faculty Members' Teaching Methods: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, April M; Prihoda, Thomas J; English, Dana K; Chismark, Aubreé; Jacks, Mary E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the learning preferences of millennial dental hygiene students (born between 1982 and 2002) in the U.S. with the teaching methods used by their non-millennial instructors. Cross-sectional surveys were developed with 21-item, five-point Likert scales to examine students' preferences for and faculty use of lecture, collaborative activities, technology, independent work, and group discussion. Surveys were emailed to U.S. dental hygiene program directors in September 2015. The respondents totaled 800 students and 343 faculty members-approximately 5% of all dental hygiene students and 6.8% of all dental hygiene faculty members in the U.S. The results showed that the responding faculty members (88.7%) used case studies more than the students (61.2%) preferred and that the students (71.4%) preferred games when learning more than the faculty members (57.2%) used them (plearning over lecture.

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Study on Hand Hygiene Among Imam Hossein Hospital’s Residents in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Mahmoud; Alavi-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gachkar, Latif; Moeinian, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures for preventing health care-associated infections. Although the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide. Objectives: We sought to perform a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study on hand hygiene among medical residents at Imam Hossein hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional KAP study was conducted among medical residents in Imam Hossein hospital, Iran, 2013. All medical residents from different wards were invited to participate in this study (270 in total). The world health organization questionnaires and an observational checklist were used to collect data. The χ2 test and the Fisher exact test were utilized to analyze the qualitative variables. Since the quantitative variables had no normal distribution, the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis method were employed. A P value hand hygiene, and only 20.16% (n = 25) managed to identify the correct answer. Moreover, 3.1% (n = 8) of the residents adhered to the 8 standard steps, 12.1% (n = 31) washed their hands for 20 - 30 seconds, and only 2 residents observed the sequences of hand hygiene. Additionally, none of the residents performed hand washing with available means (water and hand-washing liquid) in the morning visit hours. Conclusions: Concerning hand hygiene, the residents had moderate knowledge but overall poor attitudes and practices. The present study underscores the need for further improvement in the existing training programs to address the gaps in KAP regarding hand hygiene. PMID:26568858

  5. Industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries. Study group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Otto; Morris, Samuel; Cessario, Thomas R.; Baier, Edward; Brief, Richard; Corn, Morton; Ettinger, Harry; Fraser, David; Lippman, Morton; Sharkey, Andrew

    1979-11-01

    Conclusions of a study group organized to assess the need for research and development of instrumentation for monitoring occupational exposures in the coal conversion and oil shale industries are reported. Research and development requirements for assessing potentially hazardous exposures are reviewed. Hazardous substances are classified in the following four categories: those which are immediately hazardous to life and health; high risk, but not immediately hazardous; moderate risk and not immediately hazardous; and short-term, nonroutine high hazards. Specific research recommendations are made in the following areas: personal monitors for gases; nitrogen compounds; aerosols; metals; fibers and dust; surface contamination; skin contamination; analytical development; industrial hygiene surveys;research; and, bioassays. (JGB)

  6. Keeping patients safe: an interventional hand hygiene study at an oncology center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jeanne H; Korniewicz, Denise M

    2007-10-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCIs) continue to affect patient morbidity and mortality and contribute to the rising cost of health care. Factors associated with the rise of HCIs in patients with cancer may include an increase in antimicrobial resistance and treatment effects of radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. Infection control and prevention practices can decrease infection rates among patients with cancer. In an effort to reduce HCIs and increase awareness, an interventional study was conducted at an oncology center to investigate hand hygiene compliance of healthcare professionals before and after the introduction of a handheld sanitizer spray. Although healthcare professionals had a positive response to the spray, it did not improve compliance rates.

  7. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  8. Qualitative study on perceptions of hand hygiene among hospital staff in a rural teaching hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S C; Diwan, V; Tamhankar, A J; Joshi, R; Shah, H; Sharma, M; Pathak, A; Macaden, R; Stålsby Lundborg, C

    2012-04-01

    Hand hygiene is a simple but underutilized measure to control healthcare-associated infections. To explore staff perceptions of hand hygiene using focus group discussions (FGDs) in a teaching hospital in India. Qualitative study. The FGD guide included questions on transmission of infections, hand hygiene practices and problems with implementation, and ways to improve adherence to hand hygiene recommendations. The FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English (when conducted in Hindi) and analysed using content analysis. Two themes emerged: 'inter-relationship of knowledge, beliefs, motivation, practices and needs' and 'roles and responsibilities for sustainable and efficient implementation of context-relevant approaches and interventions'. Staff were generally aware of the importance of hand hygiene for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections, but perceived practical problems with implementation. The staff suggested various interventions and appeared to be prepared to follow hand hygiene guidelines if the hospital provided the necessary facilities. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A specific hygiene hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunsheng Han, Cliff

    2016-08-01

    Allergic diseases have reached epidemic proportions in Western populations in the last several decades. The hygiene hypothesis proposed more than twenty years ago has helped us to understand the epidemic and has been verified with numerous studies. However, translational measures deduced from these studies to prevent allergic diseases have not proven effective. Recent studies on immigrants' allergies and any potential association between oral infection and allergic diseases prompt me to propose a specific hygiene hypothesis to explain how oral hygiene practices might have contributed to the uprising of hay fever, the most common allergic disease. The historic oral hygiene level in US is closely associated with the emerging allergic epidemic. Future studies to test the hypothesis are needed and verification of the hypothesis can potentially yield highly effective measures to prevent allergic diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Relationship between Female University Students' Knowledge on Menstruation and Their Menstrual Hygiene Practices: A Study in Tamale, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Positive perception about menstruation and good menstrual hygiene practice safeguards the health of postpubescent females by reducing their vulnerability to reproductive and urinary tract infections. Using a questionnaire, a cross-sectional study involving 293 randomly selected female undergraduate students in northern Ghana assessed the relationship between knowledge on menstruation and the practice of safe menstrual hygiene. Data collected was analyzed using GraphPad 5.01. This study found that although majority of respondents (73.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche, most of them experienced fear and panic when it occurred. Mothers were the first to be informed when menstruation occurred, although teachers first provided them knowledge on menstruation. Respondents' knowledge on menstruation was average (57.3%) but their menstrual hygiene practice was good (80.2%). Age (p = 0.005) and course of study (p = 0.0008) significantly influenced respondents' knowledge on menstruation with older students as well as the medical and midwifery students being most knowledgeable. Muslim rather than Christian female students practiced better menstrual hygiene (p = 0.0001). Average knowledge score on menstruation indicated a deficit of knowledge on the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system. Increasing knowledge on menstruation had a positive and significant effect on practice of good menstrual hygiene. PMID:27525125

  11. Relationship of personal hygiene with nutrition and morbidity profile: A study among primary school children in South Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Soumya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of the health problems affecting school children are preventable by promotion of hygienic practices through proper health education by the teachers, who are the first contacts. Objectives: The study was undertaken to find out the status of nutrition and personal hygiene among primary school children and their association with their varied morbidity profiles. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a primary school situated in the largest slum of Kolkata. Results: The participants included 103 boys and 81 girls, with a mean age of 6.2 years. The mean personal hygiene score of the girls (4.15 ± 0.98 was significantly higher than that of boys (3.2 ± 1.4 [P<0.05]. Most of the boys (54.37% and girls (74.07% were normally nourished as per the CDC growth chart. Over 70% of the children were suffering from one or more morbidities, the most common morbidity in both the sexes being pallor, followed by worm infestation. Personal hygiene scores were significantly higher (P<0.05 among those children who were normally nourished as well as those who did not suffer from any morbidity in the last 15 days. Conclusions: Care should be taken to improve the pitiable state of personal hygiene and poor sanitary practices of these school children through coordinated and concerted health education measures by teachers as well as parents.

  12. The Hygienic Status of Chelo-Kababi Restaurants in Ardabil Touristic City, Assessed in Five Separate Dimensions: A Baseline Study in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The hygienic status of catering centers, especially in touristic areas, is of high importance due to the potential risks of communicable and non-communicable diseases to the clients who usually have no control over the process of catering in these centers. The aim of this study was to assess the hygienic status of Chelo-Kababi restaurants in Ardabil city, a touristic area in Iran. Materials and Methods : In this descriptive study which was conducted in 2006, all of the 104    Chelo-Kababi restaurants in Ardabil city were evaluated using five checklists. The checklists were developed based on the fields of personal hygiene with 23 items, food and raw material hygiene with 13 items, services quality with 9 items, cooking tools and dishware hygiene with 17 items and environmental hygiene(cooking, eating and storing place with 50 items. Checklists were designed based on the section 13 of the Iran’s Eating and Drinking Materials Act of 2001. Checklists were evaluated by 11 trained questioners. Data were analyzed using STATA 11 statistical software package. Results : Ardabil city Kebab restaurants’ mean hygiene score was 62 on environmental hygiene, 53 on cooking tools and dishware hygiene, 39 on service quality, 33 on personal hygiene and 32 on food and raw material hygiene. Overall average was 44. Conclusion : Kebab restaurants in Ardabil city did not have good hygienic status. Since Ardabil is a touristic area and many tourists have their meals at restaurants, effective interventions to improve hygienic status of these places are essential. Among these interventions, regular and targeted training and development of automated controlling methods such as informing the performance of these centers to the public are recommended.

  13. Oral hygiene and gingival health status of children with Down syndrome in Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sufyani, Ghadah A.; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Ghashm, Abdulmalik A.; Al-Soneidar, Walid A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess the oral hygiene and gingival health status among Yemeni children with Down syndrome. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 101 children with Down syndrome attending special needs schools in Sana’a, Yemen. The calculus index (CI), plaque index (PI), and the gingival index (GI) were used to assess oral hygiene and gingival health status. Results: All subjects had gingivitis; the mean CI, PI, and GI scores were 0.58 ± 0.61, 1...

  14. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.

  15. Relationship between healthcare worker surface contacts, care type and hand hygiene: an observational study in a single-bed hospital ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M-F; Noakes, C J; Sleigh, P A; Bale, S; Waters, L

    2016-09-01

    This study quantifies the relationship between hand hygiene and the frequency with which healthcare workers (HCWs) touch surfaces in patient rooms. Surface contacts and hand hygiene were recorded in a single-bed UK hospital ward for six care types. Surface contacts often formed non-random patterns, but hygiene before or after patient contact depends significantly on care type (P=0.001). The likelihood of hygiene correlated with the number of surface contacts (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.8, P=0.002), but not with time spent in the room. This highlights that a potential subconscious need for hand hygiene may have developed in HCWs, which may support and help focus future hygiene education programmes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Hand-hygiene practices in the operating theatre: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, A C; Kalkman, C J; Bonten, M J; Gigengack, A C M; Barach, P

    2011-10-01

    The current prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) is a major public health concern. Patient contact in the operating theatre (OT) can contribute to HCAI via microbial contamination. The application of hand hygiene is effective in reducing infection rates. Limited data are available on adherence to hand-hygiene guidelines by OT staff. Covert direct observations of OT staff at an academic medical centre were performed by a single, trained observer. The primary outcome was the frequency of hand-hygiene application by OT staff, including anaesthesiologists, anaesthesia nurses, surgeons, surgical nurses, and medical students. 'Sterile' scrubbed staff members were excluded. The following hand-hygiene opportunities were monitored: (i) entering or leaving the OT; and (ii) before patient contact. Furthermore, the frequency of 'potential contamination' was recorded (touching OT implements after contact with patient/patient body fluids without the subsequent application of hand hygiene). We recorded non-surgical glove usage for invasive procedures, for example, intubation or insertion of intravascular devices. Finally, we collected qualitative data on incentives for hand hygiene. A total of 28 operations were observed (60 h of observations). On average, 0.14 hand-hygiene applications per hour per staff member were witnessed. Upon entering or leaving the OT, hand hygiene was performed in 2% (7/363) and 8% (28/333) of opportunities. Frequent interactions between patient, staff, and OT environment were observed. Adherence to hand-hygiene guidelines by OT staff was extremely low. This potentially exposes patients to microbial transmission, HCAIs, and patient harm.

  17. [Preoperational study for the improvement of hygiene conditions in long-term care facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, A C; Spegel, H; Kolb, S; Hierl, W; Müller, C; Höller, C; Liebl, B; Rudolph, P; Herr, C

    2014-12-01

    Hygiene is becoming more and more important in long-term care facilities. Long-term care facilities are subject to monitoring by the Public Health Service (PHS) and other authorities. For the PHS in Bavaria the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit, LGL) published a hygiene monitoring concept and there exists an inspection guide developed by a specialist department for nursing homes and institutions for the handicapped (Fachstelle für Pflege und Behinderteneinrichtungen, FQA). Because inspections are performed in multiprofessional teams, it makes sense to use a coordinated inspection catalog. The aim was to integrate hygienic requirements specified in the Bavarian guidelines for hygiene by the LGL into the inspection guide published by the FQA to obtain a quality assured surveillance. The involved parties were questioned about the inspection guide and their hygiene management and then the hygiene criteria of the LGL were implemented into the inspection guide. Questions dealing with hygiene requirements concerning intensive care, management of multidrug resistant bacteria and interviews with the person responsible for infection control in the facility itself were developed for the first time and were integrated into the inspection guide. The revised inspection guide was tested for its applicability. With the revised inspection guide there now exists a tool which allows not only comprehensive inspections of the facilities including hygiene issues but also a good cooperation of the various parties involved. There are many actions which have to be conveyed into the future, especially programs to train staff to apply the inspection guide and to enhance the ability of all participants to act in cooperation. The guide will also allow the facilities to cooperate more easily and more closely, as the guide takes the respective problems and challenges of the different facilities into consideration. Additionally the

  18. A Study on Method Development in Hygienic Behaviour in Honeybee Colonies (Apis Mellifera L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethem Akyol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the better hygienic behaviour determination method that is used in controlling against bee diseases and pests. Total forty honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera anatoliaca were used and they were randomly divided into two groups (each group consists of twenty colonies in first year. Liquid nitrogen method was used in the first group' colonies and pin-killing (needling process method was used in the second group’ colonies to determine the effectiveness of methods for hygienic behaviour. Average clearance rate was found as 66.25% and 78.10% in the first (Liquid nitrogen application and the second (pin-killing groups respectively. In the second year, forty colonies were divided into five equal groups and each group consisted eight colonies. The first group consisted of 9 frames bees in standard langstroot hive (10 frame capacity, the second group consisted of 5 frames bees in standard langstroot hive (10 frame capacity, the third group consisted of 5 frames bees in ruşet hive (5 frame capacity, the forth group’s consisted of 3 frames bees in ruşet hive (5 frame capacity and the fifty group consisted of queen mating hive. The pin-killing (needling process method, tested in first year, was used for all groups to determine the effectiveness of colony population and the size of hive. Average clearance rates of the first, second, third, forth and fifth groups were 70.54%, 58.38%, 70.63%, 54.96% and 58.21% respectively. The colonies that belonged to the pin-killing (needling group showed a higher cleaning behaviour rate than the other colonies. The density of bees in hive had an important effect on the clearance rate of colonies. The colonies of group 1 and group 3, which had the more density of bees in per unit area, had the higher clearance rate than the other groups.

  19. A faculty development course to enhance dental hygiene distance education: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone-Dodge, Vicki; Bowen, Denise M; Calley, Kristin H; Peterson, Teri S

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a dental hygiene faculty development course to enhance online teaching practices that foster a sense of community and satisfaction. The sampled population was drawn from the forty-seven U.S. dental hygiene programs that the American Dental Hygienists' Association identified as offering bachelor's degree completion or master's degree programs with 76-100 percent of coursework delivered in an online format. This requirement was applied to exclude programs using hybrid instruction (combination of online and face-to-face). Of the thirty-four faculty members who self-identified as meeting the criteria, seven agreed to participate (21 percent response rate); however, only five completed all parts of the study (a final response rate of 15 percent). A Community of Inquiry framework was the basis for the author-designed Distance Education Best Practices Survey used as a pretest and posttest to assess participants' use of and perceived importance of twenty-five best practices before and after taking the online faculty development course. Frequency of use ratings ranged from 4.0 (regularly) to 5.0 (always) on a response scale from 1.0 to 5.0. The results showed significant increases from before to after the course in participants' perceptions of the importance of four practices: activities promoting relevant, lifelong learning (p=0.03); faculty communication fostering a sense of community (p=0.04); encouraging students' self-introduction (p=0.04); and encouraging productive dialogue and respecting diverse opinions (p=0.04). The findings indicate a potential value for a faculty development course designed to enhance online teaching, sense of community, and satisfaction, even for faculty members with high self-ratings regarding best practices.

  20. A follow-up study of hygiene in catering premises at large-scale events in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C; Elviss, N; McLauchlin, J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate food hygiene practices at large events by assessing the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food, drinking water, food preparation surfaces, cleaning cloths and wristbands worn by food handlers for event security purposes. Over a 7-month period, 1662 samples were collected at 153 events and examined for microbiological contamination. Eight per cent of food samples were of an unsatisfactory quality. A further one per cent contained potentially hazardous levels of human pathogenic bacteria. 27% of water samples, 32% of swabs and 56% of cloths were also unsatisfactory. These results represented an improvement in hygiene compared to a previous study carried out 12 months previously. A fifth of food handler wristbands were contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and/or coagulase-positive staphylococci, with those bands made from fabric being more frequently contaminated than those made from plastic or other materials. This study provides evidence that the food hygiene at large-scale events may have improved. However, there is still a need for continued efforts to maintain an ongoing improvement in cleaning regimes and food hygiene management. This study was part of an ongoing focus on large events in the lead-up to the London 2012 Olympics. Lessons learnt here will be important in the planning of future large events. © 2014 Crown copyright. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology This article is Published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  1. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic habits and seasonal influenza infection. We conducted a case-control study to test whether the risk of influenza transmission associated with self-reported hand-washing and unhealthy hygienic habits among residents in Fujian Province, southeastern China.Laboratory confirmed seasonal influenza cases were consecutively included in the study as case-patients (n = 100). For each case, we selected 1 control person matched for age and city of residence. Telephone interview was used to collect information on hand-washing and hygienic habits. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the poorest hand-washing score of 0 to 3, odds ratios of influenza infection decreased progressively from 0.26 to 0.029 as hand-washing score increased from 4 to the maximum of 9 (P hand-washing score, providing soap or hand cleaner beside the hand-washing basin, and receiving influenza vaccine. Regular hand-washing and good hygienic habits were associated with a reduced risk of influenza infection. These findings support the general recommendation for nonpharmaceutical interventions against influenza.

  2. STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN HYDROPHILIC AUXILIARIES ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POROUS FILMS Part II-HYGIENIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to obtain certain PVC films with improved hygienic properties, with applications both in the artificial leather industry and in other domains. This was done by introducing certain hydrophilic auxiliaries with free chemical functions into the chemical structure of the PVC films, such as: collagen hydrolysates (CH, hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS and nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE. The use of these hydrophilic auxiliaries combined with the action of the high frequency electric fields (H.F.E.F. allows the attainment of cellular structures where the walls of the cells obtained from the expanding process display an enhanced humidity absorption. The collagen hydrolysates used to obtain the plasticized PVC porous films was obtained by electrolytic hydrolysis starting from Chamois leather powder waste resulting from buffing operation, according to a methodology described in a previous paper. The first part of this study was concerned with the influence of the addition of hydrophilic agents upon the moisture sorption of the plasticized PVC porous films. In this paper, there was investigated the water vapour and air permeability as well as the water vapour absorption of the porous films expanded in the H.F.E.F. in correlation with the nature and the recipe variant of the hydrophilic auxiliaries. The results highlighted the fact that the use of certain combinations of hydrophilic agents led to obtaining materials with adequate hygienic properties.

  3. Water, sanitation and hygiene in wetlands. A case study from the Ewaso Narok Swamp, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonj, Carmen; Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands can be both a blessing and a curse. They are beneficial sources of safe water and nutrition and places from which humans derive their livelihoods. At the same time, wetlands are known to be sources of disease-causing microorganisms and invertebrates that can threaten human health. Safe water, sanitation and personal hygiene (WASH) are crucial preconditions for the prevention of disease transmission. And of special importance for people living in wetlands, depending on and being exposed to them. WASH should be prioritized especially in those wetlands that are subject to intensive use, that have a poor sanitation infrastructure, and which at the same time only provide limited water resources. However, despite this critical importance, WASH in wetlands is not well characterized in literature. This study therefore aimed at providing insights into the water, sanitation and hygiene conditions and behavioural determinants of households in wetlands by presenting the case of a rural wetland in East Africa. The mixed method approach included a broad set of empirical data collected during a household survey (n=400), an observational WASH assessment (n=397) and in-depth interviews (n=20) conducted from January to March 2015 in Ewaso Narok Swamp in Kenya. Different user groups of the wetland were targeted. The study in Ewaso Narok Swamp showed that wetland users' water supply and storage, sanitation and personal hygiene conditions were inadequate for large parts of the community and significantly differed between groups. Whereas the WASH conditions of people working in the service sector were rather positive, for pastoralists, they were correspondingly negative. The WASH behaviour was also perceived to be inadequate influenced by a variety of determining factors. The observational index as applied in this study indicated to be a valuable, rapid and efficient tool for assessing domestic WASH and for detecting differences between different groups in wetlands. Combined

  4. Student-led intervention to inNOvate hand hygiene practice in Auckland Region's medical students (the No HHARMS study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nathanael Cc; Hume, Carl G; Al-Chanati, Abdal; Diprose, William; Roberts, Sally; Freeman, Josh; Mogol, Vernon; Hoskins, David; Hamblin, Richard; Frampton, Chris; Bagg, Warwick; Merry, Alan F

    2017-01-13

    Hand hygiene is important in reducing healthcare-associated infections. The World Health Organization has defined 'five moments' when hand hygiene compliance is required. During 2013, New Zealand national data showed poor compliance with these moments by medical students. To improve medical students' compliance with the five moments. In this prospective student-led quality improvement initiative, student investigators developed, implemented and evaluated a multi-modal intervention comprising a three-month social media campaign, a competition and an entertaining educational video. Data on individual patient-medical student interactions were collected covertly by observers at baseline and at one week, six weeks and three months after initiation of the intervention. During the campaign, compliance improved in moment 2, but not significantly in moments 1, 3, 4 or 5. Statistical analysis of amalgamated data was limited by non-independent data points-a consideration apparently not always addressed in previous studies. The initiative produced improvements in compliance by medical students with one hand hygiene moment. Statistical analysis of amalgamated data for all five moments should allow for the non-independence of each occasion in which clinicians interact with a patient. More work is needed to ensure excellent hand hygiene practices of future doctors.

  5. Sleep hygiene intervention for youth aged 10 to 18 years with problematic sleep: a before-after pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Evan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study aimed to examine the changes following a sleep hygiene intervention on sleep hygiene practices, sleep quality, and daytime symptoms in youth. Methods Participants aged 10–18 years with self-identified sleep problems completed our age-appropriate F.E.R.R.E.T (an acronym for the categories of Food, Emotions, Routine, Restrict, Environment and Timing sleep hygiene programme; each category has three simple rules to encourage good sleep. Participants (and parents as appropriate completed the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC, Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS, and wore Actical® monitors twice before (1 and 2 weeks and three times after (6, 12 and 20 weeks the intervention. Anthropometric data were collected two weeks before and 20 weeks post-intervention. Results Thirty-three youths (mean age 12.9 years; M/F = 0.8 enrolled, and retention was 100%. ASHS scores significantly improved (p = 0.005 from a baseline mean (SD of 4.70 (0.41 to 4.95 (0.31 post-intervention, as did PSQI scores [7.47 (2.43 to 4.47 (2.37; p  Conclusions Our findings suggest the F.E.R.R.E.T sleep hygiene education programme might be effective in improving sleep in children and adolescents. However because this was a before and after study and a pilot study with several limitations, the findings need to be addressed with caution, and would need to be replicated within a randomised controlled trial to prove efficacy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000649819

  6. Intervening with healthcare workers' hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception in a limited-resource hospital in Indonesia: A randomized controlled trial study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Santosaningsih (Dewi); Erikawati, D. (Dewi); T. Santoso; Noorhamdani, N. (Noorhamdani); Ratridewi, I. (Irene); Candradikusuma, D. (Didi); Chozin, I.N. (Iin N.); Huwae, T.E.C.J. (Thomas E.C.J.); van der Donk, G. (Gwen); van Boven, E. (Eva); A.F. Voor in 't Holt (Anne); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hand hygiene is recognized as an important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers is associated with their knowledge and perception. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different educational programs

  7. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disentangling quality and safety indicator data: a longitudinal, comparative study of hand hygiene compliance and accreditation outcomes in 96 Australian hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims are twofold. First, to investigate the suitability of hand hygiene as an indicator of accreditation outcomes and, second, to test the hypothesis that hospitals with better accreditation outcomes achieve higher hand hygiene compliance rates. Design A retrospective, longitudinal, multisite comparative survey. Setting Acute public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 96 acute hospitals with accreditation survey results from two surveys during 2009–2012 and submitted data for more than four hand hygiene audits between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes Our primary outcome comprised observational hand hygiene compliance data from eight audits during 2010–2013. The explanatory variables in our multilevel regression model included: accreditation outcomes and scores for the infection control standard; timing of the surveys; and hospital size and activity. Results Average hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 67.7% to 80.3% during the study period (2010–2013), with 46.7% of hospitals achieving target compliance rates of 70% in audit 1, versus 92.3% in audit 8. Average hand hygiene rates at small hospitals were 7.8 percentage points (pp) higher than those at the largest hospitals (phand hygiene rates, accreditation outcomes and infection control scores is less clear. Conclusions Our results indicate that accreditation outcomes and hand hygiene audit data are measuring different parts of the quality and safety spectrum. Understanding what is being measured when selecting indicators to assess the impact of accreditation is critical as focusing on accreditation results would discount successful hand hygiene implementation by smaller hospitals. Conversely, relying on hand hygiene results would discount the infection control related research and leadership investment by larger hospitals. Our hypothesis appears to be confounded by an accreditation programme that makes it more difficult for smaller hospitals to achieve high infection

  9. Evaluating meaningful learning using concept mapping in dental hygiene education: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canasi, Dina M; Amyot, Cynthia; Tira, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Concept mapping, as a teaching strategy, has been shown to promote critical thinking and problem solving in educational settings. Dental clinicians must distinguish between critical and irrelevant characteristics in the delivery of care, thus necessitating reasoning skills to do so. One of the aims of the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation (ADEA-CCI) is to identify deficiencies in curriculum which were meant to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills necessary in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 teaching strategies, traditional lecture and lecture supported by concept mapping exercises within collaborative working groups, to determine if there is a beneficial effect on meaningful learning. For this pilot study, the study population consisted of students from 2 geographically separated associate level dental hygiene programs in the southeastern U.S. A quasi-experimental control group pre- and post-test design was used. The degree of meaningful learning achieved by both programs was assessed by comparing pre- and post-test results. Both programs experienced a significant degree of meaningful learning from pre- to post-test. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the programs on the post-test. These results were in direct contrast to research in other disciplines on concept mapping and its effect on promoting meaningful learning. Further investigation into the study's outcome was obtained through a follow-up focus group. In spite of careful attention to methodology in the development of this research project, the focus group illuminated methodological failings that potentially impacted the outcome of the study. Recommendations are underscored for future conduct of educational research of this kind.

  10. The Impact of Motivation and Hygiene Factors on Research Performance: An Empirical Study from A Turkish University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Tamtekin Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the differences of the effect of motivation factors and hygiene factors on research performance of Foundation University members in Turkey on the number of articles published in Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index. The study was conducted on 150 academics in a Turkish Foundation University. The following results are obtained from the study: i The perception of academics on the effect of hygiene factors which include salary, job security, company policy-administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, status and working conditions on research performance is positive except status, ii The perception of academics on the effect of motivators which include the possibility of growth, work itself, responsibility, achievement, advancement and recognition on research performance is positive.

  11. Oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients: a randomized controlled study on the effects of a post-treatment communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cozzani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients’ compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30–40 days. Methods Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of “zero.” At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial’s register. Results Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr, 0.60 and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30, respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205. Conclusions A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to

  12. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...

  13. A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret O’Donoghue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses’ compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR, limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU. With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital. Methods A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaires assessing knowledge and attitudes of hand hygiene and direct observation of participants was used to evaluate an educational programme on hand hygiene of the RU of a large district hospital. All healthcare workers (HCW, comprising 76 radiographers, 17 nurses, and nine healthcare assistants (HCA, agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 85 completed the initial and 76 the post-test anonymous questionnaire. The hand hygiene compliance of all 102 HCW was observed over a 3-week period prior to and after the intervention. The 2-month intervention consisted of talks on hand hygiene and benefits of ABHR, provision of visual aids, wall-mounted ABHR dispensers, and personal bottles of ABHR. Results Before the intervention, overall hand hygiene compliance was low (28.9 %. Post-intervention, compliance with hand hygiene increased to 51.4 %. This improvement was significant for radiographers and HCA. Additionally, knowledge and attitudes improved in particular, understanding that ABHR can largely replace handwashing and there is a need to perform hand hygiene after environmental contact. The increased use of ABHR allowed HCW to feel they had enough time to perform hand hygiene. Conclusions The educational intervention led to increased awareness of hand hygiene opportunities and better

  14. Assessment of factors influencing hygiene behaviour among school children in Mereb-Leke District, Northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Mulubirhan; Kumie, Abera

    2014-09-26

    Poor school sanitation and hygiene is a major problem in developing countries and remains high risk behaviour among primary school going children. Many outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections have been associated with primary schools. This research paper was designed to assess the factors influencing hygiene behaviour among school children. A cross sectional study was conducted in Mereb-Leke District, Tigray National Regional State among school children. The study population consisted of those who are in the second cycle as they are more mature and most senior in primary schools. A multi-stage probability sampling procedure with three stages was used to select participated schools. A total of 528 school children were randomly selected from students networking list of selected schools. Structured questionnaire and observational checklist at home and school setting were used to collect data. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 17.0 after the data has been entered using Epi-Info version 3.5.3. Primarily variables that had p-value hygiene behaviour via crude and adjusted odds ratio. Children were grouped according to whether positive or negative hygiene behaviour outcome which permitted identifying factor affecting hygiene behaviour. Out of these, 326 (61.7%) had positive hygiene behaviour. The study found that knowledge s on water handling (AOR, 2.24; 95% CI 1.54, 3.26), hand washing (AOR, 1.70; 95% CI 1.12, 2.57) and awareness on water handling matters (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI 1.37, 2.90), hand washing practice (AOR, 2.36; 95% CI 1.62, 3.45) were significantly associated to hygiene behaviour status. Being a member of hygiene and sanitation club (COR 0.42; 95% CI 0.26, 0.68), parent's health package status (COR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43, 0.90), training on hygiene and sanitation and experience of visiting model school (COR 1.99; 95% CI 1.37, 2.88) had significance difference in hygiene behaviour. This study has shown that knowledge, awareness, training on hygiene and

  15. A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Margaret; Ng, Suk-Hing; Suen, Lorna Kp; Boost, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses' compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU). With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital. A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaires assessing knowledge and attitudes of hand hygiene and direct observation of participants was used to evaluate an educational programme on hand hygiene of the RU of a large district hospital. All healthcare workers (HCW), comprising 76 radiographers, 17 nurses, and nine healthcare assistants (HCA), agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 85 completed the initial and 76 the post-test anonymous questionnaire. The hand hygiene compliance of all 102 HCW was observed over a 3-week period prior to and after the intervention. The 2-month intervention consisted of talks on hand hygiene and benefits of ABHR, provision of visual aids, wall-mounted ABHR dispensers, and personal bottles of ABHR. Before the intervention, overall hand hygiene compliance was low (28.9 %). Post-intervention, compliance with hand hygiene increased to 51.4 %. This improvement was significant for radiographers and HCA. Additionally, knowledge and attitudes improved in particular, understanding that ABHR can largely replace handwashing and there is a need to perform hand hygiene after environmental contact. The increased use of ABHR allowed HCW to feel they had enough time to perform hand hygiene. The educational intervention led to increased awareness of hand hygiene opportunities and better acceptance of ABHR use. The reduced time needed to perform hand

  16. A pilot study combining individual-based smoking cessation counseling, pharmacotherapy, and dental hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentists are in a unique position to advise smokers to quit by providing effective counseling on the various aspects of tobacco-induced diseases. The present study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of integrating dentists in a medical smoking cessation intervention. Methods Smokers willing to quit underwent an 8-week smoking cessation intervention combining individual-based counseling and nicotine replacement therapy and/or bupropion, provided by a general internist. In addition, a dentist performed a dental exam, followed by an oral hygiene treatment and gave information about chronic effects of smoking on oral health. Outcomes were acceptability, global satisfaction of the dentist's intervention, and smoking abstinence at 6-month. Results 39 adult smokers were included, and 27 (69% completed the study. Global acceptability of the dental intervention was very high (94% yes, 6% mostly yes. Annoyances at the dental exam were described as acceptable by participants (61% yes, 23% mostly yes, 6%, mostly no, 10% no. Participants provided very positive qualitative comments about the dentist counseling, the oral exam, and the resulting motivational effect, emphasizing the feeling of oral cleanliness and health that encouraged smoking abstinence. At the end of the intervention (week 8, 17 (44% participants reported smoking abstinence. After 6 months, 6 (15%, 95% CI 3.5 to 27.2 reported a confirmed continuous smoking abstinence. Discussion We explored a new multi-disciplinary approach to smoking cessation, which included medical and dental interventions. Despite the small sample size and non-controlled study design, the observed rate was similar to that found in standard medical care. In terms of acceptability and feasibility, our results support further investigations in this field. Trial Registration number ISRCTN67470159

  17. A Genome Wide Genotyping Study To Find Candidate Genes That Influence Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene (VSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa parasitism of honey bees is widely considered by apicultural researchers to be the greatest threat to beekeeping. Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) is one of two identified behaviors that are highly important for controlling the growth of Varroa mite populations in bee hives. Bees exhibiting th...

  18. Work Orientation vs. Hygienic Orientation: A Bi-Polar Approach to the Study of Work Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatta, Edgar F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Based on work of Herzberg and associates (1959), a pi-polar measure of work orientation vs. hygienic orientation was constructed. Validity is shown through correlation with other measures of work motivation, personality measures, values, and abilities. The new measure is also correlated with supervisor's ratings of how long it will take newly…

  19. Verbal hygiene and ethnic politics in Nigeria: a study of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It tries to establish a connection between verbal hygiene and persistent implosion of ethnic conflicts in Nigeria and the debilitating consequences of such on virtually all strata of national development. Data were ... The collected data were textually analyzed through the lens of Politeness Theory of Brown and Levinson.

  20. An exploratory study of barriers to promoting oral hygiene through carers of elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eadie, D R; Schou, L

    1992-01-01

    Scotland. A range of barriers to improving levels of care was identified. The paper concluded that to make positive progress, a comprehensive oral hygiene programme is required to break down these barriers. It is believed that a strong educational policy based upon carers' needs should form the main...

  1. Reflection on observation: A qualitative study using practice development methods to explore the experience of being a hand hygiene auditor in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Susan; Edgar, Denise; Bothe, Janine; Newman, Helen; Wilson, Annmaree; Bint, Beth; Brown, Megan; Alexander, Suzanne; Harris, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Within the Australian public health care system, an observation model is used to assess hand hygiene practice in health care workers, culminating in a publicly available healthcare service performance indicator. The intent of this study was for the results to inform the development of a strategy to support individual auditors and local sustainability of the hand hygiene auditing program. This qualitative study used a values clarification tool to gain an understanding of the experiences of hand hygiene auditors. The methodology involved qualitative interpretation of focus group discussions to identify the enablers and barriers to successful performance of the auditors' role. Twenty-five participants identified congruous themes of the need for peer and managerial support, improved communication and feedback, and consideration for succession planning. There was consistency in the participants' most frequently identified significant barriers in undertaking the role. Hand hygiene auditors take pride in their role and work toward the goal of reducing health care-associated infections by having a part to play in improving hand hygiene practices of all staff members. Important themes, barriers, and enablers were identified in this study. This research will be of interest nationally and globally, considering the dearth of published information on the experience of hand hygiene auditors. This study provides evidence of the need to support individual hand hygiene auditors. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hygienic quality of goat's milk cheese produced in rural household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 ºSH. Only two samples (20% met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.

  3. The efficacy of screening for common dental diseases by hygiene-therapists: a diagnostic test accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, R; Glenny, A; Walsh, T; Tickle, M; Worthington, H; Ashley, J; Brocklehurst, P

    2015-03-01

    Regularly attending adult patients are increasingly asymptomatic and not in need of treatment when attending for their routine dental examinations. As oral health improves further, using the general dental practitioner to undertake the "checkup" on regular "low-risk" patients represents a substantial and potentially unnecessary cost for state-funded systems. Given recent regulatory changes in the United Kingdom, it is now theoretically possible to delegate a range of tasks to hygiene-therapists. This has the potential to release the general dental practitioner's time and increase the capacity to care. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic test accuracy of hygiene-therapists when screening for dental caries and periodontal disease in regularly attending asymptomatic adults who attend for their checkup. A visual screen by hygiene-therapists acted as the index test, and the general dental practitioner acted as the reference standard. Consenting asymptomatic adult patients, who were regularly attending patients at 10 practices across the Northwest of England, entered the study. Both sets of clinicians made an assessment of dental caries and periodontal disease. The primary outcomes measured were the sensitivity and specificity values for dental caries and periodontal disease. In total, 1899 patients were screened. The summary point for sensitivity of dental care professionals when screening for caries and periodontal disease was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87) and 0.89 (0.86 to 0.92), respectively. The summary point for specificity of dental care professionals when screening for caries and periodontal disease was 0.87 (0.78 to 0.92) and 0.75 (0.66 to 0.82), respectively. The results suggest that hygiene-therapists could be used to screen for dental caries and periodontal disease. This has important ramifications for service design in public-funded health systems. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  4. Oral hygiene and gingival health status of children with Down syndrome in Yemen: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sufyani, Ghadah A; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Ghashm, Abdulmalik A; Al-Soneidar, Walid A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the oral hygiene and gingival health status among Yemeni children with Down syndrome. The study sample comprised 101 children with Down syndrome attending special needs schools in Sana'a, Yemen. The calculus index (CI), plaque index (PI), and the gingival index (GI) were used to assess oral hygiene and gingival health status. All subjects had gingivitis; the mean CI, PI, and GI scores were 0.58 ± 0.61, 1.45 ± 0.57, and 1.54 ± 0.64, respectively, with no significant difference found across gender. Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that the best predictors in the descending order for CI were age and mother's education, and the best predictors for PI were IQ level, age, and father's education. Having severe mental retardation, older age, less educated parents were the most important predictors for poor gingival health status. These findings show that children with Down syndrome have poor oral hygiene and high levels of periodontal diseases. Hence, appropriate oral health education should be tailored to the needs of these children with the support of their teachers and parents.

  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...

  7. Sociocultural Determinants to Adoption of Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices in Nyakach, Kisumu County, Kenya: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Wasonga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of safe water, adequate sanitation, and hygiene has been lauded as one way of preventing diarrheal infections and improving health especially in developing countries. However, lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices in most parts of rural Kenya have posed a challenge that exposes the populace to diarrhea cases and possible deaths. In this regard, many nongovernmental organizations and governmental agencies have tried to provide water, sanitation, and hygiene services with poor results. This study was conducted using qualitative research methods in Central Nyakach in Kisumu County, Kenya. The methods were focus group discussions (FGD, key informant interviews (KII, and observation of homesteads. The data were then analyzed thematically. Findings revealed that water issues are gendered and its use is socially and culturally categorized. Water storage is affected by traditions such as use of a clay pot, while sanitation and hygiene issues are ritualized and bound by taboos. Latrines are majorly constructed by men and sharing the same with in-laws and older children is prohibited. Children faeces are thrown out in the open fields as a means of disposal and hand washing with soap is nonexistent, since it is believed that doing so would make a person lose the ability to rear livestock. The implications of these findings are that some of these sociocultural practices have a profound effect on health of the population. This affects health care delivery through high incidence rates of disease, encourages “unhealthy” environments through open defecation and pollution, and negates the government’s commitment to national and international policies on universal health care provision.

  8. A Nationwide Survey on Some Hygienic Behaviors of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadinejad

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: This nationwide survey revealed that Iranian students have an acceptable level of hygienic behaviors both in urban and rural areas; however, still it is necessary to improve school health facilities and hygienic habits in Iranian students.

  9. Assessment of the University of Michigan's dental hygiene partnership with the Huron Valley Boys & Girls Club: a study of students' and staffs' perceptions and service learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen Brydges, Sarah; Gwozdek, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    The Boys & Girls Club of America (BGCA) requires a health curriculum be taught. With the assistance of the University of Michigan (UM) Dental Hygiene program, these requirements have been addressed at the Huron Valley Boys & Girls Club (HVBGC) through dental hygiene students presenting oral health education to club members throughout the year. This study assessed the outcomes and benefits of the service learning initiative between the UM Dental Hygiene Program and the HVBGC from both the students' and staffs' perceptions. Three surveys were distributed: one to the HVBGC staff, one to UM's Dental Hygiene class of 2012 (with no service learning experience at the HVBGC) and one to UM Dental Hygiene classes of 2010 and 2011 (most of whom had experience at the HVBGC). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and evaluated. The respondents from the class of 2012 were less knowledgeable about the BGCA and access to care issues. The members of the classes of 2010 and 2011, 79% of whom had HVBGC experience, identified they had benefitted from this service learning experience. The HVBGC staff survey indicated a high level of satisfaction with the student presentations and felt their curricular requirements were being met. Future topics of safety, orthodontics and gardening/nutrition were identified. This study indicates the service learning initiative has been beneficial for both the UM Dental Hygiene students and the HVBGC. Future studies should use a longitudinal design to obtain baseline and post-service learning data.

  10. [Psychology of Hygiene: Rsult of a Comparative Study 1968/1976 (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler, R

    1976-01-01

    Object of the investigation is: (1) the analysis of the behaviour observed in adults between 18 and 23 years of age regarding cleanliness, body hygiene and changing of underwear,and a comparison of the results with those for 1968; (2) Differential "diagnosis" of the relationship between the degree of cleanliness and the various styles of the upbringing received at the hands of the parents, the different assessment of the personal body image and of cleanliness-related values ("cleanliness ideology"). Main results of the investigation (1) In 1976, too, women remain cleaner than men; the latter, however, have clearly improved their daily washing habits (lower part of the body, feet) and have taken to changing their underwear, night clothes and coloured shirts more frequently. With respect to the frequency with which women change their underwear there has been no change. (2) With respect to body hygiene and cosmetic care, women are found to be making increasing use of mouth-wash, foam bath agents, face lotions and face milk, nail polish, while men are making more use of mouth-wash, bubble bath agents as well as deodorants. In contrast, women are making less use of lip-sticks, eyebrow pencils, Eau de Cologne, (3) Women's behaviour with respect to the observed and evaluated parental upbringing and to their own body image is more differentiated: The 4-factor solution for women contrasts with the 3-factor solution for men. (4) Only a form of cleanliness training involving corporal punishment and associated with a tense or hostile relationship towards the mother or father cannot be correlated to a desirable observance of cleanliness. Other possible forms of cleanliness training including supervisory forms, do not prevent the learning and adoption of desirable practices for achieving cleanliness. (5) Less clean women show a generally less pronounced body-feeling as manifested in active physical exercise in some sports disciplines and in body care. There is also a tendency

  11. [Economic and legal problems in the study of nanotechnologies in human hygiene and ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkhov, P V; Shevelev, I I; Krugliak, A P; Lakiza, I A

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers the material,economic, and social bases of human vital functions on the verge of application of nanotechnologies to practice, as well as the economic, social, and ecological-and-hygienic prospects for their introduction. The authors propose to improve the institutional structure of a state for the provision of a human priority at the introduction stage of nanotechnologies. They justify the need for applying the right of ownership to a citizen's health and for harmonizing this right with other economic, cultural, and environmental ones.

  12. PERSONAL HYGIENIC PRACTICES OF SCHOOL GOING ADOLESCENTS – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Rani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As per World Health Organization estimates, acute diarrhoeal diseases and respiratory infections are the leading causes of death among children1. Diarrhoeal diseases kill nearly 2 million children every year2. Repeated diarrhoeal episodes during childhood and adolescence can lower the fitness and productivity during adulthood3. The main source of diarrhoeal pathogens is the human faeces and for transmission of these faecal pathogens from one infected host to other contaminated hands plays an important role. Hygiene education and hand washing with soap are proved to be cost effective primary preventive measure for diarrhoeal diseases4.

  13. A descriptive study to assess the impact of surgical stomas on individuals' sleep perceptions & response to sleep hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorbeck, Ellen; Willette-Murphy, Karen; Meiers, Sonja; Rudel, Rebecca; Alakhras, Mazen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple factors affect the sleep quality of individuals with surgically created stomas. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation as the theoretical framework, a study was conducted to: 1) assess subjective sleep quality perceptions and objective sleep measurement in adults with stomas, 2) determine if there is a correlation between subjective and objective measurement of sleep in this group, and 3) implement a stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention to improve these sleep quality perceptions. Subjective assessment focused on sleep subset questions from the Stoma Quality of Life Index (SQOLI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Respondents' (n = 26) subjective sleep scores were 7.23 mean global score on seven questions (PSQI, range: 0 [no difficulty sleeping] to 3 [severe difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 21) with a mean score of 7.32 on three questions (SQOLI, range 1 [severe difficulty sleeping] to 4 [no difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 12) on sleep subset questions; composite scores of 5 or greater (PSQI) and 3 or less (SQOLI) indicating sleep problems. Scores showed that adults with stomas have increased sleep disruption and poor sleep quality. Five respondents who met intervention enrollment criteria participated in an objective sleep assessment using actigraphy, overnight oxygenation studies, and a 4-week sleep hygiene intervention. Mean PSQI score improved by 1.20 but the difference was not statistically significant. Because the results of this study confirm that sleep problems are common in older adults with a stoma, larger sample size studies of >4 weeks' duration are warranted. Until additional research results are available, the existence of sleep quality and overnight pouching concerns should be recognized and use of the low-cost, easy-to-use, stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention considered.

  14. Evaluation of oral hygiene self-efficacy, knowledge, and motivation among young adults of rural-based tamilian population: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenalochani Balasuppramaniem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral hygiene is the most essential factor in the prevention and therapy of many diseases, especially the periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral hygiene-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and motivation of the young adults of rural-based Tamilian population, with their current oral hygiene practices to assess the effect of patient motivation after initial periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: A hundred patients filled out questionnaires based on their oral hygiene-related knowledge. Plaque index, gingival index, and gingival bleeding index were recorded and correlated with their questionnaire knowledge. Initial periodontal therapy and motivation were done to all patients. After 6 months, oral health status was evaluated again. Results: There was a lower correlation value with insignificant P value between the questionnaire score and plaque and gingival index score, (r = 0.125, 0.166. However, the correlation between questionnaire score and modified papilla bleeding index score was high (r = 0.254 with significant (P = 0.011. After 6 months following the initial periodontal treatment, significant decrease in all the three indices scores was noted with significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Oral hygiene-related motivational approaches targeting rural young adult population has the potential to predict oral hygiene behavior and influences the clinical outcomes.

  15. Comparison of caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Gangwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child labor is recognized as a global health problem and child laborers are exposed to unique living, working conditions and face such events in life, which are not usually faced by other children. Research on its health impact and oral health impact has been very limited and inconsistent. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare dental caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children of Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 child laborers by snowball sampling technique and 400 school children by random sampling technique were included in the study. A specially designed pretested proforma was used to collect data related to the sociodemographic profile, adverse habits and frequency of dental visits. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S were used. Results: The mean age of child laborers and school children was 13.07 ± 1.3 and 13.03 ± 1.5. The majority of child laborers (82.8% had no mouth rinsing habit. Tobacco-related habits were found among 37.8% of child laborers. Most of the child laborers (91% never visited dentists. The mean DMFT was 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.9 ± 1.6 for child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. The mean OHI-S score was 2.3 ± 0.70 and 2.1 ± 0.9 in child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the child laborers have poorer oral health status with respect to dental caries and oral hygiene compared to school children.

  16. How effective is good domestic kitchen hygiene at reducing diarrhoeal disease in developed countries? A systematic review and reanalysis of the UK IID study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Anna; Macdonald, Clare; Hunter, Paul R

    2008-02-22

    To assess whether domestic kitchen hygiene is an important contributor to the development of diarrhoea in the developed world. Electronic searches were carried out in October 2006 in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane central register of clinical trials and CINAHL. All publications, irrespective of study design, assessing food hygiene practices with an outcome measure of diarrhoea were included in the review. All included studies underwent data extraction and the data was subsequently analysed. The analysis was conducted by qualitative synthesis of the results. Given the substantial heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures meta-analysis was not done. In addition the existing dataset of the UK IID study was reanalysed to investigate possible associations between self-reported diarrhoea and variables indicative of poor domestic kitchen hygiene Some 14 studies were finally included in subsequent analyses. Of the 14 studies included in this systematic review, 11 were case-control studies, 2 cross-sectional surveys, and 1 RCT. Very few studies identified any significant association with good environmental kitchen hygiene. Although some of the variables in the reanalysis of the UK IID study were statistically significant no obvious trend was seen. The balance of the available evidence does not support the hypothesis that poor domestic kitchen hygiene practices are important risk factors for diarrhoeal disease in developed countries.

  17. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the current study, the hygienic behaviors of 5th instar larva of Iranian honeybees (Apis mellifera. meda) were investigated. The results of hygienic evaluation demonstrated that 35% of Iranian honeybees are hygienic. For more research, different levels of hygienic behaviors were used as a treatment and then the selected ...

  18. Center for the Polyurethanes Industry summary of unpublished industrial hygiene studies related to the evaluation of emissions of spray polyurethane foam insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard D

    2017-09-01

    Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight-year period from 2007-2014. These studies address emissions from medium density closed cell and low density open cell formulations. This article summarizes the results of personal and area air samples collected during application and post application of SPF to interior building surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. Chemicals of interest included: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), flame retardants, amine catalysts, blowing agents, and aldehydes. Overall, the results indicate that SPF applicators and workers in close proximity to the application are potentially exposed to MDI in excess of recommended and governmental occupational exposure limits and should use personal protective equipment (PPE) consisting of air supplied respirators and full-body protective clothing to reduce exposure. Catalyst emissions can be reduced by using reactive catalysts in SPF formulations, and mechanical ventilation is important in controlling emissions during and after application.

  19. Helicobacter, Hygiene, Atopy, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Nusi, Iswan A; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene. We review the relevant surveys, cohort studies, meta-analyses, and studies testing the protective hypothesis. Overall, the results of surveys and cohort studies are inconsistent, whereas meta-analyses show a significant but weak inverse correlation. In contrast, studies directly testing the protection hypothesis in relation to asthma in populations with poor hygiene and low H. pylori prevalence failed to confirm a protective effect. H. pylori is a major cause of human disease including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric malignancies. H. pylori infections most likely serve as a biomarker for poor hygienic conditions in childhood. We conclude that while synergistic interactions between environmental factors in childhood are important determinants of the pathogenesis of atopy, allergy, and asthma; H. pylori is inversely related to good hygiene and thus it's presence serves as a biomarker rather than for a specific prevention role for H. pylori or H. pylori antigens.

  20. Helicobacter, Hygiene, Atopy, and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Miftahussurur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene. We review the relevant surveys, cohort studies, meta-analyses, and studies testing the protective hypothesis. Overall, the results of surveys and cohort studies are inconsistent, whereas meta-analyses show a significant but weak inverse correlation. In contrast, studies directly testing the protection hypothesis in relation to asthma in populations with poor hygiene and low H. pylori prevalence failed to confirm a protective effect. H. pylori is a major cause of human disease including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric malignancies. H. pylori infections most likely serve as a biomarker for poor hygienic conditions in childhood. We conclude that while synergistic interactions between environmental factors in childhood are important determinants of the pathogenesis of atopy, allergy, and asthma; H. pylori is inversely related to good hygiene and thus it's presence serves as a biomarker rather than for a specific prevention role for H. pylori or H. pylori antigens.

  1. Evaluation of an academic service-learning course on special needs patients for dental hygiene students: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselyak, Nancy T; Simmer-Beck, Melanie; Bray, Kimberly Krust; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of a service-learning course on special needs patients for dental hygiene students by considering student reflections, community site coordinators' feedback, and faculty reflections in a qualitative analysis. Twenty-three female dental hygiene students beginning their fourth semester in the program provided preventive oral health services at eight community sites serving six diverse groups of people having special health care needs. Students reflected on the experience via commentaries written in self-reflection journals. The investigators applied the constant comparative method to analyze and unitize the data, ultimately reaching consensus on three category topics: awareness, higher order thinking, and professionalism. End of course project assessments provided additional data that was used to triangulate with data from the reflective journals. Telephone interviews with the site coordinators and personal interviews with the course faculty provided data from multiple perspectives. The outcomes of this study suggest that service-learning pedagogy can facilitate a deeper understanding of the subject matter and provide an opportunity for students to use critical thinking strategies in addition to becoming aware of complex social and professional issues related to the oral health care of individuals with special needs.

  2. [Study of two cases of virological failure antiretrovirals in the Institute of Social Hygiene (ISH) of Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, P G; Ndiaye, I P; Soumare, M; Dieye, A M; Traore, I; Diallo, F B

    2011-01-01

    The long term treatment of VIH/SIDA puts down majors risks among which the happening of virological failure or resistance to the anti-retroviral treatment at the patient. To study the cases of resistance to antiretroviral to a cohort of 70 patients of the social hygiene of Dakar. This is a retrospective study of the medical records of 70 patients followed in the social hygiene of Dakar during 24 mouths. Data were gathered with the help of form having following variables: The period of meadow inclusion; The period of inclusion; The period of rebound virological; The rate of CD4 count; The viral load and weight of patients. Average of age in inclusion is of 47.5 years with a sex ratio of the women HIV 1 was dominant. Two cases of virological failure were found or (2.8%). The patient 1 was the stade II of the classification of the with as therapeutic class 2INTI + 2 INNTI. It was in stage asymptomatic with as therapeutic protocol DDI + 3TC + NVP. The patient 2 was at the stade III of the whom that is to say at the stade in AIDS with as therapeutic class: 2INTI + 1IP with the protocol of treatment DDI + 3TC +IND. The virological failure to the newly infected persons noticed more and more in the world poses a problem of public health because it constitutes a threat for the success of the programs of treatment of the HIV/AIDS.

  3. Relationship between female university students' knowledge on menstruation and their menstrual hygiene practices: a study in Tantale, Ghana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Positive perception about menstruation and good menstrual hygiene practice safeguards the health of postpubescent females by reducing their vulnerability to reproductive and urinary tract infections...

  4. A qualitative study of senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Phillips, Rosemary; Middleton, Sandy; Gould, Dinah

    2014-01-01

    .... Senior hospital managers have responsibilities for implementing patient safety initiatives and are therefore ideally placed to provide suggestions for improving strategies to increase hand hygiene compliance...

  5. A Study to Assess Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Hand Hygiene amongst Residents and Nursing Staff in a Tertiary Health Care Setting of Bhopal City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Veena; Kaore, Navin Chandra M; Ramnani, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Borle, Amod; Kaushal, Rituja

    2014-08-01

    Infection due to hospital-acquired microbes is an evolving problem worldwide, and horizontal transmission of bacterial organism continues to cause a high nosocomial infection rate in health care settings. Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers.The application of hand hygiene is effective in reducing infection rates. To assess the level of knowledge and attitude regarding hand hygiene practices amongst the health care professionals and to identify areas of gaps in their knowledge and attitude. A cross-sectional study. A total 160 respondents were studied about their knowledge and attitude towards hand hygiene practices and significant difference with a p-value of 0.0025 was observed regarding most frequent source of germs responsible for health care associated infections among resident and nurses. A significant difference with p-value of 0.0001 & 0.04 was observed in colonization due to jewellery and artificial nail among the study groups. The attitude regarding correct hand hygiene practices to be followed at all times was found to be better among nurses (62.5%) as compared to residents (21.3%) which was found to be highly significant with p-value hygiene practices among the health care workers to provide the current knowledge in the area with a behavioral change in attitudes and practices leading to reduction of nosocomial infections.

  6. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day.  Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level.  The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States, patients get more than a million infections in the hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene ...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows how patients can play an active role in reminding healthcare ...

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows ...

  10. A study of the efficacy of flashing lights to increase the salience of alcohol-gel dispensers for improving hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Egidio, Gianni; Patel, Rakesh; Rashidi, Babak; Mansour, Marlene; Sabri, Elham; Milgram, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Many interventions have been implemented to improve hand hygiene compliance, each with varying effects and monetary costs. Although some previous studies have addressed the issue of conspicuousness, we found only 1 study that considered improving hand hygiene by using flashing lights. Our attention theory-based hypothesis tested whether a simple red light flashing at 2-3 Hz affixed to the alcohol gel dispensers, within the main hospital entrance, would increase hand hygiene compliance over the baseline rate. Baseline and intervention observations were completed over five 60-minute periods (Monday-Friday) from 7:30 to 8:30 AM using a covert observation method. Baseline hand hygiene compliance was 12.4%. Our intervention increased compliance to 23.5% during cold weather and 27.1% during warm weather. Overall, our pooled compliance rate increased to 25.3% (P < .0001). A simple, inexpensive flashing red light affixed to alcohol gel dispensers was sufficiently salient to approximately double overall hand hygiene compliance within the main hospital entrance. We hypothesize that our intervention drew attention to the dispensers, which then reminded employees and visitors alike to wash their hands. Compliance was worse during cold days, presumably related to more individuals wearing gloves. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Association between Oral Hygiene and Gastric Pathology in Patients with Dyspepsia: a Cross-Sectional Study in Southeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Leili; Jafari, Elham; Torabi Parizi, Molook; Shafieipour, Sara; Hayat Bakhsh Abbasi, Mehdi; Darvish Moghadam, Sodaif; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many studies have reported an association between periodontal infections and some systemic diseases such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Some studies found a direct association between chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and poor periodontal health. METHODS In a cross-sectional study from November 2014 to December 2015 in Kerman, the largest province in southeast Iran, patients with dyspepsia who were candidate for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy were included in our study. Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index and Loe plaque index that are two popular indexes in dental epidemiology were used to assess the oral health by a dentist before the upper GI endoscopy. According to the Loe plaque index, score: 0= no plaque, score: 1= a film of plaque attaching to the free gingival border and near area of the tooth, score: 2= moderate reposition of deposits within the gingival pocket, score :3= plenty of soft matter within the gingival pocket±on the tooth and gingival border. Scores ≤1, 2 and 3 equal to good, moderate, and poor oral hygiene, respectively. During upper GI endoscopy a total of six biopsy samples were taken from fundus, body, and antrum. A pathologist reported these samples according to Sidney’s classification into superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. RESULTS According to Sidney’s classification 77 (89.5%) patients had superficial gastritis, 3 (3.5%) had atrophic gastritis, and 6 (7%) had intestinal metaplasia. HP was found in 80.2% of the gastric mucosal biopsy samples. There were not statistically significant relationship between Sidney’s classification, presence of HP in gastric mucosal biopsies, and hygiene indicators (p>0.05). No relation was found between the DMFT index and superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia (p>0.05). Gastric infection with HP was found in 70%, 75%, and 100% of patients with

  12. Hand hygiene practices: nursing students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Rachael; Randle, Jacqueline

    2008-07-01

    The present study examines nursing students' perceptions of hand hygiene practices in clinical settings. The objectives were to investigate any factors that affect students' perceptions of their own and healthcare workers' (HCWs) hand hygiene compliance, and to make recommendations for future practice and hand hygiene training in preregistration nursing courses. Effective hand hygiene decontamination can lower the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs); unfortunately, the prevalence of HCAIs continues to rise and so poses challenges to healthcare providers to reduce such infections. Previous studies have shown that hand hygiene compliance in HCWs is generally low and that any increase in compliance is difficult to sustain. Several barriers to hand hygiene compliance have been identified in the literature. A qualitative interpretive design was used to examine nursing students' perceptions of hand hygiene practices. Ten preregistration students participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were analysed thematically. Hand hygiene compliance was perceived to be effected by specific barriers which included: time and busyness; clinical procedure; skin condition; lack of knowledge and glove use. Importantly, students perceived other HCWs as being the influencing factor for hand hygiene compliance resulting from the perception that they should 'fit in' with those working in the clinical area. The findings support previous literature and found that respondents emphasised the importance of fitting into the clinical area and role models in shaping hand hygiene compliance. For nursing students, the influence of other HCWs as role models should not be underestimated.

  13. Hand hygiene strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yazaji, Eskandar Alex

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...

  14. Estimation of hand hygiene opportunities on an adult medical ward using 24-hour camera surveillance: validation of the HOW2 Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Thomas; Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; Steed, Connie; Boeker, Sue; McElveen, Danielle C

    2014-06-01

    We previously published a formula to estimate the number of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) per patient-day using the World Health Organization's "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology (HOW2 Benchmark Study). HHOs can be used as a denominator for calculating hand hygiene compliance rates when product utilization data are available. This study validates the previously derived HHO estimate using 24-hour video surveillance of health care worker hand hygiene activity. The validation study utilized 24-hour video surveillance recordings of 26 patients' hospital stays to measure the actual number of HHOs per patient-day on a medicine ward in a large teaching hospital. Statistical methods were used to compare these results to those obtained by episodic observation of patient activity in the original derivation study. Total hours of data collection were 81.3 and 1,510.8, resulting in 1,740 and 4,522 HHOs in the derivation and validation studies, respectively. Comparisons of the mean and median HHOs per 24-hour period did not differ significantly. HHOs were 71.6 (95% confidence interval: 64.9-78.3) and 73.9 (95% confidence interval: 69.1-84.1), respectively. This study validates the HOW2 Benchmark Study and confirms that expected numbers of HHOs can be estimated from the unit's patient census and patient-to-nurse ratio. These data can be used as denominators in calculations of hand hygiene compliance rates from electronic monitoring using the "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…

  16. Evaluation of the implementation of an 'oral hygiene protocol' in nursing homes: a 5-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visschere, L.; Baat, C. de; Schols, J.M.; Deschepper, E.; Vanobbergen, J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the long-term effects of the implementation of an oral hygiene protocol in nursing homes. METHODS: Out of 14 nursing homes (Flanders) seven nursing homes were randomly allocated to the intervention group and confirmed to implement an 'oral hygiene protocol'. The remaining

  17. Comparative microbiological-hygienic studies in mesophilic and thermophilic fouling of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlig-Schmitt, M.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    Investigations concerning the inactivation of microbial pathogens (bacteria, viruses and parasites) during anaerobic, alkaline dignestion of sludge are described. A thermophilic (54/sup 0/C) and a mesophilic (34/sup 0/C) operated biogas model plant were compared from the point of view of hygiene. Is was found that in the thermophilic process Salmonella senftenberg survived 13,5 h, Streptococcus faecium 55 h, Streptococcus faecalis 42 h and Klebsiella pneumoniae 0,5 h. Within 30 min eggs of Ascaris suum lost their infectivity Bovine Parvovirus was inactivated after 1 d to 2 d treatment. Survival times under mesophilic conditions of 13 d for Salmonella senftenberg and more than 8 mouth for Streptococcus faecium were found. Poliovirus Type 1 was inactivated in 8 d while Bovine Parvovirus survived no longer than 15 d. The results obtained in the thermophilic process were compared to those after heat treatment of the test microorganisms in ampules exposed in a wather-bath under defined conditions to 54/sup 0/C. It was found, that the bacteria survived only about half the time in this case. Poliovirus Type 1 was inactivated after 0,75 h and Bovine Parvovirus after 7 d exposure. (orig.RB)

  18. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain: study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrent Anna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to

  19. Educational intervention to reduce disease related to sub-optimal basic hygiene in Rwanda: initial evaluation and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Margaret A; Ndagijimana, Hormisdas

    2018-01-01

    Despite a global reduction in morbidity related to sub-optimal water, sanitation and hygiene, the incidence of such diseases remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to initially assess the potential effectiveness (primarily in terms of impact on morbidity) of a simple educational intervention delivered in Rwanda. Additionally, we sought to explore feasibility relating to the practicality of evaluating and implementing this type of intervention in a low- and middle-income country. Two districts in Northern Province were purposively selected; one was randomly allocated to receive the intervention, with the other acting as control. The intervention was based on an interactive DVD about basic hygiene. Baseline and follow-up data for incident cases of relevant morbidities were collected from health centre records. Changes were compared between the two districts using descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests. Qualitative data were obtained through observations, discussions and feedback and were analysed thematically. Cases of infection with intestinal worms and parasites were frequently recorded in both districts. For these morbidities, there was a 39% decrease in cases between baseline and follow-up in the intervention district (4995 reduced to 3069), compared to 13% (5002 reduced to 4356) in the control district (p evaluation and implementation, whilst also highlighting problems encountered and possible solutions, in particular, the potential advantages of training local personnel to deliver this type of intervention. This small-scale study has a number of acknowledged limitations which would need to be addressed in a larger study in order to confidently confirm the effectiveness of the intervention. It nevertheless provides evidence suggesting that the educational intervention is promising in terms of a potential impact on health and feasible to deliver and evaluate. These findings indicate that further evaluation and possibly early

  20. The association between three attitude-related indexes of oral hygiene and secondary implant failures: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, S; Grusovin, M G; Sciara, S; Bova, F; Pantaleo, G; Capparé, P

    2017-07-11

    This study evaluated the strength of the association between three widely used clinical indexes considered as distal behavioural indicators of attitude-related oral status (an index of oral hygiene, the plaque index [PI] and two periodontal indexes, that is the presence of bleeding on probing [BOP] and of pockets probing depth [PPD]) and secondary implant failure due to peri-implantitis in patients rehabilitated with cemented prosthesis. The study included patients who underwent implant-prosthetic rehabilitation and had joined the programme of maintenance of the same hospital. Implant failures, number of months between implant insertion and implant loading, and patients' surgical protocol were monitored and recorded. Further, PI, BOP and PPD-all attitude-related indicators of oral hygiene and periodontal inflammation-were recorded and related, in terms of odds ratios (ORs ) and corresponding risk factors, to secondary implant failures. A total of 1427 patients (2673 implants) were enrolled. The follow-up ranged from 1.5 to 9 years (mean 5.3 years±1.3). The cumulative survival rate was 98.01%. Thirty-two patients (36 implants, 1.36% of all implants) had implant failure. A statistically significant association between PI, BOP, PPD and secondary failures due to peri-implantitis was observed. Within the limitations of this study, all three attitude-related behavioural indicators-the plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP) and abnormal probing pocket depth (PPD)-proved to be significant risk indicators for secondary implant failure due to peri-implantitis, both from a clinical and from a socio-psychological attitude-related perspective. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Gemma; Torres, Maria Teresa; Francés, Lidia; Falguera, Gemma; Vila, Lluis; Manresa, Josep María; Casamitjana, Roser; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Acera, Amèlia; Guix, Dolors; Torrent, Anna; Grau, Josep; Torán, Pere

    2011-03-08

    It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768.

  2. Impact of oral hygiene involving toothbrushing versus chlorhexidine in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda Vidal, Claudia Fernanda; Vidal, Aurora Karla de Lacerda; Monteiro, José Gildo de Moura; Cavalcanti, Aracele; Henriques, Ana Paula Trindade; Oliveira, Márcia; Godoy, Michele; Coutinho, Mirella; Sobral, Pollyanna Dutra; Vilela, Claudia Ângela; Gomes, Bárbara; Leandro, Marta Amorim; Montarroyos, Ulisses; Ximenes, Ricardo de Alencar; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos

    2017-01-31

    Nosocomial pneumonia has correlated to dental plaque and to oropharynx colonization in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The interruption of this process, by preventing colonization of pathogenic bacteria, represents a potential procedure for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The study design was a prospective, randomized trial to verify if oral hygiene through toothbrushing plus chlorhexidine in gel at 0.12% reduces the incidence of ventilatior-associated pneumonia, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of hospital stay and the mortality rate in ICUs, when compared to oral hygiene only with chlorhexidine, solution of 0.12%, without toothbrushing, in adult individuals under mechanical ventilation, hospitalized in Clinical/Surgical and Cardiology Intensive Care Units (ICU). The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of Research of the Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Pernambuco - Certificate of Ethical Committee Approval (CAAE) 04300012500005208. Because it was a randomized trial, the research used CONSORT 2010 checklist criteria. Seven hundred sixteen patients were admitted into the ICU; 219 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion and 213 patients were included; 108 were randomized to control group and 105 to intervention group. Toothbrushing plus 0.12% chlorhexidine gel demonstrated a lower incidence of VAP throughout the follow up period, although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.084). There was a significant reduction of the mean time of mechanical ventilation in the toothbrushing group (p = 0.018). Regarding the length of hospital stay in the ICU and mortality rates, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.064). The results obtained showed that, among patients undergoing toothbrushing there was a significant reduction in duration of mechanical ventilation, and a tendency to reduce the incidence of VAP and length of ICU stay, although

  3. Improving hand hygiene adherence among nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne-Britner, Sarah; Allen, Marianne; Fowler, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored initial and sustained effects of educational and behavioral interventions on hand hygiene adherence and the relationships between hand hygiene adherence and health care-associated infections. Education paired with positive reinforcement behavioral interventions significantly improved hand hygiene adherence after the first month (χ² = 4.27; P = .039); however, the improvement was not sustained over 6 months. There were no significant differences in infection rates between the treatment and control groups.

  4. Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Azzam al Kadi; Sajad Ahmad Salati

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization’s concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awarene...

  5. Socio-demographic factors and availability of piped fountains affect food hygiene practice of food handlers in Bahir Dar Town, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derso, Terefe; Tariku, Amare; Ambaw, Fekadu; Alemenhew, Marew; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Nega, Ansha

    2017-11-28

    Morbidity and mortality rates of food borne diseases are consistently highest in African due to poor food handling and sanitation practices. Thus, the study aimed to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers of Restaurants in Bahir Dar Town, northwest, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December, 7/2012 to January, 2/2013 among food handlers working in 106 restaurants in Bahir Dar Town. A structured questionnaire composed of socio-demographic factors, food safety knowledge, working environmental characteristics and food hygiene practice of food handlers was employed to collect the data via interviewing and observations. Binary logistic regression model was fitted to assess factors associated with food hygiene practice after multi-collinearity and outlier were checked and data was clean. Both crude odds ratio (COR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) were estimated to show the strength of association. In multivariate analysis, variables with a P value of ≤ 0.05 were considered as statistical significant. About 67.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 58.8, 76.4] of food handlers had good food hygiene practice, whereas 32.4% of food handlers had poor food hygiene practice. The odds of having good food hygiene practice was higher among food handlers who had received food safety training [AOR: 4.7, 95% CI 1.7, 12.8], had formal education [AOR: 6.4, 95% CI 3.5, 11.5] and work experiences greater than 2 years [AOR: 3.4, 95% CI 1.8, 6.4]. At last, food handlers working in restaurants which had piped fountains for hand wash were 2.1 times more likely to have good food hygiene practice[AOR: 2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.8]. In this study, the overall food hygiene practice of food handlers is not to the acceptable level. Therefore, endeavors ought to be reinforced to improve food hygiene practices of food handlers through intervention programs such as training and education. Also emphasis should be given on the accessibility of piped fountains

  6. Central regional profile of dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D M

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to identify personal, familial, academic, and employment characteristics of dental hygiene students from the central region of the United States to develop a comprehensive student profile for research and recruitment purposes. In fall 1990, 25 dental hygiene program directors in ten states in the central region of the United States and 475 students enrolled in these programs were mailed surveys to develop program and student profiles. Data were analyzed using measures of central tendency and frequency. Directors and students from 24 of 25 dental hygiene programs responded. Data are reported from these 24 directors and 422 of 464 (91%) of the students enrolled in the programs. Dental hygiene students in the central region of the United States are similar in personal, parental, and academic backgrounds to the general population of college students nationally. Unlike the general college population, the regional dental hygiene population tends to be singularly female. Students chose to major in dental hygiene for economic and personal reasons. The availability of employment opportunities, the flexibility to work full- or part-time, and the prospects of making a better income and becoming a professional influenced their decision. Students identified dentists, dental hygienists, and relatives as being influential in their becoming interested in the dental hygiene profession. Previous dental office employment experience also influenced many students in their career choice. The study findings provide information for dental hygiene educators and others interested in student characteristics and factors that influence the selection of dental hygiene as a career.

  7. Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kadi, Azzam; Salati, Sajad Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications for hand hygiene and compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) sessions. Sixty students including thirty-six males (60%) and twenty-four females (40%) participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The average awareness regarding the positive indications of hand hygiene was 56%. Rest of the 44% of students were either not sure or unaware of the indications of hygiene. Only 29% of students were able to identify all the five indications for hand hygiene in the questionnaire. Compliance as assessed during OSCE sessions was only 17% with no significant difference between the genders. Conclusion. It was concluded that serious efforts are needed to improve the hand hygiene practices among medical students.

  8. Perceptions of Dental Hygiene Master's Degree Learners About Dental Hygiene Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumath, Ursula G M; Walsh, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    To determine perceptions about dental hygiene doctoral education among dental hygiene master's degree program enrollees. In this cross-sectional national study, all dental hygiene master degree program directors were sent an email requesting they forward an attached consent form and online-survey-link to their graduate learners. The 29-item online survey assessed their perceptions about need for, importance of and interest in applying to proposed dental hygiene doctoral degree programs. A second-request was sent 1 month later to capture non-responders. Frequencies and cross-tabulations of responses were analyzed using the online software program, Qualtrics.™ Of the 255 graduate learners enrolled in 2014 reported by dental hygiene program directors, 159 completed the survey for a 62% response rate. The majority of respondents (77%) indicated that doctoral education in dental hygiene is needed for the advancement of the dental hygiene discipline and such programs are important to the dental hygiene profession (89%). Although most respondents supported both the PhD in dental hygiene and the Doctor of Dental Hygiene Practice (DDHP) degrees, more were interested in applying to a DDHP program (62%) than to a dental hygiene PhD program (38%). In addition, 43% expressed interest in enrolling in a doctoral degree program in the next 1 to 5 years and most preferred a hybrid online/onsite program format. The most frequently reported reasons for pursing a doctoral degree were: to become a better teacher, to expand clinical practice opportunities, to become a better researcher and to increase salary. Most dental hygiene master degree learners in this study believed doctoral dental hygiene education is needed and important to the dental hygiene discipline and profession, and were interested in applying to such programs. Future research is needed in this area. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. A Competence-Based Approach to the Design of a Teaching Sequence about Oral and Dental Health and Hygiene: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-López, Ángel; Franco-Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín; España-Ramos, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study to illustrate the design and implementation of a teaching sequence about oral and dental health and hygiene. This teaching sequence was aimed at year 10 students (age 15-16) and sought to develop their scientific competences. In line with the PISA assessment framework for science and the tenets of a context-based approach…

  10. Astronautical Hygiene - A New Discipline to Protect the Health of Astronauts Working in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J. R.

    This paper outlines the rationale for a new scientific discipline namely astronautical hygiene. Astronautical hygiene is an applied science that utilises a knowledge of space toxicology, space medicine, astronautics, occupational hygiene etc. to identify the hazards, assess the exposure risks to health, and thereby determine the measures to mitigate exposure to protect the health of astronauts during living and working in space. This paper describes the nature of the hazards (i.e. physical, chemical, microbial and psychological) encountered during space flight. It discusses exposure risk assessment and the use of sampling techniques to assess astronaut health risks. This paper then discusses the measures used to mitigate exposure to the exposure hazards during space exploration. A case study of the application of the principles of astronautical hygiene to control lunar dust exposure is then described.

  11. Implementation of an innovative hands-on training to improve adherence to hygiene rules: A feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Stephanie; Tebest, Ralf; Westermann, Kristina; Samel, Christina; Strohbücker, Barbara; Stosch, Christoph; Wenchel, Hans-Martin; Redaèlli, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) still pose a major problem in inpatient care. The single most important measure for preventing HAIs is to improve adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals. To assess the feasibility of an innovative hands-on training to improve adherence to hygiene rules under standardized and under real life conditions. Before-after controlled cohort trial to assess the feasibility of implementing an innovative hands-on training to improve hand hygiene adherence. Large university hospital in Germany. Fifty trained nurses from three wards with an average age of 32years (±10.22years) and an average vocational experience of 6.85years (±7.54years). The intervention consisted of a hands-on training in the skills lab of the University of Cologne complemented by a 12-week observation period before and after the training on participating wards. The training comprised important skills with respect to hand hygiene, venipuncture, dressing changes of central venous catheters, preparation of IV infusions, and donning of gloves using sterile technique. A communication training was included to enable nurses to enforce hygiene rules in their collaboration with peers and physicians. The intervention was taught in small groups with a wide array of interactive teaching methods. It was evaluated using the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) format. Observations were conducted by a trained infection control nurse. Before (after) the intervention 622 (612) occasions of hand hygiene were documented. A highly significant improvement in hygiene compliance was observed pre- and post-intervention (64.3% vs. 79.2%; p≤0.0001). The OSCE evaluation showed significant improvements in all subscales. The developed and conducted hands-on training seems feasible and is successful in significantly improving adherence to hygiene rules under standardized and real life conditions. Whether the effect is stable over time is subject to further

  12. Quantification of the Hawthorne effect in hand hygiene compliance monitoring using an electronic monitoring system: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, Jocelyn A; Furness, Colin D; Baker, G Ross; Gardam, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Hawthorne effect, or behaviour change due to awareness of being observed, is assumed to inflate hand hygiene compliance rates as measured by direct observation but there are limited data to support this. To determine whether the presence of hand hygiene auditors was associated with an increase in hand hygiene events as measured by a real-time location system (RTLS). The RTLS recorded all uses of alcohol-based hand rub and soap for 8 months in two units in an academic acute care hospital. The RTLS also tracked the movement of hospital hand hygiene auditors. Rates of hand hygiene events per dispenser per hour as measured by the RTLS were compared for dispensers within sight of auditors and those not exposed to auditors. The hand hygiene event rate in dispensers visible to auditors (3.75/dispenser/h) was significantly higher than in dispensers not visible to the auditors at the same time (1.48; p=0.001) and in the same dispensers during the week prior (1.07; pHand hygiene event rates were approximately threefold higher in hallways within eyesight of an auditor compared with when no auditor was visible and the increase occurred after the auditors' arrival. This is consistent with the existence of a Hawthorne effect localised to areas where the auditor is visible and calls into question the accuracy of publicly reported hospital hand hygiene compliance rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Sociocultural Determinants to Adoption of Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices in Nyakach, Kisumu County, Kenya: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wasonga, Job; Okowa, Mark; Kioli, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Provision of safe water, adequate sanitation, and hygiene has been lauded as one way of preventing diarrheal infections and improving health especially in developing countries. However, lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices in most parts of rural Kenya have posed a challenge that exposes the populace to diarrhea cases and possible deaths. In this regard, many nongovernmental organizations and governmental agencies have tried to provide water, sanitation, and hy...

  14. Efficacy and mechanisms of non-antibacterial, chemical plaque control by dentifrices - An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; White, Don J.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van der Mei, Henny C.

    Objectives: The provision of antiplaque benefits to dentifrices assists patients in improving hygiene and reducing susceptibility to gingivitis and caries. Chemical plaque control involves different mechanisms and is mostly associated with antibacterial effects, but also includes effects on pellicle

  15. Menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstrual hygiene is vital to the health, well-being, dignity and productivity of women and girls. The study assessed menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected secondary schools around the University of Ibadan. The study was descriptive. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 381 ...

  16. [Hand hygiene of medical and nursing students during clinica rotations: a pilot study on knowledge, attitudes and impact on bacterial contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Borella, Paola; Ferri, Paola; Ferranti, Greta; Marchesi, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Hand hygiene in nursing and medical students during training: a pilot study on knowledge, practices and impact on bacterial contamination. Despite exhaustive guidelines on hand hygiene (HH), compliance in health care professionals is reported to be low. In order to improve adherence with HH, interventions on students' education should be effective. To describe the knowledge, behavior and hand hygiene (HH) practices in nursing and medical students. The results of the pilot study are presented. A questionnaire designed to investigate knowledge on HH and its practical implementation was administered to a sample of 50 nursing and 50 medical students. Data collected were associated with hand contamination measured at the beginning and at the end of the training shift. All nursing students performed HH with a significantly higher frequency compared to medical students. At the end of training, total bacterial counts were significantly reduced in both groups, but more in nursing students. Total bacterial count increased in absence of hygienic practices and the most effective procedure was the alternate use of conventional hand washing and alcohol-based hands rubs. The knowledge of both groups was adequate, although some differences were observed. At the beginning of their course, nursing students are educated to correct practices that implement during practical training. Medical students receive information on HH later in their education and pay less attention to these aspects, also due to the limited number of physical contacts with patients. Thus, the contents on HH should be anticipated before the start of the training activity.

  17. Impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of mentally retarded residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Kothari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health of the mentally retarded (MR has received scant attention in the literature compared with the normal child even though they are much sufferer. Aim: To assess the impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of MR subjects of Bhopal city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 267 MR subjects enrolled at various institutions of Bhopal city. A pretested proforma was used to record information about demographic data, socioeconomic status, the intelligent quotient of inmates, type of mental retardation, and dietary habits. The clinical examination was done to evaluate oral hygiene of subjects using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis was applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: The mean OHI-S of MR was found out to be 2.51. Male had mean OHI-S of 2.95 while female had 1.65. Noninstitutionalized had poorer oral hygiene with mean OHI-S of 3.2. According to the degree of mental retardation, profound had the highest OHI-S score, i.e. 3.71 while mild had the lowest score, i.e. 1.01.

  18. Hand hygiene and face touching in family medicine offices: a Cincinnati Area Research and Improvement Group (CARInG) network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Nancy C; Sawyer, Will; Pallerla, Harini; Khaja, Sara; Blacker, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Family medicine offices may play an important role in the transmission of common illnesses such as upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). There has, however, been little study of whether physicians teach patients about URTI transmission and what their own actions are to prevent infection. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of hand hygiene and the frequency with which family physicians and staff touch their eyes, nose, and mouth (the T-zone) as well as physician and staff self-reported behaviors and recommendations given to patients regarding URTI prevention. We observed family physicians and staff at 7 offices of the Cincinnati Area Research and Improvement Group (CARInG) practice-based research network for the quality of hand hygiene and number of T-zone touches. After observations, participants completed surveys about personal habits and recommendations given to patients to prevent URTIs. A total of 31 clinicians and 48 staff participated. They touched their T-zones a mean of 19 times in 2 hours (range, 0-105 times); clinicians did so significantly less often than staff (P hygiene and who touched their T-zone less report the same personal habits and recommendations to patients as those with poorer URTI prevention hygiene. Clinicians and staff in family medicine offices frequently touch their T-zone and demonstrate mixed quality of hand cleansing. Participants' self-rated URTI prevention behaviors were not associated with how well they actually perform hand hygiene and how often they touch their T-zone. The relationship between self-reported and observed behaviors and URTIs in family medicine office settings needs further study.

  19. Hand hygiene among laboratory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Emine; Haverkate, Diana; Voss, Andreas

    2006-09-01

    We performed a study to measure the compliance of laboratory personnel with different components of hand hygiene. The level of compliance at the end of duty was 100%; however, 36.7% of subjects wore a ring, 46.9% wore a watch, and 6.1% wore a bracelet. Pathogenic microorganisms were exclusively found on hands of laboratory personnel who wore jewelry. After interventions, the level of compliance with the no-jewelry policy among laboratory personnel showed sustained improvement. Efforts to improve hand hygiene should be directed not only at healthcare workers but also at laboratory personnel.

  20. Prevention of gingivitis: Oral hygiene and dentifrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    At the basis of Oral Health lies daily oral hygiene self-care with the result, if correctly performed, of plaque and gingivitis reduction. Epidemiological studies indicate that the level of oral hygiene in the general population has increased over the last decades. However, there still appears to be

  1. A qualitative study examining the preparedness of dental hygiene students for a service-learning placement in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J P; Blinkhorn, A S; Blinkhorn, F A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to measure the effect of a specifically designed orientation re-enactment DVD used to facilitate dental hygiene students transition from the classroom to a Residential Aged Care Facility (RACF) service-learning placement with less personal anxiety and more confidence in their role during the placement. Final year students (n = 47) were randomly allocated to one of 17 RACFs on the NSW, Central Coast, Australia. All students were then randomly allocated to a two-group study with the active group assigned to view the DVD prior to their placement. Students who viewed the DVD were asked not to discuss the content with students who were assigned to the control group. Post-placement focus groups were organized, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were collated, analysed and unitized into emergent themes. Representative quotes are presented in the results. The study was informed by 4 years of previous quantitative and qualitative process evaluation of the RACF programme. Focus group discussions identified that those students who had seen the DVD reported a shorter timeframe to successfully transition from the classroom to the RACF and stated that the DVD provided them with a realistic expectation of the RACF environment and their role in the placement experience. The orientation DVD reduced student anxiety and improved student confidence in their role during the placement by providing a realistic orientation of the RACF environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in a semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    behaviour in the study community were poor. Hygiene education and social marketing of sanitation facilities are hereby advised. Keywords: Sanitation facility; hygiene practices; Semi-. Urban community; Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr B. Ordinioha. INTRODUCTION. Water and sanitation projects are synergistic in producing.

  3. Chemical studies on Taxus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Qin, Fang; Wang, Si-Ming; Guo, Rui-Xia; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Shi, Qing-Wen

    2013-10-01

    A series of new taxanes, 1-93, have been isolated, together with 37 known taxoids including Taxol(®) (paclitaxel) and cephalomannine, from the Canadian yew, Taxus canadensis (Taxaceae) in the past 30 years. These new taxoids possess various skeletons containing 5/7/6, 6/10/6, 6/5/5/6, 6/8/6, and 6/12 ring systems and six new taxanes with four novel skeletons, i.e., a taxane with a 6/6/8/6 ring system, a taxane with a [3.3.3] propellane skeleton, three taxanes with [3.3.3] [3.4.5] dipropellane sytems, as well as a novel taxane with a unique 5/5/4/6/6/6 hexacyclic skeleton, containing a unique [3.3.2] propellane, were isolated for the first time from natural sources. It should be emphasized that 13-acetyl-9-dihydrobaccatin III, a very useful starting material for the semisynthesis of Taxol(®) and Taxotere(®) , represents the most abundant taxane in the needles of this yew tree. These findings establish the above mentioned yew tree as significantly different from the remaining species. On the other hand, some chemical modifications on the taxanes isolated from this plant were carried out. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Acute care nurses' responses and recommendations for improvement of hand hygiene compliance: A cross-sectional factorial survey research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Sheryl L; Nolan, Rachael; Crawford, Hannah; Hallam, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-01

    Hand hygiene is promoted as an effective practice to counter health care-acquired infections; however, compliance is less than optimal. Nurses have many patient contact opportunities and therefore are frequent participants in intervention research. The optimal combination of efficient and effective intervention components has not been conclusively identified. A factorial survey research design offers an efficient method to assess multiple factors simultaneously by combining elements into vignettes. This article describes a process, grounded in the framework of Bandura's social cognitive theory, that explored environmental and individual factors that potentially influence nurses' hand hygiene behavior in acute care settings. Survey respondents consisted of nurses employed in patient care; respondents also could address an open response item. A total of 466 participants scored a total of 3,685 vignettes. Statistically significant parameters included goal, supervisor priority, electronic monitoring, and rewards. The most frequently mentioned open response item was the need to keep hand hygiene product dispensers refilled. Participants also suggested that culture and intrinsic motivation influenced hand hygiene behavior. Researchers might consider assessing promising factors, especially use of goal setting, as an intervention rather than as components of an intervention. Further research is indicated to better understand how nurses define and view hand hygiene culture. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A brief motivational interviewing as an adjunct to periodontal therapy-A potential tool to reduce relapse in oral hygiene behaviours. A three-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, J; Wennström, J L; Abrahamsson, K H

    2017-08-24

    To evaluate (ii) whether inclusion of a single motivational interviewing (MI) session, as an adjunct to periodontal therapy, might be beneficial for preventing relapse in oral hygiene behaviours among patients treated for chronic periodontitis and (ii) whether individual and clinical characteristics can be of predictive value for retention of sufficient oral hygiene behaviours. This 3-year follow-up of a previously reported randomized controlled trial (RCT) study of 6-month duration included 26 patients. Patients in the test group had received one MI session by a clinical psychologist before initiation of the periodontal treatment. Otherwise, all patients followed the same treatment protocol for conventional educational intervention and non-surgical periodontal therapy. Efficacy variables assessed for evaluation of the standard of self-performed periodontal infection control were marginal bleeding index (MBI; primary efficacy variable) and plaque score (PI). The patterns of change in MBI and PI scores were similar for test and control groups over the observation period. At 3 years, both groups showed a desirable mean full-mouth MBI of 15%, a figure that was comparable to that at the short-term evaluation after active periodontal treatment. The post-treatment MBI was the only variable identified as a predictor of retained adequate oral hygiene behaviours. A single MI session as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy could not be proven to be of long-term beneficial additive effect with regard to prevention of relapse in oral hygiene behaviour. Desirable standard of self-performed infection control after active periodontal treatment predicted the retention of sufficient oral hygiene behaviour over time. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzam al Kadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization’s concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications for hand hygiene and compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE sessions. Sixty students including thirty-six males (60% and twenty-four females (40% participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The average awareness regarding the positive indications of hand hygiene was 56%. Rest of the 44% of students were either not sure or unaware of the indications of hygiene. Only 29% of students were able to identify all the five indications for hand hygiene in the questionnaire. Compliance as assessed during OSCE sessions was only 17% with no significant difference between the genders. Conclusion. It was concluded that serious efforts are needed to improve the hand hygiene practices among medical students.

  7. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than a million infections in the hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows how patients can play an active role ...

  9. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine (eds.)

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  10. Hand hygiene among laboratory workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, E.; Haverkate, D.; Voss, A.

    2006-01-01

    We performed a study to measure the compliance of laboratory personnel with different components of hand hygiene. The level of compliance at the end of duty was 100%; however, 36.7% of subjects wore a ring, 46.9% wore a watch, and 6.1% wore a bracelet. Pathogenic microorganisms were exclusively

  11. Food intake, oral hygiene and gingival bleeding in pregnancy: does lifestyle make a difference? A cross sectional exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Balgis O; El Tantawi, Maha M A; AlAgl, Adel S; Al-Ansari, Asim

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between lifestyle factors (food intake, sugary snacks consumption and oral health practices) and gingival bleeding during pregnancy. A cross sectional exploratory study was conducted in the Maternity hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It included pregnant Saudi women selected using a convenience sample. Information was collected concerning participants' background, oral hygiene practices and visits to dentists. They were asked about the amount of food they consumed and their use of sugary snacks. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between lifestyle factors and gingival bleeding. Responses were obtained from 197 women (92.1% response rate). Most women brushed their teeth but had < the recommended intake in the various food groups. Brushing was associated with lower odd of gingival bleeding (odds ratio= 0.47, 95% confidence interval= 0.23, 0.93) whereas intake of fewer servings than the recommended amounts in all food groups was associated with higher odds (odds ratio = 3.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.12, 11.82). Brushing and food intake during pregnancy are associated with gingival bleeding. Pregnant women can potentially improve their oral health by modifying their lifestyle and following healthier practices.

  12. Dental hygiene work in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, H S; Morgado, I; Assunção, V; Bernardo, M F; Leroux, B; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T A; Leitão, J

    2008-08-01

    Dental hygiene activities were developed as part of a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the safety of low-level mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations. Along with dental-hygiene clinical work, a community programme was implemented after investigators noticed the poor oral hygiene habits of participants, and the need for urgent action to minimize oral health problems in the study population. Clinical and community activity goal was to promote oral health and prevent new disease. Community activities involved participants and their fellow students and were aimed at providing education on oral health in a school environment. Dental hygienists developed clinical work with prophylaxis, sealants application and topical fluoride and implemented the community programme with in-class sessions on oral health themes. Twice a month fluoride mouthrinses and bi-annual tooth brushing instructional activity took place. Participation at dental-hygiene activities, sealed teeth with no need of restoration and dental-plaque-index were measures used to evaluate success of the programme for the participants. Improvement in dental hygiene is shown by the decrease in dental plaque index scores (P teeth. 888 (13.7%) teeth with sealants had to be restored or were lost. Children participated actively on dental hygiene activities. Teachers became aware of the problem and included oral-health in school curricula. Dental hygiene activities have shown to be helpful to promote dental hygiene, promote oral health and to provide school-age children with education on habits that will be important for their future good health.

  13. Basic Rules of Hygiene Protect Health Care and Lab Workers from Nasal Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus: An International Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra Saadatian-Elahi; Anne Tristan; Frédéric Laurent; Jean-Philippe Rasigade; Coralie Bouchiat; Anne-Gaëlle Ranc; Gérard Lina; Olivier Dauwalder; Jérôme Etienne; Michèle Bes; François Vandenesch

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of nasal Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization by contaminated hands is likely an important determinant of its nasal carriage rate in health care and lab setting. The objective of our cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of nasal methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage among health care professionals (HCPs) attending an international symposium and to study the association between compliance with hygiene rules, individ...

  14. How to improve hygienic behaviour in holiday park swimming pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, I.; Keuten, M.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on contamination of swimming pool water showed that the hygienic behaviour of swimmers is the most important factor. The suggested hygienic behaviour is; having a pre-swim shower and using the toilet when nature calls. Knowing the importance of hygienic behaviour is one thing,

  15. An assessment of the hygiene level in animal product processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess hygiene level in the 20 local animal product processing plants. Questionnaire based interviews with managers and food handlers gave an overview of perception of hygiene and practices related to it. Checklists using a scoring system, were designed for objective hygiene inspection.

  16. Sleep Hygiene In Nigerian Childen | Ofovwe | IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sleep hygiene significantly affects quality of sleep in children. Poor sleep hygiene is associated with disorders of sleep which can produce significant cognitive and behavioural consequences in children. However, not much is known about sleep hygiene African children. This study therefore sought to evaluate ...

  17. Long-term impact of community-based information, education and communication activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors in Vietnam: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Takanashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of children aged between six months and four years in suburban Hanoi. Baseline data were collected in January 2006 (n = 125. After conducting IEC interventions, we collected a 1(st set of evaluation data in January 2007 (n = 132. To examine the long-term impact of the interventions, we then collected a 2(nd set of evaluation data in January 2008 (n = 185. Changes in childhood diarrhea prevalence, IEC coverage, and food hygiene and food safety behaviors were assessed over a two-year period using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Effective IEC channels were determined through multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Childhood diarrhea was significantly reduced from 21.6% at baseline to 7.6% at the 1(st post-intervention evaluation (P = 0.002, and to 5.9% at the 2(nd evaluation. Among 17 food hygiene and food safety behaviors measured, a total of 11 behaviors were improved or maintained by the 2(nd evaluation. Handwashing after toilet use was significantly improved at both evaluation points. Overall, 3 food safety behaviors and 7 food hygiene behaviors were found to have significantly improved at the 1(st and at the 2(nd evaluations, respectively. Flip chart communication administered by community groups was identified to be the most effective IEC channel for effecting behavior change (P = 0.018. CONCLUSIONS: Flip chart communication administered by community groups is effective for improving multiple food hygiene and food safety

  18. Sleep Hygiene Behaviors Among Midlife Women with Insomnia or Sleep-Disordered Breathing: The SWAN Sleep Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kline, Christopher E.; Irish, Leah A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Okun, Michele L.; Owens, Jane F.; Hall, Martica H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are the most common sleep disorders among midlife women. Although promoting sleep hygiene behaviors may be a useful behavioral approach for the management of insomnia or SDB, the frequency with which women engage in these behaviors is unclear.

  19. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Child dysentery in the Limpopo Valley: a cohort study of water, sanitation and hygiene risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundry, Stephen W; Wright, James A; Conroy, Ronán M; Preez, Martella Du; Genthe, Bettina; Moyo, Sibonginkosi; Mutisi, Charles; Potgieter, Natasha

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to assess risk factors for child dysentery and watery diarrhoea. The study participants consisted of 254 children aged 12-24 months in rural South Africa and Zimbabwe in households where drinking water was collected from communal sources. The main outcome measure was the most severe diarrhoea episode: dysentery, watery diarrhoea or none. For dysentery, drinking water from sources other than standpipes had a relative risk ratio of 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-9.8). Poor source water quality, as indicated by Escherichia coli counts of 10 or more cfu 100 ml(-1), increased risk by 2.9 (1.5-5.7). There were no other significant risk factors for dysentery and none for watery diarrhoea. In this study, endemic dysentery is associated only with faecal contamination of source water. Sources other than standpipes, including improved groundwater, are of greater risk. Remediation of water quality by treatment at source or in the household will be required to achieve access to safe drinking water in accordance with the 7th Millennium Development Goal.

  1. Dental hygiene students' perceptions of a cultural competence component in a tobacco dependence education curriculum: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Heather J; Maillet, Peggy J; Brillant, Martha G; Tax, Cara L

    2015-06-01

    First Nations and Inuit peoples have tobacco use rates three times that of the Canadian national average. Providing tobacco dependence education (TDE) requires an understanding of the factors surrounding tobacco use that are culturally specific to this population. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new cultural competence component for Canadian First Nations and Inuit peoples in a TDE curriculum at Dalhousie University School of Dental Hygiene, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. In 2011, the TDE curriculum was revised to include a First Nations and Inuit people's cultural component. A 32-question survey was developed for the study, with questions divided into four subscales regarding students' perceived knowledge, skills, comfort level, and attitudes about working with this population. Responses from students in two succeeding years were compared: the first cohort had not participated in the revised curriculum (56% response rate), and the second cohort had (63% response rate). The results showed an overall improvement in the subscales evaluated and a significant (p=0.002) improvement in the knowledge subscale of the students who received the new TDE curriculum, specifically regarding knowledge about sociocultural characteristics, health risks, and cultural healing traditions of First Nations and Inuit people. Although the results indicated an increase in the knowledge of the culture of First Nations and Inuit peoples, it is unclear whether the students felt better prepared to provide TDE to this population. For future research, the investigators would examine what learning experiences and further changes to the curriculum could be provided to facilitate the level of preparedness to successfully deliver TDE.

  2. [Study of the influence of cellular phones and personal computers on schoolchildren's health: hygienic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernenkov, Iu V; Gumeniuk, O I

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studying the impact of using cellular phones and personal computers on the health status of 277 Saratov schoolchildren (mean age 13.2 +/- 2.3 years). About 80% of the adolescents have been ascertained to use cellular phones and computers mainly for game purposes. The active users of cellular phones and computers show a high aggressiveness, anxiety, hostility, and social stress, low stress resistance, and susceptibility to arterial hypotension. The negative influence of cellular phones and computers on the schoolchildren's health increases with the increased duration and frequency of their use.

  3. Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing & Nail Hygiene Keeping Hands Clean Nail Hygiene ...

  4. Menstrual hygiene management amongst schoolgirls in the Rukungiri district of Uganda and the impact on their education: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosey, Robyn; Prestwich, Georgina; Deave, Toity

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have found that girls in low-income settings miss or struggle at school during menstruation if they are unable to manage their menstrual hygiene effectively. This study explores the menstrual hygiene practices and knowledge of girls at rural government primary schools in the Rukungiri district in Uganda and assesses the extent to which poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) affects their education. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by schoolgirls in six government-run primary schools in the Rukungiri district. Focus groups were held with girls from each school and semi-structured interviews were conducted with headteachers and female teachers from the participating schools. A toilet assessment was also conducted in each school. One hundred and forty schoolgirls completed the questionnaire. The girls reported a lack of access to adequate resources, facilities and accurate information to manage their menstrual hygiene effectively at school. They reported that, as a result, during menstruation they often struggle at school or miss school. Eighty-six girls (61.7%) reported missing school each month for menstrual-related reasons (mean 1.64, range 0-10, SD. 1.84). It is common for girls who attend government-run primary schools in the Rukungiri district to miss school or struggle in lessons during menstruation because they do not have access to the resources, facilities, or information they need to manage for effective MHM. This is likely to have detrimental effects on their education and future prospects. A large-scale study is needed to explore the extent of this issue.

  5. Enhancing the evaluation of pathogen transmission risk in a hospital by merging hand-hygiene compliance and contact data: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Soto-Aladro, Alberto; Brouqui, Philippe; Barrat, Alain

    2015-09-10

    Hand-hygiene compliance and contacts of health-care workers largely determine the potential paths of pathogen transmission in hospital wards. We explored how the combination of data collected by two automated infrastructures based on wearable sensors and recording (1) use of hydro-alcoholic solution and (2) contacts of health-care workers provide an enhanced view of the risk of transmission events in the ward. We perform a proof-of-concept observational study. Detailed data on contact patterns and hand-hygiene compliance of health-care workers were collected by wearable sensors over 12 days in an infectious disease unit of a hospital in Marseilles, France. 10,837 contact events among 10 doctors, 4 nurses, 4 nurses' aids and 4 housekeeping staff were recorded during the study. Most contacts took place among medical doctors. Aggregate contact durations were highly heterogeneous and the resulting contact network was highly structured. 510 visits of health-care workers to patients' rooms were recorded, with a low rate of hand-hygiene compliance. Both data sets were used to construct histories and statistics of contacts informed by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution, or lack thereof, of the involved health-care workers. Hand-hygiene compliance data strongly enrich the information concerning contacts among health-care workers, by assigning a 'safe' or 'at-risk' value to each contact. The global contact network can thus be divided into 'at-risk' and 'safe' contact networks. The combined data could be of high relevance for outbreak investigation and to inform data-driven models of nosocomial disease spread.

  6. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods. Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results. In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions. Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  7. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Asuka; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Miki, Emiko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Toda, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL) for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods . Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results . In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions . Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > File Formats Help: How do I ...

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get more than a million infections in the hospital while being treated for something else. The best ... reminding healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Release Date: 8/4/ ...

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC-TV videos cover a variety of health, safety and preparedness topics and include closed-captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand ... High resolution [22.9 MB] Open Captioned [14.5 MB] Request a higher resolution file Copy the ...

  13. Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing & Nail Hygiene Keeping Hands Clean Nail Hygiene ...

  14. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

  15. [Hygienic effect of landscaping in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechkuev, R; Chuchkova, M; Kurchatova, G

    1979-01-01

    The atmospheric environment in two blocks of flats with different degree of gardens and parks lain out and in a town park in Sofia was studied by the basic physical, chemical and physiologic parameters. The results give grounds to admit that laying out gardens and parks in urban zones contributes to the creation of definite, qualitatively and quantitatively different housing environment: a more favourable temperature-and-moisture, radiation - thermal and biologicaly active regime. The physiologic state of residents, looking for recreation in these places, was better in an environment of ample verdure. Laying out gardens and parks should gain wider acceptance in the urbanization of bloks of flats, since it is an effective means of improving the hygienic merits of housing environment.

  16. Dental hygiene education for nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Erika; Forsell, Marianne; Wedel, Peter; Sjögren, Petteri; Johansson, Olle; Herbst, Bertil; Hoogstraate, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a new dental hygiene education program for nursing staff and to report experiences from the program at a nursing home in Stockholm, Sweden (2006). This strategy comprises 3 steps. The first is individual instruction for nursing staff about oral care for patients and hands-on training in toothbrushing technique using an electric toothbrush. The second step was small discussion groups of 4 to 8 nursing staff, led by a dental hygienist and a psychologist. The third step was a theoretical lecture focusing on the associations among dental hygiene, oral health, and general health among the elderly. During the dental hygiene education program, a negative attitude toward oral care was noted among members of the nursing staff, although they did consider oral care important for their patients. Increased self-confidence of staff in providing oral care was noted after completing the dental hygiene education program. Nursing staff members stated that they had received more detailed knowledge about oral care during the program. This dental hygiene education program appears to result in increased knowledge and interest in oral hygiene tasks among the nursing staff and may lead to improved dental hygiene among nursing home residents.

  17. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Maureen EC; Sargeant, Jan M.; Weese, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygien...

  18. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taranatha Mahantesha; Asha Nara; Parveen Kumari; Praveen Halemani; Vinutna Buddiga; Mythri Sarpangala

    2015-01-01

      Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka...

  19. Strategies for service-learning assessment in dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Sharlee

    2013-10-01

    A large body of literature exists on the instructional pedagogy known as service-learning. Service-learning is a teaching and learning approach characterized by the dental hygiene student's practical application of academic studies and occurs within a community setting, to the benefit of both the student and community. Dental hygiene educators use service-learning to enhance student knowledge and application of oral health curriculum. This manuscript reports on the importance of service-learning assessment to the National Dental Hygiene Research Agenda as well as the future of the profession of dental hygiene and the successful strategies in service-learning evaluation available for utilization by dental hygiene educators.

  20. Hand hygiene in emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Jonathan; Millin, Michael G; Bissell, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) affect millions of patients annually (World Health Organization. Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare. Geneva: WHO Press; 2009). Hand hygiene compliance of clinical staff has been identified by numerous studies as a major contributing factor to HAIs around the world. Infection control and hand hygiene in the prehospital environment can also contribute to patient harm and spread of infections. Emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners are not monitored as closely as hospital personnel in terms of hand hygiene training and compliance. Their ever-changing work environment is less favorable to traditional hospital-based aseptic techniques and education. This study aimed to determine the current state of hand hygiene practices among EMS providers and to provide recommendations for improving practices in the emergency health services environment. This study was a prospective, observational prevalence study and survey, conducted over a 2-month period. We selected participants from visits to three selected hospital emergency departments in the mid-Atlantic region. There were two data components to the study: a participant survey and hand swabs for pathogenic cultures. This study recruited a total sample of 62 participants. Overall, the study revealed that a significant number of EMS providers (77%) have a heavy bacterial load on their hands after patient care. All levels of providers had a similar distribution of bacterial load. Survey results revealed that few providers perform hand hygiene before (34%) or in between patients (24%), as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. This study demonstrates that EMS providers are potential vectors of microorganisms if proper hand hygiene is not performed properly. Since EMS providers treat a variety of patients and operate in a variety of environments, providers may be exposed to potentially pathogenic organisms, serving as vectors for the exposure of

  1. Hygiene Knowledge of Food Staff in Catering Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Yardımcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out to determine the hygiene knowledge of the staff (N = 317 employed in kitchen and service departments of catering firms in Ankara. It was found that the mean scores of the staff with regard to personal hygiene, food hygiene, and kitchen and equipment hygiene were 10.7 ± 1.6, 19.8 ± 4.0, and 13.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Male staff achieved higher mean scores in personal hygiene knowledge test compared with female staff (p < .01. The staff receiving a hygiene training were determined to have higher mean scores in terms of hygiene knowledge tests compared with those who have not received, and the production staff had higher knowledge as to hygiene than the other groups (p < .01. The mean scores for hygiene knowledge tests were found to be increasing with age. Hygiene knowledge scores of the staff were quite lower than what must be taken. For that reason, periodical training programs should be organized to increase the awareness of the staff about hygiene.

  2. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?

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    Dasgupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  3. Electrochemical, surface analytical and quantum chemical studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 34; Issue 6. Electrochemical, surface analytical and quantum chemical studies on Schiff bases of 4-amino-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3,5-dimethanol (ATD) in corrosion protection of aluminium in 1N HNO3. Sam John K Mohammad Ali Abraham Joseph. Volume 34 Issue 6 ...

  4. Effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Beselam; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2017-11-01

    Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention. A four-stage random cluster-sampling technique was employed to select study participants. From each selected household, one child was clinically assessed for active trachoma. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic and behavioral data. MacNemar test was applied to compare the prevalence of active trachoma between baseline and after the intervention period at both intervention and non-intervention study areas. The prevalence of active trachoma was reduced from baseline prevalence of 26% to 18% after one-year intervention period in the intervention woredas (P≤0.001). MacNemar test result showed significant reduction of active trachoma prevalence after the intervention period in the intervention woredas compared to the non-intervention woredas (P≤0.001). Water, sanitation and hygiene related activities were significantly improved after the intervention period in the intervention woredas (Pwater, sanitation and hygiene interventions contributed to the reduction of active trachoma. However, the magnitude of active trachoma prevalence observed after the intervention is still very high in the studied areas of North and South Wollo Zones communities. To achieve the global trachoma elimination target by the year 2020 as set by the WHO, continued WaSH interventions and periodic monitoring, evaluation and reporting of the impact of WaSH on active trachoma is warranted.

  5. Implementation of directly observed patient hand hygiene for hospitalized patients by hand hygiene ambassadors in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Tai, Josepha W M; Li, W S; Chau, P H; So, Simon Y C; Wong, Lisa M W; Ching, Radley H C; Ng, Modissa M L; Ho, Sara K Y; Lee, Doris W Y; Lee, W M; Wong, Sally C Y; Yuen, K Y

    2016-06-01

    The importance of compliance with hand hygiene by patients is increasingly recognized to prevent health care-associated infections. This descriptive study observed the effects of an education campaign, targeted to increase patients' self-initiated hand hygiene, and a hand hygiene ambassador-initiated directly observed hand hygiene program on patients' hand hygiene compliance in a university-affiliated hospital. The overall audited compliance of patients' self-initiated hand hygiene was only 37.5%, with a rate of 26.9% (112/416 episodes) before meals and medications, 27.5% (19/69 episodes) after using a urinal or bedpan, and 89.7% (87/97 episodes) after attending toilet facilities. Patients referred from a residential care home for older adults had significantly lower hand hygiene compliance (P = .007). Comparatively, the overall audited compliance of ambassador-initiated directly observed hand hygiene was 97.3% (428/440 episodes), which was significantly higher than patients' self-initiated hand hygiene via a patient education program (37.5%, 218/582 episodes, P hand hygiene can play an important role in improving compliance with hand hygiene by hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Problems of laundry hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, C; Guasticchi, G

    1989-01-01

    As the bacteria found more frequently in hospital infections are the same found in the linen, it is speculated that hospital linens can contribute to the spread of nosocomial patologies. Nevertheless this consideration does not prove that linen constitutes a significant source for transmission of hospital infections, although some studies have strengthened this possibility. The hygienic problems of hospital linens washing have a great importance and in this contest the possibility of contagion throught infected sheets or overalls constitutes only a part of the question. The problem of the spreading of nosocomial infections has to be divided into (1) collection and arlage of the linens; and (2) their disinfection and washing. Collection and carriage need precautions to prevent the hospital staff and the patients from the direct contagion, while during the washing the infected, or potentially infected, linen are to be regarded as a potential risk, which can be avoided through a disinfection before the standard washing cycle. During the washing the processes of cleansing, the dilution and the effect of temperature could be sufficient to obtain the final results. The last consideration is linked to gestational aspects, that's to say the consumptions, the costs, the traditional organizing procedures and the alternative ones, such as the possibility of substituting disposable material to linens or to refer to central laundries placed outside the hospital building and independently operated.

  7. Assessing patient awareness of proper hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Sunni R; Kennedy, Bryan; Davis, Stephanie C; Thompson, Heather A; Jones, Jan W

    2015-05-01

    The authors hypothesized that patients may not understand the forms of effective hand hygiene employed in the hospital environment. Multiple studies demonstrate the importance of hand hygiene in reducing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Extensive research about how to improve compliance has been conducted. Patients' perceptions of proper hand hygiene were evaluated when caregivers used soap and water, waterless hand cleaner, or a combination of these. No significant differences were observed, but many patients reported they did not notice whether their providers cleaned their hands. Educating patients and their caregivers about the protection afforded by proper, consistent hand hygiene practices is important. Engaging patients to monitor healthcare workers may increase compliance, reduce the spread of infection, and lead to better overall patient outcomes. This study revealed a need to investigate the effects of patient education on patient perceptions of hand hygiene. Results of this study appear to indicate a need to focus on patient education and the differences between soap and water versus alcohol-based hand sanitizers as part of proper hand hygiene. Researchers could be asking: "Why have patients not been engaged as members of the healthcare team who have the most to lose?"

  8. Basic rules of hygiene protect health care and lab workers from nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus: an international cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Tristan, Anne; Laurent, Frédéric; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Bouchiat, Coralie; Ranc, Anne-Gaëlle; Lina, Gérard; Dauwalder, Olivier; Etienne, Jérôme; Bes, Michèle; Vandenesch, François

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of nasal Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization by contaminated hands is likely an important determinant of its nasal carriage rate in health care and lab setting. The objective of our cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of nasal methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage among health care professionals (HCPs) attending an international symposium and to study the association between compliance with hygiene rules, individual-related parameters, and medical conditions with nasal S. aureus carriage in this population. After obtaining consent, two nasal swabs were collected. Nasal MSSA and MRSA carriage was measured by the: i) molecular approach targeting spa, mecA and mecA-orfX junction sequences, and ii) culture on selective S. aureus media combined with mecA molecular detection of isolated strains. Information on compliance with hygiene rules, demographic variables, sector of activity and long-term medication was collected by anonymous questionnaire. The participation rate was 32.3%. In total, 176 subjects from 34 countries were included in the analysis. S. aureus was isolated from the nasal swabs of 57 (32.4%) subjects, of whom 3 (5.3%) harbored MRSA strains. Overall, 123 subjects reported working in microbiology laboratories with direct manipulation of S. aureus, and 29 acknowledged regular contacts with patients. In this exposed population, hydro-alcoholic solutions appeared to have a significant protective effect against nasal S. aureus carriage (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15-0.85). Hospital work was associated with increased risk of nasal S. aureus carriage (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.07-5.29). The results of this study showed that compliance with basic rules of hygiene, such as the use of hydro-alcoholic solutions, could reduce the risk of nasal S. aureus colonization. Hydro-alcoholic solution could interrupt auto-transmission of the pathogen, consequently decreasing the overall nasal

  9. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES STUDYS OF PEATLANDON VARIOUS LANDUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yondra Yondra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural peat swamp forests converted can alter the soil chemical properties. This study aims to determine the extent to which changes in soil chemical properties that occur after the conversion of land from peat swamp forest to palm oil plantation, HTI Acacia crasicarpa, and sago plantation and to know which types of plants are sustainable on peatlands. The results showed that soil pH increased after the change of land function. While the water content decreased. Chemical properties such as C-organic, ash content, CEC, alkaline saturation, macro nutrients (NPK and bases can be changed also undergo changes after undergoing landuse changes, but no violations based on the law made by the government in pp No 25 of 2000 on the criteria of peatland damage and government regulation no. 150 of 2000 on the control of soil damage for biomass production. Sago is the most sustainable plant compared to others due to changes in soil chemical properties not too much different from other landuse although planted in the long term.

  10. The Study of School Hygiene and Physical Education in Chosun during the Early Japanese Colonial Period Carried Out through Educational Magazines: Focusing on the Time Period before the Manchurian Incident in 1910-1931.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eui-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2013-12-01

    This research mainly dealt with sanitation and hygiene related editorials quoted from educational magazines published in Chosun until the Manchurian Incident during the Japanese colonial period. The study revealed that modern Japan became aware of the importance of public sanitation from the late nineteenth century and established modern programs so that schools can comprehensively teach students about sanitation and hygiene so as to enter modern imperial society. Japan particularly introduced and carried out modern physical(gymnastics) education as a means of "complete sanitation and hygiene" to improve students' health. As a result of having two times of war, the Japanese Empire reaffirmed the significance of modern sanitation and hygiene. After colonization of Chosun, Japan organized official educational groups and enlightened the public about sanitation and hygiene through editorials on the educational magazines which the groups had published. In order for schools to promote complete sanitation and hygiene based on modern medicine, Japan actively engaged in suggesting the necessity of physical(gymnastics) education which was critical to human's growth and development. After Japanese Government-General of Korea legislated on school hygiene in 1913, Japanese governments school started hiring school doctors and nurses. They stressed the need of providing sanitation and hygiene education in school to prepare for war in 1910's in advance; highlighted that physical (gymnastics) education should be enforced to help students grow and improve their physical strength from a modern medical point of view. In April, 1919, the Japanese Empire implemented the same instruction to the schools where Chosun people attended. But it was found that the law was not applied well to those schools in effect. The Japanese Empire was seen to proclaim the second educational decree in 1922; proposed international hygienic achievement of the time and comments; enlightened the public by

  11. Health Belief Model pada Kepatuhan Hand Hygiene di Bangsal Berisiko Tinggi Healthcare Acquired Infections (HAIs (Studi Kasus Pada Rumah Sakit X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Arini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available as a global problem, patient morbidity and mortality in hospital caused by Healthcare Acquired Infections (HAIs can be prevented by implementation of Hand Hygiene (HH. This research aims to know the influence of Health Belief Model variables to HH compliance. there was a quantitative study by survey approach and cross-sectional design. The population consisted all of nurses in high risk HAIs ward (ICU and surgical ward, 30 respondents. HCW’s perceptions were measured through self-administered questioner. The compliance of HCWs was measured by observation form of HH. HH compliance should be increase. Workplace factor had significant influence to HH compliance.

  12. Sanitation facilities, hygienic conditions, and prevalence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Baseline survey of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Metadel; Mengistie, Bezatu; Kloos, Helmut; Medhin, Girmay; Mulat, Worku

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, children under the age of five years who live in slums are highly vulnerable to diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions to acute diarrhea among under-five children in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study examines the sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions in the slums of Addis Ababa and identifies the main factors significantly associated with acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in those slums. A community-based cross-sectional household survey was carried out between September and November 2014, that then served as the baseline survey of a longitudinal study. For this survey, 697 children aged 0-50 months were recruited from two slum districts in Addis Ababa. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used for data collection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sanitation facilities and hygiene-related factors that were significantly associated with acute diarrhea by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic factors. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the strength of association. The prevalence of acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in the study area was 11.9% and 94.6% of the sanitation facilities were unimproved. Sharing of a sanitation facility by six or more households (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4-9.4), proximity of sanitation facilities within 15 meters of homes (AOR = 6.6; 95% CI: 2.5-17.0), presence of feces (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5-10.3) and flies (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-5.0) on the floor of and/or around sanitation facilities, and presence of uncollected garbage inside house compounds (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-8.4) were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. This study reveals the slum environment to be high risk for diarrhea due to close proximity

  13. Opportunities to improve domestic hygiene practices through new enabling products: a study of handwashing practices and equipment in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Marion W; Anand, Aprajita R; Revell, Geoff; Sobsey, Mark D

    2013-12-01

    Lack of a dedicated place and equipment for handwashing has been associated with poor practice of handwashing with soap in the home in developing communities where the practice is needed to reduce diarrhea diseases and respiratory infections. We conducted formative research on handwashing knowledge, attitudes, practices and equipment and investigated the need and demand for dedicated handwashing equipment to enable improved hygiene practices and enhance handwashing performance for health in rural Cambodian homes where water is collected and stored. Responses to closed and open-ended questions and structured observation of a demonstration of handwashing by the mother or another female adult child caretaker in 79 households were used to identify handwashing occasions, evaluate handwashing equipment and competency, investigate attitudes and structural barriers to handwashing with soap, and assess use of and interest in dedicated handwashing equipment. We found significant evidence of the need for handwashing enabling equipment to eliminate unsafe domestic water handling during handwashing and reduce structural barriers to routine handwashing with soap in Cambodian homes dependent on stored water supplies. Substantial interest in dedicated handwashing equipment and in specific equipment features was measured. Findings suggest household demand for and uptake of affordable household handwashing facilities incorporating desired features and functionality could be generated in Cambodia to support improved domestic hygiene practices.

  14. Prevalence of dental caries, patterns of oral hygiene behaviors, and daily habits in rural central India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Kahar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is seen across all age groups and in all populations. Several sociobehavioral factors existing in a broader cultural and environmental context can affect caries prevalence. Aims: To determine the prevalence and severity of caries across gender, age, and educational levels and to study the association between oral hygiene behaviors, daily habits, and caries. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study recruited participants ≥18 years from Ramgarh, Chhindwara district in Madhya Pradesh, India. Information was collected on demographics, oral hygiene behaviors, and daily habits. Overall caries experience was quantified using decayed, missing, filled tooth index through intraoral examinations. Results: Use of toothbrushes, (P < 0.001 toothpastes (P < 0.001, and fluoridated toothpastes (P = 0.01 was significantly higher in younger participants aged 18–34 years than in older adults. Brushing twice daily (P = 0.05, use of toothbrushes (P < 0.001, toothpaste (P < 0.001, and fluoridated toothpaste (P < 0.001 was significantly higher among participants with ≥8 years education than participants with no formal education or ≤8 years of education. Use of tobacco was significantly more common among people with no education, people with ≤8 years of education (P = 0.02, and males (P < 0.001. Participants ≥45 years had 3.2 times higher odds of having decayed, missing, filled teeth scores ≥1 than the younger age groups. Conclusions: Poor oral hygiene behaviors among older adults, males, and participants with ≤8 years of education were associated with higher caries experience and missing teeth as a result of caries.

  15. Study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmura, A.

    1995-11-01

    The study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis has up to now based many of its results on the detection of genetic aberrations using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. FISH is time consuming and this tends to hinder its use for looking at large numbers of samples. We are currently developing new technological advances which will increase the speed, clarity and functionality of the FISH technique. These advances include multi-labeled probes, amplification techniques, and separation techniques.

  16. Hand hygiene practices of home visiting community nurses: perceptions, compliance, techniques, and contextual factors of practice using the World Health Organization's "five moments for hand hygiene".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felembam, Ohood; John, Winsome St; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2012-03-01

    In this observational study, the perceptions, compliance, techniques, and contextual issues of hand hygiene practices among community clinicians (nurses) during 103 hand hygiene opportunities (based on the World Health Organization "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene") in 40 patient care episodes were examined. Compliance with standard hand hygiene practices was generally poor, with many contextual influences making compliance difficult. Clinician preferences and convenience are important considerations in hand hygiene compliance. Improving home-visiting community clinicians' hand hygiene practices requires addressing contextual issues related to the availability of hand hygiene equipment, such as alcohol-based hand rubs, as well as hand hygiene in-service education to update knowledge on hand hygiene for everyday practice in community settings.

  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... d’Opération d’Urgence (COU) Portuguese Vacine-se e proteja-se contra o sarampo Somali Halagu Tallaalo ... Hand Hygiene Clean Hands Basics Send Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your feedback ...

  18. Chemical studies of the heaviest elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagame, Y.; Haba, H.; Tsukada, K.; Asai, M.; Toyoshima, A.; Goto, S.; Akiyama, K.; Kaneko, T.; Sakama, M.; Hirata, M.; Yaita, T.; Nishinaka, I.; Ichikawa, S.; Nakahara, H.

    2004-04-01

    Chemical studies of the transactinide elements ( Z ≥ 104) at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) are reviewed and prospects for extending the studies are briefly considered. Aqueous chemistry of element 104, rutherfordium (Rf), and element 105, dubnium (Db), produced in the 248Cm( 18O, 5 n) 261Rf and 24m( 19F, 5 n) 262Db reactions, respectively, has been studied by ion-exchange chromatography on an atom-at-a-time basis. Characteristic ion-exchange behavior of Rf and Db in acidic solution is discussed.

  19. Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

  20. Theoretical studies of chemical reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, G.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This collaborative program with the Theoretical Chemistry Group at Argonne involves theoretical studies of gas phase chemical reactions and related energy transfer and photodissociation processes. Many of the reactions studied are of direct relevance to combustion; others are selected they provide important examples of special dynamical processes, or are of relevance to experimental measurements. Both classical trajectory and quantum reactive scattering methods are used for these studies, and the types of information determined range from thermal rate constants to state to state differential cross sections.

  1. Leadership in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Programs: A Pilot Study Comparing Stand-Alone Leadership Courses and Leadership-Infused Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Farnsworth, Tracy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association.

  2. Behavioral and hygienic characteristics of primary schoolchildren which can be modified to reduce the prevalence of geohelminth infections: a study in central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Julia W; Hidayati, Nur Rokhmah; Basaric-Keys, Jasna

    2005-05-01

    Five schools in central Java that enroll more than 500 students in grades one through six were chosen for a study of the prevalence of parasitic geohelminths and selected protozoan infections. The schools are located in regions that differ in geological features, density of vegetation and cultural and economic attributes. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths among children in the five schools ranged from 8.7% to 76.1%, and protozoan infections from 2.8% to 32.1%. The principal objective of the study was to identify physical, hygienic and behavioral characteristics of the children that increase the likelihood of becoming infected. Although most of the characteristics studied are considered to be contributing factors, few previous attempts have been made to rank them in order of importance in causing infection. The results of this study suggest that a systematic and sustained effort to teach children to (a) avoid certain types of behavior that favor infection, and (b) practice good personal hygiene, are the best approaches to significant and enduring reduction of the scourge of intestinal parasitism.

  3. An automated hand hygiene compliance system is associated with improved monitoring of hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Saungi; Reilly, Maggie; Thomas, Rowena; McSpedon-Rai, Dawn

    2017-05-01

    Consistent hand hygiene is key to reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) and assessing compliance with hand hygiene protocols is vital for hospital infection control staff. A new automated hand hygiene compliance system (HHCS) was trialed as an alternative to human observers in an intensive care unit and an intensive care stepdown unit at a hospital facility in the northeastern United States. Using a retrospective cohort design, researchers investigated whether implementation of the HHCS resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and a reduction in common HAI rates. Pearson χ 2 tests were used to assess changes in compliance, and incidence rate ratios were used to test for significant differences in infection rates. During the study period, the HHCS collected many more hand hygiene events compared with human observers (632,404 vs 480) and ensured that the hospital met its compliance goals (95%+). Although decreases in multidrug-resistant organisms, central line-associated bloodstream infections, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates were observed, they represented nonsignificant differences. Human hand hygiene observers may not report accurate measures of compliance. The HHCS is a promising new tool for fine-grained assessment of hand hygiene compliance. Further study is needed to examine the association between the HHCS and HAI rate reduction. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study of impact of Education onAwareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandita K.K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find out effect of educational background on personal hygiene, awareness regarding transmission of food borne infections and routine practices among food handler of the food establishments of a super speciality teaching hospital of Kashmir. Results Out of 121 respondents (33.05 percent cooks, 42.97 percent stewards and 23.97 percent dishwashers, 90.90 percent were males and 9.10 percent females. Majority (90.90 percent have educational background below high school level (group B and the rest (9.10% have education above 10th standard (group A. Soap was used by majority(90.9% of group A in comparison to group B(59.1% before entering kitchen.72.7% of group A employees change their shoes and use kitchen slippers in the kitchen, whereas only 31.8% of group B employees do so and the rest(68.2% do not change the foot wear before entering the kitchen.While 81.8% of group A employees responded that diarrhoeal diseases spread by contaminated food,majority of group B(62.7% responded other reasons.81.8% of group A feel it necessary to chlorinate or filter visibly clean water, whereas only 52.7% of group B feel so. Conclusion Food handlers of any food establishment, in particular hospital kitchen should have high standard of educational background to have enough awareness regarding food borne diseases and importance ofpersonal hygiene to prevent transmission of diseases. Because of poor educational background, the food handlers in our study didn’t know the importance of use

  5. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... from its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  6. Feminine hygiene practices among female patients and nurses in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate feminine hygiene practices are related to vulvovaginitis. We investigated the prevalence of personal hygiene habits among Lebanese women as well as their awareness of adequate practices. Methods Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices. Results The study included 249 women. 21.3...

  7. Oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of public school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pivotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of schoolchildren in public elementary school in the city of Itajaí-SC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research. The sample consisted of children enrolled in the first year of elementary level in public schools of Itajaí-SC in 2011. Data collection was performed through registration of the children’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians about the characterization of schoolstudent’s oral hygiene. Results: The study evaluated 202 schoolstudent. Regarding daily toothbrushing, 121 (59.9% reported that an adult is responsible for carrying out this procedure for the child and 81 (40.1% reported the own child performs brushing. Brushing frequency for 128 (63.4% children was three times a day and floss was not used by 137 (68% of them. In 114 (56.4% of the schoolchildren was found an OHI-S classified as reasonable hygiene (1.3 to 2. Regarding how to deal with the oral hygiene of children, 140 (69% parents stated having already received such information and the source cited by 118 (58.4% was the dentist. Conclusion: Schoolchildren presented oral hygiene habits with deficiency in dental plaque removal and flossing, resulting in a reasonable OHI-S. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p455

  8. Enhancing the evaluation of pathogen transmission risk in a hospital by merging hand-hygiene compliance and contact data: a proof-of-concept study

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Brouqui, Philippe; Barrat, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Hand-hygiene compliance and contacts of health-care workers largely determine the potential paths of pathogen transmission in hospital wards. We explored how the combination of data collected by two automated infrastructures based on wearable sensors and recording (i) use of hydro-alcoholic solution and (ii) contacts of health-care workers provide an enhanced view of the risk of transmission events in the ward. We perform a proof-of-concept observational study. Detailed data on contact patterns and hand-hygiene compliance of health-care workers were collected by wearable sensors over 12 days in an infectious disease unit of a hospital in Marseilles, France. 10837 contact events among 10 doctors, 4 nurses, 4 nurses' aids and 4 housekeeping staff were recorded during the study. Most contacts took place among medical doctors. Aggregate contact durations were highly heterogeneous and the resulting contact network was highly structured. 510 visits of health-care workers to patients' rooms were recorded, with a low...

  9. A person-oriented approach to hand hygiene behaviour: Emotional empathy fosters hand hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Diefenbacher, Svenja; Siegel, André; Keller, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social-psychological approach, this research examines whether emotional empathy, an affective reaction regarding another's well-being, fosters hand hygiene as this affects other's health-related well-being extensively. Three studies tested this notion: (a) a cross-sectional study involving a sample of health care workers at a German hospital, (b) an experiment testing the causal effect of empathy on hand hygiene behaviour and (c) an 11-week prospective study testing whether an empathy induction affected disinfectant usage frequency in two different wards of a hospital. Self-reported hand hygiene behaviour based on day reconstruction method was measured in Study 1, actual hand sanitation behaviour was observed in Study 2 and disinfectant usage frequency in two different hospital wards was assessed in Study 3. Study 1 reveals an association of empathy with hand hygiene cross-sectionally, Study 2 documents the causal effect of empathy on increased hand sanitation. Study 3 shows an empathy induction increases hand sanitiser usage in the hospital. Increasing emotional empathy promotes hand hygiene behaviour, also in hospitals. Besides providing new impulses for the design of effective interventions, these findings bear theoretical significance as they document the explanatory power of empathy regarding a distal explanandum (hand hygiene).

  10. Hygienic treatment and energy recovery of dead animals by high solid co-digestion with vinasse under mesophilic condition: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Chen, Sisi; Xue, Yonggang; Dai, Lingling; Li, Ning; Takahashi, Junichi; Zhao, Wentao

    2015-10-30

    In the present study, the feasibility of hygienic treatment and energy recovery of dead animals (pork as an experimental alternative) by high solid co-digestion with vinasse under mesophilic condition was investigated. A lab-scale digester was operated for 125 days with SRT of 20 days. The volatile solid (VS) reduction, biogas yield, and CH4 content finally achieved stability after two obvious fluctuations, and were 55±1%, 0.40±0.02 m(3)/kg VS feed and 68%, respectively. Meanwhile, the shifts of microbial communities of the samples taken on typical days with different performance (day 40 (stable), day 65 (deteriorated), day 75 (in recovery), day 90 (recovered) and day 110 (stable)) were monitored by the application of pyrosequencing technology and the bioinformatical analysis with QIIME 1.8. In consequence, the details of changes in bacterial and archaeal communities elaborately explained the intrinsic reasons for the deterioration and recovery of the digester, and provided the proofs for the feasibility of hygienic treatment and energy recovery of dead animals by high solid co-digestion with vinasse under mesophilic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Is fecal contamination of drinking water after collection associated with household water handling and hygiene practices? A study of urban slum households in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshcol, Jayasheel; Mahapatra, Prasanta; Keshapagu, Sarita

    2009-03-01

    Water-borne illness, primarily caused by fecal contamination of drinking water, is a major health burden in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Currently drinking water is treated at the reservoir level and supplied on alternate days, necessitating storage in households for up to 48 hrs. We hypothesized that fecal contamination occurs principally during storage due to poor water handling. In this study we tested for coliform bacteria in water samples collected at distribution points as household storage containers were filled, and then tested containers in the same households 24-36 hours after collection. We also conducted an observational survey to make an assessment of water handling and hygiene. Ninety-two percent (47/51) of samples tested at supply points were adequately chlorinated and bacterial contamination was found in two samples with no residual chlorine. Samples collected from household storage containers showed an increase in contamination in 18/50 houses (36%). Households with contaminated stored samples did not show significant differences in demographics, water handling, hygiene practices, or sanitation. Nevertheless, the dramatic increase in contamination after collection indicates that until an uninterrupted water supply is possible, the point at which the biggest health impact can be made is at the household level.

  12. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Rural Health-Care Facilities: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Amy; Bowling, J Michael; Bartram, Jamie; Kayser, Georgia

    2017-10-01

    Safe and sufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) prevent the spread of disease in health-care facilities (HCFs). Little research has been conducted on WaSH in HCF in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out a cross-sectional study of WaSH in 1,318 randomly selected rural HCF (hospitals, health centers, health posts, and clinics) in regions throughout Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Methods included questionnaires with head doctors and nurses to document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity and reliability, and analysis of drinking water samples for Escherichia coli. We found that fewer than 50% of rural HCFs had access to improved water sources on premises, improved sanitation, and consistent access to water and soap for handwashing (Ethiopia [7%), Kenya [30%], Mozambique [29%], Rwanda [50%], Uganda [30%], and Zambia [21%]). Adequate hand hygiene reduces disease transmission and health-care-acquired infections, but fewer than 25% of HCF in each country reported that a combination of water, soap, and hand-drying materials were always available. Our research points to a lack of basic WaSH services in rural HCFs in regions of sub-Saharan Africa, which poses a threat to the health of patients and health-care workers in these settings.

  13. Hand hygiene knowledge and practices of nursing students in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirudeen, A M A; Koh, Josephine W N; Lau, Adeline Lee Chin; Li, Wenjie; Lim, Lay Seng; Ow, Cynthia Yi Xuan

    2012-10-01

    Hand hygiene is an important means of preventing nosocomial infections. Studies have shown a nursing students in a tertiary institution in Singapore. The results of this survey strongly indicate that nursing students understand the importance of hand hygiene compliance and perceive clinical internship programs and practical laboratory sessions to be effective methods of hand hygiene education. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between Systems-Level Factors and Hand Hygiene Adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Cohen, Bevin; Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Jordan, Sarah; Larson, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of acute care hospitals in California to describe staff hand hygiene compliance and related predictors, and explore the relationship between hand hygiene adherence to health care-associated infections. Although there was a relatively small sample size, institutions with morning huddles reported a significantly higher proportion of ≥95% hand hygiene compliance. Huddles are an organizational tool to improve teamwork and communication and may o...

  15. Hygiene Knowledge of Food Staff in Catering Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Yardımcı; Gülperi Hakli; Funda Pinar Çakiroğlu; Ayşe Özfer Özçelik

    2015-01-01

    This study, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out to determine the hygiene knowledge of the staff (N = 317) employed in kitchen and service departments of catering firms in Ankara. It was found that the mean scores of the staff with regard to personal hygiene, food hygiene, and kitchen and equipment hygiene were 10.7 ± 1.6, 19.8 ± 4.0, and 13.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Male staff achieved higher mean scores ...

  16. Hygiene: new hopes, new horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Val; Schmidt, Wolf; Luby, Stephen; Florez, Rocio; Touré, Ousmane; Biran, Adam

    2011-04-01

    Although promotion of safe hygiene is the single most cost-effective means of preventing infectious disease, investment in hygiene is low both in the health and in the water and sanitation sectors. Evidence shows the benefit of improved hygiene, especially for improved handwashing and safe stool disposal. A growing understanding of what drives hygiene behaviour and creative partnerships are providing fresh approaches to change behaviour. However, some important gaps in our knowledge exist. For example, almost no trials of the effectiveness of interventions to improve food hygiene in developing countries are available. We also need to figure out how best to make safe hygiene practices matters of daily routine that are sustained by social norms on a mass scale. Full and active involvement of the health sector in getting safe hygiene to all homes, schools, and institutions will bring major gains to public health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Promoting Hand Hygiene With a Lighting Prompt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegel-Vacek, Lauren; Ryan, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to assess an automatic sink light design intervention as a prompt for clinician hand hygiene (as defined by World Health Organization [WHO]). Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are still leading causes of morbidity and mortality and contribute to burdens on our healthcare system. Hand hygiene has been related to reducing the rate of HAIs and positively impacting both patient and hospital outcomes. This pilot study was a prospective, longitudinal observational study of a convenience sample of healthcare clinicians. In one inpatient room, clinicians were exposed to a hand hygiene reminder that consisted of a light turning on over the sink as they entered. A control room (the adjacent inpatient room) did not have the intervention. A total of 88 clinician encounters were monitored during the study. On the first observation day at the initial activation of the signal light system, the percentage of clinicians performing hand hygiene upon entering a room was only 7% in the control room and 23% in the intervention room. During the second observation (Day 14), those percentages were 16% in the control room and 30% in the intervention room. During the third observation (Day 21), those percentages were 23% in the control room and 23% in the intervention room. The healthcare system frequently relies on expensive technology to improve healthcare delivery, but implementation of low-cost, low-technology methods such as this light may be effective in prompting hand hygiene. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. [Correct contact lens hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümle, S; Kaercher, T; Khaireddin, R

    2013-06-01

    Although contact lenses have long been established in ophthalmology, practical aspects of handling contact lenses is becoming increasingly less important in the clinical training as specialist for ophthalmology. Simultaneously, for many reasons injuries due to wearing contact lenses are increasing. In order to correct this discrepancy, information on contact lenses and practical experience with them must be substantially increased from a medical perspective. This review article deals with the most important aspects for prevention of complications, i.e. contact lens hygiene.

  19. A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Engelbrecht, H; McDonald, H; Morris, V; Smythe, W

    2016-03-07

    Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection. Unfortunately hand hygiene compliance remains poor. To show an improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multifaceted approach. This was a quasiexperimental pre-post intervention study design with a number of standardised interventions to promote hand hygiene. The World Health Organization hand hygiene multimodal (five-step) intervention approach was used. The study ran from June 2015 to August 2015 in 11 selected wards of a 975-bed tertiary and quaternary care public hospital (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa). The outcome was to assess improvement in hand hygiene compliance monthly over the 3 months, compared with non-intervention wards and compared with the wards' own performance measured in 2014. The study included both descriptive and analytical components. Post intervention, hand hygiene compliance showed a statistically significant improvement for before patient contact from 34% in 2014 to 76% in 2015 (p<0.05) and for after patient contact from 47% in 2014 to 82% in 2015 (p<0.05). The intervention improved hand hygiene compliance and can easily be replicated in other wards, resulting in sustaining a culture of hand hygiene improvement and behavioural change throughout the hospital.

  20. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahlad Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n=50 boys and n=50 girls who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P=0.004, whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city.

  1. Waldorf School - the Strategy of Education of Mental Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    HORÁKOVÁ, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question, what is the strategy of mental hygiene education at the Waldorf school. The aim was to find out how mental hygiene at the Waldorf school is educated and then compare this strategy with the strategy of mental hygiene education at the school of traditional education system. Another aim of this study was to show whether the correct strategy of mental hygiene education in elementary schools has some influence on the development of the child. The research was m...

  2. Oral hygiene in population of southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandyk-Konstanty, Aleksandra; Konstanty-Kalandyk, Janusz; Zarzecka, Joanna; Kapelak, Bogdan; Drwiła, Rafał; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Piątek, Jacek; Sadowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Proper oral hygiene is an important element in the prevention of many diseases. Oral hygiene habits different depending on the place of residence, age and public awareness. The aim of the study was assessment of oral hygiene habits in a group of patients admitted for cardiac surgery. The database has been made on the basis of anonymous questionnaires filled by all participants. The study included 643 patients admitted to the hospital for surgical treatment of acquired heart disease. We divided patients into 3 groups depending on age, place of residence and type of heart disease. More than 30% of patients brush their teeth once a day or less. Over 40% of all respondents do not attend for regular visits to the dentist. Most patients, who do not brush teeth or dentures were in group > 70 years old (6%) and live in the countryside. Patients in a big city perform control visit the most often (64%) and this group had the largest proportion of pa- tients who declared that the visits take place once a year or more (46%). Habits of proper oral hygiene among patients scheduled for cardiac surgery are at high level. 9 out of 10 patients declares daily teeth brushing. Among patients living in the country, 46% do not use regular visits and only 29% go to the dentist once a year or more often. Education campaigns about influence of the improper oral cavity hygiene should be initiated.

  3. Relationship of sleep hygiene awareness, sleep hygiene practices, and sleep quality in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Franklin C; Buboltz, Walter C; Soper, Barlow

    2002-01-01

    College students are known for their variable sleep schedules. Such schedules, along with other common student practices (e.g., alcohol and caffeine consumption), are associated with poor sleep hygiene. Researchers have demonstrated in clinical populations that improving sleep hygiene knowledge and practices is an effective treatment for insomnia. However, researchers who have examined relationships between sleep hygiene and practices in nonclinical samples and overall sleep quality have produced inconsistent findings, perhaps because of questionable measures. In this study, the authors used psychometrically sound instruments to examine these variables and to counter the shortcomings in previous investigations. Their findings suggest that knowledge of sleep hygiene is related to sleep practices, which, in turn, is related to overall sleep quality. The data from their regression modeling indicated that variable sleep schedules, going to bed thirsty, environmental noise, and worrying while falling asleep contribute to poor sleep quality.

  4. Randomized crossover study evaluating the effect of a hand sanitizer dispenser on the frequency of hand hygiene among anesthesiology staff in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Patel, Zalak; Banks, Shawn; Arheart, Kristopher; Eber, Scott; Lubarsky, David A; Birnbach, David J

    2014-06-01

    Forty anesthesia providers were evaluated with and without hand sanitizer dispensers present on the anesthesia machine. Having a dispenser increased the frequency of hand hygiene only from 0.5 to 0.8 events per hour (P = .01). Other concomitant interventions are needed to further increase hand hygiene frequency among anesthesia providers.

  5. The impact of an oral hygiene education module on patient practices and nursing documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Lola; Otten, Karine; Staffileno, Beth; Minarich, Laura; Nowiszewski, Candice

    2015-02-01

    Oral hygiene is inconsistent among patients with cancer and is a national patient care issue. To promote comfort and nutritional status, oral hygiene for patients with cancer is important. The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based oral hygiene educational module (EM) for nursing and patient care technician (PCT) staff to promote consistent oral hygiene patient education; evaluate patient understanding of oral hygiene practices post-EM; and determine staff documentation frequency of oral hygiene care. Pre- and post-EM data were collected using a developed oral hygiene assessment tool; nursing documentation data were collected by chart review. Post-EM data were collected eight weeks post-EM. Data were analyzed using frequencies and the Mann-Whitney U test. Twenty-two patient documentation pairs were collected. Compared to pre-EM, admission teaching, patient education, and patient oral hygiene practices improved post-EM. Post-EM oral hygiene documentation and PCT teaching increased.

  6. Basic rules of hygiene protect health care and lab workers from nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus: an international cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Saadatian-Elahi

    Full Text Available Acquisition of nasal Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus colonization by contaminated hands is likely an important determinant of its nasal carriage rate in health care and lab setting. The objective of our cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of nasal methicillin-sensitive (MSSA or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriage among health care professionals (HCPs attending an international symposium and to study the association between compliance with hygiene rules, individual-related parameters, and medical conditions with nasal S. aureus carriage in this population. After obtaining consent, two nasal swabs were collected. Nasal MSSA and MRSA carriage was measured by the: i molecular approach targeting spa, mecA and mecA-orfX junction sequences, and ii culture on selective S. aureus media combined with mecA molecular detection of isolated strains. Information on compliance with hygiene rules, demographic variables, sector of activity and long-term medication was collected by anonymous questionnaire. The participation rate was 32.3%. In total, 176 subjects from 34 countries were included in the analysis. S. aureus was isolated from the nasal swabs of 57 (32.4% subjects, of whom 3 (5.3% harbored MRSA strains. Overall, 123 subjects reported working in microbiology laboratories with direct manipulation of S. aureus, and 29 acknowledged regular contacts with patients. In this exposed population, hydro-alcoholic solutions appeared to have a significant protective effect against nasal S. aureus carriage (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15-0.85. Hospital work was associated with increased risk of nasal S. aureus carriage (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.07-5.29. The results of this study showed that compliance with basic rules of hygiene, such as the use of hydro-alcoholic solutions, could reduce the risk of nasal S. aureus colonization. Hydro-alcoholic solution could interrupt auto-transmission of the pathogen, consequently decreasing the overall

  7. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs

  8. An argument for dental hygiene to develop as a discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobban, S J; Edgington, E M; Compton, S M

    2007-02-01

    The practice of dental hygiene was developed to provide oral health education and preventive oral health care, originally for children. It has grown to provide oral health services valued by a broad spectrum of society, but has not attained the desired respect and status accorded to other professional groups. Professional disciplines link actions of practitioners with the science that is the foundation of practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether dental hygiene practice could benefit from pursuit of development as a discipline. Literature on professionalization and disciplines, related to dental hygiene in general and the North American context specifically, was retrieved from databases and grey sources, such as organizational reports. Dental hygiene's current characteristics relative to a discipline were examined. Dental hygiene has developed some characteristics of a discipline, such as identifying a metaparadigm that includes concepts of the client, the environment, health/oral health and dental hygiene actions, with a perspective that includes a focus on disease prevention and oral health promotion. However, research production by dental hygienists has been limited, and often not situated within theoretical or conceptual frameworks. Dental hygiene draws its knowledge for practice from a variety of sources. Dental hygiene could strengthen its value to society by prioritizing development of highly skilled researchers to study interventions leading to improved oral outcomes, and transferring that knowledge to practitioners, strengthening links between practice and science. Intentional pursuit of knowledge for practice would lead to dental hygiene's eventual emergence as a professional discipline.

  9. Dental hygiene habits and oral health status of seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Sibilio, Fabio; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This study has assessed the dental hygiene habits and problems of seafarers and their attitudes/ perceptions regarding oral hygiene using a dental hygiene/habits questionnaire. A research questionnaire on oral hygiene habits was prepared along with a summary of all the questions and sent to ships via e-mail by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) networks. CIRM, is the Italian Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS), and represents the Centre with the largest number of seafarers assisted on board ships worldwide. CIRM proposed the questionnaire to all ships (n = 1,198) asking for medical advice from 1 July 2014 till 31 October 2014. Two dental professionals were involved in the development and analysis of the questionnaire. Seafarers are at risk of several dental health problems due to their oral hygiene and dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, poor oral hygiene knowledge and motivation. Dietary habits during voyages were also questionable and seafarers consume food rich in fermentable carbohydrates, which is a major risk factor for dental caries. Seafarers need better oral hygiene education and care to enable them to manage their oral health in a better way. Life at the sea, under challenging circumstances is not without stress, that is why it is important that seafarers are given complete information about correct oral hygiene protocols and dental hygiene and the advantages for their health of keeping a healthy mouth.

  10. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

  11. Multicenter study of street foods in 13 towns on four continents by the food and environmental hygiene study group of the international network of pasteur and associated institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, B; Aïdara, A; Spiegel, A; Arrive, P; Bastaraud, A; Cartel, J L; Aissa, R Ben; Duval, P; Gay, M; Gherardi, C; Gouali, M; Karou, T G; Kruy, S L; Soares, J L; Mouffok, F; Ravaonindrina, N; Rasolofonirina, N; Pham, M T; Wouafo, M; Catteau, M; Mathiot, C; Mauclere, P; Rocourt, J

    2002-01-01

    An international multicenter study of ready-to-eat foods, sandwiches, and ice creams or sorbets sold in the streets and their vendors was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of these foods and to identify characteristics of the vendors possibly associated with pathogens. Thirteen towns in Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania were involved in the study. A single protocol was used in all 13 centers: representative sampling was by random selection of vendors and a sample of foods bought from each of these vendors at a time and date selected at random. Microbiological analyses were carried out using standardized Association Française de Normalisation methods, and the use of a standardized questionnaire to collect data concerning the characteristics of the vendors. Fifteen surveys were carried out, with 3,003 food samples from 1,268 vendors. The proportion of unsatisfactory food samples was between 12.7 and 82.9% for ice creams and sorbets and between 11.3 and 92% for sandwiches. For ice creams and sorbets, the sale of a large number of units (>80 per day) increased the risk of unsatisfactory food by a factor of 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 5.1), lack of training in food hygiene by 6.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 50). and by a factor of 2.8 (95% CI: 1.4 to 5.4) for mobile vendors. These risk factors were not identified for sandwiches, this difference may be due to the presence of a cooking step in their preparation. These results show that the poor microbiological quality of these street foods constitutes a potential hazard to public health, that the extent of this hazard varies between the cities studied, and that vendors' health education in food safety is a crucial factor in the prevention of foodborne infections.

  12. BATHROOM TRANSFORMATION: FROM HYGIENE TO WELL-BEING?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study....... In particular, the notion of well-being is highlighted as challenging existing hygiene ideas....

  13. [Hygienic evaluation of children's bathtubs made of plastics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftel', V O; Baĭda, N A; Petrusha, V G; Shutova, T V

    1991-02-01

    Results of hygienic study of baby's baths made of polystyrene are presented. Migration of components of the material into the water is studied, as well as skin-resorptive and sensitizing effect of polystyrene extracts on the organism of laboratory animals. The methodological procedure of hygienic investigation of plastic baby's baths is presented.

  14. Trends in the quality and hygiene parameters of bulk Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk: A three year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Marina; Osimani, Andrea; Tavoletti, Stefano; Moreno, Itzhak; Clementi, Francesca; Trombetta, Maria Federica

    2017-09-29

    Buffalo milk represents an indispensable source of nourishment in many parts of the world and it is the second most consumed milk worldwide. Buffalo milk is actually used for the production of many dairy products such as pasteurized or concentrated milk, butter, yogurt, ice-cream, dehydrated milk products and cheeses. Due to its high nutritional value and the presence of natural bioactive substances, buffalo milk can also provide health benefits to consumers. In Italy, buffalo milk is used mainly for cheese making, mozzarella PDO (Protected Designation of Origin), which is a highly valued dairy product. This 3-year study, carried out between 2011 and 2013, was aimed at evaluating the quality of bulk Italian Mediterranean buffalo milk by monitoring physico-chemical parameters, somatic cell and total bacterial counts. A total of 51 samples of bulk milk were collected from one herd throughout the monitored period. Analysis of variance, carried out to test month, season and year main effects, highlighted remarkable seasonal effects for fat, protein and lactose content, as well as for predicted mozzarella cheese yield, and somatic cell counts. The calculation of simple correlations allowed the identification of positive correlations between estimated cheese yield and fat and protein content. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. [Hygiene communication - conditions for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærbeck, Susanne; Petersen, Helle

    2014-06-02

    The article focuses on strengths and weaknesses of the local hygiene communication in a hospital ward. Efficient change communication consists of central and local communication activities. The hygiene coordinator is an important local "change agent", but in practice the role is difficult. The communicative interaction between the central infection control organization and a specific ward as well as between the department management and the hygiene coordinator should be strengthened in order to create change in staff behaviour.

  16. Implementation of WHO multimodal strategy for improvement of hand hygiene: a quasi-experimental study in a Traditional Chinese Medicine hospital in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Wang, Xiaoqing; An, Junming; An, Jialu; Zhou, Ning; Sun, Lu; Chen, Hong; Feng, Lin; Han, Jing; Liu, Xiaorong

    2017-01-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is an essential component for preventing and controlling of healthcare-associated infection (HAI), whereas compliance with HH among health care workers (HCWs) is frequently poor. This study aimed to assess compliance and correctness with HH before and after the implementation of a multimodal HH improvement strategy launched by the World Health Organization (WHO). A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaire survey generalizing possible factors affecting HH behaviors of HCWs and direct observation method was used to evaluate the effectiveness of WHO multimodal HH strategy in a hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Multimodal HH improvement strategy was drawn up according to the results of questionnaire survey. Compliance and correctness with HH among HCWs were compared before and after intervention. Also HH practices for different indications based on WHO "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" were recorded. In total, 553 HCWs participated in the questionnaire survey and multimodal HH improvement strategy was developed based on individual, environment and management levels. A total of 5044 observations in 23 wards were recorded in this investigation. The rate of compliance and correctness with HH improved from 66.27% and 47.75% at baseline to 80.53% and 88.35% after intervention. Doctors seemed to have better compliance with HH after intervention (84.04%) than nurses and other HCWs (81.07% and 69.42%, respectively). When stratified by indication, compliance with HH improved for all indications after intervention ( P  strategy can significantly improve HH compliance and correctness among HCWs.

  17. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  18. A Natural History of Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A Curtis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In unpacking the Pandora’s box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease.

  19. Patient hand hygiene practices in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzone, Laura L; Smolowitz, Janice; Kline, Nancy; Thom, Bridgette; Larson, Elaine L

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the hand hygiene practices of surgical patients. Most of the research has been directed at the health care worker, and this may discount the role that hand hygiene of the surgical patient might play in surgical site infections. A quasiexperimental, pretest/post-test study was conducted in which patients (n = 72) and nurses (n = 42) were interviewed to examine perceptions and knowledge about patient hand hygiene. Concurrently, observations were conducted to determine whether surgical patients were offered assistance by the nursing staff. Following an initial observation period, nursing staff received an educational session regarding general hand hygiene information and observation results. One month after the education session, patient/nurse dyads were observed for an additional 6 weeks to determine the impact of the educational intervention. Eighty observations, 72 patient interviews, and 42 nurse interviews were completed preintervention, and 83 observations were completed postintervention. In response to the survey, more than half of patients (n = 41, 55%) reported that they were not offered the opportunity to clean their hands, but a majority of the nursing staff reported (n = 25, 60%) that they offered patients the opportunity to clean their hands. Prior to the educational intervention, nursing staff assisted patients in 14 of 81 hand hygiene opportunities. Following the intervention, nursing staff assisted patients 37 out of 83 opportunities (17.3% vs 44.6%, respectively, [χ(2)1 = 13.008, P = .0003]). This study suggests that efforts to increase hand hygiene should be directed toward patients as well as health care workers. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of a sodium carbonate spray combined with professional oral hygiene procedures in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Alessio; Broccoletti, Roberto; Cafaro, Adriana; Cabras, Marco; Carcieri, Paola; Arduino, Paolo G

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to make an initial estimation on the effects of a sodium bicarbonate and xylitol spray (Cariex ® ), associated with non-surgical periodontal therapy, in participants with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that predominantly involves salivary and lachrymal glands, with the clinical effect of dry eyes and mouth. A prospective cohort of 22 women and two men has been evaluated. They were randomized into three groups (eight patients each): Group A) those treated once with non-surgical periodontal therapy, education and motivation to oral hygiene, associated with the use of Cariex ® ; Group B) treated only with Cariex ® ; Group C) treated only with non-surgical periodontal therapy, education and motivation to oral hygiene. Clinical variables described after treatment were unstimulated whole salivary flow, stimulated whole salivary flow, salivary pH, reported pain (using Visual Analogue Scale) and the Periodontal Screening and Recording index. Salivary flow rate improved in all groups, but the difference was statistically significant only in those treated with Cariex ® , alone or in combination with periodontal therapy. Gingival status improved in participants who underwent periodontal non-surgical therapy while remained unchanged in those only treated with Cariex ® . Reported pain decreased in all groups, showing the best result in participants treated with periodontal therapy together with Cariex ® . We propose a practical approach for improving gingival conditions and alleviating oral symptoms in patients with SS. Future randomized and controlled trials are however required to confirm these results as well as larger population, and also assessing other parameters due to oral dryness, possible oral infections and more comprehensive periodontal indices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  2. Hygienic Cleaning Products used in the kitchen; Exposure and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn MCH; Bremmer HJ; Zeilmaker MJ; Veen MP van; LBM

    In this study it was examined how people are exposed to compounds contained in hygienic cleaning products used in the kitchen. The products for which exposure was assessed are dishwashing liquids, hygienic cleaning napkins, spray cleaners and bleach containing products (abrasive, all purpose cleaner

  3. Are hospitals too clean to trigger good hand hygiene?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, D.S. van der; Voss, A.

    2009-01-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene in the healthcare setting is generally low. The aim of the present study was to investigate the degree of compliance with hand hygiene after toilet visits inside and outside the hospital. We observed hospital/laboratory staff, participants of the European Congress of

  4. Prevalence of Skin Infections and Hygiene Practices among Pupils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin diseases are among the common childhood problems of public health importance in Nigeria. Poor personal hygiene practices especially among children are believed to be contributory to its prevalence. This study assessed the prevalence of skin infections and practices in relation to hygiene among public primary ...

  5. Knowledge, attitude towards and practice of oral hygiene among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Oral hygiene involves the prevention of oral diseases which have been found to be common in pregnancy. Dental care in pregnancy aims at achieving healthy oral environment. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude towards and practice of oral hygiene among antenatal clinic attendees in public ...

  6. Determinants of good oral hygiene among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a ...

  7. Production hygiene and training influences on rural small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was therefore to determine the extent to which training in organic farming methods, including modules such as the Importance of Production Hygiene' influenced the hygienic farming practices of small-scale, organic farmers in eTholeni, uMbumbulu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Questionnaires were ...

  8. Enhancing personal hygiene behavior and competency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This school based study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of school-friendly and peer-led approach in improving personal hygiene practices of school adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest of Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 1000 students from 10 to 19 years were included into the study. The intervention was done using ...

  9. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  10. Dentofacial Anomalies and Oral Hygiene Status in Mentally Challenged Children: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Somani

    2011-01-01

    This study is carried out to know the oral hygiene status and dentofacial anomalies in mentally compromised patients with an idea of helping them to have a better oral hygiene status and treat the developed dentofacial changes on time.

  11. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  13. An Investigation of Factors that Influence Hygiene Practices at a Small Day Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Hye

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore factors that influence hygiene practices at small day care centers. It examines the effect of food hygiene training on hygiene practices and investigates the correlations between the hygienic status of food handlers' hands and that of kitchen utensils. Furthermore, it determines the influences of demographic and facility-related factors on hygiene practices in small day care centers. A total of 56 food handlers at 49 day care centers in the Gyeongnam area of South Korea participated in hygiene training. The results of the study showed that after two training sessions, the ATP bioluminescence levels of knives ( P food handlers' hands ( P hygiene practices at small food service kitchens, such as status of registration with the government certification authority, length of food handlers' working experience and their age, and maximum number of people served. This study helps to broaden our knowledge of food hygiene issues in small day care centers.

  14. [Studies on chemical constituents of Pholidota yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhi-ming; Wang, Zheng-tao; Xu, Luo-shan; Xu, Guo-jun

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents from Pholidota yunnanensis. Various chromatographic techniques were employed for isolation and purification of the constituents. The structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral analyses. Seven compounds were obtained and they were identified by spectroscopic analysis as n-nonacosane, cyclopholidone, n-dotriacontanoic acid, n-octacostyl ferulate, cyclopholidonol, cycloneolitsol and beta-sitosterol, respectively. n-octacostyl ferulate and cycloneolitsol were isolated from genus Pholidota for the first time.

  15. Dental Hygiene Realpolitik Affecting Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…

  16. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from

  17. Effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tongue cleaning is an important aspect of oral hygiene maintenance along with other mechanical and chemical aids. These methods have an influence on microorganism count in saliva. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial with 45 study subjects aged between 14 and 16 years and were randomly allocated into three groups: Group A - plastic tongue scraper, Group B - chlorhexidine mouthwash along with plastic tongue scraper, and Group C - chlorhexidine mouthwash. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected on the 1st, 7th, and 15th day before routine oral hygiene practices. Saliva samples were collected and incubated for 48 h on itis Salivarius(MS agar. Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus salivarius were counted. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean count of S. mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius for Group A, B, and C was found to be significant (P < 0.001 when compared between 1st, 7th, and 15th day. Between-groups comparisons revealed a significant difference between Groups A and C, B and C (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in bacterial count in all the participants indicating that all the three methods are useful in improving oral hygiene. Combination technique was found to be most effective.

  18. Menstruation and Menstrual Hygiene amongst Adolescent School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school girls in Kano, Nigeria around menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using Epi info version 3.2.05. The mean age of the students was 14.4 ± 1.2 years; majority was in their mid adolescence. The students ...

  19. Quantum chemical studies of protein structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Quantum chemical methods now permit the prediction of many spectroscopic observables in proteins and related model systems, in addition to electrostatic properties, which are found to be in excellent accord with those determined from experiment. I discuss the developments over the past decade in these areas, including predictions of nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts, chemical shielding tensors, scalar couplings and hyperfine (contact) shifts, the isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings in Mössbauer spectroscopy, molecular energies and conformations, as well as a range of electrostatic properties, such as charge densities, the curvatures, Laplacians and Hessians of the charge density, electrostatic potentials, electric field gradients and electrostatic field effects. The availability of structure/spectroscopic correlations from quantum chemistry provides a basis for using numerous spectroscopic observables in determining aspects of protein structure, in determining electrostatic properties which are not readily accessible from experiment, as well as giving additional confidence in the use of these techniques to investigate questions about chemical bonding and chemical reactions. PMID:16147526

  20. Personal Hygiene Practices among Urban Homeless Persons in Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Nguyen, Daniel D; León, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M; Perez, Debora

    2017-08-18

    Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA ( n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population. Most participants (72%) reported taking a daily shower. More than 60% reported hand washing with soap five or more times each day, and use of hand sanitizer was widespread (89% reported using sanitizer in the last week). A majority (86%) used a laundromat or laundry machine to wash clothing, while 14% reported washing clothing in the sink. Heavy drinking, injection drug use, and sleeping outdoors were identified as significant risk factors for reduced hygiene practices. People experiencing homelessness who also engage in these activities may be among the most difficult to reach for intervention, yet targeted efforts may decrease illness risk associated with reduced hygiene. Housed friends and family play a critical role in assisting homeless individuals maintain hygiene by providing showers and laundry facilities.

  1. Hand hygiene among physicians: performance, beliefs, and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Didier; Simon, Anne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Pessoa-Silva, Carmen Lúcia; Sauvan, Valérie; Perneger, Thomas V

    2004-07-06

    Physician adherence to hand hygiene remains low in most hospitals. To identify risk factors for nonadherence and assess beliefs and perceptions associated with hand hygiene among physicians. Cross-sectional survey of physician practices, beliefs, and attitudes toward hand hygiene. Large university hospital. 163 physicians. Individual observation of physician hand hygiene practices during routine patient care with documentation of relevant risk factors; self-report questionnaire to measure beliefs and perceptions. Logistic regression identified variables independently associated with adherence. Adherence averaged 57% and varied markedly across medical specialties. In multivariate analysis, adherence was associated with the awareness of being observed, the belief of being a role model for other colleagues, a positive attitude toward hand hygiene after patient contact, and easy access to hand-rub solution. Conversely, high workload, activities associated with a high risk for cross-transmission, and certain technical medical specialties (surgery, anesthesiology, emergency medicine, and intensive care medicine) were risk factors for nonadherence. Direct observation of physicians may have influenced both adherence to hand hygiene and responses to the self-report questionnaire. Generalizability of study results requires additional testing in other health care settings and physician populations. Physician adherence to hand hygiene is associated with work and system constraints, as well as knowledge and cognitive factors. At the individual level, strengthening a positive attitude toward hand hygiene and reinforcing the conviction that each individual can influence the group behavior may improve adherence among physicians. Physicians who work in technical specialties should also be targeted for improvement.

  2. Sanitation and Hygiene-Specific Risk Factors for Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Young Children in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, 2007–2011: Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Farag, Tamer H.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; Omore, Richard; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O.; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Quadri, Fahreen; Mintz, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of disease in children less than 5 y of age. Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions are the primary routes of exposure and infection. Sanitation and hygiene interventions are estimated to generate a 36% and 48% reduction in diarrheal risk in young children, respectively. Little is known about whether the number of households sharing a sanitation facility affects a child's risk of diarrhea. The objective of this study was to describe sanitation and hygiene access across the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) sites in Africa and South Asia and to assess sanitation and hygiene exposures, including shared sanitation access, as risk factors for moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children less than 5 y of age. Methods/Findings The GEMS matched case-control study was conducted between December 1, 2007, and March 3, 2011, at seven sites in Basse, The Gambia; Nyanza Province, Kenya; Bamako, Mali; Manhiça, Mozambique; Mirzapur, Bangladesh; Kolkata, India; and Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected for 8,592 case children aged sanitation and hygiene exposures and MSD. Most households at six sites (>93%) had access to a sanitation facility, while 70% of households in rural Kenya had access to a facility. Practicing open defecation was a risk factor for MSD in children sanitation facilities with 1–2 or ≥3 other households was a statistically significant risk factor for MSD in Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan. Among those with a designated handwashing area near the home, soap or ash were more frequently observed at control households and were significantly protective against MSD in Mozambique and India. Conclusions This study suggests that sharing a sanitation facility with just one to two other households can increase the risk of MSD in young children, compared to using a private facility. Interventions aimed at increasing access to private household sanitation facilities may reduce the burden of

  3. Effectiveness of hand hygiene education among a random sample of women from the community

    OpenAIRE

    Ubheeram, J.; Biranjia-Hurdoyal, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective. The effectiveness of hand hygiene education was investigated by studying the hand hygiene awareness and bacterial hand contamination among a random sample of 170 women in the community. Methods. Questionnaire was used to assess the hand hygiene awareness score, followed by swabbing of the dominant hand. Bacterial identification was done by conventional biochemical tests. Results. Better hand hygiene awareness score was significantly associated with age, scarce bacterial gro...

  4. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children’s nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Erismann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled “Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification” (VgtS, a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i describe schoolchildren’s health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. Methods/Design The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8–14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i the ‘complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention’ arm; and the (ii ‘control’ arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children’s nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be

  5. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children's nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Shrestha, Akina; Diagbouga, Serge; Knoblauch, Astrid; Gerold, Jana; Herz, Ramona; Sharma, Subodh; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Drescher, Axel; Yang, Ray-Yu; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-03-09

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled "Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification" (VgtS), a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i) describe schoolchildren's health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii) provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8-14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i) the 'complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention' arm; and the (ii) 'control' arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children's nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be conducted with their caregivers and school personnel. The studies will

  6. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recordings and another written in Braille and were instructed to practice the same. After three months time the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience was recorded and compared using patient performance index. Statistical analysis was done by student paired t test and multiple comparison by Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) test. The mean PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) score of group A at baseline was 3.88 compared to 3.90 of group B. At 7 days PHP score of group A and group B was 3.42 and 3.45 respectively. At 3 month PHP score of group A and group B was 2.47 and 2.86 respectively. Even though over a period of time the mean score of PHP index reduced the score comparison between the 2 groups were statistically non significant. In group A the mean difference of PHP score between baseline and 7 days was 0.46, between baseline and 3 months it was 1.40. The PHP score between 7 days and 3 months was 0.94. All the above values were statistically significant. Effective dental health education method has to be instituted for visually impaired children. The present study shows improvement of oral health status in both the study population by decrease in the mean plaque score. Hence continuous motivation and reinforcement in the form of Braille and audio instruction is beneficial to achieve good oral hygiene levels in visually impaired children.

  7. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recordings and another written in Braille and were instructed to practice the same. After three months time the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience was recorded and compared using patient performance index. Statistical analysis was done by student paired t test and multiple comparison by Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) test. Results: The mean PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) score of group A at baseline was 3.88 compared to 3.90 of group B. At 7 days PHP score of group A and group B was 3.42 and 3.45 respectively. At 3 month PHP score of group A and group B was 2.47 and 2.86 respectively. Even though over a period of time the mean score of PHP index reduced the score comparison between the 2 groups were statistically non significant. In group A the mean difference of PHP score between baseline and 7 days was 0.46, between baseline and 3 months it was 1.40. The PHP score between 7 days and 3 months was 0.94. All the above values were statistically significant. Conclusion: Effective dental health education method has to be instituted for visually impaired children. The present study shows improvement of oral health status in both the study population by decrease in the mean plaque score. Hence continuous motivation and reinforcement in the form of Braille and audio instruction is beneficial to achieve good oral hygiene levels in visually impaired children. PMID:26942117

  8. Process evaluation of a multi-component intervention to reduce infectious diseases and improve hygiene and well-being among school children: the Hi Five study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnesen, C T; Plauborg, R; Denbæk, A M; Due, P; Johansen, A

    2015-06-01

    The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial designed to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among pupils. Participating schools (n = 43) were randomized into either control (n = 15) or one of two intervention groups (n = 28). The intervention consisted of three components: (i) a curriculum (ii) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch (iii) extra cleaning of school toilets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation and to identify challenges to program implementation. Several data sources were used, including observations of school toilets, semi-structured interviews with school coordinators (n = 4), focus groups with pupils (n = 6) and teachers (n = 5), and questionnaires among pupils (n = 5440), teachers (n = 387) and school coordinators (n = 28). This study indicates that the curriculum was successfully implemented at most schools, and that teachers and pupils reacted positively to this part of the intervention. However, daily hand washing before lunch seems to be difficult to implement. Overall, the implementation process was affected by several factors such as poor sanitary facilities, lack of time and prioritization and objections against the increasing tendency to place the responsibility for child-rearing tasks on schools. This study reveals the strong and weak parts of the Hi Five study and can guide program improvement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Menstrual Hygiene Management in Resource-Poor Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert; Henry, Kaysha; Wall, L Lewis

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of menstrual hygiene is taken for granted in affluent countries; however, inadequate menstrual hygiene is a major problem for girls and women in resource-poor countries, which adversely affects the health and development of adolescent girls. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence concerning menstrual hygiene management in these settings. A PubMed search using MeSH terms was conducted in English, supplemented by hand searching for additional references. Retrieved articles were reviewed, synthesized, and summarized. Most research to date has described menstrual hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Many school-based studies indicate poorer menstrual hygiene among girls in rural areas and those attending public schools. The few studies that have tried to improve or change menstrual hygiene practices provide moderate to strong evidence that targeted interventions do improve menstrual hygiene knowledge and awareness. Challenges to improving menstrual hygiene management include lack of support from teachers (who are frequently male); teasing by peers when accidental menstrual soiling of clothes occurs; poor familial support; lack of cultural acceptance of alternative menstrual products; limited economic resources to purchase supplies; inadequate water and sanitation facilities at school; menstrual cramps, pain, and discomfort; and lengthy travel to and from school, which increases the likelihood of leaks/stains. Areas for future research include the relationship between menarche and school dropout, the relationship between menstrual hygiene management and other health outcomes, and how to increase awareness of menstrual hygiene management among household decision makers including husbands/fathers and in-laws.

  10. Studies on the chemical composition and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... establish the proximate composition and the physico-chemical characteristics of the oil and effect of storage on the oil. Results obtained showed that the saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV), percentage free fatty acid (%FFA) and refractive index of the oil are 196 ± 0.05 mg/KOH ...

  11. [Development of social hygienic research in industrial medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Tikhonova, G I; Churanova, A N

    2013-01-01

    The article covers history of establishment and development of social hygienic research in Industrial Medicine Research Institute with RAMSc over last 90 years. The materials deal with founders and leaders of Social Hygienic research laboratory in various periods, with history of occupational morbidity studies, with development and results of social hygienic studies, organization of occupational therapy service in Russia, studies concerning remote effects of occupational hazards through analytic epidemiology methods, with considerably restricted possibilities in studies of relationships (especially remote) between work conditions and workers' health nowadays due to implemented law on personal data and new approaches to evaluation of industrial hazards effects on health.

  12. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  13. Hygiene behaviour in university students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Insaf; Cinar, Nursan Dede; Dede, Cemile

    2013-05-01

    To identify university students' hygiene behaviour using a hygiene behaviour inventory in a Turkish sample. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 353 randomly selected university students aged 17-24 years in Kocaeli, Turkey. Data were collected in December 2009 using a socio-demographic form and the Turkish version of the Hygiene Behaviour Inventory-23. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. The mean score was 3.08 +/- 0.94; ranging from 1.91 +/- 0.85 to 3.77 +/- 0.52. Of the students, 290 (82.2%) always washed their hands when soap was available; 266 (75.4%) had cleaned their toilets three times or more in the preceding month; 260 (73.7%) always washed their hands after touching a pet or some animal; 260 (73.7%) always washed their hand before preparing food; 256 (72.5%) always washed fruits and vegetables before eating them; 227 (64.3%) always covered the seat with paper while using a public toilet; 244 (69.1%) had always cleaned their bathroom at home three times or more in the preceding month; and 183 (51.8%) of the students always washed their hands before eating food with their hands. Community-based awareness and education plans must initiated to improve regular hygiene practices at the level of university students in Turkey.

  14. Evaluation of dental hygiene education for nursing home staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Petteri; Kullberg, Erika; Hoogstraate, Janet; Johansson, Olle; Herbst, Bertil; Forsell, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study evaluating the long-term effects on the oral hygiene status of older nursing home residents one and a half years after dental hygiene education was given to the staff. A strong relationship exists between oral infections and general health complications (especially aspiration pneumonia) among nursing home residents and hospitalized older people. It is therefore important to educate nursing home staff in oral hygiene measures and to follow up the effects of the education over time. Dental plaque measurements were conducted at a Swedish nursing home in 2006-2008. Forty-one residents (12 men, 31 women, aged 69-99 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and participated in a dental hygiene evaluation 1.5 years after dental hygiene education was given to the staff at the nursing home. Plaque index scores (year 2008) were compared to those soon after the education (year 2006). After the dental hygiene education in 2006, 60 nursing home residents (14 men, 46 women) were available for plaque index measurements, whereas 41 residents (12 men, 29 women) were available 1.5 years later. The median plaque index scores were 17.0 (n = 60) in 2006, and 18.0 (n = 41) in 2008 (Mann-Whitney U-test, P > 0.05). Dental hygiene education for nursing home staff is important to maintain an adequate level of oral hygiene among older nursing home residents over time. Follow-up of dental hygiene education for nursing home staff is recommended to maintain a sufficient level of oral hygiene among the residents.

  15. [Studies on chemical constituents of Patrinia villosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin-Yong; Fan, Guo-Rong; Wu, Yu-Tian

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Patrinia villosa. The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and identified by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis (MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate and n-butanol extract and identified as: 5-hydroxyl-7, 3', 4'-trimethoxy flavone (I), 5-hydroxyl-7, 4'-dimethoxy flavone (II), luteolin (III), quercetin (IV), isoorientin (V), isovitexin (VI) and 8-C glucosylprunetin (VII). Compounds I , II, III, V, VI and VIII were obtained from the plant of genus Patrinia for the first time, compound IV was separated from P. villosa for the first time.

  16. Hospitalisation impacts on oral hygiene: an audit of oral hygiene in a metropolitan health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, Rachael; Ryan, Anna; Plummer, Virginia; Williams, Cylie

    2016-03-01

    Poor oral health has been associated with systemic diseases, morbidity and mortality. Many patients in hospital environments are physically compromised and rely upon awareness and assistance from health professionals for the maintenance or improvement of their oral health. This study aimed to identify whether common individual and environment factors associated with hospitalisation impacted on oral hygiene. Data were collected during point prevalence audits of patients in the acute and rehabilitation environments on three separate occasions. Data included demographic information, plaque score, presence of dental hygiene products, independence level and whether nurse assistance was documented in the health record. Data were collected for 199 patients. A higher plaque score was associated with not having a toothbrush (p = 0.002), being male (p = 0.007), being acutely unwell (p = 0.025) and requiring nursing assistance for oral hygiene (p = 0.002). There was fair agreement between the documentation of requiring assistance for oral care and the patient independently able to perform oral hygiene (ICC = 0.22). Oral hygiene was impacted by factors arising from hospitalisation, for those without a toothbrush and male patients of acute wards. Establishment of practices that increase awareness and promote good oral health should be prioritised. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Job Burnout Reduces Hand Hygiene Compliance Among Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomenidis, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony

    2017-10-13

    Health professional burnout has been associated with suboptimal care and reduced patient safety. However, the extent to which burnout influences hand hygiene compliance among health professionals has yet to be explored. The aim of the study was to examine whether job burnout reduces hand washing compliance among nursing staff. A diary study was conducted. Forty registered nurses working in a general city hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece, completed a questionnaire, while they were monitored for hand hygiene compliance following the World Health Organization protocol for hand hygiene assessment. Burnout was measured using validated items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data were collected from September to October 2015. Multiple regression analysis showed that controlling for years in practice, burnout was negatively associated with hand hygiene compliance (R = 0.322, F(3,36) = 5.704, P burnout were less likely to comply with hand hygiene opportunities (b = - 3.72, 95% confidence interval = -5.94 to -1.51). This study showed that burnout contributes to suboptimal care by reducing compliance to hand hygiene among nurses. Given the crucial role of hand hygiene compliance for the prevention of in-hospital infections, this study highlights the need for interventions targeting the prevention of burnout among nursing staff.

  18. Hand Hygiene: Do we follow it seriously?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of hand hygiene was highlighted in the nineteenth century during the first trial done by Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis, an obstetrician practicing in Vienna, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures. He was able to reduce maternal mortality rate in his hospital by 90% by just applying the protocol of washing hands in chlorinated lime solution before examining the patients. Semmelweis's hypothesis was largely ignored, rejected, or ridiculed. He was dismissed from the hospital for political reasons and harassed by the medical community in Vienna, being eventually forced to move to Budapest. Semmelweis's practice earned widespread acceptance, when Louise Pasteur confirmed the germ theory and Joseph Lister, pioneered antiseptic surgery. Lister practiced and operated using hygienic methods with great success.There are many national and international guidelines which emphasize the practice of hand hygiene in reducing the incidence of hospital acquired infections (HAI. With all the evidence of decreasing the HAIs the practice of hand hygiene compliance should have been a 100% in all healthcare facilities. However, various studies done in different countries show that the compliance of hand hygiene amongst the healthcare workers is not satisfactory, ranging only 40 to 50% even in the developed nations.Why Not?Inaccessible hand washing facilities: This is one of the major factors due to which the compliance to wash hands is compromised.Wearing Gloves: The misconception amongst the healthcare workers that wearing gloves will prevent transmission of germs is another major factor.Scepticism about the value of hand hygiene: CMEs, lectures, demonstrations and evidence based studies on hand hygiene should be kept in top priority to disseminate the knowledge which will reduce the scepticism.Lack of concept of IPAC, motivation and role model: Many healthcare centres do not have IPAC committee; hence the concept of IPAC is

  19. An integrated occupational hygiene consultation model for the catering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2010-07-01

    Vegetable oil used in food processing, during high-temperature exposure, will generate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are carcinogenic chemical compounds, with the potential to cause lung disease for restaurant kitchen staff. This study's design includes a three-stage consultation process with eight major consultation items, in order to build an integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene. This model combines inspection and consultation, targeting Chinese restaurants in the catering industry. Characteristics of the integrated consultation model include cooperation between different government departments and collaboration with nongovernmental, professional consulting organizations. An additional benefit of the model is the building of a good partnership relationship with the Catering Trade Association. The consultation model helps Chinese restaurants attain improvements in their work environments with minimal investment. Postconsultation, results show a 63.35% and 61.98% (P < 0.001) decrease in the mean time-weighted concentration of exposure to PM and PAHs, respectively. The overall regulation compliance rate of Chinese restaurants significantly increased from 34.3% to 89.6%. These results show that the integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene not only helps small and medium enterprises reduce exposure concentrations in the workplace but also has specific potential for successful implementation in Taiwan.

  20. Understanding the Challenges of Improving Sanitation and Hygiene Outcomes in a Community Based Intervention: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Joseph Kihika; Galukande, Moses; Maeda, Florence; Luboga, Sam; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2017-06-05

    Good sanitation and clean water are basic human rights yet they remain elusive to many rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We carried out a cross sectional study to examine the impact of a four-year intervention aimed at improving access to water and sanitation and reducing waterborne disease, especially diarrhea in children under five years old. The study was carried out in April and May 2015 in Busangi, Chela and Ntobo wards of Kahama District of Tanzania. The interventions included education campaigns and improved water supply, and sanitation. The percentage of households (HHs) with access to water within 30 min increased from 19.2 to 48.9 and 17.6 to 27.3 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The percentage of HHs with hand washing facilities at the latrine increased from 0% to 13.2%. However, the incidence of diarrhea among children under five years increased over the intervention period, RR 2.91 95% CI 2.71-3.11, p < 0.0001. Availability of water alone may not influence the incidence of waterborne diseases. Factors such as water storage and usage, safe excreta disposal and other hygiene practices are critical for interventions negating the spread of water borne diseases. A model that articulates the extent to which these factors are helpful for such interventions should be explored.

  1. Physico-Chemical Stability Studies of Neem (Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    studies approach. Chemically, the formulations were investigated for changes in pH, viscosity and specific gravity during the period of study. The result shows that neem oil cream formulations maintain its physical and chemical integrity throughout the entire period of study concern. Hence, stability is not a problem for neem ...

  2. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization studies. 160.135 Section 160.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.135 Physical and chemical characterization studie...

  3. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al Toufailia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because

  4. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  5. Dental hygiene registration: development, and reliability and validity testing of an assessment scale designed for nurses in institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeld, Katrine Gahre; Eide, Hilde; Mowe, Morten; Hove, Lene Hystad; Willumsen, Tiril

    2017-07-01

    To develop and test the dental hygiene registration, a dental hygiene assessment scale for nurses working in institutions. Removal of dental plaque is a key factor in preventing oral health-related diseases. A simple, but reliable dental hygiene assessment scale that enables nurses to monitor residents' dental hygiene on a daily basis, will improve monitoring oral hygiene status and quality of dental health care. Descriptive study on the development and evaluation of a dental hygiene registration instrument. The dental hygiene registration was developed and tested over several stages during the period of 2011-2014. Dental hygiene registration consists of a five-point plaque score scale. The score indicates whether measures are needed. A reference group comprising both medical and dental personnel designed dental hygiene registration. Dental plaque was used as a measure of dental hygiene. A pictorial series of teeth with varying amounts of plaque was used to achieve intra-examiner agreement. Dental hygiene registration assessments were scored 50 times to assess interexaminer reliability between one dental hygienist and one clinical nurse. Dental hygiene registration was validated against the plaque index score of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. The Regional Ethics Committee approved the study (2011/915). Estimates for intra-examiner agreement on plaque score were good for the dental hygienist (κ = 0·7) and very good for the clinical nurse (κ = 0·8). Estimates for interexaminer reliability for dental hygiene registration between the dental hygienist and the clinical nurse were moderate (κ = 0·4). dental hygiene registration corresponded significantly with Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0·8, p registration appears to be reliable and valid. Dental hygiene registration may contribute to the provision of daily oral care. Dental hygiene registration enables nurses to evaluate their own effort when assisting in dental

  6. Intramolecular Isotopic Studies: Chemical Enhancements and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    As mass spectroscopic and NMR-based methods now appropriately flourish, chemical techniques should not be forgotten. First, the methods developed by pioneering intramolecular analysts can be reapplied to new samples. Second, they can be extended. The synthesis of intramolecular isotopic standards is particularly important and straightforward. It requires only that a chemical reaction has no secondary products. An example is provided by the addition of carbon dioxide to a Grignard reagent. The reaction proceeds with an isotope effect. The isotopic composition of the carboxyl group in the acid which is produced is thus not equal to that of the starting carbon dioxide but the unconsumed CO2 can be recovered and analyzed. A simple titration can show that all the rest of the CO2 is in the product acid. The isotopic composition of the carboxyl group can then be calculated by difference. The product is an intramolecular isotopic standard, an organic molecule in which the isotopic composition of a specific carbon position is known accurately. Both analysts and reviewers can thus gain invaluable confidence in the accuracy of instrumental results. A second example: the haloform reaction quantitatively degrades methyl ketones, producing a carboxylic acid which can be decarboxylated to determine the isotopic composition of the parent carbonyl and a haloform (CHI3, for example) that can be combusted to determine the isotopic composition of the methyl group. Ketones thus analyzed can be combined with Grignard reagents to yield carbon skeletons in which the isotopic compositions of internal and terminal -CH2- and -CH3 groups are known accurately. In general, analysts accustomed to demanding quantitative reactions should remember the power of mass balances and recognize that many organic-chemical reactions, while not quantitative, lack side products and can be driven to the total consumption of at least one reactant.

  7. Using psychological theory to understand the challenges facing staff delivering a ward-led intervention to increase hand hygiene behavior: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, John; Stone, Sheldon; Fuller, Christopher; Michie, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The Feedback Intervention Trial was a national trial of an intervention to increase hand hygiene behavior in English and Welsh hospitals. It significantly improved behavior, the effect increasing with fidelity to intervention, but the intervention proved more difficult to implement than anticipated. This study aimed to identify the barriers to and facilitators of implementation as experienced by those who delivered the intervention. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 intervention ward coordinators implementing the intervention. Interview questions were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework. Text relating to each domain was scored according to whether it indicated low or high likelihood of implementation, and thematic analysis conducted. The lowest scoring domains were "environmental context and resources," "beliefs about capabilities," "social influences," and "emotion." Lack of time and understaffing, perceived negativity from other staff members, and stress were identified as challenges to implementation. The highest scoring domains were "behavioral regulation," "motivation," "skills," "knowledge," and "professional role." Ward coordinators reported that they had the skills, understanding, and motivation to implement the intervention and spoke of consistency of tasks with existing roles. Implementation might be improved by giving designated time for intervention tasks and ensuring that the ward coordinator role is allocated to staff for whom tasks are commensurate with existing professional roles. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hand hygiene compliance in a universal gloving setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruno, Noriko; Kasahara, Kei; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2017-08-01

    The use of gloves for every patient contact (ie, universal gloving) has been suggested as an infection prevention adjunct and alternative to contact precautions. However, gloves may carry organisms unless they are changed properly. In addition, hand hygiene is required before donning and after removing gloves, and there are scarce data regarding glove changing and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting. This nonrandomized observational before-after study evaluated the effect of education and feedback regarding hand hygiene. Compliance with hand hygiene and glove use was directly observed in a universal gloving setting at a 10-bed intensive care unit in a Japanese tertiary care university teaching hospital. A total of 6,050 hand hygiene opportunities were identified. Overall, hand hygiene compliance steadily increased from study period 1 (16.1%) to period 5 (56.8%), although there were indication-specific differences in the baseline compliance, the degree of improvement, and the reasons for noncompliance. There were decreases in the compliance with universal gloving and the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It is difficult to properly perform glove use and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting, given its complexity. Direct observation with specific feedback and education may be effective in improving compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Physical and chemical characterization studies. 792.135 Section 792.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical...

  10. Effectiveness of an audible reminder on hand hygiene adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Morkos; Hanna, George B; Anderson, Oliver; Holmes, Alison; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2012-05-01

    Multimodal interventions aim to improve health care workers' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines. Visitors are not primarily targeted, but may spread epidemic infections. Effective interventions that improve the adherence of visitors to hand hygiene guidelines are needed to prevent the transmission of epidemic infections to or from health care environments. An electronic motion sensor-triggered audible hand hygiene reminder was installed at hospital ward entrances. An 8-month preinterventional and postinterventional study was carried out to measure the adherence of hospital visitors and staff to hand hygiene guidelines. Overall hand hygiene adherence increased from 7.6% to 49.9% (P staff increased immediately from 10.6% to 63.7% and from 5.3% to 34.8%, respectively (P staff (P staff (P = .341). The electronic motion sensor-triggered audible reminder immediately and significantly improved and sustained greater adherence of hospital visitors and clinical staff to hand hygiene guidelines. This is an effective addition to multimodal hand hygiene interventions and may help control epidemic infections. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge of removable partial denture wearers on denture hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milward, P; Katechia, D; Morgan, M Z

    2013-11-01

    Regular good denture hygiene by individuals with removable partial dentures (RPDs) is an important component of oral health and in the prevention of further dental problems. These individuals should be provided with advice on the importance of denture care and be aware of this information. To establish deficiencies in patient knowledge surrounding denture hygiene by RPD wearers. The study was undertaken as an audit. Data was collected from April 2012 to October 2012 via a questionnaire completed by 196 RPD wearers attending as patients at the University Dental Hospital Wales and the dental units at St David's Hospital and Cynon Valley Hospital. The audit criterion was patients with RPDs should have knowledge of denture hygiene, with the standard set at 100%. While 91.8% of participants stated they were provided with instructions on denture hygiene when provided with their current prosthesis, 60.2% were shown to have less than an appropriate level of denture cleanliness, with 9.2% reporting that they slept wearing their prosthesis. The audit criterion and standard set were not achieved. A lack of knowledge surrounding denture hygiene was demonstrated among participants. As a part of the audit process the health education of RPD wearers' hygiene needs to be improved and awareness levels of the whole dental team needs to be raised. All partial dentures should receive information and regular reinforcement of key dental hygiene messages.

  12. Assessment of hand hygiene levels among healthcare professionals in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rameswarapu, Rohin; K, Surendranath Sai; Valsangkar, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionHand hygiene, either by hand disinfection or hand washing remains to be most pivotal in controlling infection in healthcare settings. Simple preventive measures have been proven effective to contain infections. The exiguity on studies done in healthcare settings in India has galvanized us to undertake this study on hand hygiene assessment among nurses in a healthcare setting in IndiaMaterials and methodsA cross sectional study was done in one of leading organization in preventive ...

  13. THE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FOR ANIMAL FATS DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Pop; Cornel Laslo

    2009-01-01

    In this article the chemical composition for 3 types of animal fats (pork fat, beef tallow and buffalo tallow), following the variation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids proportion during freezing storage was studied. Determination of chemical composition of animal fats is important in establishing organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, the variation of them in time, nature and proportion of fatty acids conferring specific characteristics to them. For pork fat was determined the...

  14. Oral Hygiene Level Maintenance among Dental Medicine Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kocovski, Darko; Toneva, Verica; Dimova, Cena; Apostoloski, Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral hygiene is one of the most important measures for the preservation and promotion of oral health. Not proper maintenance of oral hygiene leads to create dental plaque. Dental plaque of the teeth and gums is the major cause of diseases of the tissues such as tooth decay, sensitivity of teeth and tooth necks, sore gums, gum recession, loosening of the teeth as a result of periodontitis. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the level of maintenance of oral hygiene am...

  15. Feminine hygiene practices among female patients and nurses in Lebanon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad

    2016-01-01

    .... Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices...

  16. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  17. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  18. Factors influencing the selection of dental hygiene as a profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassel, J R; Mauriello, S M; Weintraub, J A

    1992-02-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the dental hygiene profession has experienced a decline in the number of applicants. Reasons cited for this decline are fewer traditional college-age students, an increase in the career opportunities available to women, and a decrease in student financial aid. Four-year dental hygiene programs have experienced applicant decline faster than two-year programs. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influenced university freshmen to designate dental hygiene as a career choice. Factors examined included reasons for choosing or not choosing a career in dental hygiene, and retention in the college major chosen. A questionnaire was mailed to three groups of students who entered the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill as freshmen from 1985 through 1987: (1) all students who designated dental hygiene as a major on their entrance application; (2) a random sample who did not; and (3) all the freshman during that time period who subsequently matriculated into the dental hygiene program. The overall response rate was 78% (n = 80). Subjects began to explore career opportunities at a mean age of 16. Having a family member/friend in the selected field was found to be the most influential factor in career selection. Among dental hygiene students, contact with a dental hygienist was perceived to be influential in their career choice. Entering college freshmen exhibited a lack of knowledge about the dental hygiene profession, and most had not received any information about dental hygiene in high school. These findings can be used to develop recruitment strategies.

  19. The impact of a sleep hygiene intervention on residents of a private residential facility for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Siobhan A; MacMaster, Samuel A; Kodad, Vicki; Robledo, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of Americans are experiencing sleep problems. There is evidence of a complex, bidirectional relationship between sleep disorders, substance abuse, and mental health symptoms. Institutional settings have been shown to elicit sleep problems as well. This pilot study was conducted with 28 patients in private, residential, dual-diagnosis treatment for addiction and mental health disorders. Upon admission, consenting patients were administered the Addiction Severity Index to assess pretreatment substance use and mental health symptoms. Patients followed a normal course of treatment as well as participated in a nightly sleep hygiene group that included relaxation suggestions. Evaluations with the Addiction Severity Index were completed again 30 days after discharge from treatment. Significant improvements in some substance use patterns as well as mental health symptoms were noted. Although results cannot be directly attributed to the use of a sleep hygiene group, this pilot study lays the foundation for future investigations of interventions supporting sleep in the dual-diagnosis population.

  20. Negotiating the Limits of Upbringing, Education, and Racial Hygiene in Nazi Germany as Exemplified in the Study and Treatment of Sinti and Roma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Like other minorities, Sinti and Roma were victims of racial persecution by the Nazis. For this group in particular, the Racial-Hygienic and Heredity Research Centre in the Reich Health Office became a central institution in the Nazi system of extermination. Eva Justin, a reseacher at the Centre, published her doctoral dissertation while working…

  1. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENTS OF HEALTH RISKS IN HYGIENIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of publications presents the analysis of national scientific publications and methodological documents on health risks assessments under unfavorable external impacts. In available research publications, the hygienic risks assessment is most often considered in situations of chemicals impact, and such assessment has sufficient methodological providing. Comparison of publications and methodological documents allows determination of the possibility of methodological unity for health risk assessment in conditions of chemical and radiation impacts.

  2. A reformulation of the hygiene hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between allergic respiratory diseases and the number of siblings. It was hypothesized that the lower prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in large sibships was due to cross-infections between siblings. According to this hygiene hyp...... influence of the mother was overlooked. A new hypothesis is therefore proposed. Maternal exposure to infections induces immunological memory, which protects her children against allergic respiratory diseases.......Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between allergic respiratory diseases and the number of siblings. It was hypothesized that the lower prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in large sibships was due to cross-infections between siblings. According to this hygiene...... hypothesis the increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases is caused by a decrease in the exposure to infections. It was believed that early infections were beneficial for health because of their contribution to the maturation of the immune system. However, in this interpretation a possible protective...

  3. Methods to Study Intervention Sustainability Using Pre-existing, Community Interventions: Examples from the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Benjamin Ford

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quasi-experimental study design to evaluate non-random\\-ized, pre-existing community interventions not originally designed to gather rigorous data about sustainability and impact. The core components of the design include selection of a control group using propensity score matching with pre-intervention (baseline) secondary data and post-intervention follow-up in the field. The main advantages of the design include measurement of interventions implemented under ac...

  4. Studies of the Fog-water Chemical Characteristics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Y.; Li, Z. H.; Yang, F.; Bin, Z.; Yang, J.

    2010-07-01

    Research of chemical characteristics of fog-water developed rapidly in China since 1980. Observation, sampling and analysis have been done in cities , on the alps and beside the sea-sides. Studies about the acidity of cloud-fog water and the source of acid fog at each place have been done. The basic characteristics of fog water chemical composition also been detected. In many compositive fog observations , there explored the related factors of fog-water chemical characteristics as well as continuous fog-water collection, and studied the primary factors which affect the concentration of the fog water chemical composition. The paper presents the primary studies of fog-water chemical characteristics in China the last 30 years. Fog -water sampling and analysis have made marked progress. the cloud-fog water chemical composition and acidity were confirmed in many cities and mountain areas. Many efficacious works have been done about the source of chemical composition. The studies shown that the cloud-fog water in many of Chinese cities and mountain areas have been acidified. Fog-water in cities was polluted with high ion concentrations and jeopardize people’s health. It’s very urgent to control pollutant discharge, raise the vegetation plant cover rate, and improve ecological environment. The fog chemical research should be continue in-depth and development.

  5. A baseline study on inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Inorganic chemicals and microorganisms are common in human environments and at high levels poisoning from the chronic effects have occasionally occurred. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether the levels of inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants in boreholes and open wells ...

  6. No nosocomial transmission under standard hygiene precautions in short term contact patients in case of an unexpected ESBL or Q&A E. coli positive patient: a one-year prospective cohort study within three regional hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Souverein; Euser, Sjoerd M.; Herpers, Bjorn L.; Corry Hattink; Patricia Houtman; Amerens Popma; Jan Kluytmans; John W. A. Rossen; Den Boer, Jeroen W

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Many Highly Resistant Gram Negative Rod (HR-GNR) positive patients are found unexpectedly in clinical cultures, besides patients who are screened and isolated based on risk factors. As unexpected HR-GNR positive patients are isolated after detection, transmission to contact patients possibly occurred. The added value of routine contact tracing in such situations within hospitals with standard hygiene precautions is unknown. Methods In 2014, this study was performed as a pr...

  7. Promotion of sanitation and hygiene in a rural area of South India: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagapraveen Veerapu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, billions of people do not have access to improved sanitation and many defecate in the open air. Poor hand washing practices and limited access to sanitation facilities perpetuate the transmission of disease-causing germs. The objectives of the study were to find out the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs on sanitary latrine, footwear, and hand washing among rural people and to assess the improvement in KAP after health education intervention. Materials and Methods: A health education intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to January 2014 in a rural area of Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, South India among the people aged 15 years and above. The individuals were selected by multistage random sampling and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. After a baseline KAP assessment, intervention activities were conducted twice. The intervention activities were group level talks and discussions, free soap distribution, and display of posters at anganwadi centers. Post-KAP was assessed twice, and the significance of difference was found by using McNemar′s test. Results: After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in the overall KAPs among the subjects in post test-1 and post test-2 (P1 < 0.0001, P2 < 0.0001, respectively. Conclusions: Health education as an intervention has significantly increased KAP more than 30%. Hence, it is imperative that education interventions are needed to bring or sustain positive change.

  8. Workplace hand hygiene and wellness: a survey of knowledge, beliefs, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman-Smith, Maggie; DuBois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Community hand hygiene interventions have reduced the spread of infectious disease in elementary schools, daycare centers, and private homes. Despite this success, and the potential for reducing workplace absenteeism and presenteeism, few peer-reviewed hand hygiene intervention studies among workers have been published. This research used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to guide the development of a model to understand and predict motivations for performing hand hygiene, and to examine related illness, absenteeism, and presenteeism among employees from 39 bank branches in Ohio. Although the TPB has been used extensively to elucidate hand hygiene practices among employees in the health care and food industries, little is known about the ability of the TPB to predict hand hygiene practices among workers in public settings. These survey findings indicate a need for hand hygiene improvement, and support the use of attitudinal beliefs and social norms to guide multimodal approaches for workplace hand hygiene interventions.

  9. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-10-02

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff.

  10. Bacteriological and physicochemical quality of drinking water and hygiene-sanitation practices of the consumers in bahir dar city, ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Milkiyas; Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2011-03-01

    Lack of safe drinking water, basic sanitation, and hygienic practices are associated with high morbidity and mortality from excreta related diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water and investigate the hygiene and sanitation practices of the consumers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A cross sectional prospective study was conducted in Bahir Dar City from October-December, 2009. Water samples were collected from 35 private taps and 35 household water containers for bacteriological analysis. The turbidity, pH, temperature and turbidity were measured immediately after collection. Finally, the hygiene-sanitation practices of the consumers were surveyed using interview. Twenty seven (77.1%) of the household water samples had high total coliforms counts. Twenty (57.1%) household water samples and 9 (25.7%) of the tap water samples had no residual free chlorine. Sixteen (45.7%) household water samples had very high risk score to thermotolerant coliforms. Eight (22.9%) tap water samples had low risk score for total coliforms whereas 21(60%) tap water had very low risk score for thermotolerant coliforms. Twelve (34.3%) of the consumers collect water without contact with their hand and 9(25.7%) wash their hands with soap after visiting toilet. Water supplies at tap and household water containers were contaminated with bacteria. Poor sanitation, low level of hygiene, uncontrolled treatment parameters are the causes for contamination. Control of physico-chemical parameters and promoting good hygiene and sanitation are recommended.

  11. Knowledge of and Adherence to Hygiene Guidelines among Medical Students in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena G. Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high.

  12. Hygienic investigation of coastal waters of the upper Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möse, J R; Mascher, F; Pichler-Semmelrock, F; Köck, M; Reinthaler, F F

    1990-05-01

    In the course of the bathing season of 1989, investigations of bathing waters were carried out in two-week intervals. From the point of view of public health, the chemical-physical and microbiological results do not suggest objections against bathing at the beach areas investigated (Grado, Lignano). However, these favorable results do not imply intact ecological conditions. National and international standards are designed for humans and allow only very limited conclusions about the living conditions of the marine ecosystem. This also means that ecological investigations are not sufficient to permit conclusions about hygienic conditions. In spite of this seeming contradiction, hygienic and ecological concerns are clearly identical. Hygienic measures must not be limited to local "cosmetic" corrections but must target foremost unfavorable basic conditions.

  13. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    . Finding materials with low so-called bioadhesion focuses on the development of surfaces where biofilm formation is delayed or reduced. Studies have been carried out e.g. by modifying stainless steel with different surface finishes, and by the effect of possible antimicrobial coatings like silver. Another......Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...... goals: • Development of materials with low bioadhesion (defined as resistance towards biofilm formation) - and in this context evaluation of quantitative techniques for examination of bioadhesion • Improvement of surface material hygienic life time by selecting surface materials in combination...

  14. Influence of oral hygiene and its interaction with standard of education on the risk of oral cancer in women who neither smoked nor drank alcohol: a hospital-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F; He, B-C; Yan, L-J; Qiu, Y; Lin, L-S; Cai, L

    2017-04-01

    We know of only limited data about the role of oral hygiene and the risk of oral cancer with different standards of education. The aim of this study was to assess the association between oral hygiene and risk of oral cancer, with stratification by standard of education, in Chinese women. We organised a case-control study with 250 women with oral cancer and 996 age-matched controls in Fujian, China. Data were collected by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. We used unconditional logistic regression with stratification by educational standard to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI. Tooth-brushing twice a day or more was inversely related to the risk of oral cancer in women with high school education or above (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.98), but not in those who were illiterate or had primary-middle school education. Wearing dentures showed an increased risk only in less well-educated women: the OR were 2.23 (95% CI 1.14 to 4.34) for the illiterate and 1.68 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.62) for the primary-middle school group. The loss of more than five teeth and oral ulceration were associated with increased risks of oral cancer in all three groups. There was also a multiplicative interaction between oral hygiene and standard of education for risk of oral cancer (p=0.001). Our results suggest that oral hygiene seems to have a critical role in the risk of oral cancer in Chinese women, but this effect may be modified by their educational standard. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interventions to improve patient hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Furness, C D; Gardam, M

    2016-09-01

    Nosocomial pathogens may be acquired by patients via their own unclean hands, but there has been relatively little emphasis on patient hand hygiene as a tool for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of patient hand hygiene interventions in reducing HCAIs and improving patient hand hygiene rates compared to usual care. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched to August 2014. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they evaluated a patient hand hygiene intervention conducted in an acute or chronic healthcare facility and included HCAI incidence and/or patient hand hygiene rates as an outcome. All steps were performed independently by two investigators. Ten studies were included, most of which were uncontrolled before-after studies (N=8). The majority of interventions (N=7) were multi-modal, with components similar to healthcare worker hand hygiene programmes, including education, reminders, audit and feedback, and provision of hand hygiene products. Six studies reported HCAI outcomes and four studies assessed patient hand hygiene rates; all demonstrated improvements but were at moderate to high risk of bias. In conclusion, interventions to improve patient hand hygiene may reduce the incidence of HCAIs and improve hand hygiene rates, but the quality of evidence is low. Future studies should use stronger designs and be more selective in their choice of outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  17. [Infection control and hand hygiene in nursing homes in Oslo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Ingrid; Thorstad, Margrete; Andersen, Bjørg Marit

    2008-06-26

    Nosocomial infections and transmission can be substantially reduced by good infection control. The laws and regulations for infection control in heath care institutions emphasize establishment of infection control programs and improved hand hygiene. Our study reviews some factors that are important for practicing adequate hand hygiene (knowledge about infection control and hand-washing facilities). Health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes in Oslo participated in this study in 2006-2007. A questionnaire was made and SPSS was used to analyse the data . 70.7% of 324 HCW (in 42 nursing homes) answered the questionnaires. Nearly all of the respondents (95.6%) knew about the written procedures for hygiene and infection control; 88.5% knew that an infection control program was in place and about 50% had received information through internal education. Three of four had read the National guidelines for hand hygiene, 77.5% thought that hand disinfection was more effective than hand washing, and 97% reported hand hygiene after contact with a patient having an infection. Dispensers for hand disinfection were situated at central work places. At the same time, 17.9% informed that they worked in more than one place at the same time. This study confirms that most nursing homes in Oslo have an infection control program and training that improves the knowledge and awareness of hand hygiene among HCWs. However, the fact that nursing homes in Oslo have the resources, knowledge and education, is not the same as compliance.

  18. Parents knowledge and oral hygiene level of kindergarten students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Arista Muljadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents knowledge related to oral health affects toothbrushing behavior in children. The habit of toothbrushing introduced to the children by their parents, and usually becomes child's habit that affects the application of toothbrushing and how to maintain good oral hygiene in the future. The purpose of this study was to know the description of parents knowledge about toothbrushing and the kindergarten students oral hygiene level. Methods: This study was conducted towards 25 students of Gymboree and Kidsville which consisted of 14 boys (56% and 11 girls (44%. The study design was cross sectional research. The data collection was done by giving questionnaires to parents and examination of student’s oral hygiene level by using PHP index. Results: Generally parents already have the good knowledge that supports the children oral hygiene level of children, but there were still 52% of parents who does not use the techniques recommended to brush the outer surface of the teeth and 64% of parents who does not use the techniques recommended to brush the tooth surface that close to the cheek. The oral hygiene level of Gymboree and Kidsville students were very good 0% (0, 32% good (0.1 -1.7, 60% medium (1.8 -3.4, and 8% bad (3.5-5.0. Conclusion: Awareness of parents about toothbrushing and oral hygiene level of children were generally adequate, but were not fulfilling the standards of oral health recommended by dentist.

  19. Morphoanatomical And Physico-Chemical Studies Of Annona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphoanatomical And Physico-Chemical Studies Of Annona Reticulata, A Common Substitute For Annona Squamosa. CD Kumar, D Yadav, R Patidar, PNS Kumar, R Lobo, MM Setty, SL Prabu, A Shirwaikar, A Shirwaikar ...

  20. Quantum-chemical studies on porphyrins, fullerenes and carbon nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Loboda, Oleksandr

    2014-01-01

    ​This book presents theoretical studies of electronic structure, optical and spectroscopic properties of a number of compounds. It presents new, faster calculation methods for applications in quantum-chemical theory of electronic structures.

  1. Studies on chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of bioactive molecules from date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) pollens and seeds. ... using different techniques, including optical density and GC/MS analyses of the natural extracts.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Poral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of a community-based hygiene promotion program in a rural Salvadoran setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Elizabeth L; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B; Edberg, Mark C; Zoerhoff, Kathryn L; Putzer, Emily M

    2017-07-01

    There has been considerable progress in the reduction of diarrheal disease among children under five through health and nutrition interventions. However, diarrheal disease is still the second leading cause of child death worldwide. There is growing recognition that comprehensive hygiene behavior improvements should be integral to prevention efforts, but the effectiveness of different approaches for hygiene promotion is still being established. Hygiene risk practices vary across settings, suggesting that prevention strategies should be adapted to local contexts using community-based approaches. We planned, implemented, and evaluated a hygiene promotion intervention using the hygiene cluster framework. The two-year, multi-level intervention was implemented by local health promoters who were involved in identifying and addressing disease transmission risks at the household, school, and community levels. The intervention was evaluated using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with repeated follow-up assessments to determine changes in hygiene knowledge and behavior. A household survey instrument was administered at three time points in the intervention ( n = 480) and comparison ( n = 271) communities to assess two hygiene knowledge and eleven hygiene behavior outcome variables. We used one-way analysis of variance with post hoc analysis using Tukey's HSD for multiple comparisons to examine change and differences over time. We also fit a linear regression model to identify statistically significant differences. Study results demonstrated improvements in the areas of: knowledge of disease transmission and key times for handwashing, water container hygiene, sanitation practices, personal hygiene and food hygiene. The hygiene cluster framework is useful for hygiene promotion intervention planning and evaluation, and we recommended continued testing of this framework across contexts. We also recommend local community participatory approaches, as well as in

  4. [Comprehensive hygienic assessment of solaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, O K

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data on the positive and negative effects of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It provides the hygienic characteristics of solaria used to produce an artificial tan. This device has been found to present a high health risk to its users. There are considerable problems in the hygienic assessment of this type of exposure. The ways of solving the arising problems in developing the metrological monitoring of UVR and compiling a document regulating the sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance of solaria are defined.

  5. [Studies on chemical constituents of Clerodendrum bungei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-ming; Wei, Xiao-mei; He, Yang-qing

    2003-11-01

    To study the constituents from Clerodendrum bungei. The constituents were isolated and purified with chromatographic methods, and identified by NMR, MS and IR. Five compounds were isolated, beta-sitosterol (1), taraxerol (2), glochidone (3), glochidonol (4), glochidiol (5). Compounds (3), (4) and (5) were isolated for the first time from C. bungei.

  6. Chemical and Electrochemical Studies in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-12

    Ambient Temperature Molten Salts Based on Organic Chloroaluminates", NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molten Salt Chemistry, University of Camerino ... Camerino , Italy, August 3 - 15, 1986. OL. Janiszeuska, P. G. Pickup, T. Zawodzinski and R. A. Osteryoung, "Electrochemically Active Polymers in

  7. SOME QUANTUM CHEMICAL STUDY ON THE STRUCTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Schiff's base ligands have been in the chemistry catalogue for over 150 years [1]. The literature clearly shows that the study of this diverse ligand system is linked with many of the key advances made in inorganic chemistry. Not only have they played a seminal role in the development of modern coordination chemistry [2], ...

  8. 'Fit for school' - a school-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme to improve child health: Results from a longitudinal study in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; Monse, Bella; Dimaisip-Nabuab, Jed; Djuharnoko, Pantjawidi; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Hobdell, Martin; Kromeyer-Hauschild, Katrin; Kunthearith, Yung; Mijares-Majini, Maria Carmela; Siegmund, Nicole; Soukhanouvong, Panith; Benzian, Habib

    2017-04-05

    The Fit for School (FIT) programme integrates school health and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene interventions, which are implemented by the Ministries of Education in four Southeast Asian countries. This paper describes the findings of a Health Outcome Study, which aimed to assess the two-year effect of the FIT programme on the parasitological, weight, and oral health status of children attending schools implementing the programme in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR. The study was a non-randomized clustered controlled trial with a follow-up period of two years. The intervention group consisted of children attending public elementary schools implementing the FIT programme, including daily group handwashing with soap and toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, biannual school-based deworming; as well as construction of group handwashing facilities. Control schools implemented the regular government health education curriculum and biannual deworming. Per school, a random selection of six to seven-year-old grade-one students was drawn. Data on parasitological infections, anthropometric measurements, dental caries, odontogenic infections and sociodemographic characteristics were collected at baseline and at follow-up (24 months later). Data were analysed using the χ(2)-test, Mann Whitney U-test and multilevel logistic and linear regression. A total of 1847 children (mean age = 6.7 years, range 6.0-8.0 years) participated in the baseline survey. Of these, 1499 children were available for follow-up examination - 478, 486 and 535 children in Cambodia, Indonesia and Lao PDR, respectively. In all three countries, children in intervention schools had a lower increment in the number of decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth between baseline and follow-up, in comparison to children in controls schools. The preventive fraction was 24% at average. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection (which was unexpectedly low at baseline), the prevalence of thinness and

  9. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  10. Do peer effects improve hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Mauricio N; Pemmaraju, Sriram V; Thomas, Geb W; Herman, Ted; Segre, Alberto M; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether hand hygiene adherence is influenced by peer effects and, specifically, whether the presence and proximity of other healthcare workers has a positive effect on hand hygiene adherence. An observational study using a sensor network. A 20-bed medical intensive care unit at a large university hospital. Hospital staff assigned to the medical intensive care unit. We deployed a custom-built, automated, hand hygiene monitoring system that can (1) detect whether a healthcare worker has practiced hand hygiene on entering and exiting a patient's room and (2) estimate the location of other healthcare workers with respect to each healthcare worker exiting or entering a room. We identified a total of 47,694 in-room and out-of-room hand hygiene opportunities during the 10-day study period. When a worker was alone (no recent healthcare worker contacts), the observed adherence rate was 20.85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.78%-21.92%). In contrast, when other healthcare workers were present, observed adherence was 27.90% (95% CI, 27.48%-28.33%). This absolute increase was statistically significant (P hygiene rates. Furthermore, our results also indicate that rates increase as the social environment becomes more crowded, but with diminishing marginal returns.

  11. Suspicion of viral gastroenteritis does improve compliance with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, S; Oude-Aost, J; Stollbrink-Peschgens, C; Haefner, H; Waitschies, B; Wagner, N; Lemmen, S W

    2011-08-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is common on pediatric wards, increasing the need for adherence with hand hygiene recommendations in order to prevent cross-transmission. Therefore, we investigated hand hygiene reflecting complete work-day activities on pediatric wards and focused on the influence of viral gastroenteritis. There are, so far, no studies representing complete working days on pediatric wards or addressing the influence of viral gastroenteritis. This was a prospective, observational study (144 h in each group) on hand hygiene behavior in the care for children with and without suspected or proven viral gastroenteritis. We documented 40 and 30 hand hygiene opportunities per patient-day for ward-associated healthcare workers for children with and without viral gastroenteritis, respectively (P = 0.316). Healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene recommendations was significantly higher in children with viral gastroenteritis compared to those without, i.e., 72 versus 67% (P = 0.033), especially among physicians, being 92 versus 50% (P = 0.032). Compliance tended to be higher after patient contact than before, especially in the children with gastroenteritis (78 vs. 62%; P = 0.083). We conclude that viral gastroenteritis seemed to increase the number of daily opportunities for hand hygiene and did significantly increase compliance. In particular, this effect was seen after patient contact. Further research might address the awareness of undiagnosed transmissible diseases in order to prevent cross-transmissions.

  12. Patient empowerment and hand hygiene, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, M; Govednik, J

    2013-07-01

    Multi-modal hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment are promoted as a necessary component of hand hygiene compliance. However, the question still remains, do we have enough information to determine if, and under what conditions, patients will be able to play an immediate role in healthcare workers' hand hygiene behaviour? To review the current literature on patient willingness to be empowered, barriers to empowerment, and hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment and hand hygiene improvement. A Medline (Ovid) search of all English-language papers for 1997-2007 and 2008-2012 was conducted using the following keywords alone and in various combinations: 'patient participation', 'involvement', 'empowerment', 'education', 'decision-making', 'professional-patient relations', 'behavioural change', 'culture of safety', 'social marketing', 'consumer awareness', 'leadership', 'institutional climate', 'hand hygiene' and 'patient reminders'. The 1997-2007 review was conducted as part of the World Health Organization's Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, and updated with the 2008-2012 review. Several studies show that, in principle, patients are willing to be empowered. However, there is variation in the actual number of patients that practice empowerment for hand hygiene, ranging from 5% to 80%. The actual performance of patient empowerment can be increased when a patient is given explicit permission by a healthcare worker. There is ongoing support from patients that they are willing to be empowered. There is a need to develop programmes that empower both healthcare workers and patients so that they become more comfortable in their roles. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How to improve the hygienic quality of forages for horse feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Virginie; Garon, David; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Lanier, Caroline; Bouchart, Valérie; Gallard, Yves; Blanchet, Benoît; Diquélou, Sylvain; Personeni, Emmanuelle; Ourry, Alain

    2012-03-15

    Improving the hygienic quality of forages for horse nutrition seems to be a reasonable target for decreasing the prevalence of pulmonary diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of different agricultural practices on the main aero-allergens contained in forages, including breathable dust, fungi, mycotoxins and pollens. Results showed that the late harvest of hay, a second crop or a haylage production provides a good alternative to increase hygienic quality by reducing fungi contamination and breathable dust content. Barn drying of hay, while having no effect on breathable dust, similarly reduced fungi contamination. In contrast, when hay was harvested at a lower dry mass content (750 g DM kg⁻¹ versus 850 g DM kg⁻¹), both breathable dust and fungi contaminations were increased, which could at least be reversed by adding propionic acid just before baling. Zearalenone was detected in different hays, and even in one case, in breathable dust. Overall, our data suggest that different approaches can be used to increase forage hygienic quality for horse feeding and thus reduce their exposure to factors involved in equine pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.

  15. Parenting Education - Health and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    The second in a series on parenting education for American Indians, the booklet offers information on health and hygiene for the mother-to-be and the newborn baby. Chapters include care during pregnancy, mother's weight, mother's health, feeding newborns, washing the baby, baby's early diet, and baby's health care. (ERB)

  16. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  17. Using lot quality assurance sampling to assess access to water, sanitation and hygiene services in a refugee camp setting in South Sudan: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Elizabeth; Beckworth, Colin; Fesselet, Jean-Francois; Lenglet, Annick; Lako, Richard; Valadez, Joseph J

    2017-08-08

    Humanitarian agencies working in refugee camp settings require rapid assessment methods to measure the needs of the populations they serve. Due to the high level of dependency of refugees, agencies need to carry out these assessments. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a method commonly used in development settings to assess populations living in a project catchment area to identify their greatest needs. LQAS could be well suited to serve the needs of refugee populations, but it has rarely been used in humanitarian settings. We adapted and implemented an LQAS survey design in Batil refugee camp, South Sudan in May 2013 to measure the added value of using it for sub-camp level assessment. Using pre-existing divisions within the camp, we divided the Batil catchment area into six contiguous segments, called 'supervision areas' (SA). Six teams of two data collectors randomly selected 19 respondents in each SA, who they interviewed to collect information on water, sanitation, hygiene, and diarrhoea prevalence. These findings were aggregated into a stratified random sample of 114 respondents, and the results were analysed to produce a coverage estimate with 95% confidence interval for the camp and to prioritize SAs within the camp. The survey provided coverage estimates on WASH indicators as well as evidence that areas of the camp closer to the main road, to clinics and to the market were better served than areas at the periphery of the camp. This assumption did not hold for all services, however, as sanitation services were uniformly high regardless of location. While it was necessary to adapt the standard LQAS protocol used in low-resource communities, the LQAS model proved to be feasible in a refugee camp setting, and program managers found the results useful at both the catchment area and SA level. This study, one of the few adaptations of LQAS for a camp setting, shows that it is a feasible method for regular monitoring, with the added value of enabling camp

  18. Patient Hand Hygiene at Home Predicts Their Hand Hygiene Practices in the Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections.

  19. Quantifying the Hawthorne Effect in Hand Hygiene Compliance Through Comparing Direct Observation With Automated Hand Hygiene Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Stefan; Reischke, Jana; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Winning, Johannes; Gastmeier, Petra; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Scherag, André; Pletz, Mathias W

    2015-08-01

    To quantify the Hawthorne effect of hand hygiene performance among healthcare workers using direct observation. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit, university hospital. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance over 48 audits of 2 hours each. Simultaneously, hand hygiene events (HHEs) were recorded using electronic alcohol-based handrub dispensers. Directly observed and electronically recorded HHEs during the 2 hours of direct observation were compared using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots. To quantify the Hawthorne effect, we compared the number of electronically recorded HHEs during the direct observation periods with the re-scaled electronically recorded HHEs in the 6 remaining hours of the 8-hour working shift. A total of 3,978 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during the 96 hours of direct observation. Hand hygiene compliance was 51% (95% CI, 49%-53%). There was a strong positive correlation between directly observed compliance and electronically recorded HHEs (ρ=0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.81], Phand hygiene performance.

  20. A hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schie, M.; Wiesman, R.F.F.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts according to the hand-hygiene rule, wherein

  1. Automated monitoring: a potential solution for achieving sustainable improvement in hand hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2014-08-01

    Adequate hand hygiene is often considered as the most effective method of reducing the rates of hospital-acquired infections, which are one of the major causes of increased cost, morbidity, and mortality in healthcare. Electronic monitoring technologies provide a promising direction for achieving sustainable hand hygiene improvement by introducing the elements of automated feedback and creating the possibility to automatically collect individual hand hygiene performance data. The results of the multiphase testing of an automated hand hygiene reminding and monitoring system installed in a complex continuing care setting are presented. The study included a baseline Phase 1, with the system performing automated data collection only, a preintervention Phase 2 with hand hygiene status indicator enabled, two intervention Phases 3 and 4 with the system generating hand hygiene reminding signals and periodic performance feedback sessions provided, and a postintervention Phase 5 with only hand hygiene status indicator enabled and no feedback sessions provided. A significant increase in hand hygiene performance observed during the first intervention Phase 3 was sustained over the second intervention Phase 4, with the postintervention phase also indicating higher hand hygiene activity rates compared with the preintervention and baseline phases. The overall trends observed during the multiphase testing, the factors affecting acceptability of the automated hand hygiene monitoring system, and various strategies of technology deployment are discussed.

  2. Association between sleep hygiene awareness and practice with sleep quality among Kuwait University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, S; Alsalem, A; Al-Mutairi, S; Al-Lumai, D; Dawoud, A; Moussa, M

    2017-10-01

    University students are especially vulnerable to poor sleep quality. The aim of this study was to assess students' sleep hygiene awareness and sleep hygiene practices, and evaluate their sleep quality. The association of sleep quality with sleep hygiene awareness and practice was also explored. The median sleep quality score was 7; scores more than 5 indicate poor sleep quality. Hence, a large proportion of Kuwait University students experience a suboptimal level of overall sleep quality according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index criteria. Sleep hygiene knowledge among university students was relatively inadequate. Most respondents (60.9%) failed to recognize that taking a nap during daytime might be disruptive to sleep. Sleep quality was strongly correlated with sleep hygiene practice (Spearman rank correlation, rs=0.267, Psleep hygiene knowledge. Medical students showed poorer sleep hygiene awareness and poor sleep quality compared with students from other universities. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.8, Pcollege (OR=2.2, Psleep hygiene practice score were independently associated with sleep quality after adjusting for confounders. In conclusion, a large proportion of Kuwait University students experience poor sleep quality. Therefore, the development of sleep hygiene education programs as an intervention and prevention strategy is recommended. This will improve students' knowledge on the importance of adopting healthy sleep hygiene practices for better sleep quality and enhanced academic performance. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of Intelligent Secure Chemical Inventory Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukran, Mohd Afizi Mohd; Naim Abdullah, Muhammad; Nazri Ismail, Mohd; Maskat, Kamaruzaman; Isa, Mohd Rizal Mohd; Shahfee Ishak, Muhammad; Adib Khairuddin, Muhamad

    2017-08-01

    Chemical inventory management system has been experiencing a new revolution from traditional inventory system which is manual to an automated inventory management system. In this paper, some review of the classic and modern approaches to chemical inventory management system has been discussed. This paper also describe about both type of inventory management. After a comparative analysis of the traditional method and automated method, it can be said that both methods have some distinctive characteristics. Moreover, the automated inventory management method has higher accuracy of calculation because the calculations are handled by software, eliminating possible errors and saving time. The automated inventory system also allows users and administrators to track the availability, location and consumption of chemicals. The study of this paper can provide forceful review analysis support for the chemical inventory management related research.

  4. PENERAPAN HYGIENE DAN SANITASI DI PASTRY HOTEL HILTON BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Widya Pertiwi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Application of hygiene and sanitation in Hilton Hotel Bandung is important thing to note in the process of implementation. This is done to prevent food contamination of food that cab be caused by several factors such as, human, work area, kitchen utensil, material strorage systems and product. Because of this determination of standarts personal hygiene, area and utensil must be done correcly so that each product is safe for consumption. Authors on the basis of these issues are very keen to examine and make a final project with the title “application of hygiene and sanitation in the Hilton Hotel Bandung”. Research carried out by several methode of observation, interview and the latter is the study of documents. The research was conducted at the Hilton Hotel Bandung, for 6 months. The study was conducted as one of the requiremants for the final session of college exams Bina Sarana Informatika university Bandung. Based on the result of research and discussion conducted, authors concluded that the presence of load application staandard of hygiene and sanitation in hotel can improve the standard of health, hygiene and quality of a product when it is done in accordance with existing procedures. Key word : Hygiene and sanitation pastry hotel. Abstraksi - Penerapan hygiene dan sanitasi di Hotel Hilton Bandung merupakan upaya penting yang harus diperhatikan dalam proses pelaksanannya. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mencegah terjadinya kontaminasi makanan yang dapat disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor seperti manusia, area kerja, peralatan, sistem penyimpanan bahan dan produk. Penentuan standar kebersihan personal, area kerja maupun peralatan harus dilakukan dengan tepat dan benar agar setiap produk yang dihasilkan oleh bagian pastry hotel aman untuk dikonsumsi. Atas dasar persoalan di atas penulis sangat tertarik untuk menelitinya dan membuat tugas akhir dengan judul “ Penerapan Hygiene dan Sanitasi di Hotel Hilton Bandung ”. Metode penelitian

  5. Cutaneous chemical burns in children - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Bechar, Janak; Bella, Husam; Moiemen, Naiem

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals is an unusual causation of cutaneous burns in children. The aim of this study is to look at childhood chemical burns and compare this to adult chemical burns from the same population. A total of 2054 patients were referred to the pediatric burns unit during the study period. This included 24 cutaneous chemical burns, equating to an incidence of 1.1%. Over half of the injuries occurred in the domestic setting. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) affected was 1.9%. When compared to a cohort of adult patients from the same population with cutaneous chemical burns, the TBSA affected was identical (1.9%) but distribution favored the buttock and perineum in children, rather than the distal lower limb in adults. Children presented earlier, had lower rates of surgical intervention and had a shorter length of stay in hospital (p Chemical burns in children are rare, but are becoming more common in our region. It is important to be aware of the characteristic distribution, etiology and need to identify children at risk of child protection issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of conventional vs game-based oral health education on children's oral health-related knowledge and oral hygiene status - a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, Uma N; Asokan, Sharath; Asokan, Sureetha; Kumaran, S T

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of conventional and game-based oral health education on the oral health-related knowledge and oral hygiene status among 5- to 10-year-old schoolchildren. A total of 120 children aged 5 to 10 years were divided into 2 groups. Each group had 30 children aged 5 to 7 years and 30 children aged 8 to 10 years. A pretest evaluation of their knowledge regarding oral health and the estimation of Debris Index-Simplified (DI-S) was carried out. Children in group A were given oral health education through flash cards once daily for 7 days. Children in group B were educated through the play method (i.e. snakes and ladders game combined with flash cards). The evaluations regarding oral hygiene and DI-S were recorded on post-intervention day 1 and 3 months after the intervention. In group B, high knowledge scores of 14.6 and 14.47 were obtained by the 5- to 7-year-olds and 8- to 10-yearolds, respectively, on post-intervention day 1. The lowest mean percentage difference of 8.9 was seen in 5- to 7-yearold children of group A after 3 months. In group B (5-7 and 8-10) and group A (8-10) there was a significant increase in good oral hygiene scores and a significant decrease in fair and poor debris scores on post-intervention day 1 and at the 3-month follow-up. The knowledge scores of both the younger and older groups of children increased considerably when the game-based teaching intervention was used. Hence, it can be an effective aid for teaching basic oral health concepts to children.

  7. Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg Bernardes, Erik; Arrieta, Marie-Claire

    2017-12-07

    Industrialized countries have registered epidemic rates on allergic diseases, such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, and food allergies. The Hygiene Hypothesis was born from work made by Dr. David Strachan, who observed that younger siblings were less susceptible to eczema and asthma, and proposed that this was a result of increased transmission of infectious agents via unhygienic practices within a household. This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms as the source of immunomodulatory signals necessary to prevent immune-mediated chronic disorders. Although the hygiene hypothesis is supported by epidemiological research of allergic diseases in certain industrialized settings, it often fails to explain the incidence of asthma in less affluent regions of the world. In this review, we summarize up-to-date information on genetic and environmental factors associated with asthma in different human populations, and present evidence that calls for caution when associating hygiene with the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic conditions. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral Hygiene in Patients With Severe Mental Illness: A Pilot Study on the Collaboration Between Oral Hygienists and Mental Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mey, Langha; Çömlekçi, Ceren; de Reuver, Fione; van Waard, Ineke; van Gool, Ronald; Scheerman, Janneke F M; van Meijel, Berno

    2016-07-01

    To test (a) the effects of an educational intervention about oral hygiene on the knowledge of mental health nurses, and (b) the effects of an oral care intervention on oral health in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). We applied a pretest/posttest design to test improvements in nurses' knowledge and the oral health of SMI patients. The nursing staff's knowledge increased significantly after the educational intervention. The oral health of the patients improved significantly after the oral health intervention. Oral health of SMI patients can improve significantly with basic oral health interventions carried out by collaborating oral hygienists and mental health nurses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Wes Studi: Signs (:60) Wes Studi: Signs (:30) Traveler’s Health Way to Go Way to Go: Many ... Easier: Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA Making the Business Case for Prevention: Healthy Corner Stores Making the ...

  10. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Soon; Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygien...

  11. Hand hygiene compliance before and after wearing gloves among intensive care unit nurses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Azam; Sadeghi, Leila; Shahrokhi, Akram; Mohammadpour, Asghar; Addo, Mary; Khodadadi, Esmail

    2016-11-01

    Nosocomial infections are considered a major risk factor in hospital wards, and hand hygiene is the first step in their control. An observational study was conducted in 2015 with 200 nurses working in intensive care units in teaching hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected by using the Hand Hygiene Observation Tool questionnaire. The researchers monitored nurses' opportunities for hand hygiene during the 8-week period from February 3-April 4, 2015. A total of 1,067 opportunities occurred for hand hygiene before and after wearing gloves. The results show that hand hygiene compliance before wearing gloves is poor among nurses who work in intensive care units (14.8%). Therefore it is necessary to conduct effective interventions through continuing education programs to improve hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of self-regulation in predicting sleep hygiene in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jemma; Mullan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    University students have poor sleep hygiene, leading to poorer health. Facets of self-regulation such as planning, behavioural inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory were explored in relation to three sleep hygiene behaviours: Avoiding stress or anxiety before bed, avoiding going to bed hungry or thirsty, and making the bedroom restful. One hundred and thirty-seven participants took part in an Internet-based survey over two time points separated by a period of two weeks. Only cognitive flexibility and behavioural inhibition correlated with sleep hygiene. Cognitive flexibility significantly predicted an aspect of sleep hygiene after controlling for past behaviour. However, when past behaviour was controlled for, behavioural inhibition no longer predicted sleep hygiene. Thus, cognitive flexibility may play a role in explaining sleep hygiene; however, behavioural inhibition does not appear as important as previously assumed. Further research could build on this study to determine whether cognitive flexibility can be experimentally improved.

  13. No nosocomial transmission under standard hygiene precautions in short term contact patients in case of an unexpected ESBL or Q&A E. coli positive patient: a one-year prospective cohort study within three regional hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Souverein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Highly Resistant Gram Negative Rod (HR-GNR positive patients are found unexpectedly in clinical cultures, besides patients who are screened and isolated based on risk factors. As unexpected HR-GNR positive patients are isolated after detection, transmission to contact patients possibly occurred. The added value of routine contact tracing in such situations within hospitals with standard hygiene precautions is unknown. Methods In 2014, this study was performed as a prospective cohort study. Index patients were defined as those tested unexpectedly HR-GNR positive in clinical cultures to diagnose a possible infection and were nursed under standard hygiene precautions before tested positive. After detection they were nursed in contact isolation. Contact patients were still hospitalized and shared the same room with the index patient for at least 12 h. HR-GNR screening was performed by culturing a rectal and throat swab. Clonal relatedness of HR-GNR isolates was determined using whole genome sequencing (WGS. Results Out of 152 unexpected HR-GNR positive patients, 35 patients (23.0% met our inclusion criteria for index patient. ESBL E. coli was found most frequently (n = 20, 57.1%, followed by Q&A E. coli (n = 10, 28.6%, ESBL K. pneumoniae (n = 3, 8.5%, ESBL R. ornithinolytica (n = 1, 2.9% and multi resistant P. aeruginosa (n = 1, 2.9%. After contact tracing, 69 patients were identified as contact patient of an index patient, with a median time between start of contact and sampling of 3 days. None were found HR-GNR positive by nosocomial transmission. Conclusions In a local setting within hospitals with standard hygiene precautions, routine contact tracing among unexpected HR-GNR positive patients may be replaced by appropriate surveillance as we found no nosocomial transmission in short term contacts.

  14. No nosocomial transmission under standard hygiene precautions in short term contact patients in case of an unexpected ESBL or Q&A E. coli positive patient: a one-year prospective cohort study within three regional hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souverein, Dennis; Euser, Sjoerd M; Herpers, Bjorn L; Hattink, Corry; Houtman, Patricia; Popma, Amerens; Kluytmans, Jan; Rossen, John W A; Den Boer, Jeroen W

    2017-01-01

    Many Highly Resistant Gram Negative Rod (HR-GNR) positive patients are found unexpectedly in clinical cultures, besides patients who are screened and isolated based on risk factors. As unexpected HR-GNR positive patients are isolated after detection, transmission to contact patients possibly occurred. The added value of routine contact tracing in such situations within hospitals with standard hygiene precautions is unknown. In 2014, this study was performed as a prospective cohort study. Index patients were defined as those tested unexpectedly HR-GNR positive in clinical cultures to diagnose a possible infection and were nursed under standard hygiene precautions before tested positive. After detection they were nursed in contact isolation. Contact patients were still hospitalized and shared the same room with the index patient for at least 12 h. HR-GNR screening was performed by culturing a rectal and throat swab. Clonal relatedness of HR-GNR isolates was determined using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Out of 152 unexpected HR-GNR positive patients, 35 patients (23.0%) met our inclusion criteria for index patient. ESBL E. coli was found most frequently (n = 20, 57.1%), followed by Q&A E. coli (n = 10, 28.6%), ESBL K. pneumoniae (n = 3, 8.5%), ESBL R. ornithinolytica (n = 1, 2.9%) and multi resistant P. aeruginosa (n = 1, 2.9%). After contact tracing, 69 patients were identified as contact patient of an index patient, with a median time between start of contact and sampling of 3 days. None were found HR-GNR positive by nosocomial transmission. In a local setting within hospitals with standard hygiene precautions, routine contact tracing among unexpected HR-GNR positive patients may be replaced by appropriate surveillance as we found no nosocomial transmission in short term contacts.

  15. International Occupational Hygiene Association 6th international scientific conference: promoting occupational hygiene in Africa and globally (IOHA 2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    A total of 152 papers plus 32 posters were presented at the conference. Abstracts of these are available on the internet, together with text and PowerPoint files of slides/overheads of the majority of the papers and PowerPoint files of the presentations. The 21 conferences sessions were: OHS Management Systems; Physical Agents - Noise and Vibration; Physical, Chemical and Biological Agents; Risk Assessment/Management; Agriculture; Health Care Sector; Mining; Biological Monitoring; Construction; 3rd International Control Banding Workshop (3ICBW); Asbestos; Ergonomics; Biological Agents; Medical Surveillance; Shift Work/Stress Management; Visualisation Techniques/PIMEX; Exposure Assessment Strategies; Chemical Exposures; Silicosis; Occupational Hygiene in Africa; and New Developments in Occupational Hygiene.

  16. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Oral hygiene and periodontal status among Terapanthi Svetambar Jain monks in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to determine the oral hygiene levels and periodontal status among Jain monks attending a Chaturmass in Udaipur, India. To date, no study has been conducted on Jain monks. The study comprises of 180 subjects and the overall response rate was 76% among them. Oral hygiene status was assessed by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S of Greene, Vermillion14 (1964, and periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index. Additional information was collected regarding food habits, education level and oral hygiene habits. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Chi Square Test and Step-wise multiple linear regression analysis were carried out using SPSS Software (11.0. The results showed that the oral hygiene status of Jain monks was poor and only 5.6% of the subjects had good oral hygiene. Overall periodontal disease prevalence was 100% with bleeding and shallow pocket contributing a major part (72.8% among all the age groups (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that oral hygiene habits, caloric intake and education level explained a variance of 11.7% for the Oral hygiene index collectively. The findings confirmed that Jain monks have poor oral hygiene and an increased prevalence of periodontal disease compared to that of the similarly aged general population because, as a part of their religion, many Jain individuals avoid brushing their teeth especially during fasting, keeping in mind not to harm the microorganisms present in the mouth.

  18. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: a systematic review of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Gardam, M; Fernie, G; Lightfoot, D; Lebovic, G; Muller, M P

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and video monitoring systems (EMS/VMS) may improve hand hygiene by providing feedback, real-time reminders or via the Hawthorne effect. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of EMS/VMS in improving hand hygiene or reducing the incidence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they measured any hand hygiene outcome and/or HCAI incidence. Of the studies included, seven used system-defined compliance (SDC) (N = 6) or hand hygiene event rate (N = 1) as their outcome. SDC differed for all systems. Most (N = 6) were single ward studies. Two uncontrolled pretest‒post-test studies evaluating EMS that provided voice prompts showed increases in SDC, but risk of bias was high. Two uncontrolled time-series analyses of VMS that provided aggregate feedback demonstrated large, sustained improvement in SDC and were at moderate risk of bias. One non-randomized controlled trial of EMS with aggregate feedback found no difference in hand hygiene frequency but was at high risk of bias. Two studies evaluated EMS providing individual feedback and real-time reminders. A pretest‒post-test study at high risk of bias showed an increase in SDC. An RCT at low risk of bias showed 6.8% higher SDC in the intervention arm partially due to a fall in SDC in the control arm. In conclusion, the overall study quality was poor. The study at lowest risk of bias showed only a small increase in SDC. VMS studies at moderate risk of bias showed rapid and sustained increases in SDC. Data were insufficient to recommend EMS/VMS. Future studies should prioritize testing of VMS using stronger study designs including control arms and validated, system-independent measures of hand hygiene. Copyright © 2014 Taibah University. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  20. [Hand hygiene in intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, M T; Bassoli, L; Cappoia, S; Medaglia, M; Meroni, C; Morgutti, M; Olivieri, P; Fontana, G

    2004-05-01

    Hand hygiene represents the main way to prevent and/or at least reduce nosocomial infection incidence. In this paper we discuss this "hot topic" through both the analysis of CDC guide lines and the data resulting from a questionnaire survey sent to health care workers, eventually corroborated by their direct observation. From literature data and our survey result analyses, we are more than convinced that the winning strategies for a slow but progressive improvement of hand washing practice and compliance are (i). using a product able to decontaminate hands very quickly and without needing water; (ii). the health care worker awareness of hand hygiene and compliance feed-back importance. From our questionnaire survey as well as from our direct observation, we found a very low (5.6%) compliance of our hospital health care workers to CDC guidelines for hand washing. This may be justified above all by ward logistical and structural problems, as only 55% of sinks are located inside patient rooms, but also because there is a lacking of knowledge of new CDC suggested practices and decontaminating products. Health care worker specific training and the choice of an alcoholic antiseptic disinfectant, allowed us to significantly increase their compliance to proper practices in hand washing and hygiene, showing their interest in such an important and delicate matter.

  1. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbawalla Hawa S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1 assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2 examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3 examine whether socio-demographic disparity in oral health was explained by oral health-related behaviours. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 using one-stage cluster sampling design. Total of 2412 students (mean age 15.2 yr completed self-administered questionnaires, whereas 1077 (mean age 14.9 yr underwent dental-examination. Bivariate analyses were conducted using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics. Multiple variable analyses were conducted using stepwise standardized logistic regression (SLR with odds ratios and 95% Confidence intervals (CI. Results 44.8% presented with fair to poor OHIS and 48.2% reported any OIDP. Older students, those from low socio-economic status families, had parents who couldn't afford dental care and had low educational-level reported oral impacts, poor oral hygiene, irregular toothbrushing, less dental attendance and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks more frequently than their counterparts. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that reporting any OIDP was independently associated with; older age-groups, parents do not afford dental care, smoking experience, no dental visits and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Behavioural factors accounted partly for association between low family SES and OIDP. Low family SES, no dental attendance and smoking experience were most important in males. Low family SES and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks were the most important correlates in females. Socio-behavioural factors

  2. Oral hygiene awareness among school children of rural Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the survey was to assess awareness regarding oral hygiene practice amongst children toward oral health in rural population of Mangalore city. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out among 2636 children (boys: 1508 and girls: 1128 who were in the age group of 5-12 years studying in various schools of rural Mangalore. Data on oral hygiene practice were collected by means of self-administered questionnaire. Results: This survey found that 52% children brush their teeth twice a day and 98.9% children brushed in horizontal direction. Other oral hygiene aids were sparsely used (5.3%. None of the school children had any form of interactive sessions on oral hygiene practice with their respective class teacher. Conclusion: Results of the study suggest that basic oral hygiene knowledge and practice of the study participants was good but advanced knowledge needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs and awareness amongst teachers are needed to improve oral health of school children.

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Antivirals (:60) Wes Studi: Antivirals (:30) Why Flu Vaccination Matters Lifestyle Healthy Swimming Is No Accident No ... 22) Zika Virus Prevention for Puerto Rico (:30) Vaccination A Key Piece of the Puzzle: Vaccinations Adult ...

  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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    Full Text Available ... Disease Detective Camp Global Disease Detectives Why Surveillance Matters Diseases & Conditions Cancer Be Brave No Excuses No ... 60) Wes Studi: Antivirals (:30) Why Flu Vaccination Matters Lifestyle Healthy Swimming Is No Accident No Antibiotics ...

  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Wes Studi: Antivirals (:30) Why Flu Vaccination Matters Lifestyle Healthy Swimming Is No Accident No Antibiotics Please ... Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization Baby Book The Story of Folic ...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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    Full Text Available ... Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke-free Multiunit ... The Story of Folic Acid Fortification Through the Eyes of the Eagle Wes Studi: Don’t Get ...

  7. Electrochemical study on metal corrosion in chemical mechanical planarization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Seiichi; Ichige, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Yuya

    2017-07-01

    Typical metal corrosions caused by the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process are discussed in this review paper. By categorizing them into seven kinds of corrosion, namely, chemical corrosion, crevice corrosion, crystal-orientation-dependent corrosion, narrow trench corrosion, photocorrosion, galvanic corrosion, and electrostatic-charge induced corrosion, we discuss their mechanisms and how to suppress them on the basis of electrochemical studies. Moreover, we demonstrate the usefulness of three-dimensional pH-potential diagrams for predicting corrosion issues in an actual CMP process.

  8. [Studies on the chemical constituents in root of Coleus forskohlii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-ling; Lu, Jie; Li, Wei-jia; Kong, Ling-yi

    2005-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents in root of Coleusforskohlii. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR experiments. Six compounds were obtained and the structures were identified as 14-deoxycoleon U (1), demethylcryptojaponol (2), alpha-amyrin (3), betulic acid (4), alpha-cedrol (5) and beta-sitosterol (6). Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from the genus Coleus for the first time. Compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from C. forskohlii for the first time.

  9. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhor, K.; Shetty, V.; Garcha, V.; Nimbulkar, G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. Materials and Methods: A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12–17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A (n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B (n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. Conclusion: OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille. PMID:27891313

  10. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhor, K; Shetty, V; Garcha, V; Nimbulkar, G C

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12-17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A (n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B (n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t-test. The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille.

  11. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made.

  12. Preliminary Studies of the Chemical Composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies of chemical composition and sensory properties of instant noodles from blends of wheat flour and sweet potato starch were carried out. Sweet potato starch was used to replace wheat flour at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70%. Proximate, vitamin A, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out by ...

  13. Quantum chemical study of mechanisms of dissociation and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum chemical study of mechanisms of dissociation and isomerization reactions in some molecules and radicals of astrophysical significance: Cyanides and related molecules. V P GUPTA∗ and ARCHNA SHARMA. Department of Physics, University of Jammu, Jammu-Tawi 180 006, India. ∗Corresponding author: ...

  14. Chemical composition and biological studies of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and biological studies of the essential oil of Thymus decussatus benth growing in Egypt. A A El-Hela. Abstract. The essential oil of Thymus decussatus Benth herb growing in Egypt was prepared by hydro distillation of the dried herb and analyzed by GC/ MS. It revealed the presence of 12 peaks, which ...

  15. Quantum-chemical studies on porphyrins, fullerenes and carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loboda, Oleksandr [Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Chemistry of Water, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    This book presents theoretical studies of electronic structure, optical and spectroscopic properties of a number of compounds such as porphyrins, fullerenes and heteroatomic single-wall nanotubes. The book presents new, faster calculation methods for application in quantum-chemical theory of electronic structures. It addresses issues of practical importance such as the development of materials for photosensitizers, organic LEDs and solar cells.

  16. Chemical and quantitive study of hepatotoxins from fresh water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Chemical and quantitive study of hepatotoxins from fresh water cyanobacteria on vertebrate animals. Al-layl, K.* and Mutwally, H. Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, ...

  17. [Study on the chemical constituent from Buddleja purdomii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Li, Chong; Zhang, Chengzhong; Xu, Yourui; Tao, Baoquan

    2004-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents from Buddleja purdomii W. W. Smith. The constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods and structurally identified by spectral analysis. 4 compounds were identified as vanillin (I), vanillic acid (II), acteoside (III), acteoside isomer (IV). All these compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  18. [Study on the chemical constituents of Buddleja purdomii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinghua; Li, Chong; Zhang, Chengzhong; Tao, Baoquan

    2005-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja purdomii W. W Smith. The constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods and structurally identified by spectral analysis. 4 compounds were obtained as cryptomeridiol (I), aucubin (II), galactilol (III), daucosterol (IV). All these compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  19. Comparative Studies of Physico-chemical Properties of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate some physico-chemical properties of four major general purpose cement (As, Br, De and .... University Zaria, Nigeria. 2 Department of Applied Chemistry, Federal University Dutsin-ma, P.M.B 5001, Katsina, Nigeria. ...... Ghosh, S. N. (1983). Advances in cement technology:.

  20. Study on the chemical composition and extraction technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of hydro-distilled oil from the ground aerial parts of Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc. was analysed by gas chromatography/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/GC–MS). 18 compounds ... The study offers theoretic basis for utilization of the medicinal herb W. trilobata. Key words: Wedelia ...

  1. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rosimeiritoy@yahoo.com.br; Neves, Eduardo G. [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnolgia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: egneves@usp.br; Oliveira, Paulo M.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: poliver@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  2. The status of oral hygiene in cleft lip, palate patients after surgical correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleft lip and palate patients usually present a number of problems viz. altered oral anatomy leading to changes in oral physiology diminishing the self-cleansing ability of individual. The handicapped children are unable to maintain their oral hygiene properly. The present study was formulated with the aim that does normalization of oral anatomy have its effect on improvement of oral hygiene? An assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified was performed between preoperative and postoperative values in the same patient at KGMU and KGDU. A total of 50 cases were recorded in two groups of 25 each: (i < 6 years old and (ii > 6 years. The observations are statistically analyzed by paired ′t′ test to get the significance of results. Results: The data analyzed showed the significant decrease in oral hygiene indices observed in both groups. A relative significance in oral hygiene status following surgery was observed. Both groups expressed greater significance when compared pre and postoperatively which is indicative of considerable improvement of oral hygiene after surgical correction. The study concludes that oral hygiene improves more in older cleft lip-palate cases following reconstruction of palatal vault, premaxilla and anterior lip seal by secondary bone grafting method when compared with oral hygiene indices results in primary periosteoplasty cases. The surgical correction of cleft lip palate enhances self-cleaning ability and better compliance to maintain oral hygiene in children as the age advances.

  3. Barriers to hand hygiene in ophthalmic outpatients in Uganda: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearkle, Rachel; Houghton, Rebecca; Bwonya, Dan; Lindfield, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Healthcare-associated infection rates are high in low-income countries and are associated with significant morbidity. There is a paucity of published data on infection control practice, attitudes or resources in these settings, particularly in ophthalmology. The aim of this study is to understand current hand washing practices, barriers to hand washing and facilities available in two Ugandan specialist eye hospitals. This study was undertaken through non-participant observations of healthcare worker hand washing practices, documentation of hand hygiene facilities and semi-strucutured interviews with clinical staff. Eighty percent of the WHO opportunities for hand washing were missed through lack of attempted hand hygiene measures. Facilities for hand hygiene were inadequate with some key clinical areas having no provisions for hand hygiene. Training on effective hand hygiene varied widely with some staff reporting no training at all. The staff did not perceive the lack of facilities to be a barrier to hand washing but reported forgetfulness, lack of time and a belief that they could predict when transmission might occur and therefore did not wash hands as often as recommended. Hand hygiene at the two observed sites did not comply with WHO-recommended standards. The lack of facilities, variable training and staff perceptions were observable barriers to effective hand hygiene. Simple, low-cost interventions to improve hand hygiene could include increased provision of hand towels and running water and improved staff education to challenge their views and perceived barriers to hand hygiene.

  4. Improved hand hygiene technique and compliance in healthcare workers using gaming technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, A; Hannan, M M

    2013-05-01

    In 2009, the World Health Organization recommended the use of a 'multi-faceted, multi-modal hand hygiene strategy' (Five Moments for Hand Hygiene) to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers. As part of this initiative, a training programme was implemented using an automated gaming technology training and audit tool to educate staff on hand hygiene technique in an acute healthcare setting. To determine whether using this automated training programme and audit tool as part of a multi-modal strategy would improve hand hygiene compliance and technique in an acute healthcare setting. A time-series quasi-experimental design was chosen to measure compliance with the Five Moments for Hand Hygiene and handwashing technique. The study was performed from November 2009 to April 2012. An adenosine triphosphate monitoring system was used to measure handwashing technique, and SureWash (Glanta Ltd, Dublin, Ireland), an automated auditing and training unit, was used to provide assistance with staff training and education. Hand hygiene technique and compliance improved significantly over the study period (P hygiene programme can encourage staff participation in learning, and ultimately improve hand hygiene compliance and technique in the acute healthcare setting. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE HABITS IN CHILDREN 6 TO 12 YEARS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Doichinova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral hygiene is an essential element of health education programs for schoolchildren. AIM: The study aims to assess the skills when conducting oral hygiene of a group of schoolchildren and to conduct training in its rules. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study covers 30 children aged 6-12 years. The training was conducted by the methods of the visual pedagogy and implementation of the technique “Say, show, do”. The assessment of the oral-hygiene status was held by the simplified oral hygiene index-Greene & Vermillion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The children do not have proper oral hygiene habits. The daily oral care is inadequate. The number of cleaned tooth surfaces during oral hygiene practice is small. Children have no developed proper oral hygiene skills, and brush only the vestibular surfaces of the teeth (80%, 13.3% the vestibular and the occlusal, and 6.7% only cover lingual surfaces too. The unsatisfactory oral hygiene status is also a result of using only one type of toothbrush movements. The improvement of children's health knowledge should play key role in correcting their oral hygiene technique.

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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    Full Text Available ... Table: Take 3 – 2009 Influenza Round Table: Warning Signs – 2010 Influenza Round Table: Warning Signs – 2009 Mixing Tamiflu® with Sweet Liquids Wes Studi: ... Killer in Indian Country Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Dangerous Creatures Healthy Changes Start in ...

  7. A Preliminary Study for Chemical Ranking System in Terms of Soil and Groundwater Contamination by Chemical Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Jeong, Y. C.; Kim, K. E.; Lee, D.; Yoo, K.; Kim, J.; Hwang, S.

    2015-12-01

    A variety of chemicals could affect human health and ecosystems by chemical accidents such as fire, explosion, and/or spill. Chemical accidents make chemicals spread to the environment via various routes such as dispersion into ambient air, soil, and surface/ground water media. Especially, soil and groundwater contamination by chemical accidents become a secondary source to have a long term effect on human health and environment. Strength of long term effect by soil and groundwater contamination depends largely on inherent characteristics of a chemical and its fate in soil and groundwater. Therefore, in this study, we developed a framework on how to determine what kind of chemicals is more important in management scheme in terms of soil and groundwater contamination during chemical accidents. We ranked approximately fifty chemicals using this framework which takes into account an exposure into soil and groundwater, toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation of a chemical. This framework helps to prepare systematically the management plan for chemical related facilities. Furthermore, results from our study can make a policy maker have interests in highly ranked chemicals and facilities.

  8. Oral hygiene management in patients with visual sensory disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Barbato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Oral hygiene maintenance is one of the most difficult tasks for visually impaired people. The aim of study was to investigate about knowledge on oral hygiene practices among patients with visual sensory disabilities by proposing an effective management in order to achieve and maintain oral health status of these patients. Methods:It was administered a questionnaire about oral health management to the patients with visual disabilities accessing to dental unit of “Mons. Di Liegro” Hospital of Gaeta. Results: The survey covered a sample of 49 patients, aged between 14 and 95 years. More than half (66% was blind ( 65% of cases with primary blindness and the remaining 35% with secondary blindness. Only 32.65% brushed their teeth 3 times a day; 68% of the surveyed patients limited home oral hygiene procedures to toothbrush and toothpaste; 79% used manual toothbrush; 49% of respondents reported odontophobia (it was basically generated by pain often due to bad experience during childhood. More than half declared a dental office attendance as needed. Conclusions: This study showed as, although starting from a compromised oral health and inadequate knowledge of oral hygiene practices, visual impaired/ blind patients were able to achieve and maintain a good level of oral hygiene, using the most appropriate techniques and instruments.

  9. Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Faculty and student respondents agreed on the effectiveness of educational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices.

  10. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine.Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers.Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare

  11. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training

  12. Effects of hand hygiene education and individual feedback on hand hygiene behaviour, MRSA acquisition rate and MRSA colonization pressure among intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Ho-Ran

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to increase the frequency and level of thoroughness of hand hygiene practice by nurses, and to assess the influence of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired incidence rate and the MRSA colonization pressure in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A total of 24 MICU nurses received hand hygiene education and individual feedback of hand hygiene frequency and method after a session of education, and two posteducation evaluations were followed. The frequency of hand hygiene (P = 0.001) and the methodology score of hand hygiene increased significantly (P = 0.001). The MRSA acquisition rate decreased significantly, from 11.1% before the education to 0% after (P = 0.014). The MRSA colonization pressure decreased significantly from 39.5% to 8.6% after the education sessions (P = 0.001). This indicates that providing individual feedback after hand hygiene education was very effective in increasing nurses' hand hygiene frequency and improving hand hygiene method; furthermore, it was expected to decrease health care-associated infections. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Improving healthcare worker hand hygiene adherence before patient contact: A multimodal intervention of hand hygiene practice in Three Japanese tertiary care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakihama, Tomoko; Honda, Hitoshi; Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Kamiya, Toru; Sato, Yumiko; Iuchi, Ritsuko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-03-01

    Though hand hygiene is an important method of preventing healthcare-associated infection, we found suboptimal hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers in 4 diverse Japanese hospitals (adherence rates of 11%-25%). Our goal was to assess multimodal hand hygiene intervention coupled with a contest to improve hand hygiene adherence. A total of 3 to 4 inpatient wards in 3 Japanese hospitals. Pre-post intervention study. The intervention was a multimodal hand hygiene intervention recommended by the World Health Organization that was tailored to each facility. The hospital with the highest adherence after the intervention was given $5000 US dollars and a trophy, provided by an American coinvestigator unaffiliated with any of the Japanese hospitals. We tracked hand hygiene adherence rates before patient contact for each unit and hospital and compared these to pre-intervention adherence rates. We observed 2982 postintervention provider-patient encounters in 10 units across 3 hospitals. Hand hygiene adherence rates were improved overall after the intervention (18% pre- to 33% postintervention; P hand hygiene rates among Japanese healthcare workers. Given the overall low rates, however, further improvement is necessary. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  14. Dental hygiene education for nursing staff in a nursing home for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Erika; Sjögren, Petteri; Forsell, Marianne; Hoogstraate, Janet; Herbst, Bertil; Johansson, Olle

    2010-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study evaluating the effect of a repeated education programme for nursing staff in a home for older people. A strong relationship exists between oral infections and general health complications (especially aspiration pneumonia) among nursing home residents and hospitalized older people. Thus, nursing staff need to be educated in oral hygiene measures. Forty-three nursing home resident older people (12 men, 31 women, age range 69-99 years) were included in a dental hygiene and gingivitis evaluation using gingival bleeding scores and modified plaque scores. Evaluation was conducted before and 3 weeks after a repeated dental hygiene education for nursing staff at a nursing home in Sweden in 2008. Dental hygiene education had been given 1.5 years previously. Forty-one residents (12 men and 29 women) were available for evaluation after the repeated dental hygiene education (one died, one had had teeth extracted). There was a reduction in gingival bleeding scores (P hygiene education improves the dental hygiene among nursing home resident older people. In order to succeed it may be necessary to address attitudes and perceptions towards oral care in such a dental hygiene education programme for nursing staff. Improved oral hygiene contributes to reducing the incidence of healthcare-associated pneumonia among nursing home resident older people, and thus to reduced healthcare costs.

  15. Dirt, disgust and disease: a natural history of hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-08-01

    Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease throughout history. Purification ritual, miasma, contagion, zymotic and germ theories of disease are ideas that spread through society because they are intuitively attractive, because they are supported by evidence either from direct experience or from authoritative report and because they are consistent with existing beliefs. In contrast to much historical and anthropological assertion, I argue that hygiene behaviour and disgust predate culture and so cannot fully be explained as its product. The history of ideas about disease thus is neither entirely socially constructed nor an "heroic progress" of scientists leading the ignorant into the light. As an animal behaviour the proper domain of hygiene is biology, and without this perspective attempts at explanation are incomplete. The approaches of biological anthropology have much to offer the practice of cultural history.

  16. Studying chemical reactions in biological systems with MBN Explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sushko, Gennady B.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Verkhovtsev, Alexey V.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of molecular mechanics force field has been widely accepted nowadays for studying various processes in biomolecular systems. In this paper, we suggest a modification for the standard CHARMM force field that permits simulations of systems with dynamically changing molecular topologies....... for studying processes where rupture of chemical bonds plays an essential role, e.g., in irradiation- or collision-induced damage, and also in transformation and fragmentation processes involving biomolecular systems....

  17. Dental hygiene students’ part-time jobs in dental practices in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorterman, J.H.G.; Dikkes, B.T.; Brand, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:  Many students have paid employment while studying. In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental hygiene students to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental hygiene students have

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of the Chemical Bond Approach, the Chemical Education Material Study, and a Representative Traditional Chemistry Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilly, Alice Roth

    This study compared three one-year courses in high school chemistry. One of these, entitled Modern Chemistry, represents the "traditional" precollegiate chemistry course. The others are the Chemical Bond Approach (CBA) and the Chemical Education Material Study (CHEM Study). These are the two major revisions in high school chemistry which emerged…

  19. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Markus; Bussemas, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Bei einer großen angelegten Untersuchung von Schweinen an einem deutschen Schlachthof waren die Erkrankungsarten der angelieferten Bio-Schweine und die Anzahl der Befunde nicht signifikant von denen konventioneller Schweine zu unterscheiden und somit eindeutig zu hoch.

  1. Compliance and Subjective Patient Responses to Eyelid Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Yousef A; Camp, Andrew; Feuer, William; Karp, Carol L; Wellik, Sarah; Galor, Anat

    2017-07-01

    Lid hygiene is a commonly prescribed first-line therapy in patients with lid margin disease, yet compliance with therapy is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to assess patient compliance with lid hygiene and evaluate which factors predict a favorable symptomatic response to treatment. This was a cross-sectional study of patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic between August and December 2014. An evaluation was performed to assess dry eye symptoms and lid margin signs. All patients were then instructed to perform warm compresses and lid scrubs. A follow-up phone survey assessed compliance and subjective therapeutic response 6 weeks later. Two hundred seven of 211 (98%) patients (94% male, 60% white) completed the survey. Of the 207 patients, 188 (91%) completed the follow-up survey. Compliance with therapy was reported in 104 patients (55%); 66 reported complete improvement, 30 partial improvement, and 8 no improvement in symptoms. Patients who self-reported dry eye symptoms at first visit (n=86, 74%) were more likely to be compliant with lid hygiene than those who did not report symptoms (n=18, 25%) (P<0.0005). The only factor associated with poorer response to lid hygiene was longer time of self-reported dry eye symptoms. None of the other signs studied, including the presence of skin rosacea and lid margin telangiectasia, were associated with a differential response to lid hygiene. Patients with dry eye symptoms were moderately compliant with lid hygiene, and patients who performed the routine noted improvement in symptoms.

  2. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  3. The power of vivid experience in hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, P W; Watkins, R E; Donovan, R J; Wynaden, D; Cadwallader, H

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, explicit behavioural theories have been used in some research into hand hygiene behaviour. One of the most prominent of these has been the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). In this qualitative study aimed at increasing understanding of infection prevention practice in the acute care setting, TPB was identified as a suitable framework for the emergence of new insights that have the potential to improve the power of existing education and training. The theory emerging from the research was based on a finding that individual experience is of greater import than formal education in explaining hand hygiene behaviour. This indicated that exposure to vivid vicarious experience is a potential means to improving the power of existing training methods and increasing the propensity for instilling sustainable adequate hand hygiene habits.

  4. Oral and written instruction of oral hygiene: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate

    2012-10-01

    This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.

  5. Sleep hygiene use in a psychiatry outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, J

    2012-02-01

    Non-pharmacological measures are recommended prior to use of hypnotics in the latest NICE guidance. This study investigated if non-pharmacological measures are utilised prior to hypnotic prescribing in a general adult psychiatry outpatient setting, and further reviewed patient\\'s sleep quality following implementation of sleep hygiene education. Interviews were conducted with 85 patients, and poor adherence with NICE guidance was found among the 74 (87%) patients previously prescribed a hypnotic. Just five (6.8%) patients recalled use of non-pharmacological measures prior to hypnotic prescription, 47 (63.5%) indicated non-pharmacological measures had not been discussed, while a further 22 (29.7%) could not remember. Improvement in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores following implementation of sleep hygiene education was also noted (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that increased awareness of sleep hygiene education for clinicians may be beneficial.

  6. Communicating serum chemical concentrations to study participants: follow up survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Germaine M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A considerable literature now supports the importance of effective communication with study participants, including how best to develop communication plans focusing on the uncertainty of health risks associated with particular environmental exposures. Strategies for communicating individual concentrations of environmental chemicals in human biological samples in the absence of clearly established safe or hazardous levels have been discussed from a conceptual basis and to a lesser extent from an empirical basis. We designed and evaluated an empirically based communication strategy for women of reproductive age who previously participated in a prospective study focusing on persistent environmental chemicals and reproductive outcomes. Methods A cohort of women followed from preconception through pregnancy or up to 12 menstrual cycles without pregnancy was given their individual serum concentrations for lead, dichloro-2,2-bisp-chlorophenyl ethylene, and select polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Two versions of standardized letters were prepared depending upon women's exposure status, which was characterized as low or high. Letters included an introduction, individual concentrations, population reference values and guidance for minimizing future exposures. Participants were actively monitored for any questions or concerns following receipt of letters. Results Ninety-eight women were sent letters informing them of their individual concentrations to select study chemicals. None of the 89 (91% participating women irrespective of exposure status contacted the research team with questions or concerns about communicated exposures despite an invitation to do so. Conclusions Our findings suggest that study participants can be informed about their individual serum concentrations without generating unnecessary concern.

  7. Smartphone text message service to foster hand hygiene compliance in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbaj, Jad; Toure, Youssoupha; Soto Aladro, Alberto; Boudjema, Sophia; Giorgi, Roch; Dufour, Jean Charles; Brouqui, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Health care-associated infections are a major worldwide public health issue. Hand hygiene is a major component in the prevention of pathogen transmission in hospitals, and hand hygiene adherence by health care workers is low in many studies. We report an intervention using text messages as reminders and feedback to improve hand hygiene adherence. The study is a historical comparison proof-of-concept study. Eighteen health care workers were monitored during 12 months by a radiofrequency identification system. Afterward we sent 2 types of text messages, congratulation or encouragement, and we studied the evolution of hand hygiene adherence. We recorded 15,723 hand hygiene opportunities, 8,973 before intervention and 6,750 during and after the intervention. Using a multilevel logistic regression analysis, we found a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence during the intervention (odds ratio, 1.68) compared with the historical period. Despite limitations due to the type of study, a text message encouraging personnel to be more vigilant is effective in increasing hand hygiene adherence in health care workers. Text message feedback should be incorporated into multimodal approaches for improving hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Infrasound: body's effects and hygienic regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Suvorov, G A; Kuralesin, N A; Ovakimov, V G

    1997-01-01

    The paper analyzes and sums up technically originated infrasound (IS) hygienic problems. Trends for an increase in its role as an unfavourable factor of the industrial, transport, and residential environments are established. Comprehensive physiological, hygienic, and experimental studies revealed the pathogenetic features of IS. Involvement of the limbicoreticular complex, hypothalamus, and other subcortical structures into responses to higher factor levels on human beings stipulates a sharply prominent pathological discomfort as a manifestation of the infrasonic diencephalic hypothalamic syndrome with sensorisomatic and autonomic visceral symptoms. A conceptual pathogenetic model of IS exposure has been worked out. Main subjective and objective signs of and criteria for IS exposure have been defined, its ranking by human risk areas is given with the influencing factor parameters borne in mind. The biometry of biological effects on exposure to IS at 4 and Hz and at 130 dB and their changes in the vestibular and acoustic analyzers, as well as in the neurohumoral regulation system and other homeostatic parameters has revealed the priority of the whole body's responses.

  9. Status and Perspective of Chemical Studies of Heaviest Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäggeler, H. W.

    2013-06-01

    During the last decade the elements hassium (Hs, Z=108), copernicium(Cn, Z=112), and flerovium (Fl, Z=114) have been studied for the first time by chemical means. Hassium as a member of group eight of the periodic table proved to form a volatile molecule with oxygen, HsO4. Copernicium and flerovium both behaved like a volatile noble metal. While HsO4 turned out to be less volatile compared to the nearestby homologue in the same group of the periodic table, OsO4, Cn and Fl were both significantly more volatile compared to their homologues Hg and Pb, respectively, in their elemental state. All first ever chemical studies were performed with very few atoms: seven in case of Hs, five with Cn and three with Fl, respectively.

  10. The Hi Five study: design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among 6-15 year olds in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anette; Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Due, Pernille

    2015-03-01

    Infectious illnesses such as influenza and diarrhea are leading causes of absenteeism among Danish school children. Interventions in school settings addressing hand hygiene have shown to reduce the number of infectious illnesses. However, most of these studies include small populations and almost none of them are conducted as randomized controlled trials. The overall aim of the Hi Five study was to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component school-based intervention to improve hand hygiene and well-being and to reduce the prevalence of infections among school children in intervention schools by 20% compared to control schools. This paper describes the development and the evaluation design of Hi Five. The Hi Five study was designed as a tree-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial. A national random sample of schools (n = 44) was randomized to one of two intervention groups (n = 29) or to a control group with no intervention (n = 15). A total of 8,438 six to fifteen-year-old school children were enrolled in the study. The Hi Five intervention consisted of three components: 1) a curriculum component 2) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch 3) extra cleaning of school toilets during the school day. Baseline data was collected from December 2011 to April 2012. The intervention period was August 2012 to June 2013. The follow-up data was collected from December 2012 to April 2013. The Hi Five study fills a gap in international research. This large randomized multi-component school-based hand hygiene intervention is the first to include education on healthy and appropriate toilet behavior as part of the curriculum. No previous studies have involved supplementary cleaning at the school toilets as an intervention component. The study will have the added value of providing new knowledge about usability of short message service (SMS, text message) for collecting data on infectious illness and absenteeism in large study populations. Current Controlled

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, A; LeBourgeois, MK; Harsh, J; Tompsett, CJ; Redline, S

    2013-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19 years; 17.7±0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Self-reports of sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness, caretaker-reports of behavior, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy were collected. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually-based factor structure was similar for 6 of the 8 proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α=0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α=0.60; behavioral arousal: α=0.62; cognitive/emotional: α=0.81; sleep environment: α=0.61; sleep stability: α=0.68; daytime sleep: α=0.78 α = 0.50. Sleep hygiene scores were positively associated with sleep duration (r=.16) and sleep efficiency (r=.12), and negatively correlated with daytime sleepiness (r=-.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. PMID:23682620

  12. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Buddleja albiflora (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Tao, Liang

    2010-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja albiflora. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. seven compounds were isolated and identified as aucubin (1), catalpol (2), acteoside (3), martynoside (4), ursolicacid (5), daucosterol (6), beta-sitosterol-3-0-beta-D-(6'-0-palmitate) glucopyranosisde (7). All these compounds are obtained from Buddleja albiflora for the first time.

  13. [Studies on chemical constituents from Buddleja lindleyana Fert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J H; Zhao, Y Y; Qiao, L; Fang, Y O; Huang, Q A

    2001-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja lindleyana. Separation by chromatographic methods and identification by spectral analysis. Seven compounds vanillic acid, daidzein octacosanoic acid, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha-spinasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, betulin acid were isolated. All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  14. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu-Hong; Gao, Guang-Chun; Qi, Shu-Hua; Li, Qing-Xin; Zhang, Si

    2009-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. The compounds were isolated and purified by repeated column chromatography on silica and Sephadex LH-20 gel and their structures were identified by spectral analysis. Six compounds were identified as friedelin (1), syringic acid (2), isoscopoletin (3), fraxetol (4), casuarinondiol (5) and guaiacylglycerol-beta-ferulic acid ether (6). All of these six compounds are isolated from Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea for the first time.

  15. Computational Study on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms of Octafluorocarbon Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heechol; Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Plasma Fundamental Technology Research Team

    2015-09-01

    Saturated or unsaturated octafluorocarbons(OFCs) have been used extensively in dry etching processes due to their relatively low global warming potential and their high CF2 radical levels in commercial plasma treatments. Many experimental and theoretical studies of these species have been performed for useful information about physical and chemical properties of OFCs. However, direct experimental studies of these chemicals are difficult because of their high reactivity in plasma state and high-level theoretical approaches such as G3(MP2) and CCSD(T)/CBS need huge computational cost. Recently, it has been shown that the ωB97X-D/aVTZ method is strongly recommended as the best practical density functional theory(DFT) for rigorous and extensive studies of OFCs because of its high performance and reliability for van der Waals interactions. All the feasible isomerization and dissociation paths of OFCs were investigated at ωB97X-D/aVTZ and rate constants of their chemical reactions were computed by using variational transition-state theory(VTST) for a deep insight into OFCs' reaction mechanisms. Fates and roles of OFCs and their fragments in plasma phases could be clearly explained based on the obtained reaction mechanisms. This work was supported by R&D Program of ``Plasma Convergence & Fundamental Research'' through NFRI of Korea funded by the Government funds.

  16. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  17. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a

  18. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maureen E C; Sargeant, Jan M; Weese, J Scott

    2014-05-07

    Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a component of a multimodal hand

  19. Nurses' perceptions of reasons for persistent low rates in hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadule-Rios, Nohemi; Aguilera, Graciela

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of reasons for persistent low rates in hand hygiene compliance in the Critical Care Unit and their recommendations for improvement. This study used an exploratory, descriptive survey design to identify critical care nurses' perceptions of barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the unit and their recommendations for improvement. Nurses selected high workload, understaffing and suggested lack of time as the main problems with hand hygiene compliance in the critical care unit. Second to that, they identified difficulty accessing sinks and lack of appropriately located hand sanitisers at the point of care complemented by suggestions of not enough sinks and inconveniently located hand sanitiser as major barriers to hand hygiene compliance. Results of this study indicate that high workload and understaffing added to difficulty accessing hand hygiene resources contribute to low rates of hand hygiene compliance in the critical care unit. Addressing nursing understaffing and workload and making some environmental modifications to allow easy access to sinks and hand sanitisers may facilitate nurses hand hygiene compliance in this setting. Further studies on the relationship between nurses' workload, unit staffing, and hand hygiene compliance rates are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis and oral hygiene practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims:The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices and related diseases among Libyan students and employees.Methods: Six hundred selfadministered structured questionnaires were used to investigate self-perception of halitosis and oral hygiene practices among a ...

  1. Oral hygiene, dental caries and nutritional Status of in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries has become a disease of public health significance with dietary and hygiene practices being identified has major contributors. The extent of this burden is poorly explored among the adolescents in Nigeria. This study examines the association between oral hygiene, dental caries and nutritional ...

  2. Assessing the standards of online oral hygiene instructions for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Willem A.; Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Ren, Yijin

    Background. The authors conducted this study to assess the quality of the information available on the Web about oral hygiene for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods. The authors entered the search terms "cleaning braces," " brushing braces," and "oral hygiene and braces" into

  3. Oral hygiene teaching in clinical activities at the department of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes and practices of students related to oral hygiene teaching by mean of a questionnaire submitted to patients attending the clinics of the Department of Dentistry of Dakar. Method: A KPC study (Knowledge, Practices and Coverage) focusing on dental students was conducted ...

  4. Prevalence of helminths on raw vegetables and hygienic practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the prevalence of helminths on raw vegetables presented for sales and the level of hygienic practices among vegetable marketers in Maiduguri. All the markets surveyed were categorized into quadrants for the purpose of this study. A total of three hundred and twenty samples of spinach, cabbage, ...

  5. External Evaluation of CDC Homestudy Course 3010-G, "Community Hygiene."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.

    A study examined the impact of the Centers for Disease Control's home study course in community hygiene on the job performance of 45 sanitarians in 30 districts throughout North Carolina. Data were collected from: (1) pre- and post-tests that evaluated the sanitarians' mastery of knowledge in such areas as water supply, sewage disposal, solid…

  6. The chemical shock tube as a tool for studying high-temperature chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.

    1986-01-01

    Although the combustion of hydrocarbons is our primary source of energy today, the chemical reactions, or pathway, by which even the simplest hydro-carbon reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form CO2 and water may not always be known. Furthermore, even when the reaction pathway is known, the reaction rates are always under discussion. The shock tube has been an important and unique tool for building a data base of reaction rates important in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The ability of a shock wave to bring the gas sample to reaction conditions rapidly and homogeneously makes shock-tube studies of reaction kinetics extremely attractive. In addition to the control and uniformity of reaction conditions achieved with shock-wave methods, shock compression can produce gas temperatures far in excess of those in conventional reactors. Argon can be heated to well over 10 000 K, and temperatures around 5000 K are easily obtained with conventional shock-tube techniques. Experiments have proven the validity of shock-wave theory; thus, reaction temperatures and pressures can be calculated from a measurement of the incident shock velocity. A description is given of the chemical shock tube and auxiliary equipment and of two examples of kinetic experiments conducted in a shock tube.

  7. Enhancing hand hygiene in a polyclinic in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Evon; Mohd Hamzah, Hamha Binte; Chain Yan, Chau; Ang, Emily

    2012-09-01

    This project intended to enhance the compliance rate of nurses (registered nurses and enrolled nurses) in a polyclinic to the five moments of hand hygiene. It proposed to conduct a preliminary baseline audit on the standard of hand hygiene practice, educate nurses on the five moments of hand hygiene in the polyclinic and conduct a post-implementation audit to capture the compliance rate of nurses on practising the five moments of hand hygiene. The team conducted a pre- and post-implementation audit using the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice programme, from July 2011 through November 2011, over a period of 5 months. The pre-implementation audit, which involved 23 nurses from a polyclinic in Singapore, also adopted five out of the seven criteria suggested by the Joanna Briggs Institute. The intervention composed of educating the nurses on the five moments of hand hygiene, providing guidance to nurses in a non-intimidating manner, adopting an open communication approach and the appropriate placement of alcohol-based hand rub at the point of care in the service rooms. The post-implementation audit results showed significant improvement in four of the five criteria, with the greatest improvement observed for criterion 2: 'Hands are decontaminated immediately before each and every episode of direct patient contact or care, and/or all inanimate objects, including equipment'. This study has proven that by conducting the pre- and post-implementation audit using the five criteria gathered from the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System, nurses' hand hygiene compliance can be enhanced. From this study, we could also conclude that nurses' knowledge and accessibility/suitability of alcohol-based hand rubs play an important role in achieving better hand hygiene practices. Positive results were seen even though the project was conducted within a short period

  8. Keep it clean: a visual approach to reinforce hand hygiene compliance in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Lynn L; Roberts, Chris; Schmidt, Kim

    2015-03-01

    Although hand hygiene strategies significantly reduce health care-associated infections, multiple studies have documented that hand hygiene is the most overlooked and poorly performed infection control intervention. Emergency nurses and technicians (n = 95) in a 41-bed emergency department in eastern Virginia completed pretests and posttests, an education module, and two experiential learning activities reinforcing hand hygiene and infection control protocols. Posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores (t (108) = -6.928, P = .048). Hand hygiene compliance rates improved at the conclusion of the project and 3 months after the study (F (2, 15) = 9.89, P = .002). Interfaces with staff as they completed the interactive exercise, as well as anecdotal notes collected during the study, identified key times when compliance suffered and offered opportunities to further improve hand hygiene and, ultimately, patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants for oral hygiene and periodontal status among mentally disabled children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the impact of socio-demographic and clinical variables on the oral hygiene and periodontal status in a sample of mentally disabled subjects. Materials and Methods: Study sample comprised of 171 mentally disabled subjects attending a special school in Udaipur, India. Oral hygiene status was assessed by Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and periodontal status by Community Periodontal Index. Results: Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that the best predictors in the descending order for oral hygiene index were disabled sibling, medical diagnosis, IQ level, education of mother and father. Having Down syndrome, less educated parents, poor economic status and a disabled sibling were the most important predictors for poor periodontal status. Conclusions: The present study highlighted that the oral hygiene and periodontal status of the present study population is poor and was influenced by medical diagnosis, IQ level, disabled sibling, parent′s level of education and economic status.

  10. Sleep duration, sleep hygiene, and insomnia in adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Ullrich, Maureen; Szefler, Stanley J

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to understand more about modifiable health behaviors that may be related to asthma control. Sleep is one such health behavior that has received little attention in pediatric asthma research. To examine sleep duration, sleep hygiene, and insomnia in adolescents with and without asthma. Adolescents (n = 298; 51% boys; age range, 12-17 years; 48% with asthma) from the general community completed an online survey that included the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, the Children's Report of Sleep Patterns, and the Insomnia Severity Index. Sleep duration did not differ between the asthma severity groups, yet more adolescents with severe asthma reported insufficient weekday sleep (44%) versus adolescents without asthma (31%). Significant asthma group differences were found for sleep hygiene, with adolescents with severe asthma reporting poorer sleep hygiene. Almost twice as many adolescents with severe asthma reported clinically significant insomnia than adolescents with mild or no asthma. Sleep hygiene variables were correlated with insomnia, although these associations did not differ between adolescents with and without severe asthma. Finally, both insomnia severity and asthma severity were significant predictors of daytime sleepiness; however, asthma severity accounted for only 2% of the variance compared with 28% of the variance accounted for by insomnia severity. Many adolescents with severe asthma regularly obtain insufficient sleep, have poor sleep hygiene, and experience clinically significant insomnia. It is important to ask adolescents with asthma about sleep duration, sleep hygiene, and insomnia because there are effective interventions that can improve sleep for these youths. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hygiene aspects of cosmetic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kukułowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently beauty salons offer a wide range of services, from beauty treatments starting with skin cleansing, peeling or manicure, to permanent makeup and body piercing. During all these treatments, there is a risk of infection with different diseases caused most often by Fungi (Candida albicans, pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and viruses (herpes, hepatitis B and C, and therefore the staff should use disposable equipment and sterilized tools.Aim of research. The aim of the study was to assess the hygiene conditions in a selected beauty salon. Material and methods. The research was carried out in a selected Salon in the Tri-city. The subject of microbiological analysis were the hands of beauticians, the surface of the table, the uniform, the cover of the chair for treatments for the face, clean towels and bowls for soaking feet prior to pedicure treatment. The aim of the research was to establish the total number of microorganisms (OLD, the number of yeasts and moulds, and the presence of staphylococci. Results. In the analysed material, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus was not confirmed. Among the studied samples, only slightly above 8% were free of moulds, while 25% were free of the presence of yeasts. Staphylococci settled on about 14% of the evaluated surfaces, mostly occurring on the hands of beauticians and in bowls for soaking feet. The average number of microorganisms isolated from the tips of 5 fingers amounted to 32 cfu/25 cm2. Staphylococcus epidermidis was present on the hands in more than 60% of the samples. Only about 7% of the samples were found to exceed the limit for class D premises, amounting to 50 cfu/25 cm2, while on over 70% of the analysed surfaces the microorganisms reached the level of 1–25 cfu/25 cm2, which confirms high standard of provided services. Conclusions. 1 In the examined beauty salon the analyzed surfaces were clean and free of Staphylococcus aureus, but Staphylococcus

  12. Association Between Oral Hygiene Status and Halitosis Among Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiun, Iris Liew Ee; Siddik, Siti Nur'Ain Abu Bakar; Malik, Shan Nawaz; Tin-Oo, Mon Mon; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khan, Mohammad Mobarak Hossain

    2015-01-01

    To study the association of smoking with poor oral hygiene status and halitosis in a comparative cross-sectional study. 100 smokers and 100 nonsmokers ages 18-50 years were recruited for this study in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Oral hygiene (good/fair vs poor) was determined using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, and the halitosis level was measured using a Halimeter. Subjects were instructed to refrain from consuming foods containing garlic, onions, strong spices, alcohol and using mouthwashes 48 h prior to the examination. The halitosis levels were quantified by recording volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) three times at 3-min intervals, resulting in a mean halitosis score. Various statistical analyses were performed, ranging from simple frequency analysis to multivariable modelling. The proportions of subjects with poor oral hygiene and high halitosis were 24.0% and 41.5%, respectively. According to bivariate analyses, both problems were significantly less frequent among younger adults (halitosis), females, subjects with higher education, those with adequate habits to maintain good oral hygiene, those who had recent dental visits and those self-reporting fewer health problems. The percentages of poor oral hygiene and high halitosis were significantly higher in smokers (p halitosis, education for poor oral hygiene, and age, self-reported health problems and time since the previous dental visit for halitosis. These findings demonstrate a significantly higher level of halitosis and poorer oral hygiene in smokers than nonsmokers.

  13. Selected recent in vivo studies on chemical measurements in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdi, S; Ren, L; Fathali, H; Li, X; Ewing, A G

    2015-06-07

    In vivo measurements of neurotransmitters and related compounds have provided a better understanding of the chemical interactions that are a major part in functioning of brains. In addition, a great deal of technology has been developed to measure chemical species in other areas of living organisms. A key part of this work has been sampling technologies as well as direct measurements in vivo. This is extremely important when sampling from the smallest animal systems. Yet, very small invertebrate systems are excellent models and often have better defined and more easily manipulated genetics. This review focuses on in vivo measurements, electrochemical methods, fluorescence techniques, and sampling and is further narrowed to work over approximately the last three years. Rapid developments of in vivo studies in these model systems should aid in finding solutions to biological and bioanalytical challenges related to human physiological functions and neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellos, Christos

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the formal lectures and contributed papers presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on. the Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics. The meeting convened at the city of Iraklion, Crete, Greece on 25 August 1985 and continued to 7 September 1985. The material presented describes the fundamental and recent advances in experimental and theoretical aspects of, reaction dynamics. A large section is devoted to electronically excited states, ionic species, and free radicals, relevant to chemical sys­ tems. In addition recent advances in gas phase polymerization, formation of clusters, and energy release processes in energetic materials were presented. Selected papers deal with topics such as the dynamics of electric field effects in low polar solutions, high electric field perturbations and relaxation of dipole equilibria, correlation in picosecond/laser pulse scattering, and applications to fast reaction dynamics. Picosecond transient Raman spectroscopy which has been used for the elucidati...

  15. Chemical Approaches to Studying Labile Amino Acid Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelstein, Alan M; Moreno, Javier; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues is the archetypal posttranslational modification of proteins. While phosphorylation of these residues has become standard textbook knowledge, phosphorylation of other amino acid side chains is underappreciated and minimally characterized by comparison. This disparity is rooted in the relative instability of these chemically distinct amino acid side chain moieties, namely phosphoramidates, acyl phosphates, thiophosphates, and phosphoanhydrides. In the case of the O-phosphorylated amino acids, synthetic constructs were critical to assessing their stability and developing tools for their study. As the chemical biology community has become more aware of these alternative phosphorylation sites, methodology has been developed for the synthesis of well-characterized standards and close mimics of these phosphorylated amino acids as well. In this article, we review the synthetic chemistry that is a prerequisite to progress in this field.

  16. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Rumex crispus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ji-ping; Zhang, Zhen-liang

    2009-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Rumex crispus. Compounds were isolated and purified repeatedly by silica gel, Sephadex gel and ODS C18 column chromatographies, and structure identifications of compounds were carried out by physical, chemical methods and spectral data. Fifteen compounds were obtained from the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of R. crispus, and were identified as beta-sitosterol(1), hexadecanoic acid(2), hexadecanoic-2,3-dihydroxy propyleste(3), chrysophanol(4), physcion(5), emodin(6), chrysophanol-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(7), physcion-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(8), emodin-8O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(9), gallic acid(10), (+)-catechin(11), kaempferol(12), quercetin(13), kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside(14), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside(15). Compounds 3,8-12,14 and 15 are obtained from R. crispus for the first time.

  17. Oral hygiene and periodontal status of teenagers with special needs in the district of Nalgonda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Nazia; Palaparthi, Rajababu; Neerudu, Madhukar; Palakuru, Sunil Kumar; Singam, Harinath Reddy; Durvasula, Satyanarayana

    2012-07-01

    To assess oral hygiene status, oral hygiene practices and periodontal status among 14-17-year-old visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled and physically challenged and normal teenagers in the district of Nalgonda, South India. Seven hundred and fifty teenagers in the age group of 14-17 years, constituting visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled, physically challenged and normal teenagers, were studied. Oral hygiene status and periodontal status were assessed using clinical indices and compared. Among the five groups chosen for the study, the intellectually disabled group had the highest plaque scores and poor oral hygiene. The visually impaired and deaf and dumb had better oral hygiene compared with other disability groups. Physically handicapped showed higher loss of attachment scores and deleterious and parafunctional habits. Normal teenagers had good oral hygiene and lower plaque scores. Oral health status relied basically on proper use of oral hygiene aids and training of the groups by their care takers. Disabled groups showed poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of periodontal disease, which may be attributed to the lack of coordination, understanding, physical disability or muscular limitations. Hence, more attention needs to be given to the dental needs of these individuals through ultimate, accurate and appropriate prevention, detection and treatment.

  18. The impact of an education program on hand hygiene compliance and nosocomial infection incidence in an urban neonatal intensive care unit: an intervention study with before and after comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, Onno K.; Brug, Johannes; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Kornelisse, René F.

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial bloodstream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Appropriate hand hygiene is singled out as the most important measure in preventing these infections. However, hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals remains low despite

  19. Comparison of hand hygiene antimicrobial efficacy: Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatta, Juliana Rizzo; Pinto, Flávia Morais Gomes; Bruna, Camila Quartim de Moraes; Souza, Rafael Queiroz de; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Silva, Maria Julia Paes da

    2013-01-01

    this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hand hygiene performed with two different soap formulations: 0.3% Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus 0.5% triclosan, and to compare them with two reference hygiene procedures: the official methodology procedure (soft soap) versus the draft version of the procedure (soft soap + propan-2-ol). using the European EN 1499 method, logarithmic reduction factors were determined for the number of colony forming units of Escherichia coli K12 before and after hand hygiene of 15 volunteer subjects, and compared using the one-tailed Wilcoxon test. referring to the soft soap, there was no difference between the performance of soap with 0.3% M. alternifolia and soap containing 0.5% triclosan. The soft soap + propan-2-ol proved to be more effective than the other hand hygiene procedures. studies to verify the therapeutic efficacy of essential oil in hand hygiene can improve adherence to this practice.

  20. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Early Childhood Hygiene Interventions in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushan ATANIYAZOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies cost-benefit analysis (CBA technique to estimate the effectiveness of hand hygiene and oral health interventions in Uzbekistan for children of kindergarten age (3-6 years old. Our primary objective in this study is to apply CBA framework to investigate economic viability of hand hygiene and oral health interventions on respiratory diseases (influenza, bronchitis, pneumonia, intestinal diseases (diarrhea, hepatitis A, and helminthiasis, and dental caries and stomatitis. Though it is often difficult to attribute a specific hygiene intervention to a reduction in specific illness, our study shows that prevention of disease through hygiene promotion is cost-effective. To be the most effective, however, hygiene interventions should be accompanied by education and awareness-raising of teachers, parents and children.

  1. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices.

  2. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  3. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  4. Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgarnie, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

  5. [Hygienic evaluation of risk factors on powder metallurgy production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Complex hygienic, clinical, sociologic and epidemiologic studies revealed reliable relationship between work conditions and arterial hypertension, locomotory system disorders, monocytosis in powder metallurgy production workers. Findings are more probable cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, digestive tract diseases due to influence of lifestyle factors.

  6. Hygiene practices among street food vendors in Tamale Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activities of food vendors can increase the chances of food contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and mycotoxins. The study was conducted to assess the food hygiene practices among street food vendors in the Tamale Metropolis. Structured questionnaires, interviews and field observations were used to ...

  7. Adherence to hand hygiene protocol by clinicians and medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: While communicable diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Malawi, the contribution of nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) is unknown but could be substantial. The single most important method of preventing nosocomial infections is hand hygiene. We report a study which ...

  8. Hygiene Practices among Workers in Local Eateries of Orolu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: Descriptive cross‑sectional study was carried out among 235 food handlers; data collection was by interviewer administered questionnaires. Using the SPSS software, multivariate analysis in two separate models was done to explore the predictors of correct knowledge and good hygiene practices.

  9. Frederick Herzberg\\'s motivation-hygiene theory revisited: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Herzberg\\'s motivation-hygiene theory revisited: The concept and its applicability to clergy (A study of fulltime stipendiary clergy of the global ... of Wood's (1973) “Faculty Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Scale” was used to measure the satisfaction of clergy relative to Herzberg's satisfier and dissatisfier factors.

  10. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Halitosis and Oral Hygiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    hygiene practices among a group of Libyan volunteers. ... Conclusions: The prevalence of self-perceived malodour among the Libyan volunteers in this study is within ..... 2005; 60:17-29. 17. Tangerman A, Winkel EG. Intra- and extra-oral halitosis: finding of a new form of extra-oral blood-borne halitosis caused by dimethyl.

  11. Improving hand hygiene compliance in hospitals by design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Melles (Marijke); V. Erasmus (Vicky); M.P.M. van Loon (Martijn); M. Tassoul (Marc); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractEssential in reducing hospital-acquired infections is adequate hand hygiene (HH) among healthcare workers (HCWs). International studies show, however, that HH guidelines are adhered to in less than 50% of required times. Research into HH behavior has shown that self-reported

  12. Oral hygiene practices and risk of oral leukoplakia | Macigo | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. Design: Case control study. Setting: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. Subjects: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. Results: The relative risk (RR) of oral ...

  13. Oral Hygiene and Oral Flora Evaluation in Psychiatric Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The World Health Organization has stated that psychiatric patients are a group of people who have oral and dental illnesses. Aims: The aims of this study were to document the oral hygiene of individuals with chronic psychiatric illness, to determine the extraoral and intraoral findings, to detect the dominant ...

  14. ORAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND RISK OF ORAL LEUKOPLAKIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... Objective: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. Design: Case control study. Setting: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. Subjects: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. Results: The relative risk ...

  15. Oral Hygiene Status of Students in Selected Secondary Schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essence of oral hygiene is to prevent the accumulation of dental plaque on the teeth and other dental appliances in the mouth. Thus preventing the development of oral diseases associated with its accumulation such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and halitosis (bad breath). The objective of the study was to ...

  16. Oral hygiene practices and oral health care seeking behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the oral hygiene practices and oral health care seeking behaviours among primary school teachers. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among primary school teachers from public schools in Ndola district, Zambia.The primary schools were selected using stratified ...

  17. Adherence to hand hygiene protocol by clinicians and medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. While communicable diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Malawi, the contribution of nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) is unknown but could be substantial. The single most important method of preventing nosocomial infections is hand hygiene. We report a study which ...

  18. Dysphagia screening and intensified oral hygiene reduce pneumonia after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Terp; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia occurs in approximately 51%-78% of patients with acute stroke. The incidence of pneumonia caused by aspiration in dysphagic patients increases both mortality and the need for hospitalization. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the incidence of aspiration pneumonia could be...... be reduced in such patients by an early screening for dysphagia and intensified oral hygiene....

  19. Hygienic quality and pectin polysaccharide characteristics of dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hygienic quality of dried mango pulp chips and structural characteristics of pectin polysaccharides of a Togolese variety of mango “mangovi” were studied for check pectin production or other final product. Results of microbiological analysis showed that mesophilic total microbes, yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

  20. Water, sanitation and hygiene in community based care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate access to water influences sanitation and hygiene, and this affects the work of CHW. Government needs to respond promptly to the water and sanitation needs of marginalized communities with limited resources. The findings of the study had implications for policy on WASH and community-based care in low ...

  1. Design and implementation of participatory hygiene and sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study is a continuation of a research carried out in Luweero district in Uganda1. It investigated whether PHAST was a suitable tool for reducing transmission of soil transmitted helminths. PHAST means Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation; a participatory approach that uses visual tools to ...

  2. Sanitation and hygiene status of butcheries in Kampala district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing trend in the consumption of animal products such as meat in the developing world especially due to a growing population, urbanization and rising incomes. This poses a risk of food borne illnesses from meat consumption due to poor sanitation and hygiene. The purpose of this study was to assess the ...

  3. Assessment of hygiene habits and attitudes among removable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... Aims: The aim of this study was conducting a survey of hygiene habits and use of removable partial dentures (RPDs) and correlate them with the social conditions of the interviewees. Methods: A total of 145 RPD wearers were interviewed by experienced clinical staff using a structured questionnaire.

  4. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrhoea diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five-children (U-5C) in Nigeria. Inadequate safe water, sanitation, and hygiene account for the disease burden. Cases of diarrhoea still occur in high proportion in the study area despite government-oriented interventions.

  5. Hand hygiene-related clinical trials reported since 2010: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-04-01

    Considerable emphasis is currently placed on reducing healthcare-associated infection through improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. There is also increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare staff. Our aim was to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies - especially clinical trials - that focused on hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. Literature published between December 2009, after publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene guidelines, and February 2014, which was indexed in PubMed and CINAHL on the topic of hand hygiene compliance, was searched. Following examination of relevance and methodology of the 57 publications initially retrieved, 16 clinical trials were finally included in the review. The majority of studies were conducted in the USA and Europe. The intensive care unit emerged as the predominant focus of studies followed by facilities for care of the elderly. The category of healthcare worker most often the focus of the research was the nurse, followed by the healthcare assistant and the doctor. The unit of analysis reported for hand hygiene compliance was 'hand hygiene opportunity'; four studies adopted the 'my five moments for hand hygiene' framework, as set out in the WHO guidelines, whereas other papers focused on unique multimodal strategies of varying design. We concluded that adopting a multimodal approach to hand hygiene improvement intervention strategies, whether guided by the WHO framework or by another tested multimodal framework, results in moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The mediating and moderating effects of sleep hygiene practice on anxiety and insomnia in hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tsui-Lan; Chang, Lu-I; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to test the mediating and moderating effects of sleep hygiene practice on the relationship between anxiety and insomnia severity in hospital nurses. A cross-sectional survey was employed, and a convenience sample was recruited from one regional hospital in Taiwan. Participants completed the following self-report questionnaires over a 3-month period in 2009: the Insomnia Severity Index, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale. The results indicated that nurses with more anxiety tended to have higher insomnia severity. Further, nurses with poor sleep hygiene practice had more insomnia. Sleep hygiene practice partially mediated the effects of anxiety on insomnia severity. Also, sleep hygiene practice was a moderator in the relationship between anxiety and insomnia severity with age and work units as covariates. Sleep hygiene practice mediated and moderated the relationship between anxiety and insomnia severity after controlling the variables of age and work units. Continuing to learn and train sleep hygiene practice might promote nurses' sleep hygiene, and thereby ameliorate anxiety and reduce the risk of insomnia. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Hand hygiene in peritoneal dialysis patients: a comparison of two techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; d'Avila, Domingos O

    2013-01-01

    Hand hygiene is essential for preventing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. The present study compared the effectiveness of two hygiene techniques in reducing the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) on the hands of patients undergoing PD. In this controlled clinical trial, 22 participants enrolled in the same PD program underwent a two-hand evaluation for microbiologic flora. Participants participated in two treatments: a) simple hand hygiene plus antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients washed their hands with water and glycerin soap for 1 minute and then rubbed and dried their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel; and b) antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients rubbed their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel until fully dry. To sample distal finger surfaces, we asked the participants to touch sheep blood agar plates directly. The CFU count for both hands was significantly higher in the regular hygiene group than in the gel-only group [69.0 (16.0 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.0 (2.2 - 55.5) CFU, p hand cultures from the regular hygiene group than in those from the gel-only group [69.5 (26.25 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.5 (1.0 - 41.7) CFU; p hands may be more effective than following the regular hygiene recommendations in reducing bacterial populations.

  8. [Hygienic quality of meat used in institutional food services: university cafeterias in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, A J; Savadogo, A; Barro, N; Ouedraogo, M; Traore, A S

    2009-01-01

    This present study was conducted to assess the hygienic quality of meals served in three cafeterias at the national university in Ouagadougou and the compliance of kitchen staff with good hygiene practices. Microbiological analyses assessed the hygienic quality of the raw meat and of meat-based meals. The results showed poor hygiene practices by food handlers along the food chain. These observations were confirmed by the identification of salmonella, coliform and staphylococcal bacteria in raw meat and cooked meals. Overall, 60% of the raw meat samples were unsatisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora and 6.6% for salmonella. For the cooked meat meals, on the other hand, 45% of the samples were satisfactory for aerobic mesophilic flora, 100% for salmonella, 93.3% for fecal thermotolerant coliforms and 96.6% for staphylococci. These results showed poor hygiene in the handling of raw meat, but a clear improvement in hygienic quality after cooking. Raising the awareness of cafeteria staff about compliance with hygiene rules appears primordial. Moreover improvement of the food environment, the kitchen equipment, and organization as well as the introduction of a cleaning-disinfection programme would make it possible to provide more hygienic meals in these institutional facilities.

  9. Diurnal variation in hand hygiene compliance in a tertiary level multidisciplinary intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Sandeep; Panja, Sauren; Ray, Sumit; Rao, B K

    2010-09-01

    Hand hygiene compliance among health care providers is considered to be the single most effective factor to reduce hospital acquired infections. Despite continuous education and awareness, compliance with hand hygiene guidelines has remained low, particularly during evening shifts. Our objective was to determine the compliance with hand hygiene guidelines among doctors, nurses, and paramedical staff during day and night duties in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU). We used a prospective, observational, 6-month study conducted in a 34-bed ICU within a tertiary care teaching hospital. All doctors, nurses, and paramedical staff in the ICU were included. An investigator, placed within the ICU setting, observed the hand hygiene practices during day and night. Day and night shift change times were 08:00 and 20:00 hours, respectively. Of the 5639 opportunities for hand hygiene, 3383 (59.9%) were properly performed. Overall rates of compliance were 66.1% for doctors, 60.7% for nurses, and 38.6% for paramedical staff. Hand hygiene compliance dropped during the night for doctors (81% vs 46%, respectively, P hand hygiene guidelines was lower at night compared with day, irrespective of discipline in all 3 groups of health care providers, both periods of compliance would benefit from additional training focusing on the importance of hand hygiene around the clock.

  10. The prevalence of academic dishonesty in Texas dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhney, Kelly A; Gutmann, Marylou E; Schneiderman, Emet; DeWald, Janice P; McCann, Ann; Campbell, Patricia R

    2008-11-01

    The media has given much attention to the academic cheating crisis in America. A majority of college students believe that, in today's global environment, it is necessary to cheat in order to get ahead and to compete with their peers. The prevalence and attitudes concerning academic dishonesty of health professions students, including those in medical, dental, and nursing schools, have been extensively researched. No such studies exist in the discipline of dental hygiene. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cheating in Texas dental hygiene programs. Four hundred surveys were mailed to twenty Texas dental hygiene schools for graduating students to complete. A total of 289 usable surveys was returned for a response rate of 72.25 percent. Data were analyzed using SPSS with frequencies and chi-square tests. Findings from this study reveal that 86.5 percent of graduating Texas dental hygiene students have cheated a minimum of one time during matriculation. Students identified the demands of what they considered academic overload as the primary justification for cheating behavior.

  11. [Oral health and hygiene status in galician schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, María; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Smyth, Ernesto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the oral health and hygiene status in 12 year-old Galician schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1267 schoolchildren. The fieldwork was carried out in the 2010-2011 academic year. Information regarding socio-demographic status, dietary habits, and oral hygiene practices was obtained through a structured self-report questionnaire given to the children at school. Dental examination to evaluate plaque and caries was carried out according to World Health Organization criteria. The prevalence and mean with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and logistic regression models were ajusted. Out of a total of 1045 pupils who participated in the study, 35% showed incorrect removal of dental plaque, and the prevalence of caries was 39.3%. Those who belonged to a lower socioeconomic group showed a higher prevalence of caries. Those who brushed their teeth daily had better oral hygiene. Educational programmes need to be designed and implemented in order to improve dental health and hygiene. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases’ prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the “Regimen Sanitatis Salerni” has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later.

  13. Access to Safe Water and Personal Hygiene Practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz; Blackwood, R Alexander

    2015-12-22

    the first study to assess the water and personal hygiene practices at the Kulandia refugee ramp. This study demonstrates that hygiene education and better practices are closely associated with the rate at which individuals and households suffer from diarrheal illnesses within the Kulandia refugee camp. There are significant hygiene deficits in the camp, which likely result from a lack of formal hygiene education and a lack of awareness concerning the connection between diarrheal illness and hygiene. With respect to practices, our results elucidate several areas where basic, communal programming - including lessons on appropriate hand washing and food preparation - will likely improve hygiene practices and decrease overall GI burden.

  14. Access to safe water and personal hygiene practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Issa

    2015-12-01

    matters. This is the first study to assess the water and personal hygiene practices at the Kulandia refugee ramp. This study demonstrates that hygiene education and better practices are closely associated with the rate at which individuals and households suffer from diarrheal illnesses within the Kulandia refugee camp. There are significant hygiene deficits in the camp, which likely result from a lack of formal hygiene education and a lack of awareness concerning the connection between diarrheal illness and hygiene. With respect to practices, our results elucidate several areas where basic, communal programming – including lessons on appropriate hand washing and food preparation – will likely improve hygiene practices and decrease overall GI burden.

  15. Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial to test the effect of a smartphone application on oral-health behavior and oral hygiene in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerman, Janneke F M; van Meijel, Berno; van Empelen, Pepijn; Kramer, Gem J C; Verrips, Gijsbert H W; Pakpour, Amir H; Van den Braak, Matheus C T; van Loveren, Cor

    2018-02-07

    Adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances are at high risk of developing dental caries. To date, new smartphone technologies have seldom been used to support them in the preventive behavior that can help prevent dental caries. After an intervention-mapping process, we developed a smartphone application (the WhiteTeeth app) for preventing dental caries through improved oral-health behavior and oral hygiene. The app, which is intended to be used at home, will help adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances perform their oral self-care behavior. The app is based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) theory, and incorporates several behavior-change techniques that target the psychosocial factors of oral-health behavior. This article describes the protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effects of the WhiteTeeth app on oral-health behavior and oral-hygiene outcomes (presence of dental plaque and gingival bleeding) compared with those of care as usual, in patients aged 12-16 with fixed orthodontic appliances. The RCT has two conditions: an experimental group that will receive the WhiteTeeth app in addition to care as usual, and a control group that will only receive care as usual. Care as usual will include routine oral-health education and instruction at orthodontic check-ups. In the western part of the Netherlands 146 participants will be recruited from four orthodontic clinics. Data will be collected during three orthodontic check-ups: baseline (T0), 6 weeks of follow-up (T1) and 12 weeks of follow-up (T2). The primary study outcomes are the presence of dental plaque (measured with a modified Silness and Loë Plaque Index); and gingival bleeding (measured with the Bleeding on Marginal Probing Index). Secondary outcomes include changes in self-reported oral-health behaviors and its psychosocial factors identified by the HAPA theory, such as outcome expectancies, intention, action self-efficacy, coping planning and action

  16. Formative research on the feasibility of hygiene interventions for influenza control in UK primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Val

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to increase hand washing in schools have been advocated as a means to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza and other infections. However, the feasibility and acceptability of effective school-based hygiene interventions is not clear. Methods A pilot study in four primary schools in East London was conducted to establish the current need for enhanced hand hygiene interventions, identify barriers to their implementation and to test their acceptability and feasibility. The pilot study included key informant interviews with teachers and school nurses, interviews, group discussions and essay questions with the children, and testing of organised classroom hand hygiene activities. Results In all schools, basic issues of personal hygiene were taught especially in the younger age groups. However, we identified many barriers to implementing intensive hygiene interventions, in particular time constraints and competing health issues. Teachers' motivation to teach hygiene and enforce hygienic behaviour was primarily educational rather than immediate infection control. Children of all age groups had good knowledge of hygiene practices and germ transmission. Conclusion The pilot study showed that intensive hand hygiene interventions are feasible and acceptable but only temporarily during a period of a particular health threat such as an influenza pandemic, and only if rinse-free hand sanitisers are used. However, in many settings there may be logistical issues in providing all schools with an adequate supply. In the absence of evidence on effectiveness, the scope for enhanced hygiene interventions in schools in high income countries aiming at infection control appears to be limited in the absence of a severe public health threat.

  17. AIR AS A FACTOR AFFECTING FOOD HYGIENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Jomová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The air is the most endangered component of the environment. The air pollution has not only got various economical and ecological consequences but also has various negative effects on human health, animals, plants and food hygiene. Elevated anthropogenic SO2 emissions can also have negative influences upon the environmental conditions, human health, and ecosystems. The most emissions come from industrial chimneys, heavy traffic emissions and population density. It is inevitable to monitor the state of the air pollution. Submitted work includes the summary of the sulphur dioxide pollution and its impact on the environment in the area of chemical factory Duslo Šaľa, Inc. Monitoring anthropic impacts help us to predict what requirements on space particular industry requires and how they act in the area. The basis of our evaluation was observing diversity monitoring and types of negative anthropogenic features in monitored area: concentrations of SO2 in air, real sources of air pollution from the vehicles and other mechanisms and real sources of air pollution from local town residential area sources.

  18. [Study on chemical constituents of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Xiao-Lei; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Dai, Hang; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2013-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of ethyl acetate fraction of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine. Compounds were isolated and purified by polyamide column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and sephadex gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Ten compounds were isolated from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine and elucidated as: pentadecanoic acid (1), monopentadecanoin (2), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl nonadecoate (3), lignoceric acid-2, 3-dihydroxy-propanenyl ester (4), lancerebroside 5 (5), salicylic acid (6), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), hydroquinone (8), succinic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Compounds 1 - 10 are obtained from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine for the first time.

  19. [Study on chemical constituents in seeds of Helicia nilagirica (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Yan; Shuang-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Xu, Ji-Min; Lin, Rui-Chao

    2005-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents in seeds of Helicia nilagirica. The ethanol extract was seperated by petroleum ether, dichloromethane, n-butanol in sequence, then isolated by silica gel column chromatography. The structures were identified and elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Five compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane and n-butanol extracts, identified as p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (1), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), gallic acid (3), helicide (4), 4-formylpymyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5). All the compounds except IV were isolated from the plant for the first time. The compounds I, II and III were isolated from the genus Helicia for the first time.

  20. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Coleus forskohlii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-qin; Ma, Jian-ping; Pan, Sheng-li; Hou, Ai-jun; Huang, Jian-ming

    2009-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents in the aerial parts of Coleus forskohlii. The compounds were isolated by various column chromatographic methods, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. Twelve compounds were isolated and identified as chamaecydin (1), 6 alpha-hydroxydemethylcryptojaponol (2), alpha-cedrene (3), oleanolic acid (4), forskolin G (5), forskolin J (6), 1,6-diacetyl-9-deoxyforskolin (7), forskolin A (8), forskolin H (9), 6-acetyl-1-deoxyforskolin (10), betulinic acid (11), beta-sitosterol (12). Compounds 1 - 3 are isolated from Coleus genus for the first time, and compound 4 is isolated from C. forskohlii for the first time.