WorldWideScience

Sample records for hygienic chemical studies

  1. Chemical hygiene plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials

  2. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  3. Studies and activities in the field of chemical toxicology carried out by the service d'hygiene industrielle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, J.; Archimbaud, M.; Teulon, F.

    1988-02-01

    The Service d'Hygiene Industrielle (Industrial hygiene service, Institute of protection and nuclear safety, Department of health protection - IPSN-DPS) has acquired an unquestionable proficiency in chemical toxicology on account of 1) its missions of research on and monitoring of workers, working conditions and the environment on the Tricastin industrial complex and 2) of its actions of technical assistance to the CEA group and of valorization outside the group. The report presents how toxicological hazards originated from the use of chemical products by the nuclear industry are taken into consideration. A global methodology of assessment of chemical-toxicological hazards has been developed; it is based on the experience gained in various occupational branches (nuclear and non-nuclear industry, agriculture, administrations,...). The Service d'hygiene industrielle is developing R and D studies in the field of biology and analytical chemistry based on the present knowledge and doctrine in radiotoxicology (uranium especially). The contribution of radiation protection and radiotoxicology to non-nuclear industrial hygiene can thus be appreciated [fr

  4. Industrial hygiene survey. CF Chemicals, Inc., Bartow, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.

    1977-10-01

    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at CF Chemicals, Bartow, Florida on August 9-12, 1976 as part of a study of the phosphate industry. A description is given of the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs. During the study, 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid for workers involved in cleaning out phosphoric acid reactor vessels. General area samples were collected for fluorides, radon, and uranium. The results came within the OSHA standards except for two fluoride samples

  5. Industrial hygiene survey. IMC, Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.

    1977-10-01

    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at IMC Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida, on June 7-11, 1976, as part of a study of the phosphate industry. Phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. During the study 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid for workers involved in cleaning out phosphoric acid reactor vessels. General area samples were collected for fluorides, radon, and uranium. Several samples were above the NIOSH recommended levels for arsenic and chromium

  6. Space Station personal hygiene study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  7. Hygienic study of barrier function of local water purification facilities in respect to chemical pollutants agrochemicals and surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' in, I E

    1984-08-01

    Contamination of water reservoirs is presently a multicomponent phenomenon because pesticides, fertilizers, petroleum products, dyes and surfactants may all be present in water. Efficiency of commonly-employed water purification methods was evaluated: sedimentation, chlorination, filtering, and its related effect or representative groups of agricultural chemicals. The most vulnerable link in the rural water purification system was the filtration; in presence of surfactants, the filtration effectiveness was reduced by 40-50%. The effectiveness of this hauling function of surfactants was related to chemical structure of the polluting compounds and to homologous characteristics of the detergents. The effectiveness of the precipitation of chemical impurities from polluted water depended on their solubility in water. 1 figure.

  8. [Assessment of the relationship of properties of chemical compounds and their toxicity to a unified hygienic standardization for chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkov, V F; Perminov, K A; Sapozhnikova, V V; Ignatova, O L

    2013-01-01

    The connection of thermodynamic properties and parameters of toxicity of chemical substances was determined. Obtained data are used for the evaluation of toxicity and hygienic rate setting of chemical compounds. The relationship between enthalpy and toxicity of chemical compounds has been established. Orthogonal planning of the experiment was carried out in the course of the investigations. Equation of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism is presented. Prospects of determination of toxicity and methodology of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism are presented

  9. Chemical Hygiene Plan for Onsite Measurement and Sample Shipping Facility Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    This chemical hygiene plan presents the requirements established to ensure the protection of employee health while performing work in mobile laboratories, the sample shipping facility, and at the onsite radiological counting facility. This document presents the measures to be taken to promote safe work practices and to minimize worker exposure to hazardous chemicals. Specific hazardous chemicals present in the mobile laboratories, the sample shipping facility, and in the radiological counting facility are presented in Appendices A through G

  10. The validity and reliability study of Hand Hygiene Belief Scale and Hand Hygiene Practices Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlude Karadag

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The adaptation of translated and ldquo;Hand Hygiene Belief Scale and Hand Hygiene Practices Inventory and rdquo; in Turkey is found to be reliable and valid to evaluate hand hygiene belief and practices. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 271-284

  11. Comparative study of presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution versus traditional presurgical hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Martín, M Beatriz; Erice Calvo-Sotelo, Alejo

    To compare presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol with traditional presurgical hand hygiene. Cultures of the hands of surgeons and surgical nurses were performed before and after presurgical hand hygiene and after removing gloves at the end of surgery. Cultures were done in 2different days: the first day after traditional presurgical hand hygiene, and the second day after presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol. The duration of the traditional hand hygiene was measured and compared with the duration (3min) of the WHO protocol. The cost of the products used in the traditional technique was compared with the cost of the hydroalcoholic solution used. The variability of the traditional technique was determined by observation. Following presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution, colony-forming units (CFU) were detected in 5 (7.3%) subjects, whereas after traditional presurgical hand hygiene CFU were detected in 14 subjects (20.5%) (p < 0.05). After glove removal, the numbers of CFU were similar. The time employed in hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution (3min) was inferior to the time employed in the traditional technique (p < 0.05), its cost was less than half, and there was no variability. Compared with other techniques, presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution significantly decreases CFU, has similar latency time, a lower cost, and saves time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. An elicitation study of critical care nurses' salient hand hygiene beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Susan E; Lauderdale, Jana; Minnick, Ann

    2017-10-01

    To describe critical care nurses' hand hygiene attitudinal, normative referent, and control beliefs. Hand hygiene is the primary strategy to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Social influence is an underdeveloped hand hygiene strategy. This qualitative descriptive study was conducted with 25 ICU nurses in the southeastern United States. Data were collected using the Nurses' Salient Belief Instrument. Thematic analysis generated four themes: Hand Hygiene is Protective; Nurses look to Nurses; Time-related Concerns; and Convenience is Essential. Nurses look to nurses as hand hygiene referents and believe hand hygiene is a protective behaviour that requires time and functional equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [HYGIENE: STRUCTURE OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES IN RUSSIA (2000-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimov, V I; Popov, V I; Rut, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was analyzed the array of 1548 dissertations on the scientific specialty 14.02.01 (former specification 14.00.07) "Hygiene". Over period of 2000-2014 to the Dissertation Committee in Russia there were annually submitted (103 ± 10) theses, which include (21 ± 3) doctoral dissertations and (83 ± 8) candidate dissertations. Doctoral dissertations accounted for 20,1%, dissertations in medicine--89.3%. There was established not only the decline in the number of theses in hygiene, but the reduction of their proportion in the total array of all medical and biological dissertations in Russia. The conjugacy of the trend curves of the total stream of dissertations in medicine and biology in Russia and in hygiene is considered to be not very high (r = 0.54). In the total structure of dissertation works on General Hygiene accounted for 22.7%, Community Hygiene--15.45%, Occupational Hygiene--19.6%, Children's and Adolescents' Hygiene--24.7%, Nutrition Hygiene--8.2%, Radiation Hygiene--2.3%, in Rural Hygiene--1.2%, Hospital Hygiene-- 3.4%, Military Hygiene--2.3% correspondingly. There is pointed the development gap between the research studies in hygiene and tendency in training of high class health care professionals' in Russia.

  14. Hygiene behaviour and hospitalized severe childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Baltazar, J. C.; Tiglao, T. V.; Tempongko, S. B.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between personal and domestic hygiene behaviour and hospitalized childhood diarrhoea was examined in a case-control study of 356 cases and 357 controls from low-income families in metropolitan Manila. Indices of hygiene behaviour were defined for overall cleanliness, kitchen hygiene, and living conditions. Only the indices for overall cleanliness and kitchen hygiene were significantly associated with diarrhoea. An increasing excess risk of hospitalization with severe diarrhoe...

  15. A Community Based Study on Menstrual Hygiene among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women in South Asia are uncomfortable discussing in public. ... hygiene and safe practices are less vulnerable to RTI ..... places. Privacy for washing, changing, or cleaning purpose is something very important for proper menstrual hygiene.

  16. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygi...

  17. Research on Hygiene Based on Fieldwork and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Several experimental studies on hygiene have recently been performed and fieldwork studies are also important and essential tools. However, the implementation of experimental studies is insufficient compared with that of fieldwork studies on hygiene. Here, we show our well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies of toxic-element-mediated diseases including skin cancer and hearing loss. Since the pollution of drinking well water by toxic elements induces various diseases including skin cancer, we performed both fieldwork and experimental studies to determine the levels of toxic elements and the mechanisms behind the development of toxic-element-related diseases and to develop a novel remediation system. Our fieldwork studies in several countries including Bangladesh, Vietnam and Malaysia demonstrated that drinking well water was polluted with high concentrations of several toxic elements including arsenic, barium, iron and manganese. Our experimental studies using the data from our fieldwork studies demonstrated that these toxic elements caused skin cancer and hearing loss. Further experimental studies resulted in the development of a novel remediation system that adsorbs toxic elements from polluted drinking water. A well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies is important for the prediction, prevention and therapy of toxic-element-mediated diseases.

  18. Hygiene behaviour and hospitalized severe childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, J C; Tiglao, T V; Tempongko, S B

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between personal and domestic hygiene behaviour and hospitalized childhood diarrhoea was examined in a case-control study of 356 cases and 357 controls from low-income families in metropolitan Manila. Indices of hygiene behaviour were defined for overall cleanliness, kitchen hygiene, and living conditions. Only the indices for overall cleanliness and kitchen hygiene were significantly associated with diarrhoea. An increasing excess risk of hospitalization with severe diarrhoea was noted as the ratings for standards of hygiene became lower, and this excess risk persisted even after controlling for confounding variables. The implications of our findings for the control of diarrhoeal disease are discussed.

  19. Hand Hygiene Adherence Among Health Care Workers at Japanese Hospitals: A Multicenter Observational Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakihama, Tomoko; Honda, Hitoshi; Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Shimizu, Taro; Kamiya, Toru; Sato, Yumiko; Arakawa, Soichi; Lee, Jong Ja; Iwata, Kentaro; Mihashi, Mutsuko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-03-01

    Although proper hand hygiene among health care workers is an important component of efforts to prevent health care-associated infection, there are few data available on adherence to hand hygiene practices in Japan. The aim of this study was to examine hand hygiene adherence at teaching hospitals in Japan. An observational study was conducted from July to November 2011 in 4 units (internal medicine, surgery, intensive care, and/or emergency department) in 4 geographically diverse hospitals (1 university hospital and 3 community teaching hospitals) in Japan. Hand hygiene practice before patient contact was assessed by an external observer. In a total of 3545 health care worker-patient observations, appropriate hand hygiene practice was performed in 677 (overall adherence, 19%; 95% confidence interval, 18%-20%). Subgroup rates of hand hygiene adherence were 15% among physicians and 23% among nurses. The ranges of adherence were 11% to 25% between hospitals and 11% to 31% between units. Adherence of the nurses and the physicians to hand hygiene was correlated within each hospital. There was a trend toward higher hand hygiene adherence in hospitals with infection control nurses, compared with hospitals without them (29% versus 16%). The hand hygiene adherence in Japanese teaching hospitals in our sample was low, even lower than reported mean values from other international studies. Greater adherence to hand hygiene should be encouraged in Japan.

  20. Insights from two industrial hygiene pilot e-cigarette passive vaping studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, John C; Thompson, Michael K; Oldham, Michael J; Stiff, Charles L; Lilly, Patrick D; Patskan, George J; Shafer, Kenneth H; Sarkar, Mohamadi A

    2016-01-01

    While several reports have been published using research methods of estimating exposure risk to e-cigarette vapors in nonusers, only two have directly measured indoor air concentrations from vaping using validated industrial hygiene sampling methodology. Our first study was designed to measure indoor air concentrations of nicotine, menthol, propylene glycol, glycerol, and total particulates during the use of multiple e-cigarettes in a well-characterized room over a period of time. Our second study was a repeat of the first study, and it also evaluated levels of formaldehyde. Measurements were collected using active sampling, near real-time and direct measurement techniques. Air sampling incorporated industrial hygiene sampling methodology using analytical methods established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Active samples were collected over a 12-hr period, for 4 days. Background measurements were taken in the same room the day before and the day after vaping. Panelists (n = 185 Study 1; n = 145 Study 2) used menthol and non-menthol MarkTen prototype e-cigarettes. Vaping sessions (six, 1-hr) included 3 prototypes, with total number of puffs ranging from 36-216 per session. Results of the active samples were below the limit of quantitation of the analytical methods. Near real-time data were below the lowest concentration on the established calibration curves. Data from this study indicate that the majority of chemical constituents sampled were below quantifiable levels. Formaldehyde was detected at consistent levels during all sampling periods. These two studies found that indoor vaping of MarkTen prototype e-cigarette does not produce chemical constituents at quantifiable levels or background levels using standard industrial hygiene collection techniques and analytical methods.

  1. Characteristics of the lactation, chemical composition milk hygiene quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is one of the possible economic uses of donkey population. The Littoral- Dinaric donkey is numerous, but the structural changes in rural areas during the last decade have pushed it into a group of endangered genetic heritage. The aim of this research is to determine the production potential, lactation characteristics, chemical composition and hygienic quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass milk. The average milk production was 172.12 mL per milking with the average fat percentage of 0.33 %, milk protein 1.55 %, and lactose 6.28 %. The low average number of somatic cells and bacterial count are noticed in ass’s milk (4.09 mL log-1; 3.58 mL log-1. A significant influence of lactation stage on the milk quantity and proportion of dry matter (P<0.01, as well on the proportion of milk fat and milk protein (P<0.05, was observed. Also the influence of the season on productivity, and the proportion of dry matter and milk fat (P<0001, as well as milk protein (P<0.01 was also significant. Productivity of the Littoral-Dinaric ass in the pasture system is relatively modest, but the direct and indirect benefits from this kind of production are multiple. That is the reason to continue the development of donkey milk production technology.

  2. Preparation and Instructional Competency Needs of the New Dental Hygiene Educator: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the instructional competency needs of new dental hygiene educators. The purpose of this qualitative and phenomenological study was twofold: (a) to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of 14 dental hygiene educators who have transitioned from clinical practice into the California Community College education system to…

  3. Environmental factors and their association with emergency department hand hygiene compliance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eileen J; Wyer, Peter; Giglio, James; Jia, Haomiao; Nelson, Germaine; Kauari, Vepuka E; Larson, Elaine L

    2016-05-01

    Hand hygiene is effective in preventing healthcare-associated infections. Environmental conditions in the emergency department (ED), including crowding and the use of non-traditional patient care areas (ie, hallways), may pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance. We examined the relationship between these environmental conditions and proper hand hygiene. This was a single-site, observational study. From October 2013 to January 2014, trained observers recorded hand hygiene compliance among staff in the ED according to the World Health Organization 'My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene'. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between environmental conditions and hand hygiene compliance, while controlling for important covariates (eg, hand hygiene indication, glove use, shift, etc). A total of 1673 hand hygiene opportunities were observed. In multivariable analyses, hand hygiene compliance was significantly lower when the ED was at its highest level of crowding than when the ED was not crowded and lower among hallway care areas than semiprivate care areas (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.55; OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.97). Unique environmental conditions pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the ED setting and should be considered by ED hand hygiene improvement efforts. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of these environmental conditions on actual rates of infection transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Hand hygiene compliance in transplant and other special patient groups: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Karolin; Ott, Ella; Wolny, Michael; Tramp, Nadine; Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Haverich, Axel; Chaberny, Iris Freya

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluates hand hygiene behavior of health care workers in a German university hospital stratified for treatment of special patient groups (eg, transplant patients). From 2008 to 2010, comprehensive education and training of all health care workers was implemented to improve hand hygiene compliance. Consumption rates of alcohol-based hand rub and gloves were collected and evaluated. Of the 5,647 opportunities of hand disinfection evaluated, 1,607 occurred during care for transplant patients. To our knowledge, this is the largest survey of hand hygiene compliance in special patient groups on intensive care units in a university hospital in Germany. Health care workers on surgical intensive care units showed lower hand hygiene compliance compared with health care workers on other types of intensive care units. Compliance toward hand hygiene was significantly higher on hemato-oncologic and pediatric wards. In general, hand disinfection was performed significantly more frequently after an intervention than before (P hand hygiene compliance when caring for transplant patients or other patients (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.42). Nurse's and physician's hand hygiene compliance improved because of education. Hand hygiene compliance is not increased in the care for transplant patients (despite their predisposition for nosocomial infections) compared with other patients. Additional studies will be necessary to further investigate these findings. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  6. Oral Hygiene and Dietary Habits in Adolescents with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaripour, Adriano; Willershausen, Ines; Hassan, Muhamed; Ebenezer, Supriya; Willershausen, Brita

    2016-03-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances (FOAs) may cause a temporary deterioration of oral hygiene with corresponding gingival inflammatory changes. Optimal oral hygiene and dietary changes are essential in order to avoid periodontal inflammation. The present study investigates to what extent the recommendations made by the orthodontist are followed by young patients. A total of 67 adolescent patients with FOA were examined and interviewed. The control group consisted of 70 patients of the same age who had not undergone any orthodontic treatment. A specific questionnaire (assessing dietary habits, oral hygiene measures) was used and comprehensive oral findings along with oral hygiene status were evaluated. The analysis of the data showed that despite intensive oral hygiene and dietary advice in the patients with FOA, there was no change in diet or oral hygiene habits. There were significantly higher signs of gingival inflammation and amount of dental plaque in FOA patients. Nutritional recommendations and oral hygiene measures for young people with FOA were not adequately enforced. The findings indicate that frequent recalls should be scheduled with repeated reinforcement of oral hygiene and dietary modifications in FOA patients.

  7. Improving physician hand hygiene compliance using behavioural theories: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Janet E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-associated infections affect 10% of patients in Canadian acute-care hospitals and are significant and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is among the simplest and most effective preventive measures to reduce these infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers, specifically among physicians, is consistently suboptimal. We aim to first identify the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance, and then to develop and pilot a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to increase physicians’ compliance with best hand hygiene practice. Design The study consists of three phases. In Phase 1, we will identify barriers and enablers to hand hygiene compliance by physicians. This will include: key informant interviews with physicians and residents using a structured interview guide, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework; nonparticipant observation of physician/resident hand hygiene audit sessions; and focus groups with hand hygiene experts. In Phase 2, we will conduct intervention mapping to develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to improve physician hand hygiene compliance. Finally, in Phase 3, we will pilot the knowledge translation intervention in four patient care units. Discussion In this study, we will use a behavioural theory approach to obtain a better understanding of the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance. This will provide a comprehensive framework on which to develop knowledge translation interventions that may be more successful in improving hand hygiene practice. Upon completion of this study, we will refine the piloted knowledge translation intervention so it can be tested in a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial.

  8. Children's hand hygiene behaviour and available facilities: an observational study in Dutch day care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeck, A H Elise; Zomer, Tizza P; van Beeck, Eduard F; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Voeten, Helene A C M; Erasmus, Vicki

    2016-04-01

    Children attending day care centres are at increased risk of infectious diseases, in particular gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Hand hygiene of both caregivers and children is an effective prevention measure. This study examined hand hygiene behaviour of children attending day care centres, and describes hygiene facilities at day care centres. Data were collected at 115 Dutch day care centres, among 2318 children cared for by 231 caregivers (August to October 2010). Children's hand hygiene behaviour was observed and data on hand hygiene facilities of the day care centres collected by direct unobtrusive observation. National guidelines indicate hand hygiene is required before eating, after toilet use and after playing outside. Among 1930 observed hand hygiene opportunities for children, overall adherence to hand hygiene guidelines was 31% (95% CI: 29-33%). Adherence after both toilet use and playing outside was 48%. Hands were less frequently washed before eating, where guideline adherence was 15%. In 38% of the playrooms there was no soap within reach of children and 17% had no towel facilities. In over 40% of the playrooms, appropriate hand hygiene facilities for children were lacking. Adequate hand washing facilities were available for children in only half of the participating day care centres in our study and children washed their hands in only 15-48% of the occasions defined by official guidelines. More attention is needed to hand hygiene of children attending day care centres in the prevention of infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Critical Thinking Outcomes of Dental Hygiene Students Utilizing Virtual Patient Simulation: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Joanna L

    2015-09-01

    Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and chemical characteristics of dehydrated ostrich eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.A.M.; Swailam, H.M.; Zeid, A.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Role of gamma irradiation on improving hygienic quality of dehydrated Ostrich eggs during cold storage was studied. Irradiation with dose level 6 kGy proved to be quite tool to keep quality of ostrich egg components since it decreased their bacterial counts less than 100 cells/g either after irradiation process or during cold storage for 6 months. Total coliform, E. coli and Staphylococcus sp. were almost eliminated. Twenty one fungi species belonging to eight genera were isolated from the un-treated samples. Most species could not stand cold storage and only five species (Aternaria clamydospora, Aspergillus niger, Asp. oryzae, Cladosporium cladosporioides & Fusarium oxysporum) were detected after 6 months of storage at 5 degree C. Also, five species could endure irradiation with dose level 6 kGy (Al. alternata, Al. clamydospora, Cl. cladosporioides, herbarum & F. oxysporum) and only two species of them could bear cold storage for 6 months (Al. clamydosp ora & Cl. clodosporioides). The effect of cold storage (5 degree C) on total amino acids either essential or non essential was relatively higher than that occurred by irradiating dried albumen ostrich eggs with 6 kGy. Total amino acids decreased from 272.5 mg/g to 241 mg/g after 6 months of cold storage, while they decreased to 256.2 mg/g after the irradiation process. The same trend was observed in case of dried whole yolk or defatted yolk. The effect of gamma rays and cold storage on the relative percentages of fatty acids composition of dried ostrich eggs yolk was different from each other. After exposing the dried yolk to 6 kGy, the percentages of myristic and palmitic acids increased, while palmitoleic and stearic acids decreased. Mean-while after 6 months of cold storage the percentages of palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased, while stearic and oleic acids decreased

  11. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  12. Hygienic characteristics of the priority environmental media and risk assessment of their influence: case study in Moscow city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.Е. Andreeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the base of the comparison of pollutional indexes in the environmental media of the Russian Federation and Moscow city the priority pollutants in ambient air and in water from centralized drinking water supply of Moscow have been established. A hygienic study of the population in Moscow was conducted to assess health risk related to chemical pollution of the ambient air and water from the systems of the centralized drinking water supply. The results of hygienic characteristics of the habitat’s pollution and health risk assessment among the population in Moscow have revealed that the priority risk factors negatively effecting the population are: benzene, nitrogen dioxide, weighed substances, formaldehyde, nitrogen oxide, ozone – for ambient air, and also arsenic and chrome (IV – for water from the systems of the centralized drinking water supply.

  13. The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: the Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Blomberg, Marie; Olhager, Elisabeth; Gunnervik, Christina; Lenrick, Raymond; Thrane, Malena Tiefenthal; Isaksson, Barbro; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of hand hygiene practice among Saudi nursing students: A cross-sectional self-reported study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonas P; Bashtawi, Meshrif A

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control, which is critical to ensuring patients' safety in hospitals. Nursing students are regarded as healthcare workers in training and can also be vehicles of cross-contamination within the hospital. Thus, this study aimed to identify the predictors of hand hygiene practice among Saudi nursing students. A descriptive, cross-sectional, self-reported study was conducted among 198 Saudi nursing students. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of hand hygiene were assessed using the WHO Hand Hygiene Knowledge Questionnaire for Health-Care Workers and its adopted scales. A regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of hand hygiene practice. The respondents demonstrated moderate knowledge of hand hygiene (mean 13.20±2.80). The majority displayed a moderate attitude toward hand hygiene (52.1%), while only a few reported a poor attitude (13.1%). Approximately 68.7%, 29.8%, and 1.5% of the respondents reported moderate, good, and poor practice of hand hygiene, respectively. Having a good attitude toward hand hygiene, being male, being aware that hand hygiene is an effective intervention in preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), attendance at hand hygiene trainings and seminars, and being in the lower academic level of nursing education were identified as predictors of better hand hygiene practice. The importance of ensuring a positive attitude toward hand hygiene and improving awareness of hand hygiene is emphasized, as are educational interventions. Educational interventions should be implemented to reinforce knowledge and instill a positive attitude toward hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perspectives on the delegation of hygienic care in the context of home nursing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Irina; Vliegher, Kristel De; Cordyn, Sam; Maigre, Audrey; Peters, Edgard; Putzeys, Dominique

    2018-05-02

    In light of current trends and healthcare evolutions, delegation of patient care from home nurses to health care assistants (HCAs) is increasingly important. Hygienic care is an essential component of nursing education and practice, yet it has rarely been the subject of scientific literature. To understand the opinions and experiences of home nurses and policy makers with regard to the meaning of hygienic care and the delegation of these acts in the context of home nursing. A descriptive qualitative study (six focus groups with home nurses and two with policy makers from the Belgian home nursing sector). Content analysis of the data and the use of NVivo 11.0 software. Hygienic care is a cyclical care process of continuously investing in a trusting relationship with a patient, assessing their care needs and ability for self-care and taking action and evaluating care as situations change. All of this must be mutally agreed with the patient and should consider their environment and lifestyle. The decision to delegate hygienic care is based on patient assessments and the patient's specific care needs using nursing diagnoses and indicators. Finally, barriers and facilitating factors for both delegating and providing hygienic care were addressed. Hygienic care is a crucial component of nursing care, that can be delegated to HCAs with the necessary supervision.

  16. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Claudia H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14. Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design. Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days. Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P

  17. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  18. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  19. Effect of oral hygiene education and motivation on removable partial denture wearers: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Machado, Ana Lucia; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Garcia, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two different preventive oral hygiene education and motivation programmes on the plaque and gingival index, as well as denture hygiene of patients provided with removable partial denture (RPD) during a 12-month follow-up. A total of 53 partially edentulous patients were recruited for this study. The presence or absence of plaque and gingival bleeding by gentle probing was scored on all tooth surfaces at the preliminary visit. The plaque and gingival indexes were measured using the Löe index. Following treatment, the patients were randomly divided into three groups. In Control Group I, subjects were instructed to continue their personal oral hygiene routine. In Group II, participants were given verbal instructions and a self-educational manual on oral hygiene without illustrations. In Group III, oral hygiene guidance was delivered using a combination of verbal instructions and a self-teaching manual. To evaluate the effect of the different modes of instruction, the presence or absence of plaque and gingival bleeding was scored on all tooth surfaces (day zero examination) and re-examined 7, 15 and 30 days, 3, 6 and 12 months following RPD placement. The state of denture hygiene was evaluated 7, 15 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months following rehabilitation. Parametric statistics was applied to dental plaque and gingival indexes. For accumulation of plaque and calculus on the RPD, non-parametric statistic was applied. The frequency of plaque found during the preliminary visit was higher than that found in the other periods. With regard to gingival index, significant difference was found between the preliminary visit examination and other periods. There was a significant difference in the plaque accumulation on the denture surface between groups I and III. The different methods of oral hygiene instruction used in this study indicate that the type of education was not of significant importance.

  20. Relationship Between Dental Hygiene Students' Performance in an Oral Radiology Course and the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; DeWald, Janice P; Solomon, Eric S

    2018-02-01

    Dental hygiene students' performance in oral radiology courses may give an early indication of their readiness prior to taking the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dental hygiene students' performance in an oral radiology lecture course and their performance on the NBDHE. Data were collected for all 117 dental hygiene students at Texas A&M University College of Dentistry from 2006 to 2009 who took the NBDHE during their second year of the program. Their final grades and scores on three written section examinations in an oral radiology course taken in their first year were compared with their overall NBDHE scores and raw scores on the oral radiology and case study sections. Moderate correlations (0.3radiology course, with the strongest correlation with the final grade (r=0.488, pradiology, followed by scores in anatomic sciences; the weakest relationship was with scores in pharmacology. This relationship can help identify students who may need extra support in the oral radiology course and other courses to prepare them to succeed when they take the NBDHE. This study also contributes to understanding of the general relationship between dental hygiene program courses and students' success on the clinical licensing exam and will hopefully encourage other programs to assess their students' performance in this way.

  1. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P = 0.002, P

  2. Calculus detection calibration among dental hygiene faculty members utilizing dental endoscopy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partido, Brian B; Jones, Archie A; English, Dana L; Nguyen, Carol A; Jacks, Mary E

    2015-02-01

    Dental and dental hygiene faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction in the clinical environment, especially in tasks requiring clinical judgment. From previous efforts to calibrate faculty members in calculus detection using typodonts, researchers have suggested using human subjects and emerging technology to improve consistency in clinical instruction. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if a dental endoscopy-assisted training program would improve intra- and interrater reliability of dental hygiene faculty members in calculus detection. Training included an ODU 11/12 explorer, typodonts, and dental endoscopy. A convenience sample of six participants was recruited from the dental hygiene faculty at a California community college, and a two-group randomized experimental design was utilized. Intra- and interrater reliability was measured before and after calibration training. Pretest and posttest Kappa averages of all participants were compared using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA to determine the effectiveness of the calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability. The results showed that both kinds of reliability significantly improved for all participants and the training group improved significantly in interrater reliability from pretest to posttest. Calibration training was beneficial to these dental hygiene faculty members, especially those beginning with less than full agreement. This study suggests that calculus detection calibration training utilizing dental endoscopy can effectively improve interrater reliability of dental and dental hygiene clinical educators. Future studies should include human subjects, involve more participants at multiple locations, and determine whether improved rater reliability can be sustained over time.

  3. Professional oral hygiene treatment and detailed oral hygiene instructions in patients affected by mucous membrane pemphigoid with specific gingival localization: a pilot study in 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, P G; Lopetuso, E; Carcieri, P; Giacometti, S; Carbone, M; Tanteri, C; Broccoletti, R

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this prospective case series was to assess the clinical efficiency of an oral hygiene protocol in patients affected by mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with specific gingival localization, before starting any medical treatment. Patients received oral hygiene instruction followed by non-surgical periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions in a 3-week cohort study. Clinical outcome variables were recorded at baseline and 5 weeks after intervention and included, as periodontal parameters, full mouth plaque (FMPS) and bleeding (FMBS) scores and patient-related outcomes (visual analogue score of pain). A total of 12 patients were recruited. The mean age at presentation was 59.5 ± 14.52 years. Five weeks after finishing the oral hygiene and periodontal therapy protocol, a statistical significant reduction was observed for FMPS (P = 0.001), FMBS (P = 0.022) and reported pain (P = 0.0028). Professional oral hygiene procedures and non-surgical periodontal therapy are connected with improvement of gingival status and decrease in gingival-related pain, in female patients affected by MMP with specific gingival localization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Assessment and pedagogy: a case study of two oral hygiene lecturers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergotine, G

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence that most South African oral hygiene lecturers lack appropriate qualifications in the field of education. Their teaching skills are based mainly on clinical and practical experience, and this may impact on their understanding of the educational foundations of teaching, learning and assessment. To explore oral hygiene lecturers' knowledge and use of pedagogy and assessment and its alignment. A qualitative descriptive study design was used and case studies of two oral hygiene lecturers, each with qualifications in Education, were analyzed according to three themes: curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The results showed that both participants had a good understanding of formative assessment (FA) and summative assessment (SA). They made use of FA but in neither case was the application ideal. Both used a range of teaching and assessment strategies but felt accountable to external demands of meeting outcomes. They linked their understanding of pedagogy and assessment to assist in the development of their courses and reported that this alignment had improved the quality of their programmes. This alignment by oral hygiene lecturers can influence curricular and pedagogic strategies. The professional educational development of lecturers in oral hygiene could be influential in improving the profession within the country.

  5. Studies in Chemical Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitz, Herschel; Ho, Tak-San

    2003-01-01

    This final report draws together the research carried from February, 1986 through January, 2003 concerning a series of topics in chemical dynamics. The specific areas of study include molecular collisions, chemical kinetics, data inversion to extract potential energy surfaces, and model reduction of complex kinetic systems

  6. Main problems of modern radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, L.A.; Buldakov, L.A.; Knizhnikov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of investigations carried out in 1980-81 in the field of radiation hygiene as well as plans for 1981-85 are considered. Three main groups of problems which the radiation hygiene is facing at the present time are discussed. The determination of levels and study of regularities of ionizing radiation dose formation in the population and personnel working with ionizing radiation sources in one of the promissing directions of the investigations. Delayed irradiation aftereffects andcontaminant action ofirradiation and chemical substances are no less important. The third important problem lies in the development of protective measures and arrangements on improving state sanitary inspection in the field of radiation hygiene

  7. A comparative study of the oral hygiene status of smokers and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tobacco smoking on gingival health and the oral hygiene status of respondents. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional survey of 213 adults from three communities in the Ibadan North local government was carried out. Respondents were divided into two groups ...

  8. The Diversity Dilemma: A National Study of Minorities in Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tracye A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the predicted shortages of minority dental healthcare providers in the United States and the expanding diversity of the general population, it is important to recruit and retain an ethnically and culturally diverse allied dental workforce. The objectives of this study were to explore why the profession of dental hygiene exhibits minimal…

  9. Modification of Personal Hygiene and Grooming Behaviors with Contingency Contracting: A Brief Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sarah J.; Kramer, Jack J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents discussion of basic components and characteristics of contingency contracts. Includes case study in which contingency contracting procedures were integrated within a behavioral consultation model used by a school psychologist consulting with a classroom teacher to modify personal hygiene of 12-year-old male. (Author/ABL)

  10. A Preliminary Study of Classroom Motivators and De-Motivators from a Motivation-Hygiene Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, James A.; Condly, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to begin answering two simple questions: "What motivates our students?" and its corollary, "What prevents our students from being motivated?" The motivation-hygiene theory (F. Herzberg, "Work and the nature of man," World Publishing, Cleveland, OH, 1966), a well-tested theory from organizational…

  11. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social

  12. A Study of Visible Tattoos in Entry-Level Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search, Kathryn R; Tolle, Susan L; McCombs, Gayle B; Arndt, Aaron

    2018-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey entry-level dental hygiene program directors in the United States (U.S.) to assess their perceptions of dental hygienists with visible tattoos as well as to determine current policies related to dress codes in U.S. dental hygiene programs. Methods: Data was collected with an online survey emailed to 340 dental hygiene program directors yielding a 43% (n=141) response rate. Participants indicated their opinions of visible tattoos on the basis of professionalism and school policy satisfaction. Results: Eighty percent of respondents reported their program as having dress code policies on visible tattoos, with the majority (97%) requiring visible tattoos to be covered. Results revealed both students (M=5.57, phygiene faculty should discuss the impact of visible tattoos on future employment opportunities, and that the community would view the school as less professional if students had visible tattoos (pPersonal tolerance toward tattoos (phygiene program dress code included policy on visible tattoos. Conclusion: Study results showed that visible tattoos were not perceived favorably and that personal perceptions of dental hygiene program directors may have influenced school dress code polices regarding visible tattoos. These findings provide evidence based information for dental hygienists, students, faculty, administrators and hiring managers for formulating policies relating to body art. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  13. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  14. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Datta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  15. Knowledge and Practice of Personal Hygiene and Sanitation: A Study in Selected Slums of Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayela Farah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: : Slum dwellers are likely to be among the most deprived people in urban areas. Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries like ours. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice about personal hygiene and environmental sanitation in selected slums of Dhaka city. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was conducted in purposively selected urban slum areas of Moghbazar slum, Bashabo slum and T&T slum of Dhaka city during February 2014 to April 2014. Convenient sampling technique was applied. Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used and face to face interview was conducted. Total 475 subjects, irrespective of age and sex, were included in this study. Results: Out of 475 respondents, more than fifty percent slum dwellers resided in tin shaded room while 21.7% in ‘kacha’ houses. Sixty six percent of the respondents used to drink water from tube-well and 24% used supplied water provided by the city corporation. The study revealed that near 59% of the respondents used sanitary latrine. About 67% slum dwellers regularly practiced hand washing before taking meal and 59.2% respondents used soap after defecation. About fifty percent respondents brushed their teeth regularly with tooth paste. Regarding personal cleanliness, 81% subjects took bath regularly while 78% washed clothes irregularly. A statistically significant relation was found between washing of hands before meal (p=0.001, washing of hands after defecation (p=0.02, tooth brushing (p=0.001, bathing (p=0.009, washing of cloths (p=0.001, use of footwear (p=0.63 with knowledge of personal hygiene of the slum dwellers. Conclusion: Continuous community hygiene education along with adequate access to water supply and sanitation improves hygiene behaviour and policy makers and health care providers should have definite strategy and implementation.

  16. Association between traditional oral hygiene methods with tooth wear, gingival bleeding, and recession: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseem; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena; Logani, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Oral hygiene maintenance is crucial for prevention of various oral diseases. Oral hygiene practices across the country vary largely and people in peri-urban and rural areas use traditional methods of oral hygiene like powders, bark, oil and salt etc. Their effect on oral soft and hard tissues need to be studied to understand their beneficial and/ or harmful effects on maintenance of oral hygiene and prevention or causation of oral diseases. This study aimed to assess the plaque-cleaning efficacy, gingival bleeding, recession and tooth wear with different traditional oral hygiene methods as compared to use of toothpaste-toothbrush, the most accepted method of oral hygiene practice. Hospital based cross sectional analytical study. Results: Total 1062 traditional oral hygiene method users were compared with same number of toothpaste-brush users. The maximum number in the former group used tooth powder (76%) as compared to other indigenous methods, such as use of bark of trees etc and out of tooth powder users; almost 75% reported using red toothpowder. The plaque scores and gingival bleeding & recession were found to be more in traditional oral hygiene method users. The toothwear was also more severe among the toothpowder users. Traditional methods were found to be inferior in plaque control as was documented by increased bleeding and gingival recession. Its effect on hard tissues of teeth was very damaging with higher tooth wear scores on all surfaces.

  17. Relationship of personal hygiene with nutrition and morbidity profile: a study among primary school children in South kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Soumya; Dutta, Sinjita; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Misra, Raghunath

    2010-04-01

    Majority of the health problems affecting school children are preventable by promotion of hygienic practices through proper health education by the teachers, who are the first contacts. The study was undertaken to find out the status of nutrition and personal hygiene among primary school children and their association with their varied morbidity profiles. A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a primary school situated in the largest slum of Kolkata. The participants included 103 boys and 81 girls, with a mean age of 6.2 years. The mean personal hygiene score of the girls (4.15 ± 0.98) was significantly higher than that of boys (3.2 ± 1.4) [PPersonal hygiene scores were significantly higher (Ppersonal hygiene and poor sanitary practices of these school children through coordinated and concerted health education measures by teachers as well as parents.

  18. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  19. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified......Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt...

  20. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  1. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehn, J.

    1995-01-01

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations

  2. Influencing factors on hand hygiene behavior of nursing students based on theory of planned behavior: A descriptive survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to prevent transmission of infection, but the compliance rate of healthcare workers is relatively low. This study was conducted to identify the knowledge, beliefs, behavior, and affecting factors about hand hygiene among nursing students. A descriptive survey study. The study was carried out in two South Korean nursing schools. A total 208 nursing students participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The percentage of correct answers in the survey section concerning hand hygiene knowledge was 68.1%. No significant difference in the knowledge, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, or control beliefs data was found related to general characteristics. Behavioral beliefs correlated with normative beliefs (r=.25, phand hygiene behavior (r=.17, p=.017), and control beliefs correlated with hand hygiene behavior (r=.18, p=.010). The results suggest that knowledge is not enough to change the beliefs related to hand hygiene; positive behavioral beliefs and strong control beliefs are also needed to increase hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A

    2015-02-01

    In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  4. A review on food safety and food hygiene studies in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, P. F.; Lovatt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Food safety and hygiene in Ghana was studied using desk top literature review. Food research was highly concentrated in the capital city of the country and most research focus were on commercial food operations specifically street foods and microbiological safety with limited information from institutional catering and other forms of food hazards. The media currently serves as the main source for reporting of food borne diseases. Food establishments and other sources contributing to food born...

  5. Improvement of environmental health and hygiene practices--case study in the Northern Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathekgana, M A; Chauke, L K; Otieno, F A

    2001-01-01

    The primary purpose of an improved water supply and sanitation is the achievement of acceptable health and hygiene standards as well as the sustainable improvement of the environment. Many governments recognize this and so they budget for large sums of money to improve these services to the communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different gaps in environmental health and hygiene practices with the aim of suggesting a strategy of improving this in the Northern Province of South Africa. To do this, 231 households and 30 schools were surveyed. Workshops and visits to different government departments were also used. This paper reports the results from this study which indicate that the situation in schools was not any better than that in households, with more than 90% of the villages still dependent on the unimproved pit latrines and 56,6% relying on standpipes which were (70% of the time) non-operational. The main problems identified seem to those associated with implementation and maintenance. The study concludes that with proper training of the water committees and their active involvement with the government and NGOs, environmental health and hygiene problems can be minimized or eliminated.

  6. Menstrual hygiene practices in context of schooling: A community study among rural adolescent girls in Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that is, 2, 3 4,5, and5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling . Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative. It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78% had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4% were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55% played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6% as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%. Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05 was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for

  7. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the provision of comprehensive family life

  8. The use of radionuclide skeleton visualization method in hygienic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likutova, I.V.; Bobkova, T.E.; Belova, E.A.; Bogomazov, M.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    Inhalation, intragastric and combined effect of two cadmium compounds on rats is studied. Investigations are performed by biochemical methods and the method of radionuclide visualization of the skeleton which was performed delta hours after RPP introduction in gamma-chamber with computer tape recording for the following mathematical treatment of the image. Using the method of radionuclide skeleton visualization pronounced quantitative characteristics of changes in the bone tissue are obtained, it is found that dose dependence of these changes is especially important when estimating the complex effect. Biochemical methods, are used to find alterations, however they have not been assessed quantitatively

  9. A Study About of Hygienic Quality of Dicle (Tigris River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emin Erkan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted to find out the hygenic quality of Dicle (Tigris River of Diyarbakır region. The analizes were carried out in samples taken from ten different stations once a month between May 2005 and July 2005.The numbers of total mesophilic aerob bacteria (TMAB, enterobactericeae, coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus-Micrococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and moulds, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica and anaerob bacteria were analyzed in the water samples. The contamination of coliforms and E. coli were detected in 100 % and 90 % in the samples, respectively.As a result it was believed that all samples examined has contamineted quiete high level and showed potential hazordous for public health.

  10. Oral Streptococcal Endocarditis, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Recent Dental Procedures: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Xavier; Millot, Sarah; Chirouze, Catherine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Moby, Vanessa; Tattevin, Pierre; Strady, Christophe; Euvrard, Edouard; Agrinier, Nelly; Thomas, Daniel; Hoen, Bruno; Alla, François

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to compare oral hygiene habits, orodental status, and dental procedures in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) according to whether the IE-causing microorganism originated in the oral cavity. We conducted an assessor-blinded case-control study in 6 French tertiary-care hospitals. Oral hygiene habits were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. Orodental status was analyzed by trained dental practitioners blinded to the microorganism, using standardized clinical examination and dental panoramic tomography. History of dental procedures was obtained through patient and dentist interviews. Microorganisms were categorized as oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens using an expert-validated list kept confidential during the course of the study. Cases and controls had definite IE caused either by oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens, respectively. Participants were enrolled between May 2008 and January 2013. Cases (n = 73) were more likely than controls (n = 192) to be aged calculus, and infectious dental diseases did not significantly differ between groups. Patients with IE caused by oral streptococci differ from patients with IE caused by nonoral pathogens regarding background characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and recent dental procedures, but not current orodental status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Hospital hand hygiene opportunities: where and when (HOW2)? The HOW2 Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Connie; Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; Boeker, Sue; Diller, Thomas; Alper, Paul; Larson, Elaine

    2011-02-01

    Measurement and monitoring of health care workers' hand hygiene compliance (i.e., actions/opportunities) is a key component of strategies to eliminate hospital-acquired infections. Little data exist on the expected number of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) in various hospital settings, however. The purpose of this study was to estimate HHOs in 2 types of hospitals--large teaching and small community--and 3 different clinical areas-medical-surgical intensive care units, general medical wards, and emergency departments. HHO data were collected through direct observations using the World Health Organization's monitoring methodology. Estimates of HHOs were developed for 12-hour AM/PM shifts and 24-hour time frames. During 436.7 hours of observation, 6,640 HHOs were identified. Estimates of HHOs ranged from 30 to 179 per patient-day on inpatient wards and from 1.84 to 5.03 per bed-hour in emergency departments. Significant differences in HHOs were found between the 2 hospital types and among the 3 clinical areas. This study is the first to use the World Health Organization's data collection methodology to estimate HHOs in general medical wards and emergency departments. These data can be used as denominator estimates to calculate hand hygiene compliance rates when product utilization data are available. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. M-OSCE as a method to measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Martha J; Wright, Rebecca A; Mann, Nancy K; Cooper, Mary D; Jacks, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Educators in all academic disciplines have been encouraged to utilize assessment strategies to evaluate students' critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of the modified objective structured clinical examination (m-OSCE) to evaluate critical thinking in dental hygiene education. This evaluation utilized a convenience sample of senior dental hygiene students. Students participated in the m-OSCE in which portions of a patient case were revealed at four stations. The exam consisted of multiple-choice questions intended to measure students' ability to utilize critical thinking skills. Additionally, there was one fill-in-the-blank question and a treatment plan that was completed at the fifth station. The results of this study revealed that the m-OSCE did not reliably measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking. Statistical analysis found no satisfactory reliability within the multiple-choice questions and moderately reliable results within the treatment planning portion of the examination. In addition, the item analysis found gaps in students' abilities to transfer clinical evidence/data to basic biomedical knowledge as demonstrated through the multiple-choice questioning results. This outcome warrants further investigation of the utility of the m-OSCE, with a focus on modifications to the evaluation questions, grading rubric, and patient case.

  13. The Impact of Motivation and Hygiene Factors on Research Performance: An Empirical Study from A Turkish University

    OpenAIRE

    Oya Tamtekin Aydın

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the differences of the effect of motivation factors and hygiene factors on research performance of Foundation University members in Turkey on the number of articles published in Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index. The study was conducted on 150 academics in a Turkish Foundation University. The following results are obtained from the study: i) The perception of academics on the effect of hygiene factors which include salary, job securi...

  14. Poor dental hygiene and periodontal health in nursing home residents with dementia: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenthöfer, Andreas; Baumgart, Dominik; Cabrera, Tomas; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schröder, Johannes; Corcodel, Nicoleta; Hassel, Alexander Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Poor oral health conditions are well documented in the institutionalized elderly, but the literature is lacking research on relationships between dementia and periodontal health in nursing home residents. The purpose of this cohort study, therefore, was to assess whether dementia is associated with poor oral health/denture hygiene and an increased risk of periodontal disease in the institutionalized elderly. A total of 219 participants were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to determine cognitive state. According to the MMSE outcome, participants scoring ≤20 were assigned to dementia group (D) and those scoring >20 to the non-dementia group (ND), respectively. For each of the groups D and ND, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Denture Hygiene Index (DHI) linear regression models were used with the confounders age, gender, dementia, number of comorbidities and number of permanent medications. To assess the risk factors for severe periodontitis as measured by the Community Index of Periodontal Treatment Needs, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences of GBI as well of DHI for demented and healthy subjects (p > 0.05). Severe periodontitis was detected in 66 % of participants with dementia. The logistic regression showed a 2.9 times increased risk among demented participants (p = 0.006). Oral hygiene, denture hygiene and periodontal health are poor in nursing home residents. The severity of oral problems, primarily periodontitis, seems to be enhanced in subjects suffering from dementia. Longitudinal observations are needed to clarify the cause-reaction relationship.

  15. Retrospective study on the hygienic quality of fresh ricotta cheeses produced in Sicily, Italy

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    Maria Luisa Scatassa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to investigate the microbiological profile of Sicilian ewes’ ricotta cheeses during fifteen years of investigations (2002-2016. The samples were collected between those conferred to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia (IZSSi Adelmo Mirri, Palermo (Italy, by the competent authority during official control, by food business operator in HACCP systems and in research projects. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS were found only in some samples. Bacillus cereus was detected in c.a. 16% of samples but the level of contaminations did not reach the threshold that leads to significant toxin production. Pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Brucella spp. were never detected. Furthermore, a total of 47 of lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were identified at species level by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, resulting in the identification of 10 species belonging to four genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc, commonly employed as starter and non starter cultures in different traditional cheese. Results of this study highlighted an improvement of the hygienic conditions of the Sicilian ewes’ ricotta cheeses during the last ten years of investigation. This observation was confirmed from reduction of undesired microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and CPS, used to define the process hygiene criteria. However, in order to improve the final quality of this product are needed further strategy such as the dairy makers training, with the aim to apply a good hygienic practices during the production.

  16. The Determinants of Reported Personal and Household Hygiene Behaviour: A Multi-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Greenland, Katie; Ploubidis, George; Schmidt, Wolf; Oxford, John; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239). A structural equation model of hygiene behaviour and its consequences derived from theory was then estimated on this dataset for both behaviours, using a maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis showed that the frequency of handwashing with soap is significantly related to how automatically it is performed, and whether or not someone is busy, or tired. Surface cleaning was strongly linked to possessing a cleaning routine, the perception that one is living in a dirty environment and that others are doing the behaviour, whether one has a strong sense of contamination, as well as a felt need to keep one's surroundings tidy. Being concerned with good manners is also linked to the performance of both behaviours. This study is the first to identify the role of manners, orderliness and routine on hygiene behaviours globally. Such findings should prove helpful in designing programs to improve domestic hygiene practices.

  17. The Determinants of Reported Personal and Household Hygiene Behaviour: A Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Greenland, Katie; Ploubidis, George; Schmidt, Wolf; Oxford, John; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239). A structural equation model of hygiene behaviour and its consequences derived from theory was then estimated on this dataset for both behaviours, using a maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis showed that the frequency of handwashing with soap is significantly related to how automatically it is performed, and whether or not someone is busy, or tired. Surface cleaning was strongly linked to possessing a cleaning routine, the perception that one is living in a dirty environment and that others are doing the behaviour, whether one has a strong sense of contamination, as well as a felt need to keep one’s surroundings tidy. Being concerned with good manners is also linked to the performance of both behaviours. This study is the first to identify the role of manners, orderliness and routine on hygiene behaviours globally. Such findings should prove helpful in designing programs to improve domestic hygiene practices. PMID:27541259

  18. The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Study on Hand Hygiene Among Imam Hossein Hospital’s Residents in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Mahmoud; Alavi-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gachkar, Latif; Moeinian, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures for preventing health care-associated infections. Although the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide. Objectives: We sought to perform a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study on hand hygiene among medical residents at Imam Hossein hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional KAP study was conducted among medical residents in Imam Hossein hospital, Iran, 2013. All medical residents from different wards were invited to participate in this study (270 in total). The world health organization questionnaires and an observational checklist were used to collect data. The χ2 test and the Fisher exact test were utilized to analyze the qualitative variables. Since the quantitative variables had no normal distribution, the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis method were employed. A P value hand hygiene, and only 20.16% (n = 25) managed to identify the correct answer. Moreover, 3.1% (n = 8) of the residents adhered to the 8 standard steps, 12.1% (n = 31) washed their hands for 20 - 30 seconds, and only 2 residents observed the sequences of hand hygiene. Additionally, none of the residents performed hand washing with available means (water and hand-washing liquid) in the morning visit hours. Conclusions: Concerning hand hygiene, the residents had moderate knowledge but overall poor attitudes and practices. The present study underscores the need for further improvement in the existing training programs to address the gaps in KAP regarding hand hygiene. PMID:26568858

  20. Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status among school going children: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, P L; Jayapalan, C S; Gondhalekar, Rajesh V; Krishna, B Jaya; Shaloob, K M Muhamed; Ummer, P Fajar

    2013-07-01

    Oral health is an important part of general health of body. Oral hygiene determines oral health status. Thus, oral hygiene is most important for good health in general. Poor oral hygiene can be source of many diseases. By maintaining the good oral hygiene, we can prevent occurrence of many disease. A survey was carried out to assess oral hygiene status and to find out caries prevalence rate among school going children of age 6 to 12 years. 957 healthy subjects including 567 boys and 390 girls from four different schools were examined in broad day light with the help of mouth mirror and explorer.

  1. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  2. Promoting a Hand Hygiene Program Using Social Media: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sung-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tien, Kuei-Lien; Chien, Kuang-Tse; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shawn-Chwen

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component in infection control to protect patient safety and reduce health care-associated infection. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of different social media on the promotion of a hand hygiene (HH) program. The observational study was conducted from May 5 to December 31, 2014, at a 2600-bed tertiary care hospital. A 3-minute video of an HH campaign in 8 languages was posted to YouTube. The Chinese version was promoted through three platforms: the hospital website, the hospital group email, and the Facebook site of a well-known Internet illustrator. The video traffic was analyzed via Google Analytics. HH compliance was measured in November 2013 and 2014. There were 5252 views of the video, mainly of the Chinese-language version (3509/5252, 66.81%). The NTUH website had 24,000 subscribers, and 151 of them viewed the video (connection rate was 151/24,000, 0.63%). There were 9967 users of the hospital email group and the connection rate was 0.91% (91/9967). The connection rate was 6.17% (807/13,080) from Facebook, significantly higher than the other 2 venues (both P<.001). HH compliance sustained from 83.7% (473/565) in 2013 to 86.7% (589/679) in 2014 (P=.13) among all HCWs. Facebook had the highest connection rate in the HH video campaign. The use of novel social media such as Facebook should be considered for future programs that promote hand hygiene and other healthy behaviors.

  3. Surveillance of nosocomial infections: a preliminary study on hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, L; Santoro, E; De Caro, F; Cavallo, P; Boccia, G; Capunzo, M; Motta, O

    2006-06-01

    The observance of hand hygiene compliance is important to reduce cross-infection by micro-organisms. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the level of hand hygiene in healthcare workers from different departments, with particular emphasis on transient flora. The study was conducted in three departments (Surgery, Intensive Care Unit, Obstetrics and Gynecology) of a hospital in Campania, southern Italy. Over a six-month period, 50 healthcare workers were randomly tested. Imprints of palms and fingertips were taken monthly during the morning shift. The number of colonies per plate was counted and transient pathogens were identified. Risk factors for hand contamination were determined. Total flora was found in the following CFU means per palm and per five fingertips (95% CI): Obstetrics and Gynecology [palms 130 CFUs (95% CI 85-180); fingertips 125 CFUs (95% CI 92-160)]; ICU [palms 80 CFUs (95% CI 58-99); fingertips 62 CFUs (95% CI 45-82)]; Surgery [palms 75 CFUs (95% CI 41-120); fingertips 70 CFUs (95% CI 52-90)] Transient flora was found on 39% of healthcare workers' hands. The only factor associated with hand contamination by transient flora was the absence of gloving during healthcare procedure (P = 0.02).

  4. Relationship between Female University Students' Knowledge on Menstruation and Their Menstrual Hygiene Practices: A Study in Tamale, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Positive perception about menstruation and good menstrual hygiene practice safeguards the health of postpubescent females by reducing their vulnerability to reproductive and urinary tract infections. Using a questionnaire, a cross-sectional study involving 293 randomly selected female undergraduate students in northern Ghana assessed the relationship between knowledge on menstruation and the practice of safe menstrual hygiene. Data collected was analyzed using GraphPad 5.01. This study found that although majority of respondents (73.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche, most of them experienced fear and panic when it occurred. Mothers were the first to be informed when menstruation occurred, although teachers first provided them knowledge on menstruation. Respondents' knowledge on menstruation was average (57.3%) but their menstrual hygiene practice was good (80.2%). Age (p = 0.005) and course of study (p = 0.0008) significantly influenced respondents' knowledge on menstruation with older students as well as the medical and midwifery students being most knowledgeable. Muslim rather than Christian female students practiced better menstrual hygiene (p = 0.0001). Average knowledge score on menstruation indicated a deficit of knowledge on the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system. Increasing knowledge on menstruation had a positive and significant effect on practice of good menstrual hygiene. PMID:27525125

  5. The Hygienic Status of Chelo-Kababi Restaurants in Ardabil Touristic City, Assessed in Five Separate Dimensions: A Baseline Study in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The hygienic status of catering centers, especially in touristic areas, is of high importance due to the potential risks of communicable and non-communicable diseases to the clients who usually have no control over the process of catering in these centers. The aim of this study was to assess the hygienic status of Chelo-Kababi restaurants in Ardabil city, a touristic area in Iran. Materials and Methods : In this descriptive study which was conducted in 2006, all of the 104    Chelo-Kababi restaurants in Ardabil city were evaluated using five checklists. The checklists were developed based on the fields of personal hygiene with 23 items, food and raw material hygiene with 13 items, services quality with 9 items, cooking tools and dishware hygiene with 17 items and environmental hygiene(cooking, eating and storing place with 50 items. Checklists were designed based on the section 13 of the Iran’s Eating and Drinking Materials Act of 2001. Checklists were evaluated by 11 trained questioners. Data were analyzed using STATA 11 statistical software package. Results : Ardabil city Kebab restaurants’ mean hygiene score was 62 on environmental hygiene, 53 on cooking tools and dishware hygiene, 39 on service quality, 33 on personal hygiene and 32 on food and raw material hygiene. Overall average was 44. Conclusion : Kebab restaurants in Ardabil city did not have good hygienic status. Since Ardabil is a touristic area and many tourists have their meals at restaurants, effective interventions to improve hygienic status of these places are essential. Among these interventions, regular and targeted training and development of automated controlling methods such as informing the performance of these centers to the public are recommended.

  6. Relationship of personal hygiene with nutrition and morbidity profile: A study among primary school children in South Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Soumya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of the health problems affecting school children are preventable by promotion of hygienic practices through proper health education by the teachers, who are the first contacts. Objectives: The study was undertaken to find out the status of nutrition and personal hygiene among primary school children and their association with their varied morbidity profiles. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a primary school situated in the largest slum of Kolkata. Results: The participants included 103 boys and 81 girls, with a mean age of 6.2 years. The mean personal hygiene score of the girls (4.15 ± 0.98 was significantly higher than that of boys (3.2 ± 1.4 [P<0.05]. Most of the boys (54.37% and girls (74.07% were normally nourished as per the CDC growth chart. Over 70% of the children were suffering from one or more morbidities, the most common morbidity in both the sexes being pallor, followed by worm infestation. Personal hygiene scores were significantly higher (P<0.05 among those children who were normally nourished as well as those who did not suffer from any morbidity in the last 15 days. Conclusions: Care should be taken to improve the pitiable state of personal hygiene and poor sanitary practices of these school children through coordinated and concerted health education measures by teachers as well as parents.

  7. History of dental hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  8. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.

  9. Oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients: a randomized controlled study on the effects of a post-treatment communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Mauro; Ragazzini, Giulia; Delucchi, Alessia; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Barreca, Carlo; Rinchuse, Daniel J; Servetto, Roberto; Piras, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients' compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30-40 days. Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of "zero." At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial's register.) RESULTS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr), 0.60) and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30), respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205). A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to increase oral hygiene compliance also over a short period.

  10. Oral hygiene status, gingival status, periodontal status, and treatment needs among pregnant and nonpregnant women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Kashetty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The gingival and periodontal changes during pregnancy are well known. Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral manifestations associated with pregnancy. The hormonal and vascular changes that accompany pregnancy are known to exaggerate the inflammatory response to the local irritants. Hence, a study was designed to assess oral hygiene status, gingival status, periodontal status, and treatment needs (TNs among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 pregnant and 120 nonpregnant women of 18–44 years age attending the Outpatient Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Government Hospital of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India. The study consisted of an interview and oral examination. Type 3 examination was followed. Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, Gingival Index, and Community Periodontal Index and TNs Index were used to assess “oral hygiene status,” “gingival status,” and “periodontal status and TNs,” respectively. Results: The pregnant women showed poor oral hygiene with the mean OHI-S score as 2.68. Gingivitis was prevalent in almost all the pregnant and nonpregnant women. However, it was found more severe in pregnant women with mean gingival score as 1.25. A definite increase in gingivitis was found from Trimester II to Trimester III. The mean number of sextants showing healthy gingiva was significantly (P < 0.01 lower among pregnant women. Conclusions: Pregnant women showed poor oral hygiene, more gingival inflammation, and more periodontal disease as compared to nonpregnant women. The severity of gingivitis increased in Trimester III. Proper oral hygiene practice can prevent these diseases and further complications.

  11. Relationship between healthcare worker surface contacts, care type and hand hygiene: an observational study in a single-bed hospital ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M-F; Noakes, C J; Sleigh, P A; Bale, S; Waters, L

    2016-09-01

    This study quantifies the relationship between hand hygiene and the frequency with which healthcare workers (HCWs) touch surfaces in patient rooms. Surface contacts and hand hygiene were recorded in a single-bed UK hospital ward for six care types. Surface contacts often formed non-random patterns, but hygiene before or after patient contact depends significantly on care type (P=0.001). The likelihood of hygiene correlated with the number of surface contacts (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.8, P=0.002), but not with time spent in the room. This highlights that a potential subconscious need for hand hygiene may have developed in HCWs, which may support and help focus future hygiene education programmes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of environmental olfactory cues on hand hygiene behaviour in a simulated hospital environment: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbach, D J; King, D; Vlaev, I; Rosen, L F; Harvey, P D

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of a fresh scent on the rate of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) among novice healthcare providers. In all, 165 participants examined a standardized patient with one sample exposed to fresh scent (N = 79) and the other exposed to the standard environment (N = 86). Hand hygiene behaviours were tracked before patient contact using video surveillance. The standard environment group had an HHC rate of 51% whereas participants in the fresh scent group had a higher HHC rate of 80% (P behaviour may be subconsciously influenced by cues in the environment. © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral hygiene practices and knowledge among stroke-care nurses: A multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Malik, Normaliza; Mohamad Yatim, Saari; Hussein, Norhayati; Mohamad, Hanita; McGrath, Colman

    2017-12-21

    To investigate oral health knowledge for stroke care and the clinical practices performed for oral hygiene care in Malaysia. Oral hygiene care following stroke is important as the mouth can act as a reservoir for opportunistic infections that can lead to aspirational pneumonia. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in Malaysia among public hospitals where specialist stroke rehabilitation care is provided. All (16) hospitals were invited to participate, and site visits were conducted. A standardised questionnaire was employed to determine nurses' oral health knowledge for stroke care and existing clinical practices for oral hygiene care. Variations in oral health knowledge and clinical practices for oral hygiene care were examined. Questionnaires were completed by 806 nurses across 13 hospitals. Oral health knowledge scores varied among the nurses; their mean score was 3.7 (SD 1.1) out of a possible 5.0. Approximately two-thirds (63.6%, n = 513) reported that some form of "mouth cleaning" was performed for stroke patients routinely. However, only a third (38.3%, n = 309) reported to perform or assist with the clinical practice of oral hygiene care daily. Their oral health knowledge of stroke care was associated with clinical practices for oral hygiene care (p oral hygiene care is less than ideal, and there are deficiencies in oral health knowledge for stroke care. Oral health knowledge was associated with clinical practice of providing oral hygiene care. This has implications for training and integrating oral hygiene care within stroke rehabilitation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Preoperational study for the improvement of hygiene conditions in long-term care facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, A C; Spegel, H; Kolb, S; Hierl, W; Müller, C; Höller, C; Liebl, B; Rudolph, P; Herr, C

    2014-12-01

    Hygiene is becoming more and more important in long-term care facilities. Long-term care facilities are subject to monitoring by the Public Health Service (PHS) and other authorities. For the PHS in Bavaria the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit, LGL) published a hygiene monitoring concept and there exists an inspection guide developed by a specialist department for nursing homes and institutions for the handicapped (Fachstelle für Pflege und Behinderteneinrichtungen, FQA). Because inspections are performed in multiprofessional teams, it makes sense to use a coordinated inspection catalog. The aim was to integrate hygienic requirements specified in the Bavarian guidelines for hygiene by the LGL into the inspection guide published by the FQA to obtain a quality assured surveillance. The involved parties were questioned about the inspection guide and their hygiene management and then the hygiene criteria of the LGL were implemented into the inspection guide. Questions dealing with hygiene requirements concerning intensive care, management of multidrug resistant bacteria and interviews with the person responsible for infection control in the facility itself were developed for the first time and were integrated into the inspection guide. The revised inspection guide was tested for its applicability. With the revised inspection guide there now exists a tool which allows not only comprehensive inspections of the facilities including hygiene issues but also a good cooperation of the various parties involved. There are many actions which have to be conveyed into the future, especially programs to train staff to apply the inspection guide and to enhance the ability of all participants to act in cooperation. The guide will also allow the facilities to cooperate more easily and more closely, as the guide takes the respective problems and challenges of the different facilities into consideration. Additionally the

  15. Dental caries and chemical analyses in reconstruction of diet, health and hygienic behaviour in the Middle Euphrates valley (Syria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Szostek, Krzysztof; Komarnitki, Iulian; Mańkowska-Pliszka, Hanna; Zalewska, Marta

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to use two methods, biological and chemical, to examine changes in diet and health in individuals from the Middle Euphrates valley (Syria). We determined the frequency distribution of dental caries. Chemical analyses were concerned with the presence of elements such as strontium, barium, calcium and stable carbon isotopes ((13)C/(14)C). We chose three consecutive periods: Late Roman (2nd-4th century AD), Islamic (600-1200 AD) and Modern Islamic (1850-1950 AD). We analysed the dental remains of 145 individuals, with a total of 2530 teeth. We used visual research (magnifying glass/sharp dental probe) and radiography. The frequencies of caries were calculated on the basis of the proportional correction factor of Erdal and Duyar. We chose 39 permanent second molars for chemical analyses. The frequency of carious lesions was similar in all three periods (6-8%). In the Modern Islamic and Islamic periods, occlusal surfaces were infected with caries most often, while the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and approximal surfaces were affected to a lesser degree. However, in the Late Roman period, the CEJ and approximal surfaces showed caries most frequently, in contrast to occlusal surfaces, which seldom showed signs of caries. Chemical analyses showed lower Sr/Ca ratios and Observed Ratio index values for the Modern Islamic and higher values for the Islamic and Late Roman periods. Mean stable isotope (δ(13)C) analyses demonstrated that the Modern Islamic period was strongly divergent from the other periods. These data suggest a similar socio-economic status during the Late Roman and Islamic periods. The diet of the population living in the Late Roman and Islamic periods contained a larger number of products containing strontium than calcium. In the modern population these proportions have been reversed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A follow-up study of hygiene in catering premises at large-scale events in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C; Elviss, N; McLauchlin, J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate food hygiene practices at large events by assessing the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food, drinking water, food preparation surfaces, cleaning cloths and wristbands worn by food handlers for event security purposes. Over a 7-month period, 1662 samples were collected at 153 events and examined for microbiological contamination. Eight per cent of food samples were of an unsatisfactory quality. A further one per cent contained potentially hazardous levels of human pathogenic bacteria. 27% of water samples, 32% of swabs and 56% of cloths were also unsatisfactory. These results represented an improvement in hygiene compared to a previous study carried out 12 months previously. A fifth of food handler wristbands were contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and/or coagulase-positive staphylococci, with those bands made from fabric being more frequently contaminated than those made from plastic or other materials. This study provides evidence that the food hygiene at large-scale events may have improved. However, there is still a need for continued efforts to maintain an ongoing improvement in cleaning regimes and food hygiene management. This study was part of an ongoing focus on large events in the lead-up to the London 2012 Olympics. Lessons learnt here will be important in the planning of future large events. © 2014 Crown copyright. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology This article is Published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  17. [Modifications of vital signs during hygiene care in intensive care patients: an explorative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Alberto; Giacovelli, Matteo; Elli, Stefano; Gariboldi, Roberto; Pelucchi, Giulia; Bondi, Herman; Brambilla, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene care in critical patients may alter vital signs. Aim of this paper is to measure vital signs and their modifications in critical patients during hygiene care and measure differences with pre and post hygiene values. Vital signs of 6 patients two hours before, during and 90 minutes after hygienic care were measured. During and 2 hours after the end of hygiene a modification of vital signs was observed compared to basic values (mean values during/90 min after, compared to baseline): heart rate +11.20%/ +1.48; systolic blood pressure +22.68%/+1.56; arterial capillary saturimetry -4.31/+0.27, Respiratory frequency +8.10/+2.66, tidal volume +4,04/-7,51, CO2 min/vol +5,34/- 22.33, bladder temperature -0.85/-0.60. Hygiene care in critical care patients may significantly alter vital signs. Therefore a strict haemodinamic and respiratory monitoring is warranted as well as protocols for the management of sedation and of vasoactive support.

  18. STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN HYDROPHILIC AUXILIARIES ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POROUS FILMS Part II-HYGIENIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to obtain certain PVC films with improved hygienic properties, with applications both in the artificial leather industry and in other domains. This was done by introducing certain hydrophilic auxiliaries with free chemical functions into the chemical structure of the PVC films, such as: collagen hydrolysates (CH, hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS and nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE. The use of these hydrophilic auxiliaries combined with the action of the high frequency electric fields (H.F.E.F. allows the attainment of cellular structures where the walls of the cells obtained from the expanding process display an enhanced humidity absorption. The collagen hydrolysates used to obtain the plasticized PVC porous films was obtained by electrolytic hydrolysis starting from Chamois leather powder waste resulting from buffing operation, according to a methodology described in a previous paper. The first part of this study was concerned with the influence of the addition of hydrophilic agents upon the moisture sorption of the plasticized PVC porous films. In this paper, there was investigated the water vapour and air permeability as well as the water vapour absorption of the porous films expanded in the H.F.E.F. in correlation with the nature and the recipe variant of the hydrophilic auxiliaries. The results highlighted the fact that the use of certain combinations of hydrophilic agents led to obtaining materials with adequate hygienic properties.

  19. Can education influence stethoscope hygiene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, Jürgen L; Merchant, Naseema; Lin, Shin; Gupta, Shaili

    2017-07-01

    The importance of stethoscope hygiene has been demonstrated in prior studies, and is acknowledged by guidelines, yet it is rarely done. We implemented a pilot project consisting of provider education, reminder flyers and provision of cleaning supplies at the start of clinical rotations for housestaff, medical students, and attending physicians. Hand hygiene rates did not change significantly with rates between 58% and 63% while stethoscope hygiene remained at zero. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A comparative study of hand hygiene and alcohol-based hand rub use among Irish nursing and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2018-04-01

    In Ireland, the setting for this study, the national prevalence rate of health care-associated infection (HCAI) in acute-care facilities is 5.2%. Hand hygiene and in particular hand rubbing using alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) is highly efficacious in preventing HCAI transmission. Yet, compliance among healthcare professionals is sub-optimal. Less is known about the practices of nursing and medical students and no study comparing practices among these groups in Ireland was found. Hence, the aim of this study was to provide insight into the current hand hygiene and hand rubbing practices of nursing and medical students in Ireland and, by doing so, contribute to the broader understanding of this topic. This observational study employed a cross-sectional, self-reported design. An electronically administered questionnaire was sent to all nursing and medical students from one university. Data were analysed using appropriate software. The response rate was 37% (323/872). Higher compliance with the World Health Organisation 'my five moments for hand hygiene' model was reported among nursing students (NS) than medical students (MS), with scope for improvement in both disciplines identified. Hand hygiene compliance was highest after body fluid exposure (99.5% NS, 91% MS) and lowest after touching a patient's surroundings (61.5% NS, 57.5% MS). Attitudes towards hand rubbing were largely positive in both disciplines. 16% of NS were not aware of the clinical contraindications to ABHR use, compared to 45% of MS. 9% of NS did not know when to use soap and water and when to use ABHR, compared to 36% of MS. In contrast, more medical students (46%) than nursing students (22%) were routinely using alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination of hands as recommended. Results suggest scope to review current hand hygiene curricula focusing on the knowledge gaps, the practice deficits and the barriers to ABHR usage identified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intervening with healthcare workers' hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception in a limited-resource hospital in Indonesia: A randomized controlled trial study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Santosaningsih (Dewi); Erikawati, D. (Dewi); T. Santoso; Noorhamdani, N. (Noorhamdani); Ratridewi, I. (Irene); Candradikusuma, D. (Didi); Chozin, I.N. (Iin N.); Huwae, T.E.C.J. (Thomas E.C.J.); van der Donk, G. (Gwen); van Boven, E. (Eva); A.F. Voor in 't Holt (Anne); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hand hygiene is recognized as an important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers is associated with their knowledge and perception. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different educational programs

  2. Hygienization aspects of composting

    OpenAIRE

    Termorshuizen, A.J.; Alsanius, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    • Compost use in agriculture always brings about the risk of introducing plant and human pathogens. • The backbone of the hygienization process consists of temperature, moisture content and chemical compounds formed during composting and activity of antagonists. • Compost produced by proper composting, i.e. a process that produces high temperatures during asufficiently long thermophilic phase can be applied safely. • Farmers should invest in good relationships with compost produce...

  3. Studies in chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppermann, A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress made in the following studies is reported: low-energy electron scattering; variable-angle photoelectron spectroscopy; laser photochemistry and spectroscopy; and collisions in crossed molecular beams

  4. State of personal hygiene among primary school children: A community based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Rimamchika, Musa; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Nnanubumom, Andy Angela; Godiya, Andrew; Emmanuel, Pembi

    2013-01-01

    Good personal hygiene in primary school children could be effective towards preventing infectious diseases. This work examined personal cleanliness of primary school children in Banki based on the following variables: bathing, state of uniforms, hair, nails and oral hygiene. One hundred and fifty primary school children in Banki community were selected using the cluster random sampling method. Analysis of variance was used to compare means and to test for significance of data, and coefficient of correlation to investigate the relationship between cleanliness and age of subjects. There were 87 (58 %) boys and 63 (42 %) girls in a ratio of 1.4:1. Ninety six (64 %) pupils belong to low socioeconomic class. Whereas, 53 (35.3 %) were found within 11-13 years age group, the overall mean age was 9 years (Standard deviation [SD] was 2.2), 95 CI (7.0 - 11.0) years. Comparing means for the different categories of personal hygiene, there was significant difference (F= 61.47, p personal cleanliness in our participants improved with age, and a positive significant correlation was observed between age and personal cleanliness in (r = 0.971, p = 0.026). In conclusion, significant number of primary school pupils in Banki community had good personal hygiene, which was observed to be directly proportional with age. Therefore, all efforts towards quality health education on personal hygiene as a means of primary prevention of illnesses in primary school pupils should be sustained.

  5. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An observational study of the hand hygiene initiative: a comparison of preintervention and postintervention outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Amit; Narciso, Janet; Moore, Christine; McGeer, Allison; Kelly, Edmond; Shah, Vibhuti

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of implementing a simple, user-friendly eLearning module on hand hygiene (HH) compliance and infection rates. Design Preintervention and postintervention observational study. Participants All neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over the study period were eligible for participation and were included in the analyses. A total of 3422 patients were admitted over a 36-month span (July 2009 to June 2012). Interventions In the preintervention and postintervention periods (phases I and II), all healthcare providers were trained on HH practices using an eLearning module. The principles of the ‘4 moments of HH’ and definition of ‘baby space’ were incorporated using interactive tools. The intervention then extended into a long-term sustainability programme (phase III), including the requirement of an annual recertification of the module and introduction of posters and screensavers throughout the NICU. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was HH compliance rates among healthcare providers in the three phases. The secondary outcome was healthcare-associated infection rates in the NICU. Results HH compliance rates declined initially in phase II then improved in phase III with the addition of a long-term sustainability programme (76%, 67% and 76% in phases I, II and III, respectively (pchallenging to implement and sustain with the need for ongoing reinforcement and education. PMID:23793705

  7. Developing and pretesting case studies in dental and dental hygiene education: using the diffusion of innovations model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Deborah L; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Severson, Herbert H; Shaw, Tracy; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William D

    2012-05-01

    Case-based learning offers exposure to clinical situations that health professions students may not encounter in their training. The purposes of this study were to apply the Diffusion of Innovations conceptual framework to 1) identify characteristics of case studies that would increase their adoption among dental and dental hygiene faculty members and 2) develop and pretest interactive web-based case studies on sensitive oral-systemic health issues. The formative study spanned two phases using mixed methods (Phase 1: eight focus groups and four interviews; Phase 2: ten interviews and satisfaction surveys). Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data revealed the following positive attributes of the developed case studies: relative advantage of active learning and modeling; compatibility with a variety of courses; observability of case-related knowledge and skills; independent learning; and modifiability for use with other oral-systemic health issues. These positive attributes are expected to increase the likelihood that dental and dental hygiene faculty members will adopt the developed case study once it is available for use. The themes identified in this study could be applied to the development of future case studies and may provide broader insight that might prove useful for exploring differences in case study use across dental and dental hygiene curricula.

  8. Disentangling quality and safety indicator data: a longitudinal, comparative study of hand hygiene compliance and accreditation outcomes in 96 Australian hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims are twofold. First, to investigate the suitability of hand hygiene as an indicator of accreditation outcomes and, second, to test the hypothesis that hospitals with better accreditation outcomes achieve higher hand hygiene compliance rates. Design A retrospective, longitudinal, multisite comparative survey. Setting Acute public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 96 acute hospitals with accreditation survey results from two surveys during 2009–2012 and submitted data for more than four hand hygiene audits between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes Our primary outcome comprised observational hand hygiene compliance data from eight audits during 2010–2013. The explanatory variables in our multilevel regression model included: accreditation outcomes and scores for the infection control standard; timing of the surveys; and hospital size and activity. Results Average hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 67.7% to 80.3% during the study period (2010–2013), with 46.7% of hospitals achieving target compliance rates of 70% in audit 1, versus 92.3% in audit 8. Average hand hygiene rates at small hospitals were 7.8 percentage points (pp) higher than those at the largest hospitals (phand hygiene rates, accreditation outcomes and infection control scores is less clear. Conclusions Our results indicate that accreditation outcomes and hand hygiene audit data are measuring different parts of the quality and safety spectrum. Understanding what is being measured when selecting indicators to assess the impact of accreditation is critical as focusing on accreditation results would discount successful hand hygiene implementation by smaller hospitals. Conversely, relying on hand hygiene results would discount the infection control related research and leadership investment by larger hospitals. Our hypothesis appears to be confounded by an accreditation programme that makes it more difficult for smaller hospitals to achieve high infection

  9. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...

  10. The Impact of Motivation and Hygiene Factors on Research Performance: An Empirical Study from A Turkish University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Tamtekin Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the differences of the effect of motivation factors and hygiene factors on research performance of Foundation University members in Turkey on the number of articles published in Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index. The study was conducted on 150 academics in a Turkish Foundation University. The following results are obtained from the study: i The perception of academics on the effect of hygiene factors which include salary, job security, company policy-administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, status and working conditions on research performance is positive except status, ii The perception of academics on the effect of motivators which include the possibility of growth, work itself, responsibility, achievement, advancement and recognition on research performance is positive.

  11. Oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients: a randomized controlled study on the effects of a post-treatment communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cozzani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients’ compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30–40 days. Methods Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of “zero.” At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial’s register. Results Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr, 0.60 and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30, respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205. Conclusions A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to

  12. Millennial Dental Hygiene Students' Learning Preferences Compared to Non-Millennial Faculty Members' Teaching Methods: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, April M; Prihoda, Thomas J; English, Dana K; Chismark, Aubreé; Jacks, Mary E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the learning preferences of millennial dental hygiene students (born between 1982 and 2002) in the U.S. with the teaching methods used by their non-millennial instructors. Cross-sectional surveys were developed with 21-item, five-point Likert scales to examine students' preferences for and faculty use of lecture, collaborative activities, technology, independent work, and group discussion. Surveys were emailed to U.S. dental hygiene program directors in September 2015. The respondents totaled 800 students and 343 faculty members-approximately 5% of all dental hygiene students and 6.8% of all dental hygiene faculty members in the U.S. The results showed that the responding faculty members (88.7%) used case studies more than the students (61.2%) preferred and that the students (71.4%) preferred games when learning more than the faculty members (57.2%) used them (pStudent respondents (82.1%) preferred handouts for lecture more than did the faculty respondents (58.8%; pstudents to read before class 39.3% more than student respondents read (pStudent respondents preferred study guides for exams 39.2% more than the faculty respondents provided them (pstudents work in groups more than these students preferred (57.8%), and 92% of these faculty members used group activities in class (pstudents in this study were consistent with previous research on millennial traits. This study found areas of disagreement between students and faculty members on the use of case studies, study guides, and group work. Although these students stated they preferred lecture over group work, trends in education stress using active learning over lecture.

  13. Using environmental engineering to increase hand hygiene compliance: a cross-over study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Kelly Ann; Aujla, Navneet; Marshall, Tom; Hussain, Abid; Hodgkinson, Gerard P; Arheart, Kristopher; Marti, Joachim; Birnbach, David J; Vlaev, Ivo

    2017-09-11

    Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations in hospital is typically less than 50%. Such low compliance inevitably contributes to hospital-acquired infections that negatively affect patients' well-being and hospitals' finances. The design of the present study is predicated on the assumption that most people who fail to clean their hands are not doing so intentionally, they just forget. The present study will test whether psychological priming can be used to increase the number of people who clean their hands on entering a ward. Here, we present the protocol for this study. The study will use a randomised cross-over design. During the study, each of four wards will be observed during four conditions: olfactory prime, visual prime, both primes and neither prime. Each condition will be experienced for 42 days followed by a 7-day washout period (total duration of trial=189 days). We will record the number of people who enter each ward and whether they clean their hands during observation sessions, the amount of cleaning material used from the dispensers each week and the number of hospital-acquired infections that occur in each period. The outcomes will be compared using a regression analysis. Following the initial trail, the most effective priming condition will be rolled out for 3 months in all the wards. Research ethics approval was obtained from the South Central-Oxford C Research Ethics Committee (16/SC/0554), the Health Regulatory Authority and the sponsor. ISRCTN (15397624); Edge ID 86357. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Evaluating meaningful learning using concept mapping in dental hygiene education: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canasi, Dina M; Amyot, Cynthia; Tira, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Concept mapping, as a teaching strategy, has been shown to promote critical thinking and problem solving in educational settings. Dental clinicians must distinguish between critical and irrelevant characteristics in the delivery of care, thus necessitating reasoning skills to do so. One of the aims of the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation (ADEA-CCI) is to identify deficiencies in curriculum which were meant to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills necessary in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 teaching strategies, traditional lecture and lecture supported by concept mapping exercises within collaborative working groups, to determine if there is a beneficial effect on meaningful learning. For this pilot study, the study population consisted of students from 2 geographically separated associate level dental hygiene programs in the southeastern U.S. A quasi-experimental control group pre- and post-test design was used. The degree of meaningful learning achieved by both programs was assessed by comparing pre- and post-test results. Both programs experienced a significant degree of meaningful learning from pre- to post-test. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the programs on the post-test. These results were in direct contrast to research in other disciplines on concept mapping and its effect on promoting meaningful learning. Further investigation into the study's outcome was obtained through a follow-up focus group. In spite of careful attention to methodology in the development of this research project, the focus group illuminated methodological failings that potentially impacted the outcome of the study. Recommendations are underscored for future conduct of educational research of this kind.

  15. Assessment of factors influencing hygiene behaviour among school children in Mereb-Leke District, Northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Mulubirhan; Kumie, Abera

    2014-09-26

    Poor school sanitation and hygiene is a major problem in developing countries and remains high risk behaviour among primary school going children. Many outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections have been associated with primary schools. This research paper was designed to assess the factors influencing hygiene behaviour among school children. A cross sectional study was conducted in Mereb-Leke District, Tigray National Regional State among school children. The study population consisted of those who are in the second cycle as they are more mature and most senior in primary schools. A multi-stage probability sampling procedure with three stages was used to select participated schools. A total of 528 school children were randomly selected from students networking list of selected schools. Structured questionnaire and observational checklist at home and school setting were used to collect data. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 17.0 after the data has been entered using Epi-Info version 3.5.3. Primarily variables that had p-value hygiene behaviour via crude and adjusted odds ratio. Children were grouped according to whether positive or negative hygiene behaviour outcome which permitted identifying factor affecting hygiene behaviour. Out of these, 326 (61.7%) had positive hygiene behaviour. The study found that knowledge s on water handling (AOR, 2.24; 95% CI 1.54, 3.26), hand washing (AOR, 1.70; 95% CI 1.12, 2.57) and awareness on water handling matters (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI 1.37, 2.90), hand washing practice (AOR, 2.36; 95% CI 1.62, 3.45) were significantly associated to hygiene behaviour status. Being a member of hygiene and sanitation club (COR 0.42; 95% CI 0.26, 0.68), parent's health package status (COR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43, 0.90), training on hygiene and sanitation and experience of visiting model school (COR 1.99; 95% CI 1.37, 2.88) had significance difference in hygiene behaviour. This study has shown that knowledge, awareness, training on hygiene and

  16. A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Margaret; Ng, Suk-Hing; Suen, Lorna Kp; Boost, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses' compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU). With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital. A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaires assessing knowledge and attitudes of hand hygiene and direct observation of participants was used to evaluate an educational programme on hand hygiene of the RU of a large district hospital. All healthcare workers (HCW), comprising 76 radiographers, 17 nurses, and nine healthcare assistants (HCA), agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 85 completed the initial and 76 the post-test anonymous questionnaire. The hand hygiene compliance of all 102 HCW was observed over a 3-week period prior to and after the intervention. The 2-month intervention consisted of talks on hand hygiene and benefits of ABHR, provision of visual aids, wall-mounted ABHR dispensers, and personal bottles of ABHR. Before the intervention, overall hand hygiene compliance was low (28.9 %). Post-intervention, compliance with hand hygiene increased to 51.4 %. This improvement was significant for radiographers and HCA. Additionally, knowledge and attitudes improved in particular, understanding that ABHR can largely replace handwashing and there is a need to perform hand hygiene after environmental contact. The increased use of ABHR allowed HCW to feel they had enough time to perform hand hygiene. The educational intervention led to increased awareness of hand hygiene opportunities and better acceptance of ABHR use. The reduced time needed to perform hand

  17. A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret O’Donoghue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses’ compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR, limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU. With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital. Methods A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaires assessing knowledge and attitudes of hand hygiene and direct observation of participants was used to evaluate an educational programme on hand hygiene of the RU of a large district hospital. All healthcare workers (HCW, comprising 76 radiographers, 17 nurses, and nine healthcare assistants (HCA, agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 85 completed the initial and 76 the post-test anonymous questionnaire. The hand hygiene compliance of all 102 HCW was observed over a 3-week period prior to and after the intervention. The 2-month intervention consisted of talks on hand hygiene and benefits of ABHR, provision of visual aids, wall-mounted ABHR dispensers, and personal bottles of ABHR. Results Before the intervention, overall hand hygiene compliance was low (28.9 %. Post-intervention, compliance with hand hygiene increased to 51.4 %. This improvement was significant for radiographers and HCA. Additionally, knowledge and attitudes improved in particular, understanding that ABHR can largely replace handwashing and there is a need to perform hand hygiene after environmental contact. The increased use of ABHR allowed HCW to feel they had enough time to perform hand hygiene. Conclusions The educational intervention led to increased awareness of hand hygiene opportunities and better

  18. Dental Hygiene Faculty Calibration Using Two Accepted Standards for Calculus Detection: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Lisa J; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Peterson, Teri; Bowen, Denise M

    2016-08-01

    Faculty calibration studies for calculus detection use two different standards for examiner evaluation, yet the only therapeutic modality that can be used for nonsurgical periodontal treatment is scaling/root debridement or planing. In this study, a pretest-posttest design was used to assess the feasibility of faculty calibration for calculus detection using two accepted standards: that established by the Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Inc. (CRDTS; readily detectible calculus) and the gold standard for scaling/root debridement (root roughness). Four clinical dental hygiene faculty members out of five possible participants at Halifax Community College agreed to participate. The participants explored calculus on the 16 assigned teeth (64 surfaces) of four patients. Calculus detection scores were calculated before and after training. Kappa averages using CRDTS criteria were 0.561 at pretest and 0.631 at posttest. Kappa scores using the scaling/root debridement or planing standard were 0.152 at pretest and 0.271 at posttest. The scores indicated improvement from moderate (Kappa=0.41-0.60) to substantial agreement (Kappa=0.61-0.80) following training using the CRDTS standard. Although this result differed qualitatively and Kappas were significantly different from 0, the differences for pre- to post-Kappas for patient-rater dyads using CRDTS were not statistically significant (p=0.778). There was no difference (p=0.913) in Kappa scores pre- to post-training using the scaling/root debridement standard. Despite the small number of participants in this study, the results indicated that training to improve interrater reliability to substantial agreement was feasible using the CRDTS standard but not using the gold standard. The difference may have been due to greater difficulty in attaining agreement regarding root roughness. Future studies should include multiple training sessions with patients using the same standard for scaling/root debridement used for

  19. Reflection on observation: A qualitative study using practice development methods to explore the experience of being a hand hygiene auditor in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Susan; Edgar, Denise; Bothe, Janine; Newman, Helen; Wilson, Annmaree; Bint, Beth; Brown, Megan; Alexander, Suzanne; Harris, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Within the Australian public health care system, an observation model is used to assess hand hygiene practice in health care workers, culminating in a publicly available healthcare service performance indicator. The intent of this study was for the results to inform the development of a strategy to support individual auditors and local sustainability of the hand hygiene auditing program. This qualitative study used a values clarification tool to gain an understanding of the experiences of hand hygiene auditors. The methodology involved qualitative interpretation of focus group discussions to identify the enablers and barriers to successful performance of the auditors' role. Twenty-five participants identified congruous themes of the need for peer and managerial support, improved communication and feedback, and consideration for succession planning. There was consistency in the participants' most frequently identified significant barriers in undertaking the role. Hand hygiene auditors take pride in their role and work toward the goal of reducing health care-associated infections by having a part to play in improving hand hygiene practices of all staff members. Important themes, barriers, and enablers were identified in this study. This research will be of interest nationally and globally, considering the dearth of published information on the experience of hand hygiene auditors. This study provides evidence of the need to support individual hand hygiene auditors. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A pilot study combining individual-based smoking cessation counseling, pharmacotherapy, and dental hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentists are in a unique position to advise smokers to quit by providing effective counseling on the various aspects of tobacco-induced diseases. The present study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of integrating dentists in a medical smoking cessation intervention. Methods Smokers willing to quit underwent an 8-week smoking cessation intervention combining individual-based counseling and nicotine replacement therapy and/or bupropion, provided by a general internist. In addition, a dentist performed a dental exam, followed by an oral hygiene treatment and gave information about chronic effects of smoking on oral health. Outcomes were acceptability, global satisfaction of the dentist's intervention, and smoking abstinence at 6-month. Results 39 adult smokers were included, and 27 (69% completed the study. Global acceptability of the dental intervention was very high (94% yes, 6% mostly yes. Annoyances at the dental exam were described as acceptable by participants (61% yes, 23% mostly yes, 6%, mostly no, 10% no. Participants provided very positive qualitative comments about the dentist counseling, the oral exam, and the resulting motivational effect, emphasizing the feeling of oral cleanliness and health that encouraged smoking abstinence. At the end of the intervention (week 8, 17 (44% participants reported smoking abstinence. After 6 months, 6 (15%, 95% CI 3.5 to 27.2 reported a confirmed continuous smoking abstinence. Discussion We explored a new multi-disciplinary approach to smoking cessation, which included medical and dental interventions. Despite the small sample size and non-controlled study design, the observed rate was similar to that found in standard medical care. In terms of acceptability and feasibility, our results support further investigations in this field. Trial Registration number ISRCTN67470159

  1. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates in different special care settings: a comparative study of methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyago Pereira Magnus

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Hand hygiene compliance was reasonably high in these units, as measured by direct observation. However, a lack of correlation with results obtained by other methodologies brings into question the validity of direct observation results, and suggests that periodic audits using other methods may be needed.

  2. Hygiene auditing in mass catering: a 4-year study in a university canteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, A; Milanović, V; Aquilanti, L; Polverigiani, S; Garofalo, C; Clementi, F

    2018-06-01

    The outcomes of hygiene audits carried out two times per year were used to determine the correct execution of the procedures foreseen by the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan over 4 years (2013-2016) in a university canteen producing about 1200 meals a day. Critical analysis of hygiene audits. Hygiene audits were carried out on the basis of a checklist divided into seven main items and subitems that covered all the production areas of the canteen. For each audit subitem, total percentage of inadequacy was calculated as the total number of negative answers (N) divided by the total number of answers (n = 8) collected in the period 2013-2016. The results showed a discontinuous trend among years. In more detail, the highest percentage of inadequacy was seen for food maintaining temperatures, thus highlighting management issues mainly related to time taken for food preparation. A relatively high level of inadequacy was also recorded for staff clothing and hygiene. The critical analysis of data emerged from the audits was useful to obtain an overview of improvements and emerging criticalities. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Genome Wide Genotyping Study To Find Candidate Genes That Influence Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene (VSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa parasitism of honey bees is widely considered by apicultural researchers to be the greatest threat to beekeeping. Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) is one of two identified behaviors that are highly important for controlling the growth of Varroa mite populations in bee hives. Bees exhibiting th...

  4. Verbal hygiene and ethnic politics in Nigeria: a study of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... It tries to establish a connection between verbal hygiene and persistent ... ethnic groups, this constitutes serious threat to inter-ethnic relation and cohesion.

  5. An exploratory study of barriers to promoting oral hygiene through carers of elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eadie, D R; Schou, L

    1992-01-01

    Scotland. A range of barriers to improving levels of care was identified. The paper concluded that to make positive progress, a comprehensive oral hygiene programme is required to break down these barriers. It is believed that a strong educational policy based upon carers' needs should form the main...

  6. Hygienic assessment of professional risk for worker, involved in application of pesticides and tank mixtures in chemical protection of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko T.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When using tank mixtures and pesticides in chemical crop protection systems there exists danger of simultaneous or sequential action of ingredients. It was established that the combined potential risk of the harmful effects of Torero SC preparation on workers is 0.11-0.30 arb.units, Switch 62.5 WG – 0.054-0,065 arb.units, tank mixture 1 – 0.26-0.51 arb.units, tank mixture 2 – 0.26-0.49 arb.units correspondently and does not exceed the allowable value of risk (<1. The combined risk in sequential application of components of chemical protection system of strawberry exceeds allowable values of risk and is 0.954-2.02 arb.units. Ways of occupational risk decrease were proposed and regulations of safe application of tank mixtures and pesticides in chemical protection of strawberry were substantiated.

  7. Dental Hygiene Student Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lynda J.; Fellows, Avis L.

    1981-01-01

    A study to determine differences between graduating and withdrawing students in the University of Minnesota Dental Hygiene program is discussed. The identification of differences may prove useful in the selection process for future classes through identification of students likely to complete their education. (MLW)

  8. Sleep Hygiene Behaviors Among Midlife Women with Insomnia or Sleep-Disordered Breathing: The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E.; Irish, Leah A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Okun, Michele L.; Owens, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are the most common sleep disorders among midlife women. Although promoting sleep hygiene behaviors may be a useful behavioral approach for the management of insomnia or SDB, the frequency with which women engage in these behaviors is unclear. Methods: Participants were from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study (N=321; age range=48–58 years). Out of the full sample, 10.3% (n=33) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition diagnostic criteria for insomnia, 15.3% (n=49) had clinically significant SDB (apnea–hypopnea index ≥15), and 4.7% (n=15) met criteria for both insomnia and SDB, resulting in an overall prevalence of 15.0% (n=48) for insomnia and 19.9% (n=64) for SDB. Participants provided diary-based assessments of sleep hygiene behaviors for 14–35 days. Two positive behaviors (sufficient exercise, regular morning out-of-bed time) and four negative behaviors (taking long daytime naps, caffeine consumption near bedtime, alcohol consumption near bedtime, smoking) were examined. These behaviors were compared between women with and without insomnia or SDB following adjustment for sociodemographic factors and mental and physical health indices. Results: Women with insomnia engaged in significantly fewer negative sleep hygiene behaviors than women without insomnia (1.61±0.15 vs. 2.09±0.09 behaviors; phygiene behaviors were observed. Conclusions: These data suggest that insomnia in midlife women is not associated with poor sleep hygiene. Increasing physical activity may be a valuable recommendation for midlife women with SDB. PMID:25353709

  9. Exploring the links between water, sanitation and hygiene and disability; Results from a case-control study in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Hannah; Mactaggart, Islay; White, Sian; Dionicio, Carlos; Cañas, Rafael; Naber, Jonathan; Polack, Sarah; Biran, Adam

    2018-01-01

    To assess the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) access and appropriateness of people with disabilities compared to those without, in Guatemala. A case-control study was conducted, nested within a national survey. The study included 707 people with disabilities, and 465 age- and sex-matched controls without disabilities. Participants reported on WASH access at the household and individual level. A sub-set of 121 cases and 104 controls completed a newly designed, in-depth WASH questionnaire. Households including people with disabilities were more likely to use an improved sanitation facility compared to control households (age-sex-adjusted OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.5), but otherwise there were no differences in WASH access at the household level. At the individual level, people with disabilities reported greater difficulties in relation to sanitation (mean score 26.2, SD 26.5) and hygiene access and quality (mean 30.7, SD 24.2) compared to those without disabilities (15.5, 21.7, p<0.001; 22.4, 19.1, p<0.01). There were no differences in different aspects of water collection between people with and without disabilities in this context where over 85% of participants had water piped into their dwelling. Among people with disabilities, older adults were more likely to experience difficulties in hygiene and sanitation than younger people with disabilities. People with disabilities in Guatemala experience greater difficulties in accessing sanitation facilities and practicing hygienic behaviours than their peers without disabilities. More data collection is needed using detailed tools to detect these differences, highlight which interventions are needed, and to allow assessment of their effectiveness.

  10. A study on knowledge and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among rural and urban adolescent girls in Udupi Taluk, Manipal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescent girls often lack knowledge regarding reproductive health including menstruation hygiene which can be due to socio-cultural barriers in which they grow up. Objectives: To explore the knowledge, practices and sources of information regarding menstruation and hygiene among adolescent girls in Udupi taluk, India. Methods: An epidemiologic study was undertaken using cross-sectional study method among 550 school-going adolescent girls aged13-16 years. A total of 270 were from urban and 280 from the rural area. Stratified cluster sampling was adopted to select the schools and simple random sampling technique to select the participants. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 15.Results Around 34% participants were aware about menstruation prior to menarche, and mothers were the main source of information among both groups. Overall, 70.4% of adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 25.6% were using both cloth and sanitary napkins. Almost half of the rural participants dried the absorbent inside their homes. Conclusions: There is a need to equip the adolescent girls with knowledge regarding safe, hygienic practices to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life.

  11. [Hygiene between tradition and implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansis, M L

    2004-04-01

    The basis of evidence for hygiene rules implemented in hospitals is traditionally small. This is not only because there is little theoretical knowledge on the reciprocal influence between a single hygienic mistake/a single microbial input and the manifestation of a nosocomial infection. There are also not enough clinical studies, especially on complex hygiene questions, to determine whether special measures (e.g., septic rooms)can compensate for deficits in hygiene practice. Furthermore, it would be necessary to designate security buffers distinctly. In-house traditions are able to stabilize hygienic behavior in an excellent manner. They should be fostered and not disparaged as myths. Discussions of experts should not be conducted in public; that is disastrous for the everyday work of physicians in hospitals.

  12. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  13. [Hygiene in airline catering. I. Microbiologic study of meals distributed on aircrafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, P; Frugoni, G

    1983-08-25

    A preliminary microbiological survey, conducted in the Italian national airlines Catering Department is reported. Precooked,, frozen meals reheated on medium and long distance flights were examined. The results indicate that hygiene standards are satisfactorily maintained. The presence of staphylococcus aureus in some samples highlights the importance of preventive and prophylactic measures in healthy carriers. In view of the growing concern about Salmonella poisoning in airline passengers the absence of this bacterium is extremely satisfying.

  14. Food hygiene behaviour and childhood diarrhoea in Lagos, Nigeria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, E E; Akitoye, C O; Adedeji, O T

    1991-09-01

    We investigated food hygiene-related behaviour as well as other risk factors for diarrhoea in children 6-36 months of age in Iwaya community in Lagos, Nigeria. Between April and July 1989, a bi-weekly diarrhoea surveillance was maintained in 672 households. Following the surveillance, 273 (case = 67 and control = 206) families were visited twice, each visit lasting for 3-4 hours. Detailed observations on food hygiene, water sanitation, and sanitary conditions of the home were made. There was no significant association between any of the observed food hygiene behaviours and the occurrence of diarrhoea. The presence of faeces in and around the toilet area (RR = 1.79), habit of defecating and urinating in chamber pots in dwelling units (RR = 1.80), indiscriminate disposal of waste (RR = 2.48), and source of domestic water (RR = 2.94) were the main factors significantly associated with the occurrence of diarrhoea in this community. These findings imply that diarrhoea might be reduced through an education programme which focuses on the proper care, handling and storage of defecation pots and proper disposal of waste.

  15. Automatic injectors in magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography: pilot study on hygienic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerke, B.; Fischbach, R.; Heindel, W.; Tombach, B.; Sonntag, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate hygienic conditions using automatic injectors in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) during clinical routine. Materials and methods: The surfaces of medical devices (e.g., control console) and the palms of the technical and medical staff were microbiologically analyzed by taking imprints before and after hygienic education. In addition, the injector syringes for contrast medium (CM) and saline were checked for microbiological contamination following multiple (MRI: 14h; CT 8h) and single use. Furthermore, the potential of retrograde contamination from the patient along the tube was analyzed. Results: A bacterial contamination with typical dermal bacteria was documented for the surfaces of the medical devices, the palms of the technical and medical staff, and the injection syringes following multiple use (MRI: 10/10 CM syringes, 6/10 saline syringes; CT: 8/10 CM syringes, 5/10 saline syringes). Correct hand disinfection in combination with single use of syringes avoided bacterial colonization. Retrograde bacterial contamination from the patient was not observed. Conclusion: Regular hygienic teaching sessions for technical and medical staff in MRI and CT departments using automatic injectors should be mandatory. Furthermore, the multiple use of syringes should be avoided until investigations addressing the potential of bacterial contamination are performed. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of the University of Michigan's dental hygiene partnership with the Huron Valley Boys & Girls Club: a study of students' and staffs' perceptions and service learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen Brydges, Sarah; Gwozdek, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    The Boys & Girls Club of America (BGCA) requires a health curriculum be taught. With the assistance of the University of Michigan (UM) Dental Hygiene program, these requirements have been addressed at the Huron Valley Boys & Girls Club (HVBGC) through dental hygiene students presenting oral health education to club members throughout the year. This study assessed the outcomes and benefits of the service learning initiative between the UM Dental Hygiene Program and the HVBGC from both the students' and staffs' perceptions. Three surveys were distributed: one to the HVBGC staff, one to UM's Dental Hygiene class of 2012 (with no service learning experience at the HVBGC) and one to UM Dental Hygiene classes of 2010 and 2011 (most of whom had experience at the HVBGC). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and evaluated. The respondents from the class of 2012 were less knowledgeable about the BGCA and access to care issues. The members of the classes of 2010 and 2011, 79% of whom had HVBGC experience, identified they had benefitted from this service learning experience. The HVBGC staff survey indicated a high level of satisfaction with the student presentations and felt their curricular requirements were being met. Future topics of safety, orthodontics and gardening/nutrition were identified. This study indicates the service learning initiative has been beneficial for both the UM Dental Hygiene students and the HVBGC. Future studies should use a longitudinal design to obtain baseline and post-service learning data.

  17. Patient Safety Culture and the Ability to Improve: A Proof of Concept Study on Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caris, Martine G; Kamphuis, Pim G A; Dekker, Mireille; de Bruijne, Martine C; van Agtmael, Michiel A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the safety culture of a hospital unit is associated with the ability to improve. DESIGN Qualitative investigation of safety culture on hospital units following a before-and-after trial on hand hygiene. SETTING VU University Medical Center, a tertiary-care hospital in the Netherlands. METHODS With support from hospital management, we implemented a hospital-wide program to improve compliance. Over 2 years, compliance was measured through direct observation, twice before, and 4 times after interventions. We analyzed changes in compliance from baseline, and selected units to evaluate safety culture using a positive deviance approach: the hospital unit with the highest hand hygiene compliance and 2 units that showed significant improvement (21% and 16%, respectively) were selected as high performing. Another 2 units showed no improvement and were selected as low performing. A blinded, independent observer conducted interviews with unit management, physicians, and nurses, based on the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Safety culture was categorized as pathological (lowest level), reactive, bureaucratic, proactive, or generative (highest level). RESULTS Overall, 3 units showed a proactive or generative safety culture and 2 units had bureaucratic or pathological safety cultures. When comparing compliance and interview results, high-performing units showed high levels of safety culture, while low-performing units showed low levels of safety culture. CONCLUSIONS Safety culture is associated with the ability to improve hand hygiene. Interventions may not be effective when applied in units with low levels of safety culture. Although additional research is needed to corroborate our findings, the safety culture on a unit can benefit from enhancement strategies such as team-building exercises. Strengthening the safety culture before implementing interventions could aid improvement and prevent nonproductive interventions. Infect Control

  18. Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PERSONAL HYGIENIC PRACTICES OF SCHOOL GOING ADOLESCENTS – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Rani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As per World Health Organization estimates, acute diarrhoeal diseases and respiratory infections are the leading causes of death among children1. Diarrhoeal diseases kill nearly 2 million children every year2. Repeated diarrhoeal episodes during childhood and adolescence can lower the fitness and productivity during adulthood3. The main source of diarrhoeal pathogens is the human faeces and for transmission of these faecal pathogens from one infected host to other contaminated hands plays an important role. Hygiene education and hand washing with soap are proved to be cost effective primary preventive measure for diarrhoeal diseases4.

  20. Hygiene habits through time

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In this work I did a research about hygiene habits of people and their home environment. The work presents how the hygiene habits changed in people home environment through time. The work presents changes of the body hygiene standards adopted by people from the middle ages onward. Todays customs are quite different from the ones we had some time ago. Moreover, hygiene of living environment has also changes which resulted into lower death rate and death illness related to bad hygiene among pop...

  1. [Hygienic study of an activated fibrous charcoal material as a sorbing filtering element for drinking water afterpurification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Mironets, N V; Gakal, R K; Maktaz, E D; Dugan, A M; Teteneva, I A; Tarabarova, S B; Martyshchenko, N V; Nadvornaia, Zh D

    1993-01-01

    The results of complex toxicological and hygienic study showed that the quality of pipe water filtered through the activated carbonic fibrous material (ACFM) "Dnepr-F" forming a part of absorptive filtering element improved markedly. The content of organic substances decreased drastically as well as that of nitrates and iron. Microbiological indices did not suffer appreciable changes and were within permissible limits. The water filtered through the absorptive element with ACFM had no adverse influence on the organisms of warm-blooded animals. Proceeding from foregoing one can conclude that the "Dnepr-F" may be recommended as a part of absorptive filtering element for the final refinement of drinking water.

  2. Comparison of caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Gangwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child labor is recognized as a global health problem and child laborers are exposed to unique living, working conditions and face such events in life, which are not usually faced by other children. Research on its health impact and oral health impact has been very limited and inconsistent. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare dental caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children of Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 child laborers by snowball sampling technique and 400 school children by random sampling technique were included in the study. A specially designed pretested proforma was used to collect data related to the sociodemographic profile, adverse habits and frequency of dental visits. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S were used. Results: The mean age of child laborers and school children was 13.07 ± 1.3 and 13.03 ± 1.5. The majority of child laborers (82.8% had no mouth rinsing habit. Tobacco-related habits were found among 37.8% of child laborers. Most of the child laborers (91% never visited dentists. The mean DMFT was 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.9 ± 1.6 for child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. The mean OHI-S score was 2.3 ± 0.70 and 2.1 ± 0.9 in child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the child laborers have poorer oral health status with respect to dental caries and oral hygiene compared to school children.

  3. Effect of Faculty Development Activities on Dental Hygiene Faculty Perceptions of and Teaching About Motivational Interviewing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Michelle; Korte, Dina; Richards, Philip S; Saglik, Berna; Taichman, L Susan; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne E

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this pilot study were to assess dental hygiene faculty members' perceptions of the importance of motivational interviewing (MI) and their confidence in teaching students about MI and to determine the effect of MI training sessions on those perceptions. Participants were a convenience sample of all 16 dental hygiene faculty members who teach in the clinic at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Participants' perceptions were assessed prior to a workshop in MI (pretest), immediately after the workshop (posttest 1), and eight months after the workshop, at the end of the academic year (posttest 2). During the same period, some of the workshop participants took part in team grading sessions of audio recordings of student-patient MI interactions. The results showed that the majority of the faculty members perceived it was important to personally embrace the overall spirit of MI during patient care, and they were confident supporting students as well. Their ratings for embracing the spirit of MI increased from pretest to posttest 1, but slightly decreased at posttest 2. This trend was also seen in their assessment of the importance of and their confidence in teaching the eight MI strategies over time. Among the workshop participants, 56% were part of team grading; they reported the most helpful professional development activities overall were team grading (58%) and the workshop (25%). These results suggest the importance of making use of a variety of faculty development activities and of introducing appropriate follow-up to training sessions over time to ensure long-lasting effects. Future research using carefully designed, multi-institution, longitudinal studies is needed to determine the most effective ways to prepare dental hygiene faculty members to educate their students about MI.

  4. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurasova, O.I.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology

  5. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasova, O I [Institut Obshchej i Kommunal' noj Gigieny, Moscow (USSR)

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology.

  6. Patients' Willingness to Participate in Rapid HIV Testing: A pilot study in three New York City dental hygiene clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide, Susan H; Santella, Anthony J; Furnari, Winnie; Leuwaisee, Petal; Cortell, Marilyn; Krishnamachari, Bhuma

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: One in eight people living with an HIV infection in the United States is unaware of their status. Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is an easily used and accepted screening tool that has been introduced in a limited number of clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate patient acceptability, certainty of their decision, and willingness to pay for screening if RHT was offered in university-based dental hygiene clinics. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 426 patients at three dental hygiene clinics in New York City over a period of four months. The survey questionnaire was based on the decisional conflict scale measuring personal perceptions; with zero indicating extremely high conflict to four indicating no conflict. Patients were assessed for their acceptance of RHT, provider preference for administration of the test and their willingness to pay for RHT. Results: Over half (72.2%) indicated acceptance of HIV testing in a dental hygiene clinic setting; with 85.3% choosing oral RHT, 4.9% fingerstick RHT, and 8.8% venipuncture. Respondents were amenable to testing when offered by dental hygienists (71.7%) and dentists (72.4%). Over 30% indicated their willingness to receive HIV testing in the dental setting when offered at no additional cost. The mean decisional conflict score was 3.42/4.0 indicating no decisional conflict. Conclusions: Patients are willing to undergo oral RHT when offered as a service and provided by dental hygienists in the dental setting. Patients appear to be aware of the benefits and risks associated with RHT. Further research is needed to evaluate the public health benefits and logistical challenges facing the delivery of RHT within in the dental setting. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  7. How effective is good domestic kitchen hygiene at reducing diarrhoeal disease in developed countries? A systematic review and reanalysis of the UK IID study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Clare

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess whether domestic kitchen hygiene is an important contributor to the development of diarrhoea in the developed world. Methods Electronic searches were carried out in October 2006 in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane central register of clinical trials and CINAHL. All publications, irrespective of study design, assessing food hygiene practices with an outcome measure of diarrhoea were included in the review. All included studies underwent data extraction and the data was subsequently analysed. The analysis was conducted by qualitative synthesis of the results. Given the substantial heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures meta-analysis was not done. In addition the existing dataset of the UK IID study was reanalysed to investigate possible associations between self-reported diarrhoea and variables indicative of poor domestic kitchen hygiene Results Some 14 studies were finally included in subsequent analyses. Of the 14 studies included in this systematic review, 11 were case-control studies, 2 cross-sectional surveys, and 1 RCT. Very few studies identified any significant association with good environmental kitchen hygiene. Although some of the variables in the reanalysis of the UK IID study were statistically significant no obvious trend was seen. Conclusion The balance of the available evidence does not support the hypothesis that poor domestic kitchen hygiene practices are important risk factors for diarrhoeal disease in developed countries.

  8. Center for the Polyurethanes Industry summary of unpublished industrial hygiene studies related to the evaluation of emissions of spray polyurethane foam insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard D

    2017-09-01

    Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight-year period from 2007-2014. These studies address emissions from medium density closed cell and low density open cell formulations. This article summarizes the results of personal and area air samples collected during application and post application of SPF to interior building surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. Chemicals of interest included: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), flame retardants, amine catalysts, blowing agents, and aldehydes. Overall, the results indicate that SPF applicators and workers in close proximity to the application are potentially exposed to MDI in excess of recommended and governmental occupational exposure limits and should use personal protective equipment (PPE) consisting of air supplied respirators and full-body protective clothing to reduce exposure. Catalyst emissions can be reduced by using reactive catalysts in SPF formulations, and mechanical ventilation is important in controlling emissions during and after application.

  9. Effect of Irradiation on the Hygienic, Chemical and Sensory Quality of Minimally Processed Fresh-Cut Carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, F.A.; Hammad, A.A.; SwaiIam, H.M.; Abu EI-Nour, S.A.; Serag, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Average total bacteria count (TAPC) in the collected 15 samples of fresh-cut carrot ranged from 1.4 x 10 4 to 2.4x10 6 cfu/ g; lactic acid bacteria (LAB) between 5.0xl0 2 and 2.4xl0 5 cfu/ g; total mould and yeast (TM and Y) ranged from 2 cfu/ g indicating high level of microbial load and most of these samples were unacceptable from the view point of microbial load. All examined fresh-cut carrot samples had coliforms at value ranged from 43 to 1100 MPN/g and contained Escherichia coli in the range of 9 to 460 MPN/ g indicating that most of these samples were unsatisfactory due to the presence of E. coli at level higher than 100 MPN/ g. Enterococcus faecalis count was below the detectable level (100 cfu/ g). Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the majority (80 %) of the tested fresh-cut carrot samples, and were present at 1.0x10 2 to 2.3x10 3 cfu/g. Aeromonas hydrophila was detected in only 5 (33.3) samples with average counts 1.0x10 2 to 4.5xl0 2 cfu/g. The presence of E. coli, Staph. aureus and A. hydrophila in some samples of fresh-cut carrots is to be viewed as a health hazard. On the other hand, no Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. was detected in any of the fifteen fresh-cut carrot samples. Irradiation dose of 2 kGy extended the refrigeration shelf life of fresh-cut carrots to almost 12 days. The shelf-life for unirradiated samples was about 6 days. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy was identified to be the optimum irradiation dose for irradiating fresh-cut carrots. This irradiation dose greatly reduced the T APC (by 99.95 %) and decreased LAB and TM and Y to below the detectable level (<10 cfu/ g). Fresh-cut carrot samples receiving 4 kGy irradiation doses were free from studied indicator microorganisms and from pathogens via

  10. Enhancing Personal Hygiene Behavior and Competency of Elementary School Adolescents through Peer-Led Approach and School-Friendly: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Jisha, Hunduma; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies showed that poor personal hygiene practices play a major role in the increment of communicable disease burden in developing countries. In Ethiopia, 60% of the disease burden is related to poor sanitation practices. This school based study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of school-friendly and peer-led approach in improving personal hygiene practices of school adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest of Ethiopia. A total of 1000 students from 10 to 19 years were included into the study. The intervention was done using peer-led approach, health clubs and linking the school events with parents. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end-line using structured questionnaires. Repeated measurement analysis was done and statistical significance was considered at alpha 0.05. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference in personal hygiene practices and knowledge between the intervention and control groups (Ppersonal hygiene knowledge and practice of students in the intervention schools. Therefore, there is a need for proper health education intervention through the framework of schools for the students to improve their personal hygiene knowledge and practices.

  11. A Study to Assess Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Hand Hygiene amongst Residents and Nursing Staff in a Tertiary Health Care Setting of Bhopal City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Veena; Kaore, Navin Chandra M; Ramnani, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Borle, Amod; Kaushal, Rituja

    2014-08-01

    Infection due to hospital-acquired microbes is an evolving problem worldwide, and horizontal transmission of bacterial organism continues to cause a high nosocomial infection rate in health care settings. Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers.The application of hand hygiene is effective in reducing infection rates. To assess the level of knowledge and attitude regarding hand hygiene practices amongst the health care professionals and to identify areas of gaps in their knowledge and attitude. A cross-sectional study. A total 160 respondents were studied about their knowledge and attitude towards hand hygiene practices and significant difference with a p-value of 0.0025 was observed regarding most frequent source of germs responsible for health care associated infections among resident and nurses. A significant difference with p-value of 0.0001 & 0.04 was observed in colonization due to jewellery and artificial nail among the study groups. The attitude regarding correct hand hygiene practices to be followed at all times was found to be better among nurses (62.5%) as compared to residents (21.3%) which was found to be highly significant with p-value hand hygiene practices among the health care workers to provide the current knowledge in the area with a behavioral change in attitudes and practices leading to reduction of nosocomial infections.

  12. Clothing and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  13. Hand hygiene strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yazaji, Eskandar Alex

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...

  14. The Association between Oral Hygiene and Gastric Pathology in Patients with Dyspepsia: a Cross-Sectional Study in Southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Leili; Jafari, Elham; Torabi Parizi, Molook; Shafieipour, Sara; Hayat Bakhsh Abbasi, Mehdi; Darvish Moghadam, Sodaif; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many studies have reported an association between periodontal infections and some systemic diseases such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Some studies found a direct association between chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and poor periodontal health. METHODS In a cross-sectional study from November 2014 to December 2015 in Kerman, the largest province in southeast Iran, patients with dyspepsia who were candidate for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy were included in our study. Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index and Loe plaque index that are two popular indexes in dental epidemiology were used to assess the oral health by a dentist before the upper GI endoscopy. According to the Loe plaque index, score: 0= no plaque, score: 1= a film of plaque attaching to the free gingival border and near area of the tooth, score: 2= moderate reposition of deposits within the gingival pocket, score :3= plenty of soft matter within the gingival pocket±on the tooth and gingival border. Scores ≤1, 2 and 3 equal to good, moderate, and poor oral hygiene, respectively. During upper GI endoscopy a total of six biopsy samples were taken from fundus, body, and antrum. A pathologist reported these samples according to Sidney's classification into superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. RESULTS According to Sidney's classification 77 (89.5%) patients had superficial gastritis, 3 (3.5%) had atrophic gastritis, and 6 (7%) had intestinal metaplasia. HP was found in 80.2% of the gastric mucosal biopsy samples. There were not statistically significant relationship between Sidney's classification, presence of HP in gastric mucosal biopsies, and hygiene indicators ( p >0.05). No relation was found between the DMFT index and superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia ( p >0.05). Gastric infection with HP was found in 70%, 75%, and 100% of patients with

  15. Estimation of hand hygiene opportunities on an adult medical ward using 24-hour camera surveillance: validation of the HOW2 Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Thomas; Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; Steed, Connie; Boeker, Sue; McElveen, Danielle C

    2014-06-01

    We previously published a formula to estimate the number of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) per patient-day using the World Health Organization's "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology (HOW2 Benchmark Study). HHOs can be used as a denominator for calculating hand hygiene compliance rates when product utilization data are available. This study validates the previously derived HHO estimate using 24-hour video surveillance of health care worker hand hygiene activity. The validation study utilized 24-hour video surveillance recordings of 26 patients' hospital stays to measure the actual number of HHOs per patient-day on a medicine ward in a large teaching hospital. Statistical methods were used to compare these results to those obtained by episodic observation of patient activity in the original derivation study. Total hours of data collection were 81.3 and 1,510.8, resulting in 1,740 and 4,522 HHOs in the derivation and validation studies, respectively. Comparisons of the mean and median HHOs per 24-hour period did not differ significantly. HHOs were 71.6 (95% confidence interval: 64.9-78.3) and 73.9 (95% confidence interval: 69.1-84.1), respectively. This study validates the HOW2 Benchmark Study and confirms that expected numbers of HHOs can be estimated from the unit's patient census and patient-to-nurse ratio. These data can be used as denominators in calculations of hand hygiene compliance rates from electronic monitoring using the "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Sotnikova; Georgia Fasoi

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene...

  17. A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of Government School of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent girls belong to vital age group, not only because they are the entrant population to motherhood but also because they are threshold between childhood and motherhood. The girls should be educated about significance of menstruation and development of secondary sexual characteristics, selection of sanitary menstrual absorbent and its proper disposal. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the existing knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls and to determine the co-relation of knowledge and practice score among the adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The study conducted was a descriptive cross sectional study done on 100 adolescent girls from class 9th to 12th of Govt. Girls School in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh (Convenience sampling. Prior to the commencement of the study, they were explained the purpose and nature of the study. Information on demographic variables which include age, class, type of family, education of mother, family income, age of menarche were collected from the participants. Results: The data on knowledge scores revealed that 29% had adequate knowledge about menstrual hygiene, 71% had inadequate knowledge about menstrual hygiene. The data revealed on practice scores revealed that 19%, 69%, 12% samples had poor, fair and good score of practices regarding menstrual hygiene respectively. Knowledge and practice scores of participants shows positive correlation between the two scores (*P < 0.001. Conclusion: Lack of information about menstrual hygiene can be attributed to various factors which need to be studied separately. The above findings reinforce the need to encourage safe and hygienic practices among the adolescent girls and bring them out of traditional beliefs, misconceptions and restrictions regarding menstruation. The investigators improved the general awareness about cause of menstruation and the organs involved. Use of sanitary

  18. Food and personal hygiene perceptions and practices among caregivers whose children have diarrhea: a qualitative study of urban mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usfar, Avita A; Iswarawanti, Dwi N; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

    2010-01-01

    To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Urban Tangerang, near Jakarta, Indonesia. Twenty-four mothers whose monthly household income was less than $160 US and had latrines in their homes. To examine the relationship between mothers' perceptions and behaviors related to diarrhea, food hygiene, and personal hygiene. Interview transcripts were analyzed based on the phenomenon of interest and coded for common themes. Mothers differentiated diarrhea episodes as either disease or nondisease. Most mothers associated the importance of food hygiene with disease prevention, contaminating agents, and health. Mothers commonly wiped cutting boards with a kitchen towel after slicing vegetables, whereas they washed the board with soap and water after cutting raw meat. Mothers perceived that the importance of personal hygiene was for maintaining health and cleanliness. The majority of mothers washed their hands without soap after performing housework and cooking. Improving mothers' knowledge while incorporating existing perceptions might lead to positive changes.

  19. Brief Report: Remotely Delivered Video Modeling for Improving Oral Hygiene in Children with ASD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ben; Wall, Carla; Flink, Lilli; Powell, Kelly; Discepolo, Keri; Keck, Douglas; Mademtzi, Marilena; Volkmar, Fred; Shic, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over…

  20. Comparative microbiological-hygienic studies in mesophilic and thermophilic fouling of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlig-Schmitt, M.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    Investigations concerning the inactivation of microbial pathogens (bacteria, viruses and parasites) during anaerobic, alkaline dignestion of sludge are described. A thermophilic (54/sup 0/C) and a mesophilic (34/sup 0/C) operated biogas model plant were compared from the point of view of hygiene. Is was found that in the thermophilic process Salmonella senftenberg survived 13,5 h, Streptococcus faecium 55 h, Streptococcus faecalis 42 h and Klebsiella pneumoniae 0,5 h. Within 30 min eggs of Ascaris suum lost their infectivity Bovine Parvovirus was inactivated after 1 d to 2 d treatment. Survival times under mesophilic conditions of 13 d for Salmonella senftenberg and more than 8 mouth for Streptococcus faecium were found. Poliovirus Type 1 was inactivated in 8 d while Bovine Parvovirus survived no longer than 15 d. The results obtained in the thermophilic process were compared to those after heat treatment of the test microorganisms in ampules exposed in a wather-bath under defined conditions to 54/sup 0/C. It was found, that the bacteria survived only about half the time in this case. Poliovirus Type 1 was inactivated after 0,75 h and Bovine Parvovirus after 7 d exposure. (orig.RB)

  1. [Ecological and hygienic problems of nanotech progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshevskaia, N I; Strekalova, A S

    2012-01-01

    In article necessity of development of new directions of researches--nanoecology (ecology of nanoindustry) and nanohygiene (hygiene of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials) is proved. On the basis of the spent review key ecological and hygienic problems of nanoindustrial development are systematized and also debatable questions are allocated. The conclusion is drawn on necessity of an intensification of studying of ecological and hygienic aspects of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials.

  2. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  3. Associations between oral hygiene habits, diet, tobacco and alcohol and risk of oral cancer: A case-control study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Bray, Freddie; Kumar, Narinder; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the association between the incidence of oral cancer in India and oral hygiene habits, diet, chewing and smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol. We also assessed the effects of oral hygiene habits with oral cancer risk among chewers versus never chewers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Pune, India, based on face-to-face interviews, anthropometry, and intra-oral examinations conducted for 187 oral cancer cases and 240 controls. Poor oral hygiene score was associated with a significant risk of oral cancer (adjusted OR=6.98; 95%CI 3.72-13.05). When stratified by tobacco-chewing habit, the poor oral hygiene score was a significant risk factor only among ever tobacco chewers (adjusted OR=14.74; 95%CI 6.49-33.46) compared with never chewers (adjusted OR=0.71; 95%CI 0.14-3.63). Dental check-ups only at the time of pain by ever-chewers with poor oral hygiene was associated with an elevated risk (adjusted OR=4.22; 95%CI 2.44-7.29), while consumption of green, yellow, and cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits was protective. A linear dose-response association was observed between oral cancer and chewing tobacco in terms of age at initiation, duration, and frequency of chewing per day (P25 years (adjusted OR=2.31; 95%CI 1.14-4.71) elevated the risk of oral cancer. Good oral hygiene habits - as characterized by healthy gums, brushing more than once daily, use of toothpaste, annual dental check-ups, and a minimal number of missing teeth - can reduce the risk of oral cancer significantly. In addition to refraining from chewing/smoking tobacco, a diet adequate in fruits and vegetables may protect against the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Gemma; Torres, Maria Teresa; Francés, Lidia; Falguera, Gemma; Vila, Lluis; Manresa, Josep María; Casamitjana, Roser; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Acera, Amèlia; Guix, Dolors; Torrent, Anna; Grau, Josep; Torán, Pere

    2011-03-08

    It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768.

  5. A self-help book is better than sleep hygiene advice for insomnia: a randomized controlled comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Fiske, Eldbjørg; Pallesen, Ståle

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of two types of written material for insomnia in a randomized trial with follow-up after three months. Insomniacs were recruited through newspaper advertisements to a web-based survey with validated questionnaires about sleep, anxiety, depression, and use of sleep medications. A self-help book focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia was compared to standard sleep hygiene advice; 77 and 78 participants were randomized to self-help book or sleep hygiene advice, respectively. The response rate was 81.9%. The self-help book gave significantly better scores on the sleep questionnaires compared to sleep hygiene advice. The proportion using sleep medications was reduced in the self-help book group, whereas it was increased in the sleep hygiene group. Compared to pre-treatment, the self-help book improved scores on the sleep (effect sizes 0.61-0.62) and depression (effect size 0.18) scales, whereas the sleep hygiene advice improved scores on some sleep scales (effect sizes 0.24-0.28), but worsened another (effect size -0.36). In addition, sleep hygiene advice increased the number of days per week where they took sleep medications (effect size -0.50). To conclude, in this randomized controlled trial, the self-help book improved sleep and reduced the proportion using sleep medications compared to sleep hygiene advice. The self-help book is an efficient low-threshold intervention, which is cheap and easily available for patients suffering from insomnia. Sleep hygiene advice also improved sleep at follow-up, but increased sleep medication use. Thus, caution is warranted when sleep hygiene advice are given as a single treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. A Competence-Based Approach to the Design of a Teaching Sequence about Oral and Dental Health and Hygiene: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-López, Ángel; Franco-Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín; España-Ramos, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study to illustrate the design and implementation of a teaching sequence about oral and dental health and hygiene. This teaching sequence was aimed at year 10 students (age 15-16) and sought to develop their scientific competences. In line with the PISA assessment framework for science and the tenets of a context-based approach…

  7. Food and Personal Hygiene Perceptions and Practices among Caregivers Whose Children Have Diarrhea: A Qualitative Study of Urban Mothers in Tangerang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usfar, Avita A.; Iswarawanti, Dwi N.; Davelyna, Devy; Dillon, Drupadi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang,…

  8. Menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstrual hygiene is vital to the health, well-being, dignity and productivity of women and girls. The study assessed menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected secondary schools around the University of Ibadan. The study was descriptive. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 381 ...

  9. Comparative evaluation of different methods of setting hygienic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, P.V.; Rodionova, L.F.; Mashneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term experiments were carried out on white mice and rats to study the relative importance of various procedures used in setting hygienic standards for exposure to adverse factors. A variety of radionuclides and chemical substances were tested and the sensitivities to them of various indices of the bodily state were determined. For each index, statistically significant minimal effective concentrations of substances were established

  10. Efficacy and mechanisms of non-antibacterial, chemical plaque control by dentifrices - An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; White, Don J.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van der Mei, Henny C.

    Objectives: The provision of antiplaque benefits to dentifrices assists patients in improving hygiene and reducing susceptibility to gingivitis and caries. Chemical plaque control involves different mechanisms and is mostly associated with antibacterial effects, but also includes effects on pellicle

  11. Quantification of the Hawthorne effect in hand hygiene compliance monitoring using an electronic monitoring system: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, Jocelyn A; Furness, Colin D; Baker, G Ross; Gardam, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Hawthorne effect, or behaviour change due to awareness of being observed, is assumed to inflate hand hygiene compliance rates as measured by direct observation but there are limited data to support this. To determine whether the presence of hand hygiene auditors was associated with an increase in hand hygiene events as measured by a real-time location system (RTLS). The RTLS recorded all uses of alcohol-based hand rub and soap for 8 months in two units in an academic acute care hospital. The RTLS also tracked the movement of hospital hand hygiene auditors. Rates of hand hygiene events per dispenser per hour as measured by the RTLS were compared for dispensers within sight of auditors and those not exposed to auditors. The hand hygiene event rate in dispensers visible to auditors (3.75/dispenser/h) was significantly higher than in dispensers not visible to the auditors at the same time (1.48; p=0.001) and in the same dispensers during the week prior (1.07; pHand hygiene event rates were approximately threefold higher in hallways within eyesight of an auditor compared with when no auditor was visible and the increase occurred after the auditors' arrival. This is consistent with the existence of a Hawthorne effect localised to areas where the auditor is visible and calls into question the accuracy of publicly reported hospital hand hygiene compliance rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Advance in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1975-01-01

    The development is reviewed of radiation hygiene in Czechoslovakia during the past twenty years since the formation of the branch as an independent discipline. The responsibilities of individual radiation hygiene research institutes in the country are indicated and the main tasks that have been solved so far are briefly outlined, including the research into the incidence of pulmonary cancer in uranium miners in which Czechoslovak radiation hygiene ranks first in the world. (L.O.)

  13. Iterative co-creation for improved hand hygiene and aseptic techniques in the operating room: experiences from the safe hands study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen Andersson, Annette; Frödin, Maria; Dellenborg, Lisen; Wallin, Lars; Hök, Jesper; Gillespie, Brigid M; Wikström, Ewa

    2018-01-04

    Hand hygiene and aseptic techniques are essential preventives in combating hospital-acquired infections. However, implementation of these strategies in the operating room remains suboptimal. There is a paucity of intervention studies providing detailed information on effective methods for change. This study aimed to evaluate the process of implementing a theory-driven knowledge translation program for improved use of hand hygiene and aseptic techniques in the operating room. The study was set in an operating department of a university hospital. The intervention was underpinned by theories on organizational learning, culture and person centeredness. Qualitative process data were collected via participant observations and analyzed using a thematic approach. Doubts that hand-hygiene practices are effective in preventing hospital acquired infections, strong boundaries and distrust between professional groups and a lack of psychological safety were identified as barriers towards change. Facilitated interprofessional dialogue and learning in "safe spaces" worked as mechanisms for motivation and engagement. Allowing for the free expression of different opinions, doubts and viewing resistance as a natural part of any change was effective in engaging all professional categories in co-creation of clinical relevant solutions to improve hand hygiene. Enabling nurses and physicians to think and talk differently about hospital acquired infections and hand hygiene requires a shift from the concept of one-way directed compliance towards change and learning as the result of a participatory and meaning-making process. The present study is a part of the Safe Hands project, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02983136 ). Date of registration 2016/11/28, retrospectively registered.

  14. The provision of patient personal hygiene in the intensive care unit: a descriptive exploratory study of bed-bathing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, Fiona M; O'Sullivan, Judy; Cadman, Nicola

    2011-08-01

    levels of RN ICU experience highlighted a transition of patient hygiene practice philosophy from shades of grey - falling in line for inexperienced clinicians to experienced clinicians concrete beliefs about patient bed-bath needs. This study identified variation in process and products used in patient hygiene practices in four ICUs. Further study to improve patient outcomes is required to determine the appropriate timing of patient hygiene activities and cleansing agents used to improve skin integrity. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of gingivitis: Oral hygiene and dentifrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    At the basis of Oral Health lies daily oral hygiene self-care with the result, if correctly performed, of plaque and gingivitis reduction. Epidemiological studies indicate that the level of oral hygiene in the general population has increased over the last decades. However, there still appears to be

  16. Impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of mentally retarded residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Kothari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health of the mentally retarded (MR has received scant attention in the literature compared with the normal child even though they are much sufferer. Aim: To assess the impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of MR subjects of Bhopal city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 267 MR subjects enrolled at various institutions of Bhopal city. A pretested proforma was used to record information about demographic data, socioeconomic status, the intelligent quotient of inmates, type of mental retardation, and dietary habits. The clinical examination was done to evaluate oral hygiene of subjects using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis was applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: The mean OHI-S of MR was found out to be 2.51. Male had mean OHI-S of 2.95 while female had 1.65. Noninstitutionalized had poorer oral hygiene with mean OHI-S of 3.2. According to the degree of mental retardation, profound had the highest OHI-S score, i.e. 3.71 while mild had the lowest score, i.e. 1.01.

  17. A bi-level intervention to improve oral hygiene of older and disabled adults in low-income housing: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisine, S; Schensul, J J; Goldblatt, R; Radda, K; Foster-Bey, C; Acosta-Glynn, C; Miron-Carcamo, L; Ioannidou, E

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a bi-level intervention, using a cognitive-behavioral theoretical approach, to improve the oral hygiene of older adults and the disabled in community-based low income senior housing. The bi-level pilot intervention consisted of an on-site tailored adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) session and two oral health fairs, supported by a resident campaign committee, to change community norms. All materials were available in English and Spanish. Participants completed a survey consisting of 12 domains that provided the basis for tailoring the AMI and shaping the campaigns. The domains were activities of daily living (ADLs), access to oral health information, oral hygiene status, dental knowledge, hygiene behaviors, importance of oral hygiene, self-efficacy/locus of control, diet, intentions, self-management worries/fears, perceived risk and dry mouth. Each participant received clinical assessments consisting of full-mouth plaque score (PS) and gingival index (GI) before the intervention and at three months. Twenty-seven residents with at least one tooth completed all phases of the study. The mean number of domains requiring attention was 4.5 (SD 1.6) with a range of one to seven. Mean baseline PS was 83% (SD 16%) which improved significantly to 58% (SD 31%); mean baseline GI was 1.15 (SD 0.61) and improved significantly to 0.49 (SD 0.46). This pilot study supports the feasibility and acceptability of a tailored oral hygiene intervention among older and disabled adults living in low income senior housing. Although a small sample, the study demonstrated significant improvements in both plaque and gingival scores three months after the bi-level intervention.

  18. The Impact of Oral Hygiene Maintenance on the Association Between Periodontitis and Osteoporosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Fang; Chang, Chung-Ta; Liu, Shih-Ping; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hong, Hsiang-Hsi; Shen, Yu-Fu; Wu, Ching-Zong

    2016-02-01

    Both periodontitis and osteoporosis have similar sign of bone resorption in nature. However, the relationship of the severity between these 2 bone-loss diseases is still uncertain.The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the severity of osteoporosis and periodontitis regarding the impact of oral hygiene maintenance. In total, 35,127 osteoporosis patients and 50,498 comparisons were derived from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database of Taiwan between 2000 and 2010. The population was subdivided into groups according to the different level oral hygiene maintenance and the severity of periodontitis and osteoporosis. The association between osteoporosis and periodontitis was estimated by multinomial logistic regression and rank correlation by Kendall rank correlation test, presented by odds ratio (OR), and 5% confidence intervals (CIs).After controlling the age, sex, and comorbidities, variables in the good oral hygiene maintenance population, we found that periodontitis raised 1.29-fold risk of osteoporosis (95% CI = 1.12-1.49); the risk of osteoporosis was increased with the elevated severity of periodontitis from 1.27 (95% CI = 1.08-1.48) to 1.38 (95% CI = 1.01-1.89). There is a positive correlation between the severity of periodontitis and osteoporosis occurrence in this population (OR = 1.27-1.46; Kendall rank correlation test P = 0.0003). In the poor oral hygiene maintenance population, periodontitis patients had 6.02-fold risk of osteoporosis than those who without periodontitis (95% CI = 4.65-7.81); the risk of osteoporosis was increased with periodontitis severity from 5.96 (95% CI = 4.48-7.92) to 6.37 (95% CI = 3.36-12.1).This result indicated the periodontitis and osteoporosis are conjunctive. The sudden periodontal breakdown of those who with good oral hygiene maintenance might be an indicator for the risk of osteoporosis; if those who were diagnosed as osteoporosis must pay more attention to their

  19. A qualitative study examining the preparedness of dental hygiene students for a service-learning placement in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J P; Blinkhorn, A S; Blinkhorn, F A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to measure the effect of a specifically designed orientation re-enactment DVD used to facilitate dental hygiene students transition from the classroom to a Residential Aged Care Facility (RACF) service-learning placement with less personal anxiety and more confidence in their role during the placement. Final year students (n = 47) were randomly allocated to one of 17 RACFs on the NSW, Central Coast, Australia. All students were then randomly allocated to a two-group study with the active group assigned to view the DVD prior to their placement. Students who viewed the DVD were asked not to discuss the content with students who were assigned to the control group. Post-placement focus groups were organized, recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were collated, analysed and unitized into emergent themes. Representative quotes are presented in the results. The study was informed by 4 years of previous quantitative and qualitative process evaluation of the RACF programme. Focus group discussions identified that those students who had seen the DVD reported a shorter timeframe to successfully transition from the classroom to the RACF and stated that the DVD provided them with a realistic expectation of the RACF environment and their role in the placement experience. The orientation DVD reduced student anxiety and improved student confidence in their role during the placement by providing a realistic orientation of the RACF environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A brief motivational interviewing as an adjunct to periodontal therapy-A potential tool to reduce relapse in oral hygiene behaviours. A three-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, J; Wennström, J L; Abrahamsson, K H

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate (ii) whether inclusion of a single motivational interviewing (MI) session, as an adjunct to periodontal therapy, might be beneficial for preventing relapse in oral hygiene behaviours among patients treated for chronic periodontitis and (ii) whether individual and clinical characteristics can be of predictive value for retention of sufficient oral hygiene behaviours. This 3-year follow-up of a previously reported randomized controlled trial (RCT) study of 6-month duration included 26 patients. Patients in the test group had received one MI session by a clinical psychologist before initiation of the periodontal treatment. Otherwise, all patients followed the same treatment protocol for conventional educational intervention and non-surgical periodontal therapy. Efficacy variables assessed for evaluation of the standard of self-performed periodontal infection control were marginal bleeding index (MBI; primary efficacy variable) and plaque score (PI). The patterns of change in MBI and PI scores were similar for test and control groups over the observation period. At 3 years, both groups showed a desirable mean full-mouth MBI of 15%, a figure that was comparable to that at the short-term evaluation after active periodontal treatment. The post-treatment MBI was the only variable identified as a predictor of retained adequate oral hygiene behaviours. A single MI session as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy could not be proven to be of long-term beneficial additive effect with regard to prevention of relapse in oral hygiene behaviour. Desirable standard of self-performed infection control after active periodontal treatment predicted the retention of sufficient oral hygiene behaviour over time. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Molecular activation analysis for chemical speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai-Chifang

    1998-01-01

    The term of Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in system of interests, though its definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the total concentrations are often without any meaning when assessing health or environmental risks of trace elements.In practice, the MAA is a combination of conventional instrumental or radiochemical activation analysis and physical, chemical or biochemical separation techniques. The MAA is able to play a particular role in speciation studies. However, the critical point in the MAA is that it is not permitted to change the primitive chemical species of elements in systems, or the change has to be under control; in the meantime it is not allowed to form the 'new artifact' originally not present in systems. Some practical examples of MAA for chemical species research performed recently in our laboratory will be presented as follows: Chemical species of platinum group elements in sediment; Chemical species of iodine in marine algae; Chemical species of mercury in human tissues; Chemical species of selenium in corn; Chemical species of rare earth elements in natural plant, etc. The merits and limitations of MAA will be described as well. (author)

  2. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is b......-based hygiene promotion is also recommended to curb dependency and spark initiatives in ethnic minority communities. Finally, interventions should focus on hygiene "software"--promoting hygiene behaviour changes known to effectively prevent hygiene related diseases.......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...

  3. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day.  Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level.  The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the

  4. Acute care nurses' responses and recommendations for improvement of hand hygiene compliance: A cross-sectional factorial survey research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Sheryl L; Nolan, Rachael; Crawford, Hannah; Hallam, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-01

    Hand hygiene is promoted as an effective practice to counter health care-acquired infections; however, compliance is less than optimal. Nurses have many patient contact opportunities and therefore are frequent participants in intervention research. The optimal combination of efficient and effective intervention components has not been conclusively identified. A factorial survey research design offers an efficient method to assess multiple factors simultaneously by combining elements into vignettes. This article describes a process, grounded in the framework of Bandura's social cognitive theory, that explored environmental and individual factors that potentially influence nurses' hand hygiene behavior in acute care settings. Survey respondents consisted of nurses employed in patient care; respondents also could address an open response item. A total of 466 participants scored a total of 3,685 vignettes. Statistically significant parameters included goal, supervisor priority, electronic monitoring, and rewards. The most frequently mentioned open response item was the need to keep hand hygiene product dispensers refilled. Participants also suggested that culture and intrinsic motivation influenced hand hygiene behavior. Researchers might consider assessing promising factors, especially use of goal setting, as an intervention rather than as components of an intervention. Further research is indicated to better understand how nurses define and view hand hygiene culture. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A case study of healthcare professional views on the meaning of data produced by hand hygiene auditing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Carolyn H

    2015-11-01

    Measurement of hand hygiene (HH), crucial for patient safety, has acknowledged flaws stemming from methods available. Even direct observation, the World Health Organization gold standard, may lead to behaviour changes which can affect outcome validity. However, it remains important to understand current levels of HH to allow targeted interventions to be developed. This has resulted in wider adoption of auditing processes. This study addressed how healthcare professionals perceive data generated by HH auditing processes. Qualitative study involving participatory observation and semi-structured interviews with 30 healthcare professionals recruited from a large National Health Service (NHS) two-hospital site in England. Healthcare professionals perceived two main problems with HH measurement, both associated with feedback: (1) lack of clarity with regard to feedback; and (2) lack of association between training and measurement. In addition, concerns about data accuracy led the majority of participants (22/30) to conclude audit feedback is often 'meaningless'. Healthcare professionals require meaningful data on compliance with HH to engender change, as part of a multimodal strategy. Currently healthcare professionals perceive that data lack meaning, and are not seen as drivers to improve HH performance. Potential opportunities to change practice and improve HH are being missed.

  6. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine (eds.)

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  7. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine [eds.

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  8. Dental hygiene work in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, H S; Morgado, I; Assunção, V; Bernardo, M F; Leroux, B; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T A; Leitão, J

    2008-08-01

    Dental hygiene activities were developed as part of a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the safety of low-level mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations. Along with dental-hygiene clinical work, a community programme was implemented after investigators noticed the poor oral hygiene habits of participants, and the need for urgent action to minimize oral health problems in the study population. Clinical and community activity goal was to promote oral health and prevent new disease. Community activities involved participants and their fellow students and were aimed at providing education on oral health in a school environment. Dental hygienists developed clinical work with prophylaxis, sealants application and topical fluoride and implemented the community programme with in-class sessions on oral health themes. Twice a month fluoride mouthrinses and bi-annual tooth brushing instructional activity took place. Participation at dental-hygiene activities, sealed teeth with no need of restoration and dental-plaque-index were measures used to evaluate success of the programme for the participants. Improvement in dental hygiene is shown by the decrease in dental plaque index scores (P dental hygiene activities. Teachers became aware of the problem and included oral-health in school curricula. Dental hygiene activities have shown to be helpful to promote dental hygiene, promote oral health and to provide school-age children with education on habits that will be important for their future good health.

  9. Improving community health through marketing exchanges: A participatory action research study on water, sanitation, and hygiene in three Melanesian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, D J; Sridharan, S; Saunders, S G; Souter, R T; Bartram, J; Shields, K F; Meo, S; Kearton, A; Hughes, R K

    2016-12-01

    Diseases related to poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) are major causes of mortality and morbidity. While pursuing marketing approaches to WaSH to improve health outcomes is often narrowly associated with monetary exchange, marketing theory recognises four broad marketing exchange archetypes: market-based, non-market-based, command-based and culturally determined. This diversity reflects the need for parameters broader than monetary exchange when improving WaSH. This study applied a participatory action research process to investigate how impoverished communities in Melanesian urban and peri-urban informal settlements attempt to meet their WaSH needs through marketing exchange. Exchanges of all four archetypes were present, often in combination. Motivations for participating in the marketing exchanges were based on social relationships alongside WaSH needs, health aspirations and financial circumstances. By leveraging these motivations and pre-existing, self-determined marketing exchanges, WaSH practitioners may be able to foster WaSH marketing exchanges consistent with local context and capabilities, in turn improving community physical, mental and social health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The process of institutionalization of hygiene: the State, healt and hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gutiérrez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to set out the process by which national elites made major efforts to the hygiene apparatus in Colombia a responsibility of the national state. The motivations behind this were a mix of racial, medical and social reasons. During this period, Colombian doctors, thanks to a racial ideology, built a pro-hygiene narrative in which they argued for the importance of institutionalizing the hygiene apparatus. The paper’s analysis is based upon legislation, reports to the National Congress and medical conferences. The sources have been studied from the perspective of discourse analysis. Key words: hygienism, institutionalization, racial theories. I

  11. The ACCOMPLISH study. A cluster randomised trial on the cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance and reduce healthcare associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyerberg Ewout W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health authorities have recognized lack of hand hygiene in hospitals as one of the important causes of preventable mortality and morbidity at population level. The implementation strategy ACCOMPLISH (Actively Creating COMPLIance Saving Health targets both individual and environmental determinants of hand hygiene. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent implementation strategy aimed at the reduction of healthcare associated infections in Dutch hospital care, by promotion of hand hygiene. Methods/design The ACCOMPLISH package will be evaluated in a two-arm cluster randomised trial in 16 hospitals in the Netherlands, in one intensive care unit and one surgical ward per hospital. Intervention A multicomponent package, including e-learning, team training, introduction of electronic alcohol based hand rub dispensers and performance feedback. Variables The primary outcome measure will be the observed hand hygiene compliance rate, measured at baseline and after 6, 12 and 18 months; as a secondary outcome measure the prevalence of healthcare associated infections will be measured at the same time points. Process indicators of the intervention will be collected pre and post intervention. An ex-post economic evaluation of the ACCOMPLISH package from a healthcare perspective will be performed. Statistical analysis Multilevel analysis, using mixed linear modelling techniques will be conducted to assess the effect of the intervention strategy on the overall compliance rate among healthcare workers and on prevalence of healthcare associated infections. Questionnaires on process indicators will be analysed with multivariable linear regression, and will include both behavioural determinants and determinants of innovation. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, defined here as the costs for the intervention divided by the difference in prevalence of

  12. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene practices and oral habits on periodontal health status of Indian elderly : a community-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shah N; Sundaram K

    2003-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common cause of tooth loss. It is has insidious onset, chronic course, and commonly result due to cumulative effect of dietary habits, oral hygiene methods and oral habits practiced over the years. This study was planned to evaluate the periodontal health status of elderly population (above 60 years) in the community, using CPITN index, gingival recession, mobility of teeth and halitosis, using modified WHO Oral Health Survey Proforma. In addition, impact of se...

  14. Menstrual hygiene management amongst schoolgirls in the Rukungiri district of Uganda and the impact on their education: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosey, Robyn; Prestwich, Georgina; Deave, Toity

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have found that girls in low-income settings miss or struggle at school during menstruation if they are unable to manage their menstrual hygiene effectively. This study explores the menstrual hygiene practices and knowledge of girls at rural government primary schools in the Rukungiri district in Uganda and assesses the extent to which poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) affects their education. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by schoolgirls in six government-run primary schools in the Rukungiri district. Focus groups were held with girls from each school and semi-structured interviews were conducted with headteachers and female teachers from the participating schools. A toilet assessment was also conducted in each school. One hundred and forty schoolgirls completed the questionnaire. The girls reported a lack of access to adequate resources, facilities and accurate information to manage their menstrual hygiene effectively at school. They reported that, as a result, during menstruation they often struggle at school or miss school. Eighty-six girls (61.7%) reported missing school each month for menstrual-related reasons (mean 1.64, range 0-10, SD. 1.84). It is common for girls who attend government-run primary schools in the Rukungiri district to miss school or struggle in lessons during menstruation because they do not have access to the resources, facilities, or information they need to manage for effective MHM. This is likely to have detrimental effects on their education and future prospects. A large-scale study is needed to explore the extent of this issue.

  15. Study on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque and the occurrence of dental caries or oral hygiene index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lin, Huanjian; Bai, Yang; Qin, Xiaoshu; Zheng, Xin; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yali

    2008-08-01

    The aims of our study were to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the dental plaque of Chinese children aged 3-6 years by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to investigate the relationship between this infection and the occurrence of dental caries or oral hygiene index. Two hundred and fourteen children from a kindergarten in Guangzhou City of China were evaluated. The children's plaques were assessed by plaque indices of Quigley-Hein. Dental plaque was analyzed using nested PCR for two sets of primers directed to the 860-bp fragment of H. pylori genomic DNA, which have been reported to be highly sensitive and specific by other researchers. H. pylori was detected in dental plaque samples from 126 children, and 70 children with dental caries carried H. pylori in dental plaque. Of these children without infection, only 36 of 88 suffered dental caries. Besides, the average dental plaque index of 126 H. pylori-positive children was higher than that of 88 children without infection. In the present study, there was a significant correlation between H. pylori infection and dental caries or dental hygiene. The oral cavity may be a reservoir for H. pylori infection in children. H. pylori in dental plaque may play a role in the occurrence of dental caries, and poor oral hygiene may represent a risk factor for H. pylori in the oral cavity.

  16. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods. Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results. In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions. Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  17. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Asuka; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Miki, Emiko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Toda, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL) for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods . Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results . In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions . Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  18. Radiation hygiene in photofluorography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welde, F [The state institute of radiation hygiene, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)

    1975-04-01

    This paper comprises measurements and experiences from the surveillance of 36 photofluorographic units in Norway. Measured patient doses are given. Practical means for reducing the doses are emphasized. The radiation hygiene for the personnel in mass chest surveys is discussed.

  19. Food hygiene practices and its associated factors among model and non model households in Abobo district, southwestern Ethiopia: Comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okugn, Akoma; Woldeyohannes, Demelash

    2018-01-01

    In developing country most of human infectious diseases are caused by eating contaminated food. Estimated nine out ten of the diarrheal disease is attributable to the environment and associated with risk factors of poor food hygiene practice. Understanding the risk of eating unsafe food is the major concern to prevent and control food borne diseases. The main goal of this study was to assessing food hygiene practices and its associated factors among model and non model households at Abobo district. This study was conducted from 18 October 2013 to 13 June 2014. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study design was used. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 1247 households (417 model and 830 non model households) were included in the study from Abobo district. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with outcome variable. The study revealed that good food hygiene practice was 51%, of which 79% were model and 36.70% were non model households. Type of household [AOR: 2.07, 95% CI: (1.32-3.39)], sex of household head [AOR: 1.63, 95% CI: (1.06-2.48)], Availability of liquid wastes disposal pit [AOR: 2.23, 95% CI: (1.39,3.63)], Knowledge of liquid waste to cause diseases [AOR: 1.95, 95% (1.23,3.08)], and availability of functional hand washing facility [AOR: 3.61, 95% CI: (1.86-7.02)] were the factors associated with food handling practices. This study revealed that good food handling practice is low among model and non model households. While type of household (model versus non model households), sex, knowledge of solid waste to cause diseases, availability of functional hand washing facility, and availability of liquid wastes disposal pit were the factors associated with outcome variable. Health extension workers should play a great role in educating households regarding food hygiene practices to improve their knowledge and practices of the food hygiene.

  20. The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine studies that have assessed the association between hand hygiene enhancement and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates and to explore controversies surrounding this association. Many studies have been published confirming the link between improved hand hygiene compliance and reduction in MRSA acquisition and infections, including bacteremia. These studies have also shown the cost-beneficial nature of these programmes. Despite considerable research some issues remain unanswered still, including the temporal relationship between hand hygiene enhancement strategies and decrease in MRSA rates, association between hand hygiene enhancement and MRSA-related surgical site infections, diminishing effect of hand hygiene compliance on MRSA rates after reaching a threshold and the role of instituting contact precautions in the setting of low MRSA rates and sufficient hand hygiene compliance. In conclusion, enhancement of hand hygiene compliance has been shown to reduce MRSA rates; however, some open issues warrant further investigation.

  1. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

  2. Strategies for service-learning assessment in dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Sharlee

    2013-10-01

    A large body of literature exists on the instructional pedagogy known as service-learning. Service-learning is a teaching and learning approach characterized by the dental hygiene student's practical application of academic studies and occurs within a community setting, to the benefit of both the student and community. Dental hygiene educators use service-learning to enhance student knowledge and application of oral health curriculum. This manuscript reports on the importance of service-learning assessment to the National Dental Hygiene Research Agenda as well as the future of the profession of dental hygiene and the successful strategies in service-learning evaluation available for utilization by dental hygiene educators.

  3. Hand hygiene knowledge and practices of nursing students in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirudeen, A M A; Koh, Josephine W N; Lau, Adeline Lee Chin; Li, Wenjie; Lim, Lay Seng; Ow, Cynthia Yi Xuan

    2012-10-01

    Hand hygiene is an important means of preventing nosocomial infections. Studies have shown a hand hygiene among health care workers. A hand hygiene survey was administered to nursing students in a tertiary institution in Singapore. The results of this survey strongly indicate that nursing students understand the importance of hand hygiene compliance and perceive clinical internship programs and practical laboratory sessions to be effective methods of hand hygiene education. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recor...

  5. Hygiene Knowledge of Food Staff in Catering Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Yardımcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out to determine the hygiene knowledge of the staff (N = 317 employed in kitchen and service departments of catering firms in Ankara. It was found that the mean scores of the staff with regard to personal hygiene, food hygiene, and kitchen and equipment hygiene were 10.7 ± 1.6, 19.8 ± 4.0, and 13.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Male staff achieved higher mean scores in personal hygiene knowledge test compared with female staff (p < .01. The staff receiving a hygiene training were determined to have higher mean scores in terms of hygiene knowledge tests compared with those who have not received, and the production staff had higher knowledge as to hygiene than the other groups (p < .01. The mean scores for hygiene knowledge tests were found to be increasing with age. Hygiene knowledge scores of the staff were quite lower than what must be taken. For that reason, periodical training programs should be organized to increase the awareness of the staff about hygiene.

  6. An educational intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Hang Thi; Tran, Hang Thi Thuy; Tran, Hanh Thi My; Dinh, Anh Pham Phuong; Ngo, Ha Thanh; Theorell-Haglow, Jenny; Gordon, Christopher J

    2018-03-07

    Hand hygiene compliance is the basis of infection control programs. In developing countries models to improve hand hygiene compliance to reduce healthcare acquired infections are required. The aim of this study was to determine hand hygiene compliance following an educational program in an obstetric and gynecological hospital in Vietnam. Health care workers from neonatal intensive care, delivery suite and a surgical ward from Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam undertook a 4-h educational program targeting hand hygiene. Compliance was monitored monthly for six months following the intervention. Hand hygiene knowledge was assessed at baseline and after six months of the study. There were 7124 opportunities over 370 hand hygiene recording sessions with 1531 opportunities at baseline and 1620 at 6 months following the intervention. Hand hygiene compliance increased significantly from baseline across all sites (43.6% [95% Confidence interval CI: 41.1-46.1] to 63% [95% CI: 60.6-65.3]; p hygiene compliance increased significantly after intervention (p hygiene compliance for an extended period of time. Hand hygiene knowledge increased during the intervention. This hand hygiene model could be used in developing countries were resources are limited.

  7. Hand hygiene in emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Jonathan; Millin, Michael G; Bissell, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) affect millions of patients annually (World Health Organization. Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare. Geneva: WHO Press; 2009). Hand hygiene compliance of clinical staff has been identified by numerous studies as a major contributing factor to HAIs around the world. Infection control and hand hygiene in the prehospital environment can also contribute to patient harm and spread of infections. Emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners are not monitored as closely as hospital personnel in terms of hand hygiene training and compliance. Their ever-changing work environment is less favorable to traditional hospital-based aseptic techniques and education. This study aimed to determine the current state of hand hygiene practices among EMS providers and to provide recommendations for improving practices in the emergency health services environment. This study was a prospective, observational prevalence study and survey, conducted over a 2-month period. We selected participants from visits to three selected hospital emergency departments in the mid-Atlantic region. There were two data components to the study: a participant survey and hand swabs for pathogenic cultures. This study recruited a total sample of 62 participants. Overall, the study revealed that a significant number of EMS providers (77%) have a heavy bacterial load on their hands after patient care. All levels of providers had a similar distribution of bacterial load. Survey results revealed that few providers perform hand hygiene before (34%) or in between patients (24%), as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. This study demonstrates that EMS providers are potential vectors of microorganisms if proper hand hygiene is not performed properly. Since EMS providers treat a variety of patients and operate in a variety of environments, providers may be exposed to potentially pathogenic organisms, serving as vectors for the exposure of

  8. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  9. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  10. Human volunteer studies with non-pharmaceutical chemicals: metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, M F; Woollen, B H

    1994-06-01

    1. Human volunteer studies are an essential part of drug development but their use in the area of non-pharmaceutical chemicals has so far been very limited. Such studies can have considerable value in the assessment and improvement of the safe use of chemicals. 2. Once metabolic pathways and target metabolites have been identified in volunteers this information can be used in studies in the workplace or in the general population. Studies should be performed selectively only if there is both a toxic hazard and a significant exposure potential. In addition, they should only be carried out if the required information cannot be obtained in any other way. 3. Volunteer studies with non-pharmaceuticals have become increasingly acceptable in the light of established international guidelines, no-fault compensation, improvements in study design and technical developments which allow the use of very low dose levels. The final decision on whether to carry out a study must always rest with an independent ethical committee. 4. The practical aspects of the study should be specified in a detailed protocol conforming with the principles of good clinical practice. The safety of volunteers must be of paramount concern throughout. Depending on the nature of the chemical and the study, it may be advisable to carry out studies in a clinical facility where equipment is available for the treatment of any emergencies that might occur. 5. Numerous investigators have now shown that human volunteer studies are ethically acceptable, practicable and yield important information. The risk to volunteers is minimal and this approach can lead to an improved foundation for occupational hygiene standards, more accurate risk assessment and thus better protection of the workforce and the general population.

  11. Implementation of directly observed patient hand hygiene for hospitalized patients by hand hygiene ambassadors in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Tai, Josepha W M; Li, W S; Chau, P H; So, Simon Y C; Wong, Lisa M W; Ching, Radley H C; Ng, Modissa M L; Ho, Sara K Y; Lee, Doris W Y; Lee, W M; Wong, Sally C Y; Yuen, K Y

    2016-06-01

    The importance of compliance with hand hygiene by patients is increasingly recognized to prevent health care-associated infections. This descriptive study observed the effects of an education campaign, targeted to increase patients' self-initiated hand hygiene, and a hand hygiene ambassador-initiated directly observed hand hygiene program on patients' hand hygiene compliance in a university-affiliated hospital. The overall audited compliance of patients' self-initiated hand hygiene was only 37.5%, with a rate of 26.9% (112/416 episodes) before meals and medications, 27.5% (19/69 episodes) after using a urinal or bedpan, and 89.7% (87/97 episodes) after attending toilet facilities. Patients referred from a residential care home for older adults had significantly lower hand hygiene compliance (P = .007). Comparatively, the overall audited compliance of ambassador-initiated directly observed hand hygiene was 97.3% (428/440 episodes), which was significantly higher than patients' self-initiated hand hygiene via a patient education program (37.5%, 218/582 episodes, P hand hygiene can play an important role in improving compliance with hand hygiene by hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Introduction to radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, Ch.J.

    1978-08-01

    This document is to introduce personnel who come into contact with any radiological activities to different aspects of radiation hygiene. The basic theory of radiation physics is given and units and dose equivalents are discussed. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described and risk analysis is introduced. The various sources of radiation to which the population is exposed are outlined. Saftey standards and legislation regarding radiation hygiene are described and the various methods and instruments for measuring radiation are given. Dosimetry and safety precautions and measures are finally discussed. (C.F.)

  13. Effect of 12-month weekly professional oral hygiene care on the composition of the oral flora in dentate, dependent elderly residents: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Maude; Kareem, Kawa L; Almståhl, Annica; Palmgren, Erika; Lingström, Peter; Wårdh, Inger

    2017-06-01

    To study the effect of weekly professional oral hygiene care on the proportion of micro-organisms associated with good oral health, caries, and periodontal and soft tissue diseases in oral biofilms in dentate, dependent elderly residents. Assisted oral hygiene care reduces the plaque score and number of micro-organisms in the oral biofilms in elderly residents. Less is known about the effect on the quality/composition of the remaining oral flora. Participants comprised 33 residents in the study and 35 in the control group. Dental status (≥10 natural teeth and no removable dentures to be included), plaque score, salivary secretion rate and prescription medicines were recorded. Duplicate samples, collected from supragingival plaque and tongue, were analysed using cultivation technique. Differences between and within groups were analysed using one-way and two-way ANOVA, respectively. At the baseline, the number of teeth in the participants (mean age, 83.7 ± 7.4 years) was 22.0 ± 4.5. The number of prescription medicines was 9.4 ± 4.5. Seventy-six per cent had low salivary secretion rate. Fifty per cent had "visible thick" supragingival plaque. At the 12-month registration, "no visible" or "visible but thin" plaque was recorded in 92% in the study group. The proportions of bacteria associated with good oral health and periodontal diseases were decreased over time, while the frequency and proportions of micro-organisms associated with caries and soft tissue infection were unaffected or increased. The results indicate that assisted oral hygiene care alone is not sufficient to regain an oral microbial flora associated with good oral health in dentate, dependent elderly residents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Study of the Discussions on Psychiatry of Korea in the 1960s and 1970s* - From Mental Hygiene to Modern Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ji-Yeon

    2017-08-01

    This study is to review the emergence of new psychiatrists, scientific rationalization, and popular internalization to reorganize the formation process of modern psychological medicine system. Unlike eugenic psychiatry from the Japanese Colonial Era, the social conditions and contexts forming autonomous system of psychiatry of Korea in the 1960s and 1970s have been concentrated. The discussion approach has been tried to secure two perspectives-treatment and criticism-at the same time and to expand the time and scope of study through the extensive texts such as newspapers, magazines, books, advertisements, and others in the 1960s and 1970s. Through formation of subject, rationalization, and popularization, this study has surveyed the characteristics of psychiatry in the 1960s and 1970s to accentuate complicated conditions and kinetic steps to systemize psychiatry as scientific field to promote treatment of patients by deviating from mental hygiene approaching national mental health from cleanliness and removal. The characteristics are summarized as follows. First, as the ethical models of good doctors, medical paternalistic doctors, and non-authoritarian symmetric doctors have been proposed as good psychiatrists by new medical specialists with experience of globality, a new subject emerges. However, there has been illegalization process of unlicensed medical practitioner excluded by the regulatory authority called "clearness." Second, the rationalization of psychiatry has been accelerated through the dispute of enactment of Mental Hygiene Law, segmentalization of concept of mental illness, and scientific characteristics. Especially, the disputes over enactment of Mental Hygiene Law focused on criminalization of mental patients brought a result to regulate the patients as the target of humanistic treatment and potential criminals at the same time. Third, popularization of psychiatry has embraced invisible mental illness into popular daily life through visual measure

  15. Ethics instruction in the dental hygiene curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerik, Mark G; Prajer, Renee G; Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Dental hygiene ethics is an essential component of the dental hygiene curriculum. The accreditation standards for dental hygiene education state that graduates must be competent in applying ethical concepts to the provision and/or support of oral health care services. Although the standards for entry into the profession of dental hygiene emphasize the importance of ethical reasoning, there is little published research specific to ethics instruction in dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to assess how ethics is taught in the dental hygiene curriculum. A 17-item survey was designed and distributed to 261 accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States for a response rate of 56% (N=147). The survey requested that participants provide information on teaching and evaluation methodologies, didactic and clinical hours of instruction, individuals responsible for providing instruction, and the degree of emphasis placed on ethics and integration of ethical reasoning within the dental hygiene curriculum. Results of the survey reflect that dental hygiene programs devote a mean of 20. hours to teaching dental hygiene ethics in the didactic component of the curriculum. With regard to the clinical component of the curriculum, 63% of respondents indicated that 10 or less hours are devoted to ethics instruction. These results show an increase in didactic hours of instruction from previous studies where the mean hours of instruction ranged from 7 to 11.7 hours. Results showed 64% of respondents offered a separate course in ethics; however, 82% of programs surveyed indicated that ethics was incorporated into one or more dental hygiene courses with 98% utilizing dental hygiene faculty to provide instruction. Most programs utilized a variety of instructional methods to teach ethics with the majority employing class discussion and lecture (99% and 97% respectively). The type of institution-technical college, community college, four-year university with a

  16. [The dynamics of changes in rheological properties of oral fluid in patients with different levels of oral hygiene, using removable dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylenko, T N; Ernestyuk, A M; Rozhko, N M

    2014-12-01

    The issue of changing the physical and physico-chemical characteristics of oral fluid and their dependence on the level of oral hygiene in patients with removable dentures, requires further study. Therefore, in 86 individuals with 138 removable dentures, and 34 patients who are dentally and somatically healthy, we have had studied the parameters of viscosity, velocity of salivation, pH and concentration of mucin. According to the results of the factor analysis, it was determined that 78.6% of the studied parameters were indicators of hygienic condition of oral cavity. On the basis of significant difference and the strength and direction of correlation between the studied parameters and values of the integral index of oral hygiene, it was found, that in patients without somatic pathology with proper oral hygiene, we observed the growth of the rate of salivation and pH(c1), and in case of improper hygienic condition - reducing rate of salivation and increasing concentration of mucin. In case of the presence of somatic pathology, with an improvement of oral hygiene, the growth of pH(c1) and reducing of concentration of mucin was observed. The deterioration of oral hygiene level led to the increase of the rate of viscosity and the reduction of the salivation rate.

  17. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES STUDYS OF PEATLANDON VARIOUS LANDUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yondra Yondra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural peat swamp forests converted can alter the soil chemical properties. This study aims to determine the extent to which changes in soil chemical properties that occur after the conversion of land from peat swamp forest to palm oil plantation, HTI Acacia crasicarpa, and sago plantation and to know which types of plants are sustainable on peatlands. The results showed that soil pH increased after the change of land function. While the water content decreased. Chemical properties such as C-organic, ash content, CEC, alkaline saturation, macro nutrients (NPK and bases can be changed also undergo changes after undergoing landuse changes, but no violations based on the law made by the government in pp No 25 of 2000 on the criteria of peatland damage and government regulation no. 150 of 2000 on the control of soil damage for biomass production. Sago is the most sustainable plant compared to others due to changes in soil chemical properties not too much different from other landuse although planted in the long term.

  18. An automated hand hygiene compliance system is associated with improved monitoring of hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Saungi; Reilly, Maggie; Thomas, Rowena; McSpedon-Rai, Dawn

    2017-05-01

    Consistent hand hygiene is key to reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) and assessing compliance with hand hygiene protocols is vital for hospital infection control staff. A new automated hand hygiene compliance system (HHCS) was trialed as an alternative to human observers in an intensive care unit and an intensive care stepdown unit at a hospital facility in the northeastern United States. Using a retrospective cohort design, researchers investigated whether implementation of the HHCS resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and a reduction in common HAI rates. Pearson χ 2 tests were used to assess changes in compliance, and incidence rate ratios were used to test for significant differences in infection rates. During the study period, the HHCS collected many more hand hygiene events compared with human observers (632,404 vs 480) and ensured that the hospital met its compliance goals (95%+). Although decreases in multidrug-resistant organisms, central line-associated bloodstream infections, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates were observed, they represented nonsignificant differences. Human hand hygiene observers may not report accurate measures of compliance. The HHCS is a promising new tool for fine-grained assessment of hand hygiene compliance. Further study is needed to examine the association between the HHCS and HAI rate reduction. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Leadership in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Programs: A Pilot Study Comparing Stand-Alone Leadership Courses and Leadership-Infused Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Farnsworth, Tracy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association.

  20. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  1. A Study of impact of Education on Awareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find out effect of educational background on personal hygiene, awareness regarding transmission of food borne infections and routine practices among food handler of the food establishments of a super speciality teaching hospital of Kashmir. Results Out of 121 respondents (33.05 percent cooks, 42.97 percent stewards and 23.97 percent dishwashers, 90.90 percent were males and 9.10 percent females. Majority (90.90 percent have educational background below high school level (group B and the rest (9.10% have education above 10th standard (group A. Soap was used by majority(90.9% of group A in comparison to group B(59.1% before entering kitchen.72.7% of group A employees change their shoes and use kitchen slippers in the kitchen, whereas only 31.8% of group B employees do so and the rest(68.2% do not change the foot wear before entering the kitchen.While 81.8% of group A employees responded that diarrhoeal diseases spread by contaminated food,majority of group B(62.7% responded other reasons.81.8% of group A feel it necessary to chlorinate or filter visibly clean water, whereas only 52.7% of group B feel so. Conclusion Food handlers of any food establishment, in particular hospital kitchen should have high standard of educational background to have enough awareness regarding food borne diseases and importance of personal hygiene to prevent transmission of diseases. Because of poor educational background, the food handlers in our study didn’t know the importance of use

  2. A Study of impact of Education onAwareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandita K.K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find out effect of educational background on personal hygiene, awareness regarding transmission of food borne infections and routine practices among food handler of the food establishments of a super speciality teaching hospital of Kashmir. Results Out of 121 respondents (33.05 percent cooks, 42.97 percent stewards and 23.97 percent dishwashers, 90.90 percent were males and 9.10 percent females. Majority (90.90 percent have educational background below high school level (group B and the rest (9.10% have education above 10th standard (group A. Soap was used by majority(90.9% of group A in comparison to group B(59.1% before entering kitchen.72.7% of group A employees change their shoes and use kitchen slippers in the kitchen, whereas only 31.8% of group B employees do so and the rest(68.2% do not change the foot wear before entering the kitchen.While 81.8% of group A employees responded that diarrhoeal diseases spread by contaminated food,majority of group B(62.7% responded other reasons.81.8% of group A feel it necessary to chlorinate or filter visibly clean water, whereas only 52.7% of group B feel so. Conclusion Food handlers of any food establishment, in particular hospital kitchen should have high standard of educational background to have enough awareness regarding food borne diseases and importance ofpersonal hygiene to prevent transmission of diseases. Because of poor educational background, the food handlers in our study didn’t know the importance of use

  3. Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

  4. Theoretical studies of chemical reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, G.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This collaborative program with the Theoretical Chemistry Group at Argonne involves theoretical studies of gas phase chemical reactions and related energy transfer and photodissociation processes. Many of the reactions studied are of direct relevance to combustion; others are selected they provide important examples of special dynamical processes, or are of relevance to experimental measurements. Both classical trajectory and quantum reactive scattering methods are used for these studies, and the types of information determined range from thermal rate constants to state to state differential cross sections.

  5. Personal hygiene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002-2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygiene factors individually and as a composite hygiene score; potential confounding factors were controlled. Selected MRSA isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MRSA infection was significantly associated with a low composite hygiene score. Transmission among prison inmates appeared to be responsible for this outbreak. PFGE analysis showed that isolates were indistinguishable and associated with community-onset MRSA infections in other US prisons. Improving hygiene practices and environmental conditions may help prevent and interrupt future MRSA outbreaks in prison settings.

  6. Mental hygiene in early Francoism: from racial hygiene to the prevention of mental illness (1939-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ricardo; Novella, Enric

    In this paper, we study the ideological bases of mental hygiene, understood as racial and moral hygiene, during the first years of Franco's regime and their evolution until 1960. First, we discuss the conceptualization of mental hygiene in the 1940s and its role as a tool for the legitimization of dictatorship, revealing the involvement of orthodox Catholicism and its links with moral and racial hygiene. Second, we assess the transformation of mental hygiene during the 1950s towards modernization and a stronger linkage with the dominant trends of contemporary psychiatry without ever leaving the ideological background of Catholicism. For this purpose, we will focus on analysis of the activities of the Mental Hygiene Week held in Barcelona in 1954 and on the creation in 1955 of the National Board of Psychiatric Care, which took on mental hygiene as one of its functions. This paper shows the close relationship of mental hygiene during the early years of Francoism with the political principles of the Dictatorship. The 1940s witnessed the deployment of a harsh discourse in which mental hygiene was a tool for the (moral and spiritual) education of the Spanish people in the political principles of the "New State", pathologizing political dissent and ideologically purifying the country. In the 1950s, Francoist mental hygiene underwent a process of aggiornamento marked by international political events following the defeat of fascism in World War II, advancing a project for (authoritarian) modernization in an international context already directed towards mental health.

  7. A person-oriented approach to hand hygiene behaviour: Emotional empathy fosters hand hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Diefenbacher, Svenja; Siegel, André; Keller, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social-psychological approach, this research examines whether emotional empathy, an affective reaction regarding another's well-being, fosters hand hygiene as this affects other's health-related well-being extensively. Three studies tested this notion: (a) a cross-sectional study involving a sample of health care workers at a German hospital, (b) an experiment testing the causal effect of empathy on hand hygiene behaviour and (c) an 11-week prospective study testing whether an empathy induction affected disinfectant usage frequency in two different wards of a hospital. Self-reported hand hygiene behaviour based on day reconstruction method was measured in Study 1, actual hand sanitation behaviour was observed in Study 2 and disinfectant usage frequency in two different hospital wards was assessed in Study 3. Study 1 reveals an association of empathy with hand hygiene cross-sectionally, Study 2 documents the causal effect of empathy on increased hand sanitation. Study 3 shows an empathy induction increases hand sanitiser usage in the hospital. Increasing emotional empathy promotes hand hygiene behaviour, also in hospitals. Besides providing new impulses for the design of effective interventions, these findings bear theoretical significance as they document the explanatory power of empathy regarding a distal explanandum (hand hygiene).

  8. Personal Hygiene Practices among Urban Homeless Persons in Boston, MA

    OpenAIRE

    Leibler, Jessica H.; Nguyen, Daniel D.; Le?n, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M.; Perez, Debora

    2017-01-01

    Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston,...

  9. Hygiene Knowledge of Food Staff in Catering Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Yardımcı; Gülperi Hakli; Funda Pinar Çakiroğlu; Ayşe Özfer Özçelik

    2015-01-01

    This study, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out to determine the hygiene knowledge of the staff (N = 317) employed in kitchen and service departments of catering firms in Ankara. It was found that the mean scores of the staff with regard to personal hygiene, food hygiene, and kitchen and equipment hygiene were 10.7 ± 1.6, 19.8 ± 4.0, and 13.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Male staff achieved higher mean scores ...

  10. [Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression.

  11. Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Holanda da Cunha

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression.

  12. A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Engelbrecht, H; McDonald, H; Morris, V; Smythe, W

    2016-03-07

    Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection. Unfortunately hand hygiene compliance remains poor. To show an improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multifaceted approach. This was a quasiexperimental pre-post intervention study design with a number of standardised interventions to promote hand hygiene. The World Health Organization hand hygiene multimodal (five-step) intervention approach was used. The study ran from June 2015 to August 2015 in 11 selected wards of a 975-bed tertiary and quaternary care public hospital (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa). The outcome was to assess improvement in hand hygiene compliance monthly over the 3 months, compared with non-intervention wards and compared with the wards' own performance measured in 2014. The study included both descriptive and analytical components. Post intervention, hand hygiene compliance showed a statistically significant improvement for before patient contact from 34% in 2014 to 76% in 2015 (p<0.05) and for after patient contact from 47% in 2014 to 82% in 2015 (p<0.05). The intervention improved hand hygiene compliance and can easily be replicated in other wards, resulting in sustaining a culture of hand hygiene improvement and behavioural change throughout the hospital.

  13. Menstrual Hygiene Practices and Sources of Menstrual Hygiene Information among Adolescent Secondary School Girls in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilo, Cajetan I.; Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2016-01-01

    Menstruation is clouded by socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of hygienic practices. The study was designed to ascertain the menstrual hygiene practices and sources of menstrual hygiene information among 1200 adolescent secondary school girls, who completed the questionnaire designed for the study. Out of…

  14. Waldorf School - the Strategy of Education of Mental Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    HORÁKOVÁ, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question, what is the strategy of mental hygiene education at the Waldorf school. The aim was to find out how mental hygiene at the Waldorf school is educated and then compare this strategy with the strategy of mental hygiene education at the school of traditional education system. Another aim of this study was to show whether the correct strategy of mental hygiene education in elementary schools has some influence on the development of the child. The research was m...

  15. Hygiene in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp-Schwoerer, A.; Daschner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is given of the hygienic management in radiological departments with special regard to the handling of injections and infusions. It includes prevention of bacterial as well as viral infections. In radiological departments disinfection of X-ray tables is necessary only in exceptional cases. A special proposal for disinfection is added. A safe method of sterilisation of flexible catheders is included, which proved to prevent bacterial infection. (orig.) [de

  16. Immunoassay in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for estimation of nonspecific protection factors, T- and B-immunity system factors, which application is advisable when solving problems of radiation hygiene are described. Data on changes in immunity under chronic low dose irradiation of external and internl radiation by incorporated radiomechides are genralized and analysed. Combined action of ionizing radiation and factors of nonradiation nature is described. 120 refs.; 11 figs.; 33 tabs

  17. The impact of an education program on hand hygiene compliance and nosocomial infection incidence in an urban neonatal intensive care unit: an intervention study with before and after comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Onno K; Brug, Johannes; Looman, Caspar W N; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Kornelisse, René F

    2010-10-01

    Nosocomial bloodstream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Appropriate hand hygiene is singled out as the most important measure in preventing these infections. However, hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals remains low despite the well-known effect on infection reduction. We studied the effectiveness of a hand hygiene education program on the incidence of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Observational study with two pretests and two posttest measurements and interrupted time series analysis. A 27 bed level IIID neonatal intensive care unit in a teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Healthcare professionals who had physical contact with very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The study was conducted during a period of 4 years. Medical and nursing staff followed a problem-based education program on hand hygiene. Hand hygiene practices before and after the education program were compared by guided observations. The incidence of nosocomial infections in VLBW infants was compared. In addition, numbers of nosocomial bloodstream infections per day-at-risk in very low birth weight infants were analyzed by a segmented loglinear regression analysis. During 1201 observations hand hygiene compliance before patient contact increased from 65% to 88% (pinfections and the infection rate per 1000 patient days (relative risk reduction) before and after the education program on hand hygiene intervention decreased from 44.5% to 36.1% (18.9%, p=0.03) and from 17.3% to 13.5% (22.0%, p=0.03), respectively. At the baseline the nosocomial bloodstream infections per day-at-risk decreased by +0.07% (95% CI -1.41 to +1.60) per month and decreased with -1.25% (95% CI -4.67 to +2.44) after the intervention (p=0.51). The level of instant change was -14.8% (p=0.48). The results are consistent with relevant improvement of hand hygiene practices among healthcare professionals due to an education program. Improved hand hygiene

  18. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahlad Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n=50 boys and n=50 girls who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P=0.004, whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city.

  19. The impact of an oral hygiene education module on patient practices and nursing documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Lola; Otten, Karine; Staffileno, Beth; Minarich, Laura; Nowiszewski, Candice

    2015-02-01

    Oral hygiene is inconsistent among patients with cancer and is a national patient care issue. To promote comfort and nutritional status, oral hygiene for patients with cancer is important. The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based oral hygiene educational module (EM) for nursing and patient care technician (PCT) staff to promote consistent oral hygiene patient education; evaluate patient understanding of oral hygiene practices post-EM; and determine staff documentation frequency of oral hygiene care. Pre- and post-EM data were collected using a developed oral hygiene assessment tool; nursing documentation data were collected by chart review. Post-EM data were collected eight weeks post-EM. Data were analyzed using frequencies and the Mann-Whitney U test. Twenty-two patient documentation pairs were collected. Compared to pre-EM, admission teaching, patient education, and patient oral hygiene practices improved post-EM. Post-EM oral hygiene documentation and PCT teaching increased.

  20. Effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Quasi-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beselam Tadesse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia.A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention. A four-stage random cluster-sampling technique was employed to select study participants. From each selected household, one child was clinically assessed for active trachoma. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic and behavioral data. MacNemar test was applied to compare the prevalence of active trachoma between baseline and after the intervention period at both intervention and non-intervention study areas.The prevalence of active trachoma was reduced from baseline prevalence of 26% to 18% after one-year intervention period in the intervention woredas (P≤0.001. MacNemar test result showed significant reduction of active trachoma prevalence after the intervention period in the intervention woredas compared to the non-intervention woredas (P≤0.001. Water, sanitation and hygiene related activities were significantly improved after the intervention period in the intervention woredas (P<0.05.There was a significant reduction of active trachoma prevalence between the baseline and after the intervention period in the intervention woredas, but not in the non-intervention ones. Improved water, sanitation and hygiene interventions contributed to the reduction of active trachoma. However, the magnitude of active trachoma prevalence observed after the intervention is still very high in the studied areas of North and South Wollo Zones communities. To achieve the global trachoma

  1. Electro Thermal Chemical Gun Technology Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diamond, P

    1999-01-01

    .... Michael Stroscio. Electro Thermal Chemical (ETC) gun technology refers to the use of plasma devices in place of traditional chemical ignitors to initiate the burning of high energy propellants in a controlled manner...

  2. Dental hygiene habits and oral health status of seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Sibilio, Fabio; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This study has assessed the dental hygiene habits and problems of seafarers and their attitudes/ perceptions regarding oral hygiene using a dental hygiene/habits questionnaire. A research questionnaire on oral hygiene habits was prepared along with a summary of all the questions and sent to ships via e-mail by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) networks. CIRM, is the Italian Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS), and represents the Centre with the largest number of seafarers assisted on board ships worldwide. CIRM proposed the questionnaire to all ships (n = 1,198) asking for medical advice from 1 July 2014 till 31 October 2014. Two dental professionals were involved in the development and analysis of the questionnaire. Seafarers are at risk of several dental health problems due to their oral hygiene and dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, poor oral hygiene knowledge and motivation. Dietary habits during voyages were also questionable and seafarers consume food rich in fermentable carbohydrates, which is a major risk factor for dental caries. Seafarers need better oral hygiene education and care to enable them to manage their oral health in a better way. Life at the sea, under challenging circumstances is not without stress, that is why it is important that seafarers are given complete information about correct oral hygiene protocols and dental hygiene and the advantages for their health of keeping a healthy mouth.

  3. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  4. Randomized crossover study evaluating the effect of a hand sanitizer dispenser on the frequency of hand hygiene among anesthesiology staff in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Patel, Zalak; Banks, Shawn; Arheart, Kristopher; Eber, Scott; Lubarsky, David A; Birnbach, David J

    2014-06-01

    Forty anesthesia providers were evaluated with and without hand sanitizer dispensers present on the anesthesia machine. Having a dispenser increased the frequency of hand hygiene only from 0.5 to 0.8 events per hour (P = .01). Other concomitant interventions are needed to further increase hand hygiene frequency among anesthesia providers.

  5. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  6. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

  7. A Study of the Discussions on Psychiatry of Korea in the 1960s and 1970s* - From Mental Hygiene to Modern Psychiatry -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-yeon IM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is to review the emergence of new psychiatrists, scientific rationalization, and popular internalization to reorganize the formation process of modern psychological medicine system. Unlike eugenic psychiatry from the Japanese Colonial Era, the social conditions and contexts forming autonomous system of psychiatry of Korea in the 1960s and 1970s have been concentrated. The discussion approach has been tried to secure two perspectives-treatment and criticism-at the same time and to expand the time and scope of study through the extensive texts such as newspapers, magazines, books, advertisements, and others in the 1960s and 1970s. Through formation of subject, rationalization, and popularization, this study has surveyed the characteristics of psychiatry in the 1960s and 1970s to accentuate complicated conditions and kinetic steps to systemize psychiatry as scientific field to promote treatment of patients by deviating from mental hygiene approaching national mental health from cleanliness and removal. The characteristics are summarized as follows. First, as the ethical models of good doctors, medical paternalistic doctors, and non-authoritarian symmetric doctors have been proposed as good psychiatrists by new medical specialists with experience of globality, a new subject emerges. However, there has been illegalization process of unlicensed medical practitioner excluded by the regulatory authority called “clearness.” Second, the rationalization of psychiatry has been accelerated through the dispute of enactment of Mental Hygiene Law, segmentalization of concept of mental illness, and scientific characteristics. Especially, the disputes over enactment of Mental Hygiene Law focused on criminalization of mental patients brought a result to regulate the patients as the target of humanistic treatment and potential criminals at the same time. Third, popularization of psychiatry has embraced invisible mental illness into popular daily life

  8. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

  9. BATHROOM TRANSFORMATION: FROM HYGIENE TO WELL-BEING?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study....... In particular, the notion of well-being is highlighted as challenging existing hygiene ideas....

  10. Effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Beselam; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2017-11-01

    Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention. A four-stage random cluster-sampling technique was employed to select study participants. From each selected household, one child was clinically assessed for active trachoma. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic and behavioral data. MacNemar test was applied to compare the prevalence of active trachoma between baseline and after the intervention period at both intervention and non-intervention study areas. The prevalence of active trachoma was reduced from baseline prevalence of 26% to 18% after one-year intervention period in the intervention woredas (P≤0.001). MacNemar test result showed significant reduction of active trachoma prevalence after the intervention period in the intervention woredas compared to the non-intervention woredas (P≤0.001). Water, sanitation and hygiene related activities were significantly improved after the intervention period in the intervention woredas (Phygiene interventions contributed to the reduction of active trachoma. However, the magnitude of active trachoma prevalence observed after the intervention is still very high in the studied areas of North and South Wollo Zones communities. To achieve the global trachoma elimination target by the year 2020 as set by the WHO, continued WaSH interventions and periodic monitoring, evaluation and reporting of the impact of WaSH on active trachoma is warranted.

  11. Sleep hygiene among veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.

  12. Hand hygiene posters: motivators or mixed messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-07-01

    Poster campaigns regarding hand hygiene are commonly used by infection control teams to improve practice, yet little is known of the extent to which they are based on established theory or research. This study reports on the content analysis of hand hygiene posters (N=69) and their messages (N=75) using message-framing theory. The results showed that posters seldom drew on knowledge about effective ways to frame messages. Frequently, they simply conveyed information 'telling' rather than 'selling' and some of this was confusing. Most posters were not designed to motivate, and some conveyed mixed messages. Few used fear appeals. Hand hygiene posters could have a greater impact if principles of message framing were utilized in their design. Suggestions for gain-framed messages are offered, but these need to be tested empirically.

  13. Statistical trend of radiation chemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the field of radiation chemistry, over 1,000 reports are published year after year. Attempt has been made to review the trends in this field for more than five years, by looking through the lists of papers statistically. As for the period from 1974 to 1978, Annual Cumulation with Keyword and Author Indexes in the Biweekly List of Papers on Radiation Chemistry was referred to. For 1979, because of the unavailability of the Cumulation, Chemical Abstracts Search by Japan Information Center of Science and Technology was referred to. The contents are as follows: how far radiation chemistry is studied, what the trends of radiation chemistry is in recent years, who contributes to the advance of radiation chemistry, and where, the trend radiation chemistry takes in 1979. (J.P.N.)

  14. Optimizing Health Care Environmental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Philip C

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a review and perspectives on aspects of optimizing health care environmental hygiene. The topics covered include the epidemiology of environmental surface contamination, a discussion of cleaning health care patient area surfaces, an overview of disinfecting health care surfaces, an overview of challenges in monitoring cleaning versus cleanliness, a description of an integrated approach to environmental hygiene and hand hygiene as interrelated disciplines, and an overview of the research opportunities and challenges related to health care environmental hygiene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementation of WHO multimodal strategy for improvement of hand hygiene: a quasi-experimental study in a Traditional Chinese Medicine hospital in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Wang, Xiaoqing; An, Junming; An, Jialu; Zhou, Ning; Sun, Lu; Chen, Hong; Feng, Lin; Han, Jing; Liu, Xiaorong

    2017-01-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is an essential component for preventing and controlling of healthcare-associated infection (HAI), whereas compliance with HH among health care workers (HCWs) is frequently poor. This study aimed to assess compliance and correctness with HH before and after the implementation of a multimodal HH improvement strategy launched by the World Health Organization (WHO). A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaire survey generalizing possible factors affecting HH behaviors of HCWs and direct observation method was used to evaluate the effectiveness of WHO multimodal HH strategy in a hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Multimodal HH improvement strategy was drawn up according to the results of questionnaire survey. Compliance and correctness with HH among HCWs were compared before and after intervention. Also HH practices for different indications based on WHO "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" were recorded. In total, 553 HCWs participated in the questionnaire survey and multimodal HH improvement strategy was developed based on individual, environment and management levels. A total of 5044 observations in 23 wards were recorded in this investigation. The rate of compliance and correctness with HH improved from 66.27% and 47.75% at baseline to 80.53% and 88.35% after intervention. Doctors seemed to have better compliance with HH after intervention (84.04%) than nurses and other HCWs (81.07% and 69.42%, respectively). When stratified by indication, compliance with HH improved for all indications after intervention ( P  Implementing the WHO multimodal HH strategy can significantly improve HH compliance and correctness among HCWs.

  16. The use of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in some secondary school students at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: A short term prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byalakere R Chandrashekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study design : It was a short term prospective pilot study on a group of 116 secondary school students. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of using the services of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in secondary school students and compare the effectiveness of dental health education (DHE offered by school teachers on a fortnightly basis with what is offered by dental professionals at three- monthly intervals. Materials and Methods: Six secondary schools were randomly selected. The base-line Oral Hygiene Index simplified (OHI-S and Plaque index (PI scores for all the students were recorded. The teachers were trained on dental health facts. The six schools were divided into three groups of two schools with different intervention techniques: Group 1- Schools given no health education, Group 2 - Schools given health education by their school teachers on a fortnightly basis together with simple screening for deposits of gross calculus , Group 3 - Schools which were given health education by dental professionals at intervals of three months without any screening. Grade nine students were selected for pre and post intervention evaluation. The second examination was done six months following the intervention to find out the OHI-S and Plaque index scores. The examination was done by three trained and calibrated dentists. Data analysis was done with SPSS 16 with relevant statistical tests. Results: The mean OHI-S and PI scores were significantly less in group 2 and there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI - S, PI score and the scores after six months in all the three groups. Conclusion: The concept of utilizing the teachers for frequent DHE and screening for any gross deposits of food debris and calculus is feasible. Also frequent DHE by teachers was more effective than the infrequent DHE by the professionals.

  17. Changes in Generic and Degree Completion Dental Hygiene Student Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sandra; Rubinstein, Linda

    1989-01-01

    A study compared the characteristics of dental hygiene students in two programs (bachelor's degree and two-year professional dental hygiene training) in 1978 and 1987 to assess changes over time. Results are presented and the implications for enrollment management are discussed. (MSE)

  18. Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Eugene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

  19. Knowledge, attitude towards and practice of oral hygiene among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Oral hygiene involves the prevention of oral diseases which have been found to be common in pregnancy. Dental care in pregnancy aims at achieving healthy oral environment. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude towards and practice of oral hygiene among antenatal clinic attendees in public ...

  20. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  1. Are hospitals too clean to trigger good hand hygiene?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, D.S. van der; Voss, A.

    2009-01-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene in the healthcare setting is generally low. The aim of the present study was to investigate the degree of compliance with hand hygiene after toilet visits inside and outside the hospital. We observed hospital/laboratory staff, participants of the European Congress of

  2. Determinants of good oral hygiene among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in ...

  3. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  4. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of a sodium carbonate spray combined with professional oral hygiene procedures in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Alessio; Broccoletti, Roberto; Cafaro, Adriana; Cabras, Marco; Carcieri, Paola; Arduino, Paolo G

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to make an initial estimation on the effects of a sodium bicarbonate and xylitol spray (Cariex ® ), associated with non-surgical periodontal therapy, in participants with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that predominantly involves salivary and lachrymal glands, with the clinical effect of dry eyes and mouth. A prospective cohort of 22 women and two men has been evaluated. They were randomized into three groups (eight patients each): Group A) those treated once with non-surgical periodontal therapy, education and motivation to oral hygiene, associated with the use of Cariex ® ; Group B) treated only with Cariex ® ; Group C) treated only with non-surgical periodontal therapy, education and motivation to oral hygiene. Clinical variables described after treatment were unstimulated whole salivary flow, stimulated whole salivary flow, salivary pH, reported pain (using Visual Analogue Scale) and the Periodontal Screening and Recording index. Salivary flow rate improved in all groups, but the difference was statistically significant only in those treated with Cariex ® , alone or in combination with periodontal therapy. Gingival status improved in participants who underwent periodontal non-surgical therapy while remained unchanged in those only treated with Cariex ® . Reported pain decreased in all groups, showing the best result in participants treated with periodontal therapy together with Cariex ® . We propose a practical approach for improving gingival conditions and alleviating oral symptoms in patients with SS. Future randomized and controlled trials are however required to confirm these results as well as larger population, and also assessing other parameters due to oral dryness, possible oral infections and more comprehensive periodontal indices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  7. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care...

  8. Efficiency of Motivation Development Models for Hygienic Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Tscymbalystov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The combined influence of a family and a state plays an important role in the development of an individual. This study is aimed at the model effectiveness evaluation concerning the development of oral hygiene skills among children living in families (n = 218 and being under the care of a state (n = 229. The groups were created among the children who took part in the study: the preschoolers of 5-7 years, schoolchildren of 8-11 years and adolescents of 12-15 years. During the initial examination, the hygienic status of the oral cavity before and after tooth brushing was evaluated. After that, subgroups were formed in each age group according to three models of hygienic skills training: 1 computer presentation lesson; 2 one of the students acted as a demonstrator of the skill; 3 an individual training by a hygienist. During the next 48 hours children did not take hygienic measures. Then the children were invited for a control session to demonstrate the acquired skills of oral care and evaluate the effectiveness of a model developing the skills of individual oral hygiene. During the control examination, the hygienic status was determined before and after the tooth cleaning, which allowed to determine the regimes of hygienic measure performance for children with different social status and the effectiveness of hygiene training models.

  9. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J

    2011-03-01

    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice.

  10. Cleanliness in context: reconciling hygiene with a modern microbial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegrift, Roo; Bateman, Ashley C; Siemens, Kyla N; Nguyen, May; Wilson, Hannah E; Green, Jessica L; Van Den Wymelenberg, Kevin G; Hickey, Roxana J

    2017-07-14

    The concept of hygiene is rooted in the relationship between cleanliness and the maintenance of good health. Since the widespread acceptance of the germ theory of disease, hygiene has become increasingly conflated with sterilization. In reviewing studies across the hygiene literature (most often hand hygiene), we found that nearly all studies of hand hygiene utilize bulk reduction in bacterial load as a proxy for reduced transmission of pathogenic organisms. This treatment of hygiene may be insufficient in light of recent microbial ecology research, which has demonstrated that humans have intimate and evolutionarily significant relationships with a diverse assemblage of microorganisms (our microbiota). The human skin is home to a diverse and specific community of microorganisms, which include members that exist across the ecological spectrum from pathogen through commensal to mutualist. Most evidence suggests that the skin microbiota is likely of direct benefit to the host and only rarely exhibits pathogenicity. This complex ecological context suggests that the conception of hygiene as a unilateral reduction or removal of microbes has outlived its usefulness. As such, we suggest the explicit definition of hygiene as "those actions and practices that reduce the spread or transmission of pathogenic microorganisms, and thus reduce the incidence of disease."

  11. Association between oral and general hygiene behaviours among Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbariha, Maryam; Sheiham, Aubrey; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Dorri, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    To assess the association between oral and general hygiene behaviours in 12-year-old Iranians and the impact of sociodemographic and educational factors on the association. A representative random sample of 550 12-year-old Iranian adolescents from two deprived tribes answered a 41-item questionnaire on sociodemographic background, education and oral and general hygiene behaviours. The association between tooth cleaning frequency and other study outcome variables were tested using binary logistic regression. The sex differences in the study outcome variables were investigated using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The frequency of tooth cleaning was significantly associated with a general hygiene behaviour: frequency of taking a bath (OR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.7). This association remained significant when sociodemographic factors and educational factors were added to the model both separately (P Oral and a general hygiene behaviour were strongly associated. Oral, general and environmental hygiene programmes should use integrated approaches.

  12. Effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tongue cleaning is an important aspect of oral hygiene maintenance along with other mechanical and chemical aids. These methods have an influence on microorganism count in saliva. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial with 45 study subjects aged between 14 and 16 years and were randomly allocated into three groups: Group A - plastic tongue scraper, Group B - chlorhexidine mouthwash along with plastic tongue scraper, and Group C - chlorhexidine mouthwash. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected on the 1st, 7th, and 15th day before routine oral hygiene practices. Saliva samples were collected and incubated for 48 h on itis Salivarius(MS agar. Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus salivarius were counted. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean count of S. mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius for Group A, B, and C was found to be significant (P < 0.001 when compared between 1st, 7th, and 15th day. Between-groups comparisons revealed a significant difference between Groups A and C, B and C (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in bacterial count in all the participants indicating that all the three methods are useful in improving oral hygiene. Combination technique was found to be most effective.

  13. The Inquiry Approach in Dental Hygiene Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ruth Lois; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study to assess the impact of an inquiry-oriented curriculum in a dental hygiene program is described. Two instruments, designed to measure student perception of personal and faculty inquiry and disinquiry behavior, were administered. The implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  14. A reformulation of the hygiene hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between allergic respiratory diseases and the number of siblings. It was hypothesized that the lower prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in large sibships was due to cross-infections between siblings. According to this hygiene...

  15. Epidemiology, occupational hygiene and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of radiation protection practices to the practice of occupational medicine and hygiene is discussed. For example, accurate studies of a number of biological systems were stimulated. It is suggested that an accurate epidemiological assessment of workers exposed at or below the recommended radiation dose limits be undertaken. (H.K.)

  16. Dental Hygiene Realpolitik Affecting Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…

  17. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from

  18. Personal Hygiene Practices among Urban Homeless Persons in Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Nguyen, Daniel D; León, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M; Perez, Debora

    2017-08-18

    Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA ( n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population. Most participants (72%) reported taking a daily shower. More than 60% reported hand washing with soap five or more times each day, and use of hand sanitizer was widespread (89% reported using sanitizer in the last week). A majority (86%) used a laundromat or laundry machine to wash clothing, while 14% reported washing clothing in the sink. Heavy drinking, injection drug use, and sleeping outdoors were identified as significant risk factors for reduced hygiene practices. People experiencing homelessness who also engage in these activities may be among the most difficult to reach for intervention, yet targeted efforts may decrease illness risk associated with reduced hygiene. Housed friends and family play a critical role in assisting homeless individuals maintain hygiene by providing showers and laundry facilities.

  19. Improving hospital hygiene to reduce the impact of multidrug-resistant organisms in health care--a prospective controlled multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, Miriam G; Piegsa, Jens; Schäfer, Christian; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Wilke, Florian; Reuter, Susanne; Engel, Georg; Ewert, Ralf; Claus, Franziska; Hübner, Claudia; Ried, Walter; Flessa, Steffen; Kramer, Axel; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2015-10-22

    Nosocomial infections are the most common complication during inpatient hospital care. An increasing proportion of these infections are caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). This report describes an intervention study which was designed to address the practical problems encountered in trying to avoid and treat infections caused by MDROs. The aim of the HARMONIC (Harmonized Approach to avert Multidrug-resistant Organisms and Nosocomial Infections) study is to provide comprehensive support to hospitals in a defined study area in north-east Germany, to meet statutory requirements. To this end, a multimodal system of hygiene management was implemented in the participating hospitals. HARMONIC is a controlled intervention study conducted in eight acute care hospitals in the 'Health Region Baltic Sea Coast' in Germany. The intervention measures include the provision of written recommendations on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN), supplemented by regional recommendations for antibiotic prescriptions. In addition, there is theoretical and practical training of health care workers (HCWs) in the prevention and handling of MDROs, as well as targeted and critically gauged applications of antibiotics. The main outcomes of the implementation and analysis of the HARMONIC study are: (i) screening rates for MRSA, VRE and MRGN in high-risk patients, (ii) the frequency of MRSA decolonization, (iii) the level of knowledge of HCWs concerning MDROs, and (iv) specific types and amounts of antibiotics used. The data are predominantly obtained by paper-based questionnaires and documentation sheets. A computer-assisted workflow-based documentation system was developed in order to provide support to the participating facilities. The investigation includes three nested studies on risk profiles of MDROs, health-related quality of life, and cost analysis. A six-month follow

  20. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  1. [A case-control study: association between oral hygiene and oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J F; Lin, L S; Chen, F; Liu, F Q; Huang, J F; Yan, L J; Liu, F P; Qiu, Y; Zheng, X Y; Cai, L; He, B C

    2017-08-06

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of oral hygiene on risk of oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women. Methods: From September 2010 to February 2016, 242 non-smoking and non-drinking female patients with pathologically confirmed oral cancer were recruited in a hospital of Fuzhou, and another 856 non-smoking and non-drinking healthy women from health examination center in the same hospital were selected as control group. Five oral hygiene related variables including the frequency of teeth brushing, number of teeth lost, poor prosthesis, regular dental visits and recurrent dental ulceration were used to develop oral hygiene index model. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios ( OR ) and 95% confidence intervals (95 %CI ). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the predictability of the oral hygiene index model. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between oral hygiene index and the incidence of oral cancer. Results: Teeth brushing oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women, the corresponding OR (95 %CI ) were 1.50 (1.08-2.09), 1.81 (1.15-2.85), 1.51 (1.03-2.23), 1.73 (1.15-2.59), 7.30 (4.00-13.30), respectively. The AUROC of the oral hygiene index model was 0.705 9, indicating a high predictability. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the oral hygiene index was associated with risk of oral cancer. The higher the score, the higher risk was observed. The corresponding OR (95 %CI ) of oral hygiene index scores (score 1, score 2, score 3, score 4-5) were 2.51 (0.84-7.53), 4.68 (1.59-13.71), 6.47 (2.18-19.25), 15.29 (5.08-45.99), respectively. Conclusion: Oral hygiene could influence the incidence of oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women, and oral hygiene index has a certain significance in assessing the combined effects of oral hygiene.

  2. A Prospective Longitudinal Study on Implant Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Controlled HIV-Positive Patients with 1-Year Follow-Up: The Role of CD4+ Level, Smoking Habits, and Oral Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlone, Enrico F; Capparé, Paolo; Tecco, Simona; Polizzi, Elisabetta; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    A recent study showed that implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in well-controlled HIV patients gave slightly worse results than in an healthy population, and failures were all linked to infection. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the success of implant-prosthetic treatment and systemic CD4+ level, smoking habits, and oral hygiene. This mono-centric study included HIV patients with a stable disease and good oral hygiene requiring implant rehabilitation. Each patient received at least one dental implant. Prosthesis were delivered after 90 days in the upper jaw and 60 days in the lower jaw. Primary outcome measures were prosthetic failures, implant failures, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, and biological complications (peri-implantitis, pus, pain, paresthesia). The possible association with CD4 count, smoking habits, and oral hygiene was analyzed. Sixty-eight patients received 194 implants, and 66 patients (190 implants) were followed for 1 year. No significant associations were found between CD4+ count, oral hygiene-associated variables, and any of the outcome measures. If compared with nonsmoking/light smoking patients, patients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day suffered a statistically significant greater number of implant failures (p ≤ .005), presented a comparatively higher number of peri-implantitis (p 10 cigarettes/day) demonstrated an increased risk of early implant failure, peri-implantitis, episodes of pus, and self-reported pain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. HYGIENE DAN SANITASI DI THE 18th KITCHEN THE TRANS LUXURY HOTEL BANDUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas Setio Kresnadi; Rian Andriani

    2016-01-01

    Abstract - Kitchen is a food processing center at the hotel. Good and bad food products in hotel determined on Personal hygiene, sanitation food, sanitation equipment, and sanitary environment in the hotel kitchen is well organized. Hygiene and sanitation in the kitchen is essential to produce healthy food and clean, this study found that poor personal hygiene are employees who are less aware of hand hygiene, food storage facilities that do not match the standard, not the availability of ultr...

  4. The Effect of Teaching Experience on Service-Learning Beliefs of Dental Hygiene Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Sharlee Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental causal-comparative study was to determine if service-learning teaching experience affects dental hygiene faculty perceptions of service-learning benefits and barriers in the United States. Dental hygiene educators from entry-level dental hygiene education programs in the United States completed the Web-based…

  5. Dental Hygiene Entry-Level Program Administrators' Strategies for Overcoming Challenges of Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Bette A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the…

  6. PERILAKU PERSONAL HYGIENE GENITALIA SANTRIWATI DI PESANTREN UMMUL MUKMININ MAKASSAR SULAWESI SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sandriana; Ibnu, Indra Fajarwati; Rachman, Watief A.

    2015-01-01

    Salah satu akibat kurangnya pemahaman personal hygiene genitalia yaitu terjadinya gangguan kesehatan organ reproduksi seperti keputihan, infeksi saluran kemih (ISK), penyakit radang panggul (PRP) dan kemungkinan terjadi kanker leher rahim sehingga dibutuhkan pemahaman yang baik mengenai personal hygiene genitalia pada remaja agar dapat terhindar dari ancaman penyakit reproduksi. Studi kualitatif dengan rancangan fenomenologi dilakukan untuk mengetahui perilaku personal hygiene genitalia santr...

  7. Sanitation and Hygiene-Specific Risk Factors for Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Young Children in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, 2007-2011: Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kelly K; O'Reilly, Ciara E; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen L; Nataro, James P; Ayers, Tracy L; Farag, Tamer H; Nasrin, Dilruba; Blackwelder, William C; Wu, Yukun; Alonso, Pedro L; Breiman, Robert F; Omore, Richard; Faruque, Abu S G; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K M; Quadri, Fahreen; Mintz, Eric D

    2016-05-01

    Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of disease in children less than 5 y of age. Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions are the primary routes of exposure and infection. Sanitation and hygiene interventions are estimated to generate a 36% and 48% reduction in diarrheal risk in young children, respectively. Little is known about whether the number of households sharing a sanitation facility affects a child's risk of diarrhea. The objective of this study was to describe sanitation and hygiene access across the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) sites in Africa and South Asia and to assess sanitation and hygiene exposures, including shared sanitation access, as risk factors for moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children less than 5 y of age. The GEMS matched case-control study was conducted between December 1, 2007, and March 3, 2011, at seven sites in Basse, The Gambia; Nyanza Province, Kenya; Bamako, Mali; Manhiça, Mozambique; Mirzapur, Bangladesh; Kolkata, India; and Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected for 8,592 case children aged hygiene exposures and MSD. Most households at six sites (>93%) had access to a sanitation facility, while 70% of households in rural Kenya had access to a facility. Practicing open defecation was a risk factor for MSD in children <5 y old in Kenya. Sharing sanitation facilities with 1-2 or ≥3 other households was a statistically significant risk factor for MSD in Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan. Among those with a designated handwashing area near the home, soap or ash were more frequently observed at control households and were significantly protective against MSD in Mozambique and India. This study suggests that sharing a sanitation facility with just one to two other households can increase the risk of MSD in young children, compared to using a private facility. Interventions aimed at increasing access to private household sanitation facilities may reduce the burden of MSD in children. These findings

  8. Sanitation and Hygiene-Specific Risk Factors for Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Young Children in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, 2007–2011: Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Farag, Tamer H.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; Omore, Richard; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O.; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Quadri, Fahreen; Mintz, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of disease in children less than 5 y of age. Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions are the primary routes of exposure and infection. Sanitation and hygiene interventions are estimated to generate a 36% and 48% reduction in diarrheal risk in young children, respectively. Little is known about whether the number of households sharing a sanitation facility affects a child's risk of diarrhea. The objective of this study was to describe sanitation and hygiene access across the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) sites in Africa and South Asia and to assess sanitation and hygiene exposures, including shared sanitation access, as risk factors for moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children less than 5 y of age. Methods/Findings The GEMS matched case-control study was conducted between December 1, 2007, and March 3, 2011, at seven sites in Basse, The Gambia; Nyanza Province, Kenya; Bamako, Mali; Manhiça, Mozambique; Mirzapur, Bangladesh; Kolkata, India; and Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected for 8,592 case children aged sanitation and hygiene exposures and MSD. Most households at six sites (>93%) had access to a sanitation facility, while 70% of households in rural Kenya had access to a facility. Practicing open defecation was a risk factor for MSD in children sanitation facilities with 1–2 or ≥3 other households was a statistically significant risk factor for MSD in Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan. Among those with a designated handwashing area near the home, soap or ash were more frequently observed at control households and were significantly protective against MSD in Mozambique and India. Conclusions This study suggests that sharing a sanitation facility with just one to two other households can increase the risk of MSD in young children, compared to using a private facility. Interventions aimed at increasing access to private household sanitation facilities may reduce the burden of

  9. [Personal hygiene and cleanliness in an international comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler, R

    1989-04-01

    The investigation was intended to analyse the attitude towards hygiene and cleanliness in the Federal Republic of Germany, France, and Spain. On the basis of a theoretical explanatory model and empirically gained qualitative raw data a standardized questionnaire was prepared; in a number of questions comparability with a study carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 was ensured. In all countries the population was subjected to representative random tests (Federal Republic of Germany n = 1016; France n = 517; Spain n = 514). The paper presents a review of the hypothesis that quality and intensity of the cleanliness increases with (1) the extent of personal sensitivity to hygiene in the private, professional and public sphere, (2) with increasing physical sensibility, (3) the increase in our knowledge of hygiene and health, (4) with the increase in the personal behavioral standards for measures concerned with prevention, hygiene of the body, household, underwear and environment, (5) with the increasing weight given to hygiene and toilet during the process of development, and (6) with the extent of regular control of education in cleanliness based on established rules of behavior. The spheres of behavior investigated and mentioned below confirmed the validity of the hypothesis for (1) household hygiene (spring-cleaning, window cleaning, cleaning of the home: dusting, vacuum-cleaning, cleaning of the floor), (2) hygiene of the body (frequency of taking a shower, bathing, toothbrushing, intimate hygiene), (3) hygiene of the laundry (frequency of changing underclothes such as panties/underpants, brassieres, nightgowns/pyjamas, stockings/socks, linen, pillows, dish and kitchen towels). The following general findings were established: (1) In the Federal Republic of Germany the attitude towards hygiene and cleanliness has improved over the last 20 years. (2) The level of hygiene and cleanliness in France and Spain is significantly higher than in the FRG. (3

  10. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recordings and another written in Braille and were instructed to practice the same. After three months time the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience was recorded and compared using patient performance index. Statistical analysis was done by student paired t test and multiple comparison by Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) test. The mean PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) score of group A at baseline was 3.88 compared to 3.90 of group B. At 7 days PHP score of group A and group B was 3.42 and 3.45 respectively. At 3 month PHP score of group A and group B was 2.47 and 2.86 respectively. Even though over a period of time the mean score of PHP index reduced the score comparison between the 2 groups were statistically non significant. In group A the mean difference of PHP score between baseline and 7 days was 0.46, between baseline and 3 months it was 1.40. The PHP score between 7 days and 3 months was 0.94. All the above values were statistically significant. Effective dental health education method has to be instituted for visually impaired children. The present study shows improvement of oral health status in both the study population by decrease in the mean plaque score. Hence continuous motivation and reinforcement in the form of Braille and audio instruction is beneficial to achieve good oral hygiene levels in visually impaired children.

  11. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children’s nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Erismann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled “Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification” (VgtS, a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i describe schoolchildren’s health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. Methods/Design The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8–14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i the ‘complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention’ arm; and the (ii ‘control’ arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children’s nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be

  12. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  13. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M

    2014-03-17

    Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs' perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3). In the

  14. Oral hygiene grade and quality of life in children with chemotherapy-related oral mucositis: a randomized study on the impact of a fluoride toothpaste with salivary enzymes, essential oils, proteins and colostrum extract versus a fluoride toothpaste without menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardellini, E; Amadori, F; Majorana, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the use of a fluoride toothpaste (Bioxtra ® , Biopharm, Milan, Italy) with salivary enzymes, essential oils, proteins and colostrum extract versus a fluoride toothpaste without menthol on the oral hygiene grade and on the quality of life (QoL) of children with oral mucositis (OM) grade 1 or 2 receiving chemotherapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL). Patients between 6 and 14 years with OM were randomly assigned to two groups, group A (Bioxtra ® toothpaste) and group B (fluoride toothpaste without menthol). The patients were instructed to brush their teeth at least twice a day using a soft toothbrush with a small head. Oral hygiene grade was assessed using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-s); quality of life was assessed using the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires. The patients were evaluated on day 1(diagnosis of OM-T0) and on day 8 (T1). Statistical analysis was performed. A total of 64 patients were enrolled. A significant difference (P oral hygiene grade. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang; Mao Xueying; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Qian Qingfang; Hou Xiaolin; Zhang Peiqun; Chen Chunying; Feng Weiyu; Ding Wenjun; Li Xiaolin; Li Chunsheng; Dai Xiongxin

    2001-01-01

    The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

  16. Validation of a questionnaire on hand hygiene in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Johan G; Zilaout, Hicham; Heederik, Dick; Spee, Ton; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2014-10-01

    Construction workers are at risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. Gloves, when used properly, may protect against chemicals and coarse materials. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of contact dermatitis in a population of Dutch construction workers and aimed at validating questionnaire items on hand hygiene. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 13 construction sites, yielding data of 177 subjects (95% response rate). A questionnaire covering questions on hand hygiene and contact dermatitis symptoms was used. Agreement between workplace observations and a number of questionnaire items was assessed by calculating Cohen's kappa. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to assess the association between contact dermatitis and various hand hygiene-related determinants. The 1-year prevalence of self-reported contact dermatitis in our study sample was 46.9%. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive association with difficulties with hand cleaning (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.52), hand contamination at the end of the working day (PR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.14-4.65), and intensive hand cream use (PR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.42-3.01). Observations of hand contamination, glove use, and glove types were found to agree well with the self-reported data from the questionnaire (Cohen's kappa's 0.75, 0.97, and 0.88). Self-reported contact dermatitis prevalence in construction workers was high and related to hand hygiene. A strong agreement was found between workplace observations and self-reported questionnaire data. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  17. Hospitalisation impacts on oral hygiene: an audit of oral hygiene in a metropolitan health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, Rachael; Ryan, Anna; Plummer, Virginia; Williams, Cylie

    2016-03-01

    Poor oral health has been associated with systemic diseases, morbidity and mortality. Many patients in hospital environments are physically compromised and rely upon awareness and assistance from health professionals for the maintenance or improvement of their oral health. This study aimed to identify whether common individual and environment factors associated with hospitalisation impacted on oral hygiene. Data were collected during point prevalence audits of patients in the acute and rehabilitation environments on three separate occasions. Data included demographic information, plaque score, presence of dental hygiene products, independence level and whether nurse assistance was documented in the health record. Data were collected for 199 patients. A higher plaque score was associated with not having a toothbrush (p = 0.002), being male (p = 0.007), being acutely unwell (p = 0.025) and requiring nursing assistance for oral hygiene (p = 0.002). There was fair agreement between the documentation of requiring assistance for oral care and the patient independently able to perform oral hygiene (ICC = 0.22). Oral hygiene was impacted by factors arising from hospitalisation, for those without a toothbrush and male patients of acute wards. Establishment of practices that increase awareness and promote good oral health should be prioritised. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Advancing education in dental hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battrell, Ann; Lynch, Ann; Steinbach, Pam; Bessner, Sue; Snyder, Josh; Majeski, Jean

    2014-06-01

    The changing health care environment and societal imperatives indicate the need for transformative change within the dental hygiene profession to serve the emerging needs of the public. The American Dental Hygienists' Association is leading the way toward meaningful change. The American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) has as its vision the integration of dental hygienists into the health care delivery system as essential primary care providers to expand access to oral health care. This article provides data on current dental hygiene education programs and those in development. Also included is a discussion regarding how the dental hygiene profession can better serve the health and wellness needs of society by transforming the way graduates are prepared for the future. ADHA's dental hygiene survey center data, policies and a futuristic analysis plus a review of the professional literature describe the current state of dental hygiene education and the profession. A discussion of societal, health care and educational trends that creates the imperative for transformation of the dental hygiene profession is provided. Ultimately, the purpose of advancing education in dental hygiene is to achieve better oral and overall health for more people. The profession's responsibility to the public includes evaluating its own ability to provide care and taking the steps necessary to ensure its maximum effectiveness. ADHA is leading this process for dental hygienists in diverse ways. It is imperative that the dental hygiene profession understands and embraces the changing health care environment. Through open dialog and the sharing of evidence the professional path will be determined along with forward movement for the benefit of society and the dental hygiene profession. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of hygiene in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programme areas of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Tahera; Ali, Armm Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Improved hygiene is one of the most effective means of reducing disease occurrence. However, a complete understanding of the factors that contribute to such improvement are not clear. This study explored factors that facilitate and/or impede hygiene behavior in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention areas using qualitative research techniques. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) has been providing WASH intervention to 150 rural upazilas (sub-districts) since 2006. For qualitative data collection, in-depth interviews were conducted with 144 purposively selected women from six upazilas across Bangladesh. A woman in the household was considered as a case and interviewed regarding various aspects of sanitation and hygiene, using a checklist. Some practices, such as cleanliness of latrines, and availability of soap, water, slippers in their designated place were physically verified. The respondents' hygiene behavior was mainly facilitated by improved knowledge and awareness of health and environment-related issues. Latrine ownership increased through financial assistance, resulting in improved privacy, social prestige, and a heightened sense of responsibility towards maintaining a healthy life. However, lack of interest in attending cluster meetings, traditional knowledge, poverty, and lack of will were some of the factors impeding knowledge and hygiene practice. In addition, attitude played a definitive role, with some respondents not practicing hygiene in spite of having the financial ability to do so. They expected full financial support for creating sanitation and hygiene facilities in their household despite BRAC's policy of providing such support only to the 'ultra-poor'. The identified impeding factors often act as barriers to transformation of hygiene-related knowledge into practice and practice into habit. More motivational cluster meetings with large-scale participation and periodic home visits by the programme organizers are

  20. An integrated occupational hygiene consultation model for the catering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2010-07-01

    Vegetable oil used in food processing, during high-temperature exposure, will generate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are carcinogenic chemical compounds, with the potential to cause lung disease for restaurant kitchen staff. This study's design includes a three-stage consultation process with eight major consultation items, in order to build an integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene. This model combines inspection and consultation, targeting Chinese restaurants in the catering industry. Characteristics of the integrated consultation model include cooperation between different government departments and collaboration with nongovernmental, professional consulting organizations. An additional benefit of the model is the building of a good partnership relationship with the Catering Trade Association. The consultation model helps Chinese restaurants attain improvements in their work environments with minimal investment. Postconsultation, results show a 63.35% and 61.98% (P < 0.001) decrease in the mean time-weighted concentration of exposure to PM and PAHs, respectively. The overall regulation compliance rate of Chinese restaurants significantly increased from 34.3% to 89.6%. These results show that the integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene not only helps small and medium enterprises reduce exposure concentrations in the workplace but also has specific potential for successful implementation in Taiwan.

  1. The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A dental health care worker (DHCW) has an obligation to prevent the spread of health care associated infections. Adhering to proper hand hygiene procedures, selecting appropriate hand hygiene products and the use of gloves are all important elements of infection control. The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene state that improved hand hygiene practices can reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health care settings. DHCWs must also protect themselves by recognizing pitfalls such as irritants or allergies that may pose obstacles to proper hand hygiene. Occupational irritants and allergies can be caused by frequent hand washing, exposure to hand hygiene products, exposure to chemicals and shear forces associated with wearing or removing gloves. Since the primary defense against infection and transmission of pathogens is healthy, unbroken skin, DHCWs must take steps to ensure that their skin remains healthy and intact. These steps include evaluating different types of hand hygiene products, lotions and gloves for the best compatibility. If the DHCW sees a breakdown of his or her skin barrier, steps should be taken to determine the cause and remedy. Remedies can include the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing emollients and moisturizers and regular use of a medical grade hand lotion. The bottom line: healthy skin protects you at work and at home. Selection and use of appropriate hand hygiene products, including moisturizers, are an essential part ofa dental office infection control program. My coworker lost the use of her thumb for several months due to complications of a staph infection. She was unable to work and found even simple tasks such as closing a button hard to do. Think of how difficult your work would be if something happened to your hands. Injury, irritation or allergies could alter your ability to work or even perform routine tasks. Our hands provide us with the ability to work in clinical dentistry. It makes

  2. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  3. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al Toufailia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because

  4. Understanding the Challenges of Improving Sanitation and Hygiene Outcomes in a Community Based Intervention: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Joseph Kihika; Galukande, Moses; Maeda, Florence; Luboga, Sam; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2017-06-05

    Good sanitation and clean water are basic human rights yet they remain elusive to many rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We carried out a cross sectional study to examine the impact of a four-year intervention aimed at improving access to water and sanitation and reducing waterborne disease, especially diarrhea in children under five years old. The study was carried out in April and May 2015 in Busangi, Chela and Ntobo wards of Kahama District of Tanzania. The interventions included education campaigns and improved water supply, and sanitation. The percentage of households (HHs) with access to water within 30 min increased from 19.2 to 48.9 and 17.6 to 27.3 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The percentage of HHs with hand washing facilities at the latrine increased from 0% to 13.2%. However, the incidence of diarrhea among children under five years increased over the intervention period, RR 2.91 95% CI 2.71-3.11, p < 0.0001. Availability of water alone may not influence the incidence of waterborne diseases. Factors such as water storage and usage, safe excreta disposal and other hygiene practices are critical for interventions negating the spread of water borne diseases. A model that articulates the extent to which these factors are helpful for such interventions should be explored.

  5. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Masato; Ohta, Setsuko; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    1978-01-01

    Radiation protective effect of S,2-aminomethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide and 2-mercaptoethylamine hydrochloride was tested on mice irradiated with soft x-ray of 70 kVp, using life-prolongation effect as an index. These compounds showed a marked effect on mice irradiated with 11000--13000 R, using a 10 mm acrylate filter. This method seemed to be usable as a potency testing for chemical radioprotectors. (auth.)

  6. Hand hygiene compliance in a universal gloving setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruno, Noriko; Kasahara, Kei; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2017-08-01

    The use of gloves for every patient contact (ie, universal gloving) has been suggested as an infection prevention adjunct and alternative to contact precautions. However, gloves may carry organisms unless they are changed properly. In addition, hand hygiene is required before donning and after removing gloves, and there are scarce data regarding glove changing and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting. This nonrandomized observational before-after study evaluated the effect of education and feedback regarding hand hygiene. Compliance with hand hygiene and glove use was directly observed in a universal gloving setting at a 10-bed intensive care unit in a Japanese tertiary care university teaching hospital. A total of 6,050 hand hygiene opportunities were identified. Overall, hand hygiene compliance steadily increased from study period 1 (16.1%) to period 5 (56.8%), although there were indication-specific differences in the baseline compliance, the degree of improvement, and the reasons for noncompliance. There were decreases in the compliance with universal gloving and the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It is difficult to properly perform glove use and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting, given its complexity. Direct observation with specific feedback and education may be effective in improving compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Task of radiation hygiene inspection at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevts, J.; Kunz, Eh.

    1983-01-01

    The task and functions of the radiation-hygiene inspection in Czechoslovakia are presented. The radiation safety related information amounts that are to be presented to the hygiene inspection institutions are determined. The hygiene inspection content and forms at the stages of NPP designing, construction and operation are discussed. The hygiene inspection place is determined within the general radiation safety system [ru

  8. Physico-chemical study on guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nahla Mubarak

    2000-05-01

    Guar plant is an annual summer plant and it can resist diseases, pests and drought. Guar gum is used in a lot of industries. The present study deals with some physical properties of two commercial grade samples of guar gum cyamopsis tetragonoloba which where produced in 1996 and 1997 seasons (S 1 and S 2 respectively). Our analytical data are compared with those of previous workers in this area and international quality. Guar gum (S 2 ) is separated into water-insoluble components. Three fractions were obtained from the water-soluble components by fractional participation using acetone. Guar gum powder is yellowish white; the water-insoluble component is brownish white. Comparison study between gum samples (S 1 and S 2 ) and water-insoluble fraction (1) and water-soluble fractions are close to each other in their physico-properties. chemical All samples and fractions contain galactomannan polysaccharide as explained by infra-red spectra.Moisture contents for the gum samples were 5.2% and 7.8% and that for the water-insoluble fraction 4.7% while that for fraction samples were 5.2%-7.5% ash contents for the gum samples was 0.81% and 1.14% and for the water-insoluble component 0.88% while the contents in the fractions between 0.5%-0.66%. Nitrogen content determination showed that the gum samples had value of 0.678% and 0.732% and water -insoluble fraction had a value of 0.118%. The values decreased in the water-soluble fractions giving 0.049%, 0.053 and 0.056%. Water-soluble component and its fractions record the following results: pH measurements showed that the water-soluble component had pH 6.70 and 6.84 while its fractions had pH 5.90 and 7.00. Viscosity measurements showed that water-soluble fractions had intrinsic viscosity of 6.4 and 6.8 dL. g -1 . The fractions derived from water-soluble fraction had intrinsic viscosity of 6.6, 7 and 7.5 dl. g -1 . Using Mark-Howink equation, calculated average molecular weights for the water-soluble components were 7.01x10 5

  9. Evaluation of Potential Effect of Menthol Solution on Oral Hygiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research April 2015; 14 (4): 687-692 ... Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, ... Keywords: Menthol mouth rinse, Chlorhexidine, Dental plaque, Gingivitis, Oral hygiene ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index ...

  10. Efficacy of an extended theory of planned behaviour model for predicting caterers' hand hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Deborah A; Griffith, Christopher J

    2008-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the factors which influence caterers' hand hygiene practices using social cognitive theory. One hundred and fifteen food handlers from 29 catering businesses were observed carrying out 31,050 food preparation actions in their workplace. Caterers subsequently completed the Hand Hygiene Instrument (HHI), which ascertained attitudes towards hand hygiene using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Health Belief Model. The TPB provided a useful framework for understanding caterers' implementation of hand hygiene practices, explaining 34% of the variance in hand hygiene malpractices (p behavioural control and intention (p food safety culture.

  11. The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control

    OpenAIRE

    Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine studies that have assessed the association between hand hygiene enhancement and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates and to explore controversies surrounding this association. Many studies have been published confirming the link between improved hand hygiene compliance and reduction in MRSA acquisition and infections, including bacteremia. These studies have also shown the cost-beneficial nature of these programmes. Despite consider...

  12. The relationship between oral hygiene and oral colonisation with Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzurovic, Selma; Babajic, Emina; Masic, Tarik; Smajic, Rubina; Selmanagic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine relationship between oral hygiene and colonisation of Candia species in oral cavity. Maintenance oral hygiene is reducing pathological agents in the mouth and preventing violation of oral health. Study included 140 patients. For oral hygiene assessement were used the dental plaque index, oral hygiene index and dental calculus index. Ph test strips were used to determine pH of saliva. For isolation of Candida species oral swabs were taken to all patients. It was found out that pH of oral cavity does not varies notably, no matter of oral hygiene level. Candida species were identified in 28.6% respondents. The most present were Candida albicans, in 85% cases. The presence of plaque, tartar and high index oral hygiene (IOH) in patients with Candida is statistically significant. It was found that 83.4% of patients with Candida poorly maintained oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene is associated with a significantly higher score in the presence of tartar, plaque and high IOH. In total patient's population 67% has amalgam fillings. Presence of amalgam fillings in patients with identified Candida was statistically significant. This study indicates low level of oral hygiene. Correlation between presence of Candida species and poor oral hygiene was proved. Also Candida was more present among patients with amalgam fillings. Improvement of oral hygiene is necessery for oral health and health in general, as well.

  13. The Association between Oral Hygiene and Gastric Pathology in Patients with Dyspepsia: a Cross-Sectional Study in Southeast Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedi, Leili; Jafari, Elham; Torabi Parizi, Molook; Shafieipour, Sara; Hayat Bakhsh Abbasi, Mehdi; Darvish Moghadam, Sodaif; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many studies have reported an association between periodontal infections and some systemic diseases such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Some studies found a direct association between chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and poor periodontal health. METHODS In a cross-sectional study from November 2014 to December 2015 in Kerman, the largest province in southeast Iran, patients with dyspepsia who were candidate for diagnostic upper gastrointes...

  14. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  15. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-10-02

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff.

  17. A Study to Assess Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Hand Hygiene amongst Residents and Nursing Staff in a Tertiary Health Care Setting of Bhopal City

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari, Veena; kaore, Navin Chandra M; Ramnani, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Borle, Amod; Kaushal, Rituja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infection due to hospital-acquired microbes is an evolving problem worldwide, and horizontal transmission of bacterial organism continues to cause a high nosocomial infection rate in health care settings. Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers.The application of hand hygiene is effective in reducing infection rates.

  18. A systematic review on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance in student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, L J; McEnroe-Petitte, D M; van de Mortel, T; Nasirudeen, A M A

    2017-10-27

    Hand hygiene competence is one of the critical outcomes in nursing education. Ensuring nursing students recognize the what, when and how of hand hygiene is critical in the light of the increasing rates of healthcare-associated infections. To systematically appraise and synthesize articles on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among nursing students. This is a systematic review of scientific articles published from 2006 to 2016. The primary databases used were as follows: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, Proquest and PsychINFO. Key search terms utilized were as follows: 'handwashing', 'hand hygiene', 'compliance', 'knowledge', 'practice' and 'nursing students'. Nineteen studies met the review criteria. The findings revealed a low-to-moderate knowledge of and compliance with hand hygiene among nursing students. In addition, there were significantly higher rates of hand hygiene compliance in nursing students when compared to medical students. Relatively few studies attempted to identify predictors of hand hygiene knowledge and compliance. This review demonstrated suboptimal knowledge and compliance to hand hygiene among student nurses. In addition, this review also highlighted the paucity of studies that examined individual and organizational factors, which influence nursing students hand hygiene knowledge and compliance. The findings of this review emphasized the role of nurse educators in enhancing hand hygiene competence in nursing students. Implementation of empirically tested strategies such as utilizing multidimensional interventions, scenario-based hand hygiene simulation activities and hand hygiene education programmes that would enhance nursing students' hand hygiene knowledge and compliance is an asset. Hospital and nursing administrators should ensure continuous support and monitoring to guarantee that hand hygiene programmes are institutionalized in every healthcare setting by every healthcare worker. © 2017

  19. Knowledge of and Adherence to Hygiene Guidelines among Medical Students in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena G. Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high.

  20. [Hygiene, safety and occupational medicine in Niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, F; Sékou, H

    1997-01-01

    The laws and rules governing hygiene, safety and medicine in the workplace in Niger were evaluated in this study. We used labour administration, health service and Social Security Department reports to review each type of professional activity and the risks associated with it. This enabled us to make recommendations to the authorities and to the organizations representing employers and staff, concerning the prevention of risks at work.

  1. Prospective, randomised, controlled study evaluating early modification of oral microbiota following admission to the intensive care unit and oral hygiene with chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Gavrilko, Oleg; Almeida, Saulo de; Sumi, Eigi Ricardo; Alberto, Thiago; Rocha, Jaime Luis; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most commonly used oral hygiene product for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). The change in dental plaque (DP) microbiota following CHX use in patients under MV has not been described previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria associated with VAP and the coverage of DP within the oral cavity in patients administered CHX. This was a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind study in patients (n=16) under MV who were mouth-rinsed with either CHX or placebo. Microbiology samples were collected from the oral mucosa (OM) and DP after admission to the ICU and on Days 3, 5, 7 and 10. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of CHX were determined. Upon admission, the occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, was reported. The CHX group had a lower incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared with the placebo group for the OM (RR=0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.98; P=0.011). There was high agreement between the culture results of OM and DP (κ=0.825). VAP developed in six patients. The species identified following tracheal aspiration of VAP patients were similar to those found in the OM for four cases. The strains showed low MICs and MBCs for CHX (<0.039mg/mL). Although DP is rapidly colonised by MDR bacteria, use of 2% CHX reduced the incidence of S. aureus colonisation. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hygiene at Work: An Engineering Perspective on the Development of Hygiene Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Pityn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the work of contemporary hygiene practitioners. Discussion converges from a broad examination of hygiene at work in our society serving the common good to occupational hygiene in the workplace. The article considers the expanding role of hygiene today, juxtaposed against the lack of awareness and perceptions of hygiene. It considers some of the current social challenges facing hygiene, perceptions of risk and problems specifically encountered by occupational hygienists.

  3. Analysis of Personal Hygiene and Food Handling on Patients Food Managementt in Rsup Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang

    OpenAIRE

    Mirawati, Mirawati; Sitorus, Rico Januar; Hasyim, Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Background : Hospital food hygiene and sanitation are generally less awake, which originated in the less hygienic food processing particularly related to personal hygiene of food handlers and poor food handling at every stage of implementation. This study aims to analyze the personal hygiene and food handling on Patients Food management in RSUP Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang, 2010. Method : This study was descriptive using a qualitative approach. Sources of information in this study amounted...

  4. Hand hygiene knowledge of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Kyle; Basco, Roselyne; Zaied, Aya; Ward, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to evaluate hygiene habits of students with fields of study, gender, and understanding of hygiene at a university in Alabama. One hundred students were randomly observed in ten restrooms on campus to determine whether or not students washed their hands. The study was divided into an observational stage, a quiz to ascertain student's knowledge of hygiene and the spread of pathogens, and a survey of self-reported illness rates. Females had a tendency to wash their hands more often than males while visiting the bathroom (p = 0.02, chi2 = 11.6). Science majors were more likely to wash their hands than non-science majors (p < or = 0.001, chi2 = 5.2). Females (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 21.5) and science majors (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 81.4) scored significantly higher on the survey than males and nonscience majors, and that those observed not washing their hands reported being sick more often than those observed washing their hands (chi2 = 155.0, df= 3, p < 0.001, Fisher's exact p < 0.001).

  5. Interventions to improve patient hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Furness, C D; Gardam, M

    2016-09-01

    Nosocomial pathogens may be acquired by patients via their own unclean hands, but there has been relatively little emphasis on patient hand hygiene as a tool for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of patient hand hygiene interventions in reducing HCAIs and improving patient hand hygiene rates compared to usual care. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched to August 2014. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they evaluated a patient hand hygiene intervention conducted in an acute or chronic healthcare facility and included HCAI incidence and/or patient hand hygiene rates as an outcome. All steps were performed independently by two investigators. Ten studies were included, most of which were uncontrolled before-after studies (N=8). The majority of interventions (N=7) were multi-modal, with components similar to healthcare worker hand hygiene programmes, including education, reminders, audit and feedback, and provision of hand hygiene products. Six studies reported HCAI outcomes and four studies assessed patient hand hygiene rates; all demonstrated improvements but were at moderate to high risk of bias. In conclusion, interventions to improve patient hand hygiene may reduce the incidence of HCAIs and improve hand hygiene rates, but the quality of evidence is low. Future studies should use stronger designs and be more selective in their choice of outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution to chemical-mineralogical study of carbonatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.Q. da; Lima, W.N. de; Correa, S.L.A.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary chemical-mineralogical study of carbonatites from Jacupiranga (SP,Brazil) and Alto Pinheiros (SC,Brazil) enabled not only to ratify hypotheses previously described by Brazilian researchers but also made clear certain aspects related to the geochemistry of carbonatites concerning their occurrence, the probable genesis of these species and their chemical and mineralogical characteristics.(Author) [pt

  8. Inventory Control: A Small Electronic Device for Studying Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Shows how the rate of reaction can be studied using a simple electronic device that overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium. The device, used in conjunction with an oscilloscope, supplies the voltages that represent the chemical variables that take part in the equilibrium.…

  9. Hand hygiene knowledge and perceptions among anesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Patrick G; Loftus, Randy W; Dodds, Thomas M; Koff, Matthew D; Reddy, Sundara; Heard, Stephen O; Beach, Michael L; Yeager, Mark P; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2015-04-01

    Health care worker compliance with hand hygiene guidelines is an important measure for health care-associated infection prevention, yet overall compliance across all health care arenas remains low. A correct answer to 4 of 4 structured questions pertaining to indications for hand decontamination (according to types of contact) has been associated with improved health care provider hand hygiene compliance when compared to those health care providers answering incorrectly for 1 or more questions. A better understanding of knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers may lead to hand hygiene improvement strategies. In this study, our primary aims were to characterize and identify predictors for hand hygiene knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers. We modified this previously tested survey instrument to measure anesthesia provider hand hygiene knowledge regarding the 5 moments of hand hygiene across national and multicenter groups. Complete knowledge was defined by correct answers to 5 questions addressing the 5 moments for hand hygiene and received a score of 1. Incomplete knowledge was defined by an incorrect answer to 1 or more of the 5 questions and received a score of 0. We used a multilevel random-effects XTMELOGIT logistic model clustering at the respondent and geographic location for insufficient knowledge and forward/backward stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify predictors for incomplete knowledge. The survey response rates were 55.8% and 18.2% for the multicenter and national survey study groups, respectively. One or more knowledge deficits occurred with 81.6% of survey respondents, with the mean number of correct answers 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 2.78- 2.99). Failure of providers to recognize prior contact with the environment and prior contact with the patient as hand hygiene opportunities contributed to the low mean. Several cognitive factors were associated with a reduced risk of incomplete knowledge including providers responding

  10. Influence of oral hygiene and its interaction with standard of education on the risk of oral cancer in women who neither smoked nor drank alcohol: a hospital-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F; He, B-C; Yan, L-J; Qiu, Y; Lin, L-S; Cai, L

    2017-04-01

    We know of only limited data about the role of oral hygiene and the risk of oral cancer with different standards of education. The aim of this study was to assess the association between oral hygiene and risk of oral cancer, with stratification by standard of education, in Chinese women. We organised a case-control study with 250 women with oral cancer and 996 age-matched controls in Fujian, China. Data were collected by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. We used unconditional logistic regression with stratification by educational standard to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI. Tooth-brushing twice a day or more was inversely related to the risk of oral cancer in women with high school education or above (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.98), but not in those who were illiterate or had primary-middle school education. Wearing dentures showed an increased risk only in less well-educated women: the OR were 2.23 (95% CI 1.14 to 4.34) for the illiterate and 1.68 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.62) for the primary-middle school group. The loss of more than five teeth and oral ulceration were associated with increased risks of oral cancer in all three groups. There was also a multiplicative interaction between oral hygiene and standard of education for risk of oral cancer (p=0.001). Our results suggest that oral hygiene seems to have a critical role in the risk of oral cancer in Chinese women, but this effect may be modified by their educational standard. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of foam swabs and toothbrushes as oral hygiene interventions in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomised split mouth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Paola J; Hannigan, Ailish; Haywood, Sean; Cole, Jade M; Palmer, Nicki; Emanuel, Charlotte; Kinsella, Tracey; Lewis, Michael A O; Wise, Matt P; Williams, David W

    2016-01-01

    During critical illness, dental plaque may serve as a reservoir of respiratory pathogens. This study compared the effectiveness of toothbrushing with a small-headed toothbrush or a foam-headed swab in mechanically ventilated patients. This was a randomised, assessor-blinded, split-mouth trial, performed at a single critical care unit. Adult, orally intubated patients with >20 teeth, where >24 hours of mechanical ventilation was expected were included. Teeth were cleaned 12-hourly using a foam swab or toothbrush (each randomly assigned to one side of the mouth). Cleaning efficacy was based on plaque scores, gingival index and microbial plaque counts. High initial plaque (mean=2.1 (SD 0.45)) and gingival (mean=2.0 (SD 0.54)) scores were recorded for 21 patients. A significant reduction compared with initial plaque index occurred using both toothbrushes (mean change=-1.26, 95% CI -1.57 to -0.95; poral health, which improved after brushing with a toothbrush or foam swab. Both interventions were equally effective at removing plaque and reducing gingival inflammation. NCT01154257; Pre-results.

  12. Job Burnout Reduces Hand Hygiene Compliance Among Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomenidis, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony

    2017-10-13

    Health professional burnout has been associated with suboptimal care and reduced patient safety. However, the extent to which burnout influences hand hygiene compliance among health professionals has yet to be explored. The aim of the study was to examine whether job burnout reduces hand washing compliance among nursing staff. A diary study was conducted. Forty registered nurses working in a general city hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece, completed a questionnaire, while they were monitored for hand hygiene compliance following the World Health Organization protocol for hand hygiene assessment. Burnout was measured using validated items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data were collected from September to October 2015. Multiple regression analysis showed that controlling for years in practice, burnout was negatively associated with hand hygiene compliance (R = 0.322, F(3,36) = 5.704, P compliance to hand hygiene among nurses. Given the crucial role of hand hygiene compliance for the prevention of in-hospital infections, this study highlights the need for interventions targeting the prevention of burnout among nursing staff.

  13. [Infection control and hand hygiene in nursing homes in Oslo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Ingrid; Thorstad, Margrete; Andersen, Bjørg Marit

    2008-06-26

    Nosocomial infections and transmission can be substantially reduced by good infection control. The laws and regulations for infection control in heath care institutions emphasize establishment of infection control programs and improved hand hygiene. Our study reviews some factors that are important for practicing adequate hand hygiene (knowledge about infection control and hand-washing facilities). Health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes in Oslo participated in this study in 2006-2007. A questionnaire was made and SPSS was used to analyse the data . 70.7% of 324 HCW (in 42 nursing homes) answered the questionnaires. Nearly all of the respondents (95.6%) knew about the written procedures for hygiene and infection control; 88.5% knew that an infection control program was in place and about 50% had received information through internal education. Three of four had read the National guidelines for hand hygiene, 77.5% thought that hand disinfection was more effective than hand washing, and 97% reported hand hygiene after contact with a patient having an infection. Dispensers for hand disinfection were situated at central work places. At the same time, 17.9% informed that they worked in more than one place at the same time. This study confirms that most nursing homes in Oslo have an infection control program and training that improves the knowledge and awareness of hand hygiene among HCWs. However, the fact that nursing homes in Oslo have the resources, knowledge and education, is not the same as compliance.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Poral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  15. [Comprehensive hygienic assessment of solaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, O K

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data on the positive and negative effects of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It provides the hygienic characteristics of solaria used to produce an artificial tan. This device has been found to present a high health risk to its users. There are considerable problems in the hygienic assessment of this type of exposure. The ways of solving the arising problems in developing the metrological monitoring of UVR and compiling a document regulating the sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance of solaria are defined.

  16. Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronov, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Review for book by M.P. Zakharchenko, S.A. Lopatin, G.N. Novozhilov, V.I. Zakharov Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions is presented discussing the problem of people health preservation under extreme conditions. Hygienic diagnosis is considered illustrated by cases of hostilities (Afghan War), earthquake response in Armenia (1988) and Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the estimation of radiation doses to people and characteristics of main types of dosimeters. The high scientific level of the book is marked

  17. Interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance in patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah J; Moralejo, Donna; Drey, Nicholas; Chudleigh, Jane H

    2010-09-08

    Health care-associated infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is regarded as an effective preventive measure. To update the review done in 2007, to assess the short and longer-term success of strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance and to determine whether a sustained increase in hand hygiene compliance can reduce rates of health care-associated infection. We conducted electronic searches of: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group specialised register of trials; MEDLINE; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; and the BNI. Originally searched to July 2006, for the update databases were searched from August 2006 until November 2009. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series analyses meeting explicit entry and quality criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group were eligible for inclusion. Studies reporting indicators of hand hygiene compliance and proxy indicators such as product use were considered. Self-reported data were not considered a valid measure of compliance. Studies to promote hand hygiene compliance as part of a care bundle approach were included, providing data relating specifically to hand hygiene were presented separately. Studies were excluded if hand hygiene was assessed in simulations, non-clinical settings or the operating theatre setting. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed data quality. Four studies met the criteria for the review: two from the original review and two from the update. Two studies evaluated simple education initiatives, one using a randomized clinical trial design and the other a controlled before and after design. Both measured hand hygiene compliance by direct observation. The other two studies were both interrupted times series studies. One study presented three separate interventions within the

  18. Patient empowerment and hand hygiene, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, M; Govednik, J

    2013-07-01

    Multi-modal hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment are promoted as a necessary component of hand hygiene compliance. However, the question still remains, do we have enough information to determine if, and under what conditions, patients will be able to play an immediate role in healthcare workers' hand hygiene behaviour? To review the current literature on patient willingness to be empowered, barriers to empowerment, and hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment and hand hygiene improvement. A Medline (Ovid) search of all English-language papers for 1997-2007 and 2008-2012 was conducted using the following keywords alone and in various combinations: 'patient participation', 'involvement', 'empowerment', 'education', 'decision-making', 'professional-patient relations', 'behavioural change', 'culture of safety', 'social marketing', 'consumer awareness', 'leadership', 'institutional climate', 'hand hygiene' and 'patient reminders'. The 1997-2007 review was conducted as part of the World Health Organization's Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, and updated with the 2008-2012 review. Several studies show that, in principle, patients are willing to be empowered. However, there is variation in the actual number of patients that practice empowerment for hand hygiene, ranging from 5% to 80%. The actual performance of patient empowerment can be increased when a patient is given explicit permission by a healthcare worker. There is ongoing support from patients that they are willing to be empowered. There is a need to develop programmes that empower both healthcare workers and patients so that they become more comfortable in their roles. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Data bank for combined hygienic studies of environmental state and population health in the region of large industrial and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Lyarskij, V.A.; Minchenko, V.A.; Prusakov, V.M.; Rumyantsev, A.K.; Tatarkin, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    One of the variants of solution of the problem of creation of the data bank on environmental state and population health developed according to a special program is considered. The bank is a part of the created sample of automatic information system (AIS) - the main program - technical and organization mean which permit to solve complicated problems of complex hygienic investigations, realize dynamic observations, analysis and estimation, forecasting of environmental state and population health in connection with the effect of effluents of industrial and power combined plant. In the AIS structure 4 functionally completed components are singled out: data acquisition unit, data bank unit, analysis and estimation unit, simulation unit. Use of combination of control systems of data bases of information of economic systems of hierarchic type and supply line type of adaptive information system allowed one to solve the problems of accumulation and data trasmission for multidimensional statistic analysis for the solution of numerous hygienic problems

  20. Chemical treatment of zinc surface and its corrosion inhibition studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Department of PG Studies and Research in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, ... cations and is mainly used for the corrosion protection of ... provide a greater resistance to corrosion, but when exposed to humid ...

  1. Joint conference of the International Society of Environmental Medicine and the Gesellschaft fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin. Abstracts; Gemeinsame Konferenz der International Society of Environmental Medicine und der Gesellschaft fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin. Kurzfassungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    88 Papers and 48 posters were presented during the meeting. The headings were as follows: Water hygiene and infectiology, water hygiene in hospitals, clinical studies concerning environmental medicine, consumer protection, environmental toxicology, indoor hygiene and toxicology, sources of infections in hospitals, risks and prevention of infections due to minimum invasive surgery, disinfection and sterilization.

  2. A Study of impact of Education on Awareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Hina; Wani MA; Rehana K; Jan Farooq; Pandita K.K

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to find ...

  3. A Study of impact of Education onAwareness, Personal Hygiene and Practices of food handlers of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandita K.K

    2013-01-01

    Background Each year 9.4 million people suffer from food borne diseases throughout the world; everyday cases related to food borne diseases are recorded in all countries from the most to the least developed ones. A major risk of food contamination lies with the food handlers.Several food borne disease outbreaks have been reported to have been associated with poor personal hygiene of people handling food stuffs. Method A questionnaire was structured for the purpose of data collection to fin...

  4. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  5. Evaluation of parental awareness regarding their child's oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, S; Savadi, N; Amin, M

    2017-11-01

    To determine parental awareness about their child's oral hygiene and its associated factors. In this cross-sectional study, 396 parents and their 3- to 6-year-old children were selected by randomized cluster sampling from Shiraz kindergartens in 2013. Parents completed a questionnaire on their perception of their child's oral hygiene. The children received a dental examination, and their dental cleaning status was determined using Simplified Debris Index. Parental awareness was determined by comparing parents' perception of their child's oral hygiene with the results of the dental examination. Associations between demographic factors and parental awareness were evaluated. Sixty per cent of the parents were aware of their child's teeth cleaning status. Higher percentage of parents with university degree (P parents whose child did not have a previous dental visit (P parents had lower dmft (P oral hygiene (P = 0.001) than those of unaware parents. Parents who perceived overall oral health status of their child as good (P parents were not aware of their child's oral hygiene. Educational interventions should be provided to young families to increase parental knowledge and skills that help them recognize their child's dental needs. The interventions are more necessary for low socioeconomic parents and for the parents of children with poor oral hygiene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yushi; Ohta, Setsuko; Sakurai, Nobuko; Shinoda, Masato

    1989-01-01

    The protective potency against skin injury on mice induced by X-irradiation was studied by use of 72 extracts of crude drugs. The protective potency was determined according to the degrees of skin injury after irradiation of 1100 R, 30 kVp soft X-ray. As a result of this study, 16 kinds of crude drugs such as Rosae Fructus, Aloe arboresces (Herba), Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium, Schizonepetae Spica, Evodiae Fructus, Bupleuri Radix, Corni Fructus, Perillae Herba, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Menthae Herba, Trapae Fructus, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma, Ephedrae Herba. Acer nikoense (Cortex), Forsythiae Fructus, revealed protective potencies on skin injury. (author)

  7. Electrochemical, surface analytical and quantum chemical studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    subject of numerous studies due to their high technological value and wide range .... Mulliken population analysis of atoms in triazole derivatives, depending on the ... 2102–0003) with an accelerating voltage of 20 kV, at a scan speed=slow 5 and ... the corrosion rate can also be determined by Tafel extra- polation of either ...

  8. Studies on the chemical composition and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained showed that the saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV), percentage free fatty acid (%FFA) and refractive index of the oil are 196 ± 0.05 mg/KOH, ... The storage property of the oil from baobab seeds studied over a period of four weeks under conditions of light

  9. Health physics and industrial hygiene aspects of decontamination as a precursor to decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Card, C.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Halseth, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a comprehensive study of the impacts, benefits and effects of decontamination as a precursor to decommissioning for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program deals primarily with chemical cleaning of light-water reactor (LWR) systems that will not be returned to operation. A major section of this study defines the health physics and industrial hygiene and safety concerns during decontamination operations. The primary health physics concerns include providing adequate protection for workers from radiation sources which are transported by the decontamination processes, estimating and limiting radioactive effluents to the environment and maintaining operations in accordance with the ALARA philosophy. Locating and identifying the areas of contamination and measuring the radiation exposure rates throughout the reactor primary system are fundamental to implementing these health physics goals. The principal industrial hygiene and safety concerns stem from the fact that a nuclear power plant is being converted for a time to a chemical plant which will contain large volumes of chemical solutions

  10. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  11. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  12. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.

  13. Automated monitoring: a potential solution for achieving sustainable improvement in hand hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2014-08-01

    Adequate hand hygiene is often considered as the most effective method of reducing the rates of hospital-acquired infections, which are one of the major causes of increased cost, morbidity, and mortality in healthcare. Electronic monitoring technologies provide a promising direction for achieving sustainable hand hygiene improvement by introducing the elements of automated feedback and creating the possibility to automatically collect individual hand hygiene performance data. The results of the multiphase testing of an automated hand hygiene reminding and monitoring system installed in a complex continuing care setting are presented. The study included a baseline Phase 1, with the system performing automated data collection only, a preintervention Phase 2 with hand hygiene status indicator enabled, two intervention Phases 3 and 4 with the system generating hand hygiene reminding signals and periodic performance feedback sessions provided, and a postintervention Phase 5 with only hand hygiene status indicator enabled and no feedback sessions provided. A significant increase in hand hygiene performance observed during the first intervention Phase 3 was sustained over the second intervention Phase 4, with the postintervention phase also indicating higher hand hygiene activity rates compared with the preintervention and baseline phases. The overall trends observed during the multiphase testing, the factors affecting acceptability of the automated hand hygiene monitoring system, and various strategies of technology deployment are discussed.

  14. Chemical analysis developments for fusion materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Baldwin, D.L.; Keough, R.F.; Van der Cook, B.P.

    1985-04-01

    Several projects at Hanford under the management of the Westinghouse Hanford Company have involved research and development (R and D) on fusion materials. They include work on the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility and its associated Experimental Lithium System; testing of irradiated lithium compounds as breeding materials; and testing of Li and Li-Pb alloy reactions with various atmospheres, concrete, and other reactor materials for fusion safety studies. In the course of these projects, a number of interesting and challenging analytical chemistry problems were encountered. They include sampling and analysis of lithium while adding and removing elements of interest; sampling, assaying and compound identification efforts on filters, aerosol particles and fire residues; development of dissolution and analysis techniques for measuring tritium and helium in lithium ceramics including oxides, aluminates, silicates and zirconates. An overview of the analytical chemistry development problems plus equipment and procedures used will be presented

  15. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.

  16. Patient Hand Hygiene at Home Predicts Their Hand Hygiene Practices in the Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections.

  17. Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent schoolgirls in low- and middle-income countries: research priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope; Caruso, Bethany; Torondel, Belen; Zulaika, Garazi; Sahin, Murat; Sommer, Marni

    2016-01-01

    Background: A lack of adequate guidance on menstrual management; water, disposal, and private changing facilities; and sanitary hygiene materials in low- and middle-income countries leaves schoolgirls with limited options for healthy personal hygiene during monthly menses. While a plethora of observational studies have described how menstrual hygiene management (MHM) barriers in school impact girls’ dignity, well-being, and engagement in school activities, studies have yet to confirm if inade...

  18. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cheng-Ming; Ohta, Setsuko; Shinoda, Masato

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate useful protective medicines for the relief of skin injury induced by irradiation, 60 methanol extracts of Chinese traditional medicines were used in the test of protective potency on skin injury. ICR male mice at 6 weeks of age were whole-body irradiated with 1100R by using a soft X-ray generator (30 kVp, 10 mA, 190 R/min). Each methanol extract of these medicines was injected intraperitoneally into mice before or after irradiation. The degrees of skin injury were determined by a score system of skin reaction within the observation period from 21st to 40th day after irradiation. Protective potency of each medicine on skin injury was calculated from the maximum mean scores of administrated group and un-administrated group. As a result of these studies, the protective potency was detected in Unsei-in, Kumibinro-to, Keisi-syakuyaku-chimo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosyuyu-to, Koso-san, Saiko-seikan-to, Syo-kankyo-to, Syo-saiko-to, Syoma-kakkon-to, Sen-kan-meimoku-to, Zokumei-to, Sokei-kakketu-to, Bokuryo-in, Mao-to and Rikkunsi-to by intraperitoneal injection before irradiation. Of these effective medicines, only Unsei-in and Mao-to are shown to have a significant protective effect by intraperitoneal injection after irradiation. (author)

  19. A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

  20. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6... Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene. [46 FR 59509, Dec. 4, 1981] ...

  1. A hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schie, M.; Wiesman, R.F.F.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts according to the hand-hygiene rule, wherein

  2. PENERAPAN HYGIENE DAN SANITASI DI PASTRY HOTEL HILTON BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Widya Pertiwi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Application of hygiene and sanitation in Hilton Hotel Bandung is important thing to note in the process of implementation. This is done to prevent food contamination of food that cab be caused by several factors such as, human, work area, kitchen utensil, material strorage systems and product. Because of this determination of standarts personal hygiene, area and utensil must be done correcly so that each product is safe for consumption. Authors on the basis of these issues are very keen to examine and make a final project with the title “application of hygiene and sanitation in the Hilton Hotel Bandung”. Research carried out by several methode of observation, interview and the latter is the study of documents. The research was conducted at the Hilton Hotel Bandung, for 6 months. The study was conducted as one of the requiremants for the final session of college exams Bina Sarana Informatika university Bandung. Based on the result of research and discussion conducted, authors concluded that the presence of load application staandard of hygiene and sanitation in hotel can improve the standard of health, hygiene and quality of a product when it is done in accordance with existing procedures. Key word : Hygiene and sanitation pastry hotel. Abstraksi - Penerapan hygiene dan sanitasi di Hotel Hilton Bandung merupakan upaya penting yang harus diperhatikan dalam proses pelaksanannya. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mencegah terjadinya kontaminasi makanan yang dapat disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor seperti manusia, area kerja, peralatan, sistem penyimpanan bahan dan produk. Penentuan standar kebersihan personal, area kerja maupun peralatan harus dilakukan dengan tepat dan benar agar setiap produk yang dihasilkan oleh bagian pastry hotel aman untuk dikonsumsi. Atas dasar persoalan di atas penulis sangat tertarik untuk menelitinya dan membuat tugas akhir dengan judul “ Penerapan Hygiene dan Sanitasi di Hotel Hilton Bandung ”. Metode penelitian

  3. Implementation of the WHO multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a University Hospital in Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfäfflin, Frieder; Tufa, Tafese Beyene; Getachew, Million; Nigussie, Tsehaynesh; Schönfeld, Andreas; Häussinger, Dieter; Feldt, Torsten; Schmidt, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The burden of health-care associated infections in low-income countries is high. Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to assess compliance with hand hygiene and perception and knowledge about hand hygiene before and after the implementation of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign designed by the World Health Organization. The study was carried out at Asella Teaching Hospital, a university hospital and referral centre for a population of about 3.5 million in Arsi Zone, Central Ethiopia. Compliance with hand hygiene during routine patient care was measured by direct observation before and starting from six weeks after the intervention, which consisted of a four day workshop accompanied by training sessions and the provision of locally produced alcohol-based handrub and posters emphasizing the importance of hand hygiene. A second follow up was conducted three months after handing over project responsibility to the Ethiopian partners. Health-care workers' perception and knowledge about hand hygiene were assessed before and after the intervention. At baseline, first, and second follow up we observed a total of 2888, 2865, and 2244 hand hygiene opportunities, respectively. Compliance with hand hygiene was 1.4% at baseline and increased to 11.7% and 13.1% in the first and second follow up, respectively (p hand hygiene was consistent across professional categories and all participating wards and was independently associated with the intervention (adjusted odds ratio, 9.18; 95% confidence interval 6.61-12.76; p hand hygiene actions. The median hand hygiene knowledge score overall was 13 (interquartile range 11-15) at baseline and increased to 17 (15-18) after training (p hand hygiene is feasible and sustainable in a resource-constrained setting using a multimodal improvement strategy. However, absolute compliance remained low. Strong and long-term commitment by hospital management and

  4. Food hygiene on the wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-09-13

    A PROBLEM THAT IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED OR SIMPLY NOT GIVEN ENOUGH ATTENTION: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient's room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards:Maintenance of the cold-hot chainNot only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitorsCleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktopsCleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food

  5. Using lot quality assurance sampling to assess access to water, sanitation and hygiene services in a refugee camp setting in South Sudan: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Elizabeth; Beckworth, Colin; Fesselet, Jean-Francois; Lenglet, Annick; Lako, Richard; Valadez, Joseph J

    2017-08-08

    Humanitarian agencies working in refugee camp settings require rapid assessment methods to measure the needs of the populations they serve. Due to the high level of dependency of refugees, agencies need to carry out these assessments. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a method commonly used in development settings to assess populations living in a project catchment area to identify their greatest needs. LQAS could be well suited to serve the needs of refugee populations, but it has rarely been used in humanitarian settings. We adapted and implemented an LQAS survey design in Batil refugee camp, South Sudan in May 2013 to measure the added value of using it for sub-camp level assessment. Using pre-existing divisions within the camp, we divided the Batil catchment area into six contiguous segments, called 'supervision areas' (SA). Six teams of two data collectors randomly selected 19 respondents in each SA, who they interviewed to collect information on water, sanitation, hygiene, and diarrhoea prevalence. These findings were aggregated into a stratified random sample of 114 respondents, and the results were analysed to produce a coverage estimate with 95% confidence interval for the camp and to prioritize SAs within the camp. The survey provided coverage estimates on WASH indicators as well as evidence that areas of the camp closer to the main road, to clinics and to the market were better served than areas at the periphery of the camp. This assumption did not hold for all services, however, as sanitation services were uniformly high regardless of location. While it was necessary to adapt the standard LQAS protocol used in low-resource communities, the LQAS model proved to be feasible in a refugee camp setting, and program managers found the results useful at both the catchment area and SA level. This study, one of the few adaptations of LQAS for a camp setting, shows that it is a feasible method for regular monitoring, with the added value of enabling camp

  6. Using lot quality assurance sampling to assess access to water, sanitation and hygiene services in a refugee camp setting in South Sudan: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Harding

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humanitarian agencies working in refugee camp settings require rapid assessment methods to measure the needs of the populations they serve. Due to the high level of dependency of refugees, agencies need to carry out these assessments. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS is a method commonly used in development settings to assess populations living in a project catchment area to identify their greatest needs. LQAS could be well suited to serve the needs of refugee populations, but it has rarely been used in humanitarian settings. We adapted and implemented an LQAS survey design in Batil refugee camp, South Sudan in May 2013 to measure the added value of using it for sub-camp level assessment. Methods Using pre-existing divisions within the camp, we divided the Batil catchment area into six contiguous segments, called ‘supervision areas’ (SA. Six teams of two data collectors randomly selected 19 respondents in each SA, who they interviewed to collect information on water, sanitation, hygiene, and diarrhoea prevalence. These findings were aggregated into a stratified random sample of 114 respondents, and the results were analysed to produce a coverage estimate with 95% confidence interval for the camp and to prioritize SAs within the camp. Results The survey provided coverage estimates on WASH indicators as well as evidence that areas of the camp closer to the main road, to clinics and to the market were better served than areas at the periphery of the camp. This assumption did not hold for all services, however, as sanitation services were uniformly high regardless of location. While it was necessary to adapt the standard LQAS protocol used in low-resource communities, the LQAS model proved to be feasible in a refugee camp setting, and program managers found the results useful at both the catchment area and SA level. Conclusions This study, one of the few adaptations of LQAS for a camp setting, shows that it is a feasible

  7. Soft tissue around three different implant types after 1.5 years of functional loading without oral hygiene: a preliminary study in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzak, Georg; Zechner, Werner; Tangl, Stefan; Vasak, Christoph; Donath, Karl; Watzek, Georg

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the peri-implant soft tissue dimension (PSD) and peri-implant bone level (BL) of dental implants with different designs and surface modifications after functional loading without oral hygiene. Three types of dental implants were placed in the posterior jaws of adult baboons, three of the same design per quadrant, and fitted with fixed partial dentures. After 1.5 years of functional loading and plaque accumulation, all implants showed severe peri-implant mucositis and comparatively high BL. A histomorphometric evaluation of the sulcus depth (SD), the dimension of the junctional epithelium (JE) and the connective tissue contact (CTC) resulted in no significant differences between the three implant designs, neither in the maxilla nor in the mandible (P>0.05). The sum of SD, JE and CTC forming the PSD was nearly the same in the maxilla (commercially pure titanium, CpTi: 3.5 mm 2.9/4.1 confidence interval (CI); titanium plasma sprayed (TPS): 3.5 mm 2.9/4.2 CI; sand blasted acid-etched (GBAE): 3.2 mm 2.7/3.9 CI) and in the mandible (CpTi: 3.2 mm 2.6/3.8 CI; TPS: 3.2 mm 2.6/3.8 CI; GBAE: 3.2 mm 2.7/3.9 CI; P>0.05). There was no difference in BL around the three implant designs (maxilla: CpTi: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.6 CI; TPS: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.5CI; GBAE: 0.9 mm 0.5/1.6 CI; mandible: CpTi: 0.8 mm 0.5/1.2 CI; TPS: 0.6 mm 0.4/0.9 CI; GBAE: 0.7 mm 0.5/1.1 CI; P>0.05). Overall, the data presented did not show any significant differences in peri-implant soft tissue conditions in baboons. Moreover, plaque accumulation and propagation of peri-implant mucositis after 1.5 years of functional loading was not influenced by implant design and surface modifications in baboons.

  8. Career choice and perceptions of dental hygiene students and applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Susan; Dean, Kim; Pace, Cherin

    2003-01-01

    As the number of dental hygiene programs across the country continues to increase, educational opportunities for prospective students have flourished, resulting in increased competition among dental hygiene programs for qualified applicants. The purpose of this study was to provide a current description of dental hygiene students and applicants, assess the reasons for choosing the career, and evaluate the perceptions of both applicants and enrolled students with regard to specific aspects of the profession. A questionnaire was mailed to 142 prospective dental hygiene students who met the minimal requirements for admission to either of the two dental hygiene programs in Arkansas. The prospective students had been invited for an admissions interview. The questionnaire also was administered during class to 80 students currently enrolled in one of the two programs. An overall response rate of 71% (n = 157) was achieved. The average respondent was 22 years old, female, and Caucasian with a grade point average of 3.5 and a composite ACT score of 23. Dental hygiene was also the first career choice and most respondents had prior dental assisting experience. Dental hygienists and dentists were reported as providing the most career guidance, while high school and college guidance counselors were least influential. Respondents chose the profession in order to work with and help people, have flexible work schedules, and receive good salaries. Respondents typically viewed dental hygiene as offering a bright future in terms of job security, good salaries, flexible work schedules, diverse career opportunities, and personal responsibility. No significant difference in overall perceptions of the profession was found between applicants and those enrolled in dental hygiene programs, although the strength of individual perceptions of the profession differed between applicant and first-year students compared to second-year students. Dental hygiene programs can use the findings of this

  9. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF DISAZO DYES DERIVED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    with disazo disperse dyes on synthetic polymer-fibres. (Venkataraman, 1974; Otutu et al., 2008). In this present study, the physico-chemical studies of disazo dyes derived from p-aminophenol recently prepared by our research group is described. We also described the kinetics of the dyes on nylon 6 fibre. In another study.

  10. Study of Intelligent Secure Chemical Inventory Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukran, Mohd Afizi Mohd; Naim Abdullah, Muhammad; Nazri Ismail, Mohd; Maskat, Kamaruzaman; Isa, Mohd Rizal Mohd; Shahfee Ishak, Muhammad; Adib Khairuddin, Muhamad

    2017-08-01

    Chemical inventory management system has been experiencing a new revolution from traditional inventory system which is manual to an automated inventory management system. In this paper, some review of the classic and modern approaches to chemical inventory management system has been discussed. This paper also describe about both type of inventory management. After a comparative analysis of the traditional method and automated method, it can be said that both methods have some distinctive characteristics. Moreover, the automated inventory management method has higher accuracy of calculation because the calculations are handled by software, eliminating possible errors and saving time. The automated inventory system also allows users and administrators to track the availability, location and consumption of chemicals. The study of this paper can provide forceful review analysis support for the chemical inventory management related research.

  11. [Investigation of the safety of microbial biotechnological products and their hygienic regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel'ianets', T H; Kovalenko, N K; Holovach, T M

    2008-01-01

    Peculiarities of influence of microbial preparations based on microorganisms of different taxonomic groups on the warm-blooded organisms are considered, that is necessary to take into account when developing the strategy of toxico-hygienic studying of these preparations and when substanting hygienic standards in industrial objects and in the environment. The possibility to simplify the methodical scheme of the toxicological estimation and the hygienic regulation of microbial preparations on the basis of soil nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is discussed.

  12. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Piyusha S; Pujar, Pallavi; Subbareddy, V V

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above) were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group). There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene methods individually and in combination. The children were then reassessed for oral malodor 2 h later. The results were analyzed and compared. Both individual oral hygiene measure or in combination of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing; all were effective in reducing oral malodor. Significant reduction (P oral malodor was seen when all three oral hygiene measures performed together. Oral malodor was significantly reduced after performing oral hygiene measures individually, but reduced more when used in combination.

  13. Hand hygiene compliance before and after wearing gloves among intensive care unit nurses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Azam; Sadeghi, Leila; Shahrokhi, Akram; Mohammadpour, Asghar; Addo, Mary; Khodadadi, Esmail

    2016-11-01

    Nosocomial infections are considered a major risk factor in hospital wards, and hand hygiene is the first step in their control. An observational study was conducted in 2015 with 200 nurses working in intensive care units in teaching hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected by using the Hand Hygiene Observation Tool questionnaire. The researchers monitored nurses' opportunities for hand hygiene during the 8-week period from February 3-April 4, 2015. A total of 1,067 opportunities occurred for hand hygiene before and after wearing gloves. The results show that hand hygiene compliance before wearing gloves is poor among nurses who work in intensive care units (14.8%). Therefore it is necessary to conduct effective interventions through continuing education programs to improve hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Soon; Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygien...

  15. Dnepropetrovsk hygienic school: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletskaya E.M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents historical analysis of formation of hygiene school of Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy over the 100 year period - from formation of Katerinoslav province sanitary district council, as a unique self-government social organization in XIX century to the present. The basic stages of its development, including foundation of Hygiene Courses at High Mining School, their transformation into department of general hygiene, social hygiene and hygiene of labor in Katerinoslav Medical Academy in 1922, foundation of separate departments of hygiene in 1940-1948, their reorganization at the end of XX – beginning of XXI centuries are outlined. It is established, that Dnipropetrovsk hygiene school during its existence formed a great number of outstanding scientists, more than 100 dissertations in different directions devoted to hygienic diagnostics of technogenically changing environment, its impact on human health as well as hygienic control levers and health strengthening of population of industrial areas were defended. Scientific contribution of prominent scientists and teachers, their achievements and discoveries in the field of preventive medicine, role in the formation of preventive world outlook of students are estimated. At the XIV hygienic congress 30 hygienists were recognized as leading scientists of Ukraine over XX century, seven of them are from Dnipropetrovsk hygiene school; this indicates its importance in the noble cause of serving public health.

  16. Relationship between oral hygiene and gingival condition of Malaysian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arif Mohd Marsin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary etiologic agent of gingival disease was dental plaque which also involving the oral hygiene. The oral hygiene can be affected by individuals knowledge, attitude, practice, environment, and others. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between oral hygiene and gingival condition of Malaysian students. The type of this study was cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on a total of 66 Malaysian students. The data were collected by using an examination form and clinical examination using the Loe & Sillness gingival index followed by the Loe & Sillness plaque index. The results showed that 100% of students have gingivitis with the gingival index average of 1.25 and the plaque index average of 1.85. The relationship of gingival and plaque index was analyzed by using Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient test, and the score was 0.623. It is concluded that the oral hygiene status of Malaysian students was in the fair category, and all Malaysian students had a moderate gingivitis. Also, there was a relationship between the oral hygiene status and gingival condition of Malaysian students.

  17. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Compliance and Subjective Patient Responses to Eyelid Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Yousef A; Camp, Andrew; Feuer, William; Karp, Carol L; Wellik, Sarah; Galor, Anat

    2017-07-01

    Lid hygiene is a commonly prescribed first-line therapy in patients with lid margin disease, yet compliance with therapy is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to assess patient compliance with lid hygiene and evaluate which factors predict a favorable symptomatic response to treatment. This was a cross-sectional study of patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic between August and December 2014. An evaluation was performed to assess dry eye symptoms and lid margin signs. All patients were then instructed to perform warm compresses and lid scrubs. A follow-up phone survey assessed compliance and subjective therapeutic response 6 weeks later. Two hundred seven of 211 (98%) patients (94% male, 60% white) completed the survey. Of the 207 patients, 188 (91%) completed the follow-up survey. Compliance with therapy was reported in 104 patients (55%); 66 reported complete improvement, 30 partial improvement, and 8 no improvement in symptoms. Patients who self-reported dry eye symptoms at first visit (n=86, 74%) were more likely to be compliant with lid hygiene than those who did not report symptoms (n=18, 25%) (Phygiene was longer time of self-reported dry eye symptoms. None of the other signs studied, including the presence of skin rosacea and lid margin telangiectasia, were associated with a differential response to lid hygiene. Patients with dry eye symptoms were moderately compliant with lid hygiene, and patients who performed the routine noted improvement in symptoms.

  19. Teledosimetry and its application in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, J.

    1975-01-01

    The principle and application is dealt with of teledosimetry, a new method of telemetric transfer of data on the flux density of ionizing radiation. A teledosimetric apparatus is described consisting of a transmitter with a halogen GM tube and a receiver with an evaluation device. Two cases of the application of teledosimetry in radiation hygiene practice are reported. The new method makes possible the monitoring of personnel working with radiation, the testing of the efficiency of radiation protection, and a reduction of doses to personnel in the process studied. (author)

  20. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  1. [DEONTOLOGICAL ISSUES IN RAILWAY HYGIENE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the main ethical and deontological problems encountered in practice and research activities of the hygienist in transport. There is shown the importance of strict compliance with hygienic standards, disregard for the principle of "technical attainability", the necessity of continuous training, improvement of skills of sanitary-educational activity and readiness to solve emerging ethical issues in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress.

  2. Nudging to improve hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caris, M G; Labuschagne, H A; Dekker, M; Kramer, M H H; van Agtmael, M A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    2018-04-01

    Hand hygiene is paramount to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but improving compliance is challenging. When healthcare workers seldom encounter healthcare-associated infections, they will consider the odds of causing infections through poor hand hygiene negligible. Cognitive biases such as these may induce non-compliance. Nudging, 'a friendly push to encourage desired behaviour', could provide an easily implemented, inexpensive measure to address cognitive biases and thus support hand hygiene interventions. To investigate whether behavioural nudges, displayed as posters, can increase the use of alcohol-based hand rub. We developed nudges based on a systematic review of previously described cognitive biases, and tested these through a cross-sectional survey among the target audience. We then conducted a controlled before-after trial on two hospital wards, to assess the effect of these nudges on the use of alcohol-based hand rub, measured with electronic dispensers. Poisson regression analyses adjusted for workload showed that nudges displayed next to dispensers increased their overall use on one ward [poster 1: relative risk: 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.2); poster 2: 1.7 (1.2-2.5)] and during doctor's rounds on both wards [poster 1: ward A: 1.7 (1.1-2.6); ward B: 2.2 (1.3-3.8)]. Use of dispensers without adjacent nudges did not increase. Nudges based on cognitive biases that play a role in hand hygiene, and displayed as posters, could provide an easy, inexpensive measure to increase use of alcohol-based hand rub. When applying nudges to change behaviour, it is important to identify the right nudge for the right audience. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The status of oral hygiene in cleft lip, palate patients after surgical correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleft lip and palate patients usually present a number of problems viz. altered oral anatomy leading to changes in oral physiology diminishing the self-cleansing ability of individual. The handicapped children are unable to maintain their oral hygiene properly. The present study was formulated with the aim that does normalization of oral anatomy have its effect on improvement of oral hygiene? An assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified was performed between preoperative and postoperative values in the same patient at KGMU and KGDU. A total of 50 cases were recorded in two groups of 25 each: (i < 6 years old and (ii > 6 years. The observations are statistically analyzed by paired ′t′ test to get the significance of results. Results: The data analyzed showed the significant decrease in oral hygiene indices observed in both groups. A relative significance in oral hygiene status following surgery was observed. Both groups expressed greater significance when compared pre and postoperatively which is indicative of considerable improvement of oral hygiene after surgical correction. The study concludes that oral hygiene improves more in older cleft lip-palate cases following reconstruction of palatal vault, premaxilla and anterior lip seal by secondary bone grafting method when compared with oral hygiene indices results in primary periosteoplasty cases. The surgical correction of cleft lip palate enhances self-cleaning ability and better compliance to maintain oral hygiene in children as the age advances.

  4. Personal hygiene among primary school children living in a slum of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M

    2013-09-01

    For children, maintenance of personal hygiene helps to improve the quality of life and longevity. This is of particular importance in a slum community with compromised living situation. This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge and practice of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in a slum area, to identify any misconception among them regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene, to find out their morbidity pattern, and also to elicit the relationship between practice of personal hygiene among the children and the literacy status of their mother. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 104 primary school children of a primary school situated in the slum area of Chetla, Kolkata, India with the help of a predesigned, pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance. It was found that the female students were more knowledgeable than the male students regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene. There was a wide gap between practice and knowledge of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in the slum area. Even, misconceptions do exist on certain indicators of personal hygiene among the students. Statistically significant association was observed between practices of personal hygiene among the primary school children and the literacy status of their mother. Future of a society depends considerably on the health of its children. The parents and the school teachers, as constructive shapers of children's health behaviors, should play a responsible role in early education of children on personal hygiene.

  5. Influence of Institutional Guidelines on Oral Hygiene Practices in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyoshi-Teo, Hiroko; Blegen, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Maintaining oral hygiene is a key component of preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia; however, practices are inconsistent. To explore how characteristics of institutional guidelines for oral hygiene influence nurses' oral hygiene practices and perceptions of that practice. Oral hygiene section of a larger survey study on prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Critical care nurses at 8 hospitals in Northern California that had more than 1000 ventilator days in 2009 were recruited to participate in the survey. Twenty-one questions addressed oral hygiene practices and practice perceptions. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and Spearman correlations were used for analyses. A total of 576 critical care nurses (45% response rate) responded to the survey. Three types of institutional oral hygiene guidelines existed: nursing policy, order set, and information bulletin. Nursing policy provided the most detail about the oral hygiene care; however, adherence, awareness, and priority level were higher with order sets (P hygiene do influence the oral hygiene practices of critical care nurses. Future studies examining how institutional guidelines could best be incorporated into routine workflow are needed. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Evaluation of a hand hygiene campaign in outpatient health care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukanich, Kate Stenske; Kaur, Ramandeep; Freeman, Lisa C; Powell, Douglas A

    2013-03-01

    To improve hand hygiene in two outpatient health care clinics through the introduction of a gel sanitizer and an informational poster. In this interventional study, health care workers at two outpatient clinics were observed for frequency of hand hygiene (attempts versus opportunities). Gel sanitizer and informational posters were introduced together as an intervention. Direct observation of the frequency of hand hygiene was performed during baseline, intervention, and follow-up. A poststudy survey of health care workers was also distributed and collected. In both clinics, the frequency of hand hygiene was poor at baseline (11% and 21%) but improved significantly after intervention (36% and 54%) and was maintained through the follow-up period (32% and 51%). Throughout the study, postcontact hand hygiene was observed significantly more often than precontact hand hygiene. In both clinics, health care workers reported a preference for soap and water; yet observations showed that when the intervention made gel sanitizer available, sanitizer use predominated. Fifty percent of the surveyed health care workers considered the introduction of gel sanitizer to be an effective motivating tool for improving hand hygiene. Hand hygiene performance by health care workers in outpatient clinics may be improved through promoting the use of gel sanitizer and using informational posters. Compared with surveys, direct observation by trained observers may provide more accurate information about worker preferences for hand hygiene tools.

  7. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbawalla Hawa S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1 assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2 examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3 examine whether socio-demographic disparity in oral health was explained by oral health-related behaviours. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 using one-stage cluster sampling design. Total of 2412 students (mean age 15.2 yr completed self-administered questionnaires, whereas 1077 (mean age 14.9 yr underwent dental-examination. Bivariate analyses were conducted using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics. Multiple variable analyses were conducted using stepwise standardized logistic regression (SLR with odds ratios and 95% Confidence intervals (CI. Results 44.8% presented with fair to poor OHIS and 48.2% reported any OIDP. Older students, those from low socio-economic status families, had parents who couldn't afford dental care and had low educational-level reported oral impacts, poor oral hygiene, irregular toothbrushing, less dental attendance and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks more frequently than their counterparts. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that reporting any OIDP was independently associated with; older age-groups, parents do not afford dental care, smoking experience, no dental visits and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Behavioural factors accounted partly for association between low family SES and OIDP. Low family SES, no dental attendance and smoking experience were most important in males. Low family SES and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks were the most important correlates in females. Socio-behavioural factors

  8. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training

  9. Effect of hand sanitizer location on hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important intervention to prevent infection in hospitals. Health care workers should clean their hands at least before and after contact with patients. Hand sanitizer dispensers are important to support hand hygiene because they can be made available throughout hospital units. The aim of this study was to determine whether the usability of sanitizer dispensers correlates with compliance of staff in using the sanitizer in a hospital. This study took place in a Midwest, 404-bed, private, nonprofit community hospital with 15 inpatient care units in addition to several ambulatory units. The usability and standardization of sanitizers in 12 participating inpatient units were evaluated. The hospital measured compliance of staff with hand hygiene as part of their quality improvement program. Data from 2010-2012 were analyzed to measure the relationship between compliance and usability using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The total usability score (P = .0046), visibility (P = .003), and accessibility of the sanitizer on entrance to the patient room (P = .00055) were statistically associated with higher observed compliance rates. Standardization alone showed no significant impact on observed compliance (P = .37). Hand hygiene compliance can be influenced by visibility and accessibility of dispensers. The sanitizer location should be part of multifaceted interventions to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhor, K.; Shetty, V.; Garcha, V.; Nimbulkar, G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. Materials and Methods: A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12–17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A (n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B (n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. Conclusion: OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille. PMID:27891313

  11. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhor, K; Shetty, V; Garcha, V; Nimbulkar, G C

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12-17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A ( n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B ( n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t -test. The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille.

  12. Looking for evidence that personal hygiene precautions prevent traveler's diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlim, David R

    2005-12-01

    In the 50 years during which traveler's diarrhea has been studied, it has always been assumed that personal hygiene precautions can prevent or reduce the likelihood of developing traveler's diarrhea. However, 7 of 8 studies that specifically addressed this issue showed no correlation between the types of food selected and the risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea. The eighth study showed a correlation between a few dietary mistakes and a decreased risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea. A further increase in the number of dietary mistakes, however, did not continue to increase the risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea. Personal hygiene precautions, when performed under the direct supervision of an expatriate operating his or her own kitchen, can prevent traveler's diarrhea, but poor restaurant hygiene in most developing countries continues to create an insurmountable risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea.

  13. Effects of hand hygiene education and individual feedback on hand hygiene behaviour, MRSA acquisition rate and MRSA colonization pressure among intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Ho-Ran

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to increase the frequency and level of thoroughness of hand hygiene practice by nurses, and to assess the influence of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired incidence rate and the MRSA colonization pressure in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A total of 24 MICU nurses received hand hygiene education and individual feedback of hand hygiene frequency and method after a session of education, and two posteducation evaluations were followed. The frequency of hand hygiene (P = 0.001) and the methodology score of hand hygiene increased significantly (P = 0.001). The MRSA acquisition rate decreased significantly, from 11.1% before the education to 0% after (P = 0.014). The MRSA colonization pressure decreased significantly from 39.5% to 8.6% after the education sessions (P = 0.001). This indicates that providing individual feedback after hand hygiene education was very effective in increasing nurses' hand hygiene frequency and improving hand hygiene method; furthermore, it was expected to decrease health care-associated infections. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Improving healthcare worker hand hygiene adherence before patient contact: A multimodal intervention of hand hygiene practice in Three Japanese tertiary care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakihama, Tomoko; Honda, Hitoshi; Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Kamiya, Toru; Sato, Yumiko; Iuchi, Ritsuko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-03-01

    Though hand hygiene is an important method of preventing healthcare-associated infection, we found suboptimal hand hygiene adherence among healthcare workers in 4 diverse Japanese hospitals (adherence rates of 11%-25%). Our goal was to assess multimodal hand hygiene intervention coupled with a contest to improve hand hygiene adherence. A total of 3 to 4 inpatient wards in 3 Japanese hospitals. Pre-post intervention study. The intervention was a multimodal hand hygiene intervention recommended by the World Health Organization that was tailored to each facility. The hospital with the highest adherence after the intervention was given $5000 US dollars and a trophy, provided by an American coinvestigator unaffiliated with any of the Japanese hospitals. We tracked hand hygiene adherence rates before patient contact for each unit and hospital and compared these to pre-intervention adherence rates. We observed 2982 postintervention provider-patient encounters in 10 units across 3 hospitals. Hand hygiene adherence rates were improved overall after the intervention (18% pre- to 33% postintervention; P hand hygiene rates among Japanese healthcare workers. Given the overall low rates, however, further improvement is necessary. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  15. Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (peducational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices.

  16. Personal Hygiene and Vulvovaginitis in Prepubertal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemek, Fatıma; Odabaş, Dursun; Şenel, Ünal; Kocaman, Ayşe Tuba

    2016-06-01

    To determine and compare clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls. Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecological problem of childhood. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study involved 45 girls from 2-12 (5.38 ± 2.9) years old; and 26 girls from 3-12 (5.72 ± 3.1) years old as a control group. Anamnesis and physical examination were followed by vaginal smear, urine culture, and stool analyses from both groups, and the personal hygiene status and education level of the mother were determined. The most common symptoms among the patients were vaginal discharge (44.4%, vulvar erythema (37.8%), and vaginal itch (24.4%). Microorganisms, isolated from vaginal smears, were detected in 48.9% of the patients. Escherichia coli was shown in the urine culture of 3 patients with vulvovaginitis (6.70%). In microscopic stool analysis parasites were detected (45.9%). We found some relevant personal hygiene factors, such as wiping back to front (42.9%), cleaning by herself after defecation (89.3%), using toilet paper (60.7%) and wet wipes (21.4%), and bathing standing (14.3%) and sitting (46.4%) among patients. The questionnaire also showed that the children wore tight clothing (35.7%). Our findings suggest that vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls is related not only to microorganisms but also poor personal hygiene, the educational status of mothers, and specific irritants. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Gamma Radiation Processing to Improve the Hygienic Quality of some Chicken Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, W.S.; El-Mossalami, I.I.; Nosier, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    For food to be entirely safe from the microbiological viewpoint, it must need to contain the least possible counts of microorganisms of hygienic importance. This investigation aims to study the possible use of gamma radiation for bacterial decontamination of chicken products which are produced in Egypt. One hundred and twenty samples of frozen chicken kofta and burgers (60 each) were purchased from retail markets at Cairo Governorate. They were surveyed for the hygienic quality as well as the effect of gamma radiation (dose levels of 1, 2 and 3 kGy) on the bacterial population, chemical and sensory quality of these products. The results indicated that the total aerobic bacterial counts (APC) ranged from 106 to 107 cfu/g in the examined samples. Moreover, some samples were contaminated with food borne pathogens such as Listeria species and Salmonella species. Gamma irradiation greatly reduced the microbial density of the studied food samples. The microbial reduction increased as the dose level of irradiation increase, whereas irradiation of chicken products at 3 kGy dose reduced aerobic counts and eliminated Salmonella and Listeria species, also it proved to be of great importance in increasing the safety and acceptability of ready to eat frozen chicken products with no adverse effect on their chemical or sensory quality

  18. Dirt, disgust and disease: a natural history of hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-08-01

    Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease throughout history. Purification ritual, miasma, contagion, zymotic and germ theories of disease are ideas that spread through society because they are intuitively attractive, because they are supported by evidence either from direct experience or from authoritative report and because they are consistent with existing beliefs. In contrast to much historical and anthropological assertion, I argue that hygiene behaviour and disgust predate culture and so cannot fully be explained as its product. The history of ideas about disease thus is neither entirely socially constructed nor an "heroic progress" of scientists leading the ignorant into the light. As an animal behaviour the proper domain of hygiene is biology, and without this perspective attempts at explanation are incomplete. The approaches of biological anthropology have much to offer the practice of cultural history.

  19. Hand hygiene in hospital environments: use of conformity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíne Cristina Romualdo dos SANTOS

    Full Text Available An exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach whose objective was to use indicators to evaluate the frequency and infrastructure for hand hygiene, as well as the nursing team's knowledge about the subject. Systematized observation was carried out at hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil of the routine activities of 33 participating professionals (nurses and technicians as well as the application of an individual questionnaire about the subject.1206 opportunities for hand hygiene were identified, though it was effected in only 481 (39.9% of them. Alcohol solution was not used at any opportunity. The infrastructure indicator for hand hygiene was close to the ideal value (83.3%. The professionals reported a high frequency of hand hygiene, demonstrating knowledge in relation to its importance, yet contradicting the findings of the observation. It was concluded that, despite the adequate infrastructure, hand hygiene was below that expected, requiring actions and strategies to overcomes these barrier and increase the use of alcohol solution.

  20. Study of phenol extraction from coke-chemical sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catana, E.; Mateescu, I.; Giurcaneanu, V.; Bota, T.

    1990-09-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of the phase equilibrium in the coke-chemical tarphenols-solvent system (NaOH) solution and (phenolate solution) implied in the extraction of the phenols from coke-chemical sources. The possibility of using the phenolate solution as an extraction agent, thus making possible the improvement of the specific consumption and also simplifying the problem of the corrosion and of the waste water at the same time is presented. The influence of the solvent tar mass ratio on the selectivity of the process is discussed, this criterion being considered for establishing the conditions of the extraction. 2 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  1. Awareness and Practices of Oral Hygiene among Female Undergraduates in a Malaysian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Zarina; Saeed, Munazza; Jameel, Rafey Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent of awareness and practices of oral hygiene among undergraduate female students in a residential college of a university at Malaysia and to assess the need for awareness programs about oral hygiene. The study was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire. Hundred undergraduate female Malay…

  2. Dental hygiene students’ part-time jobs in dental practices in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorterman, J.H.G.; Dikkes, B.T.; Brand, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:  Many students have paid employment while studying. In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental hygiene students to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental hygiene students have

  3. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made.

  4. Examples and Case Studies for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents examples and case studies to help you in reporting for 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR), formerly known as Inventory Update Reporting (IUR).EPA designed these examples to illustrate the new reporting requirements, which were published as part of the CDR Rule (published August 16, 2011), and to address general reporting issues from the 2006 IUR.

  5. [Study on the chemical constituent from Buddleja purdomii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Li, Chong; Zhang, Chengzhong; Xu, Yourui; Tao, Baoquan

    2004-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents from Buddleja purdomii W. W. Smith. The constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods and structurally identified by spectral analysis. 4 compounds were identified as vanillin (I), vanillic acid (II), acteoside (III), acteoside isomer (IV). All these compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  6. [Study on the chemical constituents of Buddleja purdomii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinghua; Li, Chong; Zhang, Chengzhong; Tao, Baoquan

    2005-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja purdomii W. W Smith. The constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods and structurally identified by spectral analysis. 4 compounds were obtained as cryptomeridiol (I), aucubin (II), galactilol (III), daucosterol (IV). All these compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  7. Comparative Studies of Physico-chemical Properties of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some physico-chemical properties of four major general purpose cement (As, Br, De and Sk) sold in Nigerian market using standard methods; due to the persistent collapse of buildings. The results showed that Br cement recorded the least CaO content (56.17%) while De cement had ...

  8. Studies of radiation and chemical toxicity. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Annual report for the Studies of Radiation and Chemical Toxicity Program at the University of Rochester is presented. Progress is reported on four projects: Neurobehavorial Toxicity of Organometallic Fuel Additives, Mechanisms of Permanent and Delayed Pathologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Solid State Radiation Chemistry of the DNA Backbone, and Pulmonary Biochemistry

  9. Researchers study decontamination of chemical, biological warfare agents

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Office has awarded Virginia Tech a $680,000 grant over two years to build an instrument that can be used to study the chemistry of gases that will decompose both chemical and biological warfare agents on surfaces.

  10. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  11. [Ecological hygienic assessment of soils quality in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanova, M A; Kriatov, I A; Donerian, L G; Evseeva, I S; Ushakov, D I; Sbitnev, A V

    Assessment of the soil quality is ofprime importance essential for the characterization of the ecological and hygienic condition of the territory, as the soil is the first link of the food chain, the source of secondary air and water pollution, as well as an integral index of ecological well-being of the environment. Herewith the qualitative analysis of soil complicated by the specifics of the soil genesis in the urban environment, in which an important role is played by manmade land bulk and alluvial soils; the inclusion of construction of material debris and household garbage in upper horizons; the growing up of the profile due to the perpetual introduction of different materials and intensive aeolian deposition. It is advisable to consider the currently neglected question of the study of soil vapor containing volatile chemicals. These pollutants penetrate into the building through cracks in the foundation and openings for utilities. Soil evaporation may accumulate in residential areas or in the soil under the building. Because of this, it is necessary to pay attention to the remediation of areas allocated for the built-up area, possessing a large-scale underground parking. Soil contamination is the result of significant anthropogenic impacts on the environment components. In general, about 89.1 million people (62.6% of the population of the country) live in terms of complex chemical load, determined by contamination offood, drinking water, air and soil. The list of microbiological and sanitary-chemical indices of the assessment of soils of urban areas may vary in dependence on the data obtained in pilot studies due to changes and additions to the assigned tasks. Timely forecast for the possibility of the usage of released lands of urban territories for the construction and the creation of new objects for different purposes should become the prevention of chronic non-infectious diseases in the population residing in urban areas.

  12. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity studies of drugs and chemicals in animals: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saganuwan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity study is the investigation of either short or long-term toxic effects of a drug or chemical on animals. The toxicity is dose-dependent as asserted by Paracelsus over 500 years ago. However, short-term toxic effect is determined using median lethal dose (LD50 first introduced by Trevan in 1927 and revised many times. Presently there is a growing preponderance of rejection of scientific papers on acute toxicity study, simply because of the belief that in the current hazard and safety as-sessment of drugs and chemicals, LD50 values are no longer used. In view of this, literature search was carried out with a view to investigating the relevance of LD50 in development and assessment of drugs and chemicals. The findings revealed that in the past, many animals had been used for LD50 determination. OECD has reduced the number of test animals to 5–15 and presently it is further re-duced to 2–6. Acute toxicity study is being carried out in medicinal plants research and in the study of patent medicine. Although the application of LD50 has been drastically reduced, it is still applied and accepted in some parts of the world. Moreover, animals on which LD50 tests are conducted, should be allowed to die to see the end effect of the test drug or chemical because euthanisia of test animals may mask some toxicity signs of the test agents. Therefore, toxicity study of drugs and chemicals is a sci-entific process necessary for discovery and development of drugs as well as identification of potential toxicants.

  14. Study of the chemical sputtering in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambe, A.

    2002-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on the interactions between energetic particles coming from thermonuclear plasma and the inner components of a fusion machine. This interaction induces two major problems: erosion of the wall, and tritium retention. This report treats the erosion of carbon based materials. The first part is devoted to chemical sputtering, that appears to be the principal erosion mechanism, compared to physical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation that both can be limited. Chemical sputtering has been studied in situ in the tokamak Tore-Supra for ohmic and lower hybrid (LH) heated discharges, by means of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy. We have shown that it is necessary to take into account both methane and heavier hydrocarbons (C 2 D x and C 3 D y ) in the determination of the chemical sputtering yield. It is found that for the ohmic discharges, the sputtering yield of CD 4 (Y CD4 ) is highly flux (φ) dependent, showing a variation of the form: Y CD4 ∝ φ -0.23 . The experimental study also reveals that an increase of the surface temperature induces an augmentation of Y CD4 . The interpretation and the modelling of the experimental results have been performed with a Monte Carlo code (BBQ. In the second part of this work, we have developed and installed an infrared spectroscopy diagnostic in the 0.8-1.6, μm wavelength range dedicated to the measurement of surface temperature, and the identification of atomic and molecular lines emitted during plasma/wall interactions. In the third part, we present the feasibility study of an in situ tungsten deposition process at low temperature(<80 deg C) in order to suppress the chemical sputtering. This study shows that, with this method call Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD), we are able to coat the whole inner vessel of a tokamak with 1 μm of tungsten. (author)

  15. Self-reported oral hygiene practices among adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Krustrup, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the present level of oral hygiene practices in the Danish adult population aged 16 or above, in particular to analyse how self-care practices in terms of oral hygiene habits and cleaning of dentures are affected by socio-economic factors, dental status, actual dental visiting...... habits, and the experience of oral health care during school years. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study of 5802 persons, randomly sampled amongst the Danish population aged 16 years or above. Data were collected by means of personal interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. The response rate was 66%. RESULTS: Toothbrushing twice-a-day was reported by 68% of the dentates while 32% brushed their teeth once-a-day or less frequent. Daily use of toothpicks was reported by 28% while daily use of dental floss was reported by 11%. Oral hygiene habits were more frequent...

  16. Impact of Oral Hygiene Discontinuation on Supragingival and Salivary Microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Sembler-Møller, M L; Grande, M A

    2018-01-01

    of oral hygiene. Supragingival and salivary microbiotas were processed by next-generation sequencing (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing) and microbial community profiles were compared. Microbial composition of supragingival plaque samples collected after 4, 7, and 10 d......The purpose of the present study was to characterize and compare supragingival and salivary microbiotas during a 10-d period of oral hygiene discontinuation. We tested the hypothesis that the composition of the salivary microbiota will reflect local microbial changes associated with accumulated...... biofilm formation and maturation. Pooled supragingival plaque (n = 145) and stimulated saliva (n = 145) samples were collected and plaque and gingival indices were recorded from 29 orally healthy individuals at baseline, during oral hygiene discontinuation (days 4, 7, and 10), and 14 d after resumption...

  17. Sleep hygiene use in a psychiatry outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, J

    2012-02-01

    Non-pharmacological measures are recommended prior to use of hypnotics in the latest NICE guidance. This study investigated if non-pharmacological measures are utilised prior to hypnotic prescribing in a general adult psychiatry outpatient setting, and further reviewed patient\\'s sleep quality following implementation of sleep hygiene education. Interviews were conducted with 85 patients, and poor adherence with NICE guidance was found among the 74 (87%) patients previously prescribed a hypnotic. Just five (6.8%) patients recalled use of non-pharmacological measures prior to hypnotic prescription, 47 (63.5%) indicated non-pharmacological measures had not been discussed, while a further 22 (29.7%) could not remember. Improvement in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores following implementation of sleep hygiene education was also noted (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that increased awareness of sleep hygiene education for clinicians may be beneficial.

  18. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  19. Smartphone text message service to foster hand hygiene compliance in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbaj, Jad; Toure, Youssoupha; Soto Aladro, Alberto; Boudjema, Sophia; Giorgi, Roch; Dufour, Jean Charles; Brouqui, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Health care-associated infections are a major worldwide public health issue. Hand hygiene is a major component in the prevention of pathogen transmission in hospitals, and hand hygiene adherence by health care workers is low in many studies. We report an intervention using text messages as reminders and feedback to improve hand hygiene adherence. The study is a historical comparison proof-of-concept study. Eighteen health care workers were monitored during 12 months by a radiofrequency identification system. Afterward we sent 2 types of text messages, congratulation or encouragement, and we studied the evolution of hand hygiene adherence. We recorded 15,723 hand hygiene opportunities, 8,973 before intervention and 6,750 during and after the intervention. Using a multilevel logistic regression analysis, we found a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence during the intervention (odds ratio, 1.68) compared with the historical period. Despite limitations due to the type of study, a text message encouraging personnel to be more vigilant is effective in increasing hand hygiene adherence in health care workers. Text message feedback should be incorporated into multimodal approaches for improving hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Correlation between Individual and Environmental Hygiene and Pioderma Incidence An Analytical Observational Study in Pyoderma Patient in Islamic Sultan Agung Hospital during the Period August to December 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Aisyah Sutisna

    2011-06-01

    Design and Methods: The study type was analytic observational with case control design. The sample consisted of 30 respondents RSI patients Sultan Agung for case group and 30 persons as control group is the neighbors of patients who have similar characteristics and are not suffering pyoderma. The data used are secondary data from medical records and primary data from questionnaires filled out by respondents, then the data were analyzed with chi-square and to determine the correlation power there was used a contingency coefficient test. Results: It was found that the good and the bad individual hygene for the case group were 3.3% and 66.7% respectively, while for the control group the good and bad individual hygene were 80.0% and 20.0% respectively. Chi-square test resulted in p=0,000 with contingency coefisien of 0.426. It was found that the good and the bad environmental hygene for the case group were 56.7% and 43.3% respectively, while for the control group the good and bad environmental hygene were 83.3% and 16.3% respectively. Chi-square test resulted in p=0,024 with contingency coefisien of 0.27. Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between the personal and environmental hygiene and poderma insicence at the RSI Sultan Agung with a moderate relationship between individual hygiene and weak relationship between environmental hygene (Sains Medika, 3(1:24-30.

  1. Hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurov, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Modern state of the problem on hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations is considered. Concepts and principles of the regulation based on risk concept are presented according to ICRP 26 and 27. Two types of risk are designated: ''absolute'' and ''relative'' ones. The concept of acceptable risk on the basis of cost - benefit ratio is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the principle of accounting the complex of health signs, when determining radiation hazard. To determine the level of permissible risk and permissible dose to population the concept of ''inadmissibility of s-tatistically significant risk'' has been developed. Standards, regulating population doses in the USSR, which are valid nowadays, are considered

  2. [Guidelines for hygienic classification of learning technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Teksheva, L M; Milushkina, O Iu

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of the educational environment under the present-day conditions has been in progress, by using learning techwares (LTW) without fail. To organize and regulate an academic process in terms of the safety of applied LTW, there is a need for their classification. The currently existing attempts to structure LTW disregard hygienically significant aspects. The task of the present study was to substantiate a LTW safety criterion ensuring a universal approach to working out regulations. This criterion may be the exposure intensity determined by the form of organization of education and its pattern, by the procedure of information presentation, and the age-related peculiarities of a pupil, i.e. by the actual load that is presented by the product of the intensity exposure and its time. The hygienic classification of LTW may be used to evaluate their negative effect in an educational process on the health status of children and adolescents, to regulate hazardous factors and training modes, to design and introduce new learning complexes. The structuring of a LTW system allows one to define possible deleterious actions and the possibilities of preventing this action on the basis of strictly established regulations.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α = 0.60; behavioural arousal: α = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: α = 0.81; sleep environment: α = 0.61; sleep stability: α = 0.68; daytime sleep: α = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Assessment of tobacco dependence curricula in Italian dental hygiene schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Davis, Joan M; Licata, Maria E; Giuliana, Giovanna

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of tobacco dependence education offered by Italian dental hygiene programs. A fifty-question survey was mailed to the thirty-one active public and private dental hygiene programs in Italy during the 2008-09 academic year. The survey assessed faculty confidence in teaching tobacco treatment, which courses contained tobacco dependence content, the number of minutes spent on specific content areas, and the level of clinical competence that dental hygiene graduates should be able to demonstrate. Surveys were returned by sixteen programs for a response rate of 52 percent. Respondents indicated tobacco dependence education was included in clinic or clinic seminar (56 percent), periodontics (44 percent), oral pathology (31 percent), and prevention (19 percent). All programs reported including the effects of tobacco on general and oral diseases in courses. However, more in-depth topics received less curriculum time; these included tobacco treatment strategies (63 percent) and discussion of cessation medications (31 percent). Interestingly, 62 percent of the respondents indicated they expected dental hygiene graduates to demonstrate a tobacco treatment competency level of a moderate intervention or higher (counseling, discussion of medications, follow-up) rather than a brief intervention in which patients are advised to quit then referred to a quitline. The results of this study indicated that Italian dental hygiene students are not currently receiving adequate instruction in tobacco treatment techniques nor are they being adequately assessed. This unique overview of Italian dental hygiene tobacco dependence education provides a basis for further discussion towards a national competency-based curriculum.

  5. Industrial hygiene survey. IMC, Agricultural Operation Division, Bartow, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.

    1977-10-01

    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Agricultural Operations Division, IMC, Bartow, Florida, on July 19-22, 1976, as part of the industry-wide study of the phosphate fertilizer industry. The phosphate ore mining operations, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. The beneficiation plant was surveyed to determine the 8-hour time weighted averages of cadmium, chromium, vanadium, fluoride, arsenic, and silica. General area samples were taken for uranium and alpha-radiation. With the exception of uranium in the grinding area, all other elements analyzed came within the OSHA standards. However, several results exceed the NIOSH recommended standard

  6. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, A.V.; Mozgovaya, A.V.; Polesskij, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  7. Assessing the standards of online oral hygiene instructions for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Willem A.; Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Ren, Yijin

    Background. The authors conducted this study to assess the quality of the information available on the Web about oral hygiene for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods. The authors entered the search terms "cleaning braces," " brushing braces," and "oral hygiene and braces" into

  8. Student Perceptions of Effective Clinical Teaching Characteristics in Dental Hygiene Programs in Northeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearor, Dawn E.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical education component provided to dental hygiene students is an essential part of their development as competent practitioners. Instructor approaches to clinical teaching are therefore critical in providing quality clinical learning experiences. This study sought to identify dental hygiene students' perceptions of "best" and…

  9. Knowledge of Dental Health and Oral Hygiene Practices of Taiwanese Visually Impaired and Sighted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.

  10. The Effect of an Extramural Program on the Perceived Clinical Competence of Dental Hygiene Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Janice M.; Vaught, Randall L.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the effect of an extramural rotation on dental-hygiene students' self-perceptions of competence in specific clinical areas. Results indicate student perceptions of competence improved significantly on six of 19 dimensions of dental-hygiene practice over the course of the rotation, suggesting that rotation is a valuable…

  11. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis and oral hygiene practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims:The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices and related diseases among Libyan students and employees.Methods: Six hundred selfadministered structured questionnaires were used to investigate self-perception of halitosis and oral hygiene practices among a ...

  12. On occupational-appointment demands on radiation hygiene for medical radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usol'tsev, V.I.; Kuzin, V.I.; Tselikov, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the work was to determine occupational requirements on radiation hygiene for medical radiologists. To solve the problem using questionnaire, personal conversations with doctors, analysis of basis control and examinations volume and character of work on radiation hygiene were studied in 510 medical radiologists. Occupational requirements for these specialists were worked out on the basis the obtained data. 4 refs

  13. Nurses' perceptions of reasons for persistent low rates in hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadule-Rios, Nohemi; Aguilera, Graciela

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of reasons for persistent low rates in hand hygiene compliance in the Critical Care Unit and their recommendations for improvement. This study used an exploratory, descriptive survey design to identify critical care nurses' perceptions of barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the unit and their recommendations for improvement. Nurses selected high workload, understaffing and suggested lack of time as the main problems with hand hygiene compliance in the critical care unit. Second to that, they identified difficulty accessing sinks and lack of appropriately located hand sanitisers at the point of care complemented by suggestions of not enough sinks and inconveniently located hand sanitiser as major barriers to hand hygiene compliance. Results of this study indicate that high workload and understaffing added to difficulty accessing hand hygiene resources contribute to low rates of hand hygiene compliance in the critical care unit. Addressing nursing understaffing and workload and making some environmental modifications to allow easy access to sinks and hand sanitisers may facilitate nurses hand hygiene compliance in this setting. Further studies on the relationship between nurses' workload, unit staffing, and hand hygiene compliance rates are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral hygiene, dental caries and nutritional Status of in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries has become a disease of public health significance with dietary and hygiene practices being identified has major contributors. The extent of this burden is poorly explored among the adolescents in Nigeria. This study examines the association between oral hygiene, dental caries and nutritional ...

  15. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a

  16. Oral hygiene teaching in clinical activities at the department of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes and practices of students related to oral hygiene teaching by mean of a questionnaire submitted to patients attending the clinics of the Department of Dentistry of Dakar. Method: A KPC study (Knowledge, Practices and Coverage) focusing on dental students was conducted ...

  17. Water, sanitation and hygiene in community based care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the HIV/AIDS patients in South Africa receive health care services at home. However, limited studies have been conducted to examine the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) situation in the homes of the care receivers and its impact on community-based care. The main objective of this study was to explore ...

  18. The Hi Five study: design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among 6-15 year olds in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anette; Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Due, Pernille

    2015-03-01

    Infectious illnesses such as influenza and diarrhea are leading causes of absenteeism among Danish school children. Interventions in school settings addressing hand hygiene have shown to reduce the number of infectious illnesses. However, most of these studies include small populations and almost none of them are conducted as randomized controlled trials. The overall aim of the Hi Five study was to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component school-based intervention to improve hand hygiene and well-being and to reduce the prevalence of infections among school children in intervention schools by 20% compared to control schools. This paper describes the development and the evaluation design of Hi Five. The Hi Five study was designed as a tree-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial. A national random sample of schools (n = 44) was randomized to one of two intervention groups (n = 29) or to a control group with no intervention (n = 15). A total of 8,438 six to fifteen-year-old school children were enrolled in the study. The Hi Five intervention consisted of three components: 1) a curriculum component 2) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch 3) extra cleaning of school toilets during the school day. Baseline data was collected from December 2011 to April 2012. The intervention period was August 2012 to June 2013. The follow-up data was collected from December 2012 to April 2013. The Hi Five study fills a gap in international research. This large randomized multi-component school-based hand hygiene intervention is the first to include education on healthy and appropriate toilet behavior as part of the curriculum. No previous studies have involved supplementary cleaning at the school toilets as an intervention component. The study will have the added value of providing new knowledge about usability of short message service (SMS, text message) for collecting data on infectious illness and absenteeism in large study populations. Current Controlled

  19. Correlation study of chemical elements in phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braganca, Maura Julia Camara da Silva

    1999-07-01

    Geological phenomena, 1) endogenous (volcanism, magmatic flow, metasomatism); 2) metamorphic (resultant of action of high temperature and pressure) and; 3) exogenous (intemperism, contamination) can modify the chemical composition of rocks soils. Thus, chemical elements with little mobility can be used as indicators of the previous geological situation before the occurrence of these phenomena and can sign the chemical composition of the initial formation. The elements with great mobility can already be used as indicators of the characteristic and intensity of the changes, can point out the influence factors and its space and time conditions. In this work the results of the study of phosphated samples ores coming from two alkaline-carbonatitic chimneys (Araxa and Catalao) and from a meta sedimentary rock (Patos de Minas), located phosphate rock deposit, are presented. The results were obtained using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-AES techniques. A comparison of the three types of samples ores, using chemical, crystallographic and statistical methods, shows that the Araxa and Catalao present some geochemical similarities and they are distinguished of Patos de Minas, despite its geographic proximity. (author)

  20. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene. © 2012 APJPH.

  1. Current problems of radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotkov, F.G.; Golikov, V.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Present status of radiation hygiene is considered and prospects of its further development are outlined in connection with the expansion of atomic energy use for peaceful purposes. Transfer to the new system of irradiation level reglamentation which is recommended by ICRP presupposes further investigations and data acquisition. Necessity of data acquisition on the frequency of stochastic effects of the doses not exceeding 100 rem, substantiations of methodical approaches to the assessment of the collective radiation doses of large human population groups at low levels of personal irradiation, obtaining of reliable information on the contribution of different sources into collective radiation doses are pointed out. Further investigations on the problems of radiation safety of patients and also prediction assessment of the existing systems of radioactive waste disposal, forecasting and insurance of radioactive wastes, forecasting and insurance of radiation accidents, connected with the injection of radionuclides into the biosphere deserve special attention. Perspective directions of scientific investigations in the field of occupational radiation hygiene are poined out

  2. Using chemical imaging to study bonding of dissimilar alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuhrer, R.; Phillips, M.R.; Huggett, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: New welding techniques are currently being developed to bond very dissimilar materials such as cast irons or wear resistant steels welded to mild steel. X-ray mapping and chemical phase imaging provides useful information on the mass transport across the interface as well as phase segregation within the weld joint. Cast iron / steel and wear resistant steel / mild steel weld joints were mounted in a bakelite mount, cross-sectioned with a diamond wafering blade and polished to an optical finish using diamond abrasives. X-ray maps were collected at over a range of accelerating voltages using a Moran Scientific energy dispersive x-ray analysis and mapping system. These elemental x-ray maps were used to generate scatter plots, where pixel frequency versus element concentration profiles are plotted against each other in two or three dimensions for selected elements within the sample. The clusters observed in these plots correspond to different phases within the weld seam. The contributing pixels to each cluster can be used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of its associated phase in a chemical image of the specimen. Of particular interest to this study were the branches and links between clusters in each scatter plot and how these features correlate the chemical distribution of elements both in and around the bond region. Preliminary analysis indicated that these links and branches in the scatter plot correspond to solid solutions between chemical phases and diffusion gradients. Proper interpretation of these scatter plots will provide a better understanding of the chemical processes involved in welding dissimilar materials. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  3. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Buddleja albiflora (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Tao, Liang

    2010-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja albiflora. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. seven compounds were isolated and identified as aucubin (1), catalpol (2), acteoside (3), martynoside (4), ursolicacid (5), daucosterol (6), beta-sitosterol-3-0-beta-D-(6'-0-palmitate) glucopyranosisde (7). All these compounds are obtained from Buddleja albiflora for the first time.

  4. [Studies on chemical constituents from Buddleja lindleyana Fert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J H; Zhao, Y Y; Qiao, L; Fang, Y O; Huang, Q A

    2001-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Buddleja lindleyana. Separation by chromatographic methods and identification by spectral analysis. Seven compounds vanillic acid, daidzein octacosanoic acid, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha-spinasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, betulin acid were isolated. All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  5. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Portulaca oleracea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ce-jia; Liu, Dian-yu; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Wen; Shao, Ning-ning

    2009-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Portulaca oleracea. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and identified on the basis of physicochemical and spectral data. Five compounds were isolated from 70% ethanol extract of this plant and their structures were elucidated as cyclo (Phe-Ile) (1), cycle (Tyr-Ala) (2), adenine (3), friedelin (4) and isoselachoceric acid (5). Compounds 1-5 are isolated from Portulaca oleracea for the first time.

  6. Analysing chemical equilibrium conditions when studying butyl acetate synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño; Fernando Leiva Lenis; Luis Alejandro Boyacá Mendivelso; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis María Carballo Suárez

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the liquid phase of acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (P atm = 560 mmHg),using an ion exchange resin (Lewatit K-2431) as catalyst. A set of assays were carried out for determining the effect of catalyst load, temperature and molar ratio (acid/alcohol) on chemical equilibrium constant. Components’ selective sorption on the resin matrix was noticed; its effect on equilibrium conditions was verified, by using different acid/alcohol starting ratios. A non-ide...

  7. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  8. Hygiene aspects of cosmetic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kukułowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently beauty salons offer a wide range of services, from beauty treatments starting with skin cleansing, peeling or manicure, to permanent makeup and body piercing. During all these treatments, there is a risk of infection with different diseases caused most often by Fungi (Candida albicans, pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and viruses (herpes, hepatitis B and C, and therefore the staff should use disposable equipment and sterilized tools.Aim of research. The aim of the study was to assess the hygiene conditions in a selected beauty salon. Material and methods. The research was carried out in a selected Salon in the Tri-city. The subject of microbiological analysis were the hands of beauticians, the surface of the table, the uniform, the cover of the chair for treatments for the face, clean towels and bowls for soaking feet prior to pedicure treatment. The aim of the research was to establish the total number of microorganisms (OLD, the number of yeasts and moulds, and the presence of staphylococci. Results. In the analysed material, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus was not confirmed. Among the studied samples, only slightly above 8% were free of moulds, while 25% were free of the presence of yeasts. Staphylococci settled on about 14% of the evaluated surfaces, mostly occurring on the hands of beauticians and in bowls for soaking feet. The average number of microorganisms isolated from the tips of 5 fingers amounted to 32 cfu/25 cm2. Staphylococcus epidermidis was present on the hands in more than 60% of the samples. Only about 7% of the samples were found to exceed the limit for class D premises, amounting to 50 cfu/25 cm2, while on over 70% of the analysed surfaces the microorganisms reached the level of 1–25 cfu/25 cm2, which confirms high standard of provided services. Conclusions. 1 In the examined beauty salon the analyzed surfaces were clean and free of Staphylococcus aureus, but Staphylococcus

  9. Determinants of personal and household hygiene among college students in New York City, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Benjamin A; Cohen, Bevin; Conway, Laurie; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L; Larson, Elaine

    2012-12-01

    Although several studies have characterized the hygiene habits of college students, few have assessed the determinants underlying such behaviors. Our study sought to describe students' knowledge, practices, and beliefs about hygiene and determine whether there is an association between reported behaviors and frequency of illness. A sample of 299 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, personal and household hygiene behaviors, beliefs and knowledge about hygiene, and general health status. Variation in reported hygiene habits was noted across several demographic factors. Women reported "always" washing their hands after using the toilet (87.1%) more than men (65.3%, P = .001). Similarly, freshmen reported such behavior (80.4%) more than sophomores (71.9%), juniors (67.7%), or seniors (50%, P = .011). Whereas 96.6% of participants thought that handwashing was either "very important" or "somewhat important" for preventing disease, smaller proportions thought it could prevent upper respiratory infections (85.1%) or gastroenteritis (48.3%), specifically. There was no significant relationship between reported behaviors and self-reported health status. The hygiene habits of college students may be motivated by perceptions of socially acceptable behavior rather than scientific knowledge. Interventions targeting the social norms of incoming and continuing students may be effective in improving hygiene determinants and ultimately hygiene practices. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of a verbal electronic audio reminder with a patient hand hygiene bundle to increase independent patient hand hygiene practices of older adults in an acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, Shanina C; Dolansky, Mary; Donskey, Curtis; Warner, Camille; Rai, Herleen; Higgins, Patricia A

    2018-03-01

    We hypothesized that the addition of a novel verbal electronic audio reminder to an educational patient hand hygiene bundle would increase performance of self-managed patient hand hygiene. We conducted a 2-group comparative effectiveness study randomly assigning participants to patient hand hygiene bundle 1 (n = 41), which included a video, a handout, and a personalized verbal electronic audio reminder (EAR) that prompted hand cleansing at 3 meal times, or patient hand hygiene bundle 2 (n = 34), which included the identical video and handout, but not the EAR. The primary outcome was alcohol-based hand sanitizer use based on weighing bottles of hand sanitizer. Participants that received the EAR averaged significantly more use of hand sanitizer product over the 3 days of the study (mean ± SD, 29.97 ± 17.13 g) than participants with no EAR (mean ± SD, 10.88 ± 9.27 g; t 73  = 5.822; P ≤ .001). The addition of a novel verbal EAR to a patient hand hygiene bundle resulted in a significant increase in patient hand hygiene performance. Our results suggest that simple audio technology can be used to improve patient self-management of hand hygiene. Future research is needed to determine if the technology can be used to promote other healthy behaviors, reduce infections, and improve patient-centered care without increasing the workload of health care workers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Needs assessment for emerging oral microbiome knowledge in dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett

    The curricula of dental hygiene education reflect the knowledge gained through research and clinical advances. Emerging knowledge is often complex and tentative. The purpose of this study is to assess dental hygiene students' confidence in their knowledge about the oral microbiome and to conduct a knowledge needs assessment for expanding their exposure to emerging knowledge about the oral microbiome. Sixty dental hygiene students were surveyed, using a Likert-type scale about their confidence and about current and emerging bacteriological research. The majority of students (60%) reported being confident in their knowledge. The mean score for the ten items was 35.2% (standard deviation, 20.6%). The results of this study indicate a need for emphasis on emerging oral microbiome research in dental hygiene education. This is important so that dental hygiene students can properly share information with their patients about advances in dental care.

  12. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Early Childhood Hygiene Interventions in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushan ATANIYAZOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies cost-benefit analysis (CBA technique to estimate the effectiveness of hand hygiene and oral health interventions in Uzbekistan for children of kindergarten age (3-6 years old. Our primary objective in this study is to apply CBA framework to investigate economic viability of hand hygiene and oral health interventions on respiratory diseases (influenza, bronchitis, pneumonia, intestinal diseases (diarrhea, hepatitis A, and helminthiasis, and dental caries and stomatitis. Though it is often difficult to attribute a specific hygiene intervention to a reduction in specific illness, our study shows that prevention of disease through hygiene promotion is cost-effective. To be the most effective, however, hygiene interventions should be accompanied by education and awareness-raising of teachers, parents and children.

  13. Hygiene of Toys in Day Care Centers: a Care With Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Pires Cogo Simão

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate how the hygiene of the toys used in day care centers and the possible tendencies in the processes are done. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study, having as a unit of observation 51 day care centers. The object of investigation was the toy hygiene procedure, in which the information on the variables was obtained by interview and recorded in an online questionnaire. Results: It was observed that water and soap was the most used method of hygiene (72.5% and the periodicity of cleaning was 2 times a month or more in 50% of the units interviewed, and six nurseries declared no Such procedure. Conclusion: there was no standardized procedures in the toy hygiene technique used in the sample of nurseries studied. Although most institutions demonstrate intent to carry out the toy hygiene procedure, it is necessary to equip practitioners to deal with this issue. Descriptors: Day Care Centers; Fomites; Disinfection; Play Sets and Toys; Nursing.

  14. Study on chemical reactivity control of liquid sodium. Research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki; Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Nobuki; Yoshioka, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Liquid sodium has the excellent properties as coolant of the fast breeder reactor (FBR). On the other hand, it reacts high with water and oxygen. So an innovative technology to suppress the reactivity is desired. The purpose of this study is to control the chemical reactivity of liquid sodium by dispersing the nanometer-size metallic particles (we call them Nano-particles) into liquid sodium. We focus on the atomic interaction between Nano-particles and sodium atoms. And we try to apply it to suppress the chemical reactivity of liquid sodium. Liquid sodium dispersing Nano-particles is named 'Nano-fluid'. Research programs of this study are the Nano-particles production, the evaluation of reactivity suppression of liquid sodium and the feasibility study to FBR plant. In this paper, the research programs and status are described. The important factors for particle production were understood. In order to evaluate the chemical reactivity of Nano-fluid the research programs were planned. The feasibility of the application of Nano-fluid to the coolant of FBR plant was evaluated preliminarily from the viewpoint of design and operation. (author)

  15. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  16. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  17. Advocacy for the Provision of Dental Hygiene Services Within the Hospital Setting: Development of a Dental Hygiene Student Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Jacqueline A; Stedman, Lynn

    2016-06-01

    Educational preparation of dental hygiene students for hospital-based practice, and advocacy efforts promote inclusion of dental hygienists within hospital-based interdisciplinary health care teams. Although the value of attending to the oral care needs of patients in critical care units has been recognized, the potential impact of optimal oral health care for the general hospital population is now gaining attention. This article describes a hospital-based educational experience for dental hygiene students and provides advocacy strategies for inclusion of dental hygienists within the hospital interdisciplinary team. The dental hygienist authors, both educators committed to evidence-based oral health care and the profession of dental hygiene, studied hospital health care and recognized a critical void in oral health care provision within that setting. They collaboratively developed and implemented a hospital-based rotation within the curriculum of a dental hygiene educational program and used advocacy skills to encourage hospital administrators to include a dental hygiene presence within hospital-based care teams. Hospital-based dental hygiene practice, as part of interprofessional health care delivery, has the potential to improve patient well-being, shorten hospital stays, and provide fiscal savings for patients, institutions, and third party payers. Advocacy efforts can promote dental hygienists as members of hospital-based health care teams. Further research is needed to document: (1) patient outcomes resulting from optimal oral care provision in hospitals; (2) best ways to prepare dental hygienists for career opportunities within hospitals and other similar health care settings; and (3) most effective advocacy strategies to promote inclusion of dental hygienists within care teams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hygienic assessment of intraschool environment in rural and urban secondary school institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylnikova, I V

    The purpose of the research is to assess the intra-environment indices in urban and rural secondary schools. In the course of special studies there was given the hygienic assessment of the climate, illumination and air quality of classrooms. In classrooms in rural schools microclimate indices were established to fail to meet hygienic requirements mainly on the temperature and humidity parameters. In rural schools, the temperature was decreased to 16-17 °C in 19.0 ± 8.6% of classrooms, humidity was elevated to 63.1% in 25.7 ± 7.4% of classrooms. Among urban schools the humidity in 49.6 ± 4.4% of classrooms reduced to 23.3 ± 0.3%, in 20.8 ± 5.4% of offices it was increased to 71.9 ± 0.9%. The coefficient of the natural illumination in rural schools has been reduced to 0.86-1.4% in 33.9 ± 14.2% of classrooms. In 25.1 ± 2.3% of classrooms in urban schools the level of natural light ratio was below the normative values and varied in the range of 0.32-1.3%. It is noted that in the offices of informatics natural light indices are significantly lower than in the classrooms for core subjects. The artificial lighting in urban schools was found to be lower than hygienic standards on the desks by 1.9 times, 2.2 times - at the board. There were obtained statistically significant handshaking health problems of urban schoolchildren due to intraenvironmental factors. The c dimate in surveyed gyms in rural schools is different in the low temperature and high humidity. The hygienic assessment of the air pollution classrooms’ medium was executed for a range of chemicals: formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter. Concentrations of formaldehyde; nitrogen dioxide, suspended solids in the air in classrooms in urban schools appeared to be higher than in rural schools. Carbon monoxide concentrations in classrooms in rural schools was found to exceed their values in urban schools. The air in classrooms of the one of the cities was found

  19. The impact of an education program on hand hygiene compliance and nosocomial infection incidence in an urban neonatal intensive care unit: an intervention study with before and after comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, Onno K.; Brug, Johannes; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Kornelisse, René F.

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial bloodstream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Appropriate hand hygiene is singled out as the most important measure in preventing these infections. However, hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals remains low despite

  20. Assessment of hygiene habits and attitudes among removable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of this study was conducting a survey of hygiene habits and use of removable partial dentures (RPDs) and correlate them with the social conditions of the interviewees. Methods: A total of 145 RPD wearers were interviewed by experienced clinical staff using a structured questionnaire. A Chi‑squared test was ...

  1. Oral hygiene practices and risk of oral leukoplakia | Macigo | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. Design: Case control study. Setting: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. Subjects: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. Results: The relative risk (RR) of oral ...

  2. Oral fecal parasites and personal hygiene of food handlers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ingestion of infective eggs and cysts of faecal orally transmissible parasites has been linked with the level of environmental and personal hygiene. The possibility of contamination of food with eggs and cysts by infected food vendors has also been recorded. Objectives and methods: This study was aimed at ...

  3. Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgarnie, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

  4. Adherence to hand hygiene protocol by clinicians and medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: While communicable diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Malawi, the contribution of nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) is unknown but could be substantial. The single most important method of preventing nosocomial infections is hand hygiene. We report a study which ...

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hygiene and sanitation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: A Salmonella typhi outbreak was reported in a Burundian refugee camp in Rwanda in October 2015. Transmission persisted despite increased hygiene promotion activities and hand-washing facilities instituted to prevent and control the outbreak. A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was carried out ...

  6. Dysphagia screening and intensified oral hygiene reduce pneumonia after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Terp; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia occurs in approximately 51%-78% of patients with acute stroke. The incidence of pneumonia caused by aspiration in dysphagic patients increases both mortality and the need for hospitalization. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the incidence of aspiration pneumonia could...... be reduced in such patients by an early screening for dysphagia and intensified oral hygiene....

  7. Prevalence of Skin Infections and Hygiene Practices among Pupils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Practices in the treatment of infections like the use of herbal soap (31.5%), brake oil (4.2%), Baby oil (3.9%), chicken's egg (2.7%) were reported by respondents. Poor personal hygiene and housing conditions are contributing factors to skin infections in the study area. Early introduction of health education in schools would ...

  8. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrhoea diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five-children (U-5C) in Nigeria. Inadequate safe water, sanitation, and hygiene account for the disease burden. Cases of diarrhoea still occur in high proportion in the study area despite government-oriented interventions.

  9. Design and implementation of participatory hygiene and sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study is a continuation of a research carried out in Luweero district in Uganda1. It investigated whether PHAST was a suitable tool for reducing transmission of soil transmitted helminths. PHAST means Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation; a participatory approach that uses visual tools to ...

  10. [Hygienic evaluation of risk factors on powder metallurgy production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Complex hygienic, clinical, sociologic and epidemiologic studies revealed reliable relationship between work conditions and arterial hypertension, locomotory system disorders, monocytosis in powder metallurgy production workers. Findings are more probable cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, digestive tract diseases due to influence of lifestyle factors.

  11. Chemical study of some ceramics from Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munita, C.S.; Schreiber, S.B.; Nascimento, A.; Luna, S.; Oliveira, P.M.S.

    2004-01-01

    80 ceramic fragments from six archaeological sites were studied by considering two main aspects: (1) mineralogical/petrographic examination to identify the compounds and minerals present, and (2) elemental analysis via INAA to determine the concentration of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Petrographic analysis showed that the samples from all sites are quite similar in general paste characteristics. The paste is rich in sand, mica and opaque minerals, especially iron and titanium oxides. Principal component analysis was carried out using the log transformed concentrations of determined elemental concentrations. Three components with eigenvalues greater than 1 had been extracted from the variance-covariance matrix that explained 74% of the total variation. Bivariate plot of the first two principal components showed a high degree chemically homogeneous group, providing a high degree of chemical similarity between the samples. (author)

  12. Chemical Tools for the Study of Intramembrane Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh T N; Van Kersavond, Tim; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2015-11-20

    Intramembrane proteases (IMPs) reside inside lipid bilayers and perform peptide hydrolysis in transmembrane or juxtamembrane regions of their substrates. Many IMPs are involved in crucial regulatory pathways and human diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and diabetes. In the past, chemical tools have been instrumental in the study of soluble proteases, enabling biochemical and biomedical research in complex environments such as tissue lysates or living cells. However, IMPs place special challenges on probe design and applications, and progress has been much slower than for soluble proteases. In this review, we will give an overview of the available chemical tools for IMPs, including activity-based probes, affinity-based probes, and synthetic substrates. We will discuss how these have been used to increase our structural and functional understanding of this fascinating group of enzymes, and how they might be applied to address future questions and challenges.

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellos, Christos

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the formal lectures and contributed papers presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on. the Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics. The meeting convened at the city of Iraklion, Crete, Greece on 25 August 1985 and continued to 7 September 1985. The material presented describes the fundamental and recent advances in experimental and theoretical aspects of, reaction dynamics. A large section is devoted to electronically excited states, ionic species, and free radicals, relevant to chemical sys­ tems. In addition recent advances in gas phase polymerization, formation of clusters, and energy release processes in energetic materials were presented. Selected papers deal with topics such as the dynamics of electric field effects in low polar solutions, high electric field perturbations and relaxation of dipole equilibria, correlation in picosecond/laser pulse scattering, and applications to fast reaction dynamics. Picosecond transient Raman spectroscopy which has been used for the elucidati...

  14. Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene Education: Creating a Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Dona E.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the meaning of baccalaureate dental hygiene education is the offering of upper-division courses in the theory and practice of dental hygiene itself. Restructuring the associate programs as strictly two-year, lower-division programs would require standardization of baccalaureate programs as strictly upper-division curricula. (MLW)

  15. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.

  17. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee hygiene. 416.5 Section 416.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY... Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and...

  18. [Hygiene and body odors across time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daich, D C

    1998-06-01

    Since Ancient Times, the Middle Ages and Modern times, there have been references to hygiene and body smells as well. According to each time there is a change in hygienic criteria and methods to avoid or diminish these annoying smells. Several beliefs and also science give their explanation to the different evolutionary stages of this process.

  19. Progress and prospects in labour radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, G.M.; Tarasenko, N.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Stages of the development of radiation hygiene as a branch of hygienic science from 1940-1950 till now are being analyzed. The results and major research trends are presented. During the period under consideration the sanitary legislation was developed and important activity on setting up safety standards for ionizing raiation carried out

  20. Nurses' oral hygiene care practices with hospitalised older adults in postacute settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Esther; Ploeg, Jenny; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Carter, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how nurses provide bedtime oral hygiene care, how they decide on interventions provided, and what factors influence their ability to provide oral care. Current evidence links poor oral hygiene to systemic and infectious diseases such as pneumonia. Hospitalised patients, who now retain their teeth into older adulthood, often rely on nurses to provide oral hygiene care. Nurses have the potential to impact oral health outcomes and quality of life by controlling plaque. However, oral hygiene care practices of nurses in postacute hospital settings are relatively unknown. A qualitative, exploratory multiple-case study was conducted with 25 nurses working on five inpatient units at different hospitals. Nurses were accompanied on their evening rounds to observe oral care practices, the physical environment and workflow. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the case study data including transcripts of guided conversations, field notes and documents. Within-case analysis was followed by cross-case analysis. Findings indicate that (i) nurses often convey oral hygiene care to their patients as being optional; (ii) nurses are inclined to preserve patient autonomy in oral hygiene care; (iii) oral hygiene care is often spontaneous and variable, and may not be informed by evidence; and (iv) oral hygiene care is not embedded into bedtime care routines. Oral hygiene care is discretionary and often missed care. Nurses need knowledge of the health benefits of oral care, and skills related to assessment and approaches to oral care. Availability of effective products and supplies facilitates provision of oral care. The evidence for oral hygiene care practices, outcomes of nurse-administered oral care and nursing's role in influencing the oral health literacy of patients require further study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hand hygiene-related clinical trials reported since 2010: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-04-01

    Considerable emphasis is currently placed on reducing healthcare-associated infection through improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. There is also increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare staff. Our aim was to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies - especially clinical trials - that focused on hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. Literature published between December 2009, after publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene guidelines, and February 2014, which was indexed in PubMed and CINAHL on the topic of hand hygiene compliance, was searched. Following examination of relevance and methodology of the 57 publications initially retrieved, 16 clinical trials were finally included in the review. The majority of studies were conducted in the USA and Europe. The intensive care unit emerged as the predominant focus of studies followed by facilities for care of the elderly. The category of healthcare worker most often the focus of the research was the nurse, followed by the healthcare assistant and the doctor. The unit of analysis reported for hand hygiene compliance was 'hand hygiene opportunity'; four studies adopted the 'my five moments for hand hygiene' framework, as set out in the WHO guidelines, whereas other papers focused on unique multimodal strategies of varying design. We concluded that adopting a multimodal approach to hand hygiene improvement intervention strategies, whether guided by the WHO framework or by another tested multimodal framework, results in moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mexican-American mothers’ initiation and understanding of home oral hygiene for young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOEFT, Kristin S.; BARKER, Judith C.; MASTERSON, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate caregiver beliefs and behaviors as key issues in the initiation of home oral hygiene routines. Oral hygiene helps reduce the prevalence of early childhood caries, which is disproportionately high among Mexican-American children. Methods Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 48 Mexican-American mothers of young children in a low income, urban neighborhood. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated, transcribed, coded and analyzed using standard qualitative procedures. Results The average age of tooth brushing initiation was 1.8±0.8 years; only a small proportion of parents (13%) initiated oral hygiene in accord with American Dental Association (ADA) recommendations. Mothers initiated 2 forms of oral hygiene: infant oral hygiene and regular tooth brushing. For the 48% of children who participated in infant oral hygiene, mothers were prompted by pediatrician and social service (WIC) professionals. For regular tooth brushing initiation, a set of maternal beliefs exist about when this oral hygiene practice becomes necessary for children. Beliefs are mainly based on a child’s dental maturity, interest, capacity and age/size. Conclusions Most (87%) of the urban Mexican-American mothers in the study do not initiate oral hygiene practices in compliance with ADA recommendations. These findings have implications for educational messages. PMID:19947134

  3. Hand hygiene in peritoneal dialysis patients: a comparison of two techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; d'Avila, Domingos O

    2013-01-01

    Hand hygiene is essential for preventing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. The present study compared the effectiveness of two hygiene techniques in reducing the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) on the hands of patients undergoing PD. In this controlled clinical trial, 22 participants enrolled in the same PD program underwent a two-hand evaluation for microbiologic flora. Participants participated in two treatments: a) simple hand hygiene plus antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients washed their hands with water and glycerin soap for 1 minute and then rubbed and dried their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel; and b) antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients rubbed their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel until fully dry. To sample distal finger surfaces, we asked the participants to touch sheep blood agar plates directly. The CFU count for both hands was significantly higher in the regular hygiene group than in the gel-only group [69.0 (16.0 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.0 (2.2 - 55.5) CFU, p hand cultures from the regular hygiene group than in those from the gel-only group [69.5 (26.25 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.5 (1.0 - 41.7) CFU; p hands may be more effective than following the regular hygiene recommendations in reducing bacterial populations.

  4. Complex patterns of response to oral hygiene instructions: longitudinal evaluation of periodontal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo-Achampong, Felice; Vitunac, David E; Deeley, Kathleen; Modesto, Adriana; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2018-05-02

    Oral hygiene instruction is an intervention widely practiced but increased knowledge about oral health does not necessarily dramatically impact oral disease prevalence in populations. We aimed to measure plaque and bleeding in periodontal patients over time to determine patterns of patient response to oral hygiene instructions. Longitudinal plaque and bleeding index data were evaluated in 227 periodontal patients to determine the impact of oral hygiene instructions. Over multiple visits, we determined relative plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding for each patient. Subsequently, we grouped them in three types of oral hygiene status in response to initial instructions, using the longitudinal data over the period they were treated and followed for their periodontal needs. These patterns of oral hygiene based on the plaque and gingival bleeding indexes were evaluated based on age, sex, ethnic background, interleukin 1 alpha and beta genotypes, diabetes status, smoking habits, and other concomitant diseases. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine if any differences between these variables were statistically significant with alpha set at 0.05. Three patterns in response to oral hygiene instructions emerged. Plaque and gingival bleeding indexes improved, worsened, or fluctuated over time in the periodontal patients studied. Out of all the confounders considered, only ethnic background showed statistically significant differences. White individuals more often than other ethnic groups fluctuated in regards to oral hygiene quality after instructions. There are different responses to professional oral hygiene instructions. These responses may be related to ethnicity.

  5. Improving hand hygiene in a paediatric hospital: a multimodal quality improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; O'Grady, G; Harnett, E; Dalton, D; Andresen, D

    2012-02-01

    Effective hand hygiene has long been recognised as an important way to reduce the transmission of bacterial and viral pathogens in healthcare settings. However, many studies have shown that adherence to hand hygiene remains low, and improvement efforts have often not delivered sustainable results. The Children's Hospital at Westmead is the largest tertiary paediatric hospital in Sydney, Australia. The hospital participated in a state-wide 'Clean hands save lives' campaign which was initiated in 2006. Strong leadership, good stakeholder engagement, readily accessible alcohol-based hand rub at the point of patient care, a multifaceted education programme, monitoring of staff, adherence to recommended hand hygiene practices and contemporaneous feedback of performance data have significantly improved and maintained compliance with hand hygiene. Hand hygiene compliance has increased from 23% in 2006 to 87% in 2011 (phand hygiene has been evident in the last 4 years. A decline in a set of hospital-acquired infections (including rotavirus, multiresistant organism transmission, and nosocomial bacteraemia) has also been noted as hand hygiene rates have improved. Monthly usage of alcohol-based hand rub has increased from 16 litres/1000 bed days to 51 litres/1000 bed days during this same period. This project has delivered sustained improvement in hand hygiene compliance by establishing a framework of multimodal evidence-based strategies.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Household Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Characteristics and Environmental Enteropathy Markers in Children Less than 24 Months in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Lee, Gwenyth O; Olórtegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Salas, Mery Siguas; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Colston, Josh M; Schwab, Kellogg J; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Kosek, Margaret N

    2018-04-01

    Poor child gut health, resulting from a lack of access to an improved toilet or clean water, has been proposed as a biological mechanism underlying child stunting and oral vaccine failure. Characteristics related to household sanitation, water use, and hygiene were measured among a birth cohort of 270 children from peri-urban Iquitos Peru. These children had monthly stool samples and urine samples at four time points and serum samples at (2-4) time points analyzed for biomarkers related to intestinal inflammation and permeability. We found that less storage of fecal matter near the household along with a reliable water connection were associated with reduced inflammation, most prominently the fecal biomarker myeloperoxidase (MPO) (no sanitation facility compared with those with an onsite toilet had -0.43 log MPO, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.74, -0.13; and households with an intermittent connection versus those with a continuous supply had +0.36 log MPO, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.63). These results provide preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that children less than 24 months of age living in unsanitary conditions will have elevated gut inflammation.

  7. The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases’ prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the “Regimen Sanitatis Salerni” has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later.

  8. Assessment of hygiene standards and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points implementation on passenger ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varavara; Malissiova, Eleni; Zisis, Panagiotis; Paparizou, Evina; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The level of hygiene on ferries can have impact on travellers' health. The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene standards of ferries in Greece and to investigate whether Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation contributes to the hygiene status and particularly food safety aboard passenger ships. Hygiene inspections on 17 ferries in Greece were performed using a standardized inspection form, with a 135-point scale. Thirty-four water and 17 food samples were collected and analysed. About 65% (11/17) of ferries were scored with >100 points. Ferries with HACCP received higher scores during inspection compared to those without HACCP (p value food samples, only one was found positive for Salmonella spp. Implementation of management systems including HACCP principles can help to raise the level of hygiene aboard passenger ships.

  9. Baseline evaluation of hand hygiene compliance in three major hospitals, Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, B; Zahraei, S M; Pezeshki, Z; Babak, A; Nokhodian, Z; Mobasherizadeh, S; Hoseini, S G

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the mainstay of nosocomial infection prevention. This study was a baseline survey to assess hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers by direct observation in three major hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. The use of different hand hygiene products was also evaluated. In 3078 potential opportunities hand hygiene products were available on 2653 occasions (86.2%). Overall compliance was 6.4% (teaching hospital: 7.4%; public hospital: 6.2%; private hospital: 1.4%). Nurses (8.4%) had the highest rates of compliance. Poor hand hygiene compliance in Isfahan hospitals necessitates urgent interventions to improve both hospital infrastructure and staff knowledge. © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Access to Safe Water and Personal Hygiene Practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz; Blackwood, R Alexander

    2015-12-22

    the first study to assess the water and personal hygiene practices at the Kulandia refugee ramp. This study demonstrates that hygiene education and better practices are closely associated with the rate at which individuals and households suffer from diarrheal illnesses within the Kulandia refugee camp. There are significant hygiene deficits in the camp, which likely result from a lack of formal hygiene education and a lack of awareness concerning the connection between diarrheal illness and hygiene. With respect to practices, our results elucidate several areas where basic, communal programming - including lessons on appropriate hand washing and food preparation - will likely improve hygiene practices and decrease overall GI burden.

  11. Formative research on the feasibility of hygiene interventions for influenza control in UK primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Val

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to increase hand washing in schools have been advocated as a means to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza and other infections. However, the feasibility and acceptability of effective school-based hygiene interventions is not clear. Methods A pilot study in four primary schools in East London was conducted to establish the current need for enhanced hand hygiene interventions, identify barriers to their implementation and to test their acceptability and feasibility. The pilot study included key informant interviews with teachers and school nurses, interviews, group discussions and essay questions with the children, and testing of organised classroom hand hygiene activities. Results In all schools, basic issues of personal hygiene were taught especially in the younger age groups. However, we identified many barriers to implementing intensive hygiene interventions, in particular time constraints and competing health issues. Teachers' motivation to teach hygiene and enforce hygienic behaviour was primarily educational rather than immediate infection control. Children of all age groups had good knowledge of hygiene practices and germ transmission. Conclusion The pilot study showed that intensive hand hygiene interventions are feasible and acceptable but only temporarily during a period of a particular health threat such as an influenza pandemic, and only if rinse-free hand sanitisers are used. However, in many settings there may be logistical issues in providing all schools with an adequate supply. In the absence of evidence on effectiveness, the scope for enhanced hygiene interventions in schools in high income countries aiming at infection control appears to be limited in the absence of a severe public health threat.

  12. Toxicity studies of drugs and chemicals in animals: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saganuwan

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity study is the investigation of either short or long-term toxic effects of a drug or chemical on animals. The toxicity is dose-dependent as asserted by Paracelsus over 500 years ago. However, short-term toxic effect is determined using median lethal dose (LD50) first introduced by Trevan in 1927 and revised many times. Presently there is a growing preponderance of rejection of scientific papers on acute toxicity study, simply because of the belief that in the current hazard and safety ...

  13. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  14. Exploration of critical thinking in dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2014-12-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceptions of dental hygiene faculty regarding issues surrounding critical thinking skills integration within their associate degree dental hygiene programs. Twenty faculty participated in the study, as drawn from 11 accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs in one Midwest state. Multiple sources of data were collected, including email questionnaires, individual follow-up phone interviews and artifacts. Interpretive analysis was conducted. Data analysis revealed that faculty generally understood critical thinking, but interpretations varied. Most do not use varied teaching strategies to promote critical thinking skills, and focus on one particular strategy--that of case studies. The participants identified the need for allied health-focused faculty development opportunities, and noted that calibration of instruction was needed. Despite challenges, faculty felt responsible for teaching critical thinking skills, and identified the need for time to build critical thinking skills into the curriculum. This study was conducted in response to the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation's challenge for dental hygiene educators to comprehend their own knowledge on the concept of critical thinking related to research-based pedagogical approaches to teaching and learning. Findings revealed a strong desire among the dental hygiene faculty in this study to incorporate critical thinking into their work. They want to do what they believe is the right thing, but their actual knowledge of the definitional and application theories about critical thinking is still in the early stages of development. Regular and targeted faculty development opportunities are needed. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  15. Feminine hygiene practices among female patients and nurses in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad

    2016-05-23

    Inappropriate feminine hygiene practices are related to vulvovaginitis. We investigated the prevalence of personal hygiene habits among Lebanese women as well as their awareness of adequate practices. Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices. The study included 249 women. 21.3 % of the 136 nurses and 38.9 % of the 113 patients reported a history of vulvovaginitis. The majority of women took an intimate bath at least twice daily. 14 % of nurses and 17 % of patients douched.20. Seven percent of the nurses and 43.4 % of the patients used wet wipes. 1.5 % of nurses and 4.4 % of patients used feminine deodorant sprays. There was a significant lack of awareness mainly among patients about suitable hygiene practices as well for their adverse effects. Education provided by nurses, and other healthcare providers is essential to promote reproductive health among Lebanese women.

  16. Hand hygiene management among nurses: collective health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Graveto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the determining factors in hand hygiene management among nurses and identify associated collective health challenges. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was applied in four internal medicine units of a hospital of reference in Portugal. Results: The sample was composed of 50 nurses aged 26 to 55 years (mean age of 34.88 years; 80% were women, 58% had a Bachelor’s degree, and had 5-30 years of nursing practice (X̄ =11.94;±5.92. The vast majority of nurses (90% reported complying with the existing recommendations on hand hygiene in pre-established moments. However, none of the nurses were able to identify all the moments for hand hygiene using water and soap or alcohol-based handrub. Conclusion: This study shows that continuous training, adequate materials/structures in the units, and redesigned administration/supervision practices are determining factors to achieve higher levels of adherence to hand hygiene among nurses, as well as increased quality and safety in care delivery, which is a current collective health challenge.

  17. Evaluation of Oral Hygiene in Patients with Visual Disabilities

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    Roberto Carlos Mourão Pinho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with visual impairment present greater difficulty in achieving adequate oral hygiene due to restricted eyesight. Therefore, oral hygiene motivation and instruction methods should be adapted to these patients to understand the importance of bacterial plaque control, both for the health of dental tissues and periodontal tissues Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the plaque index (PI of patients with and without visual impairment before and after the institution of oral hygiene instructions through a Randomized Clinical Trial. Twenty patients with visual impairment (Group 1 from the Instituto dos Cegos and 20 without visual impairment (Group 2 from the ASCES Periodontia Clinic were selected. Data were collected through the IP of O'Leary and reevaluated every 21 days for four sessions. Results: in both groups, the mean of PI decreased with the time of evaluation, with a significant difference between the evaluations (p 0.05. As for the mean of the PI assessments, group 2 presented a mean higher than group 1, but without significant difference (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The study therefore suggests that there is no difference in PI in patients with or without visual impairment, and that the guidelines stimulate and motivate an improvement in oral hygiene conditions.

  18. Evaluation of the national Cleanyourhands campaign to reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals in England and Wales by improved hand hygiene: four year, prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Sheldon Paul; Fuller, Christopher; Savage, Joan; Cookson, Barry; Hayward, Andrew; Cooper, Ben; Duckworth, Georgia; Michie, Susan; Murray, Miranda; Jeanes, Annette; Roberts, J; Teare, Louise; Charlett, Andre

    2012-05-03

    To evaluate the impact of the Cleanyourhands campaign on rates of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and soap, report trends in selected healthcare associated infections, and investigate the association between infections and procurement. Prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2008. 187 acute trusts in England and Wales. Installation of bedside alcohol hand rub, materials promoting hand hygiene and institutional engagement, regular hand hygiene audits, rolled out nationally from 1 December 2004. Quarterly (that is, every three months) rates for each trust of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and liquid soap; Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (meticillin resistant (MRSA) and meticillin sensitive (MSSA)) and Clostridium difficile infection for each trust. Associations between procurement and infection rates assessed by mixed effect Poisson regression model (which also accounted for effect of bed occupancy, hospital type, and timing of other national interventions targeting these infections). Combined procurement of soap and alcohol hand rub tripled from 21.8 to 59.8 mL per patient bed day; procurement rose in association with each phase of the campaign. Rates fell for MRSA bacteraemia (1.88 to 0.91 cases per 10,000 bed days) and C difficile infection (16.75 to 9.49 cases). MSSA bacteraemia rates did not fall. Increased procurement of soap was independently associated with reduced C difficile infection throughout the study (adjusted incidence rate ratio for 1 mL increase per patient bed day 0.993, 95% confidence interval 0.990 to 0.996; P hospital procurement of alcohol rub and soap, which the results suggest has an important role in reducing rates of some healthcare associated infections. National interventions for infection control undertaken in the context of a high profile political drive can reduce selected healthcare associated infections.

  19. Analysis of the Relationship between Motivation and Critical Thinking with Intentional Internet Search Behavior Case study: Students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Hygiene Faculty

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    Nadjla Hariri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the relationship between critical thinking and motivation with intentional Internet search. The research sample included 196 students in bachelor degree and 28 students in master degree programs offered by Hygiene Faculty at Mazandaran University of Medical and Health Sciences. The method used in this research was based on analytical survey and the tools used in collecting data for critical thinking survey was based on California “form B” standardized by Khalili. Motivation was measured by the subscales of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ which was developed by Pintrich and Garcia and Behavioral Internet Search Questionnaire developed by Wu was used for measuring intentional Internet search. Findings of this research indicated that there was no meaningful relationship between critical thinking and intentional Internet search amongst the targeted population in this research; however, the researcher theory was based on existence of a meaningful relationship between motivation and intentional Internet search approved. Measured level of critical thinking within targeted population averaged to 10/19 which was lower than standardized process that yields 15/59. This indicated that research population’s critical thinking was weak. Measured level of motivation amounts to 82/10 and this was higher than the average. This indicated that population under research possessed relatively good motivation. Measured level of intentional Internet search averages to 58/51 which was at the mean interval for this variable, therefore this skill was on par with the average level. Review of relationship between variables in the research with variables of gender demographic, educational courses, section and educational discipline indicated that there was indeed a meaningful connection between critical thinking and variables of demographic of degree level and discipline. There was a meaningful relationship

  20. Correlation between plaque control and gingival health using short and extended oral hygiene intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De David, S C; Mário, T G; De Freitas, G C; Kantorski, K Z; Wikesjö, U M E; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate the correlation between dental plaque formation and gingival health in subjects performing high oral hygiene standards over short or extended intervals. Fifty-two non-dental students volunteered for this study. The subjects, trained to perform high oral hygiene standards, were randomized to perform oral hygiene at 12-, 24-, 48-, or 72-h interval over 30 days. The plaque index (PlI) and the gingival index (GI) were evaluated at baseline, 15, and 30 days. For the statistical analysis, oral hygiene intervals were collapsed into daily (12 and 24 h; G12/24) and extended (48 and 72 h; G48/72) intervals. Summary statistics (mean ± SD) and Spearman correlations between the PlI and the GI at baseline, 15, and 30 days were estimated. At baseline, correlation coefficients between PlI and GI were positive for both groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.25). At day 15 and 30, correlation was maintained with similar baseline values for the G48/72 group. GI levels did not increase despite an increase in PlI for the G12/24 group, and the correlation was lower than that observed at baseline (r = 0.13 vs. r = 0.29). In subjects with high oral hygiene standards, the oral hygiene frequency governs the correlation between dental plaque formation and gingival health. Subjects performing high oral hygiene standards at daily intervals will maintain gingival health in difference to subjects using extended hygiene intervals. Subjects performing high oral hygiene standards at daily intervals will maintain gingival health in difference to subjects using extended hygiene intervals.