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Sample records for hydroxyl apatite cha

  1. A first report of hydroxylated apatite as structural biomineral in Loasaceae - plants’ teeth against herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen; Geisler, Thorsten; Weigend, Maximilian

    2016-05-01

    Biomineralization provides living organisms with various materials for the formation of resilient structures. Calcium phosphate is the main component of teeth and bones in vertebrates, whereas especially silica serves for the protection against herbivores on many plant surfaces. Functional calcium phosphate structures are well-known from the animal kingdom, but had not so far been reported from higher plants. Here, we document the occurrence of calcium phosphate biomineralization in the South-American plant group Loasaceae (rock nettle family), which have stinging trichomes similar to those of the well-known stinging nettles (Urtica). Stinging hairs and the smaller, glochidiate trichomes contained nanocrystalline hydroxylated apatite, especially in their distal portions, replacing the silica found in analogous structures of other flowering plants. This could be demonstrated by chemical, spectroscopic, and diffraction analyses. Some species of Loasaceae contained both calcium phosphate and silica in addition to calcium carbonate. The intriguing discovery of structural hydroxylated apatite in plants invites further studies, e.g., on its systematic distribution across the family, the genetic and cellular control of plant biomineralization, the properties and ultrastructure of calcium phosphate. It may prove the starting point for the development of biomimetic calcium phosphate composites based on a cellulose matrix.

  2. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux using calcium hydroxyl apatite in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Azin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection of biomaterial to suburetral region, using minimally invasive procedure, has become an interesting topic for urologists to treat vesicoureteral reflux. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of injecting newly introduced calcium hydroxyl apatite to suburetral region, for treating an experimentally induced vesicoureteral reflux in dogs. Findings Bilateral vesicoureteral refluxed (VUR mixed breed dogs (n = 12; 10-15 kg live weight, 3-6 months of age were selected for this study. The presence and grade of the reflux were determined using cystography. Accordingly, 6 dogs displayed grade 1 & 2 and the other 6 showed grade 3 & 4 bilateral VUR. Every single dog, with bilateral VUR, underwent endoscopic treatment and received an injection of calcium hydroxyl apatite (an Iranian made product into the left (treated side and an injection of the similar volume of normal saline in to the right (control side subureteric space. One week, 3 and 6 months after treatment, cystography was performed. On each occasion, 4 dogs were euthanized by gas inhalation and biopsy samples were collected for histopathological study from ureter, bladder, kidney, lung and spleen in order to investigate the biomaterial migration into different organs. Data were analyzed using Chi-squared test. In control sides, radiographs confirmed the same grade of VUR, found at the initiation of the study. VUR was resolved in 100% (6/6 of Grade 1 & 2 and 83.33% (5/6 of Grade 3 & 4 in treated side. Therefore, the total success rate of this study was 91.67% (11/12. Macroscopic examination of the vesicouretral region of the treated side revealed a firm and consistent biomaterial mass at the site of injection. Histological findings confirmed inflammation at treated side. In contrast, there was no tissue reaction on control side. There was no evidence for biomaterial migration in macroscopic and microscopic observations in this study. Conclusion In

  3. Ammonia IRMS-TPD measurements and DFT calculation on acidic hydroxyl groups in CHA-type zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuki; Sastre, German; Katada, Naonobu; Niwa, Miki

    2007-12-07

    Brønsted acidity of H-chabazite (CHA) zeolites (Si : Al(2) = 4.2) was investigated by means of ammonia infrared-mass spectrometry/temperature-programmed desorption (IRMS-TPD) methods and density functional calculations. Four IR bands were observed at 3644, 3616, 3575 and 3538 cm(-1), and they were ascribable to the acidic OH groups on four nonequivalent oxygen sites in the CHA structure. The absorption band at 3538 cm(-1) was attributed to the O(4)H in the 6-membered ring (MR), and ammonia adsorption energy (DeltaU) of this OH group was the lowest among the 4 kinds of OH groups. The other 3 bands were assigned to the acidic OH groups in 8MR. It was observed that the DeltaU in 8 and 6MR were 131 (+/-3) and 101 kJ mol(-1), respectively. On the other hand, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations within periodic boundary conditions yielded the adsorption energies on these OH groups in 8 and 6MR to be ca. 130 and 110 kJ mol(-1), respectively, in good agreement with the experimentally-observed values.

  4. Stable isotope (C, O) and monovalent cation fractionation upon synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyl apatite (CHAP) via calcite transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Wacker, Ulrike; Conrad, Anika C.; Grathoff, Georg; Schmidt, Burkhard; Bahlo, Rainer; Gehlken, Peer-L.; Fiebig, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate-bearing hydroxyl-apatite (CHAP) is of fundamental and applied interest to the (bio)geochemical, paleontological, medical and material science communities, since it forms the basic mineral phase in human and animal teeth and bones. In addition, it is found in non-biogenic phosphate deposits. The stable isotope and foreign element composition of biogenic CHAP is widely used to estimate the formation conditions. This requires careful experimental calibration under well-defined boundary conditions. Within the DFG project EXCALIBOR, synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyapatite was conducted via the transformation of synthetic calcite powder in aqueous solution as a function of time, pH, and temperature using batch-type experiments. The aqueous solution was analyzed for the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbonate (gas irmMS), the oxygen isotope composition of water (LCRDS), and the cationic composition. The solid was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, micro Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, elemental analysis (EA, ICP-OES) and gas irmMS. Temperature was found to significantly impact the transformation rate of calcite to CHAP. Upon complete transformation, CHAP was found to contain up to 5% dwt carbonate, depending on the solution composition (e.g., pH), both incorporated on the A and B type position of the crystal lattice. The oxygen isotope fractionation between water and CHAP decreased with increasing temperature with a tentative slope shallower than those reported in the literature for apatite, calcite or aragonite. In addition, the presence of dissolved NH4+, K+ or Na+ in aqueous solution led to partial incorporation into the CHAP lattice. How these distortions of the crystal lattice may impact stable isotope discrimination is subject of future investigations.

  5. Scaffolds of hydroxyl apatite nanoparticles disseminated in 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly(1, 4-butylene succinate)/poly(methyl methacrylate) for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K.J.; Anand, Vikas; Bhatia, Gaurav; Kaur, Raminderjit; Kaur, Manpreet; Nim, Lovedeep; Arora, Daljit Singh

    2017-01-01

    Poly(1, 4-butyl succinate) extended 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane (PBSu-DCH) polymers and Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) scaffolds decorated with nano hydroxyl apatite have been prepared and characterized for regeneration of bone in cranio-maxillofacial region. Synthesized scaffolds revealed good response in bone regeneration and excellent cell viability in comparison to commercial available glass plate, which lead to better proliferation of MG-63 cell lines. Additionally, they demonstrate high porosity and excellent water retention ability. Moreover, controlled degradation (in pH = 7.4) and sustained drug release in pH (4.5 and 7.4) are advantages of these scaffolds to serve as delivery vehicles for therapeutic drugs. Samples also provide the protection against Escherichia coli and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms which can be helpful for quick recovery of the patient. In-vitro inflammatory response has been assessed via adsorption of human plasma/serum proteins on the surface of the scaffolds. Results suggest that prepared scaffolds have good bone regeneration ability and provide friendly environment for the cell growth with the additional advantage of protection of the surrounding tissues from microbial infection. With all these features, it is speculated that these scaffolds will have wide utility in the area of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Porous scaffolds have been prepared by solvent casting technique. • Scaffolds have shown good antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative microorganisms. • Synthesized scaffolds may find applications in the area of regenerative medicine.

  6. Scaffolds of hydroxyl apatite nanoparticles disseminated in 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly(1, 4-butylene succinate)/poly(methyl methacrylate) for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Kulwinder [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, K.J., E-mail: kanwarjitsingh@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Anand, Vikas [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Bhatia, Gaurav; Kaur, Raminderjit [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Kaur, Manpreet [Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Nim, Lovedeep; Arora, Daljit Singh [Department of Microbiology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Poly(1, 4-butyl succinate) extended 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane (PBSu-DCH) polymers and Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) scaffolds decorated with nano hydroxyl apatite have been prepared and characterized for regeneration of bone in cranio-maxillofacial region. Synthesized scaffolds revealed good response in bone regeneration and excellent cell viability in comparison to commercial available glass plate, which lead to better proliferation of MG-63 cell lines. Additionally, they demonstrate high porosity and excellent water retention ability. Moreover, controlled degradation (in pH = 7.4) and sustained drug release in pH (4.5 and 7.4) are advantages of these scaffolds to serve as delivery vehicles for therapeutic drugs. Samples also provide the protection against Escherichia coli and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms which can be helpful for quick recovery of the patient. In-vitro inflammatory response has been assessed via adsorption of human plasma/serum proteins on the surface of the scaffolds. Results suggest that prepared scaffolds have good bone regeneration ability and provide friendly environment for the cell growth with the additional advantage of protection of the surrounding tissues from microbial infection. With all these features, it is speculated that these scaffolds will have wide utility in the area of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Porous scaffolds have been prepared by solvent casting technique. • Scaffolds have shown good antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative microorganisms. • Synthesized scaffolds may find applications in the area of regenerative medicine.

  7. Apatite Biominerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christèle Combes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate apatites offer outstanding biological adaptability that can be attributed to their specific physico-chemical and structural properties. The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the specific characteristics of calcium phosphate apatite biominerals in vertebrate hard tissues (bone, dentine and enamel. Firstly, the structural, elemental and chemical compositions of apatite biominerals will be summarized, followed by the presentation of the actual conception of the fine structure of synthetic and biological apatites, which is essentially based on the existence of a hydrated layer at the surface of the nanocrystals. The conditions of the formation of these biominerals and the hypothesis of the existence of apatite precursors will be discussed. Then, we will examine the evolution of apatite biominerals, especially during bone and enamel aging and also focus on the adaptability of apatite biominerals to the biological function of their related hard tissues. Finally, the diagenetic evolution of apatite fossils will be analyzed.

  8. Restoran Cha Dao = Restaurant Cha Dao

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Tallinnas Suur-Patarei 2 asuva Hiina restorani Cha Dao sisekujundusest. Restorani mööbel, v.a toolid, projekteeriti eritellimusena. Sisearhitekt Dmitri Pisarenko (DM3 OÜ), loetletud tema töid. Arhitekt Meeli Truu

  9. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  10. Evaluating Community Health Advisor (CHA) Core Competencies: The CHA Core Competency Retrospective Pretest/Posttest (CCCRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Lachel; To, Yen M

    2016-05-01

    Health care and academic systems are increasingly collaborating with community health advisors (CHAs) to provide culturally relevant health interventions that promote sustained community transformation. Little attention has been placed on CHA training evaluation, including core competency attainment. This study identified common CHA core competencies, generated a theoretically based measure of those competencies, and explored psychometric properties of that measure. A concept synthesis revealed five CHA core competencies (leadership, translation, guidance, advocacy, and caring). The CHA Core Competency Retrospective Pretest/Posttest (CCCRP) resulted from that synthesis, which was administered using multiple approaches to individuals who previously received CHA training (N= 142). Exploratory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure underlying the posttraining data, and Cronbach's alpha indicated high internal consistency. This study suggested some CHA core competencies might be more interrelated than previously thought, and two major competencies exist rather than five and supported the CCCRP's use to evaluate core competency attainment resulting from training. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHA557 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHA557 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15635-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) CHA557F 620 - - - - - - Show CHA557 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHA557 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15635-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...HSIEIGKVEILPNSLIGIDEDGVIQHMKSN YEDLKQLEKDVTMICTDNGINEQESVIDMGNKFLIPGFIDTHAHAPQYHNAGTGTDLPLL KWLEKYTFPVESKFKD...EIGKVEILPNSLIGIDEDGVIQHMKSN YEDLKQLEKDVTMICTDNGINEQESVIDMGNKFLIPGFIDTHAHAPQYHNAGT

  12. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles: Insights into the Abundances of Volatiles in the Moon from Lunar Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    At the time of publication of New Views of the Moon, it was thought that the Moon was bone dry with less than about 1 ppb H2O. However in 2007, initial reports at the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference speculated that H-species were present in both apatites and pyroclastic volcanic lunar glasses. These early reports were later confirmed through peer-review, which motivated many subsequent studies on magmatic volatiles in and on the Moon within the last decade. Some of these studies have cast into question the post-Apollo view of lunar formation, the distribution and sources of volatiles in the Earth-Moon system, and the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon. The mineral apatite has been one of the pillars of this new field of study, and it will be the primary focus of this abstract. Although apatite has been used both to understand the abundances of volatiles in lunar systems as well as the isotopic compositions of those volatiles, the focus here will be on the abundances of F, Cl, and H2O. This work demonstrates the utility of apatite in advancing our understanding of lunar volatiles, hence apatite should be among the topics covered in the endogenous lunar volatile chapter in NVM II. Truncated ternary plot of apatite X-site occupancy (mol%) from highlands apatite and mare basalt apatite plotted on the relative volatile abundance diagram from. The solid black lines delineate fields of relative abundances of F, Cl, and H2O (on a weight basis) in the melt from which the apatite crystallized. The diagram was constructed using available apatite/melt partitioning data for fluorine, chlorine, and hydroxyl.

  13. Menopause and big data: Word Adjacency Graph modeling of menopause-related ChaCha data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet S; Groves, Doyle; Chen, Chen X; Otte, Julie L; Miller, Wendy R

    2017-07-01

    To detect and visualize salient queries about menopause using Big Data from ChaCha. We used Word Adjacency Graph (WAG) modeling to detect clusters and visualize the range of menopause-related topics and their mutual proximity. The subset of relevant queries was fully modeled. We split each query into token words (ie, meaningful words and phrases) and removed stopwords (ie, not meaningful functional words). The remaining words were considered in sequence to build summary tables of words and two and three-word phrases. Phrases occurring at least 10 times were used to build a network graph model that was iteratively refined by observing and removing clusters of unrelated content. We identified two menopause-related subsets of queries by searching for questions containing menopause and menopause-related terms (eg, climacteric, hot flashes, night sweats, hormone replacement). The first contained 263,363 queries from individuals aged 13 and older and the second contained 5,892 queries from women aged 40 to 62 years. In the first set, we identified 12 topic clusters: 6 relevant to menopause and 6 less relevant. In the second set, we identified 15 topic clusters: 11 relevant to menopause and 4 less relevant. Queries about hormones were pervasive within both WAG models. Many of the queries reflected low literacy levels and/or feelings of embarrassment. We modeled menopause-related queries posed by ChaCha users between 2009 and 2012. ChaCha data may be used on its own or in combination with other Big Data sources to identify patient-driven educational needs and create patient-centered interventions.

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHA851 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHA851 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16368-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) CHA851F 614 - - - - - - Show CHA851 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHA851 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16368-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...TCCXXXXXXXXXX sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence VRDARPPHNLCRGFGCPEGSHCEVLEKHPVCVRNHVPPHPPPPPQICGSVNCGPGYICT...nly*skttgttttllnlcraiism*srwn dlysstkqlyqy*ipmlpis--- Frame C: VRDARPPHNLCRGFGCPEGSHCEVLEKHPVCVRNHVPPHPPPPPQICGSVNCGPGYICT

  15. BIOMINERALOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF APATITE PIEZOELECTRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlikowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of apatite piezoelectricity was conducted in order to assess piezoelectric properties of bone. In the first stage, mineralogical analysis of different apatite crystals, regarding their purity and fitness for the experiments was performed. After the crystals had been chosen, 0.8 mm-thick plates were cut, perpendicular and parallel to the crystallographic Z axis. The plates were then polished and dusted with gold. Electrodes were attached to the opposite surfaces of the plates with conductive glue. So prepared plates were hooked up to the EEG machine used for measuring electrical activity in the brain. The plates were then gently tapped to observe and register currents generated in them. Acquired data was processed by subtracting from the resulting graphs those generated by a hand movement, without tapping the plate. Results indicate that apatite plates have weak piezoelectric properties. Observed phenomenon may be translated to bone apatite, which would explain, at least partially, piezoelectric properties of bone. Acquired results suggest that there is a relation between the mechanical workload of bones (bone apatite and theirelectrical properties. Considering the massive internal surface of bones, they may be treated as a kind of internal “antenna” reacting not only to mechanical stimuli, but to changes in electromagnetic field as well. Observed phenomena no doubt significantly influence the biological processes occurring in bones and the whole human body.

  16. The effect of CHA-doped Sr addition to the mechanical strength of metakaolin dental implant geopolymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunendar, Bambang; Fathina, Afiya; Harmaji, Andrie; Mardhian, Deby Fajar; Asri, Lia; Widodo, Haris Budi

    2017-09-01

    The prospective material for implant plate required sufficient mechanical properties to maintain fracture fixation and resist physiological stress until bone healing process finished. Various problem implant plate based on metal and polymer materials when used as fixation for bone defect case induced developmental of bioceramic for implant plate materials. Materials that now has been attract a lot of attention is carbonate apatite and strontium as doping which known to have good biocompability along with biointegrity and mechanical charateristics. Other materials that have been known to have good mechanical properties are metakaolin and use of chitosan as coupling agent. Metakaolin and carbonate apatite can be produced by sol-gel methode which simpler, economical and energy-saving procedure furthermore use of chitosan which is widely found in the nature of Indonesia can be used to encourage the utilization of natural resources. The aim fo this paper is to investigated effect of CHA-doped Sr 5 (%) mol addition to the mechanical strength of metakaolin dental implant geoploymer composite. In this paper metakaolin is used as geopolymerization precursors. The test results have shown that addition of filler of apatite carbonate doped 5% mol strontium can be said to increase the value of mechnical properties but high concentration of calcium in the nanocomposite also can complicate the equilibrium of the geopolymerization process and induce alkali aggregate reactivity (AAR). The sample group of nanocomposite of metakaolin and carbonate apatite-doped 5% mol strontium (2: 1% wt) with 2% chitosan as a coupling agent based on geopolymerization for implant plate application has the best mechanical properties among all sample groups but does not qualify as an implant plate on cortical bone but can be used for the application of the implant plate on the trabecular bone specifically and potentially as a bone initiator.

  17. CHaMP metrics - Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of CHaMP is to generate and implement a standard set of fish habitat monitoring (status and trend) methods in up to 26 watersheds across the Columbia River...

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHA362 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHA362 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15579-1 | Contig-U156... library) Clone ID CHA362 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U155...79-1 | Contig-U15687-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/C...XACNAVDTCITNDLCFPRECNPRGNPPCLINPINCTSTDPCIFSYCENGVCI PTYICTPTPSVTPTVTPTVTPTVTPTVT...GNPPCLINPINCTSTDPCIFSYCENGVCI PTYICTPTPSVTPTVTPTVTPTVTPTVTPTVTPTVTPTPTTTPTPSPTTVP

  19. Atomic substitutions in synthetic apatite; Insights from solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, John S.

    Apatite, Ca5(PO4)3X (where X = F, Cl, or OH), is a unique mineral group capable of atomic substitutions for cations and anions of varied size and charge. Accommodation of differing substituents requires some kind of structural adaptation, e.g. new atomic positions, vacancies, or coupled substitutions. These structural adaptations often give rise to important physicochemical properties relevant to a range of scientific disciplines. Examples include volatile trapping during apatite crystallization, substitution for large radionuclides for long-term storage of nuclear fission waste, substitution for fluoride to improve acid resistivity in dental enamel composed dominantly of hydroxylapatite, and the development of novel biomaterials with enhanced biocompatibility. Despite the importance and ubiquity of atomic substitutions in apatite materials, many of the mechanisms by which these reactions occur are poorly understood. Presence of substituents at dilute concentration and occupancy of disordered atomic positions hinder detection by bulk characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an isotope-specific structural characterization technique that does not require ordered atomic arrangements, and is therefore well suited to investigate atomic substitutions and structural adaptations in apatite. In the present work, solid-state NMR is utilized to investigate structural adaptations in three different types of apatite materials; a series of near-binary F, Cl apatite, carbonate-hydroxylapatite compositions prepared under various synthesis conditions, and a heat-treated hydroxylapatite enriched in 17O. The results indicate that hydroxyl groups in low-H, near binary F,Cl apatite facilitate solid-solution between F and Cl via column reversals, which result in average hexagonal symmetry despite very dilute OH concentration ( 2 mol percent). In addition, 19F NMR spectra indicate

  20. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license.

  1. Apatite glass-ceramics: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duminis, Tomas; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert Graham

    2016-12-01

    This article is a review of the published literature on apatite glass-ceramics (GCs). Topics covered include crystallization mechanisms of the various families of the apatite GCs and an update on research and development on apatite GCs for applications in orthopedics, dentistry, optoelectronics and nuclear waste management. Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid-liquid phase separation. Careful control of the base glass composition and heat-treatment conditions, which determine the nature and morphology of the crystal phases in the GC can produce GC materials with exceptional thermal, mechanical, optical and biological properties. The GCs reviewed for orthopedic applications exhibit suitable mechanical properties and can chemically bond to bone and stimulate its regeneration. The most commercially successful apatite GCs are those developed for dental veneering. These materials exhibit excellent translucency and clinical esthetics, and mimic the natural tooth mineral. Due to the ease of solid solution of the apatite lattice, rare earth doped apatite GCs are discussed for potential applications in optoelectronics and nuclear waste management. One of the drawbacks of the commercial apatite GCs used in orthopedics is the lack of resorbability, therefore the review provides a direction for future research in the field.

  2. Implicit Reasons for Disclosure of the Use of Complementary Health Approaches (CHA): a Consumer Commitment Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Fuschia M; Riess, Helene; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-10-01

    Disclosure of the use of complementary health approaches (CHA) is an important yet understudied health behavior with important implications for patient care. Yet research into disclosure of CHA has been atheoretical and neglected the role of health beliefs. Using a consumer commitment model of CHA use as a guiding conceptual framework, the current study tests the hypotheses that perceived positive CHA outcomes (utilitarian values) and positive CHA beliefs (symbolic values) are associated with disclosure of CHA to conventional care providers in a nationally representative US sample. From a sample of 33,594 with CHA use information from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a subsample of 7348 who used CHA within the past 12 months was analyzed. The 2012 NHIS is a cross-sectional survey of the non-institutionalized US adult population, which includes the most recent nationally representative CHA use data. The 63.2% who disclosed CHA use were older, were less educated, and had visited a health care provider in the past year. Weighted logistic regression analyses controlling for demographic variables revealed that those who disclosed were more likely to report experiencing positive psychological (improved coping and well-being) and physical outcomes (better sleep, improved health) from CHA and hold positive CHA-related beliefs. CHA users who perceive physical and psychological benefits from CHA use and who hold positive attitudes towards CHA are more likely to disclose their CHA use. Findings support the relevance of a consumer commitment perspective for understanding CHA disclosure and suggest CHA disclosure as an important proactive health behavior that warrants further attention.

  3. Study of the auto-irradiation effects in apatites structure materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulet, St.

    2000-11-01

    decreases rapidly with the increase of SiO 4 /PO 4 ratio; this is in agreement with the conclusions of the study with natural analogous. It decreases also when the fluor anion is replaced by an hydroxyl group. With the current knowledge, the annealing by alpha seems to be an unique property of the apatitic structure. In order to model the behavior of ceramics when they are doped with actinides, it has been established, with defects creation and recovery velocities, the differential equation of the disorder evolution in terms of the storage or disposal time. The resolution of this equation in the case of the phospho-calcic fluoro-apatite and the fluoro-apatite with one silicate allows to conclude that these two potential matrices will probably keep their crystal structure during the storage or the disposal. (O.M.)

  4. Apatite-Melt Partitioning at 1 Bar: An Assessment of Apatite-Melt Exchange Equilibria Resulting from Non-Ideal Mixing of F and Cl in Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Ustunisik, G.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    The mineral apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)] is present in a wide range of planetary materials. Due to the presence of volatiles within its crystal structure (X-site), many recent studies have attempted to use apatite to constrain the volatile contents of planetary magmas and mantle sources. In order to use the volatile contents of apatite to precisely determine the abundances of volatiles in coexisting silicate melt or fluids, thermodynamic models for the apatite solid solution and for the apatite components in multi-component silicate melts and fluids are required. Although some thermodynamic models for apatite have been developed, they are incomplete. Furthermore, no mixing model is available for all of the apatite components in silicate melts or fluids, especially for F and Cl components. Several experimental studies have investigated the apatite-melt and apatite-fluid partitioning behavior of F, Cl, and OH in terrestrial and planetary systems, which have determined that apatite-melt partitioning of volatiles are best described as exchange equilibria similar to Fe-Mg partitioning between olivine and silicate melt. However, McCubbin et al. recently reported that the exchange coefficients may vary in portions of apatite compositional space where F, Cl, and OH do not mix ideally in apatite. In particular, solution calorimetry data of apatite compositions along the F-Cl join exhibit substantial excess enthalpies of mixing. In the present study, we conducted apatite-melt partitioning experiments in evacuated, sealed silica-glass tubes at approximately 1 bar and 950-1050 degrees Centigrade on a synthetic Martian basalt composition equivalent to the basaltic shergottite Queen Alexandria Range (QUE) 94201. These experiments were conducted dry, at low pressure, to assess the effects of temperature and apatite composition on the partitioning behavior of F and Cl between apatite and basaltic melt along the F-Cl apatite binary join, where there is non-ideal mixing of F and Cl

  5. Nucleosome structure of the yeast CHA1 promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso; Holmberg, S

    1998-01-01

    conditions. Five yeast TBP mutants defective in different steps in activated transcription abolished CHA1 expression, but failed to affect induction-dependent chromatin rearrangement of the promoter region. Progressive truncations of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain caused a progressive reduction...

  6. Hydroxyl radical reactivity with diethylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, R.A. Jr.; Lii, R.R.; Saunders, B.B.

    1977-01-01

    Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) reacts with gas-phase hydroxyl radicals on every third collision, whereas the corresponding reaction in aqueous solution is considerably slower. The high gas-phase reactivity explains the predicted inhibitory effect of DEHA in atmospheric smog processes. Results from the studies in the aqueous phase are helpful in predicting the mechanism of the reaction of DEHA with hydroxyl radicals

  7. Bone-like apatite coating on functionalized poly(etheretherketone) surface via tailored silanization layers technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yanyan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenglan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhang, Lifang, E-mail: zhanglfcioc@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semi-crystalline polymer with outstanding mechanical properties, bone-like stiffness and suitable biocompatibility that has attracted much interest as a biomaterial for orthopedic and dental implants. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK limits its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, –PO{sub 4}H{sub 2}, –COOH and –OH groups were introduced on the PEEK surface by further chemical treatments of the vinyl-terminated silanization layers formed on the hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surface. Both the surface-functionalized and pristine specimens were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. When placed in 1.5 strength simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, apatite was observed to form uniformly on the functionalized PEEK surface and firmly attach to the substrate. The characterized results demonstrated that the coating was constituted by poorly crystallized bone-like apatite and the effect of surface functional groups on coating formation was also discussed in detail. In addition, in vitro biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of pre-osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation, was remarkably enhanced by the bone-like apatite coating. Thus, this study provides a method to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK and expand its applications in orthopedic and dental implants. - Highlights: • –PO{sub 4}H{sub 2}, –COOH and –OH groups were successfully introduced onto PEEK surface via tailored silanization layer technique. • Bone-like apatite formed uniformly on surface-functionalized PEEK after immersion in SBF, and tightly adhered to the PEEK. • SEM, EDS, FTIR, XPS and XRD results showed that apatite layer is composed of low-crystalline bone-like apatite. • Bone-like apatite coating

  8. Bone-like apatite coating on functionalized poly(etheretherketone) surface via tailored silanization layers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Xiong, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenglan; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semi-crystalline polymer with outstanding mechanical properties, bone-like stiffness and suitable biocompatibility that has attracted much interest as a biomaterial for orthopedic and dental implants. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK limits its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, –PO 4 H 2 , –COOH and –OH groups were introduced on the PEEK surface by further chemical treatments of the vinyl-terminated silanization layers formed on the hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surface. Both the surface-functionalized and pristine specimens were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. When placed in 1.5 strength simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, apatite was observed to form uniformly on the functionalized PEEK surface and firmly attach to the substrate. The characterized results demonstrated that the coating was constituted by poorly crystallized bone-like apatite and the effect of surface functional groups on coating formation was also discussed in detail. In addition, in vitro biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of pre-osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation, was remarkably enhanced by the bone-like apatite coating. Thus, this study provides a method to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK and expand its applications in orthopedic and dental implants. - Highlights: • –PO 4 H 2 , –COOH and –OH groups were successfully introduced onto PEEK surface via tailored silanization layer technique. • Bone-like apatite formed uniformly on surface-functionalized PEEK after immersion in SBF, and tightly adhered to the PEEK. • SEM, EDS, FTIR, XPS and XRD results showed that apatite layer is composed of low-crystalline bone-like apatite. • Bone-like apatite coating remarkably enhanced pre

  9. Intraclonal genome diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones CHA and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to different living conditions is accompanied by microevolution resulting in genomic diversity between strains of the same clonal lineage. In order to detect the impact of colonized habitats on P. aeruginosa microevolution we determined the genomic diversity between the highly virulent cystic fibrosis (CF) isolate CHA and two temporally and geographically unrelated clonal variants. The outcome was compared with the intraclonal genome diversity between three more closely related isolates of another clonal complex. Results The three clone CHA isolates differed in their core genome in several dozen strain specific nucleotide exchanges and small deletions from each other. Loss of function mutations and non-conservative amino acid replacements affected several habitat- and lifestyle-associated traits, for example, the key regulator GacS of the switch between acute and chronic disease phenotypes was disrupted in strain CHA. Intraclonal genome diversity manifested in an individual composition of the respective accessory genome whereby the highest number of accessory DNA elements was observed for isolate PT22 from a polluted aquatic habitat. Little intraclonal diversity was observed between three spatiotemporally related outbreak isolates of clone TB. Although phenotypically different, only a few individual SNPs and deletions were detected in the clone TB isolates. Their accessory genome mainly differed in prophage-like DNA elements taken up by one of the strains. Conclusions The higher geographical and temporal distance of the clone CHA isolates was associated with an increased intraclonal genome diversity compared to the more closely related clone TB isolates derived from a common source demonstrating the impact of habitat adaptation on the microevolution of P. aeruginosa. However, even short-term habitat differentiation can cause major phenotypic diversification driven by single genomic variation events and uptake of phage

  10. Bone-like apatite coating on functionalized poly(etheretherketone) surface via tailored silanization layers technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Xiong, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenglan; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-10-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semi-crystalline polymer with outstanding mechanical properties, bone-like stiffness and suitable biocompatibility that has attracted much interest as a biomaterial for orthopedic and dental implants. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK limits its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, -PO4H2, -COOH and -OH groups were introduced on the PEEK surface by further chemical treatments of the vinyl-terminated silanization layers formed on the hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surface. Both the surface-functionalized and pristine specimens were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. When placed in 1.5 strength simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, apatite was observed to form uniformly on the functionalized PEEK surface and firmly attach to the substrate. The characterized results demonstrated that the coating was constituted by poorly crystallized bone-like apatite and the effect of surface functional groups on coating formation was also discussed in detail. In addition, in vitro biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of pre-osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation, was remarkably enhanced by the bone-like apatite coating. Thus, this study provides a method to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK and expand its applications in orthopedic and dental implants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The solution structure of ChaB, a putative membrane ion antiporter regulator from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannuzzi Pietro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChaB is a putative regulator of ChaA, a Na+/H+ antiporter that also has Ca+/H+ activity in E. coli. ChaB contains a conserved 60-residue region of unknown function found in other bacteria, archaeabacteria and a series of baculoviral proteins. As part of a structural genomics project, the structure of ChaB was elucidated by NMR spectroscopy. Results The structure of ChaB is composed of 3 α-helices and a small sheet that pack tightly to form a fold that is found in the cyclin-box family of proteins. Conclusion ChaB is distinguished from its putative DNA binding sequence homologues by a highly charged flexible loop region that has weak affinity to Mg2+ and Ca2+ divalent metal ions.

  12. DNA Binding Hydroxyl Radical Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Vicky J; Konigsfeld, Katie M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2012-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different c...

  13. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(O...

  14. Can Polyphosphate Biochemistry Affect Biological Apatite Saturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, S. J.; Matsuura, N.; Gorelikov, I.; Wynnyckyj, C.; Grynpas, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important and limiting element for life. One strategy for storing ortho phosphates (Pi) is polymerization. Polymerized Pi's (polyphosphates: (PO3-)n: polyPs) serve as a Pi bank, as well as a catiion chelator, energy source, & regulator of responses to stresses in the stationary phase of culture growth and development1. PolyP biochemistry has been investigated in yeasts, bacteria & plants2. Bigeochemical cycling of P includes the condensation of Pi into pyro (P2O7-4), & polyPs, & the release of Pi from these compounds by the hydrolytic degradation of Pi from phosphomonoester bonds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one of the predominate enzymes for regenerating Pi in aquatic systems3, & it cleaves Pi from polyPs. ALP is also the enzyme associated with apatite biomineralization in vertebrates4. PolyP was proposed to be the ALP substrate in bone mineralization5. Where calcium ions are plentiful in many aquatic environments, there is no requirement for aquatic life to generate Ca-stores. However, terrestrial vertebrates benefit from a bioavailable Ca-store such as apatite. The Pi storage strategy of polymerizing PO4-3 into polyPs dovetails well with Ca-banking, as polyPs sequester Ca, forming a neutral calcium polyphosphate (Ca-polyP: (Ca(PO3)2)n) complex. This neutral complex represents a high total [Ca+2] & [PO4-3], without the threat of inadvertent apatite precipitation, as the free [Ca+2] & [PO4-3], and therefore apatite saturation, are zero. Recent identification of polyP in regions of bone resorption & calcifying cartilage5 suggests that vertebrates may use polyP chemistry to bank Ca+2 and PO4-3. In vitro experiments with nanoparticulate Ca-polyP & ALP were undertaken to determine if carbonated apatite could precipitate from 1M Ca-polyP in Pi-free “physiological fluid” (0.1 M NaCl, 2 mM Ca+2, 0.8 mM Mg+2, pH ~8.0 ±0.5, 37 °C), as this is estimated to generate the [Ca+2] & [PO4-3] required to form the apatite content of bone tissue

  15. Correlation between CHA2DS2-VASc Score and Glaucoma Treatment and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Krebs, Daniel; Igal, Vadim; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Epstein, Irena; Pikkel, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    To find if CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc scale can accurately predict the treatment, prognosis, and outcome for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). A survey of 250,000 patient years was taken, using the records of the Ophthalmology Department at Ziv Medical Center. Data was collected regarding the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), visual field (VF), line of treatment (LOT) of glaucoma, and all the data needed to accurately calculate CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score for each patient. Sixty-seven patients were included in the statistical analysis. The mean age was 72.5 years. The mean CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score was 3.27 + -1.7. Positive Pearson's correlation coefficients were found for LOT and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score, 0.35, and for RNFL grade and CHA2DS2-VASc score, 0.37. The correlation was negative for RNFL width and CHA2DS2-VASc score, -0.35. CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score was shown to be correlated with glaucoma. This correlation was manifested positively by the LOT needed to stop glaucoma progression, with higher CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc scores correlated with more aggressive treatment. Since glaucoma is a disease with a progressing nature, it is important to treat patients aggressively on one hand, while offering the most benign treatment as possible on the other hand. Modification of the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score could achieve an even higher correlation.

  16. DNA Binding Hydroxyl Radical Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vicky J; Konigsfeld, Katie M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2012-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA.

  17. Biological Apatite Formed from Polyphosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase May Exchange Oxygen Isotopes from Water through Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, S. J.; Stanley, S. Y.; Gorelikov, I.; Matsuura, N.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition in bone mineral phosphate is known to reflect the local water composition, environmental humidity, and diet1. Once ingested, biochemical processes presumably equilibrate PO43- with "body water" by the many biochemical reactions involving PO43- 2. Blake et al. demonstrated that enzymatic release of PO43- from organophosphorus compounds, and microbial metabolism of dissolved orthophosphate, significantly exchange the oxygen in precipitated apatite within environmental water3,4, which otherwise does not exchange with water at low temperatures. One of the enzymes that can cleave phosphates from organic substrates is alkaline phosphastase5, the enzyme also associated with bone mineralization. The literature often states that the mineral in bone in hydroxylapatite, however the mineral in bone is carbonated apatite that also contains some fluoride6. Deprotonation of HPO32- occurs at pH 12, which is impossibly high for biological system, and the predominate carbonate species in solution at neutral pH is HCO3-. To produce an apatite mineral without a significant hydroxyl content, it is possible that apatite biomineralization occurs through a polyphosphate pathway, where the oxygen atom required to transform polyphosphate into individual phosphate ions is from carbonate: [PO3-]n + CO32- -> [PO3-]n-1 + PO43- + CO2. Alkaline phosphatase can depolymerise polyphosphate into orthophosphate5. If alkaline phosphatase cleaves an oxygen atom from a calcium-carbonate complex, then there is no requirement for removing a hydrogen atom from the HCO3- or HPO43- ions of body water to form bioapatite. A mix of 1 mL of 1 M calcium polyphosphate hydogel, or nano-particles of calcium polyphosphate, and amorphous calcium carbonate were reacted with alkaline phosphatase, and maintained at neutral to basic pH. After two weeks, carbonated apatite and other calcium phosphate minerals were identified by powder x-ray diffraction. Orthophosphate and unreacted

  18. Predictive performance of the CHA2DS2-VASc rule in atrial fibrillation : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, S.; Debray, T. P. A.; Kaasenbrood, F.; Hoes, A. W.; Rutten, F. H.; Moons, K. G. M.; Geersing, G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Essentials The widely recommended CHA2DS2-VASc shows conflicting results in contemporary validation studies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 19 studies validating CHA2DS2-VASc. There was high heterogeneity in stroke risks for different CHA2DS2-VASc scores. This was not

  19. Effect of radiation damage on the infrared properties of apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis Faridah Md Nori; Yusof Mohd Amin; Rosli Mahat; Burhanuddin Kamaluddin

    1991-01-01

    Apatites are known to contain radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium at a few ppm in concentration. These elements decay and produce fission tracks inside the crystals. The presence of such tracks have been known to affect the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of apatites. These fission tracks can be removed by annealing the crystals in air. In this paper we present the result of a preliminary study on the effect of radiation damage on the infrared transmission of apatites

  20. Diffusion of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide and Aloe vera pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Victor Eduardo de Souza; Olian, Douglas Dáquila; Mori, Graziela Garrido

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diffusion through the dentinal tubules of hydroxyl ions from different calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes containing Aloe vera. Sixty single-rooted bovine teeth were used. The tooth crowns were removed, the root canals were instrumented and the specimens were assigned to 4 groups (n=15) according to the intracanal medication: Group CH/S - CH powder and saline paste; Group CH/P - CH powder and propylene glycol paste; Group CH/A - calcium hydroxide powder and Aloe vera gel paste; Group CH/A/P - CH powder, Aloe vera powder and propylene glycol paste. After placement of the root canal dressings, the teeth were sealed coronally and apically with a two-step epoxy adhesive. The teeth were placed in identified flasks containing deionized water and stored in an oven with 100% humidity at 37 °C. After 3 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, 15 days and 30 days, the deionized water in the flasks was collected and its pH was measured by a pH meter. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis at a significance level of 5%. The results demonstrated that all pastes provided diffusion of hydroxyl ions through the dentinal tubules. The combination of Aloe vera and CH (group CH/A) provided a constant release of calcium ions. Group CH/A/P showed the highest pH at 24 and 72 h. In conclusion, the experimental pastes containing Aloe vera were able to enable the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through the dentinal tubules.

  1. RBS and RNRA studies on sorption of europium by apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozai, Naofumi; Isobe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Murakami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Aoki, Yasushi; Naramoto, Hiroshi

    1997-03-01

    The sorption mechanism of europium, alternative of trivalent TRU has been studied based on the depth profiles of elements obtained by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and Resonant Nuclear Reaction Analysis (RNRA). The positive peak for Eu and the negative peak for Ca were observed in the subtracted RBS spectra of the apatites on which Eu was sorbed from that of the fresh apatite. This indicates that Eu was sorbed on apatite, while a fraction of Ca was released from apatite. The peak height for Eu in the RBS spectrum of the apatite obtained at 75degC was higher than that of the apatite at 40degC. The depth profile of hydrogen of the apatite on which Eu was sorbed was similar to that of the fresh apatite. The concentration of Eu in the solution decreased with increasing temperature. On the contrary, the concentration of Ca increased with increasing temperature. Thus, it is concluded that a fraction of Eu is exchanged for Ca in the structure of apatite. (author)

  2. La chaîne du froid en agroalimentaire

    OpenAIRE

    Rosset , Philippe; Beaufort , Annie; Cornu , Marie; Poumeyrol , Gérard

    2002-01-01

    Le recours au froid constitue une pratique courante pour assurer une conservation prolongée des aliments, de quelques jours à quelques semaines. Limitant notre propos aux denrées réfrigérées et au risque sanitaire d'origine microbiologique, après un rappel de la définition de la chaîne du froid et des modalités générales de mise en oeuvre, nous aborderons dans un premier temps les particularités technologiques de son application. Celle-ci sera étudiée tout d'abord selon le type d'aliments con...

  3. 21 CFR 172.814 - Hydroxylated lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxylated lecithin. 172.814 Section 172.814 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.814 Hydroxylated lecithin. The food additive hydroxylated lecithin may be safely... obtained by the treatment of lecithin in one of the following ways, under controlled conditions whereby the...

  4. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Harvey, Paul M.; Pinte, Christophe; Merin, Bruno; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Evans, Neal J., II; Najita, Joan; Henning, Thomas; Menard, Francois

    2011-01-01

    T Cha is a nearby (d = 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huelamo et al. (2011) recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron) of T Cha from the "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) Key Program, which bridges the wavelength ...

  5. Rare earth elements materials production from apatite ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, A V; Buynovskiy, A S; Makaseev, Y N; Mazov, I N; Nefedov, R A; Sachkov, V I; Valkov, A V; Andrienko, O S; Stepanova, O B

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of processing apatite ores with nitric acid and extraction of the rare earth elements. The rare earth elements can be successfully separated and recovered by extraction from the nitrate- phosphate solution, being an tributyl phosphate as extraction agent. The developed scheme of the processing apatite concentrate provides obtaining rare earth concentrates with high qualitative characteristics. (paper)

  6. The oxidation state of sulfur in apatite: A new oxybarometer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiege, A.; Konecke, B.; Kim, Y.; Simon, A. C.; Becker, U.; Parat, F.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) of magmatic and hydrothermal systems influences, for instance, crystallization and degassing processes as well as metal solubilities in melts and fluids. Apatite is a ubiquitous mineral in magmatic and hydrothermal environments that can record and preserve volatile zonation. It can contain several thousand μg/g of the redox sensitive element sulfur (S), making S-in-apatite a potential fO2 sensor. Despite the polyvalent properties of S (e.g., S2-, S4+, S6+), the oxidation state and incorporation mechanisms of S in the apatite structure are poorly understood. In this study, the oxidation state of S-in-apatite as a function of fO2 is investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES) spectroscopy at the S K-edge. Apatites crystallized from lamproitic melts at 1000°C, 300 MPa and over a broad range of fO2 and sulfur fugacities (fS2) were measured. Peaks corresponding to S6+ ( 2482 eV), S4+ ( 2478 eV) and S2- ( 2470 eV) were identified in apatite. The integrated S6+/STotal (STotal = S6+ + S4+ + S2-) peak area ratios show a distinct positive correlation with fO2, increasing from 0.17 at FMQ+0 to 0.96 at FMQ+3. Ab-initio calculations were performed to further understand the energetics and geometry of incorporation of S6+, S4+ and S2- into the apatite (F-, Cl-, OH-) end-members. The results confirm that apatite can contain three different oxidations states of S (S6+, S4+, S2-) as a function of fO2. This makes apatite probably the first geologically relevant mineral to incorporate reduced (S2-), intermediate (S4+), and oxidized (S6+) S in variable proportions. We emphasize that the strong dependence of the S oxidation state in apatite as a function of fO2 is also coupled with changing S content of apatite and co-existing melt (i.e., with changing fS2), resulting in a complex correlation between [1] apatite-melt (or fluid) partitioning, [2] redox conditions and [3] the melt and/or fluid composition, making the application of previously

  7. Finding the Patient's Voice Using Big Data: Analysis of Users' Health-Related Concerns in the ChaCha Question-and-Answer Service (2009-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Chad; Knopf, Amelia; Groves, Doyle; Carpenter, Janet S; Furrey, Christopher; Krishnan, Anand; Miller, Wendy R; Otte, Julie L; Palakal, Mathew; Wiehe, Sarah; Wilson, Jeffrey

    2016-03-09

    The development of effective health care and public health interventions requires a comprehensive understanding of the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. Big datasets from social media and question-and-answer services provide insight into the public's health concerns and priorities without the financial, temporal, and spatial encumbrances of more traditional community-engagement methods and may prove a useful starting point for public-engagement health research (infodemiology). The objective of our study was to describe user characteristics and health-related queries of the ChaCha question-and-answer platform, and discuss how these data may be used to better understand the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. We conducted a retrospective automated textual analysis of anonymous user-generated queries submitted to ChaCha between January 2009 and November 2012. A total of 2.004 billion queries were read, of which 3.50% (70,083,796/2,004,243,249) were missing 1 or more data fields, leaving 1.934 billion complete lines of data for these analyses. Males and females submitted roughly equal numbers of health queries, but content differed by sex. Questions from females predominantly focused on pregnancy, menstruation, and vaginal health. Questions from males predominantly focused on body image, drug use, and sexuality. Adolescents aged 12-19 years submitted more queries than any other age group. Their queries were largely centered on sexual and reproductive health, and pregnancy in particular. The private nature of the ChaCha service provided a perfect environment for maximum frankness among users, especially among adolescents posing sensitive health questions. Adolescents' sexual health queries reveal knowledge gaps with serious, lifelong consequences. The nature of questions to the service provides opportunities for rapid understanding of health concerns and may

  8. Favoriser le développement de chaînes de valeur agricoles ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Favoriser le développement de chaînes de valeur agricoles inclusives et durables grâce aux TIC ... Ce projet vise à mettre l'information et les connaissances au service du développement de chaînes de valeur agricoles grâce à l'utilisation stratégique des TIC. ... Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center.

  9. Prolyl hydroxylation in elastin is not random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Nagel, Marcus B M; Dziomba, Szymon; Merkher, Yulia; Sivan, Sarit S; Heinz, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prolyl and lysine hydroxylation in elastin from different species and tissues. Enzymatic digests of elastin samples from human, cattle, pig and chicken were analyzed using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. It was confirmed at the protein level that elastin does not contain hydroxylated lysine residues regardless of the species. In contrast, prolyl hydroxylation sites were identified in all elastin samples. Moreover, the analysis of the residues adjacent to prolines allowed the determination of the substrate site preferences of prolyl 4-hydroxylase. It was found that elastins from all analyzed species contain hydroxyproline and that at least 20%-24% of all proline residues were partially hydroxylated. Determination of the hydroxylation degrees of specific proline residues revealed that prolyl hydroxylation depends on both the species and the tissue, however, is independent of age. The fact that the highest hydroxylation degrees of proline residues were found for elastin from the intervertebral disc and knowledge of elastin arrangement in this tissue suggest that hydroxylation plays a biomechanical role. Interestingly, a proline-rich domain of tropoelastin (domain 24), which contains several repeats of bioactive motifs, does not show any hydroxyproline residues in the mammals studied. The results show that prolyl hydroxylation is not a coincidental feature and may contribute to the adaptation of the properties of elastin to meet the functional requirements of different tissues. The study for the first time shows that prolyl hydroxylation is highly regulated in elastin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Apatite formability of boron nitride nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Debrupa; Keshri, Anup K; Agarwal, Arvind; Singh, Virendra; Seal, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to induce apatite formation in a simulated body fluid environment for a period of 7, 14 and 28 days. BNNTs, when soaked in the simulated body fluid, are found to induce hydroxyapatite (HA) precipitation on their surface. The precipitation process has an initial incubation period of ∼ 4.6 days. The amount of HA precipitate increases gradually with the soaking time. High resolution TEM results indicated a hexagonal crystal structure of HA needles. No specific crystallographic orientation relationship is observed between BNNT and HA, which is due to the presence of a thin amorphous HA layer on the BNNT surface that disturbs a definite orientation relationship.

  11. Immobilization of uranium in contaminated soil by natural apatite addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Stojanovic, Mirjana; Milosevic, Sinisa; Iles, Deana; Zildzovic, Snezana

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Serbian natural mineral apatite as soil additive for reducing the migration of uranium from contaminated sediments. In laboratory study we investigated the sorption properties of domestic apatite upon different experimental conditions, such as pH, adsorbent mass, reaction period, concentration of P 2 O 5 in apatite, solid/liquid ratio. In second part of study, we did the quantification of uranium in soil samples, taken from uranium mine site 'Kalna', by sequential extraction method. The same procedure was, also, used for uranium determination in contaminated soil samples after apatite addition, in order to determine the changes in U distribution in soil fraction. The obtained results showed the significant level of immobilization (96.7%) upon certain conditions. Increase of %P 2 O 5 in apatite and process of mechano-chemical activation led to increase of immobilization capacity from 17.50% till 91.64%. The best results for uranium binding were obtained at pH 5.5 and reaction period 60 days (98.04%) The sequential extraction showed the presence of uranium (48.2%) in potentially available soil fractions, but with the apatite addition uranium content in these fractions decreased (30.64%), what is considering environmental aspect significant fact. In situ immobilization of radionuclide using inexpensive sequestering agents, such as apatite, is very adequate for big contaminated areas of soil with low level of contamination. This investigation study on natural apatite from deposit 'Lisina' Serbia was the first one of this type in our country. Key words: apatite, uranium, immobilization, soil, contamination. (authors)

  12. Polycrystalline apatite synthesized by hydrothermal replacement of calcium carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasioptas, Argyrios; Geisler, Thorsten; Perdikouri, Christina; Trepmann, Claudia; Gussone, Nikolaus; Putnis, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    Aragonite and calcite single crystals can be readily transformed into polycrystalline hydroxyapatite pseudomorphs by hydrothermal treatment in a (NH 4) 2HPO 4 solution. Scanning electron microscopy of the reaction products showed that the transformation of aragonite to apatite is characterised by the formation of a sharp interface between the two phases and by the development of intracrystalline porosity in the hydroxyapatite phase. In addition, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) imaging showed that the c-axis of apatite is predominantly oriented perpendicular to the reaction front with no crystallographic relationship to the aragonite lattice. However, the Ca isotopic composition of the parent aragonite, measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry was inherited by the apatite product. Hydrothermal experiments conducted with use of phosphate solutions prepared with water enriched in 18O (97%) further revealed that the 18O from the solution is incorporated in the product apatite, as measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Monitoring the distribution of 18O with Raman spectroscopy was possible because the incorporation of 18O in the PO 4 group of apatite generates four new Raman bands at 945.8, 932, 919.7 and 908.8 cm -1, in addition to the ν1(PO 4) symmetric stretching band of apatite located at 962 cm -1, which can be assigned to four 18O-bearing PO 4 species. The relative intensities of these bands reflect the 18O content in the PO 4 group of the apatite product. By using equilibrated and non-equilibrated solutions, with respect to the 18O distribution between aqueous phosphate and water, we could show that the concentration of 18O in the apatite product is linked to the degree of 18O equilibration in the solution. The textural and chemical observations are indicative of a coupled mechanism of aragonite dissolution and apatite precipitation taking place at a moving reaction interface.

  13. Prolyl hydroxylation in elastin is not random

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Nagel, Marcus B M; Dziomba, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the prolyl and lysine hydroxylation in elastin from different species and tissues. METHODS: Enzymatic digests of elastin samples from human, cattle, pig and chicken were analyzed using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. RESULTS: It was confirmed...... at the protein level that elastin does not contain hydroxylated lysine residues regardless of the species. In contrast, prolyl hydroxylation sites were identified in all elastin samples. Moreover, the analysis of the residues adjacent to prolines allowed the determination of the substrate site preferences...... of prolyl 4-hydroxylase. It was found that elastins from all analyzed species contain hydroxyproline and that at least 20%-24% of all proline residues were partially hydroxylated. Determination of the hydroxylation degrees of specific proline residues revealed that prolyl hydroxylation depends on both...

  14. Study of the auto-irradiation effects in apatites structure materials; Etude des effets d'auto-irradiation dans des materiaux a structure apatitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulet, St

    2000-11-15

    decreases rapidly with the increase of SiO{sub 4}/PO{sub 4} ratio; this is in agreement with the conclusions of the study with natural analogous. It decreases also when the fluor anion is replaced by an hydroxyl group. With the current knowledge, the annealing by alpha seems to be an unique property of the apatitic structure. In order to model the behavior of ceramics when they are doped with actinides, it has been established, with defects creation and recovery velocities, the differential equation of the disorder evolution in terms of the storage or disposal time. The resolution of this equation in the case of the phospho-calcic fluoro-apatite and the fluoro-apatite with one silicate allows to conclude that these two potential matrices will probably keep their crystal structure during the storage or the disposal. (O.M.)

  15. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans II, Neal J.; Pinte, Christophe; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Merín, Bruno; Najita, Joan

    2011-01-01

    T Cha is a nearby (d ∼ 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huélamo et al. recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm) of T Cha from the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time' Key Program, which bridges the wavelength range between existing Spitzer and millimeter data and provide important constraints on the outer disk properties of this extraordinary system. We model the entire optical to millimeter wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of T Cha (19 data points between 0.36 and 3300 μm without any major gaps in wavelength coverage). T Cha shows a steep spectral slope in the far-IR, which we find clearly favors models with outer disks containing little or no dust beyond ∼40 AU. The full SED can be modeled equally well with either an outer disk that is very compact (only a few AU wide) or a much larger one that has a very steep surface density profile. That is, T Cha's outer disk seems to be either very small or very tenuous. Both scenarios suggest a highly unusual outer disk and have important but different implications for the nature of T Cha. Spatially resolved images are needed to distinguish between the two scenarios.

  16. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harvey, Paul M.; Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pinte, Christophe; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Menard, Francois [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Agency (ESAC), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Najita, Joan, E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 86719 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    T Cha is a nearby (d {approx} 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huelamo et al. recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of T Cha from the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time' Key Program, which bridges the wavelength range between existing Spitzer and millimeter data and provide important constraints on the outer disk properties of this extraordinary system. We model the entire optical to millimeter wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of T Cha (19 data points between 0.36 and 3300 {mu}m without any major gaps in wavelength coverage). T Cha shows a steep spectral slope in the far-IR, which we find clearly favors models with outer disks containing little or no dust beyond {approx}40 AU. The full SED can be modeled equally well with either an outer disk that is very compact (only a few AU wide) or a much larger one that has a very steep surface density profile. That is, T Cha's outer disk seems to be either very small or very tenuous. Both scenarios suggest a highly unusual outer disk and have important but different implications for the nature of T Cha. Spatially resolved images are needed to distinguish between the two scenarios.

  17. Bioceramics of apatites: an option for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arxer, Eliana Alves; Almeida Filho, Edson de; Guastaldi, Antonio Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The bioceramics of calcium phosphate called apatite, are widely used as material for bone replacement and regeneration, due to its similarity to the mineral component of bones and teeth. The apatites are biocompatible, bioactive and integrate with living tissue by the same active process of physiological bone remodeling. These bioceramics may be used in medical, dental and orthopedic applications. In this research, it was used the wet method for the synthesis of the powder and biomimetic method for coating the surface. The Solubility study was performed in the layer deposited, apatite, for possible application as a platform for inorganic drug delivery. The bioceramics were characterized by MEV, DRX, and EDS. The curves of solubility of apatite in coatings showed that the OCP phase had a higher rate of release in the short term (4 days) while the HA phase showed a gradual release throughout the experiment (16 days). (author)

  18. Development of a service organization. CHA (Catholic Hospital Association) from post-World War II through Vatican II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C J

    1990-06-01

    Having weathered the Depression and war years, CHA in the late 1940s looked forward to a new era in Catholic healthcare. The third and fourth articles of Health Progress's six-part history of CHA described how Rev. Alphonse M. Schwitalla, SJ, led the association through one of the most difficult periods in U.S. history. This article follows CHA's development into a modern service organization under the leadership of Rev. John J. Flanagan, SJ. The series' final installment, which will appear in the July-August issue, describes how CHA has modernized its services and structure in the past two decades to help its members adjust to a turbulent environment.

  19. Insight into Biological Apatite: Physiochemical Properties and Preparation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological apatite is an inorganic calcium phosphate salt in apatite form and nano size with a biological derivation. It is also the main inorganic component of biological hard tissues such as bones and teeth of vertebrates. Consequently, biological apatite has a wide application in dentistry and orthopedics by using as dental fillers and bone substitutes for bone reconstruction and regeneration. Given this, it is of great significance to obtain a comprehensive understanding of its physiochemical and biological properties. However, upon the previous studies, inconsistent and inadequate data of such basic properties as the morphology, crystal size, chemical compositions, and solubility of biological apatite were reported. This may be ascribed to the differences in the source of raw materials that biological apatite are made from, as well as the effect of the preparation approaches. Hence, this paper is to provide some insights rather than a thorough review of the physiochemical properties as well as the advantages and drawbacks of various preparation methods of biological apatite.

  20. Quantification of hydroxyl radical produced during phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan M; Aust, Steven D

    2009-12-01

    To quantitate hydroxyl radicals produced during phacoemulsification with various irrigating solutions and conditions used in cataract surgery. Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA. All experiments were performed using an Infiniti Vision System phacoemulsifier with irrigation and aspiration. Hydroxyl radicals were quantitated using electron spin resonance spectroscopy and a spectrophotometric assay for malondialdehyde, which is formed by the oxidation of deoxyribose by the hydroxyl radical. Hydroxyl radical production increased during longitudinal-stroking phacoemulsification as power levels were increased in a nonlinear, nonexponential fashion. The detection of hydroxyl radical was reduced in irrigating solutions containing organic molecules (eg, citrate, acetate, glutathione, dextrose) and further reduced in Navstel, an irrigating solution containing a viscosity-modifying agent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Hydroxyl radicals produced in settings representative of those used in phacoemulsification cataract surgery were quantitated using the deoxyribose method. Hydroxyl radical production was dependent on the level of ultrasound power applied and the irrigating solution used. Oxidative stress on the eye during phacoemulsification may be minimized by using irrigating solutions that contain organic molecules, including the viscosity-modifying agent hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, that can compete for reaction with hydroxyl radicals.

  1. Apatite mineralization in elasmobranch skeletons via a polyphosphate intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Lacroix, Nicolas; Lildhar, Levannia; Variola, Fabio; Dean, Mason

    2014-05-01

    All vertebrate skeletons are stiffened with apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral. Control of apatite mineralization is essential to the growth and repair of the biology of these skeletons, ensuring that apatite is deposited in the correct tissue location at the desired time. The mechanism of this biochemical control remains debated, but must involve increasing the localized apatite saturation state. It was theorized in 1923 that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity provides this control mechanism by increasing the inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration via dephosphorylation of phosphorylated molecules. The ALP substrate for biological apatite is not known. We propose that polyphosphates (polyPs) produced by mitochondria may be the substrate for biological apatite formation by ALP activity. PolyPs (PO3-)n, also known as condensed phosphates, represent a concentrated, bioavailable Pi-storage strategy. Mitochondria import Pi and synthesize phosphate polymers through an unknown biochemical mechanism. When chelated with calcium and/or other cations, the effective P-concentration of these neutrally charged, amorphous, polyP species can be very high (~ 0.5 M), without inducing phosphate mineral crystallization. This P-concentration in the low Pi-concentration biological environment offers a method of concentrating P well above an apatite supersaturation required for nucleation. Bone is the most studied mineralized skeletal tissue. However, locating and analyzing active mineralizing areas is challenging. We studied calcified cartilage skeletons of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, stingrays and relatives) to analyse the phosphate chemistry in this continually mineralizing skeleton. Although the majority of the elasmobranch skeleton is unmineralized cartilage, it is wrapped in an outer layer of mineralized tissue comprised of small tiles called tesserae. These calcified tesserae continually grow through the formation of new mineral on their borders. Co-localization of ALP and

  2. Coordination Environment of Copper Sites in Cu-CHA Zeolite Investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Anita; Stappen, Frederick N.; Vennestrøm, Peter N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cu-CHA combines high activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction with better hydrothermal stability and selectivity compared to other copper-substituted zeolites. At the same time Cu-CHA offers an opportunity for unraveling the coordination environment of the copper centers since...... the zeolite framework is very simple with only one crystallographically independent tetrahedral site (T-site). In this study the results of an X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigation of ion-exchanged Cu-CHA zeolite with a Si/Al ratio of 14 ± 1 is presented. Different dehydration treatments...... of the EPR silent monomeric Cu2+ in copper-substituted zeolites is suggested to be copper species with an approximate trigonal coordination sphere appearing during the dehydration. After complete dehydration at 250 °C the majority of the EPR silent Cu2+ is suggested to exist as Cu2+–OH– coordinated to two...

  3. Transformation of apatite phosphorus and non-apatite inorganic phosphorus during incineration of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rundong; Zhang, Ziheng; Li, Yanlong; Teng, Wenchao; Wang, Weiyun; Yang, Tianhua

    2015-12-01

    The recovery of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash (SSA) is assumed to be economical. Transformation from non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) to apatite phosphorus (AP), which has a higher bioavailability and more extensive industrial applications, was studied at 750-950°C by sewage sludge incineration and model compound incineration with a calcium oxide (CaO) additive. Thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry analysis and X-ray diffraction measurements were used to analyze the reactions between NAIP with CaO and crystallized phases in SSA. High temperatures stimulated the volatilization of NAIP instead of AP. Sewage sludge incineration with CaO transformed NAIP into AP, and the percentage of AP from the total phosphorus reached 99% at 950°C. Aluminum phosphate reacted with CaO, forming Ca2P2O7 and Ca3(PO4)2 at 750-950°C. Reactions between iron phosphate and CaO occurred at lower temperatures, forming Ca(PO3)2 before reaching 850°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heating the Primordial Soup: X-raying the Circumstellar Disk of T Cha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, David; Huenemoerder, D.; Kastner, J. H.; Bessell, M. S.; Sacco, G.

    2014-01-01

    The classical T Tauri Star (cTTS) T Chamaeleontis (T Cha) presents a unique opportunity to probe pre-main sequence star-disk interactions and late-stage circumstellar disk evolution. T Cha is the only known example of a nearly edge-on, actively accreting star/disk system within ~110 pc, and furthermore may be orbited by a low-mass companion or massive planet that has cleared an inner hole in its disk. The star is characterized by strong variability in the optical 3 magnitudes in the V band) as well as large and variable extinction (AV in the range of 1-5). Like most cTTS, T Cha is also a luminous X-ray source. We present preliminary results of two observations (totaling 150 ks) of T Cha with Chandra’s HETGS. Our motivations are to (a) determine the intrinsic X-ray spectrum of T Cha, so as to establish whether its X-ray emission can be attributed to accretion shocks, coronal emission, or a combination; (b) investigate whether its X-ray flux exhibits modulation that may be related to the stellar rotational period 3.3 days); and (c) take advantage of the nearly-edge-on disk viewing geometry to model the spectrum of X-rays absorbed by the gaseous disk orbiting T Cha. These results will serve as much-needed input to models of magnetospheric accretion and irradiated, planet-forming disks. This research is supported via award number GO3-14022X to RIT issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of NASA under contract NAS803060. Additional support is provided by National Science Foundation grant AST-1108950 to RIT.

  5. Differential impact of some Aspergillus species on Meloidogyne javanica biocontrol by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S; Khan, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of some Aspergillus species on the production of nematicidal agent(s) in vitro and biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CHA0 and CHA0/pME3424. Six species of Aspergillus, isolated from the rhizosphere of certain crops, produced a variety of secondary metabolites in vitro. Culture filtrate (CF) obtained from Ps. fluorescens strain CHA0 and its2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol overproducing mutant CHA0/pME3424 grown in King's B liquid medium caused significant mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Bacterial growth medium amended with CF of A. niger enhanced nematicidal and beta-galactosidase activities of fluorescent pseudomonads while A. quadrilineatus repressed such activities. Methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of the CF of A. niger markedly optimized bacterial efficacy to cause nematode deaths while hexane extract of the fungus had no influence on the nematicidal activity of the bacterial strains. A. niger applied alone or in conjunction with the bacterial inoculants inhibited root-knot nematode galling in tomato. On the other hand, A. quadrilineatus used alone or together with CHA0 did not inhibit nematode galling but when used in combination with strain CHA0/pME3424 did reduce galling intensity. Aspergillus niger enhances the production of nematicidal compounds by Ps. fluorescensin vitro and improves biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants in tomato while A. quadrilineatus reduces bacterial performance to suppress root-knot nematodes. Rhizosphere harbours a variety of micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous in most agricultural soils and generally produce a variety of secondary metabolites. Such metabolites synthesized by Aspergillus species may influence the production of nematicidal agents and subsequent biocontrol performance of the bacterial inoculants against plant-parasitic nematodes. This fact needs to be taken into

  6. Microchemical and structural regular variability of apatites in 'overbuilt' enamel and dentin of human molar teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczumow, A.; Nowak, J.; ChaLas, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of a recent paper was to recognize the chemical and structural changes in apatites, which form both the enamel and the dentin of the human tooth. The aim was achieved by scrutinizing the linear elemental profiles along the cross-sections of human molar teeth. Essentially, the task was accomplished with the application of the Electron Probe Microanalysis method and with some additional studies by Micro-Raman spectrometry. All the trends in linear profiles were strictly determined. In the enamel zone they were either increasing or decreasing curves of exponential character. The direction of the investigations was to start with the tooth surface and move towards the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). The results of the elemental studies were more visible when the detected material was divided, in an arbitrary way, into the prevailing 'core' enamel (∼93.5% of the total mass) and the remaining 'overbuilt' enamel. The material in the 'core' enamel was fully stable, with clearly determined chemical and mechanical features. However, the case was totally different in the 'overbuilt enamel', with dynamic changes in the composition. In the 'overbuilt' layer Ca, P, Cl and F profiles present the decaying distribution curves, whereas Mg, Na, K and CO 3 2- present the growing ones. Close to the surface of the tooth the mixture of hydroxy-, chlor- and fluor-apatite is formed, which is much more resistant than the rest of the enamel. On passing towards the DEJ, the apatite is enriched with Na, Mg and CO 3 2- . In this location, three of six phosphate groups were substituted with carbonate groups. Simultaneously, Mg is associated with the hydroxyl groups around the hexad axis. In this way, the mechanisms of exchange reactions were established. The crystallographic structures were proposed for new phases located close to DEJ. In the dentin zone, the variability of elemental profiles looks different, with the most characteristic changes occurring in Mg and Na concentrations. Mg

  7. UV photofunctionalization promotes nano-biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saita M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Makiko Saita,1 Takayuki Ikeda,1,2 Masahiro Yamada,1,3 Katsuhiko Kimoto,4 Masaichi Chang-Il Lee,5 Takahiro Ogawa1 1Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Complete Denture Prosthodontics, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Yokosuka, Japan; 3Division of Molecular and Regenerative Prosthodontics, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 4Department of Prosthodontics and Oral Rehabilitation, 5Yokosuka-Shonan Disaster Health Emergency Research Center and ESR Laboratories, Kanagawa Dental University Graduate School of Dentistry, Yokosuka, Japan Background: Although biomimetic apatite coating is a promising way to provide titanium with osteoconductivity, the efficiency and quality of deposition is often poor. Most titanium implants have microscale surface morphology, and an addition of nanoscale features while preserving the micromorphology may provide further biological benefit. Here, we examined the effect of ultraviolet (UV light treatment of titanium, or photofunctionalization, on the efficacy of biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium and its biological capability.Methods and results: Micro-roughed titanium disks were prepared by acid-etching with sulfuric acid. Micro-roughened disks with or without photofunctionalization (20-minute exposure to UV light were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF for 1 or 5 days. Photofunctionalized titanium disks were superhydrophilic and did not form surface air bubbles when immersed in SBF, whereas non-photofunctionalized disks were hydrophobic and largely covered with air bubbles during immersion. An apatite-related signal was observed by X-ray diffraction on photofunctionalized titanium after 1 day of SBF immersion, which was equivalent to the one observed after 5 days of immersion of control titanium. Scanning electron microscopy revealed nodular apatite deposition

  8. Study on apatite compounds; Apataitokei kagobutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-28

    To clarify the material properties of apatite compounds, the synthesis method, and the evaluation of physical properties of material and elementary technology were investigated. For the study on synthesis and crystal growth, a method of precipitating calcium phosphate on the surface of metal was investigated by means of relatively mild electrolytic method using liquid phase system. A new molding method of Ca defective apatite was established. Composite similar to vital bone was prepared by means of a new low-temperature sintering. For the study on chemical properties, from the model experiments, it was found that the self-organizing phenomenon, which is observed in the composite of apatite and collagen, happened between the organic single molecular film and crystal of apatite. For the study on evaluation of physical properties and elementary technology, the surface and interface of ceramics such as apatite were investigated by means of spectroscopy, the electronic state was analyzed by the quantum chemical calculation, and the crystalline structure was analyzed using X-ray equipment. 270 refs., 102 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Adhesive strength of hydroxyl apatite(HA coating and biomechanics behavior of HA-coated prosthesis:an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-yang ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the influence of adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite(HA coating on the post-implantation stability of HA-coated prosthesis.Methods The adhesive strength and biomechanics behavior of HA coating were studied by histopathological observation,material parameters and biomechanical testing,the titanium(Ti-coated prosthesis was employed as control.Results Scratch test showed that the adhesive strength of HA coating was significantly lower than that of Ti coating(P < 0.01.Histopathological examination and bone morphometry showed that,at the early stage of prosthesis implantation,the bony growth around HA-coated prosthesis was significantly higher than that around Ti-coated prosthesis(P < 0.01,but the ultimate shear strength of HA-coated prosthesis was much lower than that of Ti-coated prosthesis(P < 0.01.After the push-out test with prosthesis,histopathological observation showed that there were accumulations of clump-and strip-like granular residues on the surface of bones that newly grew around the HA-coated prosthesis,and surface energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX analysis also confirmed that the shear stress induced HA decohesion from the substrate of prosthesis.Conclusions Although HA coating showed a satisfactory effect on early bone formation and prosthetic stability,due to the deficiencies of adhesive strength,the early stability of prosthesis may be gradually destroyed by the shear loads of human body and coating degradation.

  10. Adhesive strength of hydroxyl apatite(HA) coating and biomechanics behavior of HA-coated prosthesis:an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-yang ZHANG; Yong-hong DUAN; Shu ZHU; Jin-yu ZHU; Qing-sheng ZHU

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite(HA) coating on the post-implantation stability of HA-coated prosthesis.Methods The adhesive strength and biomechanics behavior of HA coating were studied by histopathological observation,material parameters and biomechanical testing,the titanium(Ti)-coated prosthesis was employed as control.Results Scratch test showed that the adhesive strength of HA coating was significantly lower than that of Ti coating(P < 0.01).Hist...

  11. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such ...

  12. Formation of an ascorbate-apatite composite layer on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Atsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, Central 6, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Sogo, Yu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, Central 6, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Ebihara, Yuko [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Onoguchi, Masahiro [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Oyane, Ayako [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nanotechnology Research Institute, Central 4, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Ichinose, Noboru [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    An ascorbate-apatite composite layer was successfully formed on NaOH- and heat-treated titanium by coprecipitating L-ascorbic acid phosphate and low-crystalline apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 {sup 0}C for 48 h. The supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions used have chemical compositions attainable by mixing infusion fluids officially approved for clinical use. The amount of immobilized L-ascorbic acid phosphate ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 {mu}g mm{sup -2}, which is most likely to be sufficient for the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium. Since ascorbate is important for the collagen synthesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, titanium coated with the ascorbate-apatite composite layer would be useful as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering and as a bone substitute.

  13. Formation of an ascorbate-apatite composite layer on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Ebihara, Yuko; Onoguchi, Masahiro; Oyane, Ayako; Ichinose, Noboru

    2007-01-01

    An ascorbate-apatite composite layer was successfully formed on NaOH- and heat-treated titanium by coprecipitating L-ascorbic acid phosphate and low-crystalline apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 0 C for 48 h. The supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions used have chemical compositions attainable by mixing infusion fluids officially approved for clinical use. The amount of immobilized L-ascorbic acid phosphate ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 μg mm -2 , which is most likely to be sufficient for the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium. Since ascorbate is important for the collagen synthesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, titanium coated with the ascorbate-apatite composite layer would be useful as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering and as a bone substitute

  14. Study of damage and helium diffusion in fluoro-apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miro, S.

    2004-12-01

    This work lies within the scope of the study of the radionuclides containment matrices. The choice of the fluoro-apatites as potential matrices of containment was suggested by the notable properties of these latter (thermal and chemical stability even under radioactive radiation). By irradiations with heavy ions and a helium implantation we simulated the effects related to the alpha radioactivity and to the spontaneous nuclear fission of the radionuclides. Thanks to the study of Durango fluoro-apatite single crystals and fluoro-apatite sintered ceramics, we evidenced that the damage fraction as well as the unit cell deformations increase with the electronic energy loss and with the substitution. These effects are followed at high fluences by a phenomenon of re-crystallization. The study of the helium diffusion points out that the thermal diffusion process improves with the substitution and strongly increases with heavy ions irradiation. (author)

  15. Calcium phosphate nuclear materials: apatitic ceramics for separated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpena, J.; Lacout, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Is it feasible to elaborate conditioning materials for separated high activity nuclear wastes, as actinides or fission products? Specific materials have been elaborated so that the waste is incorporated within the crystalline structure of the most stable calcium phosphate, i.e. apatite. This mineral is able to sustain high irradiation doses assuming a well chosen chemical composition. Mainly two different ways of synthesis have been developed to produce hard apatite ceramics that can be used to condition nuclear wastes. Here we present a data synthesis regarding the elaboration of these apatite nuclear materials that includes experiments on crystallo-chemistry, chemical analysis, leaching and irradiation tests performed for the past fifteen years. (authors)

  16. Composition dependent thermal annealing behaviour of ion tracks in apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadzri, A., E-mail: allina.nadzri@anu.edu.au [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Schauries, D.; Mota-Santiago, P.; Muradoglu, S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gleadow, A.J.W. [School of Earth Science, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Hawley, A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Kluth, P. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2016-07-15

    Natural apatite samples with different F/Cl content from a variety of geological locations (Durango, Mexico; Mud Tank, Australia; and Snarum, Norway) were irradiated with swift heavy ions to simulate fission tracks. The annealing kinetics of the resulting ion tracks was investigated using synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combined with ex situ annealing. The activation energies for track recrystallization were extracted and consistent with previous studies using track-etching, tracks in the chlorine-rich Snarum apatite are more resistant to annealing than in the other compositions.

  17. Heart failure: a weak link in CHA2 DS2 -VASc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Leif; Lund, Lars H

    2018-02-15

    In atrial fibrillation, stroke risk is assessed by the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score. Heart failure is included in CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc, but the rationale is uncertain. Our objective was to test if heart failure is a risk factor for stroke, independent of other risk factors in CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc. We studied 300 839 patients with atrial fibrillation in the Swedish Patient Register 2005-11. Three definitions of heart failure were used in order to assess the robustness of the results. In the main analysis, heart failure was defined by a hospital discharge diagnosis of heart failure as first or second diagnosis and a filled prescription of a diuretic within 3 months before index + 30 days. The second definition counted first or second discharge diagnoses failure diagnosis in open or hospital care before index + 30 days. Associations with outcomes were assessed with multivariable Cox analyses. Patients with heart failure were older (80.5 vs. 74.0 years, P failure and 3.1% without. Adjustment for the cofactors in CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc eradicated the difference in stroke risk between patients with and without heart failure (hazard ratio 1.01 with 95% confidence interval 0.96-1.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc was not improved by points for heart failure. A clinical diagnosis of heart failure was not an independent risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, which may have implications for anticoagulation management. © 2018 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ChaMP X-ray point source catalog (Kim+, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Kim, D.-W.; Wilkes, B. J.; Green, P. J.; Kim, E.; Anderson, C. S.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Evans, N. R.; Ivezic, Z.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lee, M. G.; Maksym, P.; Mossman, A. E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tananbaum, H. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) X-ray point source catalog with ~6800 X-ray sources detected in 149 Chandra observations covering ~10deg2. The full ChaMP catalog sample is 7 times larger than the initial published ChaMP catalog. The exposure time of the fields in our sample ranges from 0.9 to 124ks, corresponding to a deepest X-ray flux limit of f0.5-8.0=9x10-16ergs/cm2/s. The ChaMP X-ray data have been uniformly reduced and analyzed with ChaMP-specific pipelines and then carefully validated by visual inspection. The ChaMP catalog includes X-ray photometric data in eight different energy bands as well as X-ray spectral hardness ratios and colors. To best utilize the ChaMP catalog, we also present the source reliability, detection probability, and positional uncertainty. (10 data files).

  19. Inverted Apatite (U-Th)/He and Fission-track Dates from the Rae craton, Baffin Island, Canada and Implications for Apatite Radiation Damage-He Diffusivity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, A. K.; Reiners, P. W.; Thomson, S. N.; Miller, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track (AFT) thermochronology data from the same sample can be used to decipher complex low temperature thermal histories and evaluate compatibility between these two methods. Existing apatite He damage-diffusivity models parameterize radiation damage annealing as fission-track annealing and yield inverted apatite He and AFT dates for samples with prolonged residence in the He partial retention zone. Apatite chemistry also impacts radiation damage and fission-track annealing, temperature sensitivity, and dates in both systems. We present inverted apatite He and AFT dates from the Rae craton, Baffin Island, Canada, that cannot be explained by apatite chemistry or existing damage-diffusivity and fission track models. Apatite He dates from 34 individual analyses from 6 samples range from 237 ± 44 Ma to 511 ± 25 Ma and collectively define a positive date-eU relationship. AFT dates from these same samples are 238 ± 15 Ma to 350 ± 20 Ma. These dates and associated track length data are inversely correlated and define the left segment of a boomerang diagram. Three of the six samples with 20-90 ppm eU apatite grains yield apatite He and AFT dates inverted by 300 million years. These samples have average apatite Cl chemistry of ≤0.02 wt.%, with no correlation between Cl content and Dpar. Thermal history simulations using geologic constraints, an apatite He radiation damage accumulation and annealing model, apatite He dates with the range of eU values, and AFT date and track length data, do not yield any viable time-temperature paths. Apatite He and AFT data modeled separately predict thermal histories with Paleozoic-Mesozoic peaks reheating temperatures differing by ≥15 °C. By modifying the parameter controlling damage annealing (Rmr0) from the canonical 0.83 to 0.5-0.6, forward models reproduce the apatite He date-eU correlation and AFT dates with a common thermal history. Results imply apatite radiation damage anneals at

  20. Preparation of mica/apatite glass-ceramics biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Sheng Xiaoxian; Dan Xiaohong; Xiang Qijun

    2006-01-01

    Glass-ceramics have become more and more important biomaterials. In this work mica glass/apatite composites with various compositions were prepared by casting and subsequent heat treatments. The effects of composition, phase constitution and crystallinity on mechanical properties, including elastic modulus and transverse rupture strength (TRS), were investigated by using X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical tests. Results show that addition of apatite composition in mica glass accelerates the crystallization process and induces the formation of fluoroapatite phase, and the nucleation of apatite crystals occurs before that of mica crystals. The fuoroapatite in this work is needle-like, which is almost the same to that in human bone. The transverse rupture strength increases with the content of fluoroapatite and the crystallinity increasing, except that at a low apatite content the mechanical properties are lower than those of mica glass under the same processing conditions. The transverse rupture strength and elastic modulus obtained in this work fall in the range of those of human bone. SBF immersion test demonstrates good bioactivity of this biomaterial

  1. Apatite-mediated actin dynamics in resorbing osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltel, Frédéric; Destaing, Olivier; Bard, Frédéric; Eichert, Diane; Jurdic, Pierre

    2004-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for osteoclasts main function, bone resorption. Two different organizations of actin have been described in osteoclasts, the podosomes belt corresponding to numerous F-actin columns arranged at the cell periphery, and the sealing zone defined as a unique large band of actin. To compare the role of these two different actin organizations, we imaged osteoclasts on various substrata: glass, dentin, and apatite. Using primary osteoclasts expressing GFP-actin, we found that podosome belts and sealing zones, both very dynamic actin structures, were present in mature osteoclasts; podosome belts were observed only in spread osteoclasts adhering onto glass, whereas sealing zone were seen in apico-basal polarized osteoclasts adherent on mineralized matrix. Dynamic observations of several resorption cycles of osteoclasts seeded on apatite revealed that 1) podosomes do not fuse together to form the sealing zone; 2) osteoclasts alternate successive stationary polarized resorption phases with a sealing zone and migration, nonresorption phases without any specific actin structure; and 3) apatite itself promotes sealing zone formation though c-src and Rho signaling. Finally, our work suggests that apatite-mediated sealing zone formation is dependent on both c-src and Rho whereas apico-basal polarization requires only Rho.

  2. Lead Speciation and Bioavailability in Apatite-Amended Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk G. Scheckel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in situ sequestration of lead (Pb in sediment with a phosphate amendment was investigated by Pb speciation and bioavailability. Sediment Pb in preamendment samples was identified as galena (PbS with trace amounts of absorbed Pb. Sediment exposed to atmospheric conditions underwent conversion to hydrocerussite and anglesite. Sediments mixed with apatite exhibited limited conversion to pyromorphite, the hypothesized end product. Conversion of PbS to pyromorphite is inhibited under reducing conditions, and pyromorphite formation appears limited to reaction with pore water Pb and PbS oxidation products. Porewater Pb values were decreased by 94% or more when sediment was amended with apatite. The acute toxicity of the sediment Pb was evaluated with Hyalella azteca and bioaccumulation of Pb with Lumbriculus variegatus. The growth of H. azteca may be mildly inhibited in contaminated sediment, with apatite-amended sediments exhibiting on average a higher growth weight by approximately 20%. The bioaccumulation of Pb in L. variegatus tissue decreased with increased phosphate loading in contaminated sediment. The study indicates limited effectiveness of apatite in sequestering Pb if present as PbS under reducing conditions, but sequestration of porewater Pb and stabilization of near-surface sediment may be a feasible and alternative approach to decreasing potential toxicity of Pb.

  3. Preliminary characterization of calcium chemical environment in apatitic and non-apatitic calcium phosphates of biological interest by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichert, D.; Salome, M.; Banu, M.; Susini, J.; Rey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Several reports have mentioned the existence of non-apatitic environments of phosphate and carbonate ions in synthetic and biological poorly crystalline apatites. However there were no direct spectroscopic evidences for the existence of non-apatitic environment of calcium ions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, at the K-edge of calcium, allows the discrimination between different calcium phosphates of biological interest despite great spectral similarities. A primary analysis of the spectra reveals the existence, in synthetic poorly crystalline apatites, of variable features related to the maturation stage of the sample and corresponding to the existence of non-apatitic environments of calcium ions. Although these features can also be found in several other calcium phosphate salts, and do not allow a clear identification of the ionic environments of calcium ions, they give a possibility to directly determine the maturity of poorly crystalline apatite from calcium X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectra

  4. Thermodynamic basis for evolution of apatite in calcified tissues (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotsky, A.; Drouet, C.; Rollin-Martinet, S.; Champion, E.; Grossin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bone remodeling and tooth enamel maturation are biological processes which alter the physico-chemical features of biominerals with time. However, although the ubiquity of bone remodeling is clear, why is well crystallized bone mineral systematically replaced by immature nanocrystalline inorganic material? In enamel, a clear evolution is also seen from the first mineral formed during the secretory stage to its mature well crystalline form, which then changes little in the adult tooth. This contribution provides the thermodynamic basis underlying these biological processes. We determined the energetics of biomimetic apatites corresponding to an increasing degree of maturation. Our data point out the progressive evolution of the enthalpy (ΔHf°) and free energy (ΔGf°) of formation toward more negative values upon maturation. Entropy contributions to ΔGf° values are small compared to enthalpy contributions. ΔHf° varies from -12058.9 × 12.2 to -12771.0 × 21.4 kJ/mol for maturation times increasing from 20 min to 3 weeks, approaching the value for stoichiometric hydroxyapatite, -13431.0 × 22.7 kJ/mol. Apatite thermodynamic stability increases as its composition moved toward stoichiometry. These findings imply diminishing aqueous solubility of calcium and phosphate ions as well as decreased surface reactivity. Such thermodynamically-driven maturation is favorable for enamel maturation since this biomineral must resist external aggressions such as contact with acids. In contrast, maintaining a metastable highly reactive and soluble form of apatite is essential to the effective participation of bone as a source of calcium and phosphate for homeostasis. Therefore our data strongly suggest that, far from being trivial, the intrinsic thermodynamic properties of apatite represent a critical driving force for continuous bone remodeling, in contrast to current views favoring a purely biologically driven cycle. These thermodynamic data may prove helpful in other domains

  5. Německý Mácha, Óda na radost a krize evropské vize

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Martin Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, 97-98 (2013), s. 244-251 ISSN 0862-7045 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : K. H. Mácha * F. Schiller * A. Mozart * Enlightenment * romanticism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Chaînes logistiques et consommation d'énergie : cas du yaourt et du jean

    OpenAIRE

    Rizet , C.; Keita , Basile

    2005-01-01

    Contrat INRETS/ADEME n°: 0203034; Rapport de recherche; Pour analyser l'efficacité énergétique et les émissions de GES des chaînes logistiques, on compare différentes chaînes aboutissant aux mêmes consommateurs. Deux produits sont étudiés : le yaourt, caractéristique de la chaîne du froid et des flux tendus et le blue jean, intégré au marché mondial, tant pour sa matière première principale (le coton) que pour les différentes étapes de sa fabrication. Les chaînes étudiées pour le jean différe...

  7. Chaîne de blocs | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 déc. 2017 ... Des édutiants dans une salle de classe, Tambon Mae La, Myanmar. Zi Jian Lim. La technologie des chaînes de blocs pourrait appuyer et améliorer la gouvernance démocratique et les programmes de développement, mais le degré élevé de sophistication et les exigences complexes du point de vue de ...

  8. Biomimetic synthesis and biocompatibility evaluation of carbonated apatites template-mediated by heparin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Yuhua [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Xiaofang [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Peizhi, E-mail: pzzhu@umich.edu [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Wei, Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of carbonated apatites with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the broadening application of apatites for bone tissue engineering. Most researchers were interested in collagen or gelatin-based templates for synthesis of apatite minerals. Inspired by recent findings about the important role of polysaccharides in bone biomineralization, here we reported that heparin, a mucopolysaccharide, was used to synthesize carbonated apatites in vitro. The results indicated that the Ca/P ratio, carbon content, crystallinity and morphology of the apatites varied depending on the heparin concentration and the initial pH value. The morphology of apatite changed from flake-shaped to needle-shaped, and the degree of crystallinity decreased with the increasing of heparin concentration. Biocompatibility of the apatites was tested by proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results suggested that carbonated apatites synthesized in the presence of heparin were more favorable to the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with traditional method. In summary, the heparin concentration and the initial pH value play a key role in the chemical constitution and morphology, as well as biological properties of apatites. These biocompatible nano-apatite crystals hold great potential to be applied as bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Heparin was used as a template to synthesize needle-shaped nano-apatite. • Changing the pH value and concentration led to different properties of apatite. • Apatite prepared by heparin was more favorable to the osteogenic differentiation. • Possible synthesis mechanism of apatite templated by heparin was described.

  9. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) used in this work was prepared by free radical polymerization using hydrogen peroxide as initiator and was received from HEMRL Pune, India, as a gift sample. The molecu- lar weight and polydispersity of the HTPB was deter- mined by using gel permeable chromatography ...

  10. Interaction between the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0, its genetic derivatives and vermiculite: Effects on chemical, mineralogical and mechanical properties of vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Using bacteria of the strain Pseudomonas fluorescens wild type CHA0 and its genetic derivative strains CHA77, CHA89, CHA400, CHA631 and CHA661 (which differ in one gene only) the changes in chemical, mineralogical and rheological properties of the clay mineral vermiculite affected by microbial activity were studied in order to test whether the individually different production of metabolites by the genetically engineered strains may alter the clay mineral vermiculite in distinct ways. With the novel strategy of working with living wild type bacteria, their genetic derivatives and clay, the following properties of the mineral altered by the various strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were determined: grain size, X-Ray diffraction pattern, intercrystalline swelling with glycerol, layer charge, CEC, BET surface and uptake of trace elements. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the changes in major, minor and trace elements of the clay vermiculite affected by microbial activity. Among all analyzed trace elements, Fe, Mn and Cu are the most interesting. Fe and Mn are taken up from the clay mineral by all bacterial strains whereas Cu is only removed from vermiculite by strains CHA0, CHA77, CHA400 and CHA661. The latter mentioned strains all produce the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and monoacetylphloroglucinol which can complex Cu efficiently. Therefore the alteration of only one gene of the bacteria is causing significant effects on the clay mineral.

  11. Hydroxylated PBDEs induce developmental arrest in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenko, Crystal Y., E-mail: Crystal_usenko@baylor.edu; Hopkins, David C.; Trumble, Stephen J., E-mail: Stephen_trumble@baylor.edu; Bruce, Erica D., E-mail: Erica_bruce@baylor.edu

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquitous spread of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has led to concerns regarding the metabolites of these congeners, in particular hydroxylated PBDEs. There are limited studies regarding the biological interactions of these chemicals, yet there is some concern they may be more toxic than their parent compounds. In this study three hydroxylated PBDEs were assessed for toxicity in embryonic zebrafish: 3-OH-BDE 47, 5-OH-BDE 47, and 6-OH-BDE 47. All three congeners induced developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner; however, 6-OH-BDE 47 induced adverse effects at lower concentrations than the other congeners. Furthermore, all three induced cell death; however apoptosis was not observed. In short-term exposures (24–28 hours post fertilization), all hydroxylated PBDEs generated oxidative stress in the region corresponding to the cell death at 5 and 10 ppm. To further investigate the short-term effects that may be responsible for the developmental arrest observed in this study, gene regulation was assessed for embryos exposed to 0.625 ppm 6-OH-BDE 47 from 24 to 28 hpf. Genes involved in stress response, thyroid hormone regulation, and neurodevelopment were significantly upregulated compared to controls; however, genes related to oxidative stress were either unaffected or downregulated. This study suggests that hydroxylated PBDEs disrupt development, and may induce oxidative stress and potentially disrupt the cholinergic system and thyroid hormone homeostasis. -- Highlights: ► OH-PBDEs induce developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. ► Hydroxyl group location influences biological interaction. ► OH-PBDEs induce oxidative stress. ► Thyroid hormone gene regulation was disrupted following exposure. ► To our knowledge, this is the first whole organism study of OH-PBDE toxicity.

  12. Thermodynamic Mixing Behavior Of F-OH Apatite Crystalline Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to establish a thermodynamic data base for accessory minerals and mineral series that are useful in determining fluid composition during petrologic processes. As a starting point for apatite-system thermodynamics, Hovis and Harlov (2010, American Mineralogist 95, 946-952) reported enthalpies of mixing for a F-Cl apatite series. Harlov synthesized all such crystalline solutions at the GFZ-Potsdam using a slow-cooled molten-flux method. In order to expand thermodynamic characterization of the F-Cl-OH apatite system, a new study has been initiated along the F-OH apatite binary. Synthesis of this new series made use of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2910a hydroxylapatite, a standard reference material made at NIST "by solution reaction of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid." Synthesis efforts at Lafayette College have been successful in producing fluorapatite through ion exchange between hydroxylapatite 2910a and fluorite. In these experiments, a thin layer of hydroxylapatite powder was placed on a polished CaF2 disc (obtained from a supplier of high-purity crystals for spectroscopy), pressed firmly against the disc, then annealed at 750 °C (1 bar) for three days. Longer annealing times did not produce further change in unit-cell dimensions of the resulting fluorapatite, but it is uncertain at this time whether this procedure produces a pure-F end member (chemical analyses to be performed in the near future). It is clear from the unit-cell dimensions, however, that the newly synthesized apatite contains a high percentage of fluorine, probably greater than 90 mol % F. Intermediate compositions for a F-OH apatite series were made by combining 2910a hydroxylapatite powder with the newly synthesized fluorapatite in various proportions, then conducting chemical homogenization experiments at 750 °C on each mixture. X-ray powder diffraction data indicated that these experiments were successful in producing chemically homogeneous

  13. Preparation of rare earth fluorides from apatite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyarchuk, I.F.; Voloshchenko, M.V.; Zen'kovich, E.G.; Sumenkova, V.V.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Lit'ya)

    1980-01-01

    The processes of preparation of the rare earths element sum from apatite concentrate of the Khibins, connected with preliminary extraction of rare earth phosphates from nitric acid extract using solvent extraction or direct precipitation from the extract by solution of potassium and ammonium fluorides. The sequence of the processes of the first variant is the following: solvent extraction of rare earths by tributylphosphate from clarified nitric acid extract of apatite with subsequent reextraction of rare earths with water and precipitation of rare earth phosphates from aqueous solution during neutralization by ammonia. In case of fluoride preparation from rare earth phosphate the main attention is paid to precipitation and filtration of fluorides. Technological scheme and cost price of industry for the production of 1800 t of rare earth trifluorides a year are calculated. When taking account of TBP losses according to its solubility the industry cost price is 1O times lower the modern cost of rare earth fluorides

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Apatitic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin Thin Nwe; Kyaw Naing; Khin Mar Tun; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    The apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate (ABcp) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and -tricalcium phosphate ( -Tcp) has been prepared by precipitation technique using slaked lime and orthophosphoric acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the product I (hydroxyapatite) revealed that ABcp was partially crystalline state. However, on heating at 800 C for 8 hrs, XRD pattern indicated a perfectly crystalline form of ABcp. This observation was supported by FT-IR measurement. The change in morphology regarding in the functional nature was infered by the shift in the FT-IR frequency. The optimization of the apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate was done by the variation of disodium hydrogen phosphate concentration, setting time, hardening time as well as compressive strength. The perpared cement may be used as an artificial substitution bone

  15. Theoretical basis of remediation of heavy metal contamination by apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Mandic, M.; Kaludjerovic, T.

    2001-01-01

    Recently we have demonstrated the connection between stability of the products of the in situ remediation processes and their values of the ion-ion interaction potential, representing the main term of the cohesive energy. Using this approach, the stability of the products of remediation of Pb and Cd by hydroxyapatite (HAP) was investigated. It has been demonstrated that incorporation of Pb ions from pyromorphite into HAP is followed by a decrease of the cohesive energy, indicating that in remediation of Pb, HAP serves as a source of components necessary for formation of a stabile Pb-apatite phase which is precipitated on the surface of the HAP particles. Contrary, incorporation of Cd from the Cd-apatite into HAP increases the cohesive energy of the system, suggesting that the precipitated Cd-apatite phase is later transformed into a more stabile HAP/Cd solid solution. The presented results of theoretical analysis are in good accordance with the reported experimental results. Based on the results of this analysis, the general criterion for estimation of stability of the products of the in situ remediation processes was proposed. (author)

  16. Influence of agitation intensity on flotation rate of apatite particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gregianin Testa

    Full Text Available Abstract The agitation intensity has a directly influence on flotation performance, lifting the particles and promoting the contact of bubbles and particles. In this paper, the energy input by the agitation on apatite flotation was investigated. The influence of pulp agitation in the flotation rate of particles with different sizes and two dosage levels was evaluated by batch testing. The flotation tests were conducted in an oscillating grid flotation cell (OGC, developed to promote a near isotropic turbulence environment. The cell is able to control the intensity of agitation and measure the energy transferred to the pulp phase. A sample of pure apatite was crushed (P80=310µm, characterized and floated with sodium oleate as collector. Four levels of energy dissipation, from 0.1 to 2 kWm-3, and two levels of collector dosage are used during the tests. The flotation kinetics by particle size were determined in function of the energy transferred. The results show a strong influence of the agitation intensity on the apatite flotation rate with both low and high dosage. For fine particles, when increasing the energy input, the flotation rate increase too, and this fact can be attributed to elevation of bubble-particle collisions. The kinetic result for the coarse particles demonstrated a reduction of the flotation rate whenever the energy input for this particle size was increased, whereby the turbulence caused by the agitation promotes the detachment of bubble-particle.

  17. Thermophysical properties of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, K.A.; Wilfred, C.D.; Murugesan, T.

    2009-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids: density ρ, T = (293.15 to 363.15) K; dynamic viscosity η, T = (298.2 to 348.2) K; and refractive indices n D , T = (293.15 to 333.15) K have been measured. The coefficients of thermal expansion α, values were calculated from the experimental density results using an empirical correlation for T = (293.15 to 363.15) K. The variation of volume expansion of ionic liquids studied was found to be independent of temperature within the range covered in the present work. The thermal decomposition temperature 'T d ' for all the six hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids is also investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)

  18. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illés, Erzsébet, E-mail: erzsebet.illes@chem.u-szeged.hu [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Takács, Erzsébet [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Dombi, András [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-03-01

    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1 mmol dm{sup −3}. For end product characterization {sup 60}Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV–vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of {sup ·}OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose. Highlights: ► In hydroxyl radical attack on the ring mainly hydroxylated products form ► The hydrated electron attacks the carboxyl group. ► Oxidative conditions are more effective in ibuprofen decomposition than reductive. ► Ecotoxicity of ibuprofen solution first increases then decreases with irradiation.

  19. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illés, Erzsébet; Takács, Erzsébet; Dombi, András; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László

    2013-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1 mmol dm −3 . For end product characterization 60 Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV–vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of · OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose. Highlights: ► In hydroxyl radical attack on the ring mainly hydroxylated products form ► The hydrated electron attacks the carboxyl group. ► Oxidative conditions are more effective in ibuprofen decomposition than reductive. ► Ecotoxicity of ibuprofen solution first increases then decreases with irradiation

  20. Sphingoid bases and the serine catabolic enzyme CHA1 define a novel feedforward/feedback mechanism in the response to serine availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefusco, David J; Newcomb, Benjamin; Gandy, Jason L; Brice, Sarah E; Matmati, Nabil; Cowart, L Ashley; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2012-03-16

    Targets of bioactive sphingolipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were previously identified using microarray experiments focused on sphingolipid-dependent responses to heat stress. One of these heat-induced genes is the serine deamidase/dehydratase Cha1 known to be regulated by increased serine availability. This study investigated the hypothesis that sphingolipids may mediate the induction of Cha1 in response to serine availability. The results showed that inhibition of de novo synthesis of sphingolipids, pharmacologically or genetically, prevented the induction of Cha1 in response to increased serine availability. Additional studies implicated the sphingoid bases phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine as the likely mediators of Cha1 up-regulation. The yeast protein kinases Pkh1 and Pkh2, known sphingoid base effectors, were found to mediate CHA1 up-regulation via the transcription factor Cha4. Because the results disclosed a role for sphingolipids in negative feedback regulation of serine metabolism, we investigated the effects of disrupting this mechanism on sphingolipid levels and on cell growth. Intriguingly, exposure of the cha1Δ strain to high serine resulted in hyperaccumulation of endogenous serine and in turn a significant accumulation of sphingoid bases and ceramides. Under these conditions, the cha1Δ strain displayed a significant growth defect that was sphingolipid-dependent. Together, this work reveals a feedforward/feedback loop whereby the sphingoid bases serve as sensors of serine availability and mediate up-regulation of Cha1 in response to serine availability, which in turn regulates sphingolipid levels by limiting serine accumulation.

  1. Synthesis of sodium caseinate-calcium carbonate microspheres and their mineralization to bone-like apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhewu; Liang, Guobin; Jin, Lin; Wang, Zhenling; Xing, Chao; Jiange, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2014-06-01

    Phosphoproteins can induce and stabilize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) vaterite, which has desirable features for high reactivity. The purpose of this study was to synthesize bioactive CaCO3 microspheres for bone regeneration. Sodium caseinate (NaCas)-containing CaCO3 microspheres, with the crystal phase of vaterite, were synthesized by fast precipitation in an aqueous solution of CaCl2, Na2CO3, and 2 mg/mL of NaCas. The uniform microspheres exhibited rougher surfaces and lower negative charges than CaCO3 particles without NaCas addition. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the microspheres showed characteristic peaks or bands corresponding to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves exhibited approximately 5% weight loss below 600 °C due to the decomposition of NaCas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed lath-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed that the agglomerates were composed of Ca, C, O, P, Na, and Mg elements, and the Ca/P ratios ranged from 1.53 to 1.56. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited peaks characteristic of hydroxyapatite. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of NaCas induced the formation of vaterite microspheres which possesses an enhanced apatite formation after soaking in SBF at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. These NaCas-CaCO3 microspheres may be a potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  2. Antinociceptive activity of fruits extracts and "arrope" of Geoffroea decorticans (chañar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, M A; Vera, N; Aristimuño, M E; Daud, A; Sánchez Riera, A

    2013-01-09

    Geoffroea decorticans (chañar) fruits and their derivate product (arrope) have been traditionally used as food and a folk medicine for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases including bronchopulmonary disorders and to relieve dolorous process. In order to evaluate the pharmacology action of this plant, studies were performed of antinociceptive and antioxidant activities. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts and arrope of chañar were evaluated in various established pain models, including chemical nociception induced by subplantar formalin and intraperitoneal acetic acid and thermal nociception method, such as tail immersion test in rats. To examine the possible connection of the opioid receptor to the antinociceptive activity of extracts and arrope it was performed a combination test with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. The aqueous extract and arrope (1000 mg/kg) caused an inhibition of the pain in formalin test in the first phase, similar to morphine and decrease in the second phase. In a combination test using naloxone, diminished analgesic activity of aqueous extract and arrope were observed, indicating that antinociceptive activity is connected with the opioid receptor. The aqueous extract and arrope, caused an inhibition of the writhing response induced by acetic acid. Central involvement in analgesic profile was confirmed by the tail immersion test, in which the aqueous extract and arrope showed a significant analgesic activity by increasing latency time. The aqueous extract showed higher antioxidant activity than the arrope, it may be due to the cooking process. This study has shown that the aqueous extract and arrope of Geoffroea decorticans (chañar) fruits, does possess significant antinociceptive effects. It is further concluded that aqueous extract with maximum inhibition of free radical is the most potent extract amount tested extracts. At the oral doses tested the aqueous extract and arrope were non-toxic. The present

  3. The Chaîne des Puys: how complicated can monogentic get?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.; Marquez, A.; Petronis, M. S.; Kervyn, M.; Delcamp, A.; Mossoux, S.; Troll, V. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Chaîne des Puys (Massif Centrale of France) is part of a prospective volcano-tectonic UNESCO World Heritage site including the Limagne Rift fault (http://www.chainedespuys-failledelimagne.com/). The strategy is to present the monogentic field that is as representative of other such fields, but which itself is uniquely special. Effectively, the Chaîne des Puys would become a sort of ambassador for monogentic volcanism, raising the profile of all other sites. Here, I want to go through some recent work on the chain, looking at morphology, morphometry, structure, lithology and petrology and show some of the intriguing complexities of this classic highly variable monogentic alignment. Also, I want to build on the historical development of ideas that can be traced back to characters such as Montlosier, Humphrey Davey, Faraday, Lyell, and Von Humbolt... and many more. I focus, first, on the central the Puy de Dôme. This classic trachyte dome has been known for some time to be the product of two eruptions, and recently we have found that it is related to a number of cryptodome intrusions that have created flanking bulges, fed at least two major explosive eruptions, and extensively modified the topography of the field. Strangely, Von Humbolt's concept of 'craters of elevation' rises up in a reanalysis of these structures. Secondly, I visit Lemptégy (www.auvergne-volcan.com/), that in 1857, Scrope called 'an insignificant cone grazed by sheep', but now quarried out and showing the internal structure expected for the Puy de Dôme bulges, as well as illustrating that a seemingly simple scoria cone plumbing can be infernally complicated. Thirdly, I consider the Beaunit, a bucolic village in a maar, where the process of crustal ingestion suggests an intimate relationship between eruptive dynamics and assimilation. With these three examples I show some of the complications and interactions of monogentic basaltic to trachytic volcanism typified by the Chaîne des Puys.

  4. Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatite coatings synthesized by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visan, A. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-77125, MG-36, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Grossin, D. [CIRIMAT – Carnot Institute, University of Toulouse, ENSIACET, 4 Allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Stefan, N.; Duta, L.; Miroiu, F.M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-77125, MG-36, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Stan, G.E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, RO-077125, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Sopronyi, M.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-77125, MG-36, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Freche, M.; Marsan, O.; Charvilat, C. [CIRIMAT – Carnot Institute, University of Toulouse, ENSIACET, 4 Allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Ciuca, S. [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N., E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-77125, MG-36, Magurele-Ilfov (Romania)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We report the deposition by MAPLE of biomimetic apatite coatings on Ti substrates. • This is the first report of MAPLE deposition of hydrated biomimetic apatite films. • Biomimetic apatite powder was synthesized by double decomposition process. • Non-apatitic environments, of high surface reactivity, are preserved post-deposition. • We got the MAPLE complete transfer as thin film of a hydrated, delicate material. -- Abstract: We report the deposition by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique of biomimetic nanocrystalline apatite coatings on titanium substrates, with potential application in tissue engineering. The targets were prepared from metastable, nanometric, poorly crystalline apatite powders, analogous to mineral bone, synthesized through a biomimetic approach by double decomposition process. For the deposition of thin films, a KrF* excimer laser source was used (λ = 248 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≤ 25 ns). The analyses revealed the existence, in synthesized powders, of labile non-apatitic mineral ions, associated with the formation of a hydrated layer at the surface of the nanocrystals. The thin film analyses showed that the structural and chemical nature of the nanocrystalline apatite was prevalently preserved. The perpetuation of the non-apatitic environments was also observed. The study indicated that MAPLE is a suitable technique for the congruent transfer of a delicate material, such as the biomimetic hydrated nanohydroxyapatite.

  5. Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatite coatings synthesized by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visan, A.; Grossin, D.; Stefan, N.; Duta, L.; Miroiu, F.M.; Stan, G.E.; Sopronyi, M.; Luculescu, C.; Freche, M.; Marsan, O.; Charvilat, C.; Ciuca, S.; Mihailescu, I.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the deposition by MAPLE of biomimetic apatite coatings on Ti substrates. • This is the first report of MAPLE deposition of hydrated biomimetic apatite films. • Biomimetic apatite powder was synthesized by double decomposition process. • Non-apatitic environments, of high surface reactivity, are preserved post-deposition. • We got the MAPLE complete transfer as thin film of a hydrated, delicate material. -- Abstract: We report the deposition by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique of biomimetic nanocrystalline apatite coatings on titanium substrates, with potential application in tissue engineering. The targets were prepared from metastable, nanometric, poorly crystalline apatite powders, analogous to mineral bone, synthesized through a biomimetic approach by double decomposition process. For the deposition of thin films, a KrF* excimer laser source was used (λ = 248 nm, τ FWHM ≤ 25 ns). The analyses revealed the existence, in synthesized powders, of labile non-apatitic mineral ions, associated with the formation of a hydrated layer at the surface of the nanocrystals. The thin film analyses showed that the structural and chemical nature of the nanocrystalline apatite was prevalently preserved. The perpetuation of the non-apatitic environments was also observed. The study indicated that MAPLE is a suitable technique for the congruent transfer of a delicate material, such as the biomimetic hydrated nanohydroxyapatite

  6. Comments About The New Rhetoric Theory Of Chaïm Perelman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Calado

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay pretends to demonstrate how the issue of the interpretation of legal norms was treated in the New Rhetoric of Chaïm Perelman. The theory emerged in the 1950´s criticizing juridical positivism and bringing back the possibility of reinsertion of valuational matters in the application of the law. With the scope of not compromising legal predictability, notions like equity and reasonability where hitched to the concept. Furthermore, the essay aimed, with the collation of literary works about the theme, to analyze the possibility of applying the New Rhetoric theory in the Brazilian Legal Order, The method utilized was the critic- deductive.

  7. Microchemical and structural regular variability of apatites in 'overbuilt' enamel and dentin of human molar teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczumow, A., E-mail: kuczon@kul.lublin.pl [Department of Chemistry, Lublin Catholic University, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Nowak, J. [Department of Chemistry, Lublin Catholic University, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); ChaLas, R. [Department of Conservative Medicine, Lublin Medical University, 20-081 Lublin (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of a recent paper was to recognize the chemical and structural changes in apatites, which form both the enamel and the dentin of the human tooth. The aim was achieved by scrutinizing the linear elemental profiles along the cross-sections of human molar teeth. Essentially, the task was accomplished with the application of the Electron Probe Microanalysis method and with some additional studies by Micro-Raman spectrometry. All the trends in linear profiles were strictly determined. In the enamel zone they were either increasing or decreasing curves of exponential character. The direction of the investigations was to start with the tooth surface and move towards the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). The results of the elemental studies were more visible when the detected material was divided, in an arbitrary way, into the prevailing 'core' enamel ({approx}93.5% of the total mass) and the remaining 'overbuilt' enamel. The material in the 'core' enamel was fully stable, with clearly determined chemical and mechanical features. However, the case was totally different in the 'overbuilt enamel', with dynamic changes in the composition. In the 'overbuilt' layer Ca, P, Cl and F profiles present the decaying distribution curves, whereas Mg, Na, K and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} present the growing ones. Close to the surface of the tooth the mixture of hydroxy-, chlor- and fluor-apatite is formed, which is much more resistant than the rest of the enamel. On passing towards the DEJ, the apatite is enriched with Na, Mg and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. In this location, three of six phosphate groups were substituted with carbonate groups. Simultaneously, Mg is associated with the hydroxyl groups around the hexad axis. In this way, the mechanisms of exchange reactions were established. The crystallographic structures were proposed for new phases located close to DEJ. In the dentin zone, the variability of elemental profiles looks different, with

  8. Identification of Cha o 3 homolog Cry j 4 from Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) pollen: Limitation of the present Japanese cedar-specific ASIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yuki; Yamada, Akira; Sasaki, Eiji; Utsugi, Teruhiro

    2018-03-07

    About one-third of the Japanese population suffers from Japanese cedar pollinosis, which is frequently accompanied by Japanese cypress pollinosis. Recently, a novel major Japanese cypress pollen allergen, Cha o 3, was discovered. However, whether a Cha o 3 homolog is present in Japanese cedar pollen remains to be determined. Western blot analysis was performed using Cha o 3-specific antiserum. In addition, cloning of the gene encoding Cry j 4 was conducted using total cDNA from the male flower of Japanese cedar trees. Allergen potency and cross-reactivity were investigated using a T-cell proliferation assay, basophil activation test, and ImmunoCAP inhibition assay. A low amount of Cha o 3 homolog protein was detected in Japanese cedar pollen extract. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cry j 4 showed 84% identity to that of Cha o 3. Cross-reactivity between Cry j 4 and Cha o 3 was observed at the T cell and IgE levels. Cry j 4 was discovered as a counterpart allergen of Cha o 3 in Japanese cedar pollen, with a relationship similar to that between Cry j 1-Cha o 1 and Cry j 2-Cha o 2. Our findings also suggest that allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) using Japanese cedar pollen extract does not induce adequate immune tolerance to Cha o 3 due to the low amount of Cry j 4 in Japanese cedar pollen. Therefore, ASIT using Cha o 3 or cypress pollen extract coupled with Japanese cedar pollen extract is required in order to optimally control allergy symptoms during Japanese cypress pollen season. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of apatite silicates as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Sedeno, M.C.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Apatite-type silicates have been considered as promising electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC); however studies on the potential use of these materials in SOFC devices have received relatively little attention. The lanthanum silicate with composition La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75} has been evaluated as electrolyte with the electrode materials commonly used in SOFC, i.e. manganite, ferrite and cobaltite as cathode materials and NiO-CGO composite, chromium-manganite and Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as anode materials. Chemical compatibility, area-specific resistance and fuel cell studies have been performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis did not reveal any trace of reaction products between the apatite electrolyte and most of the aforementioned electrode materials. However, the area-specific polarisation resistance (ASR) of these electrodes in contact with apatite electrolyte increased significantly with the sintering temperature, indicating reactivity at the electrolyte/electrode interface. On the other hand, the ASR values are significantly improved using a ceria buffer layer between the electrolyte and electrode materials to prevent reactivity. Maximum power densities of 195 and 65 mWcm{sup -2} were obtained at 850 and 700 C, respectively in H{sub 2} fuel, using an 1 mm-thick electrolyte, a NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} composite as anode and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} as cathode materials. This fuel cell was tested for 100 h in 5%H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere showing stable performance. (author)

  10. H-Isotopic Composition of Apatite in Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Barnes, J. J.; Santos, A. R.; Boyce, J. W.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and its pairings comprise a regolith breccia with a basaltic bulk composition [1] that yields a better match than any other martian meteorite to estimates of Mars' bulk crust composition [1]. Given the similarities between NWA 7034 and the martian crust, NWA 7034 may represent an important sample for constraining the crustal composition of components that cannot be measured directly by remote sensing. In the present study, we seek to constrain the H isotopic composition of the martian crust using Cl-rich apatite in NWA 7034.

  11. Developing biogeochemical tracers of apatite weathering by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.; Meana-Prado, M. F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2012-12-01

    Chronic acid deposition has depleted calcium (Ca) from many New England forest soils, and intensive harvesting may reduce phosphorus (P) available to future rotations. Thin glacial till soils contain trace amounts of apatite, a primary calcium phosphate mineral, which may be an important long-term source of both P and Ca to ecosystems. The extent to which ECM fungi enhance the weathering rate of primary minerals in soil which contain growth-limiting nutrients remains poorly quantified, in part due to biogeochemical tracers which are subsequently masked by within-plant fractionation. Rare earth elements (REEs) and Pb isotope ratios show some potential for revealing differences in soil apatite weathering rates across forest stands and silvicultural treatments. To test the utility of these tracers, we grew birch seedlings semi-hydroponically under controlled P-limited conditions, supplemented with mesh bags containing granite chips. Our experimental design included nonmycorrhizal (NM) as well as ectomycorrhizal cultures (Cortinarius or Leccinum). Resulting mycorrhizal roots and leachates of granite chips were analyzed for these tracers. REE concentrations in roots were greatly elevated in treatments with granite relative to those without granite, demonstrating uptake of apatite weathering products. Roots with different mycorrhizal fungi accumulated similar concentrations of REEs and were generally elevated compared to the NM cultures. Ammonium chloride leaches of granite chips grown in contact with mycorrhizal hyphae show elevated REE concentrations and significantly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures relative to bulk rock, also supporting enhanced apatite dissolution. Our results in culture are consistent with data from field-collected sporocarps from hardwood stands in the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, in which Cortinarius sporocarp Pb isotope ratios were more radiogenic than those of other ectomycorrhizal sporocarps. Taken together, the experimental

  12. - Hydroxylated Anthraquinones Produced by Geosmithia species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stodůlková, Eva; Kolařík, Miroslav; Křesinová, Zdena; Kuzma, Marek; Šulc, Miroslav; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Landa, Přemysl; Olšovská, Jana; Chudíčková, Milada; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Černý, J.; Bella, J.; Flieger, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 179-187 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA MŠk LC07017; GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GP203/05/P575 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) 205/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : hydroxylated anthraquinones * staphylococcus aureus * mammalian cell lines Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  13. A likely planet-induced gap in the disc around T Cha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Nathanial P.; Pinilla, Paola; Pascucci, Ilaria; Pohl, Adriana; Mulders, Gijs; Henning, Thomas; Dong, Ruobing; Clarke, Cathie; Owen, James; Hollenbach, David

    2018-03-01

    We present high-resolution (0.11 × 0.06 arcsec2) 3 mm ALMA observations of the highly inclined transition disc around the star T Cha. Our continuum image reveals multiple dust structures: an inner disc, a spatially resolved dust gap, and an outer ring. When fitting sky-brightness models to the real component of the 3 mm visibilities, we infer that the inner emission is compact (≤1 au in radius), the gap width is between 18 and 28 au, and the emission from the outer ring peaks at ˜36 au. We compare our ALMA image with previously published 1.6 μm VLT/SPHERE imagery. This comparison reveals that the location of the outer ring is wavelength dependent. More specifically, the peak emission of the 3 mm ring is at a larger radial distance than that of the 1.6 μm ring, suggesting that millimeter-sized grains in the outer disc are located farther away from the central star than micron-sized grains. We discuss different scenarios to explain our findings, including dead zones, star-driven photoevaporation, and planet-disc interactions. We find that the most likely origin of the dust gap is from an embedded planet, and estimate - for a single planet scenario - that T Cha's gap is carved by a 1.2MJup planet.

  14. A gacS deletion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolate CHA shapes its virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khady Mayebine Sall

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human opportunistic pathogen, is capable of provoking acute and chronic infections that are associated with defined sets of virulence factors. During chronic infections, the bacterium accumulates mutations that silence some and activate other genes. Here we show that the cystic fibrosis isolate CHA exhibits a unique virulence phenotype featuring a mucoid morphology, an active Type III Secretion System (T3SS, hallmark of acute infections, and no Type VI Secretion System (H1-T6SS. This virulence profile is due to a 426 bp deletion in the 3' end of the gacS gene encoding an essential regulatory protein. The absence of GacS disturbs the Gac/Rsm pathway leading to depletion of the small regulatory RNAs RsmY/RsmZ and, in consequence, to expression of T3SS, while switching off the expression of H1-T6SS and Pel polysaccharides. The CHA isolate also exhibits full ability to swim and twitch, due to active flagellum and Type IVa pili. Thus, unlike the classical scheme of balance between virulence factors, clinical strains may adapt to a local niche by expressing both alginate exopolysaccharide, a hallmark of membrane stress that protects from antibiotic action, host defences and phagocytosis, and efficient T3S machinery that is considered as an aggressive virulence factor.

  15. Extracellular Protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a Biocontrol Factor with Activity against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocon...

  16. Extracellular Protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a Biocontrol Factor with Activity against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocontrol. PMID:16151170

  17. Period changes of cataclysmic variables below the period gap: V2051 Oph, OY Car and Z Cha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarčík, L.; Wolf, M.; Zasche, P.; Vraštil, J.

    2018-04-01

    We present our results of a long-term monitoring of cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). About 40 new eclipses were measured for the three southern SU UMa-type eclipsing CVs: V2051 Oph, OY Car and Z Cha. Based on the current O - C diagrams we confirmed earlier findings that V2051 Oph and OY Car present cyclic changes of their orbital periods lasting 25 and 29 years, respectively. In case of Z Cha we propose the light-time effect caused probably by a presence of the third component orbiting the eclipsing CV with the period of 43.5 years. The minimal mass of this companion results about 15 MJup.

  18. Pyrophosphate-Inhibition of Apatite Formation Studied by In Situ X-Ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Jon Steenberg Ibsen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The pathways to crystals are still under debate, especially for materials relevant to biomineralization, such as calcium phosphate apatite known from bone and teeth. Pyrophosphate is widely used in biology to control apatite formation since it is a potent inhibitor of apatite crystallization. The impacts of pyrophosphate on apatite formation and crystallization kinetics are, however, not fully understood. Therefore, we studied apatite crystallization in water by synchrotron in situ X-ray diffraction. Crystallization was conducted from calcium chloride (0.2 M and sodium phosphate (0.12 M at pH 12 where hydrogen phosphate is the dominant phosphate species and at 60 °C to allow the synchrotron measurements to be conducted in a timely fashion. Following the formation of an initial amorphous phase, needle shaped crystals formed that had an octacalcium phosphate-like composition, but were too small to display the full 3D periodic structure of octacalcium phosphate. At later growth stages the crystals became apatitic, as revealed by changes in the lattice constant and calcium content. Pyrophosphate strongly inhibited nucleation of apatite and increased the onset of crystallization from minute to hour time scales. Pyrophosphate also reduced the rate of growth. Furthermore, when the pyrophosphate concentration exceeded ~1% of the calcium concentration, the resultant crystals had reduced size anisotropy suggesting that pyrophosphate interacts in a site-specific manner with the formation of apatite crystals.

  19. U-Th-He dating of apatite: A potential thermochronometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, P.K.; Herczeg, A.L.; McDougall, I.; Honda, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors found a gem quality crystal of Durango fluorapatite to have a 4 He content consistent with complete retention of radiogenic helium since its formation at about 31 Ma. Isothermal heating and step-heating analysis reveal 4 He loss to occur systematically by volume diffusion at low temperatures. The linear, low-temperature portion of the diffusion data yields an activation energy of 38.5 ± 8.1 kcal/mol and a frequency factor of 1n (D 0 /a 2 ) = 16.4 ± 2.8 sec -1 , corresponding to a closure temperature of 105 degree C ± 30 degree C (cooling rate 10 degree C/m.y.). It appears that U-Th-He dating of apatite might represent a useful new thermochronometer with a range similar to that of fission-track dating of apatite. From these results, they infer that a number of the too-young U-Th-He dates reported in the literature on minerals such as zircon and magnetite may in fact represent valuable records of the low-temperature thermal history of their host rocks

  20. Phosphorous availability influences the dissolution of apatite by soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosling, A.; Suttle, K. B.; Johansson, E.; van Hees, P. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    We conducted mineral dissolution experiments using fungi isolated from a grassland soil in northern California to determine the response of fungi to different levels of phosphorus availability and to identify pathways of apatite dissolution by fungal exudates. Fluorapatite dissolution experiments were performed either with fungi present or under abiotic conditions using cell-free liquid media conditioned by fungal growth at different phosphorus and calcium availabilities. Among biogeochemically active soil fungal isolates apatite dissolution was either active in response to phosphorus limiting growth conditions or passive as a result of mycelial growth. Zygomycete isolates in the order of Mucorales acidify their growth media substrate in the presence of phosphorus, mainly through production of oxalic acid. Cell-free exudates induced fluorapatite dissolution at a rate of 10 -0.9 ± 0.14 and 10 -1.2 ± 0.22 mmol P/m2/s. The Ascomycete isolate, in the family Trichocomaceae, induced fluorapatite dissolution at a rate of 10 - 1.1 ± 0.05 mmol P/m2/s by lowering the pH of the media under phosphorus-limited conditions, without producing significant amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs). Oxalate strongly etches fluorapatite along channels parallel to [001], forming needle like features, while exudates from Trichocomaceae induced surface rounding. We conclude that while LMWOAs are well-studied weathering agents these does not appear to be produced by fungi in response to phosphorus limiting growth conditions.

  1. Apatite-brannerite-pitchblende association in hydrothermal quartz veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, B.V.; Mel'nikova, A.M.; Osipov, B.S.; Pavlov, E.G.

    1976-01-01

    A study into the vein quartz mineralization confined to the tectonic zones of crush and silicification in sedimentary-igneous rocks of the lower Paleozoic has been made. The physicochemical characteristics of minerals were studied by way of optical and electron microscopy, chemical, laser-microspectral and X-ray structural analyses, microprobing and alpha-microradiography. 3 mineral associations have been discriminated, representative of the sequence of hydrothermal mineralization. An unusual parogenesis of pitchblende and brannerite with apatite, xenotime and more recent goethite has been revealed. The results are indicative of a medium-low-temperature hydrothermal process occurring at the final stages of formation of uraniferrous quartz veins. By composition and mineralization sequence, the latters are close to low- and medium-temperature uranium-quartz-chlorite-hydromica formations with apatite, coffinite, brannerite and pitchblende. The weak initial metamictization of goethite in veins 80 to 100 million years old is due to the radioactive effect of the submicroscopic radioactive mineral impurity on the crystalline lattice

  2. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of a CHA-type AlPO4 Molecular Sieve with Penta-Coordinated Framework Aluminum Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Tae; Jo, Donghui; Ahn, Nak Ho; Cho, Jung; Hong, Suk Bong

    2017-07-17

    The structure-directing effects of a series of polymethylimidazolium cations with different numbers of methyl groups as organic structure-directing agents (OSDAs) in the synthesis of aluminophosphate (AlPO 4 )-based molecular sieves in both fluoride and hydroxide media are investigated. On the one hand, among the OSDAs studied here, the smallest 1,3-dimethylimidazolium and the largest 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylimidazolium cations were found to direct the synthesis of a new variant of the triclinic chabazite (CHA)-type AlPO 4 material, designated AlPO 4 -34(t) V , and the one-dimensional small-pore silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve STA-6 in hydroxide media, respectively. On the other hand, the intermediate-sized 1,2,3,4-tetramethylimidazolium cation gave SSZ-51, a two-dimensional large-pore SAPO material, in fluoride media. Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analyses reveal that as-made AlPO 4 -34(t) V contains penta-coordinated framework Al species connected by hydroxyl groups, as well as tetrahedral framework Al, which contrasts with the distortions arising from the two F - or OH - bridges between octahedral Al atoms in all already known AlPO 4 -34 materials. The presence of Al-OH-Al linkages in this triclinic AlPO 4 -34 molecular sieve has been further corroborated by thermal analysis, variable-temperature IR,27Al magic-angle spinning NMR, and dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations.

  3. The value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score for refining stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation with a CHADS2 score 0-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2012-01-01

    associated with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score was estimated in Cox regression models adjusted for year of inclusion and antiplatelet therapy. The value of adding the extra CHA2DS2-VASc risk factors to the CHADS2 score was evaluated by c-statistics, Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated......DS2-VASc score significantly improved the predictive value of the CHADS2 score alone and a CHA2DS2-VASc score=0 could clearly identify 'truly low risk' subjects. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc score would significantly improve classification of AF patients at low and intermediate risk of stroke, compared......North American and European guidelines on atrial fibrillation (AF) are conflicting regarding the classification of patients at low/intermediate risk of stroke. We aimed to investigate if the CHA2DS2-VASc score improved risk stratification of AF patients with a CHADS2 score of 0-1. Using individual...

  4. Hydrophobic agglomeration of apatite fines induced by sodium oleate in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingqiao Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the hydrophobic agglomeration of apatite fines induced by sodium oleate in aqueous solutions has been investigated through the measurement of agglomeration degree and fractal dimension. The results showed that the agglomeration degree of apatite fines and agglomerates morphology was strongly depended on sodium oleate concentration, pH, stirring speed and time. Better agglomeration degree and more regular agglomerates were achieved at sodium oleate concentration of 5 × 10−5 mol/L under neutral condition. The critical stirring speed for agglomerates rupture was 1000 rev/min, above which, prolonged stirring time would cause breakage and restructure of the agglomerates after a certain stirring time, resulting in lower agglomeration degree and more regular agglomerates. The agglomeration degree of apatite fines could be greatly enhanced with the addition of emulsified kerosene, but only if the apatite surface was hydrophobic enough. Keywords: Hydrophobic agglomeration, Apatite fines, Agglomeration degree, Fractal dimension, Sodium oleate

  5. Tooth apatite as a bone substitute: an experimental study and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Seok Kim; Pill-Hoon Choung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of calcined teeth powder as biological apatite. The animal experiment was performed in 36 rabbits aging 6 weeks and weighing 1.6 kg. In experimental group, tooth apatite powder was implanted to 10 mm bony defects in diameter made on the cranial bone of the rabbits. As control groups, synthetic porous hydroxyapatite and resorbable type calcium carbonate were implanted to the defects of same size. Each group was sacrificed in 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks after the surgery. Specimens were prepared for decalcified samples and observed by a light microscope. And we also performed quantitative analysis of new bone formation through image analysis using computer. In clinical applications, we used tooth apatite alone or mixed with decalcified freeze-dried bone for reconstruction of bony defects in 15 patients undergone enucleation of cyst or ameloblastoma. The obtained results were as follows; 1) The powder of the calcined teeth was called as 'tooth apatite' and it seemed to have biocompatibility in rabbits and human. 2) In group of tooth apatite, after 4 weeks of operation, new bone directly bonded to the particles was observed. And in 12 weeks of it, new bone occupied most of the bony defects. In 6 weeks, resorption of the tooth apatite particles was observed. Thus the tooth apatite was regarded as one of resorbable apatite. 3) The group of tooth apatite showed new bone formation similar to the group of porous hydroxyapatite, but they were inferior to the group of resorbable calcium carbonate. 4) In clinical application, tooth apatite had biocompatibility and new bone formation was observed without any complication except for 1 case. So we think it is a useful bone substitute with osteoconductivity

  6. AHP 24: A Multi-ethnic Village in Northeast Tibet - History, Ritual, and Daily Life in Chu cha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobs stag lha སྟོབས་སྟག་ལྷ།

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-ethnic Chu cha Village in Mchod rten thang Township, Dpa' ris Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu Province, China is described in terms of location; population; clothing; language; religion; history; and personal, family, and community rituals. Photographs provide additional information.

  7. Structurally bound sulfide and sulfate in apatite from the Philips Mine iron oxide - apatite deposit, New York, USA: A tracer of redox changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadove, G.; Konecke, B.; Fiege, A.; Simon, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple competing hypotheses attempt to explain the genesis of iron oxide-apatite (IOA) ore deposits. Many studies have investigated the chemistry of apatite because the abundances of F and Cl can distinguish magmatic vs. hydrothermal processes. Recent experiments demonstrate that apatite incorporates S6+, S4+, and S2-, and that total sulfur (∑S) as well as the S6+/∑S ratio in apatite vary systematically as a function of oxygen fugacity [1], providing information about sulfur budget and redox. Here, we present results from X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the S K-edge, electron microprobe analyses, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, and element mapping of apatite from the Philip's Mine IOA deposit, southern Adirondack Mountains, USA. The Philip's Mine apatite contains inclusions of pyrite and pyrrhotite, where the latter includes iron oxide and Ni-rich domains. The apatite also contains inclusions of monazite, and exhibits complex CL zonation coincident with variations in the abundances of REE and S. The presence of monazite fingerprints fluid-mediated dissolution-reprecipitation of originally REE-enriched apatite [2]. The S XANES spectra reveal varying proportions of structurally bound S6+ and S2-, as the S6+/∑S ratio ranges from sulfide-only to sulfate-only. Notably, sulfide-dominated domains contain higher S contents than sulfate-dominated regions. These observations are consistent with co-crystallization of apatite and monosulfide solid solution (MSS) at reducing conditions, followed by decomposition of MSS to pyrrhotite, pyrite and intermediate solid solution (ISS, which is not preserved; [3]). Metasomatism of that assemblage by an oxidized fluid resulted in formation of monazite in apatite and iron oxide domains in pyrrhotite. We conclude that the deposit formed by a H2S-Fe-rich volatile phase, possibly evolved from a rather primitive magmatic source, which is consistent with the low Ti content of magnetite. The deposit was

  8. Understanding the evolution of S- and I-type granitic plutons through analysis of apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B. L.; Fiege, A.; Tailby, N.

    2017-12-01

    The major and trace element composition of apatites from the Lachlan fold belt (LFB) S- and I-type granitoids (Australia) and the Central French Massif (CFM) S-type leucogranites (France) were analyzed to investigate their compositional and redox variation. Apatite is a common accessory mineral in magmatic systems that can incorporate a variety of trace elements, including the polyvalent elements sulfur (S), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). It was recently discovered that apatite can incorporate three oxidation states of S (S6+, S4+, S2-) into its structure as a function of oxygen fugacity [1]. However, the oxidation states of Mn and Fe in apatite are essentially unknown (2+ and/or 3+). In this study, we collected many electron probe line transects across apatites in several different host phases from a variety of S- and I-type plutons. The F-H-Cl contents of the S- and I-type LFB samples were similar ( 2.9 wt% F, 0.4 wt% Cl, 0.5 wt% OH). The CFM S-types contained virtually no Cl and ranged from near-endmember OH-apatite to near-endmember F-apatite. The apatites of all studied the S- and I-type plutons are characterized by similar ranges of Fe content (X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The spectra show variability in S oxidation states ranging from mostly sulfate down to nearly equal S6+/S2- ratios, indicating redox variations during apatite formation. The S-type Mn + Fe content plots in a 1:1 ratio against calcium (Ca) in atoms per formula unit, while the I-type apatites have too low Mn and Fe to show a clear trend. Thus, divalent Mn and Fe probably replace Ca2+ in the S-types' apatite structure, while the incorporation of trivalent Mn or Fe in apatite is rather unlikely. We suggest that Mn and Fe contents in apatite may become a useful tracer of melt evolution once the distributions coefficients are experimentally calibrated. [1] Konecke et al. (2017), Am Mineral

  9. Biomimetic magnesium–carbonate-apatite nanocrystals endowed with strontium ions as anti-osteoporotic trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iafisco, Michele, E-mail: michele.iafisco@istec.cnr.it; Ruffini, Andrea; Adamiano, Alessio; Sprio, Simone; Tampieri, Anna

    2014-02-01

    The present work investigates the preparation of biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites co-substituted with Mg, CO{sub 3} and Sr to be used as starting materials for the development of nanostructured bio-devices for regeneration of osteoporotic bone. Biological-like amounts of Mg and CO{sub 3} ions were inserted in the apatite structure to mimic the composition of bone apatite, whereas the addition of increasing quantities of Sr ions, from 0 up to 12 wt.%, as anti-osteoporotic agent, was evaluated. The chemical–physical features, the morphology, the degradation rates, the ion release kinetics as well as the in vitro bioactivity of the as-prepared apatites were fully evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of 12 wt.% of Sr can be viewed as a threshold for the structural stability of Mg–CO{sub 3}-apatite. Indeed, incorporation of lower quantity of Sr did not induce considerable variations in the chemical structure of Mg–CO{sub 3}-apatite, while when the Sr doping extent reached 12 wt.%, a dramatically destabilizing effect was detected on the crystal structure thus yielding alteration of the symmetry and distortion of the PO{sub 4}. As a consequence, this apatite exhibited the fastest degradation kinetic and the highest amount of Sr ions released when tested in physiological conditions. In this respect, the surface crystallization of new calcium phosphate phase when immersed in physiological-like solution occurred by different mechanisms and extents due to the different structural chemistry of the variously doped apatites. Nevertheless, all the apatites synthesized in this work exhibited in vitro bioactivity demonstrating their potential use to develop biomedical devices with anti-osteoporotic functionality. - Highlights: • Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites co-substituted with Mg, CO{sub 3} and Sr were prepared. • Biological-like amounts of Mg and CO{sub 3} were inserted to mimic the composition of bone apatite. • The addition of increasing

  10. Biomimetic magnesium–carbonate-apatite nanocrystals endowed with strontium ions as anti-osteoporotic trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iafisco, Michele; Ruffini, Andrea; Adamiano, Alessio; Sprio, Simone; Tampieri, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates the preparation of biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites co-substituted with Mg, CO 3 and Sr to be used as starting materials for the development of nanostructured bio-devices for regeneration of osteoporotic bone. Biological-like amounts of Mg and CO 3 ions were inserted in the apatite structure to mimic the composition of bone apatite, whereas the addition of increasing quantities of Sr ions, from 0 up to 12 wt.%, as anti-osteoporotic agent, was evaluated. The chemical–physical features, the morphology, the degradation rates, the ion release kinetics as well as the in vitro bioactivity of the as-prepared apatites were fully evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of 12 wt.% of Sr can be viewed as a threshold for the structural stability of Mg–CO 3 -apatite. Indeed, incorporation of lower quantity of Sr did not induce considerable variations in the chemical structure of Mg–CO 3 -apatite, while when the Sr doping extent reached 12 wt.%, a dramatically destabilizing effect was detected on the crystal structure thus yielding alteration of the symmetry and distortion of the PO 4 . As a consequence, this apatite exhibited the fastest degradation kinetic and the highest amount of Sr ions released when tested in physiological conditions. In this respect, the surface crystallization of new calcium phosphate phase when immersed in physiological-like solution occurred by different mechanisms and extents due to the different structural chemistry of the variously doped apatites. Nevertheless, all the apatites synthesized in this work exhibited in vitro bioactivity demonstrating their potential use to develop biomedical devices with anti-osteoporotic functionality. - Highlights: • Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites co-substituted with Mg, CO 3 and Sr were prepared. • Biological-like amounts of Mg and CO 3 were inserted to mimic the composition of bone apatite. • The addition of increasing quantities of Sr (from 0 to 12

  11. High-speed photometry of the dwarf nova Z Cha in quiescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Janet; Horne, Keith; Berriman, Graham; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Warner, Brian

    1986-01-01

    High-speed white light photometry of the cataclysmic variable star Z Cha is used to study the structure of the system and to derive the properties of its components. The white dwarf and bright spot eclipse timings require a mass ratio, q=Msub(R)/Msub(WD) of 0.146 0 .9>i>81 0 .6. The infalling stream passes through the light centre of the bright spot. If the central luminous object is the white dwarf its mass is 0.54+-0.01 Msolar mass which corresponds to a secondary star mass of 0.081+-0.003 Msolar mass. Agreement between colour and brightness temperatures for the white dwarf and bright spot provide a rough confirmation of the 97 pc distance. (author)

  12. Optimization of CHA-PCFC Hybrid Material for the Removal of Radioactive Cs from Waste Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Jimin; Park, Minsung; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The liquid waste treatment processes in the normal operation of nuclear power plant are commercialized, those in the abnormal accidents have not been fully developed until now. In the present study, as a preliminary research for the development of precipitation-based treatment process specialized for the removal of Cs from waste seawater generated in the emergency case, the performance test of a hybrid material combining chabazite and potassium cobalt ferrocyanide was conducted. Also the synthesis method for the hybrid adsorbent was optimized for the best Cs removal efficiency on the actual contamination level of waste seawater. Because the temperature effect on the synthesis of PCFC was confirmed by preliminary experiments, the optimization of CHA-PCFC synthesis was also conducted. The hybrid material synthesized at 40 .deg. C showed the highest distribution coefficient of Cs in the same manner of the performance of PCFC synthesized at the lower temperature than that of conventional methods.

  13. A note on frequency distributions of fission tracks in apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Z.; Lerche, I.

    1989-01-01

    Two different formulae, both purportedly describing track length reduction in apatite, are converted to forms useful in prediction of track length distributions along sedimentary burial history paths. Using the formalism, track length distribution data from four NW Canning Basin wells are inverted to determine the physical (chemical) parameters associated with the models as well as the heat flux variation with time. For each formula the resulting physical parameters are consistent among the wells tested but differ from laboratory-derived parameter values, and the thermal histories are consistent with those inferred from geological data. Comparison of the two models shows no evidence that one model should be favored over the other based on the data available. It is also shown that the resolution of the parameters is dependent not only on the quantity of the data but also on the ''quality'' -explicitly upon the variation and distribution with depth. (author)

  14. The shape of ion tracks in natural apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauries, D.; Afra, B.; Bierschenk, T.; Lang, M.; Rodriguez, M. D.; Trautmann, C.; Li, W.; Ewing, R. C.; Kluth, P.

    2014-05-01

    Small angle X-ray scattering measurements were performed on natural apatite of different thickness irradiated with 2.2 GeV Au swift heavy ions. The evolution of the track radius along the full ion track length was estimated by considering the electronic energy loss and the velocity of the ions. The shape of the track is nearly cylindrical, slightly widening with a maximum diameter approximately 30 μm before the ions come to rest, followed by a rapid narrowing towards the end within a cigar-like contour. Measurements of average ion track radii in samples of different thicknesses, i.e. containing different sections of the tracks are in good agreement with the shape estimate.

  15. The shape of ion tracks in natural apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauries, D.; Afra, B.; Bierschenk, T.; Lang, M.; Rodriguez, M.D.; Trautmann, C.; Li, W.; Ewing, R.C.; Kluth, P.

    2014-01-01

    Small angle X-ray scattering measurements were performed on natural apatite of different thickness irradiated with 2.2 GeV Au swift heavy ions. The evolution of the track radius along the full ion track length was estimated by considering the electronic energy loss and the velocity of the ions. The shape of the track is nearly cylindrical, slightly widening with a maximum diameter approximately 30 μm before the ions come to rest, followed by a rapid narrowing towards the end within a cigar-like contour. Measurements of average ion track radii in samples of different thicknesses, i.e. containing different sections of the tracks are in good agreement with the shape estimate

  16. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  17. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications. (paper)

  18. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E.; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications.

  19. Single-crystal apatite nanowires sheathed in graphitic shells: synthesis, characterization, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Namjo; Cha, Misun; Park, Yun Chang; Lee, Kyung Mee; Lee, Jae Hyup; Park, Byong Chon; Lee, Junghoon

    2013-07-23

    Vertically aligned one-dimensional hybrid structures, which are composed of apatite and graphitic structures, can be beneficial for orthopedic applications. However, they are difficult to generate using the current method. Here, we report the first synthesis of a single-crystal apatite nanowire encapsulated in graphitic shells by a one-step chemical vapor deposition. Incipient nucleation of apatite and its subsequent transformation to an oriented crystal are directed by derived gaseous phosphorine. Longitudinal growth of the oriented apatite crystal is achieved by a vapor-solid growth mechanism, whereas lateral growth is suppressed by the graphitic layers formed through arrangement of the derived aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. We show that this unusual combination of the apatite crystal and the graphitic shells can lead to an excellent osteogenic differentiation and bony fusion through a programmed smart behavior. For instance, the graphitic shells are degraded after the initial cell growth promoted by the graphitic nanostructures, and the cells continue proliferation on the bare apatite nanowires. Furthermore, a bending experiment indicates that such core-shell nanowires exhibited a superior bending stiffness compared to single-crystal apatite nanowires without graphitic shells. The results suggest a new strategy and direction for bone grafting materials with a highly controllable morphology and material conditions that can best stimulate bone cell differentiation and growth.

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical studies on apatites and phosphate host rocks of Esfordi deposit, Yazd province, to determine the origin and geological setting of the apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron-apatite ore deposits well known as Kiruna iron type formed in association with calc-alkaline volcanism from Proterozoic to Tertiary (Hitzman et al., 1992. Liquid immiscibility in an igneous system was proposed to explain the formation of the iron oxides accompanying apatite in mineralized zones (Förster and Jafarzadeh, 1994; Daliran, 1999. The mode of ore formation however, is a matter in debate. Bafq region in Central Iran is one of the greatest iron mining regions in Iran with 750 million tons of reservoir. The majority of the iron deposits contains apatite as minor mineral and underwent metamorphism-alteration in varying degrees. The mode of formation and geological setting of Esfordi iron-apatite deposit in this region with an average of 13.9 wt% apatite are discussed using geochemical and mineralogical data along with field description. Materials and methods Fifty-three samples of mineralized zones and host rocks collected from 7 cross sections were studied by conventional microscopic methods. Seven representative samples were determined by XRD at Department of Physics, Shiraz University. Fifteen and six samples were also analyzed for major and trace elements using XRF at Binaloud Co. Iran, and ICP-MS at Labwest Minerals Analysis, Australia, respectively. Microprobe analyses were carried out on apatite in Geo Forschungs Zentrum Telegrafenberg at Potsdam University, Germany. Results Field observation shows that igneous host rocks in Esfordi were intensively altered by hydrothermal fluids. The ores are surrounded by wide altered halos. Petrographic investigation indicated that the most important alterations are of potassic, carbonatitic and silicification types. Magnetite and apatite occur as major minerals, accompanied by minor hematite and goethite in the mineralized zones. Rare Earth Element (REE minerals are present as minor phases in the ores. Three apatite mineralization types (vein, massive, and disseminated were

  1. Fission-track dating of apatite from deep borehole ATK-1 at Atikokan, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeser, C.W.; Crowley, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    Fission-track age and lengths have been determined on apatite separated from core recovered from the ATK-1 deep borehole at Atikokan, Ontario. The apatite ages decrease down the borehole, from 515 ± 72 Ma at the top to 376 ± 46 Ma at a depth of 993 m. The mean confined track length for fossil fission tracks in the apatite is 12.4 μm. Within the limits of the measurement the track lengths are the same for all the samples. The results of this study indicate that the rocks found currently at the surface have never been heated above ∼100C since Upper Cambrian time

  2. Rare Earth Element Behaviour in Apatite from the Olympic Dam Cu–U–Au–Ag Deposit, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Krneta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apatite is a common magmatic accessory in the intrusive rocks hosting the giant ~1590 Ma Olympic Dam (OD iron-oxide copper gold (IOCG ore system, South Australia. Moreover, hydrothermal apatite is a locally abundant mineral throughout the altered and mineralized rocks within and enclosing the deposit. Based on compositional data for zoned apatite, we evaluate whether changes in the morphology and the rare earth element and Y (REY chemistry of apatite can be used to constrain the fluid evolution from early to late hydrothermal stages at OD. The ~1.6 Ga Roxby Downs granite (RDG, host to the OD deposit, contains apatite as a magmatic accessory, locally in the high concentrations associated with mafic enclaves. Magmatic apatite commonly contains REY-poor cores and REY-enriched margins. The cores display a light rare earth element (LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized fractionation pattern with a strong negative Eu anomaly. In contrast, later hydrothermal apatite, confined to samples where magmatic apatite has been obliterated due to advanced hematite-sericite alteration, displays a conspicuous, convex, middle rare earth element (MREE-enriched pattern with a weak negative Eu anomaly. Such grains contain abundant inclusions of florencite and sericite. Within high-grade bornite ores from the deposit, apatite displays an extremely highly MREE-enriched chondrite-normalized fractionation trend with a positive Eu anomaly. Concentrations of U and Th in apatite mimic the behaviour of ∑REY and are richest in magmatic apatite hosted by RDG and the hydrothermal rims surrounding them. The shift from characteristic LREE-enriched magmatic and early hydrothermal apatite to later hydrothermal apatite displaying marked MREE-enriched trends (with lower U, Th, Pb and ∑REY concentrations reflects the magmatic to hydrothermal transition. Additionally, the strong positive Eu anomaly in the MREE-enriched trends of apatite in high-grade bornite ores are attributable to

  3. Bioceramics of apatites: an option for bone regeneration; Bioceramica de apatitas: uma opcao para regeneracao ossea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arxer, Eliana Alves; Almeida Filho, Edson de; Guastaldi, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: iarxer@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The bioceramics of calcium phosphate called apatite, are widely used as material for bone replacement and regeneration, due to its similarity to the mineral component of bones and teeth. The apatites are biocompatible, bioactive and integrate with living tissue by the same active process of physiological bone remodeling. These bioceramics may be used in medical, dental and orthopedic applications. In this research, it was used the wet method for the synthesis of the powder and biomimetic method for coating the surface. The Solubility study was performed in the layer deposited, apatite, for possible application as a platform for inorganic drug delivery. The bioceramics were characterized by MEV, DRX, and EDS. The curves of solubility of apatite in coatings showed that the OCP phase had a higher rate of release in the short term (4 days) while the HA phase showed a gradual release throughout the experiment (16 days). (author)

  4. Physico-chemical and thermochemical studies of the hydrolytic conversion of amorphous tricalcium phosphate into apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somrani, Saida; Banu, Mihai; Jemal, Mohamed; Rey, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The conversion of amorphous tricalcium phosphate with different hydration ratio into apatite in water at 25 deg. C has been studied by microcalorimetry and several physical-chemical methods. The hydrolytic transformation was dominated by two strong exothermic events. A fast, relatively weak, wetting process and a very slow but strong heat release assigned to a slow internal rehydration and the crystallization of the amorphous phase into an apatite. The exothermic phenomenon related to the rehydration exceeded the crystalline transformation enthalpy. Rehydration occurred before the conversion of the amorphous phase into apatite and determined the advancement of the hydrolytic reaction. The apatitic phases formed evolved slightly with time after their formation. The crystallinity increased whereas the amount of HPO 4 2- ion decreased. These data allow a better understanding of the behavior of biomaterials involving amorphous phases such as hydroxyapatite plasma-sprayed coatings

  5. Compression and rupture cycles as tools for compressibility characterization application to apatitic calcium phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontier, C. [S.P.C.T.S., Faculte des Sciences, Limoges (France); G.E.F., Faculte de Pharmacie, Limoges (France); Viana, M.; Chulia, D. [G.E.F., Faculte de Pharmacie, Limoges (France); Champion, E.; Bernache-Assollant, D. [S.P.C.T.S., Faculte des Sciences, Limoges (France)

    2002-07-01

    Measurement of the cycles of compression and rupture helps to understand the phenomena occurring during compaction. Different parameters are deduced from the cycles, such as the packing of the material and energies used during compression. The ratio between the energy of rupture and the energy of compaction defines the efficacy of compaction of the materials. This technique is applied to ceramic materials using apatitic calcium phosphates with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5 (apatitic tricalcium phosphate and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate) and 1.667 (stoichiometric hydroxyapatite). The methodology uses a uniaxial instrumented press to plot the cycles of compaction and rupture. The results point out the good compaction and cohesion properties of apatitic tricalcium phosphate, compared to the other apatitic materials. (orig.)

  6. Improvement of RVNRL film properties by adding fumed silica and hydroxy apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adul Thiangchanya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding fumed silica and hydroxy apatite to Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL for improving tear strength, aging properties, degradability and water-soluble protein content of rubber films has been investigated. The addition of fumed silica and hydroxy apatite in RVNRL improves tear strength and aging properties of rubber films, whereas tensile strength and degradability of rubber films were unchanged during storage at room temperature. The water-soluble protein content in rubber films was reduced by immobilization of the fumed silica and hydroxy apatite and enhanced by addition of ZnO. This may reduce allergy problems of natural rubber latex products caused by water-soluble protein. The MST of the RVNRL with fumed silica and hydroxy apatite indicated that the latex must be used within two months after mixing because of its stability.

  7. Geochemistry and genesis of apatite bearing Fe oxide Dizdaj deposit, SE Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Nabatian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorkheh-Dizaj apatite-iron oxide deposit is located 32 km southeast of Zanjan. The area is situated within the Tarom subzone of Western Alborz-Azarbaijan structural zone. The oldest units at the Sorkheh-Dizaj area are Eocene trachyte, trachyandesite, olivine basalt and volcanoclastic brecciate tuff and lapilli tuff which intruded by a quartz-monzonite, monzonite and granite subvolcanic pluton of Upper Eocene- Early Oligocene age. Subvolcanic plutonic rocks in the area show characteristics of the I-type granites. Magmatism of the area is of synorogenic to postorogenic related to magmatic arc environments. Mineralization at the area is divided into three main zones (A, B and C that all of which are located in the host subvolcanic pluton. These three zones are similar in terms of host rock, mineralogy, alteration, structure, texture and metal content. Mineralization in the volcanic rocks occurs as veins similar to those in three main zones, but less abundant. Geometry of the ore bodies is of vein type and their textures are stockwork, massive, banded, brecciate and vein-veinlet. The most important minerals at Sorkheh-Dizaj deposit are magnetite (low Ti and apatite that associated with them minor sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite, bornite and pyrite. Minerals such as ilmenite, spinel (titanium magnetite, galena and sphalerite occur in low contents. The supergene minerals like chalcocite, malachite, azurite, covellite, hematite and goethite have been formed due to weathering and supergene processes. The main alterations at the deposit are K-feldspar metasomatism, actinolitization, argillic, sericitization, silicification, tourmalinization, and chlorite-epidotic. Rare earth elements (REE studies demonstrate that the deposit is more enriched in LREE than in HREE. The REE patterns in the apatite, magnetite and host rocks are similar suggesting a magmatic relationship. The REE contents of the apatites are higher than those of the host rocks and

  8. Crystal growth of carbonate apatite using a CaCO3 flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Y; Tanaka, J

    1999-09-01

    Single crystals of carbonate apatite were grown using a CaCO3 flux under an Ar gas pressure of 55 MPa. The crystals obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Electron probe microanalyses and thermal analyses were performed. CO3 ions in planar triangle form replaced both OH sites and PO4 tetrahedral sites in the apatite structure: in particular, the OH sites were perfectly substituted by CO3 ions using this method.

  9. Fluoride enhances transfection activity of carbonate apatite by increasing cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA is enhanced by fluoride incorporation into carbonate apatite carrier. → Fluoridated carbonate apatite promotes a robust increase in transgene expression. → Controlled dissolution of fluoridated carbonate apatite in endosomal acidic environment might buffer the endosomes and prevent degradation of the released DNA. -- Abstract: Intracellular delivery of a functional gene or a nucleic acid sequence to specifically knockdown a harmful gene is a potential approach to precisely treat a critical human disease. The intensive efforts in the last few decades led to the development of a number of viral and non-viral synthetic vectors. However, an ideal delivery tool in terms of the safety and efficacy has yet to be established. Recently, we have developed pH-sensing inorganic nanocrystals of carbonate apatite for efficient and cell-targeted delivery of gene and gene-silencing RNA. Here we show that addition of very low level of fluoride to the particle-forming medium facilitates a robust increase in transgene expression following post-incubation of the particles with HeLa cells. Confocal microscopic observation and Southern blotting prove the cytoplasmic existence of plasmid DNA delivered by likely formed fluoridated carbonate apatite particles while degradation of plasmid DNA presumably by cytoplasmic nucleases was noticed following delivery with apatite particles alone. The beneficial role of fluoride in enhancing carbonate apatite-mediated gene expression might be due to the buffering potential of generated fluoridated apatite in endosomal acidic environment, thereby increasing the half-life of delivered plasmid DNA.

  10. Fission track ages and uranium concentration of apatites of different rocks of South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nand Lal; Nagpaul, K.K.; Nagpal, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    The uranium concentration and ages of apatite grains of various rocks of South India have been measured by fission track technique. The ages range from 100 m.y. to 730 m.y. whereas uranium concentrations vary from 0.5 to 23.8 atom/million atoms of the apatite mineral. The ages agree well with the Deccan volcanic and Ocean Cycle activities. (author)

  11. Fluoride enhances transfection activity of carbonate apatite by increasing cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, E.H., E-mail: md.ezharul.hoque@med.monash.edu.my [Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Cytoplasmic stability of plasmid DNA is enhanced by fluoride incorporation into carbonate apatite carrier. {yields} Fluoridated carbonate apatite promotes a robust increase in transgene expression. {yields} Controlled dissolution of fluoridated carbonate apatite in endosomal acidic environment might buffer the endosomes and prevent degradation of the released DNA. -- Abstract: Intracellular delivery of a functional gene or a nucleic acid sequence to specifically knockdown a harmful gene is a potential approach to precisely treat a critical human disease. The intensive efforts in the last few decades led to the development of a number of viral and non-viral synthetic vectors. However, an ideal delivery tool in terms of the safety and efficacy has yet to be established. Recently, we have developed pH-sensing inorganic nanocrystals of carbonate apatite for efficient and cell-targeted delivery of gene and gene-silencing RNA. Here we show that addition of very low level of fluoride to the particle-forming medium facilitates a robust increase in transgene expression following post-incubation of the particles with HeLa cells. Confocal microscopic observation and Southern blotting prove the cytoplasmic existence of plasmid DNA delivered by likely formed fluoridated carbonate apatite particles while degradation of plasmid DNA presumably by cytoplasmic nucleases was noticed following delivery with apatite particles alone. The beneficial role of fluoride in enhancing carbonate apatite-mediated gene expression might be due to the buffering potential of generated fluoridated apatite in endosomal acidic environment, thereby increasing the half-life of delivered plasmid DNA.

  12. CHA2DS2-VASc score and risk of thromboembolism and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation and recent cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Maria; Carlson, Nicholas; Fosbøl, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Background Cancer may influence the risk of thromboembolism and bleeding associated with the CHA2DS2-VASc score. We examined the risk of thromboembolism and bleeding associated with the CHA2DS2-VASc score in atrial fibrillation patients with and without recent cancer. Methods and results Using...... nationwide registers all patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation from 2000 to 2015 and not on oral anticoagulation or heparin therapy were included and followed for 2 years. Recent cancer was defined by a cancer diagnosis 5 years or fewer earlier. Risks of thromboembolism and bleeding were estimated...... in cumulative incidence curves and Cox regression models. We included 122,053 patients with incident atrial fibrillation, 12,014 (10%) had recent cancer. The 2-year cumulative incidence of thromboembolism and bleeding in patients with versus without recent cancer was 1.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0...

  13. Hydroxyl free radical production during torsional phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Steven D; Hebdon, Thomas; Humbert, Jordan; Dimalanta, Ramon

    2010-12-01

    To quantitate free radical generation during phacoemulsification using an ultrasonic phacoemulsification device that includes a torsional mode and evaluate tip designs specific to the torsional mode. Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Experiments were performed using the Infiniti Vision System and OZil handpiece. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the aspirated irrigation solution during torsional phacoemulsification were quantitated as nanomolar malondialdehyde (nM MDA) and determined spectrophotometrically using the deoxyribose assay. The mean free radical production during phacoemulsification with torsional modality at 100% amplitude was 30.1 nM MDA ± 5.1 (SD) using a 0.9 mm 45-degree Kelman tapered ABS tip. With other tip designs intended for use with the torsional modality, free radical production was further reduced when fitted with the 0.9 mm 45-degree Kelman mini-flared ABS tip (13.2 ± 5.6 nM MDA) or the 0.9 mm 45-degree OZil-12 mini-flared ABS tip (14.3 ± 6.7 nM MDA). Although the measurements resulting from the use of the latter 2 tips were not statistically significantly different (P ≈ .25), they were different from those of the tapered tip (P<.0001). The MDA concentration in the aspirated irrigation solution using the torsional modality was approximately one half that reported for the handpiece's longitudinal modality in a previous study using the same bent-tip design (Kelman tapered, P<.0001). The level of MDA was further reduced approximately one half with torsional-specific tips. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant AlkB enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-11-13

    AlkB from Pseudomonas putida was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small chain alkanes. Mutant AlkB-BMO1 hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. Mutant AlkB-BMO2 similarly hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. These biocatalysts are highly active for small chain alkane substrates and their regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  15. Predictive Value of CHA2DS2-VASC Score for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtul, Alparslan; Yarlioglues, Mikail; Duran, Mustafa

    2017-03-15

    The CHA2DS2-VASC score, used for embolic risk stratification in atrial fibrillation (AF), has been reported recently to predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), regardless of having AF. We investigated the correlation between the CHA2DS2-VASC score and contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with ACS who underwent urgent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 1,408 patients were enrolled in the study. The CHA2DS2-VASC score was calculated for each patient. Based on the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the study population was divided into 2 groups: CHA2DS2-VASC score ≤3 group (n = 944) and CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥4 group (n = 464). Patients were then reallocated to 2 groups according to the presence or absence of CIN. CIN was defined as a rise in serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dl or >25% increase in baseline within 72 hours after PCI. Overall, 159 cases (11.3%) of CIN were diagnosed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed good diagnostic value of CHA2DS2-VASC score in predicting CIN (area under the curve 0.769, 95% confidence interval 0.733 to 0.805; p high score had a higher frequency of CIN (23.9% vs 5.1%; p <0.001), and multivariate analysis identified the CHA2DS2-VASC score of ≥4 as an independent predictor of CIN. In conclusion, CHA2DS2-VASC score can be used as a new, simple, and reliable tool to predict CIN in patients with ACS who underwent urgent PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of CHADS2 and CHA 2DS 2-VASc scores in obstructive sleep apnea patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Filip M; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Platek, Anna E; Hrynkiewicz-Szymanska, Anna; Karpinski, Grzegorz; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of stroke risk and implementation of appropriate antithrombotic therapy is an important issue in atrial fibrillation patients. Current risk scores do not take into consideration the comorbidities associated with elevated thromboembolic like obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of the study was to establish whether atrial fibrillation patients with coexisting OSA have higher stroke risk according to CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Two hundred fifty-four consecutive patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation participated in the study. All patients underwent whole night polygraphy and were scored in both CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc according to their medical records or de novo diagnosis. The study population was predominantly male (65.4%; mean age, 57.5 ± 10.0 years) with a high prevalence of hypertension (73.6%), dyslipidemia (63.4%), and obesity (42.9%). OSA was present in 47.6% of patients, who more often had history of stroke (p = 0.0007). Stroke risk profile assessed by both CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores was higher in patients with OSA (1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.8 ± 0.6; p vs. 1.5 ± 1.1; p = 0.001) than without it. Differences in the stroke risk remained significant across different age strata, and the trend for point values in CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores rose along with OSA severity according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; p for trend stroke prediction models.

  17. Evaluation of Plasma Spray hydroxy Apatite Coatings on Metallic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, S.; Mitsul, K.; Kasahara, M.; Sawal, R.; Izawa, S.; Nakayama, M.; Itoi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Biocompatible Hydroxy apatite (HAp) coatings on metallic substrate by plasma spray techniques have been developed. Long-term credibility of plasma spray HAp coatings has been evaluated in physiological saline by electrochemical measurements. It was found that the corrosion resistance of SUS316L based HAp/Ti combined coatings was excellent even after more than 10 weeks long-term immersion. It was shown that postal heat treatment improved both the crystallinity and corrosion resistance of HAp. By lowering cooling rate during heat treatment process, less cracks produced in HAp coating layer, which lead to higher credibility of HAp during immersion in physiological saline. The ICP results showed that the dissolution level of substrate metallic ions was low and HAp coatings produced in this research can be acceptable as biocompatible materials. Also, the concentration of dissolved ions from HAp coatings with postal heat treatment was lower compared to those from samples without postal heat treatment. The adherence of HAp coatings with Ti substrate and other mechanical properties were also assessed by three-point bending test. The poor adhesion of HAp coating to titanium substrate can be improved by introducing a plasma spray titanium intermediate layer

  18. Incorporation of iodine into calcium phosphates with apatitic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the release of 129 I (long-lived intermediate-level waste) in the environment, we describe a novel material incorporating iodine under the form of iodate in a calcium phosphate based hydroxyapatite. This material is prepared by two synthetic processes: a wet precipitation route followed by a spark plasma sintering and a cementitious route. A high iodine content (with a maximum incorporation rate of 10 wt.%) is reached for both processes, by incorporation of the iodate in the apatitic structure. A monolith with relative density of 88.6% was obtained after shaping of the precipitated powders by spark plasma sintering. This material reveals satisfactory leaching properties, with an initial leaching rate in pure water at 50 C of 10 -2 g.m -2 .j -1 , and a residual leaching rate at 50 C of 10 -5 g.m -2 .j -1 in underground water of potential geological repositories. All in all, this material is a potential candidate for the conditioning of radioactive iodine. (author) [fr

  19. Lanthanum germanate-based apatites as electrolyte for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D.; Diaz-Carrasco, P.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Germanate apatites with composition La{sub 10-x}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75-3x/2} have been evaluated for the first time as possible electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Different electrode materials have been considered in this study, i.e. manganite, ferrite, nickelates and cobaltite as cathode materials; and NiO-CGO composite and chromium-manganite as anodes. The chemical compatibility and electrochemical performance of these electrodes with La{sub 9.8}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.45} have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRPD analysis did not reveal appreciable bulk reactivity with the formation of reaction products between the germanate electrolyte and these electrodes up to 1,200 C. However, a significant cation interdiffusion was observed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which leads to a significant decrease of the performance of these electrodes. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. CORRELATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHA RACTERISTICS STUDENTS WITH SUCCESS IN PERFORMAnCE OF FOLK DANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Nožinović Mujanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available On the sam ple of 121stu dent from se cond and third gra de of Fa culty of physi cal edu ca tion and sport, is be ing me a su red by using 20 va ri a bles of morp ho lo gi cal cha racte ri stics and 4 va ri a bles for esti ma tion of the suc cess in per for ming the folk dan ces, with the aim to de ter mi ne the ir con nec tion to the re sults of the esti ma ted va lue from the practi cal part of Folk dan ce lec tu ring. Ba sed on pre sen ted re sults, by ca no nic cor re la tion analysis in ma ni fe sted spa ce, ma jor part of pre dic tion gro up is in vol ved in va ri a bi lity of suc cess of cri te ria va ri a ble what con fi rms one im por tant ca no nic par of fac tors (Ca noni cal R .40.

  1. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) using REE geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Zadeh, Ghader Hossein; Emami, Mohamad Hashem

    2013-06-01

    Rare earth elements in apatites of different ore types show characteristic patterns which are related to different modes of formation of the ores. Most of the apatite-bearing iron ores are associated with alkaline magmas with LREE/HREE fractionation varying from moderate to steep. Iron-apatite deposits in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) have a high concentration of REE (more than 1000 ppm up to 2.5%), and show a strong LREE/HREE ratio with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is typical of magmatic apatite and quiet distinct from sedimentary apatites (phosphorites) which have a low REE contents and Ce negative anomalies. On the other hand, they are comparable to the REE patterns of apatites in Kiruna-type iron ores in different parts of the world. The REE patterns of apatites, iron-apatite ores and iron ores are similar and only have different REE contents. This similarity indicates a genetic relation for these rocks. Most of the iron-apatite deposits in Central Iran have similar REE patterns too, which in turn show a genetic relation for all of these deposits. This similarity indicates a similar origin and processes in their genesis. There are some small intrusions around some of the iron-apatite deposits that are petrographically identified as syenite and gabbro. These intrusions also have REE patterns similar to that of iron-apatite ores. This demonstrates a genetic relation between these intrusions and iron-apatite ores. The REE patterns of apatites in different deposits of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite ores show an affinity to alkaline to sub-alkaline magmas and rifting environment. The alkaline host rocks of Central Iran iron-apatite ores are clearly related to an extensional setting where rifting was important (SSE-NNW fault lines). A probable source for this large scale ore forming processes is relatively low partial melting of mantle rocks. The ores have originated by magmatic differentiation as a late phase in the volcanic cycle

  2. Study on removal effect and mechanism of uranium by hydroxyapatite and natural apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaofeng; Chen Diyun; Tu Guoqing; Huang Xiaozhui

    2014-01-01

    By the static experiments, the effects of reaction time, pH value, initial concentration of uranium, dosage of apatite on adsorption of hydroxyapatite and natural apatite for uranium were studied respectively. The adsorption process was analyzed by thermodynamics and kinetics, and the adsorption mechanism was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The results of hydroxyapatite show that the removal capacity of uranium increases with the initial concentration of uranium, and the adsorption rate of hydroxyapatite on UO_2"2"+ reaches 85%, when the pH value is 4 to 5 and dosage of hydroxyapatite is 0.75 g. The results of natural apatite show that the removal capacity of uranium increases with the initial concentration of uranium, and the adsorption rate of natural apatite on UO_2"2"+ is up to 80%, when the pH value is 3 and dosage of hydroxyapatite is l.0 g. Similarly, at 120 minutes both of the removal reactions by hydroxyapatite and natural apatite substantially reach equilibrium. Moreover, both of the reactions by hydroxyapatite and natural apatite are in line with quasi secondary dynamics equation, and follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Infrared spectra indicate that the removal of hydroxyapatite for uranium depends on the complexation of phosphate, which is almost the same as that of natural apatite. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that hydroxyapatite has the composition and structure of pure material, whereas the natural apatite is mainly composed of Ca_5H_2(PO_4)_3F and Ca_8H_2(PO_4)_6H_2O. In addition, scanning electron microscope demonstrates that hydroxyapatite has the appearance of spherical with a hole and the hole has a cavity containing a large amount of floc, while the surface becomes smooth and pores are closed after removal of uranium, which is due to the adsorption of UO_2"2"+ leading a link between molecules on hydroxyapatite surface. But for natural apatite, it depicts the angular mineral shape

  3. Hydroxyl radical production in plasma electrolysis with KOH electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksono, Nelson; Febiyanti, Irine Ayu, E-mail: irine.ayu41@ui.ac.id; Utami, Nissa; Ibrahim [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia Phone: +62217863516, Fax: +62217863515 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Plasma electrolysis is an effective technology for producing hydroxyl radical (•OH). This method can be used for waste degradation process. This study was conducted to obtain the influence of applied voltage, electrolyte concentration, and anode depth in the plasma electrolysis system for producing hydroxyl radical. The materials of anode and cathode, respectively, were made from tungsten and stainless steel. KOH solution was used as the solution. Determination of hydroxyl radical production was done by measuring H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount formed in plasma system using an iodometric titration method, while the electrical energy consumed was obtained by measuring the electrical current throughout the process. The highest hydroxyl radical production was 3.51 mmol reached with 237 kJ energy consumption in the power supply voltage 600 V, 0.02 M KOH, and 0.5 cm depth of anode.

  4. Effect of curcumin against oxidation of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Sai Krishna; Mahendra, Jaideep; Gurumurthy, Prema; Jayamathi; Iqbal, Shabeer S; Mahendra, Little

    2014-10-01

    Among various reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radicals have the strongest chemical activity, which can damage a wide range of essential biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. The objective of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of curcumin on prevention of oxidative damage of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals generated in in vitro by a Fenton like reaction. We have incubated the serum, plasma and whole blood with H2O2/Cu2+/ Ascorbic acid system for 4 hours at 37 0C and observed the oxidation of biomolecules like albumin, lipids, proteins and DNA. Curcumin at the concentrations of 50,100 and 200 μmoles, prevented the formation of ischemia modified albumin, MDA, protein carbonyls, oxidized DNA and increased the total antioxidant levels and GSH significantly. These observations suggest the hydroxyl radical scavenging potentials of curcumin and protective actions to prevent the oxidation of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals.

  5. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  6. In Vitro Screening of the Apatite-Forming Ability, Biointeractivity and Physical Properties of a Tricalcium Silicate Material for Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Gandolfi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Calcium silicate-based materials are hydraulic self-setting materials with physico-chemical properties suitable for endodontic surgery and good biological/clinical outcomes. The study aim was to evaluate the bio-properties (biointeractivity and apatite-forming ability and selected physical properties (porosity, water sorption, solubility, and setting time of Biodentine, a tricalcium silicate material for endodontics and restorative dentistry, compared to that of ProRoot MTA (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as gold standard material. Methods: Biodentine and ProRoot MTA pastes were prepared and analyzed for calcium release and alkalinizing activity (3 h–28 days, setting time, water sorption, porosity, solubility, surface microstructure and composition, and apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid. Results: Biodentine showed higher calcium release, alkalinizing activity, and solubility but higher open and apparent porosity, water sorption, and a markedly shorter setting time. Calcium phosphate (CaP deposits were noted on material surfaces after short ageing times. A CaP coating composed of spherulites was detected after 28 days. The thickness, continuity, and Ca/P ratio of the coating differed markedly between the materials. Biodentine showed a coating composed by denser but smaller spherulites, while ProRoot MTA showed large but less dense aggregates of spherulitic deposits. Conclusions: Biodentine showed a pronounced ability to release calcium and extended alkalinizing activity interlinked with its noticeable porosity, water sorption, and solubility: open porosities provide a broad wet biointeractive surface for the release of the calcium and hydroxyl ions involved in the formation of a CaP mineral. Biodentine is a biointeractive tricalcium silicate material with interesting chemical-physical properties and represents a fast-setting alternative to the conventional calcium silicate MTA-like cements.

  7. Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

    2012-10-01

    Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  8. Amelogenin as a promoter of nucleation and crystal growth of apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskoković, Vuk; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Human dental enamel forms over a period of 2-4 years by substituting the enamel matrix, a protein gel mostly composed of a single protein, amelogenin with fibrous apatite nanocrystals. Self-assembly of amelogenin and the products of its selective proteolytic digestion are presumed to direct the growth of apatite fibers and their organization into bundles that eventually comprise the mature enamel, the hardest tissue in the mammalian body. This work aimed to establish the physicochemical and biochemical conditions for the growth of apatite crystals under the control of a recombinant amelogenin matrix (rH174) in combination with a programmable titration system. The growth of apatite substrates was initiated in the presence of self-assembling amelogenin particles. A series of constant titration rate experiments was performed that allowed for a gradual increase of the calcium and/or phosphate concentrations in the protein suspensions. We observed a significant amount of apatite crystals formed on the substrates following the titration of rH174 sols that comprised the initial supersaturation ratio equal to zero. The protein layers adsorbed onto the substrate apatite crystals were shown to act as promoters of nucleation and growth of calcium phosphates subsequently formed on the substrate surface. Nucleation lag time experiments have showed that rH174 tends to accelerate precipitation from metastable calcium phosphate solutions in proportion to its concentration. Despite their mainly hydrophobic nature, amelogenin nanospheres, the size and surface charge properties of which were analyzed using dynamic light scattering, acted as a nucleating agent for the crystallization of apatite. The biomimetic experimental setting applied in this study proves as convenient for gaining insight into the fundamental nature of the process of amelogenesis.

  9. Cytochrome P450-dependent N-hydroxylation of an aminoguanidine (amidinohydrazone) and microsomal retroreduction of the N-hydroxylated product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B; Schultze-Mosgau, M H; Richter, P H; Besch, A

    1994-07-01

    1. The first example of a P450-dependent N-hydroxylation of an aminoguanidine (amidinohydrazone) is reported for 2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone amidinohydrazone 1 (G 256) as substrate. 2. The N-hydroxylated metabolite 2 (2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone N-hydroxyamidinohydrazone NOH-G256) and a further metabolite of 1, the phenol 3, were identified by tlc and ms analysis. 3. The microsomal reduction of an N-hydroxyaminoguanidine (N-hydroxy-amidino-hydrazone) was also demonstrated for the transformation of 2 to 1. 4. Both the N-hydroxylation of the aminoguanidine and the retroreduction of the N-hydroxyaminoguanidine were characterized by quantitative hplc analysis. 5. The conversion of the aminoguanidine 1 to N-hydroxyaminoguanidine 2 may be considered as an analogue of the physiological N-hydroxylation of arginine to N-hydroxyarginine by NO synthases.

  10. Magnetite-apatite mineralization in Khanlogh iron deposit, northwest of Neyshaboor, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh Tehrani, Parvin; Asghar Calagari, Ali; Velasco Roldan, Francisco; Simmonds, Vartan; Siahcheshm, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Khanlogh iron deposit lies on Sabzehvar-Ghoochan Cenozoic magmatic belt in northwest of Neyshaboor, NE Iran. The lithologic units in this area include a series of sub-volcanic intrusive rocks like diorite porphyry, quartz-diorite porphyry, and micro-granodiorite of Oligocene age. Mineralization in this area occurred as veins, dissemination, and open space filling in brecciated zones within the host sub-volcanic intrusive bodies. Three distinct types of mineral associations can be distinguished, (1) diopside-magnetite, (2) magnetite-apatite, and (3) apatite-calcite. Microscopic examinations along with SEM and EPMA studies demonstrated that magnetite is the most common ore mineral occurring as solitary crystals. The euhedral magnetite crystals are accompanied by lamellar destabilized ilmenite and granular fluorapatite in magnetite-apatite ores. The results of EPMA revealed that the lamellar ilmenite, relative to host magnetite crystal, is notably enriched in MgO and MnO (average of 3.3 and 2.6 wt%, respectively; n=5), whereas magnetite is slighter enriched in Ti (TiO2 around 1.8 wt%) being average of MgO, MnO and V2O3 of 0.6wt%, 0.2wt%, and 0.6 wt% (respectively; n=20). Minerals such as chlorapatite, calcite, and chalcedony are also present in the magnetite-apatite ores. The samples from apatite-calcite ores contain coarse crystals of apatite and rhomboedral calcite. The plot of the EPMA data of Khanlogh iron ore samples on diagram of TiO2-V2O5 (Hou et al, 2011) illustrated that the data points lies between the well-known Kiruna and El Laco (Chile) iron deposits. The magnetite crystals in the sub-volcanic host rocks were possibly formed by immiscible iron oxide fluids during magmatic stage. However, the magnetite and apatite existing in the veins and breccia zones may have developed by high temperature hydrothermal fluids. Studies done by Purtov and Kotelnikova (1993) proved that the proportion of Ti in magnetite is related to fluoride complex in the hydrothermal

  11. Apatite formation behaviour during metasomatism in the Bathtub Intrusion (Babbitt deposit, Duluth Complex, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raič, Sara; Mogessie, Aberra; Krenn, Kurt; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Tropper, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The mineralized troctolitic Bathtub intrusion (Duluth Complex, NE-Minnesota) is known for its famous Cu-Ni-Sulfide±PGM Babbitt deposit, where platinum group minerals (PGMs) are either hosted by primary magmatic sulfides (base metal sulfides) or associated with hydrothermally altered portions. This secondary generation of PGMs is present in alteration patches and suggests the involvement of hydrothermal fluids in the mobilization of platinum-group elements (PGEs). Accessory fluorapatite in these samples reveals besides H2O- and CO2-rich primary fluid inclusions, textural and compositional variations that also record magmatic and metasomatic events. Based on detailed back-scattered electron imaging (BSE) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), a primary magmatic origin is reflected by homogeneous or zoned grains, where zoning patterns are either concentric or oscillatory, with respect to LREE. Late magmatic to hydrothermal processes are indicated by grains with bright LREE-enriched rims or conversion textures with REE-enriched patches in the interior of the apatite. A metasomatic formation of monazite from apatite is documented by the presence of monazite inclusions in apatite and newly grown monazite at altered apatite rims. They formed by the release of REEs from the apatite during a fluid-induced alteration, based on the coupled substitution Ca2+ + P5+ = REE3+ + Si4+ (Rønsbo 1989; Rønsbo 2008). Samples with monazite inclusions in apatite further display occurrences of PGMs associated with hydrothermal alteration patches (chlorite + amphibole). The presence of H2O- and CO2-rich fluid inclusions in apatite, the metasomatically induced monazite growth, as well as the occurrence of PGMs in hydrothermally alteration zones, also suggest the involvement of aqueous chloride complexes in a H2O dominated fluid in the transportation of LREE and redistribution of the second generation of PGEs. Rønsbo, J.G. (1989): Coupled substitutions

  12. Determination of palaeotemperatures of apatite with the fission-track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, E.; Maerk, E.; Bertel, E.; Pahl, M.; Maerk, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a consequence of thermal fading of fission tracks in minerals, the fission-track dating method can be used to obtain a sensitive geothermometer for unfolding thermal events in the history of rocks, especially if it is possible to determine the temperature associated with a measured fission-track age, i.e., yielding a temperature age. Based on the concept of a minimum fission-track length the differential annealing equation has been solved for apatite, taking into account the fact that the annealing coefficient depends also on the degree of fission-track reduction. This allows us to calculate an improved age-temperature relationship for apatite, which gives for a measured corrected fission-track age the corresponding temperature, assuming either linear or exponential time-dependence of the temperature. The present results for apatite are compared with previous calculations in apatite and sphene. As expected, a fission-track age of apatite dates a younger (lower temperature) point in the thermal-cooling history than a fission-track age of sphene. (author)

  13. Certain distribution characteristics of uranium and thorium in apatite-carbonate ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonova, R Sh; Faizullin, R N; Kozlov, E N; Berman, I B

    1979-01-01

    A study of the total radioactivity, uranium content, thorium content, U/Th ratio, and the spatial distribution of uranium by the f-radiographic method has demonstrated that the apatite ores of the deposit contain elevated concentrations of radioactive elements that are essentially of thorium origin. The main concentration of uranium and thorium is in the cinnemon-brown apatite. Elevated uranium concentrations are also found in hematite and accessory minerals (monacite, zirconium, titanite). Dolomite, quartz, martite, and second generation apatite were found to be weakly radioactive. The uranium and thorium concentration is correlated to the concentration of phosphorus and other petrogenic elements. An analysis of uranium, thorium, and Th/U distribution indicates that the concentration of radioactive elements is not caused by their primary content in carbonate rock but by the outside introduction of these elements together with phosphorus. The cited analyses confirm the chemogenic-sedimentary origin of the dolomite substrate and the metamorphogenic hydrothermal genesis of apatite mineralization. The data on radioactivity may be used as a reliable exploratory criterion for apatite potential. 3 references, 3 figures.

  14. Bio-inspired citrate functionalized apatite coating on rapid prototyped titanium scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Peng [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lu, Fang [School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Wang, Di [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Xiaojing [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaolan [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhang, Yu; Li, Lihua [General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of PLA, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Designed and reproducible porous titanium scaffolds were produced. • Hydrophilic nanoporous film was built on scaffold. • Apatite coating was deposited on scaffold under the modulation of citrate ions. • Citrate ions could affect CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation in apatite coatings. - Abstract: Scaffold functionalized with appropriate osteogenic coatings can significantly improve implant-bone response. In this study, with designed model and optimized manufacture parameters, reproducible and precise titanium scaffolds were produced. Reconstructed three-dimensional image and sectional structure of the scaffold were examined by micro-computed tomography and relative software. Alkali treatment was carried out on these manufactured porous scaffolds to produce nanoporous hydrophilic film. After 6 days deposition in simulated body fluid (SBF) containing sodium citrate (SC-SBF), plate-like amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coating was deposited on scaffold surface. Ultrasonication tests qualitatively indicated an enhanced adhesion force of apatite coatings deposited in SC-SBF compared to that deposited in SBF. And the effect of citrate ions on the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation rate in apatite coating was quantitatively examined by bending vibration of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} at ∼874 cm{sup −1}. Results indicated the highest carbonate content was obtained at the citrate ion concentration of 6 × 10{sup −5} mol/L in SC-SBF. These three-dimensional porous titanium-apatite hybrid scaffolds are expected to find application in bone tissue regeneration.

  15. Magnetite-apatite-dolomitic rocks of Ust-Chulman (Aldan shield, Russia): Seligdar-type carbonatites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.; Redina, Anna A.; Obukhov, Andrey V.

    2018-04-01

    The Ust-Chulman apatite ore body is situated within the Nimnyrskaya apatite zone at the Aldan shield in Russia. The latest data confirm the carbonatitic origin of the Seligdar apatite deposit (Prokopyev et al. in Ore Geol Rev 81:296-308, 2017). The results of our investigations demonstrate that the magnetite-apatite-dolomitic rocks of the Ust-Chulman are highly similar to Seligdar-type dolomitic carbonatites in terms of the mineralogy and the fluid regime of formation. The ilmenite and spinel mineral phases occur as solid solutions with magnetite, and support the magmatic origin of the Ust-Chulman ores. The chemical composition of REE- and SO3-bearing apatite crystals and, specifically, monazite-(Ce) mineralisation and the formation of Nb-rutile, late hydrothermal sulphate minerals (barite, anhydrite) and haematite are typical for carbonatite complexes. The fluid inclusions study revealed similarities to the evolutionary trend of the Seligdar carbonatites that included changes of the hydrothermal solutions from highly concentrated chloride to medium-low concentrated chloride-sulphate and oxidized carbonate-ferrous.

  16. Prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc Score and Severity of Acute Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Findings from RAF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarresi, Monica; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Morotti, Andrea; Costa, Paolo; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; D'Amore, Cataldo; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Lees, Kennedy R

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate for a possible association between both prestroke CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score and the severity of stroke at presentation, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days, in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, AF, and assessment of prestroke CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score. Severity of stroke was assessed on admission using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (severe stroke: NIHSS ≥10). Disability and mortality at 90 days were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS <3 or ≥3). Multiple logistic regression was used to correlate prestroke CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc and severity of stroke, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days. Of the 1020 patients included in the analysis, 606 patients had an admission NIHSS score lower and 414 patients higher than 10. At 90 days, 510 patients had mRS ≥3. A linear correlation was found between the prestroke CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score and severity of stroke (P = .001). On multivariate analysis, CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score correlated with severity of stroke (P = .041) and adverse functional outcome (mRS ≥3) (P = .001). A logistic regression with the receiver operating characteristic graph procedure (C-statistics) evidenced an area under the curve of .60 (P = .0001) for severe stroke. Furthermore, a correlation was found between prestroke CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score and lesion size. In patients with AF, in addition to the risk of stroke, a high CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score was independently associated with both stroke severity at onset and disability and mortality at 90 days. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Apatite in carbonatitic rocks: Compositional variation, zoning, element partitioning and petrogenetic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Reguir, Ekaterina P.; Zaitsev, Anatoly N.; Couëslan, Christopher; Xu, Cheng; Kynický, Jindřich; Mumin, A. Hamid; Yang, Panseok

    2017-03-01

    Apatite-group phosphates are nearly ubiquitous in carbonatites, but our understanding of these minerals is inadequate, particularly in the areas of element partitioning and petrogenetic interpretation of their compositional variation among spatially associated rocks and within individual crystals. In the present work, the mode of occurrence, and major- and trace-element chemistry of apatite (sensu lato) from calcite and dolomite carbonatites, their associated cumulate rocks (including phoscorites) and hydrothermal parageneses were studied using a set of 80 samples from 50 localities worldwide. The majority of this set represents material for which no analytical data are available in the literature. Electron-microprobe and laser-ablation mass-spectrometry data ( 600 and 400 analyses, respectively), accompanied by back-scattered-electron and cathodoluminescence images and Raman spectra, were used to identify the key compositional characteristics and zoning patterns of carbonatitic apatite. These data are placed in the context of phosphorus geochemistry in carbonatitic systems and carbonatite evolution, and compared to the models proposed by previous workers. The documented variations in apatite morphology and zoning represent a detailed record of a wide range of evolutionary processes, both magmatic and fluid-driven. The majority of igneous apatite from the examined rocks is Cl-poor fluorapatite or F-rich hydroxylapatite (≥ 0.3 apfu F) with 0.2-2.7 wt.% SrO, 0-4.5 wt.% LREE2O3, 0-0.8 wt.% Na2O, and low levels of other cations accommodated in the Ca site (up to 1000 ppm Mn, 2300 ppm Fe, 200 ppm Ba, 150 ppm Pb, 700 ppm Th and 150 ppm U), none of which show meaningful correlation with the host-rock type. Silicate, (SO4)2 - and (VO4)3 - anions, substituting for (PO4)3 -, tend to occur in greater abundance in crystals from calcite carbonatites (up to 4.2 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% SO3 and 660 ppm V). Although (CO3)2 - groups are very likely present in some samples, Raman micro

  18. The relationship between fission track length and track density in apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, G.M.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Duddy, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    Fission track dating is based upon an age equation derived from a random line segment model for fission tracks. This equation contains the implicit assumption of a proportional relationship between the true mean length of fission tracks and their track density in an isotropic medium. Previous experimental investigation of this relationship for both spontaneous and induced tracks in apatite during progressive annealment model in an obvious fashion. Corrected equations relating track length and density for apatite, an anisotropic mineral, show that the proportionality in this case is between track density and a length factor which is a generalization of the mean track length combining the actual length and crystallographic orientation of the track. This relationship has been experimentally confirmed for induced tracks in Durango apatite, taking into account bias in sampling of the track lengths, and the effect of the bulk etching velocity. (author)

  19. PNNL Apatite Investigation at 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-02

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary. Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing strontium-90 flux to the Columbia River. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the PNNL Apatite Investigation at 100-NR-2 Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  20. Characterization of damaging in apatitic materials irradiated with heavy ions and thermally annealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisserand, R.

    2004-12-01

    Some minerals belonging to the family of apatite are seen to be potential candidates for use as conditioning matrices or transmutation targets for high level nuclear waste management. Indeed, studies of natural nuclear reactors (Oklo) highlighted the strong ability of these minerals to anneal irradiation damage. In order to determine the global behaviour of these materials, we performed a fundamental study on the evolution of irradiation damage induced by various heavy ions in two apatites: a natural phospho-calcic fluor-apatite from Durango and a synthetic sintered mono-silicated fluor-apatite, called britholite. The damage in these materials was measured by using channelling R.B.S. and X-ray diffraction respectively and by determining an amorphization effective radius Re. The results revealed a similar behaviour for both apatites according to the electronic energy deposit at the entrance of the material. In addition, the effect of an isothermal annealing at 300 C was quantified on a mono-silicated britholite previously irradiated with Kr ions. We highlighted in this case the return of the lattice parameters to their initial values, followed by a partial and slow rebuilding of the crystalline lattice versus the annealing time. Finally, we followed the changes in the morphology of etch pits in the Durango fluor-apatite after acid dissolution as a function of the energy deposit by the ions. We showed that the influence of crystallography leads quickly to opening angles close to 30 degrees. The calculation of etching velocities within the irradiated material highlighted that there is a range of deposit energy where the velocity ratio increases strongly before becoming constant. (author)

  1. Predictive value of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores for acute myocardial infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Han, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Zong, Zhenkun

    2017-07-05

    The presence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) confers a poor prognosis in atrial fibrillation (AF), associated with increased mortality dramatically. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of CHADS 2 and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc scores for AMI in patients with AF. This retrospective study enrolled 5140 consecutive nonvalvular AF patients, 300 patients with AMI and 4840 patients without AMI. We identified the optimal cut-off values of the CHADS 2 and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc scores each based on receiver operating characteristic curves to predict the risk of AMI. Both CHADS 2 score and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score were associated with an increased odds ratio of the prevalence of AMI in patients with AF, after adjustment for hyperlipidaemia, hyperuricemia, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and obstructive sleep apnea. The present results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for CHADS 2 score was 0.787 with a similar accuracy of the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score (AUC 0.750) in predicting "high-risk" AF patients who developed AMI. However, the predictive accuracy of the two clinical-based risk scores was fair. The CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score has fair predictive value for identifying high-risk patients with AF and is not significantly superior to CHADS 2 in predicting patients who develop AMI.

  2. Theoretical stability assessment of uranyl phosphates and apatites: Selection of amendments for in situ remediation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Wright, J.V.; Veljkovic, V.; Conca, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Addition of an amendment or reagent to soil/sediment is a technique that can decrease mobility and reduce bioavailability of uranium (U) and other heavy metals in the contaminated site. According to data from literature and results obtained in field studies, the general mineral class of apatites was selected as a most promising amendment for in situ immobilization/remediation of U. In this work we presented theoretical assessment of stability of U(VI) in four apatite systems (hydroxyapatite (HAP), North Carolina Apatite (NCA), Lisina Apatite (LA), and Apatite II) in order to determine an optimal apatite soil amendment which could be used for in situ remediation of uranium. In this analysis we used a theoretical criterion which is based on calculation of the ion-ion interaction potential, representing the main term of the cohesive energy of the matrix/pollutant system. The presented results of this analysis indicate (i) that the mechanism of immobilization of U by natural apatites depends on their chemical composition and (ii) that all analyzed apatites represent, from the point of view of stability, promising materials which could be used in field remediation of U-contaminated sites

  3. The study of geochemical behavior of rare earth elements in apatites from the Hormoz Island, Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rostami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located about 3 km southwest of the Hormoz Island in the Hormozgan province, in the Persian Gulf. The main rock units in the region consist of a highly altered acidic pluton cratophyre, which is responsible for apatite formation, diabasic dike, marl and altered basalt. Apatite is the only phosphate mineral in the Hormoz Island, which has accumulated REE in its crystal structure. The amount of Na2O and SiO2 oxides in apatite are high and the average content of the main elements Fe, Mg, Al, Ca are 7.5 ppm, 365 ppm, 2880 ppm and 27.8%, respectively. The Y, Mn, Rb contents increase and Sr decreases with increasing magmatic differentiation. It shows that a moderate magmatic differentiation occurred during the crystallization of apatite. The total REE content in the Hormoz apatite is high (1.22-2.25%. LREE/HREE ratio is also high. This means that Hormoz apatites are enriched in light rare earth elements. The REE normalized pattern shows a negative slope with a negative Eu anomaly. According to various diagrams based on apatite composition, it is deduced that the Hormoz apatites belong to mafic I-type granitoids with high oxidation state (Fe2O3/FeO>1.

  4. Growth of apatite on chitosan-multiwall carbon nanotube composite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jun; Yao Zhiwen [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No 14, 3rd Section South People' s Road, Chengdu 610041 (China); Tang Changyu [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Sichuan University (China); Darvell, B.W. [Dental Materials Science, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhang Hualin; Pan Lingzhan; Liu Jingsong [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No 14, 3rd Section South People' s Road, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen Zhiqing, E-mail: yangj0710@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No 14, 3rd Section South People' s Road, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2009-07-30

    Bioactive membranes for guided tissue regeneration would be of value for periodontal therapy. Chitosan-multiwall carbon nanotube (CS-MWNT) composites were treated to deposit nanoscopic apatite for MWNT proportions of 0-4 mass%. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used for characterization. Apatite was formed on the CS-MWNT composites at low MWNT concentrations, but the dispersion of the MWNT affects the crystallite size and the Ca/P molar ratio of the composite. The smallest crystallite size was 9 nm at 1 mass% MWNT.

  5. Removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt and mercury from water by Apatite IITM: Column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, Josep; De Pablo, Joan; Cortina, Jose-Luis; Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The efficiency of Apatite II TM increases as the acidity decreases, then the application of apatite-based materials for metal removal treatments should be restricted to slightly acid to neutral waters. → Because of the preferred process of using phosphate ions to form metal-phosphate precipitates, the mixture with other sources of alkalinity, such as limestone, is proposed to extend the duration of Apatite II TM . → Compared with other reactive materials such as limestone and caustic magnesia that exhibit a reduction of porosity Apatite II TM showed stable hydraulic performance. → The extrapolation of the column durabilities to a 1-m-thick passive treatment suggests that the Apatite II TM filling can be active between 5 and 10 years for an inflow pH exceeding 5. - Abstract: Apatite II TM , a biogenic hydroxyapatite, was evaluated as a reactive material for heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Hg) removal in passive treatments. Apatite II TM reacts with acid water by releasing phosphates that increase the pH up to 6.5-7.5, complexing and inducing metals to precipitate as metal phosphates. The evolution of the solution concentration of calcium, phosphate and metals together with SEM-EDS and XRD examinations were used to identify the retention mechanisms. SEM observation shows low-crystalline precipitate layers composed of P, O and M. Only in the case of Hg and Co were small amounts of crystalline phases detected. Solubility data values were used to predict the measured column experiment values and to support the removal process based on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite, the formation of metal-phosphate species in solution and the precipitation of metal phosphate. Cd 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH(s), Cu 2 (PO 4 )OH(s), Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s), Co 3 (PO 4 ) 2 8H 2 O(s) and Hg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) are proposed as the possible mineral phases responsible for the removal processes. The results of the column experiments show that Apatite II TM is a suitable filling for permeable

  6. Apatite: A New Tool For Understanding The Temporal Variability Of Magmatic Volatile Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M. J.; Humphreys, M.; Smith, V.; Pyle, D. M.; Isaia, R.

    2015-12-01

    The apatite crystal structure is capable of incorporating H2O, F and Cl, as well as trace CO2 and sulphur. These can be related to parental magma compositions through application of a series of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994), permitting apatite crystals to preserve a record of all major volatile species in the melt. Furthermore, due to the general incompatibility of P in other rock-forming minerals, apatite is ubiquitous in igneous systems and often begins crystallising early, such that apatite inclusions within phenocrysts record melt volatile contents throughout magmatic differentiation. In this work, we compare the compositions of apatite inclusions and microphenocrysts with pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy. These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to determine a time-series of magmatic volatile evolution in the build-up to eruption. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset during ascent, due to rapid H diffusion through the phenocryst hosts (Woods et al., 2000). Given the rapid diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), preservation of undersaturated compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved a few days to months before eruption and that it may have been the transition into a volatile-saturated state that ultimately triggered eruption. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Gualda et al., 2012

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Apatite Investigation at the 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-28

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the 100-NR-2 Apatite Project. The U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment. The scope of this project covers the technical support needed before, during, and after treatment of the targeted subsurface environment using a new high-concentration formulation.

  8. Characterization of the Ornithine Hydroxylation Step in Albachelin Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Bufkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available N-Hydroxylating monooxygenases (NMOs are involved in siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophores are high affinity iron chelators composed of catechol and hydroxamate functional groups that are synthesized and secreted by microorganisms and plants. Recently, a new siderophore named albachelin was isolated from a culture of Amycolatopsis alba growing under iron-limiting conditions. This work focuses on the expression, purification, and characterization of the NMO, abachelin monooxygenase (AMO from A. alba. This enzyme was purified and characterized in its holo (FAD-bound and apo (FAD-free forms. The apo-AMO could be reconstituted by addition of free FAD. The two forms of AMO hydroxylate ornithine, while lysine increases oxidase activity but is not hydroxylated and display low affinity for NADPH.

  9. An EPR spectrum decomposition study of precipitated carbonated apatites (NCAP) dried at 25 deg C: adsorption of molecules from the atmosphere on the apatite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, P.D.W.; Callens, F.J.; Verbeeck, R.M.H.; Naessens, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of storage under ambient conditions on the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectrum of X-irradiated sodium and carbonate containing synthetic apatites has been studied. A first series of samples was X-irradiated shortly after preparation and drying at 25 o C and investigated by means of EPR. The observed spectra were decomposed in terms of five theoretical curves representing an O - radical, two CO 3 - radicals (surface and bulk) and two CO 2 - radicals (surface and bulk). Afterwards, a second series of the same samples which was stored under ambient conditions for a long period, was also X-irradiated and examined with EPR. The same five radicals were found, but in different relative amounts. It appeared that the relative contributions of the two carbon containing surface radicals increased in comparison with the corresponding bulk radicals. This is explained by an adsorption of molecules from the atmosphere on the surface of the apatite powder. (author)

  10. Serum Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Capacity as Quantified with Iron-Free Hydroxyl Radical Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Nobuyuki; Oowada, Shigeru; Sueishi, Yoshimi; Shimmei, Masashi; Makino, Keisuke; Fujii, Hirotada; Kotake, Yashige

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simple ESR spin trapping based method for hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging-capacity determination, using iron-free OH radical source. Instead of the widely used Fenton reaction, a short (typically 5 seconds) in situ UV-photolysis of a dilute hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution was employed to generate reproducible amounts of OH radicals. ESR spin trapping was applied to quantify OH radicals; the decrease in the OH radical level due to the specimen’s scavenging activity was converted into the OH radical scavenging capacity (rate). The validity of the method was confirmed in pure antioxidants, and the agreement with the previous data was satisfactory. In the second half of this work, the new method was applied to the sera of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. We show for the first time that after hemodialysis, OH radical scavenging capacity of the CRF serum was restored to the level of healthy control. This method is simple and rapid, and the low concentration hydrogen peroxide is the only chemical added to the system, that could eliminate the complexity of iron-involved Fenton reactions or the use of the pulse-radiolysis system. PMID:19794928

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic CHaMP. II. Dense gas clumps. (Ma+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, B.; Tan, J. C.; Barnes, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    A total of 303 dense gas clumps have been detected using the HCO+(1-0) line in the CHaMP survey (Paper I, Barnes et al. 2011, J/ApJS/196/12). In this article we have derived the SED for these clumps using Spitzer, MSX, and IRAS data. The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) was launched in 1996 April. It conducted a Galactic plane survey (0MSX band wavelengths are centered at 8.28, 12.13, 14.65, and 21.3um. The best image resolution is ~18" in the 8.28um band, with positional accuracy of about 2". Calibrated images of the Galactic plane were obtained from the online MSX image server at the IPAC website. The IRAS performed an all-sky survey at 12, 25, 60, and 100um. The nominal resolution is about 4' at 60um. High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) uses the maximum correlation method to produce higher resolution images, better than 1' at 60um. Sources chosen for processing with HIRES were processed at all four IRAS bands with 20 iterations. The Spitzer InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) is a four-channel camera that provides simultaneous 5.2"x5.2" images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8um with an angular resolution of about 2" at 8um. We searched the Spitzer archive at IPAC. Most of these data are from two large survey programs: PID 189 (Churchwell, E., "The SIRTF Galactic Plane Survey") and PID 40791 (Majewski, S., "Galactic Structure and Star Formation in Vela-Carina"). Hill et al. (2005, J/MNRAS/363/405) carried out a 1.2mm continuum emission survey toward 131 star-forming complexes using the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) IMaging Bolometer Array (SIMBA). Hill et al. list the 1.2mm flux for 404 sources, 15 of which are in our sample. (2 data files).

  12. Simultaneous incorporation of carbonate and fluoride in synthetic apatites: Effect on crystallographic and physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang; LeGeros, John P; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2009-07-01

    The mineral in bone is an impure hydroxyapatite, with carbonate as the chief minor substituent. Fluoride has been shown to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic resorption in vitro. CO(3)- and F-substituted apatite (CFA) has been considered as potential bone graft material for orthopedic and dental applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of simultaneously incorporated CO(3) and F on the crystallographic physico-chemical properties of apatite. The results showed that increasing CO(3) and Na content in apatites with relatively constant F concentration caused a decrease in crystallite size and an increase in the extent of calcium release; increasing F content in apatites with relatively constant CO(3) concentration caused an increase in crystallite size and a decrease in the extent of Ca release. These findings suggest that CFAs as bone graft materials of desired solubility can be prepared by manipulating the relative concentrations of CO(3) and F incorporated in the apatite.

  13. Rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, G.V.; Elliot, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with the bicarbonate ion has been determined to be 8.5 x 10 6 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . This value was calculated from: the measured rate of formation of the CO 3 - radical in pulsed electron irradiation of bicarbonate solutions over the pH range 7.0 to 9.4; the pK for the equilibrium HCO 3 - = CO 3 2- + H + ; and the rate constant for hydroxyl radicals reacting with the carbonate ion. (author)

  14. Bioconversion of Agave tequilana fructans by exo-inulinases from indigenous Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010 enhances ethanol production from raw Agave tequilana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitrón, Carlos; Pérez, Rosalba; Gutiérrez, Luís; Lappe, Patricia; Petrosyan, Pavel; Villegas, Jesús; Aguilar, Cecilia; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Blancas, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Agave tequilana fructans are the source of fermentable sugars for the production of tequila. Fructans are processed by acid hydrolysis or by cooking in ovens at high temperature. Enzymatic hydrolysis is considered an alternative for the bioconversion of fructans. We previously described the isolation of Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010, an indigenous strain that produces extracellular inulinases. Here we evaluated the potential application of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases for the bioconversion of A. tequilana fructans, and its impact on the production of ethanol. Inulinases were analyzed by Western blotting and thin layer chromatography. Optimal pH and temperature conditions for inulinase activity were determined. The efficiency of A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases was compared with commercial enzymes and with acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysates obtained were subsequently fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine the efficiency of ethanol production. Results indicate that A. niger CH-A-2010 predominantly produces an exo-inulinase activity. Optimal inulinase activity occurred at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. Hydrolysis of raw agave juice by CH-A-2010 inulinases yielded 33.5 g/l reducing sugars, compared with 27.3 g/l by Fructozyme(®) (Novozymes Corp, Bagsværd, Denmark) and 29.4 g/l by acid hydrolysis. After fermentation of hydrolysates, we observed that the conversion efficiency of sugars into ethanol was 97.5 % of the theoretical ethanol yield for enzymatically degraded agave juice, compared to 83.8 % for acid-hydrolyzed juice. These observations indicate that fructans from raw Agave tequilana juice can be efficiently hydrolyzed by using A. niger CH-A-2010 inulinases, and that this procedure impacts positively on the production of ethanol.

  15. Impact of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and a genetically modified derivative on the diversity of culturable fungi in the cucumber rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlanda, M; Perotto, S; Moenne-Loccoz, Y; Bergero, R; Lazzari, A; Defago, G; Bonfante, P; Luppi, A M

    2001-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of Pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants on nontarget rhizosphere fungi. This issue was addressed using the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif, which produces the antimicrobial polyketides 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt) and protects cucumber from several fungal pathogens, including Pythium spp., as well as the genetically modified derivative CHA0-Rif(pME3424). Strain CHA0-Rif(pME3424) overproduces Phl and Plt and displays improved biocontrol efficacy compared with CHA0-Rif. Cucumber was grown repeatedly in the same soil, which was left uninoculated, was inoculated with CHA0-Rif or CHA0-Rif(pME3424), or was treated with the fungicide metalaxyl (Ridomil). Treatments were applied to soil at the start of each 32-day-long cucumber growth cycle, and their effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of culturable fungi were assessed at the end of the first and fifth cycles. Over 11,000 colonies were studied and assigned to 105 fungal species (plus several sterile morphotypes). The most frequently isolated fungal species (mainly belonging to the genera Paecilomyces, Phialocephala, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Verticillium, Trichoderma, Staphylotrichum, Coniothyrium, Cylindrocarpon, Myrothecium, and Monocillium) were common in the four treatments, and no fungal species was totally suppressed or found exclusively following one particular treatment. However, in each of the two growth cycles studied, significant differences were found between treatments (e.g., between the control and the other treatments and/or between the two inoculation treatments) using discriminant analysis. Despite these differences in the composition and/or relative abundance of species in the fungal community, treatments had no effect on species diversity indices, and species abundance distributions fit the truncated lognormal function in most cases. In addition, the impact of treatments at the 32-day

  16. X-Ray Processing of ChaMPlane Fields: Methods and Initial Results for Selected Anti-Galactic Center Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JaeSub; van den Berg, Maureen; Schlegel, Eric M.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Koenig, Xavier; Laycock, Silas; Zhao, Ping

    2005-12-01

    We describe the X-ray analysis procedure of the ongoing Chandra Multiwavelength Plane (ChaMPlane) Survey and report the initial results from the analysis of 15 selected anti-Galactic center observations (90degusing custom-developed analysis tools appropriate for Galactic sources but also of general use: optimum photometry in crowded fields using advanced techniques for overlapping sources, rigorous astrometry and 95% error circles for combining X-ray images or matching to optical/IR images, and application of quantile analysis for spectral analysis of faint sources. We apply these techniques to 15 anti-Galactic center observations (of 14 distinct fields), in which we have detected 921 X-ray point sources. We present logN-logS distributions and quantile analysis to show that in the hard band (2-8 keV) active galactic nuclei dominate the sources. Complete analysis of all ChaMPlane anti-Galactic center fields will be given in a subsequent paper, followed by papers on sources in the Galactic center and bulge regions.

  17. Compositional Variation of Terrestrial Mantle Apatites and Implications for the Halogen and Water Budgets of the Terrestrial Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, M.; Patino Douce, A. E.; Chaumba, J. B.; Fleisher, C.; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Apatite in ultramafic xenoliths from various tectonic enviroments including arc (Kamchatka), plume (Hawaii), and intraplate (Lunar Crater, Nunivak, Colorado Plateau) were analyzed by electron microprobe with the aim of characterizing the Cl and F contents, and from these measured compositions to infer the nature of fluids/melts that the apatites equilibrated with. The impetus for the study derived from the generalization of O'Reilly and Griffin (1) that mantle-derived metasomatic apatites tend to be Cl-rich and mantle-derived igneous apatites tend to be F-rich. Our work largely corroborates their generalization with Cl- and/or H2O-rich compositions characterizing the apatites from Nunivak and Kamchatka while apatites from igneous or Group II xenoliths tend to be Cl-poor and be either nearly pure fluorapatite or a mix of hydroxylapatite and fluorapatite. We attribute the Cl-rich nature of the Kamchatka apatites to formation from Cl-rich fluids generated from subducted lithosphere; however the Nunivak occurrence is far removed from subducted lithosphere and may reflect a deep seated source for Cl as also indicated by brine inclusions in diamonds, Cl-rich apatites in carbonate-bearing xenoliths and a Cl-rich signature in some plumes such as Iceland, Azores and Samoa. One curious aspect of mantle-derived apatite compositions is that xenoliths with evidence of carbonatitic metasomatism commonly have Cl-rich apatites while apatites from carbonatites are invariably Cl-poor - perhaps reflecting loss of Cl in fluids evolved from the carbonatitic magma. Apatites from Group II xenoliths at Hawaii are solid solutions between fluorapatite and hydroxylapatite and show no evidence for deep-seated Cl at Hawaii. Samples of the terrestrial mantle are almost uniformly characterized by mineral assemblages with a single Ca-rich phosphate phase but the mantles of Mars, Vesta and the Moon have two Ca-rich phosphates, apatite and volatile-poor merrillite - apatite compositions existing

  18. Prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc Score and Severity of Acute Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: findings from RAF Study

    OpenAIRE

    Acciarresi, Monica; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Morotti, Andrea; Costa, Paolo; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, László; Szabó, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose:\\ud \\ud The aim of this study was to investigate for a possible association between both prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc score and the severity of stroke at presentation, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days, in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF).\\ud Methods:\\ud \\ud This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, AF, and assessment of prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc score. Severity of stroke was assessed on admission using t...

  19. Infrared absorption characteristics of hydroxyl groups in coal tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, S A; Chu, C J; Hange, R H; Margrave, J L

    1987-01-01

    Tar evolution was observed over a temperature range of 150-600 C for four coals. Pittsburgh bituminous, Illinois No.6, Rawhide subbituminous, and Texas lignite. Isolation of the evolved tars in a nitrogen matrix at 15 degrees K produced better resolved infrared spectra than those in a coal matrix, thus enhancing structural characterization of the tar molecules. Two distinct hydroxyl functional groups in the tar molecules free of hydrogen bonding were identified for the first time without interference from H/sub 2/O absorptions. These absorptions at 3626.5 cm/sup -1/ have been assigned to phenolic hydroxyls. It is suggested that carboxylic and aliphatic hydroxyl groups do not survive the vaporization process. Tars from Illinois No.6 were found to contain the largest amount of phenolic hydroxyl; Pittsburgh No. 8 tar contains approximately half of that for Illinois No.6 while Rawhide and Texas lignite contain much less phenolic than either of the other coals. 10 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  20. Hydroxyl radical reactivity at the air-ice interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Kahan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals are important oxidants in the atmosphere and in natural waters. They are also expected to be important in snow and ice, but their reactivity has not been widely studied in frozen aqueous solution. We have developed a spectroscopic probe to monitor the formation and reactions of hydroxyl radicals in situ. Hydroxyl radicals are produced in aqueous solution via the photolysis of nitrite, nitrate, and hydrogen peroxide, and react rapidly with benzene to form phenol. Similar phenol formation rates were observed in aqueous solution and bulk ice. However, no reaction was observed at air-ice interfaces, or when bulk ice samples were crushed prior to photolysis to increase their surface area. We also monitored the heterogeneous reaction between benzene present at air-water and air-ice interfaces with gas-phase OH produced from HONO photolysis. Rapid phenol formation was observed on water surfaces, but no reaction was observed at the surface of ice. Under the same conditions, we observed rapid loss of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH anthracene at air-water interfaces, but no loss was observed at air-ice interfaces. Our results suggest that the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals toward aromatic organics is similar in bulk ice samples and in aqueous solution, but is significantly suppressed in the quasi-liquid layer (QLL that exists at air-ice interfaces.

  1. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of peptide from sea cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enzyme complex, sea cucumber protein hydrolysis was carried out to obtain hydrolysates that have hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity (HRSA). The hydrolytic process was monitored by HRSA and conditions for this process were optimized as follows: pH 6.5, temperature 35°C, 12 mg enzyme complex in a reaction solution ...

  2. Iron-functionalized Al-SBA-15 for benzene hydroxylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Xia, H.; Fan, F.; Feng, Z.; Santen, van R.A.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Li, Can

    2008-01-01

    For the first time an ordered mesoporous silica (Fe–Al-SBA-15) with catalytically active isolated Fe surface species for the hydroxylation of benzene with nitrous oxide is prepared by introduction of Fe3+ in the synthesis gel of Al-SBA-15. Graphical abstract image for this article (ID: b717079c)

  3. 11 µ-Hydroxylation of cortexolone using immobilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of cortexolone to cortisol and prednisolone by the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans protoplasts as a research tool was studied. The immobilized protoplasts of the fungus hydroxylated cortexolone at 11β -position had significantly higher activity than the free protoplasts. Sucrose as an osmotic ...

  4. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method proposed involves the decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas via electrolysis, which is used in internal combustion engines of electrical generators for electricity generation. The by-product obtained from combustion of this gas is water vapour and oxygen to replenish the atmosphere.

  5. Syntheses and characterizations of rare earth doped phospho-silicated apatites: application to nuclear waste confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Apatite matrices have been developed for the conditioning of actinides from spent fuels of PWR reactors. Silicated apatites (britholites) containing actinides and lanthanides have been discovered in the natural environment. Synthetic analogues of these britholites can be obtained by solid-solid reaction at high temperature. The compounds of the solid solution of fluorinated britholites are synthesized by the double substitution of (Ca 2+ , PO 4 3- ) by (Ln 3+ , SiO 4 4- ). Trivalent lanthanides are chemical analogues of trivalent actinides. The synthesis was performed with La, Nd and Eu. This study allows to demonstrate that the chemical immobilization comes from the fixation of rare earths at the atomic scale, thanks to their participation to the mineral structure. In part 1, the criteria for the formulation of a matrix for the conditioning of separate radionuclides are given. The structure and the different methods of apatite preparation are shown. Part 2 treats of the study of the solid solution, of the elaboration of the Ca 9 Nd 1 (SiO 4 ) 5 F 2 ceramic and of its physico chemical characterization. The last part deals with the localization of rare earths in the apatite structure, determined by europium luminescence and X-ray diffraction on monocrystal. (J.S.) [fr

  6. Effects of Metal Ions on the Flotation of Apatite, Dolomite and Quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyang Ruan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, and Fe3+ on the flotation behaviors of apatite, dolomite and quartz were investigated through a micro-flotation test, and the influence of calcium ions on the flotation of these minerals was further elucidated by solution chemistry study, zeta potential measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. The results indicate that an appropriate amount of Ca2+ and Mg2+ can improve the floatability of apatite but had a negligible effect on the flotation performance of dolomite, whereas Al3+, Fe3+, and excessive amounts of Ca2+ decreased the recovery of apatite and dolomite. The studied metal cations can activate quartz at a particular pH. It can be inferred from solution chemistry and zeta potential measurement that the influence of metal ions on the flotation of different minerals should be attributed to the adsorption of various hydrolysis species on the mineral surfaces. XPS analyses reveal that calcium ions can enhance the adsorption of anionic collector on apatite and quartz surfaces, and there are no apparent changes to be observed on the surface of dolomite in the absence and presence of calcium ions at a concentration of 2.5 × 10−3 M, which was in good agreement with the micro-flotation results.

  7. The impact of bacteria of circulating water on apatite-nepheline ore flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, G A; Gershenkop, A Sh; Fokina, N V

    2012-01-01

    A new phenomenon has been identified and studied-the impact of bacteria on the benefication process of non-sulphide ores using circulating water supply-a case study of apatite-nepheline ore. It is shown that bacteria deteriorate the floatability of apatite due to their interaction with active centres of calcium-containing minerals and intense flocculation, resulting in a decrease of the flotation process selectivity thus deteriorating the quality of concentrate. Based on the comparative analysis of primary sequences of 16S rRNA genes, there have been identified dominating bacteria species, recovered from the circulating water used at apatite-nepheline concentrating mills, and their phylogenetic position has been determined. All the bacteria were related to γ-Proteobacteria, including the Acinetobacter species, Pseudomonas alcaliphila, Ps. plecoglossicida, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. A method of non-sulphide ores flotation has been developed with consideration of the bacterial factor. It consists in use of small concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, which inhibits the development of bacteria in the flotation of apatite-nepheline ores.

  8. In vitro biomimetic deposition of apatite on alkaline and heat treated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    materials of choice for most dental and orthopedic appli- .... treatment on the surface of the substrate and the structure of the titanium substrate, gel layer and bone-like apatite coatings obtained were analysed by thin film X-ray dif-.

  9. Naturally etched tracks in apatites and the correction of fission track dating

    CERN Document Server

    Tien, J L

    1999-01-01

    Naturally etched tracks have been found in apatites from the rapid cooled, high-level Kunon pluton in the Zhangzhou Igneous Complex, SE China. This is manifested by the fact that the apatite fission track (FT) age derived from conventional counting of spontaneous and induced tracks yields a result of 140.6+-6.5 Ma, which is much older than the ages determined using other methods on different minerals from the same rock. When tracks are observed after etching the polished inner sections of the apatite grains, the naturally etched tracks characterized by having hazy boundaries can be distinguished from the normal tracks with sharp boundaries. The age obtained by omitting these fading-resistant hazy tracks, 76.5+-4.0 Ma, indicates the time of the Kunon pluton cooling down to approx 100 deg. C. The corrected peak age (73.8 Ma) is consistent with the other apatite FT peak ages (79.2 to 70.2 Ma) of the nearly contemporaneous plutons in the same igneous complex.

  10. Preparation of an apatite-based matrix for the confinement of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the study of the conditioning of iodine 129 from the reprocessing of nuclear wastes. Because of its long half life (1.57 10 7 years), the conditioning of iodine 129 requires a matrix stable during several thousands of years. The study of natural minerals allows the selection of mineral phases having a good long term behaviour. In the first part the policy of nuclear wastes management, and in particular of iodine, is recalled. A naturalistic approach is used to define the best conditioning material and the remarkable properties of apatite in this way are described. In the second part, the preparation and physical-chemical characterization of iodo-apatites are described. A demonstration is made that iodine can penetrate inside vanadate or lead phospho-vanadate apatite-based compounds. The third part deals with the preparation of the conditioning material. The sintering reaction under pressure allows the preparation of composite ceramics including iodo-apatite. A multi-layer coating process is defined: coating of PbI 2 with a Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 layer and a Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 layer. Sintering is performed at 700 deg. celsius under a 25 MPa pressure. (J.S.)

  11. Preparation of fluoride substituted apatite cements as the building blocks for tooth enamel restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jie; Wang Jiecheng; Liu Xiaochen; Ma Jian; Liu Changsheng; Fang Jing; Wei Shicheng

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride substituted apatite cement (fs-AC) was synthesized by using the cement powders of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and sodium fluoride (NaF), and the cement powders were mixed with diluted phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) as cement liquid to form fs-AC paste. The fs-AC paste could be directly filled into the carious cavities to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the fs-AC paste was changed into fluorapatite crystals with the atom molar ratio for calcium to phosphorus of 1.66 and the F ion amount of 3 wt% after self-hardening for 2 days. The solubility of fs-AC in Tris-HCl solution (pH 6) was slightly lower than hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) that was similar to the apatite in enamel, indicating the fs-AC was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solution than the apatite in enamel. The fs-AC was tightly combined with the enamel surface because of the chemical reaction between the fs-AC and the apatite in enamel after the caries cavities was filled with fs-AC. The extracts of fs-AC caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. The fs-AC had potential prospect for the reconstitution of carious lesion of dental enamel.

  12. Bone apatite composition of necrotic trabecular bone in the femoral head of immature piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruwajoye, Olumide O; Kim, Harry K W; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-04-01

    Ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (IOFH) can lead to excessive resorption of the trabecular bone and collapse of the femoral head as a structure. A well-known mineral component to trabecular bone is hydroxyapatite, which can be present in many forms due to ionic substitution, thus altering chemical composition. Unfortunately, very little is known about the chemical changes to bone apatite following IOFH. We hypothesized that the apatite composition changes in necrotic bone possibly contribute to increased osteoclast resorption and structural collapse of the femoral head. The purpose of this study was to assess the macroscopic and local phosphate composition of actively resorbed necrotic trabecular bone to isolate differences between areas of increased osteoclast resorption and normal bone formation. A piglet model of IOFH was used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, X-ray absorbance near edge structure (XANES), and Raman spectroscopy were performed on femoral heads to characterize normal and necrotic trabecular bone. Backscattered SEM, micro-computed tomography and histology showed deformity and active resorption of necrotic bone compared to normal. XANES and Raman spectroscopy obtained from actively resorbed necrotic bone and normal bone showed increased carbonate-to-phosphate content in the necrotic bone. The changes in the apatite composition due to carbonate substitution may play a role in the increased resorption of necrotic bone due to its increase in solubility. Indeed, a better understanding of the apatite composition of necrotic bone could shed light on osteoclast activity and potentially improve therapeutic treatments that target excessive resorption of bone.

  13. Chemical, physical, and histologic studies on four commercial apatites used for alveolar ridge augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Ruyter, I E; Haanaes, H R

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate four commercial apatite products. Subperiosteal alveolar ridge augmentation was performed on the maxilla of rats by implantation of granules of two dense products and of two porous products, and the tissue response was compared with the material character...

  14. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Central Iran; iron-apatite ore; Kiruna-type; Posht-e-Badam Block; REE geochemistry. J. Earth Syst ... ferent ore genesis models have been proposed for ...... volatile-rich magma systems stress the important .... Laco magnetite flow deposits, northern Chile: An up-to- ... economic report on iron ore prevision of the Esfahan steel.

  15. Adsorption of Pb(II) present in aqueous solution on calcium, strontium and barium hydroxy apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilchis G, J.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium, strontium and barium hydroxy apatites were successfully synthesized by chemical precipitation method, the obtained powders were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), semi-quantitative elemental analysis (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and N 2 physisorption studies, complementary to these analytical techniques, was determined the surface fractal dimension (Df), and the amount of surface active sites of the materials, in order to know application as ceramic for water remediation. The ability of Pb(II) ion adsorption present in aqueous solution on the hydroxy apatites synthesized by batch type experiments was studied as a function of contact time, concentration of the adsorbate and temperature. The maximum lead adsorption efficiencies obtained were 0.31, 0.32 and 0.26 mg/g for calcium, strontium and barium hydroxy apatites respectively, achieved an equilibrium time of 20 minutes in the three solid-liquid systems studied. Experimental data were adequately adjusted at the adsorption kinetic model pseudo-second order, for the three cases. Moreover, experimental data of the strontium and calcium hydroxy apatites were adjusted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating that the adsorption was through a monolayer, whereas barium hydroxyapatite was adjusted to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, indicating a multilayer adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters obtained during adsorption studies as a function of temperature showed physisorption, exothermic and spontaneous processes respectively. The results showed that the calcium hydroxyapatite, strontium and barium are an alternative for the Pb(II) ion adsorption present in wastewaters. (Author)

  16. On the reproducibility of apatite fission-track plateau-age dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Baitelli, R.; Berbert, M.; Fonseca, A.

    1985-01-01

    Duplicate measurements as well as published data show that plateau-age measurements on apatites have a reproducibility - when made in optical microscopy - generally better than +- 5%, which may be accounted for by statistical errors on track density measurement. (Author) [pt

  17. Bone tissue engineering on amorphous carbonated apatite and crystalline octacalcium phosphate-coated titanium discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Robert J.; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; Stigter, Martin; Barrère, F.; Layrolle, Pierre; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2005-01-01

    Poor fixation of bone replacement implants, e.g. the artificial hip, in implantation sites with inferior bone quality and quantity may be overcome by the use of implants coated with a cultured living bone equivalent. In this study, we tested, respectively, amorphous carbonated apatite (CA)- and

  18. [Apatite-forming ability of pure titanium implant after micro-arc oxidation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihui; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Lichao; Nan, Kaihui

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the apatite forming ability of pure titanium implant after micro-arc oxidation treatment in simulated body fluid (SBF) and obtain implants with calcium phosphate (Ca-P) layers. The implants were immersed in (SBF) after micro-arc oxidation treatment for different time lengths, and their apatite forming ability and the morphology and constituents of the Ca-P layers formed on the sample surface were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive electron probe. After immersion in SBF, large quantities of Ca-P layers were induced on the surface of the samples. The Ca-P layers were composed of octacalcium phosphate and carbonated hydroxyapatite, and the crystals showed a plate-like morphology with an oriented growth. The implants with micro-arc oxidation treatment show good apatite forming ability on the surface with rich calcium and phosphorus elements. The formed layers are composed of bone-like apatite including octacalcium phosphate and carbonated hydroxyapatite.

  19. COMPARISON OF APATITE II™ TREATMENT SYSTEM AT TWO MINES FOR METALS REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two abandoned lead-zinc mine sites, the Nevada Stewart Mine (NSM) and Success Mine, are located within the Coeur d'Alene Mining District, in northern Idaho. An Apatite II™ Treatment System (ATS) was implemented at each site to treat metal-laden water, mainly zinc. In the ATS, f...

  20. Preparation of fluoride substituted apatite cements as the building blocks for tooth enamel restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jie [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang Jiecheng; Liu Xiaochen [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ma Jian [Hospital of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Liu Changsheng [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Fang Jing, E-mail: biomater2006@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: nic7505@263.net [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Inter-disciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Fluoride substituted apatite cement (fs-AC) was synthesized by using the cement powders of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and sodium fluoride (NaF), and the cement powders were mixed with diluted phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) as cement liquid to form fs-AC paste. The fs-AC paste could be directly filled into the carious cavities to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the fs-AC paste was changed into fluorapatite crystals with the atom molar ratio for calcium to phosphorus of 1.66 and the F ion amount of 3 wt% after self-hardening for 2 days. The solubility of fs-AC in Tris-HCl solution (pH 6) was slightly lower than hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) that was similar to the apatite in enamel, indicating the fs-AC was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solution than the apatite in enamel. The fs-AC was tightly combined with the enamel surface because of the chemical reaction between the fs-AC and the apatite in enamel after the caries cavities was filled with fs-AC. The extracts of fs-AC caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. The fs-AC had potential prospect for the reconstitution of carious lesion of dental enamel.

  1. Sub-µm structure and volatile distribution of shocked lunar apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernok, A.; White, L. F.; Darling, J.; Dunlop, J.; Fougerouse, D.; William, R. D. A.; Reddy, S.; Saxey, D. W.; Zhao, X.; Franchi, I.; Anand, M.

    2017-12-01

    Apatite is a key mineral broadly used for studying volatiles in planetary materials. Most studies in this recent frontier of planetary exploration focus on volatile content and respective isotopic composition in apatite. However, there is an imperative to contextualize geochemical data with impact-induced features, given that most planetary materials experienced at least some shock deformation. This study aims at understanding the effect of high-level shock deformation on volatile distribution in apatite from lunar highlands samples. Combining Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), NanoSIMS and Atom Probe Microscopy (APM) analyses we are gaining an insight into the µm- and nm-scale structural variation in apatite from a shocked, maskelynite- and impact-melt-bearing norite. EBSD revealed degraded crystallinity, high density of low angle grain boundaries and domains of sub-µm granular features that appear amorphous at this length scales ( 80 x 40 nm). Texture component maps show up to 25° misorientation within a single grain - evidence of severe crystal-plastic deformation, but with no obvious evidence of recrystallization. APM revealed complex microstructure of the apparently amorphous domains defined by well developed, straight to slightly curved grain boundaries meeting at 120° triple junctions. This equilibrium texture is probably accommodated by annealing and recrystallization of apatite due to the post-shock heating. Crystallites range in size from 50 to 100 nm. Grain boundaries are defined by segregation of Mg, Si and Fe impurities, which possibly originate from surrounding phases. Cl and F show homogenous distribution over the length scale of the APM analysis (1 to 500 nm). H2O content measurements of 250-600 ppm by NanoSIMS are consistent with the lower range of previously reported values for this rock, with no obvious correlation with the level of crystallinity. δD values are confirmed to be terrestrial-like and relatively constant. These preliminary

  2. Cd2+ and Zn2+ sorption on apatite in the presence of EDTA and humic substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viipsi K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of Cd2+ and Zn2+ on hydroxyapatite [HAP- Ca10(PO46(OH2] and fluorapatite [FAP- Ca10( PO46(F2] with different specific surface area and stoichiometry was investigated in batch experiments in the pH range 4 to 11 (25 ◦C; 0.1 M KNO3. The impact of different conditions was concerned: solution pH, the presence of complexing ligands (EDTA and humic substance and competing metal ions, as well as reaction kinetic and equilibrium conditions. To evaluate the reversibility of Cd2+ sorption onto HAP, desorption characteristics in water, Ca, EDTA, and HUM-solutions were determined. Additionally to solution analysis the surface composition of solid phases was analysed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS. The information from the chemical analyses was used to design an equilibration model that takes into account dissolution, surface potential, solution and surface complexation, as well as possible phase transformations. It was revealed that apatites effectively sorb Cd2+ and Zn2+ by ion exchange reactions on surface by formation of new surface phases. Using XPS the formation of a Me-enriched HAP surface was found, which was interpreted as the formation of a solid solution with the general formula: Ca8.4-xMex(HPO41.6(PO44.4(OH0.4. In a binary solution (Cd+Zn the competition of metals reduced individual sorbed amount compared with the single component solutions but the total adsorption maximum was approximately constant. The presence of EDTA reduces the metal sorption on apatite due to [CdEDTA]2- and [ZnEDTA]2- complexes and increases apatite solubility due to [CaEDTA]2- complex formation. The dissolved humic substance was bound on apatite in suspensions but the amount of Cd2+ bound was not changed. The results showed that the solution pH and the presence of complexing ligands have a significant effect on heavy metal sorption on apatite and must be considered if apatites are used as remediation agent. The proposed model can be used to predict

  3. Hydroxyl migration disorders the surface structure of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiajie; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Li; Ma, Xingtao; Zhang, Xingdong; Yang, Mingli

    2017-09-01

    The surface structure of nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) was investigated using a combined simulated annealing and molecular dynamics method. The stationary structures of nano-HAP with 4-7 nm in diameter and annealed under different temperatures were analyzed in terms of pair distribution function, structural factor, mean square displacement and atomic coordination number. The particles possess different structures from bulk crystal. A clear radial change in their atomic arrangements was noted. From core to surface the structures change from ordered to disordered. A three-shell model was proposed to describe the structure evolution of nano-HAP. Atoms in the core zone keep their arrangements as in crystal, while atoms in the surface shell are in short-range order and long-range disorder, adopting a typically amorphous structure. Atoms in the middle shell have small displacements and/or deflections but basically retain their original locations as in crystal. The disordered shell is about 1 nm in thickness, in agreement with experimental observations. The disordering mainly stems from hydroxyl migration during which hydroxyls move to the surface and bond with the exposed Ca ions, and their left vacancies bring about a rearrangement of nearby atoms. The disordering is to some extent different for particles unannealed under different temperatures, resulting from fewer number of migrated hydroxyls at lower temperatures. Particles with different sizes have similar surface structures, and their surface energy decreases with increasing size. Moreover, the surface energy is reduced by hydroxyl migration because the exposed Ca ions on the surface are ionically bonded with the migrated hydroxyls. Our calculations proposed a new structure model for nano-HAP, which indicates a surface structure with activities different from those without surface reorganization. This is particularly interesting because most bioactivities of biomaterials are dominated by their surface activity.

  4. Thermal annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, chlorapatite, manganoanapatite, and Durango apatite: experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenhurst, C.E.; Roden-Tice, M.K.; Miller, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that the optically measured lengths of fission tracks in apatite crystals are a function of etching conditions, crystallographic orientation of the track, composition of the crystal, and the state of thermal annealing. In this study we standardize etching conditions and optimize track length measurability by etching until etch pits formed at the surface of each apatite crystal reached widths of about 0.74 μm. Etching times using 5M HNO 3 at 21 o C were 31 s for Otter Lake, Quebec, fluorapatite; 47 s for Durango, Mexico, apatite; 33 s for Portland, Connecticut, manganoanapatite; and 11 s for Bamle, Norway, chlorapatite. An etching experiment using two etchant strengths (5M and 1.6M HNO 3 ) revealed that, despite significant differences in etch pit shape, fission-track length anisotropy with respect to crystallographic orientation of the tracks is not a chemical etching effect. A series of 227 constant-temperature annealing experiments were carried out on nuclear reactor induced tracks in oriented slices of the apatites. After etching, crystallographic orientations of tracks were measured along with their lengths. The 200-300 track lengths measured for each slice were ellipse-fitted to give the major (c crystallographic direction) and minor (a crystallographic direction) semi-axes used to calculate equivalent isotropic lengths. The equivalent isotropic length is more useful than mean length for thermal history analysis because the variation caused by anisotropy has been removed. Using normalized etching procedures and equivalent isotropic length data, we found that the fluorapatite anneals most readily, followed by Durango apatite, manganoanapatite, and lastly chlorapatite. (author)

  5. The function of Sn(II)-apatite as a Tc immobilizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, R. Matthew, E-mail: matthew.asmussen@pnnl.gov [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States); Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    At the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, Tc-99 is a component of low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the nuclear tank waste and removal of Tc from LAW streams would greatly benefit the site remediation process. In this study, we investigated the removal of Tc(VII), as pertechnetate, from deionized water (DIW) and a LAW simulant through batch sorption testing and solid phase characterization using tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) and SnCl{sub 2}. Sn-A showed higher levels of Tc removal from both DIW and LAW simulant. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/XEDS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of reacted Sn-A in DIW showed that TcO4- is reduced to Tc(IV) on the Sn-A surface. The performance of Sn-A in the LAW simulant was lowered due to a combined effect of the high alkalinity, which lead to an increased dissolution of Sn from the Sn-A, and a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI). - Highlights: • Sn(II)-Apatite shows high proficiency in removing Tc(VII) from neutral solutions. • The removal of the Tc(VII) by Sn(II)-apatite is done via reduction to Tc(IV)O{sub 2} × H{sub 2}O. • In LAW Sn(II)-apatite is less efficient in removing Tc(VII). • Interference in LAW due to a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI) and the high pH. • Sn(II)-apatite can remove Tc(VII) from LAW effectively through increasing material added.

  6. Influence of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown in Elevated CO2 on Apatite Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. A.; Morra, B.

    2016-12-01

    We ran a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that release of plant nutrients contained in apatite will be accelerated by the growth of Langstrath Stringless green bean in the presence of atmospheric CO2 meant to simulate possible future atmospheric conditions due a higher demand of nutrients and growth rate caused by elevated CO2. We hypothesize that elevated atmospheric CO2 will lead to both increased root growth and organic acid exudation. These two traits will lead to improved acquisition of P derived from apatite. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Plants were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Mini-greenhouses were utilized to control CO2 levels. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution lacking in Ca and P. Calcium and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served as a proxy for apatite dissolution. Plants were harvested biweekly during the eight-week experiment and analyzed for Ca and P to calculate apatite dissolution kinetics. Preliminary results suggest that approximately four times more P and Ca are present in the leachate from experiments containing plants under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels than in abiotic experiments; however, the amounts of both P and Ca released in experiments conducted under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels are similar. Additionally, the amount of P in plant tissue grown under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions is similar. Plants grown in elevated CO2 had a greater root to shoot ratio. The planted microcosms were found to have a lower pH than abiotic controls most likely due to root respiration and exudation of organic acids.

  7. Quantitative analysis from limited sampling: influence of the chemical composition of apatites on their resistance to irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribet, I.; Petit, J.C.; CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance

    1998-01-01

    Apatites are investigated as possible high performance radioactive waste matrices for specific actinides. In this paper, we have quantified the influence of the chemical composition of apatites on their fission-track annealing behaviour. We aimed to evaluate the capability of apatites to self-anneal high densities of radiation damages produced during disposal. The thermal annealing kinetics, at 280 deg. C, of induced fission tracks has been determined for six different apatite compositions. We show that the chemical composition of apatites is a critical parameter with respect to their annealing behaviour. A mathematical treatment of the data, based upon the methodology of optimum design of experiments, allowed the quantification of the role of substitution for two major elements, of the apatite structure (Ca, P), for chlorine and for the two groups of minor elements, actinides (U+Th) and lanthanides (La+Ce+Y), which are relevant in the nuclear waste disposal context. A high actinide content enhances the annealing of fission-tracks in apatites, which is a very favourable feature of these minerals as radioactive waste matrices. This work also points to a new strategy for the best use of information provided by geological samples. In particular, the mathematical methodology proposed here allows, first, to evaluate the 'quality' of the information obtained and, second, to improve it by a proper choice of additional samples to investigate. (authors)

  8. Postmagmatic magnetite-apatite assemblage in mafic intrusions: a case study of dolerite at Olympic Dam, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apukhtina, Olga B.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; McPhie, Jocelyn; Maas, Roland; Meffre, Sebastien; Goemann, Karsten; Rodemann, Thomas; Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of magnetite and apatite is common worldwide in different ore deposit types, including disparate members of the iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG) clan. The Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite deposits, a subtype of the IOCG family, are recognized as economic targets as well. A wide range of competing genetic models exists for magnetite-apatite deposits, including magmatic, magmatic-hydrothermal, hydrothermal(-metasomatic), and sedimentary(-exhalative). The sources and mechanisms of transport and deposition of Fe and P remain highly debatable. This study reports petrographic and geochemical features of the magnetite-apatite-rich vein assemblages in the dolerite dykes of the Gairdner Dyke Swarm (~0.82 Ga) that intruded the Roxby Downs Granite (~0.59 Ga), the host of the supergiant Olympic Dam IOCG deposit. These symmetrical, only few mm narrow veins are prevalent in such dykes and comprise besides usually colloform magnetite and prismatic apatite also further minerals (e.g., calcite, quartz). The genetic relationships between the veins and host dolerite are implied based on alteration in the immediate vicinity (~4 mm) of the veins. In particular, Ti-magnetite-ilmenite is partially to completely transformed to titanite and magmatic apatite disappears. We conclude that the mafic dykes were a local source of Fe and P re-concentrated in the magnetite-apatite veins. Uranium-Pb ages for vein apatite and titanite associated with the vein in this case study suggest that alteration of the dolerite and healing of the fractures occurred shortly after dyke emplacement. We propose that in this particular case the origin of the magnetite-apatite assemblage is clearly related to hydrothermal alteration of the host mafic magmatic rocks.

  9. Differential effects of collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation on skeletal tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica P Homan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the genes encoding cartilage associated protein (CRTAP and prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1 encoded by LEPRE1 were the first identified causes of recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI. These proteins, together with cyclophilin B (encoded by PPIB, form a complex that 3-hydroxylates a single proline residue on the α1(I chain (Pro986 and has cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity essential for proper collagen folding. Recent data suggest that prolyl 3-hydroxylation of Pro986 is not required for the structural stability of collagen; however, the absence of this post-translational modification may disrupt protein-protein interactions integral for proper collagen folding and lead to collagen over-modification. P3H1 and CRTAP stabilize each other and absence of one results in degradation of the other. Hence, hypomorphic or loss of function mutations of either gene cause loss of the whole complex and its associated functions. The relative contribution of losing this complex's 3-hydroxylation versus PPIase and collagen chaperone activities to the phenotype of recessive OI is unknown. To distinguish between these functions, we generated knock-in mice carrying a single amino acid substitution in the catalytic site of P3h1 (Lepre1(H662A . This substitution abolished P3h1 activity but retained ability to form a complex with Crtap and thus the collagen chaperone function. Knock-in mice showed absence of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at Pro986 of the α1(I and α1(II collagen chains but no significant over-modification at other collagen residues. They were normal in appearance, had no growth defects and normal cartilage growth plate histology but showed decreased trabecular bone mass. This new mouse model recapitulates elements of the bone phenotype of OI but not the cartilage and growth phenotypes caused by loss of the prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex. Our observations suggest differential tissue consequences due to selective inactivation of P3H1 hydroxylase

  10. Chaînes d'exploits scénarios de hacking avancés et prévention

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Andrew; Voth, Jack B

    2009-01-01

    Un pirate informatique s'appuie rarement sur une unique attaque, mais utilise plutôt des chaînes d'exploits, qui impliquent plusieurs méthodes et attaques coordonnées, pour atteindre sa cible et arriver à ses fins. Ces chaînes d'exploits sont généralement complexes et difficiles à prévenir. Or la plupart des ouvrages de sécurité ne les couvrent pas, ou sinon de manière superficielle. Cet ouvrage présente en profondeur les principales chaînes d'exploits qui sévissent actuellement. À travers des exemples basés sur des stratégies d'attaques réelles, utilisant les outils actuels les plus courants et visant des cibles importantes comme des données bancaires ou de sécurité sociale, vous découvrirez le spectre complet des attaques, des réseaux sans-fil à l'accès physique en passant par l'ingénierie sociale. Dans chaque scénario, les exploits sont décortiqués un à un en vue d'expliquer la chaîne qui va conduire à l'attaque finale. Les mesures de prévention à appliquer pour éviter...

  11. CHADS2 and modified CHA2DS2-VASc scores for the prediction of congestive heart failure in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorihiko Koeda

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Calculation of the CHADS2 and mCHA2DS2-VASc scores in order to evaluate the risk of systemic thromboembolism was useful to predict the onset of CHF, but not all-cause death, in patients with NVAF.

  12. Use of the CHA2DS2VASc score to reduce utilisation of transoesophageal echocardiography prior to ablation for atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Atkinson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE is frequently performed prior to atrial fibrillation (AF ablation to exclude left atrial appendage (LAA thrombus. However, patients undergoing AF ablation are usually anticoagulated, thus making the presence of thrombus unlikely in most cases. This study aimed to determine whether the CHA2DS2VASc scoring system can be used to identify patients that do not require TOE prior to AF ablation. In this single-centre retrospective study, local institutional and primary care databases and electronic patient records were searched to identify patients that had undergone TOE prior to AF ablation. Patient demographics, CHA2DS2VASc score, TOE findings and anticoagulation status were collected for analysis. Over a 7-year period (2008–2014, 332 patients (age 57 ± 10 years; 74% male underwent TOE prior to proposed AF ablation. CHA2DS2VASc scores of 0, 1, 2 and >2 were found in 39, 34, 15 and 12% of patients, respectively. The prevalence of LAA thrombus was 0.6% (2 patients and these 2 patients had risk scores of 2 and 4. No patients with a score of 0 or 1 had LAA thrombus. Patients that are classed as low risk by the CHA2DS2VASc score do not require a pre-ablation TOE to screen for LAA thrombus provided they are adequately anticoagulated. This would lead to a significant reduction in health care expenditures by reducing unnecessary TOE requests and thereby improve patient experience.

  13. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc score to assess risk of stroke and death in patients paced for sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Darkner, Stine

    2013-01-01

    The risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) can be assessed by use of the CHADS2 and the CHA2DS2-VASc score system. We hypothesised that these risk scores and their individual components could also be applied to patients paced for sick sinus syndrome (SSS) to evaluate risk of str...

  14. Hydroxyl-dependent Evolution of Oxygen Vacancies Enables the Regeneration of BiOCl photocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Sujuan; Xiong, Jiawei; Sun, Jianguo; Hood, Zachary D.; Zeng, Wen; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Lin; Zhang, Xixiang; Yang, Shize

    2017-01-01

    irradiation in the sample with surface hydroxyl groups, while variable changes were observed in samples without surface hydroxyls. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the binding energy of Bi-O is drastically influenced by surficial

  15. Decreased Renal Function Is Associated with Elevated CHA2DS2VASC and R2CHADS2 Scores in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients Presenting with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindhyal, Mohinder; Vindhyal, Shravani R; Haneke, Travis; Ndunda, Paul M; Eid, Freidy; Kallail, K James

    2017-12-11

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affects approximately 2.3 million patients in the United States, costing around $26 billion. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a two- to seven-fold increased risk of stroke, one of the most serious complications. Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 13% of the US population and has been associated with higher rates of AF than the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the risk of stroke increases as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases, especially in CKD stages three and four. Several risks stratification scores such as CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes mellitus, stroke), CHA2DS2VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes mellitus, stroke, vascular disease, age, sex), and R2CHADS2 (renal failure, congestive heart failure, age, diabetes, stroke) scores are used for stroke risk assessment in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This study investigates the association between renal functions and risk stratification scoring systems in patients with non-valvular AF presenting with stroke. Methods Using the convenience sampling method, 171 subjects were selected from the eligible population (n = 386). A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the association between the GFR and each of the CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2 scores. In addition, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the association between the CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2 scores. Results The selected population represented 44.3% of the eligible subjects. Of these, 88% were Caucasian, 60% were female, and the mean age was 78 years. The mean CHA2DS2VASc score was six (range 2-9). The mean eGFR was 69.77 (range 6-108). Both the mode and the median CHA2DS2VASc score was four (range 2-8). A weak, but significant, negative correlation was found between renal

  16. Hydroxyl-radical induced dechlorination of pentachlorophenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yongke; Wu Jilan; Fang Xingwang; Sonntag, C. von

    1998-01-01

    The hydroxyl-radical induced dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in water has been investigated pulse radiolytically. Hydroxyl radicals react with PCP by both electron transfer and addition. The former process results in pentachlorophenoxyl radicals (PCP-O), the latter process followed by rapid HCl elimination gives birth to deprotonated hydroxytetrachlorophenoxyl radicals ( - O-TCP-O). These phenoxyl radicals exhibit maximum absorption around 452 nm, which hinders the proper estimation of the ratio of the two processes. However, these two processes cause different changes in conductivity. In basic solution, the electron transfer causes a conductivity increase due to the formation of OH - whereas an addition followed by HCl elimination results in a conductivity decrease. The concurrence of these two processes reduces the relative variation in conductivity, from which about 53% electron transfer is deduced

  17. Trimeric Hydrogen Bond in Geometrically Frustrated Hydroxyl Cobalt Halogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Dong, Liu; Masato, Hagihala; Xu-Guang, Zheng; Dong-Dong, Meng; Wan-Jun, Tao; Sen-Lin, Zhang; Qi-Xin, Guo

    2011-01-01

    The mid-infrared absorption spectra of geometrically frustrated hydroxyl cobalt halogenides Co 2 (OH) 3 Cl and Co 2 (OH) 3 Br are measured by FTIR spectrometers, and the stretching vibrational modes of hydroxyl groups are found to be 3549cm −1 and 3524cm −1 respectively. Through finding their true terminal O-H group stretching vibration frequencies, we obtain 107cm −1 and 99cm −1 red shift caused by the corresponding O-H···Cl and O-H···Br hydrogen bonds. Rarely reported trimeric hydrogen bonds (Co 3 ≡O-H) 3 ···Cl/Br are pointed out to demonstrate the relative weakness of this kind of hydrogen bond which may have a critical effect on the lattice symmetry and magnetic structures. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. On the spatial coincidence of hydroxyl and methanol masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Menten, K. M.; Lepp, S.; Dalgarno, A.

    1995-01-01

    We argue that purely gas-phase chemical models for the production of OH in hydroxyl masers around ultracompact H II regions such as W3(OH) cannot account for the CH_3OH in the methanol masers that are found to coincide with the hydroxyl masers in these sources. We suggest that the CH_3OH in the masers is injected into the gas phase by evaporation of the grain mantles, the grains being heated by the passage of weak shocks. Gas evaporation also injects H_2O into the gas. Photodissociation of H_2O, CH_3OH and OH occur at similar rates, and substantial abundances of CH_3OH and OH coexist.

  19. The Influence of Hydroxylated Carbon Nanotubes on Epoxy Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoxia Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs/epoxy resin nanocomposites were prepared with ultrasonic dispersion and casting molding. The effect of hydroxylated MWNTs content on reactive activity of composites is discussed. Then the flexural and electrical properties were studied. Transmission electron microscope was employed to characterize the microstructure of nanocomposites. As a result, the reactive activity of nanocomposites obtained increases with the increasing content of MWNTs. When MWNTs content of the composites is 1 wt%, as compared to neat resin, the flexural strength increases from 143 Mpa to 156 MPa, the modulus increases from 3563 Mpa to 3691 MPa, and the volume and surface resistance of nanocomposites decrease by two orders of magnitude, respectively.

  20. Novel denture-cleaning system based on hydroxyl radical disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Taro; Nakamura, Keisuke; Ikai, Hiroyo; Hayashi, Eisei; Shirato, Midori; Mokudai, Takayuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi; Kohno, Masahiro; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new denture-cleaning device using hydroxyl radicals generated from photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Electron spin resonance analysis demonstrated that the yield of hydroxyl radicals increased with the concentration of H2O2 and light irradiation time. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant S aureus were killed within 10 minutes with a > 5-log reduction when treated with photolysis of 500 mM H2O2; Candida albicans was killed within 30 minutes with a > 4-log reduction with photolysis of 1,000 mM H2O2. The clinical test demonstrated that the device could effectively reduce microorganisms in denture plaque by approximately 7-log order within 20 minutes.

  1. The Haber Process Made Efficient by Hydroxylated Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Chaban, Vitaly; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The Haber-Bosch process is the main industrial method for producing ammonia from diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen. Very demanding energetically, it uses an iron catalyst, and requires high temperature and pressure. Any improvement of the Haber process will have an extreme scientific and economic impact. We report a significant increase of ammonia production using hydroxylated graphene. Exploiting the polarity difference between N2/H2 and NH3, as well as the universal proton acceptor behavior of...

  2. Structure, electronic properties, and aggregation behavior of hydroxylated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Oyama, A. B.; Silva-Molina, R. A.; Ruíz-García, J.; Guirado-López, R. A., E-mail: guirado@ifisica.uaslp.mx [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Gámez-Corrales, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study to analyze the structure, electronic properties, and aggregation behavior of hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (OH–MWCNT). Our MWCNTs have average diameters of ∼2 nm, lengths of approximately 100–300 nm, and a hydroxyl surface coverage θ∼0.1. When deposited on the air/water interface the OH–MWCNTs are partially soluble and the floating units interact and link with each other forming extended foam-like carbon networks. Surface pressure-area isotherms of the nanotube films are performed using the Langmuir balance method at different equilibration times. The films are transferred into a mica substrate and atomic force microscopy images show that the foam like structure is preserved and reveals fine details of their microstructure. Density functional theory calculations performed on model hydroxylated carbon nanotubes show that low energy atomic configurations are found when the OH groups form molecular islands on the nanotube's surface. This patchy behavior for the OH species is expected to produce nanotubes having reduced wettabilities, in line with experimental observations. OH doping yields nanotubes having small HOMO–LUMO energy gaps and generates a nanotube → OH direction for the charge transfer leading to the existence of more hole carriers in the structures. Our synthesized OH–MWCNTs might have promising applications.

  3. Regioselective hydroxylation of isoflavones by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun; Seo, Su-Hyun; Choi, Kwon-Young; Cha, Minho; Pandey, Bishnu Prasad; Kim, June-Hyung; Park, Jun-Seong; Kim, Duck Hee; Chang, Ih Seop; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2009-07-01

    Screening of bacterial whole cells was performed for regioselective hydroxylation of daidzein and genistein. Among the strains examined, Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 showed high ortho-dihydroxylation activity to produce 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone and 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone from daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), respectively. Using 100 mg cells (wet wt.) and 1% (v/v) Triton X100 in 1 ml of total reaction volume, where 100 microl of the substrate solution (0.5 mM in 10% (v/v) mixed solvent of DMSO:MeOH = 3:7) was added to 900 microl of potassium phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.2), a 16% molar conversion yield of 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone was obtained from 0.5 mM daidzein after 24 h of reaction time at 28 degrees C and 200 rpm. Ketoconazole significantly (ca. 90%) inhibited the ortho-hydroxylation activity of daidzein, suggesting that cytochrome P450 enzymes putatively play roles in regiospecific daidzein hydroxylation. The analysis of the reaction products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and (1)H NMR.

  4. Synthesis and properties evaluation of sulfobetaine surfactant with double hydroxyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Ze; Li, Sisi; Wang, Chengwen

    2017-09-01

    A series of sulfobetaine surfactants {N-[(3-alkoxy-2-hydroxyl)propoxy] ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl)propyl sulfonate} ammonium chloride were synthesized with raw materials containing linear saturated alcohol, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxyl propane sulfonic acid and epichlorohydrin. The molecule structures of sulfobetaine surfactants were characterized by FTIR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. Surface tension measurements can provide us information about the surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), pC20, Γmax and Amin. The pC20 values of sulfobetaine surfactants increase with the hydrophobic chain length increasing. Amin values of the surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 14. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension (γCMC) values of the sulfobetaine surfactants decrease with increasing hydrophobic chain length from 10 to 16. The lipophilicity of surfactant was enhanced with the increase of the carbon chain, however, the ability of anti-hard water was weakened. The minimum oil/water interfacial tension of four kinds of sulfobetaine surfactants is 10-2-10-3 mN/m magnitude, which indicates that the synthesized bis-hydroxy sulfobetaine surfactants have a great ability to reduce interfacial tension in the surfactant flooding system. The surface tension (γCMC) values of synthesized surfactants were lower compared with conventional anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfonate.

  5. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of salicylates in aerated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induced degradation of acetylsalicylic acid, its hydrolysis product salicylic acid and a salicylic acid derivative 5-sulpho-salicylic acid, was investigated in dilute aqueous solutions by UV–vis spectrophotometry, HPLC separation and diode-array or MS/MS detection, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and by Vibrio fischeri toxicity measurements. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to degrade these molecules readily, and first degradation products were hydroxylated derivatives in all cases. Due to the by-products, among them hydrogen peroxide, the toxicity first increased and then decreased with the absorbed dose. With prolonged irradiation complete mineralization was achieved. - Highlights: • In OH induced reactions of salicylates first products are hydroxylated derivatives. • With prolonged irradiation dihydroxy derivatives also form. • In aerated solutions the one-electron oxidant OH induces 3–4 oxidations. • Toxicity first increases and then decreases with dose mainly due to H 2 O 2 formation. • The toxicity in tap water is smaller than in pure water

  6. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REDUCTION AND STABILIZATION (IMMOBILIZATION) OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE USING TIN(II)APATITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY K; MOORE WP; RHODES RN; JOHNSON JM; MOORE RC

    2012-06-01

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mo bile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period oftime (6 weeks). Previous work (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine) indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table A shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit. The loaded sample (200 mg of Sn(II)apatite loaded with O.311 mg of Tc-99) was subjected to different molarities of nitric acid to determine if the Sn(II)apatite would release the sequestered technetium. The acid was allowed to contact for 1 minute with gentle shaking ('1st wash'); the aqueous solution was then filtered, and the filtrate was analyzed for Tc-99. Table B shows the results ofthe nitric acid exposure. Another portion of acid was added, shaken for a minute, and filtered ('2nd wash'). The

  7. Assessment of copper removal from highway stormwater runoff using Apatite II(TM) and compost : laboratory and field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    -Stormwater runoff introduces heavy metals to surface waters that are harmful to aquatic organisms, : including endangered salmon. This work evaluates Apatite II, a biogenic fish bone based adsorbent, for removing metal : from stormwater. The meta...

  8. A temporal record of pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents at Campi Flegrei: Insights from texturally-constrained apatite analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michael J.; Isaia, Roberto; Humphreys, Madeleine C. S.; Smith, Victoria C.; Pyle, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Apatite is capable of incorporating all major magmatic volatile species (H2O, CO2, S, Cl and F) into its crystal structure. Analysis of apatite volatile contents can be related to parental magma compositions through the application of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994). Once included within phenocrysts, apatite inclusions are isolated from the melt and preserve a temporal record of magmatic volatile contents in the build-up to eruption. In this work, we measured the volatile compositions of apatite inclusions, apatite microphenocrysts and pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy (Stock et al. 2016). These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to decipher pre-eruptive magmatic processes. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset at shallow levels during ascent. Given the high diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), the preservation of volatile-undersaturated melt compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved 10 - 103 days before eruption. We suggest that late-stage transition into a volatile-saturated state caused an increase in magma chamber overpressure, which ultimately triggered the Astroni 1 eruption. This has major implications for monitoring of Campi Flegrei and other similar volcanic systems. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Stock et al., 2016, Nat. Geosci. Gualda et al., 2012. J. Pet., 53, 875

  9. Apatite fission track dating and thermal history of Qing-He region in Altay Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Zengkuan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yuan Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Gao Shaokai

    2005-01-01

    Fission track ages (FTA) and track lengths of apatite from Qing-He diorite intrusion in Altay Mountains are measured. Apatite fission track ages of three diorite samples is range from (78±5) Ma to (95 ± 5) Ma, and the lengths of horizontal confined spontaneous fission tracks are (13.2 ± 1.2)-(13.5 ±1.3) μm. The distribution of the track length is narrow and symmetrical with a mean length of approximately 13.3 μm and a standard deviation of around 0.1 μm. The inverse modeling results show that thermal history of this region has four stages, two rapid uplift of this region still existed magmatic intrusion and tectonic movements in Yanshanian. (authors)

  10. Lead orthovanadate and some vanadium-lead compounds with the apatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, E J; Botto, I L; Aymonino, P J [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    1976-06-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra of Pb/sub 3/(VO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ are recorded and discussed with the aid of the 'site symmetry' rules. The i.r. spectra of the compounds Pb/sub 5/(VO/sub 4/)/sub 3/X (X=F, Cl, Br), Pb/sub 5/(VO/sub 4/)/sub 2/GeO/sub 4/, Pb/sub 5/(VO/sub 4/)/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/ (all with apatite structure) are also measured and briefly discussed. The X-ray, spectroscopic and analytical investigation of the lead vanadates precipitated from solutions, shows that in this cases mixed crystals of complicated nature, with the apatite structure, are obtained.

  11. Crystal Structure Studies of Human Dental Apatite as a Function of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Leventouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the average crystal structure properties of human dental apatite as a function of age in the range of 5–87 years are reported. The crystallinity of the dental hydroxyapatite decreases with the age. The a-lattice constant that is associated with the carbonate content in carbonate apatite decreases with age in a systematic way, whereas the c-lattice constant does not change significantly. Thermogravimetric measurements demonstrate an increase of the carbonate content with the age. FTIR spectroscopy reveals both B and A-type carbonate substitutions with the B-type greater than the A-type substitution by a factor up to ~5. An increase of the carbonate content as a function of age can be deduced from the ratio of the 2CO3 to the 1PO4 IR modes.

  12. Dispersion of uranium in accessory apatite in crystalline rocks and its possible petrogenetic meaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kral, J.; Burchart, J.

    1983-01-01

    The coefficient of variation for grain-by-grain fission track uranium analysis of apatites from igneous rocks seems to reflect the temperature of crystallization and the cooling rate. For metamorphic rocks the coefficient represents a complex record of the homogeneity of the source and of metamorphic neocrystallization. As a test case 41 West Carpathian rocks have been examined and the coefficients of variation for U in apatites found to be: granitic rocks 0.30-0.79, paragneisses 0.35-0.95, migmatites 0.55-0.87, and volcanic rocks 0.30-0.40. Most of the frequency distributions are lognormal, though for some cases a normal distribution gives a better fit, and some are incompatible with either of the two distributions. (orig.)

  13. Characterization and potential application of pataua vegetable oil in apatite flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.S. de; Mansur, H.S.; Peres, A.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The present research characterizes the Pataua palm (Oenocarpus bataua) oil regarding to its fatty acids profile and acidity index, and evaluates its use for apatite flotation. The Pataua oil evaluated is unsaturated e predominantly composed of cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid). The mineral sample characterization revealed a material composed by a fluoroapatite deficient in fluorine, a possibly result of isomorphic substitution, and with quartz and monazite inclusions. The analysis of the mineral after reagent conditioning, by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), pointed to the presence of characteristic bands of carbon chains and carboxylate group, suggesting the collector adsorption through the mechanisms of chemisorption and insoluble calcium salts precipitation. Thus, it is proposed the Pataua oil potential use in flotation systems aiming apatite recovery. (author)

  14. Quantum-mechanical calculations of the electronic structure of calcium and cadmium vanadate apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbovskij, V.L.; Soroka, A.P.; Kasiyanenko, V.Kh.; Shpak, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic structures of compounds Me 10 (VO 4 ) 6 X 2 , where Me = Ca or Cd and X = F, Cl, OH are investigated using the full potential APW + lo method. The degrees of distortions of VO 4- tetrahedra with respect to the Td point group are analyzed using a relaxation of atomic positions. Apatites in the form of Ca 10 (VO 4 ) 6 X 2 , where X = F, Cl, OH, are established to decrease the band gap by 0.5-1.0 eV under the isomorphic substitution of calcium for cadmium. Apatites Ca 10 (VO 4 ) 6 X 2 , where X = F, Cl, OH are proven to decrease the degree of covalency of the oxygen-halogen bond under the isomorphic substitution of calcium for cadmium.

  15. Apatite fission track evidence on the uplifting of eastern Kunlun mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuang Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Tang Yunhui; Wang Shicheng

    2004-01-01

    A series of samples were collected from about south-north section through Buqingshan and Dulan, eastern Kunlun mountains, China. The 41 apatite fission track ages (FTA) of these samples lie between 25.2 and 130.4 Ma, all of the apatite fission track ages are significantly younger than the host rocks. There are similar evolution trends for Middle-Kunlun zone and North-Kunlun zone, i.e. the FTA becomes less with slow increase of elevations and their uplifting rates are about 2.22 m/Ma. Differently, the FTA in South-Kunlun zone positively correlates to elevation, decreasing 11 m/Ma. It may be shown that South-Kunlun fault play a different and/or more important role on incontinent evolution than Middle-Kunlun fault. (author)

  16. Carbonate loss from two magnesium-substituted carbonated apatites prepared by different synthesis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, S.M.; Rau, J.V.; Fadeeva, I.V.; Cesaro, S. Nunziante; Ferro, D.; Trionfetti, G.; Komlev, V.S.; Bibikov, V.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of the thermal stability of Mg-substituted carbonated apatites over the wide temperature range. Two different apatites were studied, which were prepared by either precipitation from aqueous solution or by solid-liquid interaction. The following methods were employed: FTIR spectroscopy of the condensed gas phase to evaluate the CO and CO 2 release with increasing temperature, FTIR of the solid residue after heating, XRD analysis, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Decomposition behavior was shown to depend significantly on the synthesis method. Wet-synthesized powders are significantly less thermally stable compared with those prepared by solid-liquid interaction. Intensive release of carbon oxides from the former was observed at 300 deg. C, whereas the latter powder was relatively stable up to temperature about 1000 deg. C

  17. Phosphate-induced metal stabilization: Use of apatite and bone char for the removal of soluble radionuclides in authentic and simulated DOE groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Jarabek, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The apatite group of minerals is a family of calcium phosphate phases. Apatite is the principal component of bone tissue, and it also occurs naturally as mineral deposits in the geosphere. Bone char is calcined (coked) animal bone, containing activated carbon as well as calcium phosphate mineral phases. Apatite IItrademark is a more reactive form of apatite, supplied by UFA Ventures, Inc., at a cost of approximately 1/4 that of commercial bone char. Apatite is shown to be effective for the removal of select heavy metal impurities in groundwater. Previous investigations have demonstrated that apatite is an effective medium for the stabilization of soluble lead, cadmium, and zinc from mine waste leachate by the formation of highly insoluble precipitate phases. The performance of bone char and apatite II are compared with other candidate sorption media (including granular activated carbon and anion exchange resin) for the removal of soluble uranyl ion in synthetic DOE Site groundwater supplemented with varying levels of interfering nitrate ion. Apatite II has a greater affinity for U(VI), especially in the presence of nitrate ion, as evidenced by a larger value for the conditional distribution coefficient (Kd) in batch test experiments. Contact of uranyl nitrate solution with apatite II is shown to produce highly insoluble mineral phases of the autunite group (calcium uranyl phosphate hydrates). Apatite II is also demonstrated to be moderately effective for the removal of soluble radioactive isotopes of strontium, but not cesium, when these ions are supplemented into authentic DOE Site groundwater

  18. Enhanced apatite formation on Ti metal heated in PO2-controlled nitrogen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masami; Hayashi, Kazumi; Kitaoka, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The oxynitridation of biomedical titanium metal under a precisely regulated oxygen partial pressure (PO2) of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K for 1 h strongly enhanced apatite formation compared with that on Ti heated in air. The factors governing the high apatite-forming ability are discussed from the viewpoint of the surface properties of Ti heated under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential measurements. Nitrogen (N)-doped TiO2 (interstitial N) was formed on pure Ti heated under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa in nitrogen atmosphere at 973 K. The XPS O1s main peak shifted toward a lower binding energy upon heating under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa. This shift may be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. This Ti surface had a positive zeta potential of approximately 20 mV. According to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy results, PO4(3-) ions were predominantly adsorbed on Ti soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) after heat treatment, followed by calcium ions. It was concluded that the apatite formation kinetics can be described using the Avrami-Erofeev equation with an Avrami index of n=2, which implies the instantaneous nucleation of apatite on the surface of Ti soaked in SBF after heat treatment at 973 K under a PO2 of 10(-14)Pa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Apatite fission-track dating of erosion in the eastern Andes, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crough, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Three samples from a Triassic-age batholith in the eastern Andes northeast of La Paz, Bolivia yield apatitic fission-track ages of 11-13 Ma. Interpreting these young ages as due to uplift and erosion requires approximately 2.5-5.0 km of erosion in the past 12 Ma, an amount which is consistent with the known geology and which is typical of many active mountain ranges. (orig.)

  20. U-Pb Data On Apatites With Common Lead Correction : Exemples From The Scottish Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewison, E.; Deloule, E.; Villeneuve, J.; Bellahsen, N.; Labrousse, L.; Rosenberg, C.; Pik, R.; Chew, D.

    2017-12-01

    Apatite is a widely used mineral in low-temperature thermochronology (U-Th/He and AFT). The use of apatite in U-Pb geochronology has a great potential, given its closure temperature around 450°C, for orogen thermostructural evolution studies. However, since apatite can accumulate significant amount of initial Pb in its structure, its use can be hindered by the lack of 204 Pb estimations. To work around this, two options are commonly used : either use a ploting sytem that does not require corrected ratios, or use a proxy to estimate 204Pb and use it to correct the ratios. In this study we use a SIMS to mesure 204Pb in order to compare Tera-Wasserburg diagram and corrected ages to examine the cooling pattern in the northern Highlands of Scotland. The Highlands is an extensively studied caledonian collision wedge which results from the closure of the Iapétus Ocean during the Orodivician-Silurian. Two orogenic events are related to this closing, the grampian event (480-460Ma) and the scandian event (435-415 Ma) that culminated in the stacking of major ductile thrusts. The thermal history of thoses nappes are hence complex and the cooling pattern poorly constrained. Corrected apatite U-Pb ages provide new constrains on ductile wedge building and improve our understanding of mid to lower-crustal deformation and orogenic exhumation. Thoses corrected ages yield equivalent errors and mean ages from the classic method. Those data suggest a global cooling younger than previously thought and a sequence departing from a simple forward sequence. We thus present a refined thermal evolution and conceptualize a model of ductile wedge evolution.

  1. Fabrication of carbonate apatite block based on internal dissolution-precipitation reaction of dicalcium phosphate and calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daitou, Fumikazu; Maruta, Michito; Kawachi, Giichiro; Tsuru, Kanji; Matsuya, Shigeki; Terada, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated a novel method for fabrication of carbonate apatite block without ionic movement between precursor and solution by using precursor that includes all constituent ions of carbonate apatite. A powder mixture prepared from dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and calcite at appropriate Ca/P ratios (1.5, 1.67, and 1.8) was used as starting material. For preparation of specimens, the slurry made from the powder mixture and distilled water was packed in a split stainless steel mold and heat - treated, ranging from 60 degrees C to 100 degrees C up to 48 hours at 100% humidity. It appeared that carbonate apatite could be obtained above 70 degrees C and monophasic carbonate apatite could be obtained from the powder mixture at Ca/P ratio of 1.67. Carbonate content of the specimen was about 5-7%. Diametral tensile strength of the carbonate apatite blocks slightly decreased with increasing treatment temperature. The decrease in diametral tensile strength is thought to be related to the crystal size of the carbonate apatite formed.

  2. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate emplacement of phosphate into subsurface sediments in the Hanford Site 100-N Area by two different technologies: groundwater injection of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate and/or fish-bone apatite. In situ emplacement of phosphate and apatite adsorbs, then incorporates Sr-90 into the apatite structure by substitution for calcium. Overall, both technologies (groundwater injection of Ca-citrate-PO4) and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate/fish-bone apatite) delivered sufficient phosphate to subsur¬face sediments in the 100-N Area. Over years to decades, additional Sr-90 will incorporate into the apatite precipitate. Therefore, high pressure water jetting is a viable technology to emplace phosphate or apatite in shallow subsurface sediments difficult to emplace by Ca-citrate-PO4 groundwater injections, but further analysis is needed to quantify the relevant areal extent of phosphate deposition (in the 5- to 15-ft distance from injection points) and cause of the high deposition in finer grained sediments.

  3. The thermal history of the Bowen Basin: a comparison of apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshallsea, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) are two techiques widely used to assess paleotemperatures of the order of 20-120 deg.C. in sedimentary basins. Whereas vitrinite reflectance is essentially a qualitative technique that gives an integrated measure of the entire thermal history, AFTA can reveal information on the variation of paleotemperatures through time because fission-tracks in apatite are continually produced throughout geological time. An apatite fission track study of the Upper Permian units of the Bowen Basin has offered the opportunity to compare the two paleotemperature indicators and place constraints on the timing of maximum paleotemperatures. The regional pattern of apatite fission-track ages closely coincides with the vitrinite reflectance indicating that maximum paleotemperatures have varied across the Basin with the central region of the Bowen Basin experiencing highest paleotemperatures. The reduction in apatite reflectance fission-track age with increasing reflectance represents the progressive annealing at temperatures around 60-120 deg. C. of those fission-tracks formed prior to the time of maximum temperatures. In those samples giving the youngest apatite fission-track ages all tacks were totally annealed at this time, and the fission-track age in these samples, in the range 90-120 Myr, indicate the time of cooling from the thermal maximum in the Early Cretaceous. 1 ref

  4. BMP4 Expression Following Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous and Carbonate Apatite Transplantation on Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Saskianti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone defects in children still have a high incidence. Conventional bone graft technique that has been used as a defect therapy is still not effective, so new techniques with tissue engineering approach are needed. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 as one of the indicators of osteogenic differentiation has not been widely studied, especially in the transplantation with combination of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous (SHED and carbonate apatite. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the expression of BMP4 after SHED and carbonate apatite transplantation on Rattus norvegicus. Material and Methods: The combinations of SHED and carbonate apatite were transplanted on alveolar bone defects of 4 rats (Rattus norvegicus as the treatment groups and another 4 rats were transplanted with carbonate apatite as the control groups. After 21 days, staining with Hematoxylin Eosin (HE and Immunohistochemistry (IHC BMP4 was performed. Results: BMP4 expression in the treatment groups was significantly higher when compared to the control groups. Discussion: Carbonate apatite has low crystallization rate and high osteoconductivity that produce more osteoblasts and increased BMP4 expression. Conclusion: The transplantation of SHED and carbonate apatite increased BMP4 expression as an indicator of osteogenic differentiation in rats.

  5. Formation of Apatite Coatings on an Artificial Ligament Using a Plasma- and Precursor-Assisted Biomimetic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Oyane

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A plasma- and precursor-assisted biomimetic process utilizing plasma and alternate dipping treatments was applied to a Leed-Keio artificial ligament to produce a thin coating of apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. Following plasma surface modification, the specimen was alternately dipped in calcium and phosphate ion solutions three times (alternate dipping treatment to create a precoating containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP which is an apatite precursor. To grow an apatite layer on the ACP precoating, the ACP-precoated specimen was immersed for 24 h in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations approximately equal to those in human blood plasma. The plasma surface modification was necessary to create an adequate apatite coating and to improve the coating adhesion depending on the plasma power density. The apatite coating prepared using the optimized conditions formed a thin-film that covered the entire surface of the artificial ligament. The resulting apatite-coated artificial ligament should exhibit improved osseointegration within the bone tunnel and possesses great potential for use in ligament reconstructions.

  6. Formation of apatite layers on modified canasite glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C A; Kokubo, T; Reaney, I M; Hatton, P V; James, P F

    2002-03-05

    Canasite glass-ceramics were modified by either increasing the concentration of calcium in the glass, or by the addition of P2O5. Samples of these novel materials were placed in simulated body fluid (SBF), along with a control material (commercial canasite), for periods ranging from 12 h to 28 days. After immersion, surface analysis was performed using thin film X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detectors. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, silicon, and phosphorus in the SBF solution were measured using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. No apatite was detected on the surface of commercial canasite, even after 28 days of immersion in SBF. A crystalline apatite layer was formed on the surface of a P2O5-containing canasite after 5 days, and after 3 days for calcium-enriched canasite. Ion release data suggested that the mechanism for apatite deposition was different for P2O5 and non-P2O5-containing glass-ceramics. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. A new hydrometallurgical process for extracting rare earths from apatite using solvent extraction with P35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongfei; Guo Fuqiang; Zhang Zhifeng; Li Deqian; Wang Zhonghuai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new process is proposed to recover rare earths from nitric acid leaching of apatite without interfering with the normal route for fertilizer production using solvent extraction with dimethyl heptyl methyl phosphonate CH 3 P(O)(OC 8 H 17 ) 2 (P 35 , B). In the present work, the leaching conditions are studied. In selected condition, apatite was dissolved in 20% (v/v) nitric acid solution at 60-70 deg. C while agitating. The most suitable acidity for extraction is 0.4 M HNO 3 . More than 98% of rare earths in apatite can be recovered using countercurrent extraction process with six stages when phase ratio = 0.5, and defluorination is unnecessary. The influences of phase ratio, stage number, acidity and salting-out agent on extractabilities of P 35 are studied. The results show that rare earths can be separated with P 35 from Ca, P, Fe and other impurities. Mixed rare earth oxides (REO) of which purity is more than 95% with yield over 98% can be obtained

  8. Radiation damage studies of mineral apatite, using fission tracks and thermoluminescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khalifa, I.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In a uranium (/thorium)-rich mineral sample which has not suffered a recent geological high-temperature excursion, the fossil fission track density (FFTD) will give a good indication of its natural radiation damage, provided that its U/Th ratio is known. From our studies of FFTD and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of several samples of apatite from different locations, and containing varying degrees of natural-radiation damage, an anti-correlation is observed between FFTD and TL sensitivity. It is also found that an anti-correlation exists between TL sensitivity and the amount of damage produced artificially by bombarding apatite crystals with different fluences of ∼30 MeV α-particles from a cyclotron. These results indicate that the presence of radiation damage in this mineral (viz., fluorapatite) can severely affect its TL sensitivity (i.e. TL output per unit test dose). The effect of crystal composition on the thermoluminescence and fission track annealing properties of mineral apatite is also reported. We have found that fission track annealing sensitivity and TL sensitivity are both significantly lower in samples of chlorapatite than in samples consisting predominantly of fluorapatite. (author)

  9. In vivo bioactivity of titanium and fluorinated apatite coatings for orthopaedic implants: a vibrational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Paola; Tinti, Anna; Reggiani, Matteo; Monti, Patrizia; Fagnano, Concezio

    2003-06-01

    The bone integration of implants is a complex process which depends on chemical composition and surface morphology. To accelerate osteointegration, metal implants are coated with porous metal or apatites which have been reported to increase mineralisation, improving prosthesis fixation. To study the influence of composition and morphology on the in vivo bioactivity, titanium screws coated by Plasma Flame Spraying (PFS) with titanium or fluorinated apatite (K690) were implanted in sheep tibia and femur for 10 weeks and studied by micro-Raman and IR spectroscopy. The same techniques, together with thermogravimetry, were used for characterising the pre-coating K690 powder. Contrary to the manufacturer report, the K690 pre-coating revealed to be composed of a partially fluorinated apatite containing impurities of Ca(OH) 2 and CaCO 3. By effect of PFS, the impurities were decomposed and the crystallinity degree of the coating was found to decrease. The vibrational spectra recorded on the implanted screws revealed the presence of newly formed bone; for the K690-coated screws at least, a high level of osteointegration was evidenced.

  10. Impact of Surface Potential on Apatite Formation in Ti Alloys Subjected to Acid and Heat Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Seiji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Takadama, Hiroaki

    2017-09-24

    Titanium metal (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental fields. We have previously shown that acid and heat treatment was effective to introduce bone bonding, osteoconduction and osteoinduction on pure Ti. In the present study, acid and heat treatment with or without initial NaOH treatment was performed on typical Ti-based alloys used in orthopedic and dental fields. Dynamic movements of alloying elements were developed, which depended on the kind of treatment and type of alloy. It was found that the simple acid and heat treatment enriched/remained the alloying elements on Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al and Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta, resulting in neutral surface charges. Thus, the treated alloys did not form apatite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days. In contrast, when the alloys were subjected to a NaOH treatment prior to an acid and heat treatment, alloying elements were selectively removed from the alloy surfaces. As a result, the treated alloys became positively charged, and formed apatite in SBF within 3 days. Thus, the treated alloys would be useful in orthopedic and dental fields since they form apatite even in a living body and bond to bone.

  11. About the Genetic Mechanisms of Apatites: A Survey on the Methodological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Pastero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apatites are properly considered as a strategic material owing to the broad range of their practical uses, primarily biomedical but chemical, pharmaceutical, environmental and geological as well. The apatite group of minerals has been the subject of a huge number of papers, mainly devoted to the mass crystallization of nanosized hydroxyapatite (or carboapatite as a scaffold for osteoinduction purposes. Many wet and dry methods of synthesis have been proposed. The products have been characterized using various techniques, from the transmission electron microscopy to many spectroscopic methods like IR and Raman. The experimental approach usually found in literature allows getting tailor made micro- and nano- crystals ready to be used in a wide variety of fields. Despite the wide interest in synthesis and characterization, little attention has been paid to the relationships between bulk structure and corresponding surfaces and to the role plaid by surfaces on the mechanisms involved during the early stages of growth of apatites. In order to improve the understanding of their structure and chemical variability, close attention will be focused on the structural complexity of hydroxyapatite (HAp, on the richness of its surfaces and their role in the interaction with the precursor phases, and in growth kinetics and morphology.

  12. Bioactive coatings on Portland cement substrates: Surface precipitation of apatite-like crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, Daniel; Higuita, Natalia; Garcia, Felipe; Ferrell, Nicholas; Hansford, Derek J.

    2008-01-01

    We report a method for depositing bioactive coatings onto cement materials for bone tissue engineering applications. White Portland cement substrates were hydrated under a 20% CO 2 atmosphere, allowing the formation of CaCO 3 . The substrates were incubated in a calcium phosphate solution for 1, 3, and 6 days (CPI, CPII, and CPIII respectively) at 37 deg. C to induce the formation of carbonated apatite. Cement controls were prepared and hydrated with and without CO 2 atmosphere (C+ and C- respectively). The presence of apatite-like crystals was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The substrate cytocompatibility was evaluated via SEM after 24 hour cell cultures. SEM revealed the presence Ca(OH) 2 on C-, and CaCO 3 on C+. Apatite-like crystals were detected only on CPIII, confirmed by phosphorus EDS peaks only for CPIII. Cells attached and proliferated similarly well on all the substrates except C-. These results prove the feasibility of obtaining biocompatible and bioactive coatings on Portland cement for bone tissue engineering applications

  13. Value of Combining Left Atrial Diameter and Amino-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide to the CHA2DS2-VASc Score for Predicting Stroke and Death in Patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome after Pacemaker Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Feng Mo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: CHA2DS2-VASc score is valuable for predicting stroke and death risk in patients with SSS after pacemaker implantation. The addition of LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score improved its predictive power for stroke and death, respectively, in this patient cohort. Future prospective studies are warranted to validate the benefit of adding LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score for predicting stroke and death risk in non-AF populations.

  14. Association of epicardial adipose tissue thickness and inflammation parameters with CHA2DS2-VASc score in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akdag S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Serkan Akdag, Hakki Simsek, Musa Sahin, Aytac Akyol, Ramazan Duz, Naci Babat Department of Cardiology, Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty, Van, Turkey Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet-to- lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR have been shown to be helpful in predicting adverse cardiovascular events. However, to date, in the literature, there have been no studies demonstrating the relationship between EAT, MPV, PLR, NLR, and thromboembolism risk in atrial fibrillation (AF. Therefore, we examined the relationship between EAT, MPV, PLR, NLR, and CHA2DS2-VASc score used for the evaluation of thromboembolism risk in patients with AF.Methods: The study included 96 consecutive patients with AF and 52 age- and sex-matched control subjects. We calculated CHA2DS2-VASc risk score for each patient and measured baseline EAT thickness, MPV, PLR, NLR, left atrial volume index, and left ventricular ejection fraction.Results: The group with high CHA2DS2-VASc score had higher EAT (7.2±1.5 vs 5.9±1.2 mm, P<0.001, MPV (9.1±1.1 vs 8.4±1.0 fL, P=0.004, PLR (152.3±28.4 vs 126.7±25.4, P=0.001, and NLR (4.0±1.6 vs 3.2±1.3, P<0.001 compared to group with low-intermediate CHA2DS2-VASc score. Moreover, CHA2DS2-VASc score was found to be positively correlated with EAT (r=0.623, P<0.001, MPV (r=0.350, P=0.004, PLR (r=0.398, P=0.001, and NLR (r=0.518, P<0.001.Conclusion: Our study results demonstrated that EAT thickness, MPV, PLR, and NLR were associated with the thromboembolic risk exhibited by CHA2DS2-VASc score in patients with nonvalvular AF. Keywords: atrial fibrillation, epicardial adipose tissue, platelet, neutrophil, mean platelet volume

  15. Determining the local origin of hydroxyl radical generation during phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Steven D; Terry, Scott; Hebdon, Thomas; Gunderson, Broc; Terry, Michael; Dimalanta, Ramon

    2011-06-01

    To determine the local origin of hydroxyl radicals during phacoemulsification using an ultrasonic phacoemulsification device that includes longitudinal and torsional modalities. Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Experiments were conducted using the Infiniti Vision System and Ozil handpiece. Hydroxyl radical concentrations during longitudinal and torsional phacoemulsification were quantitated as malondialdehyde (MDA) determined spectrophotometrically using the deoxyribose assay. The difference between the total concentration found in the aspirated solution at steady-state concentrations and the pre-aspirate levels deductively determined the concentration of MDA formed along the interior of the sonicating tip. The time to reach 50% of steady state as a function of reaction vessel volume was determined. The mean maximum for torsional ultrasound at 100% amplitude was 7.70 nM ± 0.38 (SD), 91.1% of which was generated outside the tip. During longitudinal ultrasound at 100% power, MDA concentration in the aspirated solution was 29.5 ± 0.3 nM, 71.6% of which was generated outside the tip. The time (seconds) to reach 50% of maximum for longitudinal ultrasound using 5 mL, 10 mL, and 20 mL reaction vessels was 12.6 ± 1.5, 21.0 ± 1.5, and 25.3 ± 3.4, respectively. Although a significantly greater proportion of the hydroxyl radicals generated during ultrasound modality were formed outside the phaco tip (91.1% torsional; 71.6% longitudinal), torsional ultrasound generated only about one-fourth the amount of MDA as longitudinal ultrasound in total and about one-third that generated outside the tip (7.02 nM versus 21.1 nM). No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Additional disclosures are found in the footnotes. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. He, U, and Th Depth Profiling of Apatite and Zircon Using Laser Ablation Noble Gas Mass Spectrometry and SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, B. D.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K. V.; Hervig, R.; Boyce, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Conventional (U-Th)/He thermochronology utilizes single or multiple grain analyses of U- and Th-bearing minerals such as apatite and zircon and does not allow for assessment of spatial variation in concentration of He, U, or Th within individual crystals. As such, age calculation and interpretation require assumptions regarding 4He loss through alpha ejection, diffusive redistribution of 4He, and U and Th distribution as an initial condition for these processes. Although models have been developed to predict 4He diffusion parameters, correct for the effect of alpha ejection on calculated cooling ages, and account for the effect of U and Th zonation within apatite and zircon, measurements of 4He, U, and Th distribution have not been combined within a single crystal. We apply ArF excimer laser ablation, combined with noble gas mass spectrometry, to obtain depth profiles within apatite and zircon crystals in order to assess variations in 4He concentration with depth. Our initial results from pre-cut, pre-heated slabs of Durango apatite, each subjected to different T-t schedules, suggest a general agreement of 4He profiles with those predicted by theoretical diffusion models (Farley, 2000). Depth profiles through unpolished grains give reproducible alpha ejection profiles in Durango apatite that deviate from alpha ejection profiles predicted for ideal, homogenous crystals. SIMS depth profiling utilizes an O2 primary beam capable of sputtering tens of microns and measuring sub-micron resolution variation in [U], [Th], and [Sm]. Preliminary results suggest that sufficient [U] and [Th] zonation is present in Durango apatite to influence the form of the 4He alpha ejection profile. Future work will assess the influence of measured [U] and [Th] zonation on previously measured 4He depth profiles. Farley, K.A., 2000. Helium diffusion from apatite; general behavior as illustrated by Durango fluorapatite. J. Geophys. Res., B Solid Earth Planets 105 (2), 2903-2914.

  17. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szubert, M., E-mail: mm.szubert@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Adamska, K. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Szybowicz, M. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Jesionowski, T. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Buchwald, T. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Voelkel, A. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. - Highlights: • Surface modification of HA and β-TCP was performed by PHB grafting. • The growth of apatite layer on materials was examined in simulated body fluid (SBF). • The bioactivity of obtained materials was proved. • The replacement of SBF solution plays an important role in the process of apatite formation.

  18. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szubert, M.; Adamska, K.; Szybowicz, M.; Jesionowski, T.; Buchwald, T.; Voelkel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. - Highlights: • Surface modification of HA and β-TCP was performed by PHB grafting. • The growth of apatite layer on materials was examined in simulated body fluid (SBF). • The bioactivity of obtained materials was proved. • The replacement of SBF solution plays an important role in the process of apatite formation

  19. The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault World Heritage project: a view from a scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2013-12-01

    The development of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault World Heritage UNESCO project has taken about five years, since the Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans was approached by the local Auvergne government. Before this we had been working locally with organisations such as the Lemptégy volcano and Vulcania to help disseminate geoscience ideas to the general public, however the UNESCO project has lead us to do much more outreach. It has also stimulated our research and has taught us to better explain this to the lay person. In visiting other heritage projects, where we have exchanged ideas and best practice, we have been able to help other sites and improve what we do. These links are particularly important, as they can be used to help broaden the outlook of the general public and local actors, and increase further earth science literacy. I have noticed a strong increase in the awareness of the volcanoes, and volcanism as a result of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault project. I think that, before, many locals considered the volcanoes only as their special back garden, for easy walks and views and leisure, or for that matter farming, mining and hunting. However, now, there is a greater sense of pride rooted in the increased awareness of their geological significance in a historical and global context. While this effect is clear for the volcanoes, it is not yet apparent for the fault. The lay person has no clear concept of a rift and a fault. Thus, one of our major present challenges is to open the public's eyes to the fault. This is vital for the UNESCO project not only for educational reasons, but also because the fault scarp is a natural barrier that protects the rest of the property from urban development. Only if there is awareness of its nature and significance will it be an effective defence. To arrive at this goal, there is now a local government sponsored project to create and disseminate fault walks, fault viewpoints and fault information points. This is

  20. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_05_23_24_2012 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  1. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise EPamSh-2016 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  2. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_07_31_2013 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  3. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_07_30_2013 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  4. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise SndPt_05_21_22_2012 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  5. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_05_20_22_2014 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers the...

  6. Bacterial Feeders, the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the Flagellate Cercomonas longicauda, have different Effects on Outcome of Competition among the Pseudomonas Biocontrol Strains CHA0 and DSS73

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette; Nybroe, Ole; Winding, Anne

    2009-01-01

    How bacterial feeding fauna affects colonization and survival of bacteria in soil is not well understood, which constrains the applicability of bacterial inoculants in agriculture. This study aimed to unravel how food quality of bacteria and bacterial feeders with different feeding habits (the......50090 or one of two biocontrol strains P. fluorescens CHA0 or Pseudomonas sp. DSS73) or combinations of two bacterial strains. DSM50090 is a suitable food bacterium, DSS73 is of intermediate food quality, and CHA0 is inedible to the bacterial feeders. Bacterial and protozoan cell numbers were measured...... predation pressure. Hence, the results suggested that the outcome of competition among bacteria depended on their ability to cope with the prevailing bacterial predator....

  7. Formation of Hydroxylamine from Ammonia and Hydroxyl Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Lahouari; Zins, Emilie-Laure

    2014-06-01

    In the interstellar medium, as well as in icy comets, ammonia may be a crucial species in the first step toward the formation of amino-acids and other prebiotic molecules such as hydroxylamine (NH2OH). It is worth to notice that the NH3/H2 ratio in the ISM is 3 10-5 compared the H2O/H2 one which is only 7 10-5. Using either electron-UV irradiations of water-ammonia ices or successive hydrogenation of solid nitric oxide, laboratory experiments have already shown the feasibility of reactions that may take place on the surface of ice grains in molecular clouds, and may lead to the formation of this precursor. Herein is proposed a new reaction pathway involving ammonia and hydroxyl radicals generated in a microwave discharge. Experimental studies, at 3 and 10 K, in solid phase as well as in neon matrix have shown that this reaction proceed via a hydrogen abstraction, leading to the formation of NH2 radical, that further recombine with hydroxyl radical to form hydroxylamine, under non-energetic conditions.

  8. Hydroxyl radical induced transformation of phenylurea herbicides: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mile, Viktória; Harsányi, Ildikó; Kovács, Krisztina; Földes, Tamás; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic ring hydroxylation reactions occurring during radiolysis of aqueous solutions are studied on the example of phenylurea herbicides by Density Functional Theory calculations. The effect of the aqueous media is taken into account by using the Solvation Model Based on Density model. Hydroxyl radical adds to the ring because the activation free energies (0.4–47.2 kJ mol −1 ) are low and also the Gibbs free energies have high negative values ((−27.4) to (−5.9) kJ mol −1 ). According to the calculations in most of cases the ortho- and para-addition is preferred in agreement with the experimental results. In these reactions hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radicals form. In a second type reaction, when loss of chlorine atom takes place, OH/Cl substitution occurs without cyclohexadienyl type intermediate. - Highlights: • Attack of • OH to aniline, phenol, fenuron, monuron, diuron was studied by DFT. • Ortho-para directing is suggested with –NH 2 , –OH and –NHCON(CH 3 ) 2 groups. • • OH addition to the ring gives hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical. • Attack at C-Cl leads to • OH/Cl substitution without cyclohexadienyl intermediate.

  9. Hydroxyl tagging velocimetry in a supersonic flow over a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitz, Robert W.; Lahr, Michael D.; Douglas, Zachary W.; Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Hu Shengteng; Carter, Campbell D.; Hsu, Kuang-Yu; Lum, Chee; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyl tagging velocimetry (HTV) measurements of velocity were made in a Mach 2 (M 2) flow with a wall cavity. In the HTV method, ArF excimer laser (193 nm) beams pass through a humid gas and dissociate H2O into H + OH to form a tagging grid of OH molecules. In this study, a 7x7 grid of hydroxyl (OH) molecules is tracked by planar laser-induced fluorescence. The grid motion over a fixed time delay yields about 50 velocity vectors of the two-dimensional flow in the plane of the laser sheets. Velocity precision is limited by the error in finding the crossing location of the OH lines written by the excimer tag laser. With a signal-to-noise ratio of about 10 for the OH lines, the determination of the crossing location is expected to be accurate within ±0.1 pixels. Velocity precision within the freestream, where the turbulence is low, is consistent with this error. Instantaneous, single-shot measurements of two-dimensional flow patterns were made in the nonreacting M 2 flow with a wall cavity under low- and high-pressure conditions. The single-shot profiles were analyzed to yield mean and rms velocity profiles in the M 2 nonreacting flow

  10. From cation to oxide: hydroxylation and condensation of aqueous complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Hydroxylation, condensation and precipitation of metal cations in aqueous solution are briefly reviewed. Hydroxylation of aqueous complexes essentially depends on the format charge (oxidation state), the size and the pH of the medium. It is the step allowing the condensation reaction. Depending on the nature of complexes (aqua-hydroxo, oxo-hydroxo), the. mechanism of condensation is different, olation or ox-olation respectively. The first one leads to poly-cations or hydroxides more or less stable against dehydration. The second one leads to poly-anions or oxides. Oligomeric species (poly-cations, poly-anions) are form from charged monomer complexes while the formation of solid phases requires non-charged precursors. Because of their high lability, charged oligomers are never the precursors of solids phases. The main routes for the formation of solid phases from solution are studied with two important and representative elements, Al and Si. For Al 3+ ions, different methods (base addition in solution, thermo-hydrolysis, hydrothermal synthesis) are discussed in relation to the crystal structure of the solid phase obtained. For silicic species condensing by ox-olation, the role of acid or base catalysis on the morphology of gels is studied. The influence of complexing ligands on the processes and on the characteristics of solids (morphology of particles, basic salts and polymetallic oxides formation) is studied. (author)

  11. Hydroxylated ceramic waste forms and the absurdity of leach tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R; Odoj, R; Merz, E [eds.

    1981-06-01

    The repository pressure and temperature conditions during the thermal period projected in US repositories have been drastically lowered in the last year or two to new values of say 175 +- 50/sup 0/K. Using the argument that the evidence from natural models indicates the most stable mineral (= ceramic) hosts for radionuclides, one finds that under these new repository conditions such crystalline assemblages would be micas, clays, zeolites and other hydrated minerals, plus the tetravalent anhydrous oxide families. A waste form consisting of specific hydroxylated candidate phases can be made via a simple in-can technology (demonstrated by Oak Ridge) by reacting liquid wastes with precursor gels or phyllo or tektosilicates at <200/sup 0/C under modest pressure within the final disposal canister. The data on the rate of reaction of typical oxide materials to yield hydroxylated phases under these conditions show that the typical leach test (at 25 to 100/sup 0/C in deionized water) does not provide a simulation of the reactions which will occur. Hence such tests are not only totally meaningless with respect to qualifying a waste form for its role in a repository, they can be downright misleading.

  12. Hydroxylated ceramic waste forms and the absurdity of 'leach tests'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R; Odoj, R; Merz, E [eds.

    1981-06-01

    The repository pressure and temperature conditions during the thermal period projected in U.S. repositories have been drastically lowered in the last year or two to new values of say 175 +- 50 K. Using the argument that the evidence from natural models indicates the most stable mineral (= ceramic) hosts for radionuclides, one finds that under these new repository conditions such crystalline assemblages would be micas, clays, zeolites, and other hydrated minerals, plus the tetravalent anhydrous oxide families. A waste form consisting of specific hydroxylated candidate phase can be made via a simple in-can technology (demonstrated by Oak Ridge) by reacting liquid wastes with precursor gels or phyllo or tektosilicates at <200/sup 0/C under modest pressure within the final disposal canister. The data on the rate of reaction of typical oxide materials to yield hydroxylated phases under these conditions show that the typical leach test (at 25-100/sup 0/C in deionized water) does not provide a simulation of the reactions which will occur. Hence such tests are not only totally meaningless with respect to qualifying a waste form for its role in a repository, they can be downright misleading.

  13. The Thermal Evolution of the Southeast Baffin Island Continental Margin: An Integrated Apatite Fission Track and Apatite (U-Th)/He Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess, S.; Stephenson, R.; Brown, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The elevated continental margins of the North Atlantic continue to be a focus of considerable geological and geomorphological debate, as the timing of major tectonic events and the age of topographic relief remain controversial. The West Greenland margin, on the eastern flank of Baffin Bay, is believed by some authors to have experienced tectonic rejuvenation and uplift during the Neogene. However, the opposing flank, Baffin Island, is considered to have experienced a protracted erosional regime with little tectonic activity since the Cretaceous. This work examines the thermal evolution of the Cumberland Peninsula, SE Baffin Island, using published apatite fission track (AFT) data with the addition of 103 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages. This expansion of available thermochronological data introduces a higher resolution of thermal modelling, whilst the application of the newly developed `Broken Crystals' technique provides a greater number of thermal constraints for an area dominated by AHe age dispersion. Results of joint thermal modelling of the AFT and AHe data exhibit two significant periods of cooling across the Cumberland Peninsula: Devonian/Carboniferous to the Triassic and Late Cretaceous to present. The earliest phase of cooling is interpreted as the result of major fluvial systems present throughout the Paleozoic that flowed across the Canadian Shield to basins in the north and south. The later stage of cooling is believed to result from rift controlled fluvial systems that flowed into Baffin Bay during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic during the early stages and culmination of rifting along the Labrador-Baffin margins. Glaciation in the Late Cenozoic has likely overprinted these later river systems creating a complex fjordal distribution that has shaped the modern elevated topography. This work demonstrates how surface processes, and not tectonism, can explain the formation of elevated continental margins and that recent methodological developments in the field of

  14. Treatment of Common Cold Patients with the Shi-Cha Capsule: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Dong, Shou-Jin; She, Bin; Zhang, Rui-Ming; Meng, Mao-Bin; Xu, Yan-Ling; Wan, Li-Ling; Shi, Ke-Hua; Pan, Jun-Hun; Mao, Bing

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the Shi-cha capsule, a Chinese herbal formula, in the treatment of patients with wind-cold type common cold. In our multi-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial, patients with wind-cold type common cold received 0.6 g of Shi-cha capsule plus 0.6 g placebo (group A), 1.2 g of Shi-cha capsule (group B), or 1.2 g placebo (group C), three times daily for 3 days and followed up to 10 days. The primary end point was all symptom duration. The secondary end points were main symptom duration, minor symptom duration, the changes in cumulative symptom score, main symptom score, and minor symptom score 4 days after the treatment, as well as adverse events. A total of 377 patients were recruited and 360 met the inclusive criteria; 120 patients constituted each treatment group. Compared with patients in group C, patients in groups A and B had significant improvement in the all symptom duration, main symptom duration, minor symptom duration, as well as change from baseline of cumulative symptom score, main symptom score, and minor symptom score at day 4. The symptom durations and scores showed slight superiority of group B over group A, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no differences in adverse events. The Shi-cha capsule is efficacious and safe for the treatment of patients with wind-cold type common cold. Larger trials are required to fully assess the benefits and safety of this treatment for common cold. PMID:23346193

  15. Sulfur concentration and isotopic variation in apatites from granitic to granodioritic plutons of a Cretaceous Cordilleran Batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Apatite is a common igneous accessory mineral with a high saturation temperature which can therefore crystallize over a significant portion of magmatic compositional space. Sulfur presents an opportunity to identify zoning in apatites. Unlike other trace elements, sulfur is relatively immobile in the apatite crystal structure and can be present in typical concentrations up to 1500 - 2000 ppm (or 0.5 to 1 wt% SO3). Sulfur concentration zoning in igneous apatites from ore producing magmatic systems has been identified (Streck and Dilles, 1998), but the interpretation of the cause of this zoning remains an open question. δ34S isotopic ratios of whole apatites have been used to track isotopic evolution associated with changes in magma fO2 and eruptive degassing (Rye, 2005). The presented work combines sulfur concentration mapping in zoned apatite crystals with in-situ SIMS 34S and 32S isotope measurements. Apatites were extracted from granite to granodiorite samples from the Cadiz Valley Batholith in the central Mojave Desert. This batholith is related to the pulse of Cretaceous Cordilleran magmatism that generated large batholiths in the Sierra Nevada and the Penninsular Ranges. The Mojave segment of the Cretaceous arc is unique in their construction into a full thickness of continental crust which exerted a strong influence on magmatic compositions. Apatite grains were mounted parallel to C axes, ground until grains were approximately bisected, and analyzed by Electron Microprobe at UCLA, for CaO, P2O5, SO3 and SiO2. Grains were surveyed and those yielding anomalous SO3 contents were investigated by micron-scale concentration mapping. Typical SO3 concentrations of apatites from all samples were ~0.2 wt%, while 8 to 10% of apatite grains from two samples contained cores with concentrations ranging up to 0.5 wt%. The sulfur zoning in these samples is oscillatory, in some grains representing 5 to 6 repetitions of high and low concentrations. Based on these textures

  16. The Cosmological Vision of the Yoruba-Idààcha of Benin Republic (West Africa): A Light on Yoruba History and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sègla, Aimé Dafon

    The essay examines Idààcha cosmological vision as a kind of incorporation of Yoruba cosmology. It shows a process where the two strands, that is to say, knowledge and belief can not be readily distinguished. The divinatory traditional calendar is indeed based on a scale of fixed number values whose definitions are drawn from the concepts early traditional people have of the universe. Thus, the signification of the terms that designate entities such as angle, circle, center of the circle, midnight, time zone, the number of days in a week, etc., in the Yoruba dialect Idààcha, mirrors cosmological standards. These words constitute a landscape of memory shedding light on early Yoruba culture and history. Hence, Idààcha being a significant western periphery of the Yoruba region, we examine why its divinatory calendar would preserve an older spatio-temporal logic, beyond Ifè and Oyo revisionism in Yoruba history. Finally, the article points out that the translation of spatial and geometrical relations into temporal terms and vice-versa may suggest a new indexical approach to the study of cosmology in relation to the human body. As the body is in the mind, we say in relation to the human mind.

  17. Occurrence of an unknown Atlantic eruption in the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (Massif Central, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouannic, G.; Walter-Simonnet, A. V.; Bossuet, G.; Cubizolle, H.; Boivin, P.; Devidal, J. L.; Oberlin, C.

    2014-08-01

    A volcanic ash layer, called MF1, was recently identified in Holocene sediments from the Gourgon and Molhiac peat bogs (Monts du Forez, French Massif Central). This ash layer consists of colorless shards with a heterogeneous trachytic to rhyolitic composition. The trace elements analyzed by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) attest to a local origin. Radiocarbon dating of peat samples taken within and below the ash layer indicates the best age at 6339 ± 61 cal yr BP, i.e. an age contemporaneous with the volcanic activity of Montchal, Montcineyre and Pavin volcanoes from the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field. These volcanoes are characterized by basaltic and trachytic products, thus the rhyolitic composition of MF1 tephra suggests that it is likely originated from an unknown eruption. These results again confirm the interest of studying the distal volcanic ash fallouts in order to establish or specify records of past eruptions of volcanic fields. Identification of this new tephra layer also provides an additional tephrochronological marker for Eastern French Massif Central.

  18. Grand Sarcoui volcano (Chaîne des Puys, Massif Central, France), a case study for monogenetic trachytic lava domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miallier, D.; Pilleyre, T.; Boivin, P.; Labazuy, P.; Gailler, L.-S.; Rico, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Grand Sarcoui is a prominent trachytic volcano of the intraplate Quaternary volcanic field of Chaîne des Puys (Massif Central, France), which fulfills basic requirements for being qualified as monogenetic. Grand Sarcoui looks like a simple axisymmetric lava dome, but close observation reveals a complex and dissymmetric structure and composition. The construction of the dome, about 12.5 ka ago, combined both endogenous and exogenous growth which resulted in variable modes of emplacement and textures of the lava. One of its most interesting features is a large ( 0.29 106 m2) fan of deposits bearing hummocks and secondary hydro-eruption craters. Cross sections of these deposits demonstrate that they originated from a sector collapse accompanied by a blast-like event. The dome is covered by a thin layer of lapilli and ash, attributed to a delayed summit eruption which occurred about 10.6 ka ago, surprisingly late after its construction. So, this volcano has, at a reduced scale, features that are more usually observed in large composite volcanoes. However, some of these features differ slightly from those that have been documented to date, and they remain partly unexplained. This shows that monogenetic, well preserved, trachytic lava domes, are uncommon and poorly known, unlike rhyolitic, andesitic and dacitic domes.

  19. Nucleation and growth of apatite on NaOH-treated PEEK, HDPE and UHMWPE for artificial cornea materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M; Stingelin, N; Tanner, K E

    2008-11-01

    The skirt of an artificial cornea must integrate the implant to the host sclera, a major failure of present devices. Thus, it is highly desirable to encourage the metabolic activity of the cornea by using more bioactive, flexible skirt materials. Here we describe attempts to increase the bioactivity of polyether ether ketone (PEEK), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films. The effectiveness of different strength NaOH pre-treatments to initiate apatite deposition on PEEK, HDPE and UHMWPE is investigated. We find that exposure of PEEK, HDPE and UHMWPE films to NaOH solutions induces the formation of potential nuclei for apatite (calcium phosphate), from which the growth of an apatite coating is stimulated when subsequently immersing the polymer films in 1.5 strength Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). As immersion time in SBF increases, further nucleation and growth produces a thicker and more compact apatite coating that can be expected to be highly bioactive. Interestingly, the apatite growth is found to also be dependent on both the concentration of NaOH solution and the structure of the polymer surface.

  20. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubert, M; Adamska, K; Szybowicz, M; Jesionowski, T; Buchwald, T; Voelkel, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37°C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. © 2013.

  1. Tuning the Slide-Roll Motion Mode of Carbon Nanotubes via Hydroxyl Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Shiwei; Peng, Qing

    2018-05-01

    Controlling the motion of carbon nanotubes is critical in manipulating nanodevices, including nanorobots. Herein, we investigate the motion behavior of SWCNT (10,10) on Si substrate utilizing molecular dynamics simulations. We show that hydroxyl groups have sensitive effect on the carbon nanotube's motion mode. When the hydroxyl groups' ratio on carbon nanotube and silicon substrate surfaces is larger than 10 and 20%, respectively, the motion of carbon nanotube transforms from sliding to rolling. When the hydroxyl groups' ratio is smaller, the slide or roll mode can be controlled by the speed of carbon nanotube, which is ultimately determined by the competition between the interface potential energy and kinetic energy. The change of motion mode holds true for different carbon nanotubes with hydroxyl groups. The chirality has little effect on the motion behavior, as opposed to the diameter, attributed to the hydroxyl groups' ratio. Our study suggests a new route to control the motion behavior of carbon nanotube via hydroxyl groups.

  2. The stability of the hydroxylated (0001) surface of alpha-Al2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodziana, Zbigniew; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Stoltze, Per

    2003-01-01

    Self-consistent density functional calculations of the hydroxylated (0001) corundum surfaces are presented. It is demonstrated that the hydroxylated surfaces are the most stable under most, but not all, conditions. Hydroxylation significantly lowers the surface free energy of alpha-alumina. The s......Self-consistent density functional calculations of the hydroxylated (0001) corundum surfaces are presented. It is demonstrated that the hydroxylated surfaces are the most stable under most, but not all, conditions. Hydroxylation significantly lowers the surface free energy of alpha......-alumina. The stability of the hydrated surface resolves the discrepancies between the morphology of the alpha-alumina (0001) surface observed under ultra-high vacuum, and at ambient conditions. A method for the calculation of the equilibrium surface stoichiometry is proposed. The proposed approach provides a valuable...

  3. Atomistic modelling study of lanthanide incorporation in the crystal lattice of an apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis-Achille, V.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of natural and synthetic apatites allow to propose such crystals as matrix for nuclear waste storage. The neodymium substituted britholite, Ca 9 Nd(PO 4 ) 5 (SiO 4 )F 2 . is a model for the trivalent actinide storage Neodymium can be substituted in two types of sites. The aim of this thesis is to compare the chemical nature of this two sites in fluoro-apatite Ca 9 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 and then in britholite, using ab initio atomistic modeling. Two approaches are used: one considers the infinite crystals and the second considers clusters. The calculations of the electronic structure for both were performed using Kohn and Sham density functional theory in the local approximation. For solids, pseudopotentials were used, and wave functions are expanded in plane waves. For clusters, a frozen core approximation was used, and the wave functions are expanded in a linear combination of Slater type atomic orbitals. The pseudopotential is semi-relativistic for neodymium, and the Hamiltonian is scalar relativistic for the clusters. The validation of the solid approach is performed using two test cases: YPO 4 and ScPO 4 . Two numerical tools were developed to compute electronic deformation density map, and calculate partial density of stases. A full optimisation of the lattice parameters with a relaxation of the atomic coordinates leads to correct structural and thermodynamic properties for the fluoro-apatite, compared to experience. The electronic deformation density maps do not show any significant differences. between the two calcium sites. but Mulliken analysis on the solid and on the clusters point out the more ionic behavior of the calcium in site 2. A neodymium substituted britholite is then studied. Neodymium location only induces local modifications in; the crystalline structure and few changes in the formation enthalpy. The electronic study points out an increase of the covalent character the bonding involving neodymium compared with the one related to calcium

  4. Denudation history of the Snowy Mountains: constraints from apatite fission track thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, B.P.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Cox, S.J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Apatite fission track thermo chronology from Early Palaeozoic granitoids centred around the Kosciuszko massif of the Snowy Mountains, records a denudation history that was episodic and highly variable. The form of the apatite fission track age profile assembled from vertical sections and hydro-electric tunnels traversing the mountains, together with numerical forward modelling, provide strong evidence for two episodes of accelerated denudation, commencing in Late Permian - Early Triassic (ca 270 250 Ma) and mid-Cretaceous (ca 110-100 Ma) times, and a possible third episode in the Cenozoic. Denudation commencing in the Late Permian - Early Triassic wins widespread in the eastern and Central Snowy Mountains area, continued through much of the Triassic, and amounted to at least ∼2.0-2,4 km. This episode was probably the geomorphic response to the Hunter-Bowen Orogeny. Post-Triassic denudation to the present in these areas amounted to ∼2.0-2.2 km. Unambiguous evidence for mid-Cretaceous cooling and possible later cooling is confined to a north-south-trending sinuous belt, up to ∼15km wide by at least 35km long, of major reactivated Palaeozoic faults on the western side of the mountains. This zone is the most deeply exposed area of the Kosciuszko block. Denudation accompanying these later events totalled up to ∼1.8-2.0 km and ∼2.0 2.25 km respectively. Mid-Cretaceous denudation marks the onset of renewed tectonic activity in the south-eastern highlands following a period of relative quiescence since the Late Triassic, and establishes a temporal link with the onset of extension related to the opening of the Tasman Sea. Much of the present day relief of the mountains resulted from surface uplift which disrupted the post-mid-Cretaceous apatite fission track profile by variable offsets on faults. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  5. EPR dating CO2- sites in tooth enamel apatites by ENDOR and triple resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vugman, N.V.; Rigby, S.E.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this work we combine electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), high-resolution electron nucleus double resonance (ENDOR) and general triple resonance (GTR) spectroscopies, to study the local environment of the CO 2 - groups created by ionizing radiation in fossil tooth enamel. We demonstrate that the CO 2 - groups occupy slightly modified phosphate sites in the hydroxyapatite lattice. In quaternary shark enamel we found these groups to be interacting with water molecules in the apatite channels. The absence of water molecules as first neighbours in mammalian samples indicate, however, that these molecules are not significantly responsible for the stabilization of CO 2 - dating centers in enamel. (author)

  6. Using of natural radioactivity for determination of phosphorus content in phosphate rocks, apatites and superphosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magas, S; Kasprzak, K S; Gorski, Z [Politechnika Poznanska (Poland). Inst. Chemii Podstawowej

    1980-01-01

    A quick radiometric method of determination of phosphorus content in natural phosphate rocks, apatites and phosphorus fertilizers, obtained from them has been developed on the basis of uranium and the products of its radioactive decay contained in these materials. The uranium content in these materials amounts to 0.01/0.02%, and is for a given deposit proportional to the phosphorus content. The method is well fitted for laboratory quick determination of phosphorus content in raw-materials and products in factories producing phosphorus fertilizers and makes possible the automation of process and proportioning of sulphuric acid in production of superphosphates.

  7. Emplacement time of Salai Patai carbonatite, Malakand, Pakistan, from fission track dating of zircon and apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.A.; Khan, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Based on fission track dating of zircon and apatite, the emplacement history of Salai Patai carbonatite has been traced. It has been estimated that the carbonatite was emplaced along the thrust plane associated with the Indian-Eurasian plate collision during the Oligocene period followed by some thermal/tectonic episode during Early Miocene. This negates the previous proposal that all carbonatites found in Pakistan are a part of a 200 km long alkaline province associated with the rifting of Peshawar Valley during Late Cretaceous or early tertiary. (author)

  8. Relationship of CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 score to left atrial remodeling detected by velocity vector imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc scores are used to predict thrombo-embolic/stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF. Nevertheless, limited data are available regarding the association between these risk stratification for stroke and left atrial (LA remodeling status of AF patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between these scores and LA remodeling status assessed quantificationally by echocardiography in AF patients. METHODS: One hundred AF patients were divided into 3 groups based on the CHA2DS2-VASc/CHADS2 score: the score of 0 (low stroke risk, the score of 1 (moderate stroke risk and the score of ≥2 (high stroke risk. All patients were performed through conventional and velocity vector imaging echocardiography. Echocardiographic parameters: maximum LA volume index (LAVImax, LA total emptying fraction (LAEFt and LA mean strain were obtained to assess quantificationally LA remodeling status. RESULTS: On categorizing with CHA2DS2-VASc, the score of 1 group showed augment in LAVImax and attenuation in LA mean strain derived from VVI, compared with the score of 0 group (LAVImax: 40.27±21.91 vs. 26.79±7.87, p=0.002; LA mean strain: 15.18±6.36 vs. 22±8.54, p=0.001. On categorizing with the CHADS2 score, similar trends were seen between the score of ≥2 and 1 groups (LAVImax: 43.72±13.77 vs. 31.41±9.50, p<0.001; LA mean strain: 11.01±5.31 vs. 18.63±7.00, p<0.001. With multivariate logistic regression, LAVImax (odds ratio: 0.92 , 95% C=I: 0.85 to 0.98, p= 0.01 and LA mean strain reflecting LA remodeling (odds ratio: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.19, p=0.01 were strongly predictive of the CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0. CONCLUSIONS: The superiority of the CHADS2 score may lay in identifying LA remodeling of AF patients with high stroke risk. Whereas, the CHA2DS2-VASc score was better than the CHADS2 score at identifying LA remodeling of AF patients presenting low stroke risk.

  9. Impact of CHA2DS2VASc Score on Candidacy for Anticoagulation in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Multi-payer Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aarti A; Nelson, Winnie W; Schein, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to report on the effect of using CHA 2 DS 2 VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [doubled], type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism [doubled], vascular disease [prior myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, or aortic plaque], age 65-75 years, sex category [female]) rather than CHADS 2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke) to determine candidacy for anticoagulant prophylaxis in insured patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Six administrative claims databases that included medical and pharmacy claims for patients aged ≥18 years with a new or existing diagnosis of AF and patient outcomes assessed for 1 year after diagnosis were analyzed. Retrospective health plan data analyses were performed using a software tool (Anticoagulant Quality Improvement Analyzer). Study measures included stroke risk (identified by CHADS 2 and CHA 2 DS 2 VASc scores), bleeding risk (identified by the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation score), and anticoagulant use. A total of 115,906 patients with AF (range of mean ages among the 6 databases, 56-79 years) met the inclusion criteria. All ranges reported represent the minimum and maximum values among the 6 databases. Using the CHA 2 DS 2 VASc compared with the CHADS 2 index to assess stroke risk resulted in a 23% to 32% increase in patients considered potential candidates for anticoagulant prophylaxis. This translated to a 38% to 114% increase in the number of ostensibly undertreated patients. Among patients with high stroke and low bleeding risk, 18% to 28% more patients were considered potential candidates for anticoagulation treatment using CHA 2 DS 2 VASc compared with CHADS 2 , or a 57% to 151% increase in the number of undertreated patients. Use of the CHA 2 DS 2 VASc score to determine the risk of stroke increased the number of AF patients for

  10. Self-hydroxylation of the splicing factor lysyl hydroxylase, JMJD6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, M.; Webby, C.J.; Loik, N.D.

    2012-01-01

    The lysyl 5S-hydroxylase, JMJD6 acts on proteins involved in RNA splicing. We find that in the absence of substrate JMJD6 catalyses turnover of 2OG to succinate. H-NMR analyses demonstrate that consumption of 2OG is coupled to succinate formation. MS analyses reveal that JMJD6 undergoes self......-hydroxylation in the presence of Fe(ii) and 2OG resulting in production of 5S-hydroxylysine residues. JMJD6 in human cells is also found to be hydroxylated. Self-hydroxylation of JMJD6 may play a regulatory role in modulating the hydroxylation status of proteins involved in RNA splicing. This journal is...

  11. High spatial resolution U-Pb geochronology and Pb isotope geochemistry of magnetite-apatite ore from the Pea Ridge iron oxide-apatite deposit, St. Francois Mountains, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Pietruszka, Aaron; Aleinikoff, John N.; Fanning, C. Mark; Pillers, Renee M.; Moscati, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pea Ridge iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposit is one of the major rhyolite-hosted magnetite deposits of the St. Francois Mountains terrane, which is located within the Mesoproterozoic (1.5–1.3 Ga) Granite-Rhyolite province in the U.S. Midcontinent. Precise and accurate determination of the timing and duration of oreforming processes in this deposit is crucial for understanding its origin and placing it within a deposit-scale and regional geologic context. Apatite and monazite, well-established U-Pb mineral geochronometers, are abundant in the Pea Ridge orebody. However, the potential presence of multiple generations of dateable minerals, processes of dissolution-reprecipitation, and occurrence of micrometer-sized intergrowths and inclusions complicate measurements and interpretations of the geochronological results. Here, we employ a combination of several techniques, including ID-TIMS and high spatial resolution geochronology of apatite and monazite using LA-SC-ICPMS and SHRIMP, and Pb isotope geochemistry of pyrite and magnetite to obtain the first direct age constraints on the formation and alteration history of the Pea Ridge IOA deposit. The oldest apatite TIMS 207Pb*/206Pb* dates are 1471 ± 1 and 1468 ± 1 Ma, slightly younger than (but within error of) the ~1474 to ~1473 Ma U-Pb zircon ages of the host rhyolites. Dating of apatite and monazite inclusions within apatite provides evidence for at least one younger metasomatic event at ~1.44 Ga, and possibly multiple superimposed metasomatic events between 1.47 and 1.44 Ga. Lead isotop analyses of pyrite show extremely radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb ratios up to ~80 unsupported by in situ U decay. This excess radiogenic Pb in pyrite may have been derived from the spatially associated apatite as apatite recrystallized several tens of million years after its formation. The low initial 206Pb/204Pb ratio of ~16.5 and 207Pb/204Pb ratio of ~15.4 for individual magnetite grains indicate closed U-Pb system behavior in

  12. Synthesis of hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ke-wen; GAO Li-ping; CAO Jie; YU Hai-wen; ZHANG Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxylated/methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH/MeO-PBDEs) are not only detected as natural products, but also regarded as metabolites formed from polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants in various materials. The aim of the present study was to synthesize authentic OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, as reference standards for environmental exploration. Twenty OH-PBDEs and their corresponding MeO-PBDEs containing three to six bromine atoms were synthesized via a trial of reactions including coupling, oxidation, bromination, methylation, etc. The products were characterized by GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy in the work. As results show, all compounds synthesized were up to 99% on purity and be reqarded as authentic standards for detecting the chemical pollutants in the emvironment.

  13. [Epimerization of hydroxyl group in the lupan series of triterpenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, A V; Kaplun, A P; Vlasenkova, N K; Gerasimova, G K; Shon, Le Bang; Litvin, E F; Kozlova, L M; Surkova, E L; Shvets, V I

    2003-01-01

    Two methods of obtaining of 3 alpha-betulinic acid and related compounds from their 3 beta-epimers were studied: the reaction of bimolecular substitution and the stereoselective reduction of 3-ketoderivatives. The substitution of acyloxy by formyloxy group in 3-O-tosyllupeol or of the betulin hydroxyl by benzoyloxy group resulted only in delta 2, 3-elimination products, with none of the expected products of bimolecular substitution being found. The catalytic hydrogenation of betulonic acid over Raney nickel resulted only in reduction of the isopropenyl double bond, whereas the use of 5% Ru/C gave a 60:40 mixture of epimers of dihydrobetulinic acid. Practically the same mixture of betulinic acid epimers was obtained when reducing betulonic acid with L-Selectride. The cytotoxic activity of 3 alpha-betulinic acid increased toward melanoma Bro cells and decreased toward melanoma MS cells.

  14. Chemical models of chains electron transfer in hydroxylating ferment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhrem, A.A.; Kiselev, P.A.; Metelitsa, D.I.

    1977-01-01

    The rate constants are measured of consumption of nicotineamidedinucleotide (NAD-N) during its oxidation by molecular oxygen with the participation of Ti 4+ , Sn 4+ , Cu 2+ , Fe 3+ , VO 2+ , and Ce 4+ ions in mixtures of acetonitrile with water and of dioxane with water taken in a volume ratio of 1:1 (46 deg C). The kinetics of oxidation of NAD-N with the participation of Ti 4+ at 37 deg C in a water-acetonitrile medium is studied in detail. The hydroxylating capacity of the system NAD-N - Ti 4+ - O 2 with respect to naphthalene is proved. The reaction mechanism and its relationship with the microsomal chains of electron transport are discussed

  15. Kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by catalase: hydroxylic solvent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducan, Adina; Cantemir, Anca Ruxandra; Puiu, Mihaela; Oancea, Dumitru

    2012-11-01

    The effect of water-alcohol (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, ethane-1,2-diol and propane-1,2,3-triol) binary mixtures on the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in the presence of bovine liver catalase is investigated. In all solvents, the activity of catalase is smaller than in water. The results are discussed on the basis of a simple kinetic model. The kinetic constants for product formation through enzyme-substrate complex decomposition and for inactivation of catalase are estimated. The organic solvents are characterized by several physical properties: dielectric constant (D), hydrophobicity (log P), concentration of hydroxyl groups ([OH]), polarizability (α), Kamlet-Taft parameter (β) and Kosower parameter (Z). The relationships between the initial rate, kinetic constants and medium properties are analyzed by linear and multiple linear regression.

  16. Spectroscopy and reaction dynamics of collision complexes containing hydroxyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, M.I. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The DOE supported work in this laboratory has focused on the spectroscopic characterization of the interaction potential between an argon atom and a hydroxyl radical in the ground X{sup 2}II and excited A {sup 2}{summation}{sup +} electronic states. The OH-Ar system has proven to be a test case for examining the interaction potential in an open-shell system since it is amenable to experimental investigation and theoretically tractable from first principles. Experimental identification of the bound states supported by the Ar + OH (X {sup 2}II) and Ar + OH(A {sup 2}{summation}{sup +}) potentials makes it feasible to derive realistic potential energy surfaces for these systems. The experimentally derived intermolecular potentials provide a rigorous test of ab initio theory and a basis for understanding the dramatically different collision dynamics taking place on the ground and excited electronic state surfaces.

  17. Formation of apatite on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K.; Ding Chuanxian

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were fabricated on p-type, 100 mm diameter silicon wafers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane and hydrogen. The structure and composition of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were subsequently soaked in simulated body fluids to evaluate apatite formation. Carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (bone-like apatite) was formed on the surface suggesting good bone conductivity. The amorphous structure and presence of surface Si-H bonds are believed to induce apatite formation on the surface of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film. A good understanding of the surface bioactivity of silicon-based materials and means to produce a bioactive surface is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and micro-devices that are implanted inside humans

  18. Formation of apatite on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuanyong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Ding Chuanxian [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were fabricated on p-type, 100 mm diameter <1 0 0> silicon wafers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane and hydrogen. The structure and composition of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films were subsequently soaked in simulated body fluids to evaluate apatite formation. Carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (bone-like apatite) was formed on the surface suggesting good bone conductivity. The amorphous structure and presence of surface Si-H bonds are believed to induce apatite formation on the surface of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film. A good understanding of the surface bioactivity of silicon-based materials and means to produce a bioactive surface is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and micro-devices that are implanted inside humans.

  19. Effective L-Tyrosine Hydroxylation by Native and Immobilized Tyrosinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cieńska

    Full Text Available Hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA by immobilized tyrosinase in the presence of ascorbic acid (AH2, which reduces DOPA-quinone to L-DOPA, is characterized by low reaction yields that are mainly caused by the suicide inactivation of tyrosinase by L-DOPA and AH2. The main aim of this work was to compare processes with native and immobilized tyrosinase to identify the conditions that limit suicide inactivation and produce substrate conversions to L-DOPA of above 50% using HPLC analysis. It was shown that immobilized tyrosinase does not suffer from partitioning and diffusion effects, allowing a direct comparison of the reactions performed with both forms of the enzyme. In typical processes, additional aeration was applied and boron ions to produce the L-DOPA and AH2 complex and hydroxylamine to close the cycle of enzyme active center transformations. It was shown that the commonly used pH 9 buffer increased enzyme stability, with concomitant reduced reactivity of 76%, and that under these conditions, the maximal substrate conversion was approximately 25 (native to 30% (immobilized enzyme. To increase reaction yield, the pH of the reaction mixture was reduced to 8 and 7, producing L-DOPA yields of approximately 95% (native enzyme and 70% (immobilized. A three-fold increase in the bound enzyme load achieved 95% conversion in two successive runs, but in the third one, tyrosinase lost its activity due to strong suicide inactivation caused by L-DOPA processing. In this case, the cost of the immobilized enzyme preparation is not overcome by its reuse over time, and native tyrosinase may be more economically feasible for a single use in L-DOPA production. The practical importance of the obtained results is that highly efficient hydroxylation of monophenols by tyrosinase can be obtained by selecting the proper reaction pH and is a compromise between complexation and enzyme reactivity.

  20. Effective L-Tyrosine Hydroxylation by Native and Immobilized Tyrosinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewańczuk, Marcin; Koźlecki, Tomasz; Liesiene, Jolanta; Bryjak, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) by immobilized tyrosinase in the presence of ascorbic acid (AH2), which reduces DOPA-quinone to L-DOPA, is characterized by low reaction yields that are mainly caused by the suicide inactivation of tyrosinase by L-DOPA and AH2. The main aim of this work was to compare processes with native and immobilized tyrosinase to identify the conditions that limit suicide inactivation and produce substrate conversions to L-DOPA of above 50% using HPLC analysis. It was shown that immobilized tyrosinase does not suffer from partitioning and diffusion effects, allowing a direct comparison of the reactions performed with both forms of the enzyme. In typical processes, additional aeration was applied and boron ions to produce the L-DOPA and AH2 complex and hydroxylamine to close the cycle of enzyme active center transformations. It was shown that the commonly used pH 9 buffer increased enzyme stability, with concomitant reduced reactivity of 76%, and that under these conditions, the maximal substrate conversion was approximately 25 (native) to 30% (immobilized enzyme). To increase reaction yield, the pH of the reaction mixture was reduced to 8 and 7, producing L-DOPA yields of approximately 95% (native enzyme) and 70% (immobilized). A three-fold increase in the bound enzyme load achieved 95% conversion in two successive runs, but in the third one, tyrosinase lost its activity due to strong suicide inactivation caused by L-DOPA processing. In this case, the cost of the immobilized enzyme preparation is not overcome by its reuse over time, and native tyrosinase may be more economically feasible for a single use in L-DOPA production. The practical importance of the obtained results is that highly efficient hydroxylation of monophenols by tyrosinase can be obtained by selecting the proper reaction pH and is a compromise between complexation and enzyme reactivity. PMID:27711193

  1. Effective L-Tyrosine Hydroxylation by Native and Immobilized Tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieńska, Małgorzata; Labus, Karolina; Lewańczuk, Marcin; Koźlecki, Tomasz; Liesiene, Jolanta; Bryjak, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) by immobilized tyrosinase in the presence of ascorbic acid (AH2), which reduces DOPA-quinone to L-DOPA, is characterized by low reaction yields that are mainly caused by the suicide inactivation of tyrosinase by L-DOPA and AH2. The main aim of this work was to compare processes with native and immobilized tyrosinase to identify the conditions that limit suicide inactivation and produce substrate conversions to L-DOPA of above 50% using HPLC analysis. It was shown that immobilized tyrosinase does not suffer from partitioning and diffusion effects, allowing a direct comparison of the reactions performed with both forms of the enzyme. In typical processes, additional aeration was applied and boron ions to produce the L-DOPA and AH2 complex and hydroxylamine to close the cycle of enzyme active center transformations. It was shown that the commonly used pH 9 buffer increased enzyme stability, with concomitant reduced reactivity of 76%, and that under these conditions, the maximal substrate conversion was approximately 25 (native) to 30% (immobilized enzyme). To increase reaction yield, the pH of the reaction mixture was reduced to 8 and 7, producing L-DOPA yields of approximately 95% (native enzyme) and 70% (immobilized). A three-fold increase in the bound enzyme load achieved 95% conversion in two successive runs, but in the third one, tyrosinase lost its activity due to strong suicide inactivation caused by L-DOPA processing. In this case, the cost of the immobilized enzyme preparation is not overcome by its reuse over time, and native tyrosinase may be more economically feasible for a single use in L-DOPA production. The practical importance of the obtained results is that highly efficient hydroxylation of monophenols by tyrosinase can be obtained by selecting the proper reaction pH and is a compromise between complexation and enzyme reactivity.

  2. Biomimetic growth and substrate dependent mechanical properties of bone like apatite nucleated on Ti and magnetron sputtered TiO2 nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Das, Apurba; Barman, Pintu; Pal, Arup R.

    2016-04-01

    This report presents findings on biomimetic growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals on Ti and sputtered TiO2 substrates. The possibility of TiO2 nanostructure as candidate materials for future biomedical applications has been explored through the comparison of microstructural and mechanical properties of bone like apatite grown on Ti and nano-TiO2 surfaces. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies reveal formation of carbonate apatite with apparent domain size in the nanoscale range. A better interaction at the nano-TiO2/nano-HAp interface due to higher interfacial area could promote the growth of bone like apatite. The crystal phases, crystallinity, and surface morphology of nano-TiO2 are considered as parameters to understand the nucleation and growth of apatite with different mechanical properties at the nanoscale. The methodology of x-ray line profile analysis encompasses deconvolution of merged peaks by preserving broadening due to nanosized HAp aggregates. The Young’s modulus of bone like apatite exhibits crystallographic directional dependence which suggests the presence of elastic anisotropy in bone like apatite. The lattice contraction in the c-direction is associated with the degree of carbonate substitution in the apatite lattice. The role of residual stress is critical for the lattice distortion of HAp deposited at physiological conditions of temperature and pH of human blood plasma. The ion concentration is crucial for the uniformity, crystallinity, and mechanical behaviour of the apatite.

  3. Biomimetic growth and substrate dependent mechanical properties of bone like apatite nucleated on Ti and magnetron sputtered TiO2 nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Bimal K; Das, Apurba; Barman, Pintu; Pal, Arup R

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings on biomimetic growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals on Ti and sputtered TiO 2 substrates. The possibility of TiO 2 nanostructure as candidate materials for future biomedical applications has been explored through the comparison of microstructural and mechanical properties of bone like apatite grown on Ti and nano-TiO 2 surfaces. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies reveal formation of carbonate apatite with apparent domain size in the nanoscale range. A better interaction at the nano-TiO 2 /nano-HAp interface due to higher interfacial area could promote the growth of bone like apatite. The crystal phases, crystallinity, and surface morphology of nano-TiO 2 are considered as parameters to understand the nucleation and growth of apatite with different mechanical properties at the nanoscale. The methodology of x-ray line profile analysis encompasses deconvolution of merged peaks by preserving broadening due to nanosized HAp aggregates. The Young’s modulus of bone like apatite exhibits crystallographic directional dependence which suggests the presence of elastic anisotropy in bone like apatite. The lattice contraction in the c-direction is associated with the degree of carbonate substitution in the apatite lattice. The role of residual stress is critical for the lattice distortion of HAp deposited at physiological conditions of temperature and pH of human blood plasma. The ion concentration is crucial for the uniformity, crystallinity, and mechanical behaviour of the apatite. (paper)

  4. Calibration of the Fluorine, Chlorine and Hydrogen Content of Apatites With the ChemCam LIBS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Cicutto, L.; Forni, O.; Drouet, C.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Cousin, A.; Blank, J. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Gasnault, O.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Determining the composition of apatites is important to understand the behavior of volatiles during planetary differentiation. Apatite is an ubiquitous magmatic mineral in the SNC meteorites. It is a significant reservoir of halogens in these meteorites and has been used to estimate the halogen budget of Mars. Apatites have been identified in sandstones and pebbles at Gale crater by ChemCam, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscometer (LIBS) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. Their presence was inferred from correlations between calcium, fluorine (using the CaF molecular band centered near 603 nm, whose detection limit is much lower that atomic or ionic lines and, in some cases, phosphorus (whose detection limit is much larger). An initial quantification of fluorine, based on fluorite (CaF2)/basalt mixtures and obtained at the LANL laboratory, indicated that the excess of F/Ca (compared to the stoichiometry of pure fluorapatites) found on Mars in some cases could be explained by the presence of fluorite. Chlorine was not detected in these targets, at least above a detection limit of 0.6 wt% estimated from. Fluorapatite was later also detected by X-ray diffraction (with CheMin) at a level of approx.1wt% in the Windjana drill sample (Kimberley area), and several points analyzed by ChemCam in this area also revealed a correlation between Ca and F. The in situ detection of F-rich, Cl-poor apatites contrasts with the Cl-rich, F-poor compositions of apatites found in basaltic shergottites and in gabbroic clasts from the martian meteorite NWA 7034, which were also found to be more Cl-rich than apatites from basalts on Earth, the Moon, or Vesta. The in situ observations could call into question one of the few possible explanations brought forward to explain the SNC results, namely that Mars may be highly depleted in fluorine. The purpose of the present study is to refine the calibration of the F, Cl, OH and P signals measured by the ChemCam LIBS instrument, initiated

  5. Geodynamic risk magnitude as an objective indicator of rockburst prevention effectiveness (in terms of apatite mines in Khibiny)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova Panin, YuV, VI

    2018-03-01

    The results of the statistical retrospective analysis of the officially recorded geodynamic events in mines of Apatit Company within the Khibiny Massif are presented. The risks and aftereffects of geodynamic events have been calculated. Under discussion are the results of three calculation variants taking into account the scale of human impact on rock mass. The analysis shows that the main damage due to geodynamic events is different-degree destruction of mine workings while the remaining aftereffects account for less than ten percent. That is, the geodynamic risk in apatite mines can be identified as technological.

  6. Removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt and mercury from water by Apatite II{sup TM}: Column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Josep [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resou-rces, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa, Catalonia (Spain); De Pablo, Joan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cortina, Jose-Luis, E-mail: jose.luis.cortina@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Water Technology Center, CETaqua, Paseo de los Tilos 3, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The efficiency of Apatite II{sup TM} increases as the acidity decreases, then the application of apatite-based materials for metal removal treatments should be restricted to slightly acid to neutral waters. {yields} Because of the preferred process of using phosphate ions to form metal-phosphate precipitates, the mixture with other sources of alkalinity, such as limestone, is proposed to extend the duration of Apatite II{sup TM}. {yields} Compared with other reactive materials such as limestone and caustic magnesia that exhibit a reduction of porosity Apatite II{sup TM} showed stable hydraulic performance. {yields} The extrapolation of the column durabilities to a 1-m-thick passive treatment suggests that the Apatite II{sup TM} filling can be active between 5 and 10 years for an inflow pH exceeding 5. - Abstract: Apatite II{sup TM}, a biogenic hydroxyapatite, was evaluated as a reactive material for heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Hg) removal in passive treatments. Apatite II{sup TM} reacts with acid water by releasing phosphates that increase the pH up to 6.5-7.5, complexing and inducing metals to precipitate as metal phosphates. The evolution of the solution concentration of calcium, phosphate and metals together with SEM-EDS and XRD examinations were used to identify the retention mechanisms. SEM observation shows low-crystalline precipitate layers composed of P, O and M. Only in the case of Hg and Co were small amounts of crystalline phases detected. Solubility data values were used to predict the measured column experiment values and to support the removal process based on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite, the formation of metal-phosphate species in solution and the precipitation of metal phosphate. Cd{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH(s), Cu{sub 2}(PO{sub 4})OH(s), Ni{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s), Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}8H{sub 2}O(s) and Hg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) are proposed as the possible mineral phases responsible for the removal

  7. Apatite ore mine tailings as an amendment for remediation of a lead-contaminated shooting range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venäläinen, Salla H

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the use of tailings from apatite ore beneficiation in the remediation of a heavily contaminated shooting range soil. The tailings originating in Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, Finland, consist of apatite residues accompanied by phlogopite and calcite. In a pot experiment, organic top layer of a boreal forest soil predisposed to pellet-derived lead (Pb) was amended with tailings of various particle-sizes (Ø>0.2mm, Øremediation technique at polluted sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In-situ Strontium Isotopes Analysis on Single Conodont Apatite by LA-MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Zhang, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Qiu, H.; Lv, Z.; Hu, Z.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Strontium isotope played an important role in stratigraphic chronology and sedimentary geochemistry research (McArthur et al., 2001). Conodonts is a kind of extinct species of marine animals and widely distributed in marine sediments all over the world. Rich in radiogenic Sr contents and difficulty to be affected during diagenesis alteration makes conodonts a good choice in seawater Sr isotope composition studies (John et al., 2008). Conodont samples were collected from 24th to 39th layer across Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan D section (GSSP), Zhejiang Province, South China (Yin et al., 2001). Conodonts was originated from fresh limestone and only conodont elements with CAIextinction events during the Permian-Triassic transition. Our study also makes is possible for high resolution 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio testing on the single conodont apatite and riched the in-situ studies on the conodont apatite, which of great significance for the future conodont Sr isotope research (Zhao et al., 2009; Zhao et al., 2013). Keywords: Conodonts, Strontium isotope, LA-MC-ICP-MS, Permian-Triassic transition, Meishan D section [1] John et al., 2008 3P[2] McArthur et al., 2001 J. of Geology [3] Yin et al., 2001 Episodes [4] Zhao et al., 2009 Earth Science J. of CUG [5] Zhao et al., 2013 GPC.

  9. Development of nanosized silver-substituted apatite for biomedical applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Poon Nian; Chang, Lei; Thian, Eng San

    2015-08-01

    The favorable biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite (HA) makes it a popular bone graft material as well as a coating layer on metallic implant. To reduce implant-related infections, silver ions were either incorporated into the apatite during co-precipitation process (AgHA-CP) or underwent ion-exchange with the calcium ions in the apatite (AgHA-IE). However, the distribution of silver ions in AgHA-CP and AgHA-IE was different, thus affecting the antibacterial action. Several studies reported that nanosized AgHA-CP containing 0.5 wt.% of silver provided an optimal trade-off between antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, nanosized AgHA and AgHA nanocoatings could not function ideally due to the compromise in the bone differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, as evidenced in the reduced alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen and osteocalcin. Preliminary studies showed that biological responses of nanosized AgHA and AgHA nanocoatings could be improved with the addition of silicon. This review will discuss on nanosized AgHA and AgHA nanocoatings. In many patients needing bone graft material, hydroxyapatite (HA) has proven to be a popular choice. Nonetheless, implant-related infections remain a major concern. Hence, effective preventive measures are needed. In this review article, the authors discussed the application of incorporating silver nanoparticles in HA and its use as bone graft biomaterials together with the addition of silica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Devonian climate and reef evolution: Insights from oxygen isotopes in apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimski, M. M.; Breisig, S.; Buggisch, W.; Talent, J. A.; Mawson, R.; Gereke, M.; Morrow, J. R.; Day, J.; Weddige, K.

    2009-07-01

    Conodonts, microfossils composed of carbonate-fluor apatite, are abundant in Palaeozoic-Triassic sediments and have a high potential to preserve primary oxygen isotope signals. In order to reconstruct the palaeotemperature history of the Devonian, the oxygen isotope composition of apatite phosphate was measured on 639 conodont samples from sequences in Europe, North America and Australia. The Early Devonian (Lochkovian; 416-411 Myr) was characterized by warm tropical temperatures of around 30 °C. A cooling trend started in the Pragian (410 Myr) with intermediate temperatures around 23 to 25 °C reconstructed for the Middle Devonian (397-385 Myr). During the Frasnian (383-375 Myr), temperatures increased again with temperatures to 30 °C calculated for the Frasnian-Famennian transition (375 Myr). During the Famennian (375-359 Myr), surface water temperatures slightly decreased. Reconstructed Devonian palaeotemperatures do not support earlier views suggesting the Middle Devonian was a supergreenhouse interval, an interpretation based partly on the development of extensive tropical coral-stromatoporoid communities during the Middle Devonian. Instead, the Devonian palaeotemperature record suggests that Middle Devonian coral-stromatoporoid reefs flourished during cooler time intervals whereas microbial reefs dominated during the warm to very warm Early and Late Devonian.

  11. Cellular Adaptation: Culture conditions of R. opacus and bioflotation of apatite and quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gutiérrez Merma

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that the culture conditions of microorganisms may affect their surface properties, zeta potential and hydrophobicity via the modification of the cell wall functional groups or metabolic products. The R. opacus bacteria strain was separately adapted to the presence of apatite and quartz, after which a cellular adaptation procedure was developed by repeated sub-culturing with a successive increase in the mineral content. Zeta potential, surface tension, FTIR and microflotation studies were used to evaluate the behavior of the cells that were developed under defined culture conditions. The cellular adaptation induced a modification of the bacterial surface charge. The FTIR results showed a modification of its functional groups. The surface tension results suggested that longer growing time promoted a higher production of metabolites. The use of mineral-adapted cells promoted an improvement in the flotability of both minerals, but it was more significant for apatite flotation. Additionally, the mineral flotability remained unchanged when the cells developed under a longer culture time. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the surface tension.

  12. Manufacture of nanosized apatite coatings on titanium with different surface treatments using a supersaturated calcification solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Paz Ramos

    Full Text Available The biomimetic method is used for the deposition of calcium phosphate coatings (Ca - P on the surface of different biomaterials. However, the application of this method requires long exposure times in order to obtain a suitable layer thickness for its use in medical devices. In this paper, we present a fast approach to obtain apatite coatings on titanium, using a combination of supersaturated calcification solution (SCS with chemical modification of the titanium surface. Also, it was evaluated the effect of four different surface treatments on the apatite deposition rate. Commercially pure titanium plates were activated by chemical or thermochemical treatments. Then, the activated samples were immersed in a solution with high content of calcium and phosphate ions at 37 ºC for 24 h, mimicking the physiological conditions. The coatings were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The use of SCS solutions allowed the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite coatings within a period of 24 h with a thickness between 1 and 5.3 µm. Besides, precipitates of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with a globular configuration, forming aggregates with submicrometer size, were found in SCS solutions.

  13. Remediation of lead, cadmium and uranium contaminated water and soil by apatite amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Plecas, I.; Kaludjerovic, T.

    2002-01-01

    During the past years as a consequence of war and some accidents in neighboring countries large areas in Serbia were contaminated by toxic heavy metals, including lead, cadmium and uranium. For example, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr have been doubled above the allowed maximum value in the Romanian part of the Danube while sediments near the border in Bulgaria have higher concentrations of Pb 3 times, Cu 1400 times and Cd 30 times more than the average long-standing levels. Furthermore, an estimated 10 tons of depleted uranium (DU) was spread mainly throughout the territory of Kosovo. This contamination is a potential source of different chronic diseases including malignant diseases and represents a long-term threat for the population living in the affected areas. For this reason, remediation of contaminated sites represents an urgent need and priority. The standard remediation procedure which includes soil removal, treatment (washing, chelating), conditioning etc. is costly, disruptive and not sustainable. This study was carried out to evaluate apatite from the Lisina deposit as soil amendment for in situ stabilization of toxic heavy metals. Preliminary theoretical and experimentally results presented here point out this natural apatite as an ecological, nontoxic material which can be used for efficient and cost-effective remediation of large areas contaminated with Pb, Cd and U. (author)

  14. Highly porous polymer-derived wollastonite-hydroxycarbonate apatite ceramics for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, L; Li, S; Bernardo, E; Stevens, M M; Jones, J R

    2016-04-12

    A novel strategy was employed to synthesize highly porous wollastonite-hydroxycarbonate apatite ceramic scaffolds for bone regeneration. A commercial liquid preceramic polymer filled with micro-CaCO3 powders was foamed at low temperature (at 350 °C), using the decomposition of a hydrazine additive, and then converted into ceramic by a treatment at 700 °C. Hydroxycarbonate apatite was later developed by a phosphatization treatment of ceramized foams, in a P-rich solution, while wollastonite was obtained by a second firing, at 900 °C. The effectiveness of the method was proven by x-ray diffraction analysis, showing the presence of the two expected crystalline phases. Porosity, interconnect size distribution and mechanical strength were in the range that is thought to be suitable for bone regeneration in non-load bearing sites (compressive strength ≈ 3 MPa, porosity ≈ 90%, modal interconnect diameter ≈ 130-160 μm). In addition, bioactivity and ion release rate were assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF). MC3T3 osteoblast precursor cells were able to colonize the material in vitro through the pore architecture and expressed osteogenic markers.

  15. Synthesis of functionally graded bioactive glass-apatite multistructures on Ti substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, D.; Jokic, B.; Socol, G.; Popescu, A.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Petrovic, R.; Janackovic, Dj.

    2007-01-01

    Functionally graded glass-apatite multistructures were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on Ti substrates. We used sintered targets of hydroxyapatite Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , or bioglasses in the system SiO 2 -Na 2 O-K 2 O-CaO-MgO-P 2 O 5 with SiO 2 content of either 57 wt.% (6P57) or 61 wt.% (6P61). A UV KrF* (λ = 248 nm, τ > 7 ns) excimer laser source was used for the multipulse laser ablation of the targets. The hydroxyapatite thin films were obtained in H 2 O vapors, while the bioglass layers were deposited in O 2 . Thin films of 6P61 were deposited in direct contact with Ti, because Ti and this glass have similar thermal expansion behaviors, which ensure good bioglass adhesion to the substrate. This glass, however, is not bioactive, so yet more depositions of 6P57 bioglass and/or hydroxyapatite thin films were performed. All structures with hydroxyapatite overcoating were post-treated in a flux of water vapors. The obtained multistructures were characterized by various techniques. X-ray investigations of the coatings found small amounts of crystalline hydroxyapatite in the outer layers. The scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed homogeneous coatings with good adhesion to the Ti substrate. Our studies showed that the multistructures we had obtained were compatible with further use in biomimetic metallic implants with glass-apatite coating applications

  16. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of apatite/wollastonite-derived porous bioactive glass ceramic scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hua; Ye Xiaojian; Li Jiashun

    2009-01-01

    An apatite/wollastonite-derived (A/W) porous glass ceramic scaffold with highly interconnected pores was successfully fabricated by adding a plastic porosifier. The morphology, porosity and mechanical strength were characterized. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity displayed open macropores. In addition, good in vitro bioactivity was found for the scaffold obtained by soaking it in simulated body fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffold, and the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs were determined using MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results revealed that the scaffold was biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity were investigated by implanting both the pure scaffold and the MSC/scaffold construct in rabbit mandibles and studying histologically. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffold observably improved the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. However, the glass ceramic scaffold showed the same good biocompatibility and osteogenicity as the hybrid one at the later stage. These results indicate that porous bioactive scaffolds based on the original apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic fulfil the basic requirements of a bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  17. Alternate dipping preparation of biomimetic apatite layers in the presence of carbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, Grégory; Bourgeois, Damien; Meyer, Daniel; Ravaux, Johann; Averseng, Olivier; Vidaud, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The classical simulated body fluids method cannot be employed to prepare biomimetic apatites encompassing metallic ions that lead to very stable phosphates. This is the case for heavy metals such as uranium, whose presence in bone mineral after contamination deserves toxicological study. We have demonstrated that existing methods, based on alternate dipping into calcium and phosphate ions solutions, can be adapted to achieve this aim. We have also especially studied the impact of the presence of carbonate ions in the medium as these are necessary to avoid hydrolysis of the contaminating metallic cations. Both the apatite–collagen complex method and a standard chemical (STD) method employing only mineral solutions lead to biomimetic apatites when calcium and carbonate ions are introduced simultaneously. The obtained materials were fully characterized and we established that the STD method tolerates the presence of carbonate ions much better, and this leads to homogeneous samples. Emphasis was set on the repeatability of the method to ensure the relevancy of further work performed on series of samples. Finally, osteoblasts cultured on these samples also proved a similar yield and standard-deviation in their adenosine triphosphate content when compared to commercially available substrates designed to study of such cell cultures. (paper)

  18. Nanodimensional and Nanocrystalline Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates in Biomedical Engineering, Biology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in biomineralization have already demonstrated that nanosized particles play an important role in the formation of hard tissues of animals. Namely, the basic inorganic building blocks of bones and teeth of mammals are nanodimensional and nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates (in the form of apatites of a biological origin. In mammals, tens to hundreds nanocrystals of a biological apatite were found to be combined into self-assembled structures under the control of various bioorganic matrixes. In addition, the structures of both dental enamel and bones could be mimicked by an oriented aggregation of nanosized calcium orthophosphates, determined by the biomolecules. The application and prospective use of nanodimensional and nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates for a clinical repair of damaged bones and teeth are also known. For example, a greater viability and a better proliferation of various types of cells were detected on smaller crystals of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, the nanodimensional and nanocrystalline forms of calcium orthophosphates have a great potential to revolutionize the field of hard tissue engineering starting from bone repair and augmentation to the controlled drug delivery devices. This paper reviews current state of knowledge and recent developments of this subject starting from the synthesis and characterization to biomedical and clinical applications. More to the point, this review provides possible directions of future research and development.

  19. Development of layered anode structures supported over Apatite-type Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandis P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-type lanthanum silicates (ATLS materials have attracted interest in recent literature as solid electrolytes for SOFCs. The fabrication of an ATLS based fuel cell with the state-of-art electrodes (NiO/YSZ as anode and LSCF or LSM as cathode can show degradation after long operation hours due to Si diffusion mainly towards the anode. In this work, we report a “layer-by-layer anodic electrodes” fabrication by means of spin coating and physical spraying. The overall aim of this work is the successful fabrication of such a layered structure including suitable blocking layers towards the inhibition of Si interdiffusion from the apatite electrolyte to the anode. The results showed that the deposition of 3 layers of LFSO/GDC (3μm, NiO/GDC (4μm and the final NiO/YSZ anode layer provided a stable half-cell, with no solid state reaction occurring among the electrodes and no Si diffusion observed towards the anode after thermal treatment at 800°C for 120h.

  20. Oxygen isotope variations in phosphate of biogenic apatites. Pt. 2. Phosphorite rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodny, Y; Luz, B; Shemesh, A [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Geology

    1983-09-01

    Phosphorites from sedimentary sequences ranging in age from Archaen to Recent were analysed for delta/sup 18/O in both the PO/sub 4/ (delta/sup 18/Osub(p)) and CO/sub 3/ (delta/sup 18/Osub(c)) in the apatite lattice. The oxygen isotope record is considerably better preserved in phosphates than in either carbonates or cherts. The use of the Longinelli and Nuti temperature equation yields temperatures for Recent phosphorites that are in good agreement with those measured in the field. The delta/sup 18/Osub(p) values of ancient phosphorites decrease with increasing age. These changes with time are not likely to be due to post-depositional exchange. Changes in delta/sup 18/O values of seawater and variations of temperatures with time can account for the delta/sup 18/Osub(p) time trend, but the latter explanation is preferred. In Ancient phosphorites delta/sup 18/Osub(c) in structurally bound carbonate in apatite is not a reliable geochemical indicator.

  1. An extensive apatite fission-track study throughout the Northern Apennines Nappe belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, E.; Balestrieri, M.L.; Bigazzi, G.; Ventura, B.; Zattin, M.; Zuffa, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper takes into consideration more than 100 apatite fission-track analyses on samples coming from an approximately west-east cross-section throughout the Northern Apennines. This collisional chain is made of structural units and nappes (Ligurian and Tuscan Nappe) accreted to the Adriatic Foreland during the Neogene, which overthrust the Miocene turbiditic successions of the Cervarola and Marnoso-arenacea Formations. Different cooling ages and degrees of annealing delineate different evolution histories for these units. Exhumation of the western outcrops of the Ligurian Nappe can be placed at 8 Ma and follows a first denudation event occurred in Eocene times. Timing of exhumation decreases eastwards. A break in this general trend is shown by the Apuan Alps, that occupy an intermediate position and yielded the youngest cooling ages. In the external part of the Marnoso-arenacea foredeep deposits this tendency could not be tested because total annealing of the apatite system has not been reached. In this case, modeling of data allows evaluating maximum burial temperatures

  2. Mechanism and Kinetics for the Dissolution of Apatitic Materials in Acid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmanovici C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This work concerns the study of the digestion step in the production process of phosphoric acid. Some qualitative experiments indicate that the difference between the pH at the surface of the phosphate and that in the bulk of the solution is negligible and that the dissolution is controlled by diffusion of products away from the phosphate particle. In further experiments, to isolate the dissolution phenomenon from the formation of calcium sulfate, the sulfuric acid normally used industrially is replaced by hydrochloric acid. The phosphate material used in our experiments is a model apatitic material: synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP. The dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite was studied with increasing amounts of calcium and phosphate at different temperatures. A simple method was developed for this observation based on the time required for complete dissolution of the HAP powder. The results confirm that the dissolution is controlled by a diffusional process through an interface of calcium and phosphate ions released from the solid surface. A kinetic model for the dissolution of apatitic materials is proposed which assumes a shrinking particle behaviour controlled by diffusion of calcium ions. The experimental results are fitted to this model to determine the mass transfer constant for HAP dissolution in acid solutions. The activation energy of the reaction is about 14kJ/mol. This study was carried on in conditions similar to the industrial ones for the production of phosphoric acid by the dihydrate-process

  3. Sorption behavior of Zn(II) ions on synthetic apatitic calcium phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Haroun; Pham Minh, Doan; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis, characterization and the reactivity of apatitic calcium phosphates (Ca-HA, chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is reported. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KH2PO4) were selected as economical starting materials for the synthesis of Ca-HA under atmospheric conditions. Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and octacalcium phosphate pentahydrate (OCP) were identified as the main intermediates of the synthesis reaction. The product obtained after 48 h of reaction contains mainly low-crystalline Ca-HA and small amounts of other calcium phosphates such as octacalcium phosphate (OCP), B-type carbonate apatite (CAP), as well as unreacted calcium carbonate. This Ca-HA was found to be active for the removal of Zn2+ from an aqueous solution. Its sorption capacity reached up to 120 mg of Zn2+ per g of Ca-HA powder after 24 h of reaction. The monitoring of soluble Zn, Ca and P during the sorption experiment allowed characterizing the mechanism of Zn uptake. Dissolution-precipitation, ionic exchange and surface complexation are the three main mechanisms involved in the sorption processes. The contribution of these mechanisms is discussed in detail.

  4. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    The Cenozoic basanite from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) belongs to numerous lavas occurring in the NE part of the Central European Volcanic Province. Basanite contains clinopyroxene megacrysts up to 3 cm in size. The clinopyroxene has the composition of aluminian-sodian diopside (mg# 0.61-0.70, 0.08-0.12 atoms Na pfu and 0.88-0.93 atoms Ca pfu). Cr is absent. The REE contents are above the primitive mantle reaching up to 18 x PM at Nd. Primitive-mantle normalized REE patterns show enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=3.81-5.01). The REE patterns of all the megacrysts show deflection in La-Nd. The trace element patterns are characterized by positive Zr, Hf and in some cases also Ta anomalies, and negative U, La, Sr, Ti and Pb ones. In some samples strong depletion (down to 0.01 x PM) in Rb and Ba is observed.The Ostrzyca megacrysts formed cumulate, which crystallized from magma similar to the host basanite, but more fractionated and enriched in REE, particularly in LREE (Lipa et al., 2014). This happened at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km) and the new pulse of basanitic magma entrained the crystals forming the non-solidified cumulate and brought them to the surface (Lipa et al., 2014). Clinopyroxene megacrysts contain large, transparent, euhedral apatite crystals up to 7 mm. The major element composition indicates the fluor-apatite with F content ranging from 0.87 to 1.93 wt.%. Chlorine content is strongly variable between grains (0.05-1.75 wt.%). Apatite is strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=60.39-62.23, about 1000 x PM for LREE and about 10 x PM for HREE). The REE patterns are nearly linear, with slight positive Nd and Gd anomalies. The trace element patterns are characterized by very strong negative anomalies of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti) and Pb, and weaker negative Sr anomaly. Concentration of Yb and Lu is on the level 10 x PM, whereas Rb, Hf and Ti are depleted relative to PM. Apatite preceded clinopyroxene

  5. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Susana; Cunha, Eugénia; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    We apply archaeological methods to extend our knowledge of chimpanzee material culture. The chaîne opératoire conceptual framework, as introduced by ethnography, established technology as a phased process. Prehistoric archaeology adopted this concept to elucidate technological variability in tool-making procedures, based on knowledge of tool functions or subsistence patterns. We focused on the detection of operational sequences by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) when nut cracking with lithic implements at the sites of Bossou and Diecké, Guinea, West Africa. Thus, while it has recently been claimed that chimpanzees leave behind recognizable assemblages of stone hammers that can be morphologically distinguished from Oldowan hammers, this is the first study to focus specifically on the existence of operational sequences during the utilization of stone tools by wild chimpanzees. By combining primatological and archaeological methods and examining ecological areas inhabited by different chimpanzee groups, we sought technological variability and identified variables influencing regional diversity in tool typology and technology. We compared three case studies: (1) Bossou-direct recording of experimental nut-cracking sessions; (2) Bossou- direct and indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild; (3) Diecké-indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild. Results suggest that chimpanzees perform sequences of repeated tool transport and nut cracking. Data show discrimination of tool functions based on tool features. We identified the most technologically complex tool for nut cracking, which was composed of four stones. We found regional diversity in chimpanzee stone assemblages. Raw-material type and tool mobility constrain technological development in human and nonhuman primates. Spatial analysis of tool distribution indicates a pattern of resource-exploitation strategy, revealing affinities with Oldowan.

  6. Value of Combining Left Atrial Diameter and Amino-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide to the CHA2DS2-VASc Score for Predicting Stroke and Death in Patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome after Pacemaker Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Bin-Feng; Lu, Qiu-Fen; Lu, Shang-Biao; Xie, Yu-Quan; Feng, Xiang-Fei; Li, Yi-Gang

    2017-08-20

    The CHA2DS2-VASc score is used clinically for stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to investigate whether the CHA2DS2-VASc score predicts stroke and death in Chinese patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) after pacemaker implantation and to evaluate whether the predictive power of the CHA2DS2-VASc score could be improved by combining it with left atrial diameter (LAD) and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). A total of 481 consecutive patients with SSS who underwent pacemaker implantation from January 2004 to December 2014 in our department were included. The CHA2DS2-VASc scores were retrospectively calculated according to the hospital medical records before pacemaker implantation. The outcome data (stroke and death) were collected by pacemaker follow-up visits and telephonic follow-up until December 31, 2015. During 2151 person-years of follow-up, 46 patients (9.6%) suffered stroke and 52 (10.8%) died. The CHA2DS2-VASc score showed a significant association with the development of stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.75, Ppacemaker implantation. The addition of LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score improved its predictive power for stroke and death, respectively, in this patient cohort. Future prospective studies are warranted to validate the benefit of adding LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score for predicting stroke and death risk in non-AF populations.

  7. Comparative study for the removal of Sr2+ and Pb2+ from waste solutions using synthetic and natural cow bone apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El-Din, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the cow bone derived apatite as a new sorbent for Sr 2+ and Pb 2+ ions from their aqueous waste solutions. In this respect, four different types of apatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 )6(OH) 2 ) were investigated. The first was natural cow bone apatite (raw bone). The second was cow bone derived apatite after treatment at 700 degree C. The third was synthetic apatite and the last was commercial apatite supplied from Bio Rad company, USA. Removal of Sr 2+ and Pb 2+ by the studied samples was investigated using batch experiments. The different parameters affecting sorption process such as contact time, metal ion concentration and hydrogen ion concentration of the aqueous phase were studied. Desorption of the investigated ions from the loaded samples was also studied. The results obtained showed that the raw cow bone was more effective than the other investigated HAP for adsorbing both Sr 2+ and Pb 2+ ions since the removal percentage of Sr 2+ and Pb 2+ by natural cow bone apatite were 85% and 98%, respectively, while the removal of Sr 2+ and Pb 2+ by the synthetic apatite were 71% and 62%, respectively. From the obtained data, it can be concluded that the natural (raw) cow bone apatite can be used as an ion exchanger for removal of some radioactive elements that may present in radioactive waste solutions as well as it could be considered as a new competitor of the other natural absorbents. Therefore, it is recommended that the natural cow bone apatite could be used for removal of both Sr 2+ and Pb 2+ from radioactive waste solutions as well as other wastewater

  8. Enhancement of the ALP activity of C3H10T1/2 cells by the combination of an oxysterol and apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kyung Mi; Park, Hee Chul; Kim, Na Ryoung; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Lee, In-Seop

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic apatite coating has been used to load osteogenic biomolecules onto the surface of titanium implants. Apatite on the surface of biomaterials is thought to function as a reservoir of biomolecules as well as enhancing osteoconductivity. In this study, 20α-hydroxycholesterol (20α-HC), an osteogenic oxysterol, was used to induce differentiation of a mouse embryo fibroblast cell line (C3H10T1/2) by loading the oxysterol on biomimetically coated apatite of titanium discs. We found that the phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) activity of 20α-HC was significantly higher with ascorbic acid than alone, suggesting a need for ascorbic acid as a co-factor. When 20α-HC was added into the apatite coating solution, the ALP activity of the C3H10T1/2 cells did not increase on the apatite surface, even in the presence of ascorbic acid. However, ALP activity increased dramatically when 20α-HC was loaded by volatilization of EtOH from the apatite coat after dipping discs in 20α-HC-dissolved EtOH. Interestingly, ascorbic acid was not needed for this increase in ALP activity, suggesting a synergistic effect of 20α-HC and apatite. The concentration of calcium ions, a major component of apatite, affected the osteogenic effect of 20α-HC, and the increase in ALP activity was attenuated by L-type calcium channel inhibitors, verapamil and nifedipine. These results demonstrate that calcium ions released from apatite are important in the synergistic effect of 20α-HC and apatite.

  9. Mechanism of aromatic hydroxylation of lidocaine at a Pt electrode under acidic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gul, Turan; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic hydroxylation reactions, which are mainly catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vivo, are some of the most important reactions of Phase I metabolism, because insertion of a hydroxyl group into a lipophilic drug compound increases its hydrophilicity and prepares it for subsequent

  10. Formation of hydroxyl radicals in the human lens is related to the severity of nuclear cataract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garner, B; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Truscott, R J

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies have identified specific hydroxylated amino acid oxidation products which strongly suggest the presence of hydroxyl radical (HO.)-damaged proteins in human cataractous lenses. In the present study, the ability of early stage (type II) and advanced (type IV) nuclear cataractous lens...

  11. Comparison of fluorescence-based techniques for the quantification of particle-induced hydroxyl radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Corey A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species including hydroxyl radicals can cause oxidative stress and mutations. Inhaled particulate matter can trigger formation of hydroxyl radicals, which have been implicated as one of the causes of particulate-induced lung disease. The extreme reactivity of hydroxyl radicals presents challenges to their detection and quantification. Here, three fluorescein derivatives [aminophenyl fluorescamine (APF, amplex ultrared, and dichlorofluorescein (DCFH] and two radical species, proxyl fluorescamine and tempo-9-ac have been compared for their usefulness to measure hydroxyl radicals generated in two different systems: a solution containing ferrous iron and a suspension of pyrite particles. Results APF, amplex ultrared, and DCFH react similarly to the presence of hydroxyl radicals. Proxyl fluorescamine and tempo-9-ac do not react with hydroxyl radicals directly, which reduces their sensitivity. Since both DCFH and amplex ultrared will react with reactive oxygen species other than hydroxyl radicals and another highly reactive species, peroxynitite, they lack specificity. Conclusion The most useful probe evaluated here for hydroxyl radicals formed from cell-free particle suspensions is APF due to its sensitivity and selectivity.

  12. Testosterone 15β-hydroxylation by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Sperling, E.M.G.M.; Wiegerinck, P.H.G.; Brands, F.T.L.; Wery, J.; Bont, J.A.M.de

    2007-01-01

    A steroid 15β-hydroxylating whole-cell solvent tolerant biocatalyst was constructed by expressing the Bacillus megaterium steroid hydroxylase CYP106A2 in the solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. Testosterone hydroxylation was improved by a factor 16 by co-expressing Fer, a putative Fe-S protein

  13. Magmatic apatite - a window into melt evolution of the Dalgety pluton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M. D.; Tailby, N.; Webster, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Dalgety Pluton is located in the Lachlan Fold Belt in southeastern Australia, and is a coarse grained, peraluminous, S-type, biotite granodiorite. Historically, pluton emplacement has been thought of as cooling from a single, large body of magma over a geologically quick period. Current studies suggest issues with this model and propose a slower, incremental model of emplacement in some settings (Glazner et al., 2004). This work proposes that the emplacement of the Dalgety Pluton occurred in incremental phases demonstrated through halogen, minor, and trace element concentrations in apatites. Apatites from 13 samples collected along a north-south transect of the pluton were analyzed using a 5-spectrometer Cameca SX-100 calibrated for seventeen elements (F, Na, Cl, P, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sr, Ba, La, and Ce) at the American Museum of Natural History. The majority of apatites are fluorapatites, having >50 % F, <15 % Cl, and <25 % OH (calculated from Ketchum et al., 2015). However, the concentrations of the halogens vary throughout the pluton with the highest Cl concentrations near the southern edge. Two of the minor elements, Mn and Fe, also show distinct variation with the lowest concentrations being 0.35 wt% in Mn and 0.25 wt% in Fe and the highest being 1.10 wt% and 0.95 wt%, respectively. Trace elements Ce and La vary as well with their highest concentrations being 0.29 wt% and 0.11 wt% and their lowest for both being below the detection limit of the electron probe. Elemental variation across the pluton is seen in the concentration of minor elements and halogens with a sharp increases at 10,000 meters and again at 21,000 meters from the southern rim of the pluton. Similar shifts in concentration are also seen in the trace elements, however the concentrations decrease at these distances. These wholesale elemental fluctuations in composition are indicative of a dramatic shift in melt composition supporting the hypothesis of multiple melt injection

  14. Framework 'interstitial' oxygen in La10(GeO4)5-(GeO5)O2 apatite electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramana, S.S.; White, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen conduction at low temperatures in apatites make these materials potentially useful as electrolytes in solid-oxide fuel cells, but our understanding of the defect structures enabling ion migration is incomplete. While conduction along [001] channels is dominant, considerable inter-tunnel mobility has been recognized. Using neutron powder diffraction of stoichiometric 'La 10 (GeO 4 ) 6 O 3 ', it has been shown that this compound is more correctly described as an La 10 (GeO 4 ) 5- (GeO 5 )O 2 apatite, in which high concentrations of interstitial oxygen reside within the channel walls. It is suggested that these framework interstitial O atoms provide a reservoir of ions that can migrate into the conducting channels of apatite, via a mechanism of inter-tunnel oxygen diffusion that transiently converts GeO 4 tetrahedra to GeO 5 distorted trigonal bipyramids. This structural modification is consistent with known crystal chemistry and may occur generally in oxide apatites. (orig.)

  15. The influence of channel anion identity on the high-pressure crystal structure, compressibility, and stability of apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Richard; Walker, Andrew M.

    2018-03-01

    The material properties of the common phosphate mineral apatite are influenced by the identity of the channel anion, which is usually F-, Cl-, or (OH)-. Density functional theory calculations have been used to determine the effect of channel anion identity on the compressibility and structure of apatite. Hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are found to have similar zero pressure bulk moduli, of 79.2 and 82.1 GPa, respectively, while chlorapatite is considerably more compressible, with K 0 = 55.0 GPa. While the space groups of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite do not change between 0 and 25 GPa, symmetrization of the Cl- site in chlorapatite at 7.5 GPa causes the space group to change from P2 1 /b to P6 3 /m. Examination of the valence electron density distribution in chlorapatite reveals that this symmetry change is associated with a change in the coordination of the Cl- anion from threefold to sixfold coordinated by Ca. We also calculate the pressure at which apatite decomposes to form tuite, a calcium orthophosphate mineral, and find that the transition pressure is sensitive to the identity of the channel anion, being lowest for fluorapatite (13.8 GPa) and highest for chlorapatite (26.9 GPa). Calculations are also performed within the DFT-D2 framework to investigate the influence of dispersion forces on the compressibility of apatite minerals.

  16. Age of hydrothermal processes in the central iberian zone (Spain according TO U-Pb dating of cassiterite and apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Ризванова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of isotope-geochemical studies by PbLS step-leaching method of cassiterite from greisens located in Logrosán granite massif (Central Iberian Zone, Spain and apatite from hydrothermal quartz-apatite vein on its exocontact indicate that in both cases a hydrothermal event is recorded in the interval of 114-126 Ma, which has been accompanied by lead supply. Within the limits of estimation error, the same age around 120 Ma corresponds to crystallization of hydrothermal apatite, formation of sticks and micro-inclusions in cassiterite from greisens and is suggested for Au-As-Sb-Pb ore mineralization, which calls for further confirmation. Xenogenous zircon from quartz-apatite vein does not react to this relatively low-temperature hydrothermal event either with building up new generations (sticks, areas of recrystallization or with rebalancing of U-Pb isotope system. The age of greisen formation has been confirmed to be around 305 Ma by PbLS method on final phases of cassiterite leaching. Earlier it was estimated with 40Ar/39Ar method on muscovite.

  17. Apatite formation on organic polymers by biomimetic process using Na2O-SiO2 glasses as nucleating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanahashi, M; Yao, t; Kokubo, T [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Minoda, M; Miyamoto, T [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Institute for Chemical Research; Nakamura, T [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Center for Biomedical Engineering; Yamamuro, T [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1994-09-01

    In this investigation, CaO-SiO2-based glass, which was previously used as the nucleating agent, was replaced by Na2O-SiO2 glasses, SiO2 glass, and SiO2 gel. The induction period for the apatite nucleation on various organic polymer substrates and the adhesive strength of the apatite layer to the substrates were examined. It was considered that the short induction period for the glasses with high Na2O contents was attributed to high dissolution rates of sodium and silicate ions from them. It was also considered that highly polar carboxyl or sulfinyl groups were formed on the polymer surfaces by the hydrolysis of their ester, amide or sulfonyl group in simulated body fluid with its pH increased by the Na{sup +} dissolution from the glass, and that these polar groups formed a strong bond with the apatite. It is suggested that thus formed apatite-organic polymer composites are useful as the bone-repairing as well as soft tissue-repairing materials. 11 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Effect of surface silanol groups on the deposition of apatite onto silica surfaces: a computer simulation study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhonto, D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available the surface silicon and oxygen species rearrange to form O–Si–O links. Any dangling silicon and oxygen bonds at the silica surfaces are saturated by coordination to oxygen and calcium atoms in the apatite layer, but the extra reactivity afforded by these under...

  19. In situ Sr/Sr investigation of igneous apatites and carbonates using laser-ablation MC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Simonetti, A.; Stevenson, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    In situ Sr isotopic compositions of coexisting apatite and carbonate for carbonatites from the Sarfartoq alkaline complex, Greenland, have been determined by laser-ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study is the first to examine the extent of Sr isotopic ho...

  20. Thermal and exhumation history of Sakhalin Island (Russia) constrained by apatite U-Pb and fission track thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorie, Stijn; Alexandrov, Igor; Nixon, Angus; Jepson, Gilby; Gillespie, Jack; Jahn, Bor-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Sakhalin Island represents a key locality to study the tectonic evolution of the western Pacific. The island is located at the Amur-Okhotsk plate margin and records a complex thermotectonic history. Apatite double dating (U-Pb and fission track) and thermal history modelling were applied to three late Eocene granitoid massifs within central and southern Sakhalin: the Aniva, Okhotsk and Langeri complexes. Apatite U-Pb results yield consistent late Eocene (∼40-37 Ma) ages, suggesting rapid post-magmatic cooling. Apatite fission track results reveal bimodal age distributions with late Eocene - early Oligocene (∼38-33 Ma) and early Miocene (∼20-17 Ma) age populations that can be correlated with variations in Uranium and Chlorine concentrations. Thermal history modelling translates the AFT age bimodality into two-phase cooling histories. The timing of the early cooling phase (∼38-33 Ma) corresponds with the apatite U-Pb ages, indicating rapid cooling to at least ∼100 °C during the late Oligocene. The second cooling phase at ∼20-17 Ma cooled the samples to near-surface temperatures. Both cooling phases correspond with regional unconformities and subsequent accelerations in sedimentation rate, suggesting that cooling was a response to rapid exhumation. In addition, our data suggests that the studied terranes record differential exhumation with respect to the structural architecture. The Miocene exhumation pulse is coeval with the timing of transpressional fault displacement and the subsequent opening of the Kuril Basin.

  1. Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of the 10 Myr-Old EF Cha Debris Disk: Evidence for Phyllosilicate-Rich Dust in the Terrestrial Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Lisse, Carey M.; Sicillia-Aguilar, Aurora; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    We describe Spitzer IRS spectroscopic observations of the approx. 10 Myr-old star, EF Chao Compositional modeling of the spectra from 5 micron to 35 micron confirms that it is surrounded by a luminous debris disk with L(sub D)/L(sub *) approx. 10(exp -3), containing dust with temperatures between 225 K and 430 K characteristic of the terrestrial zone. The EF Cha spectrum shows evidence for many solid-state features, unlike most cold, low-luminosity debris disks but like some other 10-20 Myr-old luminous, warm debris disks (e.g. HD 113766A). The EF Cha debris disk is unusually rich in a species or combination of species whose emissivities resemble that of finely-powdered, laboratory-measured phyllosilicate species (talc, saponite, and smectite), which are likely produced by aqueous alteration of primordial anhydrous rocky materials. The dust and, by inference, the parent bodies of the debris also contain abundant amorphous silicates and metal sulfides, and possibly water ice. The dust's total olivine to pyroxene ratio of approx. 2 also provides evidence of aqueous alteration. The large mass volume of grains with sizes comparable to or below the radiation blow-out limit implies that planetesimals may be colliding at a rate high enough to yield the emitting dust but not so high as to devolatize the planetesimals via impact processing. Because phyllosilicates are produced by the interactions between anhydrous rock and warm, reactive water, EF Cha's disk is a likely signpost for water delivery to the terrestrial zone of a young planetary system.

  2. Recurrent Stroke: The Value of the CHA2DS2VASc Score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score in a Nationwide Stroke Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren Due; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lip, Gregory Y H; Bach, Flemming W; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2015-09-01

    The CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score are respectively used for risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation and in patients with cerebrovascular incidents. We aimed to test the ability of the 2 scores to predict stroke recurrence, death, and cardiovascular events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, or arterial thromboembolism) in a nationwide Danish cohort study, among patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation. We conducted a registry-based study in patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation. Patients were stratified according to the CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score and were followed up until stroke recurrence or death. We estimated stratified incidence rates and hazard ratios and calculated the cumulative risks. 42 182 patients with incident ischemic stroke with median age 70.1 years were included. The overall 1-year incidence rates of recurrent stroke, death, and cardiovascular events were 3.6%, 10.5%, and 6.7%, respectively. The incidence rates, the hazard ratios, and the cumulative risk of all outcomes increased with increasing risk scores. C-statistics for both risk scores were around 0.55 for 1-year stroke recurrence and cardiovascular events and correspondingly for death around 0.67 for both scores. In this cohort of non-atrial fibrillation patients with incident ischemic stroke, increasing CHA2DS2VASc score and Essen Stroke Risk Score was associated with increasing risk of recurrent stroke, death, and cardiovascular events. Their discriminatory performance was modest and further refinements are required for clinical application. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization cross section of the hydroxyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Leah G.; Savee, John D.; Gozem, Samer; Shen, Linhan; Krylov, Anna I.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Okumura, Mitchio

    2018-05-01

    The absolute photoionization spectrum of the hydroxyl (OH) radical from 12.513 to 14.213 eV was measured by multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry with time-resolved radical kinetics. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation was generated at the Advanced Light Source. OH radicals were generated from the reaction of O(1D) + H2O in a flow reactor in He at 8 Torr. The initial O(1D) concentration, where the atom was formed by pulsed laser photolysis of ozone, was determined from the measured depletion of a known concentration of ozone. Concentrations of OH and O(3P) were obtained by fitting observed time traces with a kinetics model constructed with literature rate coefficients. The absolute cross section of OH was determined to be σ(13.436 eV) = 3.2 ± 1.0 Mb and σ(14.193 eV) = 4.7 ± 1.6 Mb relative to the known cross section for O(3P) at 14.193 eV. The absolute photoionization spectrum was obtained by recording a spectrum at a resolution of 8 meV (50 meV steps) and scaling to the single-energy cross sections. We computed the absolute VUV photoionization spectrum of OH and O(3P) using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster Dyson orbitals and a Coulomb photoelectron wave function and found good agreement with the observed absolute photoionization spectra.

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization cross section of the hydroxyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Leah G; Savee, John D; Gozem, Samer; Shen, Linhan; Krylov, Anna I; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Okumura, Mitchio

    2018-05-14

    The absolute photoionization spectrum of the hydroxyl (OH) radical from 12.513 to 14.213 eV was measured by multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry with time-resolved radical kinetics. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation was generated at the Advanced Light Source. OH radicals were generated from the reaction of O( 1 D) + H 2 O in a flow reactor in He at 8 Torr. The initial O( 1 D) concentration, where the atom was formed by pulsed laser photolysis of ozone, was determined from the measured depletion of a known concentration of ozone. Concentrations of OH and O( 3 P) were obtained by fitting observed time traces with a kinetics model constructed with literature rate coefficients. The absolute cross section of OH was determined to be σ(13.436 eV) = 3.2 ± 1.0 Mb and σ(14.193 eV) = 4.7 ± 1.6 Mb relative to the known cross section for O( 3 P) at 14.193 eV. The absolute photoionization spectrum was obtained by recording a spectrum at a resolution of 8 meV (50 meV steps) and scaling to the single-energy cross sections. We computed the absolute VUV photoionization spectrum of OH and O( 3 P) using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster Dyson orbitals and a Coulomb photoelectron wave function and found good agreement with the observed absolute photoionization spectra.

  5. Hydroxylated PCBs in abiotic environmental matrices. Precipitation and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, C.; Alaee, M.; Campbell, L.; Pacepavicius, G.; Ueno, D.; Muir, D. [National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) are of great interest environmentally because of their potential thyroidogenic effects. OH-PCBs can compete with thyroxine for binding sites on transthyretin, one of the three main thyroid hormone transport proteins in mammals1. The chemical structures of some OH-PCBs with a para OH group and adjacent chlorine atoms, particularly 4-OH-CB109, 4- OH-CB146, and 4-OH-CB187, share a similar structure to the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), which have a para OH with adjacent iodine atoms. A number of OH-PCBs have been identified in the blood of humans and biota during the last 5 to 10 years, however, reports on the identity, presence and levels of OH-PCBs are limited. This presentation describes preliminary studies on the presence of OH-PCBs in abiotic samples and comparisons of congener patterns with biological samples. We have previously shown that OHPCBs were present in lake trout from the Great Lakes and nearby large lakes as well as in nearshore environments. We hypothesized that some of the OH-PCB present in fish might be from abiotic formation in water or the atmosphere, or from microbial oxidation of PCBs and/or deconjugation of PCB metabolites in waste treatment plants.

  6. Detecting irradiated foods: use of hydroxyl radical biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Simic, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Recent legislation in the United States has increased the probability of using ionizing radiation for preserving food. The possible increased use of food irradiation in this country, in addition to current use of the technique in other countries, makes it important to develop a method whereby the extent of irradiation of foods can be determined. Both opponents and proponents of this particular food-processing technique support postirradiation dosimetry (PID) as a way to measure the extent of changes in irradiated products. To prevent tampering and alteration of the dosimeters, the best postirradiation dosimeters are those that are inherent in the product exposed to the ionizing radiation. Therefore detection of the intermediates and subsequent products arising from the interaction of ionizing radiation with biomolecules in food should be a viable means by which the irradiated status of a food sample can be determined. To be useful as biomarkers, however, the products formed by irradiation must be detectable by routine analytical methods, formed exclusively by ionizing radiation (unless formation from alternate methods can be readily determined), and stable for the duration of the expected shelf life of the food product. In this article Lisa R. Karam and Michael G. Simic of the National Institute of Standards and Technology describe methodology developed to identify the irradiated status of foods using hydroxyl radical biomarkers

  7. Formation of A-type granites in the Lower Yangtze River Belt: A perspective from apatite geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Li, He; Ding, Xing; Wu, Kai; Guo, Jia; Liu, Ji-Qiang; Sun, Wei-Dong

    2018-04-01

    Apatite is ubiquitous in A-type granites, and can be used to elucidate the volatile contents of the silicate melt, which reflect its source characteristics. A-type granites have been recognized as a distinct group of granites. A1- and A2-type subgroups are produced under different extensional settings. However, the details of the mechanisms behind the distinctive geochemical characteristics of A1- and A2-type granites remain obscure. Belts of Cretaceous A1- and A2-type granites occur along the Lower Yangtze River Belt in eastern China. Here we investigated the major and trace element compositions of apatites from contemporary A1- and A2-type granites at different localities along the Lower Yangtze River Belt, in order to decipher their discrepant source processes. Apatites from A1- and A2-type granites show similar major and trace elements, but differ in their F and Cl concentrations. Apatites from A1-type granites in the eastern part of the Lower Yangtze River Belt have much lower F and higher Cl concentrations compared to A2-type granites in the western part. Moreover, from the east to the west, the F concentrations of apatites from A1-type granites increase, while the Cl concentrations decline. In a subducted plate, F is retained by amphibole, chlorite, serpentine and mica minerals through the amphibolite stage, and finally by phengite and lawsonite during the eclogite stage, whereas, Cl is controlled by amphibole, chlorite and serpentine. The high and varied Cl concentrations in A1 subgroup apatites, therefore, may be attributed to the breakdown of amphibole, chlorite and/or serpentine decomposition during partial melting of subducted oceanic crust releasing a large amount of Cl at shallower depth. In contrast, F is transported to deeper depths in the subducted oceanic crust, and released through breakdown of phengite and lawsonite, making an important contribution to the formation of A2-type granites. Apatites from A1- and A2-type granite samples show regular

  8. Genesis of rare-metal pegmatites and alkaline apatite-fluorite rocks of Burpala massi, Northern Baikal folded zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, Irina; Vladykin, Nikolai

    2015-04-01

    Burpalinsky rare metal alkaline massif in the Northern Baikal folded zone in southern margin of Siberian Platform, is a of intrusion central type, created 287 Ma covering area of about 250 km2. It is composed of nepheline syenites and pulaskites grading to quartz syenites in the contacts. Veines and dykes are represented by shonkinites, sodalite syenite, leucocratic granophyres, alkali granites and numerous rare metal alkaline syenite pegmatites and two dykes of carbonatites. All rocks except for granites are cut by a large apatite-fluorite dyke rocks with mica and magnetite, which in turn is cut by alaskite granites dyke. The massif has been studied by A.M. Portnov, A.A. Ganzeev et al. (1992) Burpalinsky massif is highly enriched with trace elements, which are concentrated in pegmatite dykes. About 70 rare-metal minerals we found in massif. Zr-silicates: zircon, eudialyte, lovenite, Ti-lovenite, velerite, burpalite, seidozerite, Ca- seidozerite, Rosenbuschite, vlasovite, katapleite, Ca-katapleite, elpidite. Ti- minerals:- sphene, astrophyllite, ramsaite, Mn-neptunite bafertisite, chevkinite, Mn-ilmenite, pirofanite, Sr-perrerit, landauite, rutile, anatase, brookite; TR- minerals - loparite, metaloparite, britolite, rinkolite, melanocerite, bastnesite, parisite, ankilite, monazite, fluocerite, TR-apatite; Nb- minerals - pyrochlore, loparite. Other rare minerals leucophanite, hambergite, pyrochlore, betafite, torite, thorianite, tayniolite, brewsterite, cryolite and others. We have proposed a new scheme massif: shonkinites - nepheline syenites - alkaline syenite - quartz syenites - veined rocks: mariupolites, rare-metal pegmatites, apatite, fluorite rock alyaskite and alkaline granites and carbonatites (Sotnikova, 2009). Apatite-fluorite rocks are found in the central part of massif. This is a large vein body of 2 km length and a 20 m width cutting prevailing pulaskites. Previously, these rocks were regarded as hydrothermal low-temperature phase. New geological and

  9. Simulation of land use evolution by discrete events method: Application to “la chaîne des puys” from XV to XVIII Century

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Michelin; C. Poix

    1998-01-01

    By using a discrete event method, simulation of land use evolution has been applied to a landscape model of “la ChaÎne des Puys” (French Massif Central) during along period (XV–XVIII centuries). The indications concerning the evolution of land use are in conformity with the observation of actual situations but the dynamic changes are faster than in actual facts. In spite of limitations due to necessary simplifications, it is now established that the discrete event method is efficient to simu...

  10. Determinantes sociales de salud y calidad de vida en una localidad con deterioro ambiental, Chañaral, región de Atacama, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Klarian Vergara, José

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo estudia la localidad de Chañaral, ubicada en la Región de Atacama en el norte de Chile, dado que ella reviste especial importancia debido a los problemas ambientales que impactan la salud de sus habitantes. Se buscó, a través de una actividad Focus Group, identificar aquellas variables que, a juicio de representantes clave, tienen alta importancia desde la perspectiva de la calidad de vida de la comunidad. Entre 14 áreas temáticas, se i...

  11. Petrology and geochemistry of primary magmas trapped in melt inclusions in scoria of Beaunit Maar (Chaîne des Puys, Massif Central, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, S.; Schiano, P.; Boivin, P.; Clocchiatti, R.; Chazot, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Massif Central area, characterized by a typical intraplate alkaline serie, is the largest magmatic province of the West-European Rift system. Although it has been the subject of several studies, the nature of Massif Central sources is still a matter of debate and many hypotheses are proposed, including deep-rooted continental hotspot, metasomatised spinel lherzolites and an asthenospheric flow linked to the lithospheric root of the Alpine chain. The Chaîne des Puys is the last magmatic province of the French Massif Central and is composed of hundred young well-preserved volcanoes. The present work aims to supply information on the nature and the origin of the source chemistry of alkaline serie from the Chaîne des Puys, by characterizing the trace and major element composition of minute melts preserved as quenched glass inclusions inside olivines phenocrysts in scoria from the Beaunit Maar. Heating stage experiments performed at ambient pressure on partially crystallised primary melt inclusions suggest CO_2 oversaturation of the trapped melt, and an entrapment temperature around 1200^oC±10^oC. Daughter minerals analyses point to a Ti-and Ca-rich basaltic paragenesis, in good agreement with that of erupted basalts from the Chaîne des Puys. Major element compositions show that melts trapped in inclusions evolve by limited fractional crystallization. Inclusions trapped in the more primitive olivine phenocrysts (Fo85) have alkali-basalt compositions that fall on the primitive end of the compositional trend define by the lavas of the Chaîne des Puys. Their major element chemistry rules out the hypothesis of a mantle source in the spinel stability field and requires a garnet-bearing mantle source. Analyzed for trace-element composition by LA-ICP-MS, they display homogeneous, enriched patterns, similar to those characterizing oceanic island and continental basalts. They have high concentration of LILE and LREE/HREE ratios. Such trace-element feature are typical of

  12. CHADS2 score has a better predictive value than CHA2DS2-VASc score in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing YL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yunli Xing, Qing Ma, Xiaoying Ma, Cuiying Wang, Dai Zhang, Ying Sun Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Aim: The study aims to compare the ability of CHA2DS2-VASc (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [two scores], type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or thromboembolism [TE] [doubled], vascular disease, age 65–74 years, and sex category and CHADS2 (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke [doubled] scores to predict the risk of ischemic stroke (IS or TE among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF.Methods: A total of 413 patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, and not on oral anticoagulants for the previous 6 months, were enrolled in the study. The predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 scores for IS/TE events was evaluated by the Kaplan–Meier method.Results: During a follow-up period of 1.99±1.29 years, 104 (25.2% patients died and 59 (14.3% patients developed IS/TE. The CHADS2 score performed better than the CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting IS/TE as assessed by c-indexes (0.647 vs 0.615, respectively; P<0.05. Non-CHADS2 risk factors, such as vascular disease and female sex, were not found to be predictive of IS/TE (hazard ratio 1.518, 95% CI: 0.832–2.771; hazard ratio 1.067, 95% CI: 0.599–1.899, respectively. No differences in event rates were found in patients with the CHADS2 scores of 1 and 2 (7.1% vs 7.8%. It was observed that patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were most in need of anticoagulation therapy.Conclusion: In patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, the CHADS2 score was found to be significantly better in predicting IS/TE events when compared to the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were associated with high risk of IS/TE events. Keywords: NVAF

  13. Enhancing the 'real world' prediction of cardiovascular events and major bleeding with the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores using multiple biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Vanessa; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Shantsila, Alena; García-Fernández, Amaya; Esteve-Pastor, María Asunción; Vilchez, Juan Antonio; Romera, Marta; Valdés, Mariano; Vicente, Vicente; Marín, Francisco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF)-European guidelines suggest the use of biomarkers to stratify patients for stroke and bleeding risks. We investigated if a multibiomarker strategy improved the predictive performance of CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc and HAS-BLED in anticoagulated AF patients. We included consecutive patients stabilized for six months on vitamin K antagonists (INRs 2.0-3.0). High sensitivity troponin T, NT-proBNP, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor concentrations and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; using MDRD-4 formula) were quantified at baseline. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) was recorded at six months after inclusion. Patients were follow-up during a median of 2375 (IQR 1564-2887) days and all adverse events were recorded. In 1361 patients, adding four blood biomarkers, TTR and MDRD-eGFR, the predictive value of CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc increased significantly by c-index (0.63 vs. 0.65; p = .030) and IDI (0.85%; p originals scores. Addition of biomarkers enhanced the predictive value of CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc and HAS-BLED, although the overall improvement was modest and the added predictive advantage over original scores was marginal. Key Messages Recent atrial fibrillation (AF)-European guidelines for the first time suggest the use of biomarkers to stratify patients for stroke and bleeding risks, but their usefulness in real world for risk stratification is still questionable. In this cohort study involving 1361 AF patients optimally anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists, adding high sensitivity troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, interleukin 6, von Willebrand factor, glomerular filtration rate (by the MDRD-4 formula) and time in therapeutic range, increased the predictive value of CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc for cardiovascular events, but not the predictive value of HAS-BLED for major bleeding. Reclassification analyses did not show improvement adding multiple biomarkers. Despite the improvement observed, the added predictive advantage is marginal and

  14. Visualization of structural organization of ventral membranes of sheared-open resorbing osteoclasts attached to apatite pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akisaka, Toshitaka; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2015-05-01

    Osteoclasts are highly polarized cells from both morphological and functional points of view. Using quick-freeze, rotary-replication methods combined with cell-shearing, we clarified the variability of cytoplasmic surface of the polarized membranes of osteoclasts seeded on apatite. As to the organization of actin filaments and clathrin sheets, we confirmed almost the same ventral membrane specializations of osteoclasts on apatite as seen on glass plates. The organized actin filaments and membrane-associated particles supported the ruffled border membranes. Inside the actin sealing zone, membrane specializations were not always occupied with the ruffled border but also with other types of membranes. Some osteoclasts formed an actin ring but lacked the ruffled border projections. We report a unique and distinctive membrane modification of apatite-attached osteoclasts, i.e., the presence of dense aggregates of membrane-associated particles and related structures not found in the osteoclasts seeded on glass plates. Actin filament polarity in the podosomes was determined by decoration with myosin S1. The actin filament polarity within podosome appears to be oriented predominantly with its barbed ends toward the core, whereas the interconnecting F-actin appears to be mixed oriented. Two different types of clathrin plaques displayed different distributions: clathrin-dependent endocytosis was observed in the ruffled border regions, whereas flat clathrin sheets were found in the leading edge of lamellipodia and near podosomes. The clathrin sheets adhered to the apatite surface tightly on the ventral membranes overlaying the resorption lacunae. All these membrane specializations as mentioned above may indicate the functional variability of osteoclasts seeded on apatite.

  15. Combination of Slag, Limestone and Sedimentary Apatite in Columns for Phosphorus Removal from Sludge Fish Farm Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Chazarenc

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory scale studies have repeatedly reported high P-retention in slag, a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry. Thus, it has emerged as a potential material to increase P-removal from constructed wetlands (CWs. However, several limitations were highlighted by field experiments, including the high pH of treated water and clogging. We hypothesized that the addition of sedimentary rocks to slag would preserve P-removal properties while reducing the pH of treated water. Four 2.5 L-columns were filled with 100% apatite (column A; a 50% weight each mixture of limestone with apatite (column B; 10% steel slag located at the inlet, plus 45% limestone mixed with 45% apatite (column C; and a mixture of steel slag (10%, limestone (45% apatite (45% (column D. A synthetic effluent (26 mg P/L and a reconstituted sludge fish farm effluent containing 97 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS, 220 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD and 23.5 mg P/L phosphorus (P were applied sequentially during 373 and 176 days, under saturated flow conditions and 12–24 hours hydraulic residence time (HRT, respectively. Treatment performance, P-removal, pH and calcium (Ca2+ were monitored. Results indicated that columns that contained 10% weight steel slag resulted in a higher P retention capacity than the columns without steel slag. The highest P removal was achieved in column C, containing a layer of slag in the inlet zone, 45% apatite and 45% limestone. Feeding the columns with a reconstituted fish farm effluent led to biofilm development, but this had little effect on the P-removal. A combination of slag and sedimentary rocks represents a promising filtration material that could be useful downstream of CWs to further increase P-removal.

  16. Possible Roles of Fluoride and Carbonate in Biochemical Carbonated Apatite Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meouch, Orysia; Omelon, Sidney

    2016-04-01

    Marine phosphorites are predominantly composed of carbonated fluorapatite (CFA = Ca10-a-b-cNaaMgb(PO4)6-x(CO3)x-y-z(CO3.F)y(SO4)zF2, where x=y+a+2c, and c represents the number of Ca vacancies, with a P2O5 content that ranges from 18-40 %. Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria of the Beggiatoa genus concentration phosphorous as intracellular polyphosphate ((PO3-)n) which is depolymerized into inorganic orthophosphate (Pi). Consequently, an increase in pore water Pi concentration favours carbonated apatite precipitation. The carbonate and fluoride that is characteristic of phosphorite CFA is also located in the vertebrate skeleton. This similarity suggests a biochemical pathway for CFA precipitation. Preliminary Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction results that suggest a role for fluoride, and possibly carbonate, in the biochemical depolymerisation of polyphosphates with alkaline phosphatase will be presented.

  17. Calcium phosphate composite cements based on simple mixture of brushite and apatite phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. A.; Fedotov, A. Yu; Pereloma, I. S.; Teterina, A. Yu; Sergeeva, N. S.; Sviridova, I. K.; Kirsanova, V. A.; Akhmedova, S. A.; Nesterova, A. V.; Reshetov, I. V.; Barinov, S. M.; Komlev, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    The composite cements based on simple mixtures brishite and apatite with ratio 70/30, 50/50, 30/70 were developed. The processes of phase formation, microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. The kinetics of degradation in simulated body fluid depending on the microstructure and the materials phase composition was carried out. The biological test in vitro were performed using the MTT-test on the human fibroblast immortalized (hFB) cell line and the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. The materials didn’t have acute cytoxicity and possessed surface matrix properties. It was determined that the both line of cells actively proliferated, with viable cells values higher 20-60 % then control at all observation periods.

  18. The influence of parameters of A-type carbonated apatites synthesis on radiation dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Liana Macedo de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is the investigation of dose response of A-type carbonated apatites prepared in different conditions. Irradiated samples prepared with carbonate content of 1.45 to 4.84% are studied by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The EPR spectra are mainly constituted of lines associated to axial CO 2 - species (g perp = 2.0028 and g // = 1.9973) and CO 3 - species (g 1 = 2,0170, g 2 = 2,0090 e g 3 = 2,0041). The production of CO 2 - species on gamma irradiation depends on the carbonate concentration and the hydroxyapatite stoichiometry. The lowest dose detection limit was achieved with stoichiometric samples and carbonate content around of 3.7%. (author)

  19. Interface characterization of plasma sprayed hydroxy apatite coat on Ti-6 Al-4 V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbani, M.; Afshar, A.; Ehsani, N.; Saeri, R.; Sorrell, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite, a material proven to be biocompatible within the human body, has been produced to a high level of purity. This material has been applied as a coating on Ti-6 Al-4 V alloy by using the air plasma spraying technique.The coat was characterized with SEM, XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy methods to consist of a mixture of calcium phosphates including H A mainly and traces of tricalcium phosphate, tetra calcium phosphate and calcium oxide phases. This H A phase was dehydrated and partially decomposed to oxy apatite and amorphous H A. EPMA method was used cross-sectionally on the interface in order to determine the depth profiles and elemental maps of Calcium, Phosphorous, Oxygen, Titanium, Vanadium and Aluminum elements.The results clearly showed to evidence of interdiffusion at the interface. Ultimately, the diffusion depth of each element was studied and compared with each other

  20. Analysis of monazite, zircon, and apatite from the southeastern Piedmont. National uranium resource evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karfunkel, B.S.; Fay, W.M.; Price, V. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Two hundred sixty-three monazite, 191 zircon, and 16 apatite grains from 52 stream-sediment locations in the Southeastern Piedmont were analyzed by electron microprobe for one of the following suites of elements: Ca, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Er, Dy, Y, Th, U, P, and F, or Ca, La, Ce, Fe, Er, Hf, Y, Th, U, P, Zr, Mg, Al, and Si. Monazite samples that had high uranium or thorium content and zircon samples that had high hafnium or iron content from a total of six locations were reanalyzed to confirm the initial results. This report contains a description of sample collection and preparation procedures, analytical methods, tables of analyses, and a statistical summary of analyses

  1. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A fast approximate model for oxide and silicate melts at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent first-principles calculations (e.g. Stixrude, 2009; de Koker, 2013), shock-wave experiments (Mosenfelder, 2009), and diamond-anvil cell investigations (Sanloup, 2013) indicate that silicate melts undergo complex structural evolution at high pressure. The observed increase in cation-coordination (e.g. Karki, 2006; 2007) induces higher compressibilities and lower adiabatic thermal gradients in melts as compared with their solid counterparts. These properties are crucial for understanding the evolution of impact-generated magma oceans, which are dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at mantle pressures and temperatures (e.g. Stixrude et al. 2009). Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, especially given the large compositional space (MgO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3-etc). We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme P-T conditions (Wolf et al., 2015). The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) extends the Hard Sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states for each cation in the liquid. Using approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this fast statistical method compliments classical and first-principles methods, providing accurate thermodynamic and structural property predictions for melts. This framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide P-T range. Typical Mg-coordination numbers are predicted to evolve continuously from 5.25 (0 GPa) to 8.5 (250 GPa), comparing favorably with first-principles Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We begin extending the model to a simplified mantle chemistry using empirical potentials (generally accurate over moderate pressure ranges, consuming classical MD calculations. This approach also sheds light on the universality

  2. Solubility of apatite in H2O-NaCl and silicate-bearing solutions at 0.7-3.0 GPa, 800° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignano, A.; Manning, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    Apatite is a major reservoir for the rare-earth elements (REE) in the earth's crust. However, little is known about its solubility in metamorphic fluids. We measured the solubility of apatite in H2O-NaCl and silicate bearing fluids at 800° C and 1.0-2.0 GPa using a piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl-graphite furnaces. A single Durango fluor-apatite crystal was loaded into a 1.6 mm OD Pt inner capsule, which was crimped and then placed in a 3.5 OD Pt outer capsule with ultra pure H2O and NaCl or powdered albite. Solubility was determined by the weight loss of the apatite grain after 24 hrs. In the H2O-NaCl experiments, total dissolved solids (TDS) were initially below detection (0.4 millimolal) between XNaCl= 0 and XNaCl= 0.025. At XNaCl= 0.035, solubility was 3.3(0.2) millimolal (errors are 1s), and it increased to 57.5(0.4) millimolal at XNaCl= 0.526. Our results show that there is an enhancement in apatite solubility with increasing pressure in pure H2O. Solubility is initially below detection at bearing solutions. This probably explains textures in which monazite mantles apatite, which are common in granulite metamorphic terranes, such as the Kiirunavaara magnetite-apatite ore.

  3. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccirillo, C.; Silva, M.F.; Pullar, R.C.; Braga da Cruz, I.; Jorge, R.; Pintado, M.M.E.; Castro, P.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 °C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 and β-Ca(PO 4 ) 3 ) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 ) and fluorapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 ) were obtained using CaCl 2 and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. - Highlights: ► Apatite and calcium phosphate compounds extraction from cod fish bones ► Bone calcination: biphasic material hydroxyapatite-calcium phosphate production ► Bone pre-treatments in solution change the material composition. ► Single phase materials (hydroxy-, chloro- or fluoroapatite) are obtained. ► Concentration of other elements (Na, F, Cl) suitable for biomedical applications

  4. Mg substituted apatite coating from alkali conversion of acidic calcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro da Rocha, Daniel, E-mail: dnr.navarro@gmail.com [Military Institute of Engineering-IME, Pça. Gen. Tiburcio, 80, P. Vermelha, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, R.J. (Brazil); Cruz, Leila Rosa de Oliveira [Military Institute of Engineering-IME, Pça. Gen. Tiburcio, 80, P. Vermelha, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, R.J. (Brazil); Campos, José Brant de [Rio de Janeiro State University - UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, R.J. (Brazil); Marçal, Rubens L. Santana Blazutti [Military Institute of Engineering-IME, Pça. Gen. Tiburcio, 80, P. Vermelha, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, R.J. (Brazil); Mijares, Dindo Q.; Coelho, Paulo G. [Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry (NYU), New York, NY (United States); Prado da Silva, Marcelo H. [Military Institute of Engineering-IME, Pça. Gen. Tiburcio, 80, P. Vermelha, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, R.J. (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    In this work, two solutions were developed: the first, rich in Ca{sup 2+}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} ions and the second, rich in Ca{sup 2+}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and Mg{sup 2+}, defined as Mg-modified precursor solution. For each Mg-modified precursor solution, the concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} ions were progressively increased by 5%, 10% and 15%wt. The aims of this research were to investigate the influence of magnesium ions substitution in calcium phosphate coatings on titanium surface and to evaluate these coatings by bioactivity assay in McCoy culture medium. The obtained coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, and the presence of Mg ions was confirmed by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP) analysis. In vitro bioactivity assay in McCoy culture medium showed bioactivity after 14 days in incubation for the HA and 10% Mg-monetite coatings. The high chemical stability of Mg-HA coatings was verified by the bioactivity assays, and no bone-like apatite deposition, characteristic of bioactivity, was observed for Mg-HA coatings, for the time period used in this study. - Highlights: • The presence of Mg ions influenced the final apatite phase present in the produced coatings. • A lower efficiency in heterogeneous deposition and an exposure of Ti substrate in 5% Mg-monetite coatings was soon verified. • McCoy culture medium was effective in predicting the coatings bioactivity.

  5. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccirillo, C.; Silva, M.F. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pullar, R.C. [Dept. Engenharia de Materiais e Ceramica/CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Braga da Cruz, I. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Jorge, R. [WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pintado, M.M.E. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Castro, P.M.L., E-mail: plcastro@porto.ucp.pt [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 Degree-Sign C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and {beta}-Ca(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}) and fluorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}) were obtained using CaCl{sub 2} and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apatite and calcium phosphate compounds extraction from cod fish bones Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone calcination: biphasic material hydroxyapatite-calcium phosphate production Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone pre-treatments in solution change the material composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase materials (hydroxy-, chloro- or fluoroapatite) are obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration of other elements (Na, F, Cl) suitable for biomedical applications.

  6. Biomineral processing of high apatite containing low-grade indian uranium ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhilash; Mehta, K.D.; Pandey, B.D., E-mail: biometnml@gmail.com [National Metallurgical Laboratory (CSIR), Jamshedpur (India); Ray, L. [Jadavpur Univ., FTBE Dept., Kolkata (India); Tamrakar, P.K. [Uranium Corp. of India Limited, CR& D Dept., Jaduguda (India)

    2010-07-01

    Microbial species isolated from source mine water, primarily an enriched culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was employed for bio-leaching of uranium from a low-grade apatite rich uranium ore of Narwapahar Mines, India while varying pH, pulp density (PD), particle size, etc. The ore (0.047% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}), though of Singhbhum area (richest deposit of uranium ores in India), due to presence of some refractory minerals and high apatite (5%) causes a maximum 78% recovery through conventional processing. Bioleaching experiments were carried out by varying pH at 35{sup o}C using 20%(w/v) PD and <76μm size particles resulting in 83.5% and 78% uranium bio-recovery at 1.7 and 2.0 pH in 40 days as against maximum recovery of 46% and 41% metal in control experiments respectively. Finer size (<45μm) ore fractions exhibited higher uranium dissolution (96%) in 40 days at 10% (w/v) pulp density (PD), 1.7 pH and 35{sup o}C. On increasing the pulp density from 10% to 20% under the same conditions, the biorecovery of uranium fell down from 96% to 82%. The higher uranium dissolution during bioleaching at 1.7 pH with the fine size particles (<45μm) can be correlated with increase in redox potential from 598 mV to 708 mV and the corresponding variation of Fe(III) ion concentration in 40 days. (author)

  7. Biomineral processing of high apatite containing low-grade indian uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhilash; Mehta, K.D.; Pandey, B.D.; Ray, L.; Tamrakar, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Microbial species isolated from source mine water, primarily an enriched culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was employed for bio-leaching of uranium from a low-grade apatite rich uranium ore of Narwapahar Mines, India while varying pH, pulp density (PD), particle size, etc. The ore (0.047% U_3O_8), though of Singhbhum area (richest deposit of uranium ores in India), due to presence of some refractory minerals and high apatite (5%) causes a maximum 78% recovery through conventional processing. Bioleaching experiments were carried out by varying pH at 35"oC using 20%(w/v) PD and <76μm size particles resulting in 83.5% and 78% uranium bio-recovery at 1.7 and 2.0 pH in 40 days as against maximum recovery of 46% and 41% metal in control experiments respectively. Finer size (<45μm) ore fractions exhibited higher uranium dissolution (96%) in 40 days at 10% (w/v) pulp density (PD), 1.7 pH and 35"oC. On increasing the pulp density from 10% to 20% under the same conditions, the biorecovery of uranium fell down from 96% to 82%. The higher uranium dissolution during bioleaching at 1.7 pH with the fine size particles (<45μm) can be correlated with increase in redox potential from 598 mV to 708 mV and the corresponding variation of Fe(III) ion concentration in 40 days. (author)

  8. Crystallographic and spectroscopic investigations on nine metal-rare-earth silicates with the apatite structure type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Maria; Goeckeritz, Martin; Kolitsch, Uwe; Lenz, Christoph; Giester, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Nine silicates with the apatite structure type (space group P6 3 /m) containing both rare-earth elements (REEs: Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Ho and Er) and various metals (K, Sr, Ba and Cd) were synthesised by high-temperature flux-growth techniques and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced photoluminescence spectroscopy. In all of the compounds, the 6h Wyckoff position is predominantly or solely occupied by REE 3+ cations, whereas the cations shows a mixed occupancy at the larger, nine-coordinate 4f site with 55-75 % of REE 3+ cations and 45-25 % of other metal cations. The O4 (''free'' oxygen) site is fully occupied by O 2- anions, except for a Ba-Pr member with full occupancy by F - anions. The refined formulas are Cd 2 Er 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Cd 2 Tb 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , KHo 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , KTb 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , KSm 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Sr 2 Nd 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Ba 2 Nd 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Ba 2 Sm 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 and Ba 4 Pr 6 (SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 . Changes in the metaprism twist angle (φ) and correlations between the unit-cell parameters, average cationic radii (of M + /M 2+ -REE 3+ pairs) and the chemistry of both the synthesised M + /M 2+ -REE 3+ silicate apatites and those reported previously are evaluated. Photoluminescence measurements of undoped samples yielded emission bands in the visible region from green to red; therefore, these compounds are potential candidates for luminescent materials. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Measurement of hydroxyl radical production in ultrasonic aqueous solutions by a novel chemiluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Zhang, Zhujun; Yang, Chunyan

    2008-07-01

    Measurement methods for ultrasonic fields are important for reasons of safety. The investigation of an ultrasonic field can be performed by detecting the yield of hydroxyl radicals resulting from ultrasonic cavitations. In this paper, a novel method is introduced for detecting hydroxyl radicals by a chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-K5[Cu(HIO6)2](DPC). The yield of hydroxyl radicals is calculated directly by the relative CL intensity according to the corresponding concentration of H2O2. This proposed CL method makes it possible to perform an in-line and real-time assay of hydroxyl radicals in an ultrasonic aqueous solution. With flow injection (FI) technology, this novel CL reaction is sensitive enough to detect ultra trace amounts of H2O2 with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 4.1 x 10(-11) mol L(-1). The influences of ultrasonic output power and ultrasonic treatment time on the yield of hydroxyl radicals by an ultrasound generator were also studied. The results indicate that the amount of hydroxyl radicals increases with the increase of ultrasonic output power (< or = 15 W mL(-1)). There is a linear relationship between the time of ultrasonic treatment and the yield of H2O2. The ultrasonic field of an ultrasonic cleaning baths has been measured by calculating the yield of hydroxyl radicals.

  10. Kioo cha Lugha

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana ...

  11. Kioo cha Lugha: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Submissions should be made in soft or hard copy, by either sending two hard copies to IKS mailing address or sending soft copy to iks@udsm.ac.tz or ...

  12. Hydroxyl-dependent Evolution of Oxygen Vacancies Enables the Regeneration of BiOCl photocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Sujuan

    2017-05-02

    Photoinduced oxygen vacancies (OVs) are widely investigated as a vital point defect in wide-band-gap semiconductors. Still, the formation mechanism of OVs remains unclear in various materials. To elucidate the formation mechanism of photoinduced OVs in bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl), we synthesized two surface hydroxyl discrete samples in light of the discovery of the significant variance of hydroxyl groups before and after UV light exposure. It is noted that OVs can be obtained easily after UV light irradiation in the sample with surface hydroxyl groups, while variable changes were observed in samples without surface hydroxyls. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the binding energy of Bi-O is drastically influenced by surficial hydroxyl groups, which is intensely correlated to the formation of photoinduced OVs. Moreover, DFT calculations reveal that the adsorbed water molecules are energetically favored to dissociate into separate hydroxyl groups at the OV sites via proton transfer to a neighboring bridging oxygen atom, forming two bridging hydroxyl groups per initial oxygen vacancy. This result is consistent with the experimental observation that the disappearance of photoinduced OVs and the recovery of hydroxyl groups on the surface of BiOCl after exposed to a H2O(g)-rich atmosphere, and finally enables the regeneration of BiOCl photocatalyst. Here, we introduce new insights that the evolution of photoinduced OVs is dependent on surface hydroxyl groups, which will lead to the regeneration of active sites in semiconductors. This work is useful for controllable designs of defective semiconductors for applications in photocatalysis and photovoltaics.

  13. Hydroxylation of the herbicide isoproturon by fungi isolated from agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønhede, Stig; Jensen, Bo; Rosendahl, Søren; Kragelund, Birthe B; Juhler, René K; Aamand, Jens

    2005-12-01

    Several asco-, basidio-, and zygomycetes isolated from an agricultural field were shown to be able to hydroxylate the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon [N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea] to N-(4-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea and N-(4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea. Bacterial metabolism of isoproturon has previously been shown to proceed by an initial demethylation to N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N'-methylurea. In soils, however, hydroxylated metabolites have also been detected. In this study we identified fungi as organisms that potentially play a major role in the formation of these hydroxylated metabolites in soils treated with isoproturon. Isolates of Mortierella sp. strain Gr4, Phoma cf. eupyrena Gr61, and Alternaria sp. strain Gr174 hydroxylated isoproturon at the first position of the isopropyl side chain, yielding N-(4-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea, while Mucor sp. strain Gr22 hydroxylated the molecule at the second position, yielding N-(4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea. Hydroxylation was the dominant mode of isoproturon transformation in these fungi, although some cultures also produced traces of the N-demethylated metabolite N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N'-methylurea. A basidiomycete isolate produced a mixture of the two hydroxylated and N-demethylated metabolites at low concentrations. Clonostachys sp. strain Gr141 and putative Tetracladium sp. strain Gr57 did not hydroxylate isoproturon but N demethylated the compound to a minor extent. Mortierella sp. strain Gr4 also produced N-(4-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N'-methylurea, which is the product resulting from combined N demethylation and hydroxylation.

  14. Hydroxyl temperature and intensity measurements during noctilucent cloud displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Taylor

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Two Fourier transform spectrometers have been used to investigate the properties of the near-infrared hydroxyl (OH nightglow emission under high-latitude summertime conditions and any association with noctilucent clouds (NLCs. The measurements were made from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska (65.1°N, 147.5°W, during August 1986. Simultaneous photographic observations of the northern twilight sky were made from Gulkana, Alaska (62.2°N, 145.5°W, approximately 340 km to the south to establish the presence of NLCs over the spectrometer site. Data exhibiting significant short-term variations in the relative intensity (as much as 50–100% and rotational temperature (typically 5–15 K were recorded on six occasions when NLCs were observed. Joint measurements were also obtained on several "cloud-free" nights. No obvious relationship was found linking the mean OH intensity or its variation with the occurrence of NLCs. However, a clear tendency was found for the mean OH temperature to be lower on NLC nights than on cloud-free nights. In particular, a significant fraction of the OH(3–1 band spectra recorded by each instrument (16–57% exhibited temperatures below ~154 K on NLC nights compared with <3% on cloud-free nights. This result is qualitatively consistent with current models for ice particle nucleation and growth, but the mean OH temperature on NLC nights (~156 K was significantly higher than would be expected for long-term particle growth in this region. These observations raise questions concerning the expected proximity of the high-latitude, summertime OH layer and the NLC growth region.

  15. Hydroxyl temperature and intensity measurements during noctilucent cloud displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Taylor

    Full Text Available Two Fourier transform spectrometers have been used to investigate the properties of the near-infrared hydroxyl (OH nightglow emission under high-latitude summertime conditions and any association with noctilucent clouds (NLCs. The measurements were made from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska (65.1°N, 147.5°W, during August 1986. Simultaneous photographic observations of the northern twilight sky were made from Gulkana, Alaska (62.2°N, 145.5°W, approximately 340 km to the south to establish the presence of NLCs over the spectrometer site. Data exhibiting significant short-term variations in the relative intensity (as much as 50–100% and rotational temperature (typically 5–15 K were recorded on six occasions when NLCs were observed. Joint measurements were also obtained on several "cloud-free" nights. No obvious relationship was found linking the mean OH intensity or its variation with the occurrence of NLCs. However, a clear tendency was found for the mean OH temperature to be lower on NLC nights than on cloud-free nights. In particular, a significant fraction of the OH(3–1 band spectra recorded by each instrument (16–57% exhibited temperatures below ~154 K on NLC nights compared with <3% on cloud-free nights. This result is qualitatively consistent with current models for ice particle nucleation and growth, but the mean OH temperature on NLC nights (~156 K was significantly higher than would be expected for long-term particle growth in this region. These observations raise questions concerning the expected proximity of the high-latitude, summertime OH layer and the NLC growth region.

  16. Hydroxyl radical modify amino acids and prevent E. coli growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Davies, K.J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report that hydroxyl radical (/sup ./OH) damage to amino acids (AA) affects their incorporation into E. coli proteins. Modification of AA (Try, Trp, Met, Cys, His, Lys, Asn, Gln) by /sup ./OH was achieved by exposure to 60 Co radiation (1-100 krads at 600 rads/min) in N 2 O saturated water. Following exposure to /sup ./OH, the modified AA were added to suspensions of 8 AA requiring E. coli mutants in M9 medium + glucose. Mutants incubated with the /sup ./OH modified AA underwent less growth than those incubated with unmodified AA; with a declining exponential relationship between /sup ./OH exposure of AA and cell growth. The sensitivity of each AA to modification by /sup ./OH was as follows: Tyr > Trp > Met > Cys > His > Lys > Asn > Gln. Essentially the same pattern was observed for inhibition of mutant growth, which was proportional to the concentration of remaining unmodified (i.e. native) AA. Furthermore, cell growth was restored to normal levels by replenishment of native AA. When AA were irradiated at 50μM and then diluted to concentrations expected to support exponential growth (different for each AA) the radiation doses at which mutant growth was inhibited by 63% were as follows (in krad): Tyr 41, Trp 48, Met 53, Cys 56, His 57, Lys 68, Asn 80, Gln 116. /sup ./OH-modified 3 H-Trp was not a substrate for protein synthesis in Trp requiring mutants but was taken up by the cells. Modified Trp was also not incorporated in cell-free synthesis experiments. No toxicity was observed when wild type E. coli, in M9 medium + glucose, were supplemented with any of the/sup ./OH-modified AA. Thus /sup ./OH-modified AA do not support E. coli growth

  17. Measurement of hydroxylated PCB metabolites for Slovakia maternal blood serums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.S.; Athanasiadou, M; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Charles, J.; Zhao, G.; Hertz-Picciotto, I. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Petrik, J.; Kocan, A; Trnovec, T. [Bratislava Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-07-01

    Although it is known that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have adverse impacts on human health, it is not clear if human health impacts are caused by the PCBs or their related hydroxylated (OH) PCB metabolite compounds. This study measured OH-PCB metabolites in the maternal blood serum specimens from the Svidnik and Michalovce areas in eastern Slovakia where PCBs were intensively produced and inadequately disposed. The aim of the study was to characterize and quantify levels of specific OH-PCB metabolites in Slovakian maternal serums exposed to high environmental PCB levels. All specimens were analyzed for PCBs, and a subset of the samples was analyzed for OH-PCB metabolites. The Wallenburg blood extraction method was adopted to separate the OH-PCBs from the blood serums. Final eluates and calibration standards were spiked with PCB209 as an injection standard before gas chromatography (GC) analysis. OH-PCBs in the samples range from 75{+-}9 per cent to 101{+-}11 per cent. Median concentrations of OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce samples were approximately twice as high as for the Svidnik samples. Concentrations of OH-PCBs of Michalovce blood samples were comparable to samples obtained from northern Canadian female Inuit and Faroe Island females, and were considered to be among the highest OH-PCB concentrations obtained in human blood. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand the placental transfer of OH-PCBs to the fetus, as well as epidemiological approaches to determine the relationship between the exposure of OH-PCB metabolites and child development. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Development of Hydroxyl Tagging Velocimetry for Low Velocity Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl tagging velocimetry (HTV) is a molecular tagging technique that relies on the photo-dissociation of water vapor into OH radicals and their subsequent tracking using laser induced fluorescence. Velocities are then obtained from time-of-flight calculations. At ambient temperature in air, the OH species lifetime is relatively short (<50 µs), making it suited for high speed flows. Lifetime and radicals formation increases with temperature, which allows HTV to also probe low-velocity, high-temperature flows or reacting flows such as flames. The present work aims at extending the domain of applicability of HTV, particularly towards low-speed (<10 m/s) and moderate (<500 K) temperature flows. Results are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements recorded in identical conditions. Single shot and averaged velocity profiles are obtained in an air jet at room temperature. By modestly raising the temperature (100-200 degC) the OH production increases, resulting in an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Use of nitrogen - a non-reactive gas with minimal collisional quenching - extends the OH species lifetime (to over 500 µs), which allows probing of slower flows or, alternately, increases the measurement precision at the expense of spatial resolution. Instantaneous velocity profiles are resolved in a 100degC nitrogen jet (maximum jet-center velocity of 6.5 m/s) with an uncertainty down to 0.10 m/s (1.5%) at 68% confidence level. MTV measurements are compared with particle image velocimetry and show agreement within 2%.

  19. Study of hydroxylation of benzene and toluene using a micro-DBD plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, H; Ando, M; Kojima, H

    2005-01-01

    The hydroxylation behaviour of benzene and toluene were studied using a micro-plasma reactor, where an atmospheric non-thermal plasma was generated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The results indicated that oxidation products primarily consisted of phenol and C 4 -compounds for benzene hydroxylation, whereas cresol, benzaldehyde, benzylalcohol and C 4 -compounds were detected for toluene hydroxylation. By taking into consideration the reaction mechanism in the plasma reactor, these products were classified into (1) oxidation of the aromatic ring and functional group on the ring and (2) cleavage of the aromatic ring or dissociation of the functional group on the ring

  20. Beta transmutations in apatites with ferric iron as an electron acceptor - implication for nuclear waste form development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ge; Zhang, Zelong; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-09-27

    Apatite-structured materials have been considered for the immobilization of a number of fission products from reprocessing nuclear fuel because of their chemical durability as well as compositional and structural flexibility. It is hypothesized that the effect of beta decay on the stability can be mitigated by introducing an appropriate electron acceptor at the neighboring sites in the structure. The decay series 137 Cs → 137 Ba and 90 Sr → 90 Y → 90 Zr were investigated using a spin-polarized DFT approach to test the hypothesis. Apatites with compositions of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 and Ca 4 Y 6 (SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 were selected as model systems for the incorporation of radionuclides Cs and Sr, respectively. Ferric iron was introduced in the structure as an electron acceptor. Electron density of states, crystal and defect structures, and energies before and after beta decay were calculated. The calculated electron density of states suggests that the extra electron is localized at the ferric iron, which changes its oxidation state and becomes ferrous iron. The crystal and defect structures were analyzed based on the volume, lattice parameters, radial distribution functions, metal cation to coordinating oxygen distances, and the metaprism twist angle of the apatite crystal structure. The results show that there are minor changes in the crystal and defect structures of CsFeCa 8 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 with Cs + and Fe 3+ substitutions undergoing the Cs → Ba transmutation, and of Ca 3 SrY 4 Fe 2 (SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 with Sr 2+ and Fe 3+ substitutions undergoing the Sr → Y → Zr transmutations. The last decay change, from Y 3+ → Zr 4+ , causes relatively larger changes in the local defect structure around Zr involving the coordination environment but the change is not significant to the crystal structure. The results on calculated cohesive energy suggest that the transmutations Cs + → Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ → Y 3+ → Zr 4+ in both apatite compositions are energetically favorable

  1. Scattering of State-Selected and Oriented Hydroxyl Radicals by Halogen Hydrides and Xenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moise, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the OH radical with atoms and other molecules is relevant for many physical and chemical processes involved in atmospheric, combustion and interstellar chemistry. Various experimental and theoretical studies have revealed information concerning the interaction of the hydroxyl

  2. Atmospheric hydroxyl radical production from electronically excited NO2 and H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuping; Matthews, Jamie; Sinha, Amitabha

    2008-03-21

    Hydroxyl radicals are often called the "detergent" of the atmosphere because they control the atmosphere's capacity to cleanse itself of pollutants. Here, we show that the reaction of electronically excited nitrogen dioxide with water can be an important source of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals. Using measured rate data, along with available solar flux and atmospheric mixing ratios, we demonstrate that the tropospheric hydroxyl contribution from this source can be a substantial fraction (50%) of that from the traditional O(1D) + H2O reaction in the boundary-layer region for high solar zenith angles. Inclusion of this chemistry is expected to affect modeling of urban air quality, where the interactions of sunlight with emitted NOx species, volatile organic compounds, and hydroxyl radicals are central in determining the rate of ozone formation.

  3. Hydroxylation of benzene to phenol over magnetic recyclable nanostructured CuFe mixed-oxide catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgwane, PR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly active and magnetically recyclable nanostructured copper–iron oxide (CuFe) catalyst has been synthesized for hydroxylation of benzene to phenol under mild reaction conditions. The obtained catalytic results were correlated with the catalyst...

  4. MLS/Aura L2 Hydroxyl (OH) Mixing Ratio V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2OH is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydroxyl derived from radiances measured by the THz radiometer. The current version is 2.2....

  5. Stereoselective and regiospecific hydroxylation of ketamine and norketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Zeruesenay; Moaddel, Ruin; Ogburn, Evan T; Xu, Cong; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Goldberg, Michael E; Torjman, Marc C; Wainer, Irving W

    2012-11-01

    The objective was to determine the cytochrome P450s (CYPs) responsible for the stereoselective and regiospecific hydroxylation of ketamine [(R,S)-Ket] to diastereomeric hydroxyketamines, (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HK (5a) and (2S,6R;2R,6S)-HK (5b) and norketamine [(R,S)-norKet] to hydroxynorketamines, (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK (4a), (2S,6R;2R,6S)-HNK (4b), (2S,5S;2R,5R)-HNK (4c), (2S,4S;2R,4R)-HNK (4d), (2S,4R;2R,4S)-HNK (4e), (2S,5R;2R,5S)-HNK (4f). The enantiomers of Ket and norKet were incubated with characterized human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed CYPs. Metabolites were identified and quantified using LC/MS/MS and apparent kinetic constants estimated using single-site Michaelis-Menten, Hill or substrate inhibition equation. 5a was predominantly formed from (S)-Ket by CYP2A6 and N-demethylated to 4a by CYP2B6. 5b was formed from (R)- and (S)-Ket by CYP3A4/3A5 and N-demethylated to 4b by multiple enzymes. norKet incubation produced 4a, 4c and 4f and minor amounts of 4d and 4e. CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 were the major enzymes responsible for the formation of 4a, 4d and 4f, and CYP3A4/3A5 for the formation of 4e. The 4b metabolite was not detected in the norKet incubates. 5a and 4b were detected in plasma samples from patients receiving (R,S)-Ket, indicating that 5a and 5b are significant Ket metabolites. Large variations in HNK concentrations were observed suggesting that pharmacogenetics and/or metabolic drug interactions may play a role in therapeutic response.

  6. Presence of hydrogen peroxide, a source of hydroxyl radicals, in acid electrolyzed water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Mokudai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acid electrolyzed water (AEW, which is produced through the electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride (NaCl or potassium chloride solution, is used as a disinfectant in various fields because of its potent antimicrobial activity. The hydroxyl radical, an oxygen radical species, is often suggested as a putative active ingredient for AEW antimicrobial activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the present study is to detect hydroxyl radicals in AEW. The hydroxyl radicals in AEW prepared under different conditions were determined using an electron spin resonance (ESR technique. A signal from 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO-OH, an adduct of DMPO and the hydroxyl radical, was detected in AEW prepared by double or triple electrolyses of 1% NaCl but not of 0.1% NaCl solution. Then the presence of hydrogen peroxide as a proposed source of hydroxyl radicals was examined using a combination of ESR and a Fenton reaction. The DMPO-OH signal was clearly detected, even in AEW prepared by single electrolysis of 0.1% NaCl solution, when ferrous sulfate was added to induce a Fenton reaction, indicating the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the AEW. Since sodium formate, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, did not affect the bactericidal activity of AEW, it is concluded that the radical is unlikely to contribute to the antimicrobial activity of AEW, although a small amount of the radical is produced from hydrogen peroxide. Dimethyl sulfoxide, the other hydroxyl radical scavenger used in the present study, canceled the bactericidal activity of AEW, accompanied by complete depletion of free available chlorine, suggesting that hypochlorous acid is probably a major contributor to the antimicrobial activity. CONCLUSIONS: It is strongly suggested that although hydrogen peroxide is present in AEW as a source of hydroxyl radicals, the antimicrobial activity of AEW does not depend on these radicals.

  7. Hydroxylation of the Herbicide Isoproturon by Fungi Isolated from Agricultural Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Rønhede, Stig; Jensen, Bo; Rosendahl, Søren; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Juhler, René K.; Aamand, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Several asco-, basidio-, and zygomycetes isolated from an agricultural field were shown to be able to hydroxylate the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon [N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N′,N′-dimethylurea] to N-(4-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N′,N′-dimethylurea and N-(4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N′,N′-dimethylurea. Bacterial metabolism of isoproturon has previously been shown to proceed by an initial demethylation to N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N′-methylurea. In soils, however, hydroxylated metaboli...

  8. 4-Substituted-2-Methoxyphenol: Suitable Building Block to Prepare New Bioactive Natural-like Hydroxylated Biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Fabbri, Davide; Pisano, Marina; Rozzo, Carla; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Dess, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Delogu, Giovanna

    2015-02-01

    A small collection of eugenol- and curcumin-analog hydroxylated biphenyls was prepared by straightforward methods starting from natural 4-substituted-2-methoxyphenols and their antitumoral activity was evaluated in vitro . Two curcumin-biphenyl derivatives showed interesting growth inhibitory activities on different malignant melanoma cell lines with IC 50 ranging from 13 to 1 µM. Preliminary molecular modeling studies were carried out to evaluate conformations and dihedral angles suitable for antiproliferative activity in hydroxylated biphenyls bearing a side aliphatic chain.

  9. Proline-hydroxylated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α upregulation in human tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron E Snell

    Full Text Available The stabilisation of HIF-α is central to the transcriptional response of animals to hypoxia, regulating the expression of hundreds of genes including those involved in angiogenesis, metabolism and metastasis. HIF-α is degraded under normoxic conditions by proline hydroxylation, which allows for recognition and ubiquitination by the von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL E3 ligase complex. The aim of our study was to investigate the posttranslational modification of HIF-1α in tumours, to assess whether there are additional mechanisms besides reduced hydroxylation leading to stability. To this end we optimised antibodies against the proline-hydroxylated forms of HIF-1α for use in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE immunohistochemistry to assess effects in tumour cells in vivo. We found that HIF-1α proline-hydroxylated at both VHL binding sites (Pro402 and Pro564, was present in hypoxic regions of a wide range of tumours, tumour xenografts and in moderately hypoxic cells in vitro. Staining for hydroxylated HIF-1α can identify a subset of breast cancer patients with poorer prognosis and may be a better marker than total HIF-1α levels. The expression of unhydroxylated HIF-1α positively correlates with VHL in breast cancer suggesting that VHL may be rate-limiting for HIF degradation. Our conclusions are that the degradation of proline-hydroxylated HIF-1α may be rate-limited in tumours and therefore provides new insights into mechanisms of HIF upregulation. Persistence of proline-hydroxylated HIF-1α in perinecrotic areas suggests there is adequate oxygen to support prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD activity and proline-hydroxylated HIF-1α may be the predominant form associated with the poorer prognosis that higher levels of HIF-1α confer.

  10. Experimental study of kinetic and mechanism of dissolution of apatite structured minerals. Application to the prediction of the long term behavior of an actinides storage host matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairat, C.

    2005-11-01

    The motivation for this study is to assess the potential of using apatite structured ceramics as long-lived actinide storage hosts. To assess their ability to resist aqueous corrosion, the dissolution of natural fluoro-apatite and synthetic Nd-britholite (neodymium is a proxy for the trivalent actinides) was studied. Mineral surfaces were characterized using a combined spectrometric, electrokinetic and potentiometric approach and dissolution rates were measured in closed and open system reactors as a function of solution composition. Experimental results suggest apatitic minerals dissolve via distinct step sequence: 1) fluoride release, 2) release of the calcium situated in the M1, and 3) the simultaneous removal of phosphate and calcium II via the breaking of only Ca-O bonds. TST based rate equations based in this mechanism accurately describe fluoro-apatite and synthetic britholite dissolution rates as a function of solution composition. Nd release rates are limited by precipitation of Nd-rhabdophane. (author)

  11. The hydroxyl species and acid sites on diatomite surface: a combined IR and Raman study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, P.; Wu, D. Q.; He, H. P.; Lin, Z. Y.

    2004-04-01

    Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), Raman spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine molecules (Py-Raman) and in situ Py-IR have been used to investigate the hydroxyl species and acid sites on diatomite surfaces. The Lewis (L) and Brønsted (B) acid sites, and various hydroxyl species, including isolated hydroxyl groups, H-bonded hydroxyl groups and physically adsorbed water, are identified. The L acid sites in diatomite samples are resulted from the clay impurities, and the B acid sites are resulted from some moderate strength H-bonded hydroxyl groups. At room temperature, both of the isolated and H-bonded silanols associate with the physically adsorbed water by hydrogen bond. After calcination treatment, physically adsorbed water will be desorbed from the silanols, and the silanols will condense with the increase of temperature. Generally, the H-bonded silanols condense more easily than the isolated ones. The properties of surface hydroxyl species of diatomaceous silica are more similar to precipitated silica rather than fumed silica.

  12. CATALYTIC PERFORMANCES OF Fe2O3/TS-1 CATALYST IN PHENOL HYDROXYLATION REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Prasetyoko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylation reaction of phenol into diphenol, such as hydroquinone and catechol, has a great role in many industrial applications. Phenol hydroxylation reaction can be carried out using Titanium Silicalite-1 (TS-1 as catalyst and H2O2 as an oxidant. TS-1 catalyst shows high activity and selectivity for phenol hydroxylation reaction. However, its hydrophobic sites lead to slow H2O2 adsorption toward the active site of TS-1. Consequently, the reaction rate of phenol hydroxylation reaction is tends to be low. Addition of metal oxide Fe2O3 enhanced hydrophilicity of TS-1 catalyst. Liquid phase catalytic phenol hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant was carried out over iron (III oxide-modified TS-1 catalyst (Fe2O3/TS-1, that were prepared by impregnation method using iron (III nitrate as precursor and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, pyridine adsorption, and hydrophilicity techniques. Catalysts 1Fe2O3/TS-1 showed maximum catalytic activity of hydroquinone product. In this research, the increase of hydroquinone formation rate is due to the higher hydrophilicity of Fe2O3/TS-1 catalysts compare to the parent catalyst, TS-1.   Keywords: Fe2O3/TS-1, hydrophilic site, phenol hydroxylation

  13. Lu-Hf isotope systematics of fossil biogenic apatite and their effects on geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Münker, Carsten; Tütken, Thomas; Hoffmann, J. Elis; Wittke, Andreas; Barbier, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Reliable methods for direct dating of biogenic apatite from pre-Pleistocene fossils are currently not available, and recent attempts using the Lu-Hf decay system yielded highly inaccurate ages for both bones and teeth. The geological processes accounting for this poor accuracy of Lu-Hf chronometry are not yet understood. Here we explore Lu-Hf systematics in fossil bones and teeth in detail, by applying five different sample digestion techniques that are tested on bones and composites of bone and sediment. Our current dataset implies that dissolution methods only slightly affect the resulting Lu-Hf ages, while clear differences between the individual digestion techniques became apparent for element concentrations. By analysing the insoluble leftovers from incomplete sample dissolution, four main reservoirs of Hf in fossil bones were identified: (1) a radiogenic end-member associated with apatite; (2) an unradiogenic end-member represented by the authigenic minerals or the embedding sediment; (3) a highly unradiogenic end-member that can be attributed to detrital zircon; and (4) a moderately soluble phase (probably a Zr(Hf)-phosphate) that yielded very low Lu/Hf but a highly radiogenic Hf isotope composition at the same time. This Zr(Hf)-phase must have been precipitated within the fossil bone sample at a late stage of burial history, thereby incorporating radiogenic 176Hf released from apatite surfaces over geological timescales. A second focus of our study is the effect of different sediment matrices and of crystal size on the preservation of pristine Lu-Hf isotope compositions in bioapatite. Because near-depositional Lu-Hf ages of phosphate fossils have previously been reported for the London Clay (England) and a calcareous marl from Tendaguru (Tanzania), we herein investigate specimens fossilised in carbonate matrices (calcareous marl from Oker, Germany; carbonate concretions from the Santana Formation, Brazil; carbonate from the Eifel, Germany) and argillaceous

  14. Raman spectral, elemental, crystallinity, and oxygen-isotope variations in conodont apatite during diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Ling; Zhao, Laishi; Algeo, Thomas J.; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Li, Zhihong; Lv, Zhengyi; Wang, Xiangdong

    2017-08-01

    Conodont apatite has long been used in paleoenvironmental studies, often with minimal evaluation of the influence of diagenesis on measured elemental and isotopic signals. In this study, we evaluate diagenetic influences on conodonts using an integrated set of analytical techniques. A total of 92 points in 19 coniform conodonts from Ordovician marine units of South China were analyzed by micro-laser Raman spectroscopy (M-LRS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), high-resolution X-ray microdiffraction (HXRD), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Each conodont element was analyzed along its full length, including the albid crown, hyaline crown, and basal body, in either a whole specimen (i.e., reflecting the composition of its outer layer) or a split specimen (i.e., reflecting the composition of its interior). In the conodonts of this study, the outer surfaces consist of hydroxyfluorapatite and the interiors of strontian hydroxyfluorapatite. Ionic substitutions resulted in characteristic Raman spectral shifts in the position (SS1) and width (SS2) of the ν1-PO43- stretching band. Although multiple elements were enriched (Sr2+, Mg2+) and depleted (Fe3+, Mn2+, Ca2+) during diagenesis, geochemical modeling constraints and known Raman spectral patterns suggest that Sr uptake was the dominant influence on diagenetic redshifts of SS1. All study specimens show lower SS2 values than modern bioapatite and synthetic apatite, suggesting that band width decreases with time in ancient bioapatite, possibly through an annealing process that produces larger, more uniform crystal domains. Most specimens consist mainly of amorphous or poorly crystalline apatite, which is inferred to represent the original microstructure of conodonts. In a subset of specimens, some tissues (especially albid crown) exhibit an increased degree of crystallinity developed through aggrading neomorphism. However, no systematic relationship was observed between

  15. Understanding the uplift pattern in Mesozoic and Cenozoic,, eastern Dabie area, China using fission track dating of apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qianhong; Liu Shunsheng

    2002-01-01

    By using the fission track dating technique, a preliminary study was carried out on the fission track ages (FTA) of apatite, their distribution patterns and hints over the tectonics activities during Mesozoic and Cenozoic in the east Dabie area. Attempts were also made to improve the conventional statistical method for the tracks. Ranging from 59.4 +- 3.4 Ma to 105.6 +- 9.8 Ma, the FTA results of apatite spread in the wide range and increased rapidly from the east to the west area. Sine 95 Ma, the uplift rate has been quite slow and asymmetry. The FTA value in the middle area of Xiaotian-Mozitan Fault may imply its uplift in Cretaceous. The faulting should be the main control factor for the uplift of this area

  16. Application of neutron activation analysis to control P2O5 content in ore and ore concentrates of ''Apatit'' works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, M.A.; Terent'eV, Eh.P.; Frolov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A technique for a neutron activation rapid analysis of fluorine is described. A mean-square error of the analysis makes up 0,g3 per cent F. The investigation has been carried out and a close correlation has been established for the Hibine massif exploited apatite deposits on the basis of the neutron activation analysis of fluorine and chemical analysis of P 2 O 5 . Possibilities are shown of using the neutron activation analysis of P 2 O 5 in ores and certain ore con-- centrates of ''Apatit'' works from the radioactivity induced in fluorine. A mean-square error of the analysis makes up 0,35 per cent P 2 O 5

  17. Apatite/Melt Partitioning Experiments Reveal Redox Sensitivity to Cr, V, Mn, Ni, Eu, W, Th, and U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Yang, S.; Humayun, M.

    2016-01-01

    Apatite is a common mineral in terrestrial, planetary, and asteroidal materials. It is commonly used for geochronology (U-Pb), sensing volatiles (H, F, Cl, S), and can concentrate rare earth elements (REE) during magmatic fractionation and in general. Some recent studies have shown that some kinds of phosphate may fractionate Hf and W and that Mn may be redox sensitive. Experimental studies have focused on REE and other lithophile elements and at simplified or not specified oxygen fugacities. There is a dearth of partitioning data for chalcophile, siderophile and other elements between apatite and melt. Here we carry out several experiments at variable fO2 to study the partitioning of a broad range of trace elements. We compare to existing data and then focus on several elements that exhibit redox dependent partitioning behavior.

  18. Vacuum-sintered body of a novel apatite for artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kenichi; Fujita, Tatsushi; Morisaki, Yuriko

    2013-12-01

    We produced regenerative artificial bone material and bone parts using vacuum-sintered bodies of a novel apatite called "Titanium medical apatite (TMA®)" for biomedical applications. TMA was formed by chemically connecting a Ti oxide molecule with the reactive [Ca10(PO4)6] group of Hydroxyapatite (HAp). The TMA powders were kneaded with distilled water, and solid cylinders of compacted TMA were made by compression molding at 10 MPa using a stainless-steel vessel. The TMA compacts were dried and then sintered in vacuum (about 10-3 Pa) or in air using a resistance heating furnace in the temperature range 1073-1773 K. TMA compacts were sintered at temperatures greater than 1073 K, thus resulting in recrystallization. The TMA compact bodies sintered in the range 1273-1773 K were converted into mixtures composed of three crystalline materials: α-TCP (tricalcium phosphate), β-TCP, and Perovskite-CaTiO3. The Perovskite crystals were stable and hard. In vacuum-sintering, the Perovskite crystals were transformed into fibers (approximately 1 µm in diameter × 8 µm in length), and the fiber distribution was uniform in various directions. We refer to the TMA vacuum-sintered bodies as a "reinforced composite material with Perovskite crystal fibers." However, in atmospheric sintering, the Perovskite crystals were of various sizes and were irregularly distributed as a result of the effect of oxygen. After sintering temperature at 1573 K, the following results were obtained: the obtained TMA vacuum-sintered bodies (1) were white, (2) had a density of approximately 2300 kg/m3 (corresponding to that of a compact bone or a tooth), and had a thermal conductivity of approximately 31.3 W/(m·K) (corresponding to those of metal or ceramic implants). Further, it was possible to cut the TMA bodies into various forms with a cutting machine. An implant made of TMA and inserted into a rabbit jaw bone was covered by new bone tissues after just one month because of the high

  19. Metastable Equilibrium Solubility Distribution of Carbonated Apatite as a Function of Solution Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhettry; Wang; Hsu; Fox; Baig; Barry; Zhuang; Otsuka; Higuchi

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that carbonated apatites (CAPs) exhibit the phenomenon of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) in weak acid media. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine two questions: first, whether the MES concept is applicable to a broader range of solution conditions and, second, whether a driving force function associated with a surface complex having a constant stoichiometry governs the dissolution of CAP and, if so, what is this stoichiometry. CAP preparations with carbonate contents of 1.8-5.7 wt% (synthesized by hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate anhydrate in solutions of varying bicarbonate levels or by direct precipitation from supersaturated calcium/phosphate/carbonate solutions) were studied as follows. MES distributions for each of the CAP preparations were determined by equilibrating the CAP under stirred conditions in a series of acetate buffers (0.10 M) containing various levels of calcium and phosphate in the pH range 4.5-6.5 and a solution calcium/phosphate ratio in the range 0.1-10. The amount dissolved in each instance was regarded as the fraction of the CAP possessing an MES value greater than that corresponding to the ion activity product (IAP) of the equilibrating solution. The solution IAPs were calculated from the solution compositions using plausible calcium phosphate stoichiometries, viz., dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, carbonated apatite (based on the bulk composition of the particular CAP involved in the experiment), and tetracalcium phosphate. The fraction of CAP dissolved was plotted against the solution IAPs for each experimental set using each of the six assumed stoichiometries for the surface complex. The results demonstrated that the MES concept was applicable to all of the CAP preparations in media of various solution compositions and different pH levels. The most important new outcome of this study was that MES profiles for each of the

  20. Intracrystalline fractionation of oxygen isotopes between hydroxyl and non-hydroxyl sites in kaolinite measured by thermal dehydroxylation and partial fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Jean-Pierre; Savin, Samuel M.

    1996-02-01

    Thermal dehydroxylation and partial fluorination techniques were used to measure intracrystalline fractionation of oxygen isotopes between hydroxyl and non-hydroxyl sites in kaolinite. Several aliquots of a well characterized, fine-grained (rates, and target temperatures. Measured δ18O values of both the liberated water and the dehydroxylated residue are consistent over a wide range of temperatures (550 850°C) when dehydroxylation is performed in a single-step fashion at a rapid heating rate (>50°C/min.). Similar dehydroxylation experiments indicate that brucite dehydroxylation occurs without any significant isotopic fractionation of the oxygen isotopes. By extrapolation we postulate that no significant fractionation occurs during single-step thermal dehydroxylation of fine-grained kaolinite, provided that dehydroxylation is performed under well controlled conditions. In contrast, gibbsite dehydroxylation is accompanied by substantial isotopic fractionation. This is probably the result of the complex, multi-pathway dehydroxylation reaction of this mineral. Similarly, thermal dehydroxylation of coarsegrained (>1 μm) kaolinites and dickites of weathering and hydrothermal origin yield results that are dependent on the temperature of dehydroxylation. We suggest that this effect may be caused by isotopic exchange during diffusion of water molecules through coarse particles. Partial fluorination of fine-grained kaolinite in the presence of excess F2 at low temperatures (rate of reaction of hydroxyl oxygen than of non-hydroxyl oxygen, but examination of the isotopic data as well as XRD and IR analyses of the residues after partial fluorination indicates that the separation between the two types of oxygen is not complete. The results, therefore, do not yield a reliable δ18O value of the hydroxyl oxygen. The results of this study suggest that the thermal dehydroxylation technique may be appropriate for analysis of OH groups in fine-grained kaolinite. The partial

  1. Multiple Stage Ore Formation in the Chadormalu Iron Deposit, Bafq Metallogenic Province, Central Iran: Evidence from BSE Imaging and Apatite EPMA and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Heidarian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chadormalu magnetite-apatite deposit in Bafq metallogenic province, Central Iran, is hosted in the late Precambrian-lower Cambrian volcano-sedimentary rocks with sodic, calcic, and potassic alterations characteristic of iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG and iron oxide-apatite (IOA ore systems. Apatite occurs as scattered irregular veinlets and disseminated grains, respectively, within and in the marginal parts of the main ore-body, as well as apatite-magnetite veins in altered wall rocks. Textural evidence (SEM-BSE images of these apatites shows primary bright, and secondary dark areas with inclusions of monazite/xenotime. The primary, monazite-free fluorapatite contains higher concentrations of Na, Si, S, and light rare earth elements (LREE. The apatite was altered by hydrothermal events that led to leaching of Na, Si, and REE + Y, and development of the dark apatite. The bright apatite yielded two U-Pb age populations, an older dominant age of 490 ± 21 Ma, similar to other iron deposits in the Bafq district and associated intrusions, and a younger age of 246 ± 17 Ma. The dark apatite yielded a U-Pb age of 437 ± 12 Ma. Our data suggest that hydrothermal magmatic fluids contributed to formation of the primary fluorapatite, and sodic and calcic alterations. The primary apatite reequilibrated with basinal brines in at least two regional extensions and basin developments in Silurian and Triassic in Central Iran.

  2. Trace Element Geochemistry of Magnetite and Accesory Phases from El Romeral Iron Oxide-Apatite Deposit, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, F.; Rojas, P.; Reich, M.; Deditius, A.; Simon, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) or "Kiruna-type" deposits are an important source of Fe, P, REE, among other essential elements for society. Three main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the genesis of these controversial deposits, which invoke liquid immiscibility, hydrothermal replacement or a magmatic-hydrothermal origin driven by flotation of magnetite-bubble pairs. Here we focus on the El Romeral, one of the largest IOA deposits located in the southernmost part of the Cretaceous Chilean Iron Belt. We combined SEM observations and EMPA analyses of magnetite, actinolite, pyrite, and apatite, with micro-Raman determinations of mineral inclusions within magnetite grains. Two textural types of magnetite were identified at El Romeral: (i) inclusion-rich magnetite (Mag I), and (ii) inclusion-poor magnetite (Mag II) that are commonly surrounding the inclusion-rich Mag I grains. Mag I is characterized by high V ( 2500-2800 ppm) and Ti (300-1000 ppm) contents with high-temperature mineral inclusions such as ilmenite, Ti-pargasite and clinochlore at depth, and quartz and phlogopite inclusions in shallower samples. These characteristics are consistent with a magmatic origin for Mag I. Inclusion-poor magnetite (Mag II) have high V (2400-2600 ppm) and lower Ti (70-200 ppm) contents than Mag I, which point to chemical changes of the mineralizing fluid(s). An increase in thermal gradient with depth is evidenced by the presence of high-temperature (low #Fe) actinolite, as well as F-rich apatite and pyrite with high Co:Ni (>1) in the deep zones. In contrast, lower Co:Ni ratios (<0.5) in pyrite and higher Cl contents in OH-rich apatite are detected in samples from shallower levels. This vertical chemical variation supports a magmatic-hydrothermal origin for the El Romeral deposit, and point to compositional changes driven by decompression of a magnetite-fluid suspension.

  3. Strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, William; Campos, Andrea P C; Martins Ferreira, Erlon H; San Gil, Rosane A S; Rossi, Alexandre M; Farina, Marcos

    2014-09-01

    We evaluate the effects of strontium ranelate on the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures, a system that gave us the advantage of obtaining mineral samples produced exclusively during treatment. Cells were treated with strontium ranelate at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 mM Sr(2+). Mineral substances were isolated and analyzed by using a combination of methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The minerals produced in all cell cultures were typical bone-like apatites. No changes occurred in the local structural order or crystal size of the minerals. However, we noticed several relevant changes in the mineral produced under 0.5 mM Sr(2+): (1) increase in type-B CO3 (2-) substitutions, which often lead to the creation of vacancies in Ca(2+) and OH(-) sites; (2) incorporation of Sr(2+) by substituting slightly less than 10 % of Ca(2+) in the apatite crystal lattice, resulting in an increase in both lattice parameters a and c; (3) change in the PO4 (3-) environments, possibly because of the expansion of the lattice; (4) the Ca/P ratio of this mineral was reduced, but its (Ca+Sr)/P ratio was the same as that of the control, indicating that its overall cation/P ratio was preserved. Thus, strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures.

  4. Reconstructing Post-Carboniferous History of the Krkonoše Piedmont Basin Using Detrital Apatite Fission-Track Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínek, K.; Svojtka, Martin; Filip, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2006), s. 91-92 ISSN 1210-9606. [Meeting of the Central European Tectonic Studies Group /4./. Zakopane, 19.04.2006-22.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fission-track * Krkonoše * apatite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume20/G20-091b.pdf

  5. Screening apatites for (U-Th)/He thermochronometry via continuous ramped heating: He age components and implications for age dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannell, Kalin T.; Zeitler, Peter K.; Janes, Darwin G.; Idleman, Bruce D.; Fayon, Annia K.

    2018-02-01

    Old slowly-cooled apatites often yield dispersed (U-Th)/He ages for a variety of reasons, some well understood and some not. Analytical protocols like careful grain selection can reduce the impact of this dispersion but add costs in time and resources and too often have proven insufficient. We assess a new analytical protocol that utilizes static-gas measurement during continuous ramped heating (CRH) as a means to rapidly screen apatite samples. In about the time required for a conventional total-gas analysis, this method can discriminate between samples showing expected volume-diffusion behavior and those showing anomalous release patterns inconsistent with their direct use in thermochronologic applications. This method also appears able to discriminate between the radiogenic and extraneous 4He fractions released by a sample, potentially allowing ages to be corrected. Well-behaved examples such as the Durango standard and other apatites with good age reproducibility show the expected smooth, sigmoidal gas-release curves predicted for volume diffusion using typical apatite kinetics, with complete exhaustion by ∼900 °C for linear heating at 20 °C/min. Secondary factors such as U and Th zoning and alpha-loss distribution have a relatively minor impact on such profiles. In contrast, samples having greater age dispersion show significant He release in the form of outgassing spikes and He release deferred to higher temperatures. Screening results for a range of samples permit us to assess the degree to which CRH screening can identify misbehaving grains, give insight into the source of extraneous He, and suggest that in some cases it may be possible to correct ages for the presence of such components.

  6. Quantitative Identification of the Annealing Degree of Apatite Fission Tracks Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Wu, Shixiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Chang, Jian; Bao, Rima; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Nian; Liu, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis, a widely used low-temperature thermochronology method, can provide details of the hydrocarbon generation history of source rocks for use in hydrocarbon exploration. The AFT method is based on the annealing behavior of fission tracks generated by 238 U fission in apatite particles during geological history. Due to the cumbersome experimental steps and high expense, it is imperative to find an efficient and inexpensive technique to determinate the annealing degree of AFT. In this study, on the basis of the ellipsoid configuration of tracks, the track volume fraction model (TVFM) is established and the fission-track volume index is proposed. Furthermore, terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used for the first time to identify the variation of the AFT annealing degree of Durango apatite particles heated at 20, 275, 300, 325, 450, and 500 ℃ for 10 h. The THz absorbance of the sample increases with the degree of annealing. In addition, the THz absorption index is exponentially related to annealing temperature and can be used to characterize the fission-track volume index. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy can be an ancillary technique for AFT thermochronological research. More work is urgently needed to extrapolate experimental data to geological conditions.

  7. Revisiting the localization of Zn2+ cations sorbed on pathological apatite calcifications made through X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, D.; Carpentier, X.; Brocheriou, I.; Dorfmuller, P.; Aubert, S.; Chappard, C.; Thiaudiere, D.; Reguer, S.; Waychunas, G.; Jungers, P.; Daudon, M.

    2009-04-01

    The role of oligo-elements such as Zn in the genesis of pathological calcifications is widely debated in the literature. An essential element of discussion is given by their localization either at the surface or within the Ca apatite crystalline network. To determine the localization, X-ray absorption experiments have been performed at SOLEIL. The Exafs results suggest that Zn atoms, present in the Zn{sup 2+} form, are bound to about 4 O atoms at a distance of 2.00{angstrom}, while the interatomic distance R{sub CaO} ranges between 2.35 {angstrom} and 2.71 {angstrom}. Taking into account the content of Zn (around 1000 ppm) and the difference in ionic radius between Zn{sup 2+} (0.074 nm) and Ca{sup 2+} (0.099 nm), a significant longer interatomic distance would be expected in the case of Zn replacing Ca within the apatite crystalline network. We thus conclude that Zn atoms are localized at the surface and not in the apatite nanocrystal structure. Such structural result has essential biological implications for at least two reasons. Some oligoelements have a marked effect on the transformation of chemical phases, and may modify the morphology of crystals. These are both major issues because, in the case of kidney stones, the medical treatment depends strongly on the precise chemical phase and on the morphology of the biological entities at both macroscopic and mesoscopic scales.

  8. δ18O of apatite phosphate in small pelagic fish: insights from wild-caught and tank-grown specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, T.; Javor, B.; Paytan, A.

    2011-12-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of mineralized structures in fish reflect the temperature and isotopic composition of the water in which they grow. For bulk samples (e.g., whole scales, bones, and otoliths), understanding how this signal is integrated across time and space is critical, especially for organisms exposed to high variability in growth conditions. Here, we assess the response of fish scale δ18O (from apatite phosphate) to experimentally manipulated water conditions. Wild-caught sardines were grown at controlled temperatures (13°C, 17°C, and 21°C) for 11 months. Higher growth temperatures correlated to lower δ18O values, representing a combination of scale apatite deposited before and after the temperature manipulation. Models that account for both biomineral allometry and exposure to varying water properties (e.g., by overlaying migration routes, isoscapes, and temperature maps) have the potential to quantify the varying contributions of minerals grown under different conditions. We use this method to predict δ18O of apatite phosphate for small pelagic fish found in California coastal waters, then compare expected values to those obtained from collected samples. Since phosphate oxygen is relatively resistant to diagenesis, this modern calibration establishes a framework for paleo studies.

  9. Iron and oxygen isotope signatures of the Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite deposits, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Tristan; Simon, Adam C.; Day, Warren C.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2016-01-01

    New O and Fe stable isotope ratios are reported for magnetite samples from high-grade massive magnetite of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite ore deposits and these results are compared with data for other iron oxide-apatite deposits to shed light on the origin of the southeast Missouri deposits. The δ18O values of magnetite from Pea Ridge (n = 12) and Pilot Knob (n = 3) range from 1.0 to 7.0 and 3.3 to 6.7‰, respectively. The δ56Fe values of magnetite from Pea Ridge (n = 10) and Pilot Knob (n = 6) are 0.03 to 0.35 and 0.06 to 0.27‰, respectively. These δ18O and the δ56Fe values suggest that magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt (typical igneous δ56Fe ranges 0.06–0.49‰) and grew in equilibrium with a magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. We propose that the δ18O and δ56Fe data for the Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite deposits are consistent with the flotation model recently proposed by Knipping et al. (2015a), which invokes flotation of a magmatic magnetite-fluid suspension and offers a plausible explanation for the igneous (i.e., up to ~15.9 wt % TiO2 in magnetite) and hydrothermal features of the deposits.

  10. Application of apatite fission tract analysis to problems of Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn ore genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arne, D.C.; Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Lambert, I.B.

    1987-01-01

    Epigenetic, carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn mineralization of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) is considered to form from warm basinal brines in the temperature range 50-200 deg.C. A variety of genetic fluid flow models have been proposed to explain MVT mineralization, but all suffer from a lack of constraint concerning the timing of ore formation. Fission tracks in apatite resulting from the spontaneous decay of trace amounts of 238 U are thermally unstable over the range of temperatures proposed for MVT ore formation, and may therefore record thermal events related to Pb-Zn mineralization provided sufficient time is allowed for track annealing to occur. Zinc mineralization in Devonian carbonates of the Lennard Shelf, northwest Australia is also considered to be of the Mississippi Valley-type. Mean apatite ages from Precambrian basement and from Devonian carbonates generally average 300Ma. Studies of well sequences indicate a period of uplift for the Lennard Shelf area around the Late Triassic/Early Jurassic. For carbonate outcrop samples, a thermal history is proposed involving burial in the Late Paleozoic/Early Mesozoic followed by uplift and cooling from peak temperatures around 70 deg.C. No difference in apatite annealing effects are observed in the vicinity of zinc mineralization. Coupled with other evidence, this suggests that the mineralizing episode was of short duration given temperatures of ore formation in the range 70-110 deg.C indicated by fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures. 3 refs

  11. Citrate- and Succinate-Modified Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles with Loaded Doxorubicin Exhibit Potent Anticancer Activity against Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Mehbuba Hossain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable inorganic apatite-based particle complex is popular for its pH-sensitivity at the endosomal acidic environment to facilitate drug release following cellular uptake. Despite being a powerful anticancer drug, doxorubicin shows severe off-target effects and therefore would need a carrier for the highest effectiveness. We aimed to chemically modify carbonate apatite (CA with Krebs cycle intermediates, such as citrate and succinate in order to control the growth of the resultant particles to more efficiently carry and transport the anticancer drug into the cancer cells. Citrate- or succinate-modified CA particles were synthesized with different concentrations of sodium citrate or sodium succinate, respectively, in the absence or presence of doxorubicin. The drug loading efficiency of the particles and their cellular uptake were observed by quantifying fluorescence intensity. The average diameter and surface charge of the particles were determined using Zetasizer. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Citrate-modified carbonate apatite (CMCA exhibited the highest (31.38% binding affinity for doxorubicin and promoted rapid cellular uptake of the drug, leading to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration 1000 times less than that of the free drug in MCF-7 cells. Hence, CMCA nanoparticles with greater surface area enhance cytotoxicity in different breast cancer cells by enabling higher loading and more efficient cellular uptake of the drug.

  12. Apatite and sodalite based glass-bonded waste forms for immobilization of 129I and mixed halide radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Ashutosh [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); McCloy, John S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-30

    The goal of the project was to utilize the knowledge accumulated by the team, in working with minerals for chloride wastes and biological apatites, toward the development of advanced waste forms for immobilizing 129I and mixed-halide wastes. Based on our knowledge, experience, and thorough literature review, we had selected two minerals with different crystal structures and potential for high chemical durability, sodalite and CaP/PbV-apatite, to form the basis of this project. The focus of the proposed effort was towards: (i) low temperature synthesis of proposed minerals (iodine containing sodalite and apatite) leading to the development of monolithic waste forms, (ii) development of a fundamental understanding of the atomic-scale to meso-scale mechanisms of radionuclide incorporation in them, and (iii) understanding of the mechanism of their chemical corrosion, alteration mechanism, and rates. The proposed work was divided into four broad sections. deliverables. 1. Synthesis of materials 2. Materials structural and thermal characterization 3. Design of glass compositions and synthesis glass-bonded minerals, and 4. Chemical durability testing of materials.

  13. Morphological and chemical evaluation of bone with apatite-coated Al2O3 implants as scaffolds for bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M. Maia F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical challenge in the reconstruction of bone defects has stimulated several studies in search of alternatives to repair these defects. The ceramics are considered as synthetic scaffolds and are used in dentistry and orthopedics. This study aimed to evaluate by micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (µ-EDXRF and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, the influence of uncoated and apatite-coated Al2O3 implants on bone regeneration. Twelve samples of Al2O3 implants were prepared and half of this samples (n = 6 were apatite-coated by the modified biomimetic method and then the ceramic material were implanted in the tibia of rabbits. Three experimental groups were tested: Group C - control, surgery procedure without ceramic implant, Group Ce - uncoated Al2O3 implants (n = 6 and Group CeHA - apatite-coated Al2O3 implants (n = 6. The deposition of bone tissue was determined by measuring the weight content of Ca and P through surface mapping of bone-implant interface by µ-EDXRF and through point analysis by EDS. It was observed after thirty days of treatment a greater deposition of Ca and P in the group treated with CeHA (p <0.001 compared to group C. The results suggest that ceramic coated with hydroxyapatite (CeHA can be an auxiliary to bone deposition in tibia defect model in rabbits.

  14. Comparison of atria and CHA2DS2-vasc risk stratification schemes for the prediction of stroke in the individual patient with atrial fibrillation and the impact on treatment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ham, Hendrika A.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Singer, Daniel E.; Leufkens, Hubert G.M.; Van Staa, Tjeerd P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of ischaemic stroke and treatment with anticoagulants should be prescribed according to stroke risk. Objectives: To compare the predictive ability of the currently recommended CHA2DS2-VASc ischaemic stroke risk score with the new ATRIA stroke

  15. Comparison of ATRIA and CHA2DS2-VASc risk stratification schemes for the prediction of stroke in the individual patient with atrial fibrillation and the impact on treatment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ham, H.A.; Klungel, O.H.; Singer, D.E.; Leufkens, H.G.M.; Van Staa, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the predictive ability of the currently recommended CHA2DS2-VASc ischaemic stroke risk score with the new ATRIA stroke risk score in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Patients with AF, not using warfarin, were assembled from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

  16. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order Bapatite based material with low organic content and high efficiency for Ni(II sorption, it is also a good candidate for in-situ soil remediation, particularly at lower contamination levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  17. REE partitioning between apatite and melt in a peralkaline volcanic suite, Kenya Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R.; Baginski, B.; Belkin, H.E.; Dzierzanowski, P.; Jezak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses are presented for fluorapatite phenocrysts from a benmoreite-peralkaline rhyolite volcanic suite from the Kenya Rift Valley. The rocks have previously been well characterized petrographically and their crystallization conditions are reasonably well known. The REE contents in the M site increase towards the rhyolites, with a maximum britholite component of ~35 mol.%. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are rather flat between La and Sm and then decrease towards Yb. Sodium and Fe occupy up to 1% and 4%, respectively, of the M site. The major coupled substitution is REE3+ + Si4+ ??? Ca2+ + P5+. The substitution REE3+ + Na+ ??? 2Ca2+ has been of minor importance. The relatively large Fe contents were perhaps facilitated by the low fo2 conditions of crystallization. Zoning is ubiquitous and resulted from both fractional crystallization and magma mixing. Apatites in some rhyolites are relatively Y-depleted, perhaps reflecting crystallization from melts which had precipitated zircon. Mineral/glass (melt) ratios for two rhyolites are unusually high, with maxima at Sm (762, 1123). ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  18. The in vitro antibiotic release from anti-washout apatite cement using chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Youji; Momota, Yukihiro; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Tatehara, Seikou; Nagayama, Masaru; Ishikawa, Kunio; Suzuki, Kazuomi

    2002-10-01

    The in vitro antibiotic release from anti-washout apatite cement using chitosan (aw-AC(chi)) was investigated in a preliminary evaluation. Flomoxef sodium was employed as the antibiotic and was incorporated into the powder phase aw-AC(chi) at up to 10%. The setting times were measured for aw-AC(chi) containing various amounts of flomoxef sodium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also conducted for the identification of products. To evaluate the drug release profile, set aw-AC was immersed in saline and the released flomoxef sodium was determined at regular intervals. The setting time was prolonged slightly with the addition of flomoxef sodium. The difference at 10% flomoxef sodium (0% vs. 10%) was not significant (p>0.05), and can be negligible in clinic. The XRD analysis revealed that formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from aw-AC(chi) was reduced, even after 24 h, when the aw-AC(chi) contained flomoxef sodium at 8% or more. The flomoxef sodium release from aw-AC(chi) showed the typical profile observed in skeleton type drug delivery system (DDS). Changing the concentration of chitosan can control the rate of drug release from aw-AC. Therefore, we conclude that aw-AC(chi) is a good candidate for potential use as a DDS carrier that may be useful in surgical operations.

  19. Local structure and oxide-ion conduction mechanism in apatite-type lanthanum silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Olivier; Berghout, Abid; Béchade, Emilie; Jouin, Jenny; Thomas, Philippe; Asaka, Toru; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    The local structure of apatite-type lanthanum silicates of general formula La 9.33+x (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2+3x/2 has been investigated by combining the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method, conventional X-ray and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT was used to build structure models with stable positions of excess oxide ions within the conduction channel. Two stable interstitial positions were obtained in accordance with literature, the first one located at the very periphery of the conduction channel, neighbouring the SiO 4 tetrahedral units, and the second one closer to the channel axis. The corresponding PDFs and average structures were then calculated and tested against experimental PDFs obtained by X-ray total scattering and NPD Rietveld refinements results gathered from literature. It was shown that of the two stable interstitial positions obtained with DFT only the second one located within the channel is consistent with experimental data. This result consolidates one of the two main conduction mechanisms along the c-axis reported in the literature, namely the one involving cooperative movement of O4 and Oi ions.

  20. The dependence of thermoluminescence sensitivity upon the temperature of irradiation in meteorites and in terrestrial apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.A.; Al-Khalifa, I.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements are reported on the TL sensitivity (i.e. TL glow output per unit γ ray test dose) of meteoritic specimens as well as terrestrial fluor- and chlor-apatites, as a function of irradiation temperature (T irr ). The irradiation temperatures ranged from liquid nitrogen to room temperature (77 - 293 K). A kilocurie 60 Co γ ray source was used to deliver test doses of 400 Gy (40 krad) and 40 (4 krad) to the various samples. A strong dependence of the TL sensitivity upon the temperature of irradiation was noted in the case of Kirin meteorite: its TL sensitivity (for the 493 K readout peak) decreased by a factor of ∼ 2 when T irr rose from liquid nitrogen (77 K) to dry ice in acetone (197 K) temperature, in the case of both 400 Gy and 40 Gy γ ray doses. In the case of the Antarctic meteorite specimen (ALHA 77182.13), there was a smaller effect, viz. a fall of ∼ 14% in the TL output corresponding to dry ice and higher irradiating temperatures as compared to the 77 K irradiation. For chlorapatite, the TL sensitivity decreased monotonically with increasing temperature for both the 563 K and the 448 K glow peaks. For the fluorapatite, the effect of reduced response was observed only between -17 0 C (256 K) and room temperature (293 K). Both the theoretical and the practical implications of these observations are discussed. (author)

  1. New bismuth calcium oxysilicate with apatite structure: Synthesis and structural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, Vladimir; Shenawi-Khalil, Sanaa; Popov, Inna

    2010-01-01

    New bismuth calcium silicon oxide Ca 4 Bi 4.3 (SiO 4 )(HSiO 4 ) 5 O 0.95 , with apatite structure has been synthesized. The structure was refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. The refinement revealed that the phase has P6 3 /m (176) space group with unit cell parameters a=b=9.6090(7) A, c=7.0521(7) A, V=563.9 A 3 and c/a=0.734. The R wp factor at Rietveld refinement was equal to 0.082. The synthesized phase has an unusual quantity of cation vacancies in a crystal lattice. Mechanisms of compensation of the excess charge of a lattice are considered and checked experimentally using the FT-IR spectroscopy, the thermal analysis and the XPS analysis. - Graphical abstract: The fragment Ca 4 Bi 4.3 (SiO 4 )(HSiO 4 ) 5 O 0.95 structure along c-axis in polygonal mode.

  2. Oxygen isotopes from biogenic apatites suggest widespread endothermy in Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Romain; Lécuyer, Christophe; Buffetaut, Eric; Escarguel, Gilles; Fluteau, Frédéric; Martineau, François

    2006-06-01

    The much debated question of dinosaur thermophysiology has not yet been conclusively solved despite numerous attempts. We used the temperature-dependent oxygen isotope fractionation between vertebrate body water (δ 18O body water) and phosphatic tissues (δ 18O p) to compare the thermophysiology of dinosaurs with that of non-dinosaurian ectothermic reptiles. Present-day δ 18O p values of vertebrate apatites show that ectotherms have higher δ 18O p values than endotherms at high latitudes due to their lower body temperature, and conversely lower δ 18O p values than endotherms at low latitudes. Using a data set of 80 new and 49 published δ 18O p values, we observed similar and systematic differences in δ 18O p values (Δ 18O) between four groups of Cretaceous dinosaurs (theropods, sauropods, ornithopods and ceratopsians) and associated fresh water crocodiles and turtles. Expressed in terms of body temperatures ( Tb), these Δ 18O values indicate that dinosaurs maintained rather constant Tb in the range of endotherms whatever ambient temperatures were. This implies that high metabolic rates were widespread among Cretaceous dinosaurs belonging to widely different taxonomic groups and suggest that endothermy may be a synapomorphy of dinosaurs, or may have been acquired convergently in the studied taxa.

  3. Fabrication and Physical Evaluation of Gelatin-Coated Carbonate Apatite Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Hara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam for bone replacement, CO3Ap foam was reinforced with gelatin and the resulting physical characteristics were evaluated. The mechanical strength increased significantly with the gelatin reinforcement. The compressive strength of gelatin-free CO3Ap foam was 74 kPa whereas that of the gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam, fabricated using 30 mass % gelatin solution, was approximately 3 MPa. Heat treatment for crosslinking gelatin had little effect on the mechanical strength of the foam. The gelatin-reinforced foam did not maintain its shape when immersed in a saline solution as this promoted swelling of the gelatin; however, in the same conditions, the heat-treated gelatin-reinforced foam proved to be stable. It is concluded, therefore, that heat treatment is the key to the fabrication of stable gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam.

  4. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozafari, Masoud, E-mail: mmozafari@aut.ac.ir [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 {mu}m and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  5. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-12-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2-CaO-P 2O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  6. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-01-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  7. LENMODEL: A forward model for calculating length distributions and fission-track ages in apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Kevin D.

    1993-05-01

    The program LENMODEL is a forward model for annealing of fission tracks in apatite. It provides estimates of the track-length distribution, fission-track age, and areal track density for any user-supplied thermal history. The program approximates the thermal history, in which temperature is represented as a continuous function of time, by a series of isothermal steps of various durations. Equations describing the production of tracks as a function of time and annealing of tracks as a function of time and temperature are solved for each step. The step calculations are summed to obtain estimates for the entire thermal history. Computational efficiency is maximized by performing the step calculations backwards in model time. The program incorporates an intuitive and easy-to-use graphical interface. Thermal history is input to the program using a mouse. Model options are specified by selecting context-sensitive commands from a bar menu. The program allows for considerable selection of equations and parameters used in the calculations. The program was written for PC-compatible computers running DOS TM 3.0 and above (and Windows TM 3.0 or above) with VGA or SVGA graphics and a Microsoft TM-compatible mouse. Single copies of a runtime version of the program are available from the author by written request as explained in the last section of this paper.

  8. Novel development of carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds based on lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maretaningtias Dwi Ariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural biopolymer chitosan (Ch is currently regarded as a candidate for bone tissue engineering. However, Ch is poor for cell adhesion and low bone formation ability. In order to enhance cell adhesion and bone formation ability, combination of Ch with carbonate apatite (CA was developed. Purpose: The aim of this study was to make carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds (CAChSs and evaluate its osteoconductivity in terms of cell proliferation. Methods: Chitosan scaffolds (ChSs were made by the following procedure. Twenty-five, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg Ch was dissolved into 5 ml of 2% acetic acid (CH3COOH, shaked for 15 min and neutralized with 15 ml of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution. After centrifugation, Ch gel was packed into the molds then frozen at -80°C for 2h and dried in a freeze dry machine for 24h. The sponges were subjected to UV radiation for 2h. To make CA-ChSs, 200 mg Ch was selected. After neutralization, 50 mg of 0.06 M CA were added into the 200 mg Ch gel. The structure of CA-ChSs was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1 proliferation in these scaffolds was investigated at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. Results: Three dimensional porous structures of CA-ChSs were clearly observed by SEM. Proliferated cell numbers in CA-ChSs was significantly higher than those in ChSs (control at each stage (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that newly developed CA-ChSs had three-dimensional interconnected porous structure, good handling property and supporting ability of proliferation of osteoblasts. It is suggested that newly developed CA-ChSs could be considered as a scaffolds material for bone tissue enginearing.Latar belakang: Kitosan yang merupakan biopolimer alami dianggap sebagai salah satu kandidat untuk rekayasa jaringan tulang. Namun, kitosan memiliki kelemahan terhadap adhesi sel dan kurang mampu membentuk tulang yang cukup. Untuk meningkatkan adhesi sel dan kemampuan

  9. On methodical problems in estimating geological temperature and time from measurements of fission tracks in apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonckheere, R.

    2003-01-01

    The results of apatite fission-track modelling are only as accurate as the method, and depend on the assumption that the processes involved in the annealing of fossil tracks over geological times are the same as those responsible for the annealing of induced fission tracks in laboratory experiments. This has hitherto been assumed rather than demonstrated. The present critical discussion identifies a number of methodical problems from an examination of the available data on age standards, borehole samples and samples studied in the framework of geological investigations. These problems are related to low- ( 60 deg. C) annealing on a geological timescale and to the procedures used for calculating temperature-time paths from the fission-track data. It is concluded that it is not established that the relationship between track length and track density and the appearance of unetchable gaps, observed in laboratory annealing experiments on induced tracks, can be extrapolated to the annealing of fossil tracks on a geological timescale. This in turn casts doubt on the central principle of equivalent time. That such uncertainties still exist is in no small part due to an insufficient understanding of the formation, structure and properties of fission tracks at the atomic scale and to a lack of attention to the details of track revelation. The methodical implications of discrepancies between fission track results and the independent geological evidence are rarely considered. This presents a strong case for the re-involvement of track physicists in fundamental fission track research

  10. Effect of akermanite morphology on precipitation of bone-like apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiaoni; Yin Guangfu; Chen Xianchun; Liao Xiaoming; Yao Yadong; Huang Zhongbin

    2011-01-01

    Bioactivity in vivo of ceramic materials has been related to their surface micro-topography and may be estimated by means of simulated body fluid method in vitro. In order to investigate the effect of surface topographies of akermanite ceramics on bioactivity in vitro, akermanite ceramics were synthesized by sol-gel method and different surface topographies of disc-shaped akermanite ceramics were prepared by polishing with different SiC sandpapers. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the surface morphology and roughness. The bioactivity in vitro of ceramics with different surface states was evaluated by soaking the ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF). And the samples after being soaked were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results showed that the amounts of precipitated apatite on the ceramics with different surface roughness after being soaked in SBF were different and the bioactivity in vitro of ceramic with rough surface was significantly higher than that of ceramic with smooth surface. The study suggested that suitable surface roughness may improve the bioactivity in vitro of akermanite ceramics.

  11. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic characterization of titanium during alkali treatment and apatite growth in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, V.; Tamilselvi, S.; Rajendran, N.

    2007-01-01

    Alkali treatment of titanium with subsequent heat treatment has been adapted as an important pre-treatment procedure for hydroxyapatite formation in orthopaedic applications. The electrochemical study during the alkali treatment process has not been explored yet. In the present work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) studies have been employed to analyse the electrochemical behaviour of titanium during the alkali treatment. The open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarisation measurements were carried out in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the surface morphology and to correlate the results obtained from the electrochemical studies. An optimum growth of the passive film was found to occur at the end of 17th hour of treatment by alkali treatment. The alkali treated titanium immersed in SBF solution for various durations exhibited the formation of a duplex layer structure due to an inner barrier layer and an outer gel layer during the initial periods of immersion. However, with increase in immersion time to 10 days, a stable apatite layer was formed over the barrier layer and this was confirmed from the equivalent circuit fitted for the impedance data

  12. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic characterization of titanium during alkali treatment and apatite growth in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, V.; Tamilselvi, S. [Department of Chemistry, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600 044 (India); Rajendran, N. [Department of Chemistry, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600 044 (India)], E-mail: nrajendran@annauniv.edu

    2007-09-30

    Alkali treatment of titanium with subsequent heat treatment has been adapted as an important pre-treatment procedure for hydroxyapatite formation in orthopaedic applications. The electrochemical study during the alkali treatment process has not been explored yet. In the present work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) studies have been employed to analyse the electrochemical behaviour of titanium during the alkali treatment. The open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarisation measurements were carried out in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the surface morphology and to correlate the results obtained from the electrochemical studies. An optimum growth of the passive film was found to occur at the end of 17th hour of treatment by alkali treatment. The alkali treated titanium immersed in SBF solution for various durations exhibited the formation of a duplex layer structure due to an inner barrier layer and an outer gel layer during the initial periods of immersion. However, with increase in immersion time to 10 days, a stable apatite layer was formed over the barrier layer and this was confirmed from the equivalent circuit fitted for the impedance data.

  13. Effect of fluoride pretreatment on the solubility of synthetic carbonated apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, A B; Zhuang, H; Baig, A A; Higuchi, W I

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to address the following question: How is the solubility of fluoride-pretreated carbonated apatite (CAP) in aqueous acidic media related to the equilibrium solution fluoride and/or the CAP adsorbed fluoride levels? A CAP sample prepared by a precipitation method at 70 degrees C containing approximately 6% carbonate was fluoride-treated (F adsorption from neutral aqueous solutions) to yield a approximately 1000 ppm F CAP and a approximately 3300 ppm F CAP. Metastable equilibrium solubility distributions were determined in acetate buffers at pH 5.0. Solution fluoride, calcium, phosphate, and pH were determined from the equilibrated solutions. The equilibrium solution fluoride levels were extremely low, e.g., as low as approximately 0.10 ppb to approximately 0.30 ppb at 50% dissolved for the two CAP preparations. The approximately 3300 ppm F CAP yielded a lower solubility than the approximately 1000 ppm F CAP (shift in the mean pKHAP value of 1.5-2 units). This can be attributed to the lower solution F(-) for the sample containing approximately 1000 ppm fluoride compared with the approximately 3300 ppm fluoride-containing CAP. These important findings suggest that a fluoride treatment simply may provide an adsorption fluoride depot for subsequent release, providing a solution fluoride effect upon the CAP solubility and not necessarily any intrinsic alteration of the mineral solubility.

  14. Mineral Depositions of Calcifying Skin Disorders are Predominantly Composed of Carbonate Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Franzen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous calcifications can lead to complications, including pain, inflammation, ulceration and immobilization. Studies on the pathophysiology of mineral compositions and effective treatment modalities are limited. We therefore studied 14 patients with subcutaneous calcifications. Mineral material was collected and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Blood analyses were run to evaluate systemic alterations of mineral metabolism. Carbonate apatite (CAP was found to be the single constituent in the majority of patients (n = 9, 64.3%, 3 cases (21.4% had a composition of CAP and calcium oxalate dihydrate and one case had a combination of CAP and magnesium ammonium phosphate, whereas CAP was the major component in all 4 cases. Only one case showed predominantly calcium oxalate. Thus, CAP was found to be the only or predominant component in most cases of subcutaneous calcifications. Chemical analyses of the mineral compositions may aid in the development of new treatment regimes to improve the solubility of mineral components and to decrease extraosseous calcifications.

  15. Diffusion Study by IR Micro-Imaging of Molecular Uptake and Release on Mesoporous Zeolites of Structure Type CHA and LTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kärger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mesopores in the interior of microporous particles may significantly improve their transport properties. Complementing previous macroscopic transient sorption experiments and pulsed field gradient NMR self-diffusion studies with such materials, the present study is dedicated to an in-depth study of molecular uptake and release on the individual particles of mesoporous zeolitic specimens, notably with samples of the narrow-pore structure types, CHA and LTA. The investigations are focused on determining the time constants and functional dependences of uptake and release. They include a systematic variation of the architecture of the mesopores and of the guest molecules under study as well as a comparison of transient uptake with blocked and un-blocked mesopores. In addition to accelerating intracrystalline mass transfer, transport enhancement by mesopores is found to be, possibly, also caused by a reduction of transport resistances on the particle surfaces.

  16. Bioaccumulation d'un polychlorobiphényle commercial dans une chaîne trophodynamique expérimentale en eau douce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAZIN J. C.

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail décrit les conditions d'expérimentation d'un polychlorobiphényle commercial sur les différents maillons d'une chaîne alimentaire en eau douce : algues-crustacés-poissons. Après avoir déterminé les modalités de contamination compatibles avec la croissance normale des organismes végétaux et animaux, les cinétiques de concentration au niveau de chaque espèce, l'association des différents maillons a permis d'apprécier l'importance du transfert biologique du polluant qui apparaît limité, aux environs de 10 ppm, par l'état d'équilibre qui s'installe progressivement dans le milieu aquatique.

  17. Simulation of land use evolution by discrete events method: Application to “la chaîne des puys” from XV to XVIII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Michelin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a discrete event method, simulation of land use evolution has been applied to a landscape model of “la ChaÎne des Puys” (French Massif Central during along period (XV–XVIII centuries. The indications concerning the evolution of land use are in conformity with the observation of actual situations but the dynamic changes are faster than in actual facts. In spite of limitations due to necessary simplifications, it is now established that the discrete event method is efficient to simulate land use evolution during a long period. The model is immediately able to describe actual dynamics and to show sensitive variables with their critical values. Although oversimplified, it shows how far factors such as level of crops production and taxation can influence land use and landscape changes with a more or less lengthy period. In the future, the model should be bettered by introducing other determined and/or stochastic events.

  18. An ab-initio study of the energetics and geometry of sulfide, sulfite and sulfate incorporation into apatite: The thermodynamic basis for using this system as an oxybarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Konecke, B.; Fiege, A.; Simon, A. C.; Becker, U.

    2017-12-01

    We use ab-initio calculations to investigate the energetics and geometry of incorporation of S with its oxidation states S6+, S4+, and S2- into the apatite end-members fluor-, chlor-, and hydroxylapatite, [Ca10(PO4)6(F,Cl,OH)2]. The reaction energy of the balanced equation indicates the stability of the modeled S-incorporated apatite relative to the host apatite, the source, and sink phases. One possible coupled substitution mechanism involves the replacement of La3+ + PO43- ↔ Ca2+ + SO42-. Our results show that the incorporation of SO42- into La- and Na-bearing apatite, Ca8NaLa(PO4)6(F,Cl,OH)2, is energetically favored over the incorporation into La- and Si-bearing apatite, Ca9La(PO4)5(SiO4)(F,Cl,OH)2. Co-incorporation of SO42- and SO32- is energetically favored when the lone pair electrons of SO32- face towards the anion column site, compared to facing away from it. Full or partial incorporation of S2- is favored on the column anion site in the form of [Ca10(PO4)6S] and [Ca20(PO4)12SX2)], where X = F, Cl, or OH. Upon full incorporation (i.e., replacing all column ions by sulfide ions), S2- is positioned in the anion column at z = 0.5 (half way between the mirror planes at z = 1/4 and z = 3/4) in the energy-optimized structure. The calculated energies for partial incorporation of S2- demonstrate that in an energy-optimized structure, S2- is displaced from the mirror plane at z = 1/4 or 3/4, by 1.0 to 1.6 Å, depending on the surrounding species (F-, Cl- or OH-); however, the probability for S2- to be incorporated into the apatite structure is highest for chlorapatite end-members. Our results describe energetically feasible incorporation mechanisms for all three oxidations states of S (S6+, S4+, S2-) in apatite, along with structural distortion and concurring electronic structure changes. These observations are consistent with recently published experimental results (Konecke et al. 2017) that demonstrate S6+, S4+ and S2- incorporation into apatite, where the

  19. From the Brasserie to the Classroom: The Chaîne Des Puys - Limagne Fault Unesco World Heritage Project, Scientists and Non-Scientists Communicating Geoheritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Olive-Garcia, C.

    2014-12-01

    Geoheritage is an effective way of transferring scientific knowledge to non-peer audiences of all types. We present our experience of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault UNESCO World heritage project, which shows how geoheritage can be a very successful communication tool, especially as it draws in the non-peers into the geological process at many levels. First and foremost is the local level, as no geoheritage project can be successful without local participation. Few geological localities on Earth are now devoid of human influence or habitation, and thus those who live and work on sites are the necessary first stage custodians. This means that locals must gain some understanding of their geology in order to appreciate their heritage. As such people tend to have a close relationship with their land, this is often half way done: local land use, customs are often easily integrated with geological knowledge. Once this link exists, communicating ideas that can be useful for management or for dealing with hazards is easier. Sometimes more tricky is communication to visitors, tourists and politicians who do not have such as close link to the landscape. Here, the educational strategy has to be different, with a need for them to learn what the landscape is and how it is managed, and lived in. During the development of the World Heritage Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault project the project team has been composed of geoscientists actively working on the area, agronomists local administration (such as natural park and local government members), and landscape specialists. Each has engaged in communication at different levels channelled either through personal contacts, or through more formal means, such as exhibitions, talks, and websites. Scientists have become communicators, and non-peers have begun to see the landscape though a geolologist eyes. A Geological landscape has begun to emerge in the popular perception.

  20. Polyelectrolyte multi-layers assembly of SiCHA nanopowders and collagen type I on aminolysed PLA films to enhance cell-material interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba Ismail, Yanny Marliana; Ferreira, Ana Marina; Bretcanu, Oana; Dalgarno, Kenneth; El Haj, Alicia J

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new approach in assembling bone extracellular matrix components onto PLA films, and investigates the most favourable environment which can be created using the technique for cell-material interactions. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films were chemically modified by covalently binding the poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as to prepare the substrate for immobilization of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) coating. Negatively charged polyelectrolyte consists of well-dispersed silicon-carbonated hydroxyapatite (SiCHA) nanopowders in hyaluronic acid (Hya) was deposited onto the modified PLA films followed by SiCHA in collagen type I as the positively charged polyelectrolyte. The outermost layer was finally cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrocholoride and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide sodium salt (EDC/NHS) solutions. The physicochemical features of the coated PLA films were monitored via X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The amounts of calcium and collagen deposited on the surface were qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The surface characterizations suggested that 5-BL has the optimum surface roughness and highest amounts of calcium and collagen depositions among tested films. In vitro human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on the coated PLA films confirmed that the coating materials greatly improved cell attachment and survival compared to unmodified PLA films. The cell viability, cell proliferation and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) expression on 5-BL were found to be the most favourable of the tested films. Hence, this newly developed coating materials assembly could contribute to the improvement of the bioactivity of polymeric materials and structures aimed to bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Value of CHA2DS2VASC Score in Predicting All-Cause Mortality in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Who Have Undergone Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yıldız, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Aksan, Gökhan; Kilci, Hakan; Çetin, Şükrü; Sığırcı, Serhat; Kılıçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is the most common cause of cardiac morbidity and death. Various scoring systems have been developed in order to identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcome and may benefit from more aggressive and effective therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the CHA 2 DS 2 VASC score as a predictor of mortality inpatients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI). We evaluated 300 patients diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent p-PCI and calculated their CHA 2 DS 2 VASC scores. According to their CHA 2 DS 2 VASC scores, patients were divided into three groups. Group 1: 0-1 points (n = 101), Group 2: 2-3 points (n = 129), and Group 3: 4-9 points (n = 70). The mean, median and minimum duration of follow-up were 21.7 ± 9.4, 21, and 12 months, respectively. All-cause mortality was defined as the primary endpoint of the study. All-cause mortality was 4% in Group 1, 8.5% in Group 2 and 27.1% in Group 3 respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that Group 3 (CHA 2 DS 2 VASC ≥ 4) had a significantly higher incidence of death [p (log-rank) < 0.001]. In ROC analysis, AUC values for in hospital, 12-month and long-term mortality were 0.88 (0.77-0.99 95% CI), 0.82 (0.73-0.92 95% CI) and 0.79 (0.69-0.88 95% CI), respectively. CHA 2 DS 2 VASC score can be used for predicting both in-hospital, 12-month and long-term mortality in patients with STEMI who have undergone p-PCI.

  2. Hydrogen bonding analysis of hydroxyl groups in glucose aqueous solutions by a molecular dynamics simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cong; Li, Wei Zhong; Song, Yong Chen; Weng, Lin Dong; Zhang, Ning

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate hydrogen bonding characteristics of hydroxyl groups in glucose aqueous solutions with different concentrations. The hydrogen bonding abilities and strength of different O and H atom types have been calculated and compared. The acceptor/donor efficiencies have been predicted and it has been found that: (1) O2-HO2 and O3-HO3 are more efficient intramolecular hydrogen bonding acceptors than donors; (2) O1-HO1, O4-HO4 and O6-HO6 are more efficient intramolecular hydrogen bonding donors than acceptors; (5) O1-HO1 and O6-HO6 are more efficient intermolecular hydrogen bonding acceptors than donors while hydroxyl groups O2-HO2 and O4-HO4 are more efficient intermolecular hydrogen bonding donors than acceptors. The hydrogen bonding abilities of hydroxyl groups revealed that: (1) the hydrogen bonding ability of OH2-H w is larger than that of hydroxyl groups in glucose; (2) among the hydroxyl groups in glucose, the hydrogen bonding ability of O6-HO6 is the largest and the hydrogen bonding ability of O4-HO4 is the smallest; (3) the intermolecular hydrogen bonding ability of O6-HO6 is the largest; (4) the order for intramolecular hydrogen bonding abilities (from large to small) is O2-HO2, O1-HO1, O3-HO3, O6-HO6 and O4-HO4

  3. Mechanism of aromatic hydroxylation of lidocaine at a Pt electrode under acidic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Turan; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic hydroxylation reactions, which are mainly catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vivo, are some of the most important reactions of Phase I metabolism, because insertion of a hydroxyl group into a lipophilic drug compound increases its hydrophilicity and prepares it for subsequent Phase II metabolic conjugation reactions as a prerequisite to excretion. Aromatic hydroxylation metabolites of pharmaceuticals may be obtained through various synthetic and enzymatic methods Electrochemical oxidation is an alternative with advantages in terms of mild reaction conditions and less hazardous chemicals. In the present study, we report that aromatic hydroxylation metabolites of lidocaine can be readily obtained electrochemically under aqueous acidic conditions at platinum electrodes. Our results show that the dominant N-dealkylation reaction can be suppressed by decreasing the solution pH below 0.5 resulting in selective 3-hydroxylidocaine, which is an in vivo metabolite of lidocaine. Experiments in 18 O labelled water indicated that water is the primary source of oxygen, while dissolved molecular oxygen contributes to a minor extent to the hydroxylation reaction.

  4. Inhibition of precipitation of carbonate apatite by trisodium citrate analysed in base of the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prywer, Jolanta, E-mail: jolanta.prywer@p.lodz.pl [Institute of Physics, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Wólczańska 219, 93-005 Łódź (Poland); Olszynski, Marcin [Institute of Physics, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Wólczańska 219, 93-005 Łódź (Poland); Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa [Institute of Chemistry, Environment Protection and Biotechnology, Jan Długosz University of Częstochowa, ul. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Częstochowa (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is studied. The experimental series are performed in the solution of artificial urine. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation as carbonate apatite is one of the main components of this kind of stones. To mimic a real infection in urinary tract the aqueous ammonia solution was added to the solution of artificial urine. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to carbonate apatite formation and decreases the efficiency of carbonate apatite precipitation. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds Ca{sup 2+} ions and causes the formation of CaCit{sup −} and Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}CO{sub 3} complexes. Trisodium citrate binds Ca{sup 2+} ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which carbonate apatite is favored to be formed. - Highlights: • Trisodium citrate (TC) increases induction time of carbonate apatite (CA) formation. • TC decreases the efficiency of CA precipitation. • The inhibitory effect of TC is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. • The inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that TC binds Ca{sup 2+} ions. • TC binds Ca{sup 2+} ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which CA is formed.

  5. Hydroxylative activity of Aspergillus niger towards androst-4-ene and androst-5-ene steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świzdor, Alina; Panek, Anna; Milecka-Tronina, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Aspergillus niger, one of fungal species most frequently used for experimental and industrial-scale biotransformations of various organic compounds, is generally known to transform steroids at 16β position. In this work, application of the strain A. niger KCH910 to bioconversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol and testosterone is described, with emphasis on the metabolic steps leading to the products. Evidence from this study indicated that incubated 5-ene steroids underwent bioconversion within two metabolic pathways: oxidation by the action of 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) to 4-ene steroids, and minor allylic hydroxylation to epimeric 7-alcohols. Further transformation of the 3-oxo-4-ene metabolites resulted in non-selective 16-hydroxylation. It is the first report on an A. niger strain able to introduce not only 16β- but also 16α-hydroxyl function into steroids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Structure and Dynamics of Hydroxyl-Functionalized Protic Ammonium Carboxylate Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummuru, Dhileep Nagi Reddy; Mallik, Bhabani S

    2017-10-26

    We performed classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and dynamics of protic ionic liquids, 2-hydroxy ethylammonium acetate, ethylammonium hydroxyacetate, and 2-hydroxyethylammonium hydroxyacetate at ambient conditions. Structural properties such as density, radial distribution functions, spatial distribution functions, and structure factors have been calculated. Dynamic properties such as mean square displacements, as well as residence and hydrogen bond dynamics have also been calculated. Hydrogen bond lifetimes and residence times change with the addition of hydroxyl groups. We observe that when a hydroxyl group is present on the cation, dynamics become very slow and it forms a strong hydrogen bond with carboxylate oxygen atoms of the anion. The hydroxyl functionalized ILs show more dynamic diversity than structurally similar ILs.

  7. Electrolytic coloration and spectral properties of hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Wu Yanru

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride single crystals are colored electrolytically at various temperatures and voltages using a pointed cathode and a flat anode. Characteristic OH - spectral band is observed in the absorption spectrum of uncolored single crystal. Characteristic O - , OH - , U, V 2 , V 3 , O 2- -V a + , F, R 2 and M spectral bands are observed simultaneously in absorption spectra of colored single crystals. Current-time curve for electrolytic coloration of hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride single crystal and its relationship with electrolytic coloration process are given. Production and conversion of color centers are explained. - Highlights: → Expanded the traditional electrolysis method. → Hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride crystals were colored electrolytically for the first time. → Useful V, F and F-aggregate color centers were produced in colored crystals. → V color centers were produced directly and F and F-aggregate color centers indirectly.

  8. Biological Behavior of Osteoblast Cell and Apatite Forming Ability of the Surface Modified Ti Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingming; Hwang, K H; Choi, W S; Shin, S J; Lee, J K

    2016-02-01

    Titanium as one kind of biomaterials comes in direct contact with the body, making evaluation of biocompatibility an important aspect to biomaterials development. Surface chemistry of titanium plays an important role in osseointegration. Different surface modification alters the surface chemistry and result in different biological response. In this study, three kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coating successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid increased the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surface allows better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrates. After modification of titanium surface by mixed acidic solution and subsequently H2O2/HCL treatment evaluation of biocompatibility was conducted from hydroxyapatite formation by biomimetic process and cell viability on modified titanium surface. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Results from this study indicated that surface treatment methods affect the surface morphology, type of TiO2 layer formed and subsequent apatite deposition and biological responses. The thermo scientific alamarblue cell viability assay reagent is used to quantitatively measure the viability of mammalian cell lines, bacteria and fungi by incorporating a rapid, sensitive and reliable fluorometric/colorimetric growth indicator, without any toxic and side effect to cell line. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than widely used alkali treatment.

  9. Metastable equilibrium solubility behavior of carbonated apatite in the presence of solution strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, D D; Bi, Y; Baig, A A; Higuchi, W I

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the concept of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) to describe the anomalous solubility behavior of carbonated apatite (CAP) in the presence of solution strontium. A CAP sample (4.8 wt% CO(3), synthesized at 70 degrees C) was prepared by precipitation. Baseline MES distributions were determined in a series of 0.1 M acetate buffers containing only calcium and phosphate (no strontium) over a broad range of solution conditions. In order to assess the influence of strontium, MES profiles were then determined in a similar fashion with 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of the solution calcium being replaced on an equal molar basis by solution strontium. From the compositions of the equilibrating buffer solutions, ion activity products (IAPs) of the form Ca(10-n)Sr(n)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) (n = 0-10) were calculated in an attempt to determine the correct function governing the dissolution of the CAP preparation. The results demonstrate the following important findings: (a) at high solution strontium/calcium ratios (i.e., when 60% or more of the solution calcium was replaced by strontium), the MES profiles in all the experiments were found to be essentially superimposable when the solution IAPs were calculated using the stoichiometry of Ca(6)Sr(4)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2), and (b), at low solution strontium/calcium ratios (i.e., when 40% or less of the solution calcium was replaced by strontium), the stoichiometry yielding MES data superpositioning was found to be that of hydroxyapatite. When other stoichiometries were assumed, good superpositioning of the data was not possible.

  10. SU-F-T-676: Measurement of Hydroxyl Radicals in Radiolized Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Z; Ngwa, W [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Strack, G; Sajo, E [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Hydroxyl radicals can be produced within tissue by radiation therapy, and they are largely responsible for DNA damage and cell killing. Coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (3-CCA) and crystal violet are reported to react with hydroxyl radicals and can be used for fluorescence and absorbance measurements, respectively. This study assesses the ability of hydroxyl measurement for both 3-CCA and crystal violet in radiolized water systems in order to provide dosimetric information in radiation chemistry and radiation biology experiments. Methods: 3-CCA and crystal violet were both dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) with final concentrations 0.5 mg/mL and 0.05 mg/mL. 3-CCA and control solutions (PBS only) were loaded in black bottom 96-well plates. Crystal violet and control solutions were loaded in clear bottom 96-well plates. The prepared solutions were irradiated at 2 Gy using a small animal radiation research platform. Fluorescence reading with 360 nm excitation wavelength and 485 nm emission wavelength was done for 3-CCA, and absorbance reading at wavelength 580 nm was done for crystal violet before and after radiation. Results: 3-CCA showed clear difference in fluorescence before and after radiation, which suggested hydroxyl production during radiation. However, crystal violet absorbance at 580 nm was not changed significantly by radiation. Conclusion: The overall conclusion is that 3-CCA can be used for hydroxyl measurement in radiolized water systems, while crystal violet cannot, although crystal violet is reported widely to react with hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton reactions. Possible reasons could relate to reaction pH.

  11. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part C. Heterocyclic and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatized post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatized samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 865 heterocyclic compounds and 359 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in 16 tar samples produced by five different processes. The contents of both heterocyclic and hydroxylated PAHs varied greatly with the production process used, with the heterocyclic compounds giving information about the feedstock used. Of the 359 hydroxylated PAHs detected the majority would not have been be detected without the use of derivatization. Coal tars produced using different production processes and feedstocks yielded tars with significantly different heterocyclic and hydroxylated contents. The concentrations of the individual heterocyclic compounds varied greatly even within the different production processes and provided information about the feedstock used to produce the tars. The hydroxylated PAH content of the samples provided important analytical information that would otherwise not have been obtained without the use of derivatization and GCxGC/TOFMS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. V color centers in electrolytically colored hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Han Li

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using pointed anode and flat cathode at various temperatures and under various electric field strengths. V 2 and V 3 color centers were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V 2 and V 3 color center migration was determined. Production of the V 2 and V 3 color centers and formation of current zones for the electrolytic colorations of the hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals are explained

  13. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant CYP153A6 enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2013-01-29

    Cytochrome P450 CYP153A6 from Myobacterium sp. strain HXN1500 was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small-chain alkanes regioselectively. Mutant CYP153A6-BMO1 selectively hydroxylates butane and pentane at the terminal carbon to form 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively, at rates greater than wild-type CYP153A6 enzymes. This biocatalyst is highly active for small-chain alkane substrates and the regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  14. Mechanism of the N-Hydroxylation of Primary and Secondary Amines by Cytochrome P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Signe T.; Rydberg, Patrik; Olsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize alkyl- and arylamines, generating several different products. For the primary and secondary amines, some of these reactions result in hydroxylated amines, which may be toxic. Thus, when designing new drugs containing amine groups, it is important to be able...... to predict if a given compound will be a substrate for CYPs, in order to avoid toxic metabolites, and hence to understand the mechanism that is utilized by CYPs. Two possible mechanisms, for the N-hydroxylation of primary and secondary amines mediated by CYPs, are studied by density functional theory (DFT...

  15. Effect of Hydroxyl Concentration on Chemical Sensitivity of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Carbon-Black Composite Chemiresistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Patel, Sanjay V.; Yelton, W. Graham

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity and selectivity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) / carbon black composite films have been found to vary depending upon the hydroxylation percentage (''-OH'') of the polymer. These chemiresistors made from PVA films whose polymer backbone is 88% hydroxylated (PVA88) have a high sensitivity to water, while chemiresistors made from PVA75 have a higher sensitivity to methanol. The minor differences in polymer composition result in films with different Hildebrand volubility parameters. The relative responses of several different PVA-based chemiresistors to solvents with different volubility parameters are presented. In addition, polyvinyl acetate (PVAC) films with PVA88 are used in an array to distinguish the responses to methanol-water mixtures

  16. Activity of Oligoresveratrols from Stem Bark of Hopea mengarawan (Dipterocarpaceae as Hydroxyl Radical Scavenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI ATUN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Four oligoresveratrols ranging from dimer to tetramer, isolated from stem bark of Hopea mengarawan (Dipterocarpaceae plants were tested for their activity as hydroxyl radical scavenger. The activity of these compounds was evaluated against the 2-deoxyribose degradation induced by the hydroxyl radical generated via a Fenton-type reaction. Result showed that balanocarpol, heimiol A, vaticanol G, and vaticanol B had IC50 3.83; 15.44; 2.01; and 4.71 µM, respectively. These results suggest that oligoresveratrols from stem bark of H. mengarawan maybe useful as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  17. Hydroxylation of the Herbicide Isoproturon by Fungi Isolated from Agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønhede, S.; Jensen, Bo; Rosendahl, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Several asco-, basidio-, and zygomycetes isolated from an agricultural field were shown to be able to hydroxylate the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon [N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea] to N-(4-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea and N-(4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N......Several asco-, basidio-, and zygomycetes isolated from an agricultural field were shown to be able to hydroxylate the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon [N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea] to N-(4-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)phenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea and N-(4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl...

  18. Diatomite as high performance and environmental friendly catalysts for phenol hydroxylation with H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Jia et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of diatomite catalysts were treated and characterized. For the first time, the resulting materials were used in catalysis for the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 and showed very high hydroxylation activity due to the Fe species in the diatomite. The effect of HCl treatment, contents of catalysts and H2O2 were investigated and the active components of diatomite were discussed. The results show that diatomite is the promising candidate for industrial output due to their high catalytic activity, easy physical separation and very low costs.

  19. Increase of apatite dissolution rate by Scots pine roots associated or not with Burkholderia glathei PML1(12)Rp in open-system flow microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, Christophe; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Uroz, Stéphane; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Tosheva, Zornitza; Kies, Antoine

    2013-04-01

    The release of nutritive elements through apatite dissolution represents the main source of phosphorus, calcium, and several micronutrients (e.g., Zn, Cu) for organisms in non-fertilized forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify, for the first time, the dissolution rate of apatite grains by tree roots that were or were not associated with a mineral weathering bacterial strain, and by various acids known to be produced by tree roots and soil bacterial strains in open-system flow microcosms. In addition, we explored whether the mobilization of trace elements (including rare earth elements) upon apatite dissolution was affected by the presence of trees and associated microorganisms. The dissolution rate of apatite by Scots pine plants that were or were not inoculated with the strain Burkholderia glathei PML1(12)Rp, and by inorganic (nitric) and organic (citric, oxalic and gluconic) acids at pH 5.5, 4.8, 3.8, 3.5, 3.0, and 2.0 was monitored in two controlled experiments: "plant-bacteria interaction" and "inorganic and organic acids". Analyses of the outlet solutions in the "plant-bacteria interaction" experiment showed that Scots pine roots and B. glathei PML1(12)Rp produced protons and organic acids such as gluconate, oxalate, acetate, and lactate. The weathering budget calculation revealed that Scots pines (with or without PML1(12)Rp) significantly increased (factor > 10) the release of Ca, P, As, Sr, Zn, U, Y, and rare earth elements such as Ce, La, Nd from apatite, compared to control abiotic treatment. Scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed traces of apatite dissolution in contact of roots. Most dissolved elements were taken up by Scots pine roots, i.e., approximately 50% of Ca, 70% of P, 30% of As, 70% of Sr, 90% of Zn, and 100% of U, Y, and rare earth elements. Interestingly, no significant additional effect due to the bacterial strain PML1(12)Rp on apatite dissolution and Scots pine nutrition and growth was observed. The "inorganic

  20. Project Work Plan: Sequestration of Strontium-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of an Apatite Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, Jim E.

    2006-04-30

    We propose to develop an infiltration strategy that defines the precipitation rate of an apatite-forming solution and Sr-90 sequestration processes under variably saturated (low water content) conditions. We will develop this understanding through small-scale column studies, intermediate-scale two-dimensional (2-D) experiments, and numerical modeling to quantify individual and coupled processes associated with apatite formation and Sr-90 transport during and after infiltration of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution. Development of capabilities to simulate these coupled biogeochemical processes during both injection and infiltration will be used to determine the most cost-effective means to emplace an in situ apatite barrier with a longevity of 300 years to permanently sequester Sr-90 until it decays. Biogeochemical processes that will be investigated are citrate biodegradation and apatite precipitation rates at varying water contents as a function of water content. Coupled processes that will be investigated include the influence of apatite precipitation (which occupies pore space) on the hydraulic and transport properties of the porous media during infiltration.

  1. Behaviors of MC3T3-E1 cells on carbonated apatite films, with a characteristic network structure, fabricated on a titanium plate by aqueous spray coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Chihiro; Hara, Hiroki; Oya, Kei; Aoki, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Fujie, Hiromichi; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2014-01-01

    Four carbonated apatite films having average thicknesses of 1.3–0.11 μm, proportions of network sizes above 10 μm of 41–68%, and average border heights of the characteristic network structure of 0.98–0.29 μm were fabricated on a titanium plate by aqueous spray coating. These carbonated apatite films after heat treatment showed good mineralization ability in Hanks' balanced salt solution. Assessment of initial cell attachment and calcination on these films and on the Ti plate using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 indicated that the carbonated apatite film heat treated at 600 °C, whose film thickness, proportion of network sizes above 10 μm, and border height were 0.11 μm, 61%, and 0.31 μm, respectively, was most preferred by osteoblastic cells. Field emission scanning electron microscopic observation of the cells attached to the films showed that the wide network and low border height of the network structure on the carbonated apatite film play an important role in the development of the filopodia of the osteoblastic cells. - Highlights: • Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 behaviors on aqueous spray coating-derived carbonated apatite (CA) films • The network size of CA films is important. • CA films having a low network border height are better for cell proliferation

  2. Nano-beta-tricalcium phosphates synthesis and biodegradation: 2. Biodegradation and apatite layer formation on nano-{beta}-TCP synthesized via microwave treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Elkhooly, Tarek A, E-mail: nrcfifi@yahoo.co [Department of Biomaterials, National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-06-01

    The degradation and/or apatite layer precipitation ability of porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) samples treated and untreated with microwave radiation during synthesis is investigated. Microwave heating was used to accelerate the formation of CDHA with the Ca/P ratio 1.5 in a shorter processing time which later forms {beta}-TCP at around 650 {sup 0}C. Soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for several periods (4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h) is performed in a cumulative manner. The deposition of an apatite layer is followed through diffuse reflected FT-IR, SEM and EDS. A microwave-treated sample having a smaller particle size than its parent induces the formation of a homogeneous carbonated apatite layer on its surface. On the other hand, the parent {beta}-TCP sample exhibited less ability to induce Ca-P formation after being soaked in SBF. The formation of an apatite layer is attributed to the increase in surface area consequent to reduced particle and grain sizes besides the presence of a minor amount of hydroxyapatite phase in the microwave-treated {beta}-TCP sample. The results prove that it is possible to control the biodegradation and apatite layer formation on sintered {beta}-TCP porous disks through controlling the particle size.

  3. Behaviors of MC3T3-E1 cells on carbonated apatite films, with a characteristic network structure, fabricated on a titanium plate by aqueous spray coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Chihiro; Hara, Hiroki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Oya, Kei [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakanane, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Aoki, Shun [Faculty of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065 (Japan); Hayakawa, Tohru [Department of Dental Engineering, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 2-1-3 Tsurumi, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-8501 (Japan); Fujie, Hiromichi [Faculty of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065 (Japan); Sato, Mitsunobu, E-mail: lccsato@cc.kogakuin.ac.jp [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Four carbonated apatite films having average thicknesses of 1.3–0.11 μm, proportions of network sizes above 10 μm of 41–68%, and average border heights of the characteristic network structure of 0.98–0.29 μm were fabricated on a titanium plate by aqueous spray coating. These carbonated apatite films after heat treatment showed good mineralization ability in Hanks' balanced salt solution. Assessment of initial cell attachment and calcination on these films and on the Ti plate using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 indicated that the carbonated apatite film heat treated at 600 °C, whose film thickness, proportion of network sizes above 10 μm, and border height were 0.11 μm, 61%, and 0.31 μm, respectively, was most preferred by osteoblastic cells. Field emission scanning electron microscopic observation of the cells attached to the films showed that the wide network and low border height of the network structure on the carbonated apatite film play an important role in the development of the filopodia of the osteoblastic cells. - Highlights: • Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 behaviors on aqueous spray coating-derived carbonated apatite (CA) films • The network size of CA films is important. • CA films having a low network border height are better for cell proliferation.

  4. Effect of white mineral trioxide aggregate compared with biomimetic carbonated apatite on dentine bridge formation and inflammatory response in a dental pulp model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, F; Vahid, A; Jahanbani, J; Mashhadiabbas, F; Arman, E

    2012-01-01

      To evaluate the effects of apatite precipitation on the biocompatibility and hard tissue induction properties of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) in a dental pulp model.   Pulp exposures were created on the axial walls of 32 sound canine teeth of eight dogs. Four additional sound teeth served as controls. The pulps were capped either with WMTA or apatite derivatives [biomimetic carbonated apatite (BCAp)] in the interaction of WMTA with a synthetic tissue fluid and restored with zinc oxide-eugenol cement. After 7 and 70 days, the animals were killed, and the histological specimens taken from the teeth were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histomorphological evaluation. The Brown and Brenn technique was employed to stain bacteria. The data were subjected to nonparametric Kruskall-Wallis analysis and Mann-Whitney U_tests.   Biomimetic carbonated apatite did not induce hard tissue bridge formation. WMTA performed significantly better than BCAp in this respect at both periods (P 0.05).   White mineral trioxide aggregate induced hard tissue formation via a mechanism other than that postulated via apatite formation. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  5. Carbonate substitution in the mineral component of bone: Discriminating the structural changes, simultaneously imposed by carbonate in A and B sites of apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madupalli, Honey; Pavan, Barbara; Tecklenburg, Mary M. J.

    2017-11-01

    The mineral component of bone and other biological calcifications is primarily a carbonate substituted calcium apatite. Integration of carbonate into two sites, substitution for phosphate (B-type carbonate) and substitution for hydroxide (A-type carbonate), influences the crystal properties which relate to the functional properties of bone. In the present work, a series of AB-type carbonated apatites (AB-CAp) having varying A-type and B-type carbonate weight fractions were prepared and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and carbonate analysis. A detailed characterization of A-site and B-site carbonate assignment in the FTIR ν3 region is proposed. The mass fractions of carbonate in A-site and B-site of AB-CAp correlate differently with crystal axis length and crystallite domain size. In this series of samples reduction in crystal domain size correlates only with A-type carbonate which indicates that carbonate in the A-site is more disruptive to the apatite structure than carbonate in the B-site. High temperature methods were required to produce significant A-type carbonation of apatite, indicating a higher energy barrier for the formation of A-type carbonate than for B-type carbonate. This is consistent with the dominance of B-type carbonate substitution in low temperature synthetic and biological apatites.

  6. Evaluation of the Ca ion release, pH and surface apatite formation of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S; Han, L; Noiri, Y; Okiji, T

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like surface precipitate-forming abilities of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement, which was mainly composed of synthetically prepared tricalcium silicate and zirconium oxide radiopacifier. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement, white ProRoot MTA (WMTA) and TheraCal LC (a light-cured resin-modified calcium silicate-filled material) were examined. The chemical compositions were analysed with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy electron probe microanalyser with an image observation function (SEM-EPMA). The pH and Ca 2+ concentrations of water in which the set materials had been immersed were measured, and the latter was assessed with the EDTA titration method. The surface precipitates formed on the materials immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were analysed with SEM-EPMA and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). The prototype cement contained Ca, Si and Zr as major elemental constituents, whereas it did not contain some metal elements that were detected in the other materials. The Ca 2+ concentrations and pH of the immersion water samples exhibited the following order: WMTA = prototype cement > TheraCal LC (P prototype cement and WMTA. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement exhibited similar Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities to WMTA. The Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities of TheraCal LC were lower than those of the other materials. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Surface-Modification of Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles Enhances Delivery and Cytotoxicity of Gemcitabine and Anastrozole in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitya Syarifa Mozar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available pH sensitive nanoparticles of carbonate apatite (CA have been proven to be effective delivery vehicles for DNA, siRNAs and proteins. More recently, conventional anti-cancer drugs, such as doxorubicin, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide have been successfully incorporated into CA for intracellular delivery to breast cancer cells. However, physical and chemical properties of drug molecules appeared to affect their interactions with CA, with hydrophillic drug so far exhibiting better binding affinity and cellular uptakes compared to hydrophobic drugs. In this study, anastrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor which is largely hydrophobic, and gemcitabine, a hydrophilic nucleoside inhibitor were used as solubility models of chemotherapy drug. Aggregation tendency of poorly soluble drugs resulting in larger particle-drug complex size might be the main factor hindering their delivery effectiveness. For the first time, surface modification of CA with poly(ethylene glycol (PEG has shown promising result to drastically reduce anastrozole- loaded CA particle size,