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Sample records for hydroxyapatite dense bone

  1. Microstructure and thermal diffusivity in hydroxyapatite, dense bone and metals for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, M.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Calderon, A. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    We report X-Ray diffraction and SEM analysis in hydroxyapatite obtained in powder form, as well as a SEM analysis in titanium, 316l stainless steel and dense bone in longitudinal and transversal cutting. Moreover, we realized a thermal diffusivity measurement in these materials in order to obtain the thermal compatibility between them. We use the photoacoustic technique in heat transmission configuration in order to obtain the thermal diffusivity values in the samples. Our results show a good thermal compatibility (74%) between hydroxyapatite and bone. Finally, it was obtained a one order of magnitude difference between the thermal diffusivity values of metallic samples and those corresponding values to bone and HA being this difference greater in titanium than in stainless steel, which is important to consider in some biomedical and dental applications. (Author)

  2. Microstructure and thermal diffusivity in hydroxyapatite, dense bone and metals for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, M.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Calderon, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report X-Ray diffraction and SEM analysis in hydroxyapatite obtained in powder form, as well as a SEM analysis in titanium, 316l stainless steel and dense bone in longitudinal and transversal cutting. Moreover, we realized a thermal diffusivity measurement in these materials in order to obtain the thermal compatibility between them. We use the photoacoustic technique in heat transmission configuration in order to obtain the thermal diffusivity values in the samples. Our results show a good thermal compatibility (74%) between hydroxyapatite and bone. Finally, it was obtained a one order of magnitude difference between the thermal diffusivity values of metallic samples and those corresponding values to bone and HA being this difference greater in titanium than in stainless steel, which is important to consider in some biomedical and dental applications. (Author)

  3. Microstructure and thermal diffusivity in hydroxyapatite, dense bone and metals for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, M.; Diaz G, J.A.I.; Calderon, A. [CICATA-IPN, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: We report X-Ray diffraction and SEM analysis in hydroxyapatite obtained in powder form, as well as a SEM analysis in titanium, 316l stainless steel and dense bone in longitudinal and transversal cutting. Moreover, we realized a thermal diffusivity measurement in these materials in order to obtain the thermal compatibility between them. We use the photoacoustic technique in heat transmission configuration in order to obtain the thermal diffusivity values in the samples. Our results show a good thermal compatibility (74%) between hydroxyapatite and bone. Finally, it was obtained a one order of magnitude difference between the thermal diffusivity values of metallic samples and those corresponding values to bone and HA being this difference greater in titanium than in stainless steel, which is important to consider in some biomedical and dental applications. (Author)

  4. Study the properties of dense hydroxyapatite-extract from cow bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Asliza, M.A.; Zaheruddin, K.; Shahrizal, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, natural hydroxyapatite (HA) was extracted from clean cow bone by treatment with NaOH and heating at high temperature before ground into fine powder. The HA powder were than mixed together with binder for several hours. Dense HA were formed in die steel mould by using uniaxially pressing method. Sample was sintered at different temperature 1150, 1200, 1250 and 1300 degree Celsius for several hours. The phases of specimen were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were analyzed using three-point bending testing and the microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. From XRD results, natural HA shows phase of pure HA up to 1250 degree Celsius and fracture strength results indicated that the mechanical properties of specimen increase as temperature increase. From microstructure observation using SEM, HA specimen shows initial stages of sintering process at temperature 1150 degree Celsius and show changes in microstructure evolution as temperature increase up to 1300 degree Celsius. (author)

  5. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Prakasam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes.

  6. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2015-01-01

    In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes. PMID:26703750

  7. Comparison of ossification of demineralized bone, hydroxyapatite, Gelfoam, and bone wax in cranial defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papay, F A; Morales, L; Ahmed, O F; Neth, D; Reger, S; Zins, J

    1996-09-01

    Demineralized bone allografts in the repair of calvarial defects are compared with other common bone fillers. This study uses a video-digitizing radiographic analysis of calvarial defect ossification to determine calcification of bone defects and its relation to postoperative clinical examination and regional controls. The postoperative clinical results at 3 months demonstrated that bony healing was greatest in bur holes filled with demineralized bone and hydroxyapatite. Radiographic analysis demonstrated calcification of demineralized bone-filled defects compared to bone wax- and Gelfoam-filled regions. Hydroxyapatite granules are radiographically dense, thus not allowing accurate measurement of true bone healing. The results suggest that demineralized bone and hydroxyapatite provide better structural support via bone healing to defined calvarial defects than do Gelfoam and bone wax.

  8. Hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by liquid precursor plasma spraying: controlled dense and porous microstructures and osteoblastic cell responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yi; Song Lei; Liu Xiaoguang; Xiao Yanfeng; Wu Yao; Chen Jiyong; Wu Fang; Gu Zhongwei

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by a novel plasma spraying process, the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. X-ray diffraction results showed that the coatings obtained by the LPPS process were mainly composed of hydroxyapatite. The LPPS process also showed excellent control on the coating microstructure, and both nearly fully dense and highly porous hydroxyapatite coatings were obtained by simply adjusting the solid content of the hydroxyapatite liquid precursor. Scanning electron microscope observations indicated that the porous hydroxyapatite coatings had pore size in the range of 10-200 μm and an average porosity of 48.26 ± 0.10%. The osteoblastic cell responses to the dense and porous hydroxyapatite coatings were evaluated with human osteoblastic cell MG-63, in respect of the cell morphology, proliferation and differentiation, with the hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process as control. The cell experiment results indicated that the heat-treated LPPS coatings with a porous structure showed the best cell proliferation and differentiation among all the hydroxyapatite coatings. Our results suggest that the LPPS process is a promising plasma spraying technique for fabricating hydroxyapatite coatings with a controllable microstructure, which has great potential in bone repair and replacement applications.

  9. Valorization of Bone Waste of Saudi Arabia by Synthesizing Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef

    2018-05-09

    At present, hydroxyapatite is being frequently used for diverse biomedical applications as it possesses excellent biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and non-immunogenic characteristics. The aim of the present work was to recycle bone waste for synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to be used as bone extracellular matrix. For this reason, we for the first time utilized bio-waste of cow bones of Albaha city. The residual bones were utilized for the extraction of natural bone precursor hydroxyapatite. A facile scientific technique has been used to synthesize hydroxyapatite nanoparticles through calcinations of wasted cow bones without further supplementation of chemicals/compounds. The obtained hydroxyapatite powder was ascertained using physicochemical techniques such as XRD, SEM, FTIR, and EDX. These analyses clearly show that hydroxyapatite from native cow bone wastes is biologically and physicochemically comparable to standard hydroxyapatite, commonly used for biomedical functions. The cell viability and proliferation over the prepared hydroxyapatite was confirmed with CCk-8 colorimetric assay. The morphology of the cells growing over the nano-hydroxyapatite shows that natural hydroxyapatite promotes cellular attachment and proliferation. Hence, the as-prepared nano-hydroxyapatite can be considered as cost-effective source of bone precursor hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. Taking into account the projected demand for reliable bone implants, the present research work suggested using environment friendly methods to convert waste of Albaha city into nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Therefore, besides being an initial step towards accomplishment of projected demands of bone implants in Saudi Arabia, our study will also help in reducing the environmental burden by recycling of bone wastes of Albaha city.

  10. Microstructure and thermal characterization of dense bone and metals for biomedical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, G. Peña; Calderón, A.; Hernández, R. A. Muñoz; Orea, A. Cruz; Méndez, M.; Sinencio, F. Sánchez

    2000-10-01

    We present a microstructural study and thermal diffusivity measurements at room temperature in two different sections of bull dense bone, bull bone and commercial hydroxyapatite, the last two in powder form. A comparison was realised between these measured values and those obtained from metallic samples frequently used in implants, as high purity titanium and 316L stainless steel. Our results show that the porosity and its orientation in the bone are two important factors for the heat flux through the bone. On the other hand, we obtained that the hydroxyapatite, in compact powder form, presents a thermal diffusivity value close to those obtained for the samples of bone which gives a good thermal agreement between these materials. Finally, it was obtained at one order of magnitude difference between the thermal diffusivity values of metallic samples and those corresponding values to bone and hydroxyapatite being this difference greater in titanium than in stainless steel.

  11. Hydroxyapatite/collagen bone-like nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Our group has succeeded to synthesize material with bone-like nanostructure and bone-like inorganic and organic composition via self-organization mechanism between them using simultaneous titration method under controlled pH and temperature. The hydroxyapatite/collagen (HAp/Col) bone-like nanocomposite completely incorporated into bone remodeling process to be substituted by new bone. Cells cultured on the HAp/Col revealed very interesting reactions. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells showed upregulation of alkaline phosphatase >3 times greater than MG63 cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). MG63 cells 3-dimensionally cultured in a "HAp/Col sponge," a porous HAp/Col having sponge-like viscoelasticity, accumulated calcium phosphate nodules on extracellular matrices they secreted. Bone marrow cells co-cultured with osteoblasts on HAp/Col differentiated to osteoclasts without differentiation supplements. This phenomenon is not found in cells cultured on hydroxyapatite ceramics and TCPS, and rarely in cells cultured on dentin. These results suggest that HAp/Col is a good candidate for tissue engineering of bone as well as bone filler. In a clinical test as a bone filler, the HAp/Col sponge was significantly better than porous β-tricalcium phosphate. The HAp/Col sponge has been approved by the Japanese government and will be used as greatly needed bone filler in patients. In addition to the above, HAp/Col coating on titanium revealed higher osteo-conductivity than HAp-coated titanium and bare titanium and improved direct bonding between titanium and newly formed bone. The HAp/Col coating may be used for metal devices requiring osseointegration.

  12. Thermal Diffusivity in Bone and Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, A.; Peña Rodríguez, G.; Muñoz Hernández, R. A.; Díaz Gongora, J. A. I.; Mejia Barradas, C. M.

    2004-09-01

    We report thermal diffusivity measurements in bull bone and commercial hydroxyapatite (HA), both in powder form, in order to determinate the thermal compatibility between these materials. Besides this, we report a comparison between these measured values and those of metallic samples frequently used in implants, as high purity titanium and stainless steel. Our results show a good thermal compatibility (74%) between HA and bone, both in powder form. Finally, it was obtained a one order of magnitude difference between the thermal diffusivity values of metallic samples and those corresponding values to bone and HA being this difference greater in titanium than in stainless steel, which is important to consider in some biomedical and dental applications.

  13. Nanoscale hydroxyapatite particles for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongjian; Lee, Jaebeom

    2011-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with soft tissues such as skin, muscle and gums, making it an ideal candidate for orthopedic and dental implants or components of implants. Synthetic HAp has been widely used in repair of hard tissues, and common uses include bone repair, bone augmentation, as well as coating of implants or acting as fillers in bone or teeth. However, the low mechanical strength of normal HAp ceramics generally restricts its use to low load-bearing applications. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have reignited investigation of nanoscale HAp formation in order to clearly define the small-scale properties of HAp. It has been suggested that nano-HAp may be an ideal biomaterial due to its good biocompatibility and bone integration ability. HAp biomedical material development has benefited significantly from advancements in nanotechnology. This feature article looks afresh at nano-HAp particles, highlighting the importance of size, crystal morphology control, and composites with other inorganic particles for biomedical material development. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomas, ME

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available An improved strategy is described for the manufacture of macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications. This is based on a modified fugitive phase technique, which allows production of relatively open, high-strength devices...

  15. Preparation Of Porous And Dense Bodies From Hydroxyapatite Powders Prepared Via Sol-Gel Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopyan, Lis

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics is clinically proven and, thus, a reliable material for medical applications, that is, for use in dental and orthopedical surgery to fill cavities in bones. In this paper, we report a preliminary study on development of HA porous and dense materials manufactured using fine HA powders prepared via a sol-gel technique. In the preparation of HA porous bodies, slurries of the as-prepared powder were prepared with an adjusted loading ofHA, using Duramax of 0-3021 type as dispersant. After soaking cellulosic sponges into the slurry, the sponges were dried and then subjected to heat-treatment at 600 o C, followed by sintering at 1250 o C for I h. The apparent density of the porous bodies is 1.290 g/cm 3 , with a porosity of 59%. The sintering shrinkage is about 20% (in respect of dimension) and 44 % (in respect of volume). Morphological evaluation of the porous bodies showed that the samples contained macropores of 1-2 mm diameter and micropores of 1-2 μm diameter. The measurement of mechanical strength provided 1.31 ± 0.30 MPa. Subsequently, dense samples were prepared from the as-prepared powder. In this case, the powder was mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) and distilled water to make a slurry. The mixture was mixed using Zirconia balls as the crusher for 2h. The suspension was then spray-dried, and well-dispersed powder was obtained. The powder was compressed uniaxially using cold pressing technique at 800 kglcm2 and the pellets obtained were sintered in air at : 250 o C for I h. The sintered dense bodies have apparent density of 2.855 g/cm 3 , with a 10% porosity. The flexural strength of the dense bodies measured on the specimens of riimension 2 mm x 2.5 mm gave rise to the considerable value of 57.7 MPa

  16. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals from cattle bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Sangeeta; Wei, Shanghai; Han, Jie; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this present study, hydroxyapatite which was obtained from cattle bones has been heat treated at temperature 400 °C and 600 °C. The microstructure after the treatment has been studied in detail using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The TEM results indicate that natural bone consists of collagen and hydroxyapatite nano-crystals which are needle shaped. The heat treatment influences the crystallinity and growth of these hydroxyapatite nano-crystals known as ‘crystal maturation’ or ‘crystal ageing’. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite is obtained from cattle bones. • Material has been characterised using XRD and TEM. • Crystal growth and orientation has been studied in detail.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals from cattle bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Sangeeta, E-mail: spt658@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Wei, Shanghai [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Han, Jie [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL (United States); Gao, Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2015-11-15

    In this present study, hydroxyapatite which was obtained from cattle bones has been heat treated at temperature 400 °C and 600 °C. The microstructure after the treatment has been studied in detail using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The TEM results indicate that natural bone consists of collagen and hydroxyapatite nano-crystals which are needle shaped. The heat treatment influences the crystallinity and growth of these hydroxyapatite nano-crystals known as ‘crystal maturation’ or ‘crystal ageing’. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite is obtained from cattle bones. • Material has been characterised using XRD and TEM. • Crystal growth and orientation has been studied in detail.

  18. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Roy, Bibhas; Agarwal, Tarun; Giri, Supratim; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S.; Maiti, Tapas K.; Banerjee, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic–osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co"2"+) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP–OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic–osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Cobalt (Co"+"2) doped hydroxyapatite (Co-HAp) can be prepared by the wet chemical method. • The concentration of Co"+"2 influences the physico-chemical properties of HAp. • Co-HAp was found to be biocompatible and osteogenic. • Co-HAp enhanced cellular VEGF secretion through HIF-1α stabilization. • The optimum biological performance of Co-HAp was achieved for 0.33% (w/w) Co"+"2 doping.

  19. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite from fish bones waste using reflux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanto, A.; Kosasih, E.; Aripin, D.; Hasratiningsih, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the fabrication of hydroxyapatites, which were synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method. The fish bone wastes collected from the restaurant were brushed and boiled at 100°C for 10 minutes to remove debris and fat. After drying, the fish bones were crushed, and ball milled into a fine powder. The fish bone wastes were then processed by refluxing using KOH and H3PO4 solutions. The samples were calcined at 900°C and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The XRD pattern of samples after treatment revealed that the peak of hydroxyapatite was observed and the bands of OH- and PO4 3- were observed by FT-IR. The scanning electron microscope evaluation of sample showed the entangled crystal and porous structure of hydroxyapatite. In conclusion, the hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method.

  20. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies,bone tissues will grow into their porous structure,which will reinforce their strength and stiffness.The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around,as if they were part of the bone.The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior,due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate.In this study,split Hopkinson pressure bar technique(SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite,bones with and bones without organic com-ponents,and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained.The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed,by comparing the difference between the Young’s moduli of the three materials.As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone,it can be regarded as an inclusion composite.The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness.The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is 0.8,which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  1. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN ChaoFeng; HOU ZhenDe; ZHAO Wei

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies, bone tissues will grow into their porous structure, which will reinforce their strength and stiffness. The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around, as if they were part of the bone. The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior, due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate. In this study, split Hopkinson pressure bar technique (SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite, bones with and bones without organic com-ponents, and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained. The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed, by comparing the difference between the Young's moduli of the three materials. As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone, it can be regarded as an inclusion composite. The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness. The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is0.8, which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  2. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Roy, Bibhas; Agarwal, Tarun; Giri, Supratim; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S; Maiti, Tapas K; Banerjee, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic-osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co(2+)) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP-OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic-osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone regeneration based on nano-hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanocomposites: an in vitro and in vivo comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakol, S.; Nikpour, M. R.; Amani, A.; Soltani, M.; Rabiee, S. M.; Rezayat, S. M.; Chen, P.; Jahanshahi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface morphology, surface wettability, and size distribution of biomaterials affect their in vitro and in vivo bone regeneration potential. Since nano-hydroxyapatite has a great chemical and structural similarity to natural bone and dental tissues, incorporated biomaterial of such products could improve bioactivity and bone bonding ability. In this research, nano-hydroxyapatite (23 ± 0.09 nm) and its composites with variety of chitosan content [2, 4, and 6 g (45 ± 0.19, 32 ± 0.12, and 28 ± 0.12 nm, respectively)] were prepared via an in situ hybridization route. Size distribution of the particles, protein adsorption, and calcium deposition of powders by the osteoblast cells, gene expression and percentage of new bone formation area were investigated. The highest degree of bone regeneration potential was observed in nano-hydroxyapatite powder, while the bone regeneration was lowest in nano-hydroxyapatite with 6 g of chitosan. Regarding these data, suitable size distribution next to size distribution of hydroxyapatite in bone, smaller size, higher wettability, lower surface roughness of the nano-hydroxyapatite particles and homogeneity in surface resulted in higher protein adsorption, cell differentiation and percentage of bone formation area. Results obtained from in vivo and in vitro tests confirmed the role of surface morphology, surface wettability, mean size and size distribution of biomaterial besides surface chemistry as a temporary bone substitute.

  4. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Roy, Bibhas [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Agarwal, Tarun [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Giri, Supratim [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S. [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Maiti, Tapas K. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Banerjee, Indranil, E-mail: indraniliit@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic–osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP–OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic–osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Cobalt (Co{sup +2}) doped hydroxyapatite (Co-HAp) can be prepared by the wet chemical method. • The concentration of Co{sup +2} influences the physico-chemical properties of HAp. • Co-HAp was found to be biocompatible and osteogenic. • Co-HAp enhanced cellular VEGF secretion through HIF-1α stabilization. • The optimum biological performance of Co-HAp was achieved for 0.33% (w/w) Co{sup +2} doping.

  5. A three-dimensional finite element study on the effect of hydroxyapatite coating thickness on the stress distribution of the surrounding dental implant-bone interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Asgharzadeh Shirazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Hydroxyapatite coating has allocated a special place in dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between the hydroxyapatite thickness and stress distribution by using finite element method.   Materials and Methods: In this paper, the effect of hydroxyapatite coating thickness on dental implants was studied using finite element method in the range between 0 to 200 microns. A 3D model including one section of mandible bone was modeled by a thick layer of cortical surrounding dense cancellous and a Nobel Biocare commercial brand dental implant was simulated and analyzed under static load in the Abaqus software.   Results The diagram of maximum von Mises stress versus coating thickness was plotted for the cancellous and cortical bones in the range between 0 to 200 microns. The obtained results showed that the magnitude of maximum von Mises stress of bone decreased as the hydroxyapatite coating thickness increased. Also, the thickness of coating exhibited smoother stress distribution and milder variations of maximum von Mises stress in a range between 60 to 120 microns.   Conclusion: In present study, the stress was decreased in the mandible bone where hydroxyapatite coating was used. This stress reduction leads to a faster stabilization and fixation of implant in the mandible bone. Using hydroxyapatite coating as a biocompatible and bioactive material could play an important role in bone formation of implant- bone interface.

  6. Bisphosphonates enhance bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on bone hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Marcin; Junka, Adam; Smutnicka, Danuta; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Gluza, Karolina; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna

    2015-07-01

    Because of the suspicion that bisphosphonates enhance bacterial colonization, this study evaluated adhesion and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans 25175, Staphylococcus aureus 6538, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 14454 reference strains on hydroxyapatite coated with clodronate, pamidronate, or zoledronate. Bacterial strains were cultured on bisphosphonate-coated and noncoated hydroxyapatite discs. After incubation, nonadhered bacteria were removed by centrifugation. Biofilm formation was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Bacterial colonization was estimated using quantitative cultures compared by means with Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Modeling of the interactions between bisphosphonates and hydroxyapatite was performed using the Density Functional Theory method. Bacterial colonization of the hydroxyapatite discs was significantly higher for all tested strains in the presence of bisphosphonates vs. Adherence in the presence of pamidronate was higher than with other bisphosphonates. Density Functional Theory analysis showed that the protonated amine group of pamidronate, which are not present in clodronate or zoledronate, forms two additional hydrogen bonds with hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the reactive cationic amino group of pamidronate may attract bacteria by direct electrostatic interaction. Increased bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation can promote osteomyelitis, cause failure of dental implants or bisphosphonate-coated joint prostheses, and complicate bone surgery in patients on bisphosphonates. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The biodegradation of hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, E; Wolf, E; Kauschke, E; Bienengräber, V; Bayerlein, T; Gedrange, T; Proff, P

    2006-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics are widely used for bone reconstruction. They are osteoconductive and serve as structural scaffolds for the deposition of new bone. Generally, scaffold materials should be degradable as they affect the mechanical properties of the reconstructed bone negatively. Degradation by osteoclasts during the bone remodelling process is desirable but often does not take place. In the current study we analysed by light microscopy the degradation of two granular HA implants in critically sized defects in the mandibula of Goettingen mini-pigs five weeks after implantation. Bio-Oss consists of sintered bovine bone and NanoBone is a synthetic HA produced in a sol-gel process in the presence of SiO2. We found that both biomaterials were degraded by osteoclasts with ruffled borders and acid phosphatase activity. The osteoclasts created resorption lacunae and resorptive trails and contained mineral particles. Frequently, resorption surfaces were in direct contact with bone formative surfaces on one granule. Granules, especially of NanoBone, were also covered by osteoclasts if located in vascularised connective tissue distant from bone tissue. However, this usually occurred without the creation of resorption lacunae. The former defect margins consisted of newly formed bone often without remnants of bone substitutes. Our results show that the degradation of both biomaterials corresponds to the natural bone degradation processes and suggest the possibility of complete resorption during bone remodelling.

  8. Sintered porous hydroxyapatites with intrinsic osteoinductive activity: geometric induction of bone formation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Sintered hydroxyapatites induce bone formation in adult baboons via intrinsic osteoinductivity regulated by the geometry of the substratum. Bone is thereby formed without exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), well-characterized inducers...

  9. Alveolar bone repair with strontium- containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Boziki Xavier do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate bone repair in rat dental sockets after implanting nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate (CHA and nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate containing 5% strontium microspheres (SrCHA as bone substitute materials. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups: CHA and SrCHA (n=5/period/group. After one and 6 weeks of extraction of the right maxillary central incisor and biomaterial implantation, 5 μm bone blocks were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. The parameters evaluated were remaining biomaterial, loose connective tissue and newly formed bone in a standard area. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Withney and and Wilcoxon tests at 95% level of significance. Results: The histomorphometric results showed that the microspheres showed similar fragmentation and bio-absorbation (p>0.05. We observed the formation of new bones in both groups during the same experimental periods; however, the new bone formation differed significantly between the weeks 1 and 6 (p=0.0039 in both groups. Conclusion: The CHA and SrCHA biomaterials were biocompatible, osteoconductive and bioabsorbable, indicating their great potential for clinical use as bone substitutes.

  10. Three-phase bone scintigraphy of hydroxyapatite ocular implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitha, T.; Staudenherz, A.; Scholz, U.

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite ocular implants are replicas of lamellar bone tissue derived from the exoskeleton of a reef-building coral by a hydrothermal chemical exchange reaction. Attached to the eye muscles, they act as a passive framework for fibrovascular ingrowth and can be drilled to hold the visible part of the artificial eye and allow synchronous eye movement. Fibrovascular ingrowth has to be confirmed by bone scintigraphy before the drilling procedure. This study monitored the vascular ingrowth into the implant in ten patients over 12 months to establish a clinically feasible imaging protocol. Tracer accumulation was monitored visually and quantitatively in dynamic and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans after the intravenous administration of 600 MBq of 99m Tc-DPD. The implants showed no tracer accumulation in the arterial or blood pool phase. Accordingly, dynamic scintigraphy can be omitted from the imaging protocol. Delayed tracer accumulation appeared no earlier than 2 and no later than 6 months after surgery. Planar scintigraphy is not recommended as high-resolution SPET is necessary to separate the implant from the surrounding bone. We conclude that imaging can be confined to high-resolution SPET 3 h after tracer injection, no earlier than 3 months after surgery. The vascularized hydroxyapatite orbital implant is an important in vivo model for bone-seeking agents to study their uptake kinetics independently of any soft tissue and bone disease. Our results provide evidence that in normal bones the chemical adsorption of 99m Tc-DPD into the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite is the only quantitatively relevant uptake mechanism. (orig.)

  11. Three-phase bone scintigraphy of hydroxyapatite ocular implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitha, T. [Univ. Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Staudenherz, A. [Univ. Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Scholz, U. [First Univ. Clinic of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite ocular implants are replicas of lamellar bone tissue derived from the exoskeleton of a reef-building coral by a hydrothermal chemical exchange reaction. Attached to the eye muscles, they act as a passive framework for fibrovascular ingrowth and can be drilled to hold the visible part of the artificial eye and allow synchronous eye movement. Fibrovascular ingrowth has to be confirmed by bone scintigraphy before the drilling procedure. This study monitored the vascular ingrowth into the implant in ten patients over 12 months to establish a clinically feasible imaging protocol. Tracer accumulation was monitored visually and quantitatively in dynamic and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans after the intravenous administration of 600 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-DPD. The implants showed no tracer accumulation in the arterial or blood pool phase. Accordingly, dynamic scintigraphy can be omitted from the imaging protocol. Delayed tracer accumulation appeared no earlier than 2 and no later than 6 months after surgery. Planar scintigraphy is not recommended as high-resolution SPET is necessary to separate the implant from the surrounding bone. We conclude that imaging can be confined to high-resolution SPET 3 h after tracer injection, no earlier than 3 months after surgery. The vascularized hydroxyapatite orbital implant is an important in vivo model for bone-seeking agents to study their uptake kinetics independently of any soft tissue and bone disease. Our results provide evidence that in normal bones the chemical adsorption of {sup 99m}Tc-DPD into the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite is the only quantitatively relevant uptake mechanism. (orig.)

  12. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...

  13. COLOSTRUM-COLLAGEN-HYDROXYAPATITE COMPOSITE, AN EXCELLENT CANDIDATE BIOMATERIAL FOR BONE REPAIR AND BONE INFECTION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dio Nurdin Setiawan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the case ofbone fracture or defect after surgery, which is common in patients with bone cancer (osteosarcoma, it takes a long time for closure and it may cause an infection problem. The use ofcollagen-hydroxyapatite composite with a blend ofcolostrum as a scaffold is aimed to accelerate the process of osteoblast growth, inhibite the emergence of infections, and act as bone tissue repair material. The method used was the hydrogel formation process and freeze dry process to remove the solvent and to form pores. The composition of scaffold composite manufactured was 15% collagen, 75% hydroxyapatite and 10% colostrum. Combination ofscaffold collagen-hydroxyapatite-colostrum has quite reliable properties because SEM test showed that scaffold could bind to both and could bind to both and could form sufficient pores to provide enough place for bone cells (osteoblats to grow. The results of MTT assay revealed percentage of above 60%, which indicates that the material is not toxic. In conclusion, collagen-hydroxyapatite-colostrum combination is an excellent biomaterial candidate for bone repair and bone infection management.

  14. Hydroxyapatite/polylactide biphasic combination scaffold loaded with dexamethasone for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jun-Sik; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Appleford, Mark; Oh, Sunho; Ong, Joo L; Lee, Kyu-Bok

    2011-12-15

    This study presents a novel design of a ceramic/polymer biphasic combination scaffold that mimics natural bone structures and is used as a bone graft substitute. To mimic the natural bone structures, the outside cortical-like shells were composed of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) with a hollow interior using a polymeric template-coating technique; the inner trabecular-like core consisted of porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) that was loaded with dexamethasone (DEX) and was directly produced using a particle leaching/gas forming technique to create the inner diameter of the HA scaffold. It was observed that the HA and PLA parts of the fabricated HA/PLA biphasic scaffold contained open and interconnected pore structures, and the boundary between both parts was tightly connected without any gaps. It was found that the structure of the combination scaffold was analogous to that of natural bone based on micro-computed tomography analysis. Additionally, the dense, uniform apatite layer was formed on the surface of the HA/PLA biphasic scaffold through a biomimetic process, and DEX was successfully released from the PLA of the biphasic scaffold over a 1-month period. This release caused human embryonic palatal mesenchyme cells to proliferate, differentiate, produce ECM, and form tissue in vitro. Therefore, it was concluded that this functionally graded scaffold is similar to natural bone and represents a potential bone-substitute material. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R [Berkeley, CA; Song, Jie [Shrewsbury, MA; Lee, Seung-Wuk [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  16. Guided Bone Regeneration in Long-Bone Defects with a Structural Hydroxyapatite Graft and Collagen Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Original Articles Guided Bone Regeneration in Long-Bone Defects with a Structural Hydroxyapatite Graft and Collagen Membrane Teja Guda, PhD,1,2 John...Joint Surg Br 90-B, 1617, 2008. 6. Carlo Reis, E.C., Borges AaPB, Araujo, M.V.F., Mendes, V.C., Guan, L., and Davies, J.E. Periodontal regeneration...Regeneration of periodontal tissues: combinations of barrier membranes and grafting materials–biological foundation and preclinical evi- dence: a

  17. Interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tamai, Noriyuki; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Myoui, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Several porous calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics have been used clinically as bone substitutes, but most of them possessed few interpore connections, resulting in pathological fracture probably due to poor bone formation within the substitute. We recently developed a fully interconnected porous HA ceramic (IP-CHA) by adopting the ‘foam-gel’ technique. The IP-CHA had a three-dimensional structure with spherical pores of uniform size (average 150 μm, porosity 75%), which were interconnected by window-like holes (average diameter 40 μm), and also demonstrated adequate compression strength (10–12 MPa). In animal experiments, the IP-CHA showed superior osteoconduction, with the majority of pores filled with newly formed bone. The interconnected porous structure facilitates bone tissue engineering by allowing the introduction of mesenchymal cells, osteotropic agents such as bone morphogenetic protein or vasculature into the pores. Clinically, we have applied the IP-CHA to treat various bony defects in orthopaedic surgery, and radiographic examinations demonstrated that grafted IP-CHA gained radiopacity more quickly than the synthetic HA in clinical use previously. We review the accumulated data on bone tissue engineering using the novel scaffold and on clinical application in the orthopaedic field. PMID:19106069

  18. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    -the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay...

  19. Bacterial Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate the biological properties of bacterial cellulose-hydroxyapatite (BC-HA nanocomposite membranes for bone regeneration. Nanocomposites were prepared from bacterial cellulose membranes sequentially incubated in solutions of CaCl2 followed by Na2HPO4. BC-HA membranes were evaluated in noncritical bone defects in rat tibiae at 1, 4, and 16 weeks. Thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of the mineral phase was 40%–50% of the total weight. Spectroscopy, electronic microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyses, and X-ray diffraction showed formation of HA crystals on BC nanofibres. Low crystallinity HA crystals presented Ca/P a molar ratio of 1.5 (calcium-deficient HA, similar to physiological bone. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis showed bands assigned to phosphate and carbonate ions. In vivo tests showed no inflammatory reaction after 1 week. After 4 weeks, defects were observed to be completely filled in by new bone tissue. The BC-HA membranes were effective for bone regeneration.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from fish bone waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marliana, Ana, E-mail: na-cwith22@yahoo.co.id; Fitriani, Eka; Ramadhan, Fauzan; Suhandono, Steven; Yuliani, Keti; Windarti, Tri [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Indonesia, 50 275 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Waste fish bones is a problem stemming from activities in the field of fisheries and it has not been used optimally. Fish bones contain calcium as natural source that used to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA). In this research, HA synthesized from waste fish bones as local wisdom in Semarang. The goal are to produce HA with cheaper production costs and to reduce the environmental problems caused by waste bones. The novelty of this study was using of local fish bone as a source of calcium and simple method of synthesis. Synthesis process of HA can be done through a maceration process with firing temperatures of 1000°C or followed by a sol-gel method with firing at 550°C. The results are analyzed using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray). FTIR spectra showed absorption of phosphate and OH group belonging to HA as evidenced by the results of XRD. The average grain size by maceration and synthesized results are not significant different, which is about 69 nm. The ratio of Ca/P of HA by maceration result is 0.89, then increase after continued in the sol-gel process to 1.41. Morphology of HA by maceration results are regular and uniform particle growth, while the morphology of HA after the sol-gel process are irregular and agglomerated.

  1. Hydroxyapatite clay for gap filling and adequate bone ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, M; Terayama, K; Ito, M; Takei, T; Kitagawa, E

    1995-03-01

    In uncemented total hip arthroplasty, a complete filling of the gap between femoral prosthesis and the host bone is difficult and defects would remain, because the anatomy of the reamed intramedullary canal cannot fit the prosthesis. Therefore, it seems practical to fill the gap with a clay containing hydroxyapatite (HA), which has an osteoconductive character. The clay (HA clay) is made by mixing HA granules (size 0.1 mm or more) having a homogeneous pore distribution and a porosity of 35-48 vol%, and a viscous substance such as a saline solution of sodium alginate (SSSA). In the first experiment, the ratio of HA granules and sodium alginate in SSSA is set for the same handling properties of HA clay and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (standard viscosity) before hardening. As a result, the ratio is set for 55 wt% of HA in the clay and 12.5 wt% of sodium alginate in SSSA (i.e., HA:sodium alginate:saline solution = 9.8:1:7). In the second study, the gap between the femoral stem and bone model is completely filled with HA clay. However, the gap is not filled only with HA granules or HA granules mixed with saline solution. In the third animal experiment, using an unloaded model, histology shows that HA clay has an osteoconductive property bridging the gap between the implant and the cortical bone without any adverse reaction. HA clay is considered a useful biomaterial to fill the gap with adequate bone ingrowth.

  2. Comparative study of hydroxyapatite from eggshells and synthetic hydroxyapatite for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Woon; Kim, Seong-Gon; Balázsi, Csaba; Chae, Weon-Sik; Lee, Hee-Ok

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of synthetic hydroxyapatite (sHA) and hydroxyapatite from eggshells (eHA) by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) and to compare the regenerative ability of the bone using sHA and eHA in a rabbit calvarial defect model. FT-IR and XRD were used to compare the physical properties of sHA and eHA. sHA was purchased from Sigma, and eHA was kindly donated from the Hungarian academy of science. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were used for the animal study. After the formation of a bilateral parietal bony defect (diameter 8.0 mm), either sHA or eHA was grafted into the defect. The defect in the control was left unfilled. Bone regeneration was evaluated by histomorphometry at 4 and 8 weeks after the operation. The peak broadening of the XRD experiments were in agreement with scanning electron microscope observation; the sHA had a smaller granule size than the eHA. The eHA had impurities phases of CaO (International Center for Diffraction Data (ICDD) 075-0264) and Ca(OH)(2) (ICDD 072-0156). Total new bone was 17.11 ± 10.24% in the control group, 28.81 ± 12.63% in sHA group, and 25.68 ± 10.89% in eHA group at 4 weeks after the operation. The difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Total new bone at 8 weeks after the operation was 27.50 ± 10.89% in the control group, 38.62 ± 17.42% in sHA group, and 41.99 ± 8.44% in the eHA group. When comparing the sHA group to the control group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). However, the eHA group was significantly different from the control group (P = .038). When comparing the eHA group to the sHA group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Both types of HA showed higher bone formation than the unfilled control. However, eHA had significantly higher bone formation than the unfilled control at 8 weeks after operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon-centered radicals in γ-irradiated bone substituting biomaterials based on hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlo, Jaroslaw; Strzelczak, Grazyna; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Malgorzata; Sterniczuk, Marcin; Pajchel, Lukasz; Michalik, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Gamma irradiated synthetic hydroxyapatite, bone substituting materials NanoBone(®) and HA Biocer were examined using EPR spectroscopy and compared with powdered human compact bone. In every case, radiation-induced carbon centered radicals were recorded, but their molecular structures and concentrations differed. In compact bone and synthetic hydroxyapatite the main signal assigned to the CO(2) (-) anion radical was stable, whereas the signal due to the CO(3) (3-) radical dominated in NanoBone(®) and HA Biocer just after irradiation. However, after a few days of storage of these samples, also a CO(2) (-) signal was recorded. The EPR study of irradiated compact bone and the synthetic graft materials suggest that their microscopic structures are different. In FT-IR spectra of NanoBone(®), HA Biocer and synthetic hydroxyapatite the HPO(4) (2-) and CO(3) (2-) in B-site groups are detected, whereas in compact bone signals due to collagen dominate.

  4. Bone protein extraction without demineralization using principles from hydroxyapatite chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Timothy P; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-03-01

    Historically, extraction of bone proteins has relied on the use of demineralization to better retrieve proteins from the extracellular matrix; however, demineralization can be a slow process that restricts subsequent analysis of the samples. Here, we developed a novel protein extraction method that does not use demineralization but instead uses a methodology from hydroxyapatite chromatography where high concentrations of ammonium phosphate and ammonium bicarbonate are used to extract bone proteins. We report that this method has a higher yield than those with previously published small-scale extant bone extractions, with and without demineralization. Furthermore, after digestion with trypsin and subsequent high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis, we were able to detect several extracellular matrix and vascular proteins in addition to collagen I and osteocalcin. Our new method has the potential to isolate proteins within a short period (4h) and provide information about bone proteins that may be lost during demineralization or with the use of denaturing agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. BoneSource hydroxyapatite cement: a novel biomaterial for craniofacial skeletal tissue engineering and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C D; Costantino, P D; Takagi, S; Chow, L C

    1998-01-01

    BoneSource-hydroxyapatite cement is a new self-setting calcium phosphate cement biomaterial. Its unique and innovative physical chemistry coupled with enhanced biocompatibility make it useful for craniofacial skeletal reconstruction. The general properties and clinical use guidelines are reviewed. The biomaterial and surgical applications offer insight into improved outcomes and potential new uses for hydroxyapatite cement systems.

  6. Bone tissue engineering with a collagen–hydroxyapatite scaffold and culture expanded bone marrow stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Max M.; Wang, Liping; Huang, Jianping; Rowe, David W.; Wei, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells combined with supportive biomaterials represent a promising approach to advance the standard of care for bone grafting procedures. However, this approach faces challenges, including inconsistent bone formation, cell survival in the implant, and appropriate biomaterial degradation. We have developed a collagen–hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold that supports consistent osteogenesis by donor derived osteoprogenitors, and is more easily degraded than a pure ceramic scaffold. Herein, the material properties are characterized as well as cell attachment, viability, and progenitor distribution in vitro. Furthermore, we examined the biological performance in vivo in a critical-size mouse calvarial defect. To aid in the evaluation of the in-house collagen–HA scaffold, the in vivo performance was compared with a commercial collagen–HA scaffold (Healos®, Depuy). The in-house collagen–HA scaffold supported consistent bone formation by predominantly donor-derived osteoblasts, nearly completely filling a 3.5 mm calvarial defect with bone in all samples (n=5) after 3 weeks of implantation. In terms of bone formation and donor cell retention at 3 weeks postimplantation, no statistical difference was found between the in-house and commercial scaffold following quantitative histomorphometry. The collagen–HA scaffold presented here is an open and well-defined platform that supports robust bone formation and should facilitate the further development of collagen–hydroxyapatite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24909953

  7. Adaptive Bone Remodeling of the Femoral Bone After Tumor Resection Arthroplasty With an Uncemented Proximally Hydroxyapatite-Coated Stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel R.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    -fluted 125-mm uncemented press-fit titanium alloy stem with hydroxyapatite coating of the proximal part of the stem. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) were done postoperatively and after 3, 6, and 12 mo in the part of the femur bone containing the Global Modular Replacement System stem using...... of 8%-9% during the first postoperative year was seen along the femoral stem, but in the bone containing the hydroxyapatite-coated part of the stem, the decrease in BMD was 14%, thus indicating that stress shielding of this part of the bone may play a role for the adaptive bone remodeling....

  8. Effect of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Integration in a Rabbit Tibial Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Chul-Hong; Ahn, Hee-Bae; Rho, Mee-Sook; Jeong, Min-Ho; Sun, Sang-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) and then characterize its effect on bone integration in a rabbit tibial defect model. The bone formation with different designs of HA was compared and the bony integration of several graft materials was investigated qualitatively by radiologic and histologic study. Methods Ten rabbits were included in this study; two holes were drilled bilaterally across the near cortex and the four holes in each rabbit were divided into four treatment groups (HAP, hydroxyapatite powder; HAC, hydroxyapatite cylinder; HA/TCP, hydroxyapatite/tri-calcium phosphate cylinder, and titanium cylinder). The volume of bone ingrowth and the change of bone mineral density were statistically calculated by computed tomography five times for each treatment group at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after grafting. Histologic analysis was performed at 8 weeks after grafting. Results The HAP group showed the most pronounced effect on the bone ingrowth surface area, which seen at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after graft (p 0.05). On histological examination, the HAP group revealed well-recovered cortical bone, but the bone was irregularly thickened and haphazardly admixed with powder. The HAC group showed similar histological features to those of the HA/TCP group; the cortical surface of the newly developed bone was smooth and the bone matrix on the surface of the cylinder was regularly arranged. Conclusions We concluded that both the hydroxyapatite powder and cylinder models investigated in our study may be suitable as a bone substitute in the rabbit tibial defect model, but their characteristic properties are quite different. In contrast to hydroxyapatite powder, which showed better results for the bone ingrowth surface, the hydroxyapatite cylinder showed better results for the sustained morphology. PMID:20514266

  9. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration.

  10. New nano-hydroxyapatite in bone defect regeneration: A histological study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasiewicz-Ross, Paweł; Hadzik, Jakub; Seeliger, Julia; Kozak, Karol; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Gerber, Hanna; Dominiak, Marzena; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2017-09-01

    Many types of bone substitute materials are available on the market. Researchers are refining new bone substitutes to make them comparable to autologous grafting materials in treatment of bone defects. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the osseoconductive potential and bone defect regeneration in rat calvaria bone defects treated with new synthetic nano-hydroxyapatite. The study was performed on 30 rats divided into 5 equal groups. New preproduction of experimental nano-hydroxyapatite material by NanoSynHap (Poznań, Poland) was tested and compared with commercially available materials. Five mm critical size defects were created and filled with the following bone grafting materials: 1) Geistlich Bio-Oss ® ; 2) nano-hydroxyapatite+β-TCP; 3) nano-hydroxyapatite; 4) nano-hydroxyapatite+collagen membrane. The last group served as controls without any augmentation. Bone samples from calvaria were harvested for histological and micro-ct evaluation after 8 weeks. New bone formation was observed in all groups. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an amount of regenerated bone between 34.2 and 44.4% in treated bone defects, whereas only 13.0% regenerated bone was found in controls. Interestingly, in group 3, no significant particles of the nano-HA material were found. In contrast, residual bone substitute material could be detected in all other test groups. Micro-CT study confirmed the results of the histological examinations. The new nano-hydroxyapatite provides comparable results to other grafts in the field of bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Ceramic and non-ceramic hydroxyapatite as a bone graft material: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S R; Passi, D; Singh, P; Bhuibhar, A

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of dental, craniofacial and orthopedic defects with bone graft substitutes has shown promising result achieving almost complete bone regeneration depending on product resorption similar to human bone's physicochemical and crystallographic characteristics. Among these, non-ceramic and ceramic hydroxyapatite being the main inorganic salt of bone is the most studied calcium phosphate material in clinical practices ever since 1970s and non-ceramic since 1985. Its "chemical similarity" with the mineralized phase of biologic bone makes it unique. Hydroxyapatite as an excellent carrier of osteoinductive growth factors and osteogenic cell populations is also useful as drug delivery vehicle regardless of its density. Porous ceramic and non-ceramic hydroxyapatite is osteoconductive, biocompatible and very inert. The need for bone graft material keeps on increasing with increased age of the population and the increased conditions of trauma. Recent advances in genetic engineering and doping techniques have made it possible to use non-ceramic hydroxyapatite in larger non-ceramic crystals and cluster forms as a successful bone graft substitute to treat various types of bone defects. In this paper we have mentioned some recently studied properties of hydroxyapatite and its various uses through a brief review of the literatures available to date.

  12. Using Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin Scaffold Seeded with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells as a Bone Graft in Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsoumeh Behruzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, composite scaffolds with some desired characteristics have a numerous applications in hard tissue engineering. In present study, the role of composite hydroxyapatite - gelatin was examined in both alone and coated by Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells (BMSCs conditions in the process of healing bone defects, reduction of time repair and the immune response of body by laboratory studies (in vitro and in vivo on the skull of adult rats as well. Materials and Methods: In present study, nano-hydroxyapatite powder and gelatin were used to provide nano-hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffold, BMSCs were isolated by Flushing method. Fifteen adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-200 g were used. Studing groups included bone defect with hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffold, bone defect with hydroxyapatite-gelatin with BMSCs and bone defects without scaffolding as a controlwhich were examined after a week and a month after surgery. MTT assay was used in order to evaluation of biocompatibility of scaffolds. To confirm the healing progress trend and the presence of inflammatory cells we used hematoxylin-eosin and we used Masson's trichrome staining in order to study of synthesis of collagen fibers. Results: The results of MTT showed that the scaffold has no toxic effects on stromal cells. The first signs of ossification in hydroxyapatite-gelatin with BMSCs cells group, appeared in the first week. However, in the fourth week, ossification was completed and the scaffold remaining was found as embedded islands in the spongy bone tissue. The greatest number of lymphocytes was observed in the experimental group after one week of planting scaffold. Conclusion: it seems that Hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffold coated with BMSCs cells has a potential role in the healing process of bone and it can be suitable as a therapeutic strategy to repair extensive bone lesions.

  13. Nanocomposite bone scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Johannes; Lu, Lichun; Runge, M Brett; Zeng, Heng; Yaszemski, Michael J; Dadsetan, Mahrokh

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering, development of an osteoconductive construct that integrates with host tissue remains a challenge. In this work, the effect of bone-like minerals on maturation of pre-osteoblast cells was investigated using polymer-mineral scaffolds composed of poly(propylene fumarate)-co-poly(caprolactone) (PPF-co-PCL) and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA). The HA of varying concentrations was added to an injectable formulation of PPF-co-PCL and the change in thermal and mechanical properties of the scaffolds was evaluated. No change in onset of degradation temperature was observed due to the addition of HA, however compressive and tensile moduli of copolymer changed significantly when HA amounts were increased in composite formulation. The change in mechanical properties of copolymer was found to correlate well to HA concentration in the constructs. Electron microscopy revealed mineral nucleation and a change in surface morphology and the presence of calcium and phosphate on surfaces was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. To characterize the effect of mineral on attachment and maturation of pre-osteoblasts, W20-17 cells were seeded on HA/copolymer composites. We demonstrated that cells attached more to the surface of HA containing copolymers and their proliferation rate was significantly increased. Thus, these findings suggest that HA/PPF-co-PCL composite scaffolds are capable of inducing maturation of pre-osteoblasts and have the potential for use as scaffold in bone tissue engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Magnetic responsive hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds construction for bone defect reparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao Bo; Hu, Hao; Xie, Li Qin; Lan, Fang; Jiang, Wen; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhong Wei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, interest in magnetic biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased considerably. A type of magnetic scaffold composed of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) for bone repair has been developed by our research group. In this study, to investigate the influence of the MNP content (in the scaffolds) on the cell behaviors and the interactions between the magnetic scaffold and the exterior magnetic field, a series of MNP-HA magnetic scaffolds with different MNP contents (from 0.2% to 2%) were fabricated by immersing HA scaffold into MNP colloid. ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the scaffolds in vitro, with and without an exterior magnetic field, respectively. The cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy; confocal laser scanning microscopy; and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), alkaline phosphatase, and bone gla protein activity tests. The results demonstrated the positive influence of the magnetic scaffolds on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Further, a higher amount of MNPs on the magnetic scaffolds led to more significant stimulation. The magnetic scaffold can respond to the exterior magnetic field and engender some synergistic effect to intensify the stimulating effect of a magnetic field to the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

  15. Magnetic responsive hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds construction for bone defect reparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng XB

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Bo Zeng, Hao Hu, Li Qin Xie, Fang Lan, Wen Jiang, Yao Wu, Zhong Wei GuNational Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaIntroduction: In recent years, interest in magnetic biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased considerably. A type of magnetic scaffold composed of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs and hydroxyapatite (HA for bone repair has been developed by our research group.Aim and methods: In this study, to investigate the influence of the MNP content (in the scaffolds on the cell behaviors and the interactions between the magnetic scaffold and the exterior magnetic field, a series of MNP-HA magnetic scaffolds with different MNP contents (from 0.2% to 2% were fabricated by immersing HA scaffold into MNP colloid. ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the scaffolds in vitro, with and without an exterior magnetic field, respectively. The cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy; confocal laser scanning microscopy; and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, alkaline phosphatase, and bone gla protein activity tests.Results: The results demonstrated the positive influence of the magnetic scaffolds on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Further, a higher amount of MNPs on the magnetic scaffolds led to more significant stimulation.Conclusion: The magnetic scaffold can respond to the exterior magnetic field and engender some synergistic effect to intensify the stimulating effect of a magnetic field to the proliferation and differentiation of cells.Keywords: magnetic therapy, magnetic nanoparticles, bone repair, magnetic responsive

  16. Preparation and characterization of an iron oxide-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for potential bone cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneha, Murugesan; Sundaram, Nachiappan Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, multifunctional magnetic nanostructures have been found to have potential applications in biomedical and tissue engineering. Iron oxide nanoparticles are biocompatible and have distinctive magnetic properties that allow their use in vivo for drug delivery and hyperthermia, and as T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Hydroxyapatite is used frequently due to its well-known biocompatibility, bioactivity, and lack of toxicity, so a combination of iron oxide and hydroxyapatite materials could be useful because hydroxyapatite has better bone-bonding ability. In this study, we prepared nanocomposites of iron oxide and hydroxyapatite and analyzed their physicochemical properties. The results suggest that these composites have superparamagnetic as well as biocompatible properties. This type of material architecture would be well suited for bone cancer therapy and other biomedical applications.

  17. Induced wettability and surface-volume correlation of composition for bovine bone derived hydroxyapatite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidaniuc, Andreea; Miculescu, Florin; Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Andronescu, Corina; Miculescu, Marian; Matei, Ecaterina; Mocanu, Aura Catalina; Pencea, Ion; Csaki, Ioana; Machedon-Pisu, Teodor; Ciocan, Lucian Toma

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite powders characteristics need to be determined both for quality control purposes and for a proper control of microstructural features of bone reconstruction products. This study combines bulk morphological and compositional analysis methods (XRF, SEM-EDS, FT-IR) with surface-related methods (XPS, contact angle measurements) in order to correlate the characteristics of hydroxyapatite powders derived from bovine bone for its use in medical applications. An experimental approach for correlating the surface and volume composition was designed based on the analysis depth of each spectral method involved in the study. Next, the influences of powder particle size and forming method on the contact angle between water drops and ceramic surface were evaluated for identifying suitable strategies of tuning hydroxyapatite's wettability. The results revealed a preferential arrangement of chemical elements at the surface of hydroxyapatite particles which could induce a favourable material behaviour in terms of sinterability and biological performance.

  18. The Kinetics of Ampicillin Release from Hydroxyapatite for Bones Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanilton Ferreira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics are among the most used pharmaceuticals. Their use in veterinary and human medicine is in continuous expansion. There is a growing need for developing bioactive implants. Advantages of implantable drug delivery tools can include high release efficiency, precise dose control, low toxicity, and allow to overcome disadvantages connected with conventional methods. In this respect, hydroxyapatite (HA is an elective material. It enables to produce architectures similar to those of real bones. Here we studied a kinetic model to describe ampicillin release from HA. In the course of adsorption experiment, ampicillin was dissolved, maintained at 30∘C and shaken at 60 strokes/minute. Samples were withdrawn periodically for analysis and then returned to the mixture. Adsorbed amounts were measured by the difference of the concentration of the antibiotics before and after adsorption using UV adsorption at 225 nm. The aim of this work was to evaluate its application as ampicillin delivery carrier.

  19. A new hydroxyapatite-based biocomposite for bone replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, Devis, E-mail: devis.bellucci@unimore.it [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Sola, Antonella [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Gazzarri, Matteo; Chiellini, Federica [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Biomedical and Environmental Applications (BIOlab) and UdR INSTM, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Vecchia Livornese 1291, 56122S. Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy); Cannillo, Valeria [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    Since the 1970s, various types of ceramic, glass and glass–ceramic materials have been proposed and used to replace damaged bone in many clinical applications. Among them, hydroxyapatite (HA) has been successfully employed thanks to its excellent biocompatibility. On the other hand, the bioactivity of HA and its reactivity with bone can be improved through the addition of proper amounts of bioactive glasses, thus obtaining HA-based composites. Unfortunately, high temperature treatments (1200 °C ÷ 1300 °C) are usually required in order to sinter these systems, causing the bioactive glass to crystallize into a glass–ceramic and hence inhibiting the bioactivity of the resulting composite. In the present study novel HA-based composites are realized and discussed. The samples can be sintered at a relatively low temperature (800 °C), thanks to the employment of a new glass (BG{sub C}a) with a reduced tendency to crystallize compared to the widely used 45S5 Bioglass®. The rich glassy phase, which can be preserved during the thermal treatment, has excellent effects in terms of in vitro bioactivity; moreover, compared to composites based on 45S5 Bioglass® having the same HA/glass proportions, the samples based on BG{sub C}a displayed an earlier response in terms of cell proliferation. - Highlights: ► New apatite/bioglass composites are proposed and sintered at low temperature. ► The samples' glassy phase is preserved and the apatite decomposition is avoided. ► The rich glassy phase in the samples results in an excellent bioactivity. ► The samples are able to support cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The samples support faster cell proliferation compared to 45S5Bioglass-composites.

  20. A new hydroxyapatite-based biocomposite for bone replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Gazzarri, Matteo; Chiellini, Federica; Cannillo, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970s, various types of ceramic, glass and glass–ceramic materials have been proposed and used to replace damaged bone in many clinical applications. Among them, hydroxyapatite (HA) has been successfully employed thanks to its excellent biocompatibility. On the other hand, the bioactivity of HA and its reactivity with bone can be improved through the addition of proper amounts of bioactive glasses, thus obtaining HA-based composites. Unfortunately, high temperature treatments (1200 °C ÷ 1300 °C) are usually required in order to sinter these systems, causing the bioactive glass to crystallize into a glass–ceramic and hence inhibiting the bioactivity of the resulting composite. In the present study novel HA-based composites are realized and discussed. The samples can be sintered at a relatively low temperature (800 °C), thanks to the employment of a new glass (BG C a) with a reduced tendency to crystallize compared to the widely used 45S5 Bioglass®. The rich glassy phase, which can be preserved during the thermal treatment, has excellent effects in terms of in vitro bioactivity; moreover, compared to composites based on 45S5 Bioglass® having the same HA/glass proportions, the samples based on BG C a displayed an earlier response in terms of cell proliferation. - Highlights: ► New apatite/bioglass composites are proposed and sintered at low temperature. ► The samples' glassy phase is preserved and the apatite decomposition is avoided. ► The rich glassy phase in the samples results in an excellent bioactivity. ► The samples are able to support cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The samples support faster cell proliferation compared to 45S5Bioglass-composites

  1. Self-assembled high-strength hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide/chitosan composite hydrogel for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Bao, Rui-Ying; Shi, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Wei; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2017-01-02

    Graphene hydrogel has shown greatly potentials in bone tissue engineering recently, but it is relatively weak in the practical use. Here we report a facile method to synthesize high strength composite graphene hydrogel. Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) and chitosan (CS) self-assemble into a 3-dimensional hydrogel with the assistance of crosslinking agent genipin (GNP) for CS and reducing agent sodium ascorbate (NaVC) for GO simultaneously. The dense and oriented microstructure of the resulted composite gel endows it with high mechanical strength, high fixing capacity of HA and high porosity. These properties together with the good biocompatibility make the ternary composite gel a promising material for bone tissue engineering. Such a simultaneous crosslinking and reduction strategy can also be applied to produce a variety of 3D graphene-polymer based nanocomposites for biomaterials, energy storage materials and adsorbent materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of hydroxyapatite bone cement for controlled drug ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this work was to study the preparation and characterization of drug–hydroxyapatite cement. The hydroxyapatite (HA) cement has been synthesized by using tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous with sodium hydrogen phosphate as liquid phase. The effect of added ...

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Nanoscale Hydroxyapatite-Based Bone Reconstructive Materials with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduković, Zorica R; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Ignjatović, Nenad L; Stojanović, Zoran; Mladenović-Antić, Snezana B; Kocić, Branislava D; Najman, Stevo; Petrović, Nenad D; Uskoković, Dragan P

    2016-02-01

    In the field of oral implantology the loss of bone tissue prevents adequate patient care, and calls for the use of synthetic biomaterials with properties that resemble natural bone. Special attention is paid to the risk of infection after the implantation of these materials. Studies have suggested that some nanocontructs containing metal ions have antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, compared to hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/poly-lactide-co-glycolide. The antibacterial effects of these powders were tested against two pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coi (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), using the disc diffusion method and the quantitative antimicrobial test in a liquid medium. The quantitative antimicrobial test showed that all of the tested biomaterials have some antibacterial properties. The effects of both tests were more prominent in case of S. aureus than in E coli. A higher percentage of cobalt in the crystal structure of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles led to an increased antimicrobial activity. All of the presented biomaterial samples were found to be non-hemolytic. Having in mind that the tested of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite (Ca/Co-HAp) material in given concentrations shows good hemocompatibility and antimicrobial effects, along with its previously studied biological properties, the conclusion can be reached that it is a potential candidate that could substitute calcium hydroxyapatite as the material of choice for use in bone tissue engineering and clinical practices in orthopedic, oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a nanostructured matrix hydroxyapatite ceramic bone reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, P.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Silva, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The nanostructured ceramics have been shown promise as biomaterials for bone reconstruction. Among calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite Ca/P ratio = 1.67 mol stands out because of its crystallographic similarity with the mineral bone phase and biocompatibility. This work was based on synthesis and characterization of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite for use in reconstituting bone tissue. The synthesis method for obtaining the bioceramic powder occurred at process of dissolution/precipitation, involving CaO solid/liquid and phosphoric acid required for forming the composition of Ca/P = 1.67 mole. The material recovered from the synthesis was calcined at 900 ° C/2h, providing the hydroxyapatite powder nanometer. This was subjected to mechanical fragmentation process in mill attritor, providing a hydroxyapatite with modified surface morphology. The results presented relate to morphological characterization studies (SEM), mineralogical (XRD), chemical (FTIR) and particle size distribution, using the laser particle size analysis method. Such results showed the formation of hydroxyapatite phase and morphology satisfactory for use in reconstituting bone tissue

  5. Natural History of Bone Response to Hydroxyapatite-Coated Hip Prostheses Implanted in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Frayssinet, P.; Hardy, D.; Hanker, J. S.; Giammara, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    A series of 15 autopsied femurs containing hydroxyapatite- coated (HA-coated) prostheses was analysed histologically. Their implantation time ranged from 5 days up to 3 years. The coating thickness of some prostheses and the percentage of the coating in contact with bone at different levels were evaluated using an image analysis device. After the newly formed bone tissue had became mature, several bone morphotypes were identified at the coating contact. From the proximal to the distal part of...

  6. Amino acid-assisted synthesis of strontium hydroxyapatite bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strontium-incorporated calcium phosphates show potential in biomedical application, particularly the doped stron- tium may ... shows that the addition of glycine plays an important role in reducing the particle size of strontium hydroxyapatite.

  7. Study of the toughening mechanisms in bone and biomimetic hydroxyapatite materials using Raman microprobe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Sakakura, Seiji

    2003-05-01

    A Raman microprobe spectroscopy characterization of microscopic fracture mechanisms is presented for a natural hydroxyapatite material (cortical bovine femur) and two synthetic hydroxyapatite-based materials with biomimetic structures-a hydroxyapatite skeleton interpenetrated with a metallic (silver) or a polymeric (nylon-6) phase. In both the natural and synthetic materials, a conspicuous amount of toughening arose from a microscopic crack-bridging mechanism operated by elasto-plastic stretching of unbroken second-phase ligaments along the crack wake. This mechanism led to a rising R-curve behavior. An additional micromechanism, responsible for stress relaxation at the crack tip, was recognized in the natural bone material and was partly mimicked in the hydroxyapatite/silver composite. This crack-tip mechanism conspicuously enhanced the cortical bone material resistance to fracture initiation. A piezo-spectroscopic technique, based on a microprobe measurement of 980 cm(-1) Raman line of hydroxyapatite, enabled us to quantitatively assess in situ the microscopic stress fields developed during fracture both at the crack tip and along the crack wake. Using the Raman piezo-spectroscopy technique, toughening mechanisms were assessed quantitatively and rationally related to the macroscopic fracture characteristics of hydroxyapatite-based materials. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Accurate Fabrication of Hydroxyapatite Bone Models with Porous Scaffold Structures by Using Stereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Chiaki; Tasaki, Satoko; Kirihara, Soshu

    2011-01-01

    Computer graphic models of bioscaffolds with four-coordinate lattice structures of solid rods in artificial bones were designed by using a computer aided design. The scaffold models composed of acryl resin with hydroxyapatite particles at 45vol. % were fabricated by using stereolithography of a computer aided manufacturing. After dewaxing and sintering heat treatment processes, the ceramics scaffold models with four-coordinate lattices and fine hydroxyapatite microstructures were obtained successfully. By using a computer aided analysis, it was found that bio-fluids could flow extensively inside the sintered scaffolds. This result shows that the lattice structures will realize appropriate bio-fluid circulations and promote regenerations of new bones.

  9. Accurate Fabrication of Hydroxyapatite Bone Models with Porous Scaffold Structures by Using Stereolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Chiaki; Tasaki, Satoko; Kirihara, Soshu, E-mail: c-maeda@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki City, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Computer graphic models of bioscaffolds with four-coordinate lattice structures of solid rods in artificial bones were designed by using a computer aided design. The scaffold models composed of acryl resin with hydroxyapatite particles at 45vol. % were fabricated by using stereolithography of a computer aided manufacturing. After dewaxing and sintering heat treatment processes, the ceramics scaffold models with four-coordinate lattices and fine hydroxyapatite microstructures were obtained successfully. By using a computer aided analysis, it was found that bio-fluids could flow extensively inside the sintered scaffolds. This result shows that the lattice structures will realize appropriate bio-fluid circulations and promote regenerations of new bones.

  10. The effects of hydroxyapatite coating and bone allograft on fixation of loaded experimental primary and revision implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søballe, Kjeld; Mouzin, Olivier R G; Kidder, Louis A; Overgaard, Søren; Bechtold, Joan E

    2003-06-01

    We used our established experimental model of revision joint replacement to examine the roles of hydroxyapatite coating and bone graft in improving the fixation of revision implants. The revision protocol uses the Søballe micromotion device in a preliminary 8-week period of implant instability for the presence of particulate polyethylene. During this procedure, a sclerotic endosteal bone rim forms, and a dense fibrous membrane is engendered, having macrophages with ingested polyethylene and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. At the time of revision after 8 weeks, the cavity is revised with either a titanium alloy (Ti) or a hydroxyapatite (HA) 6.0 mm plasma-sprayed implant, in the presence or absence of allograft packed into the initial 0.75 mm peri-implant gap. The contralateral limb is subjected to primary surgery with the same implant configuration, and serves as control. 8 implants were included in each of the 8 treatment groups (total 64 implants in 32 dogs). The observation period was 4 weeks after revision. Outcome measures are based on histomorphometry and mechanical pushout properties. The revision setting was always inferior to its primary counterpart. Bone graft improved the revision fixation in all treatment groups, as also did the HA coating. The sole exception was revision-grafted HA implants, which reached the same fixation as primary Ti and HA grafted implants. The revision, which was less active in general, seems to need the dual stimulation of bone graft and HA implant surface, to obtain the same level of fixation associated with primary implants. Our findings suggest that the combination of HA implant and bone graft may be of benefit in the clinical revision implant setting.

  11. Design of polymer-biopolymer-hydroxyapatite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering: Through molecular control of interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra

    In this dissertation, novel biomaterials are designed for bone biomaterials and bone tissue engineering applications. Novel biomaterials of hydroxyapatite with synthetic and natural polymers have been fabricated using a combination of processing routes. Initially, we investigated hydroxyapatite-polycaprolactone-polyacrylic acid composites and observed that minimal interfacial interactions between polymer and mineral led to inadequate improvement in the mechanical properties. Bioactivity experiments on these composites showed that the presence of functional groups, such as carboxylate groups, influence bioactivity of the composites. We have developed and investigated composites of hydroxyapatite with chitosan and polygalacturonic acid (PgA). Chitosan and PgA are biocompatible, biodegradable, and also electrostatically complementary to each other. This strategy led to significant improvement in mechanical properties of new composites. The nanostructure analysis using atomic force microscopy revealed a multilevel organization in these composites. Enhancement in mechanical response was attributed to stronger interfaces due to strong electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged chitosan and PgA. Further analysis using the Rietveld method showed that biopolymers have marked impact on hydroxyapatite crystal growth and also on its crystal structure. Significant changes were observed in the lattice parameters of hydroxyapatite synthesized by following biomineralization method (organics mediated mineralization). For scaffold preparation, chitosan and PgA were mixed first, and then, nano-hydroxyapatite was added. Oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, such as chitosan and PgA, spontaneously form complex upon mixing. The poly-electrolyte complex exists as nano-sized particles. Chitosan/PgA scaffolds with and without hydroxyapatite were prepared by the freeze drying method. By controlling the rate of cooling and concentration, we have produced both fibrous and sheet

  12. Development and characterization of a novel porous small intestine submucosa-hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilla Bolaños, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: ma.castilla964@uniandes.edu.co; Buttigieg, Josef; Briceño Triana, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-01

    The fabricated small intestine submucosa (SIS) – hydroxyapatite (HAp) sponges can act as biomimetic scaffolds to be utilized in tissue engineering and regeneration. Here we developed SIS-HAp sponges and investigated their mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, uniaxial compression, porosity, and swelling testing techniques. The results demonstrated mechanical properties superior to comparable bone substitutes fabricated with similar methods. SIS-HAp scaffolds possess an interconnected macroporosity, similar to that of trabecular bone, hence presenting a novel biomaterial that may serve as a superior bone substitute and tissue scaffold. - Highlights: • Small intestine submucosa (SIS) – hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds were developed. • SIS-HAp scaffolds possess a trabecular bone-like structure. • FTIR indicated a molecular interaction between the organic groups of SIS and HAp. • SIS-HAp sponges presented a superior Young modulus to comparable bone substitutes.

  13. Development and characterization of a novel porous small intestine submucosa-hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilla Bolaños, Maria Alejandra; Buttigieg, Josef; Briceño Triana, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The fabricated small intestine submucosa (SIS) – hydroxyapatite (HAp) sponges can act as biomimetic scaffolds to be utilized in tissue engineering and regeneration. Here we developed SIS-HAp sponges and investigated their mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, uniaxial compression, porosity, and swelling testing techniques. The results demonstrated mechanical properties superior to comparable bone substitutes fabricated with similar methods. SIS-HAp scaffolds possess an interconnected macroporosity, similar to that of trabecular bone, hence presenting a novel biomaterial that may serve as a superior bone substitute and tissue scaffold. - Highlights: • Small intestine submucosa (SIS) – hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds were developed. • SIS-HAp scaffolds possess a trabecular bone-like structure. • FTIR indicated a molecular interaction between the organic groups of SIS and HAp. • SIS-HAp sponges presented a superior Young modulus to comparable bone substitutes.

  14. Bone Regeneration of Hydroxyapatite with Granular Form or Porous Scaffold in Canine Alveolar Sockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANG, SEOK JIN; KIM, SE EUN; HAN, TAE SUNG; SON, JUN SIK; KANG, SEONG SOO; CHOI, SEOK HWA

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess bone regeneration using hydroxyapatite (HA). The primary focus was comparison of bone regeneration between granular HA (gHA) forms and porous HA (pHA) scaffold. The extracted canine alveolar sockets were divided with three groups: control, gHA and pHA. Osteogenic effect in the gHA and pHA groups showed bone-specific surface and bone mineral density to be significantly higher than that of the control group (psocket healing. For new bone formation during 8 weeks' post-implantation, HA with porous scaffold was superior to the granular form of HA. PMID:28438860

  15. Hydroxyapatite nanorod and microsphere functionalized with bioactive lactoferrin as a new biomaterial for enhancement bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pujie; Wang, Qun; Yu, Cuiping; Fan, Fengjiao; Liu, Meng; Tu, Maolin; Lu, Weihong; Du, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) has been recently recognized as a promising new novel bone growth factor for the beneficial effects on bone cells and promotion of bone growth. Currently, it has been attracted wide attention in bone regeneration as functional food additives or a potential bioactive protein in bone tissue engineering. The present study investigated the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles, a widely used bone substitute material for high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, functionalized with lactoferrin as a composite material are applied to bone tissue engineering. Two kinds of hydroxyapatite samples with different sizes, including nanorods and microspheres particles, were functionalized with lactoferrin molecules, respectively. A detailed characterization of as-prepared HAP-LF complex is presented, combining thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Zeta potential and the analysis of electrostatic surface potential of lactoferrin were carried to reveal the mechanism of adsorption. The effects of HAP-LF complex on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast proliferation and morphology were systematically evaluated at different culture time. Interestingly, results showed that cell viability of HAP-LF group was significantly higher than HAP group indicating that the HAP-LF can improve the biocompatibility of HAP, which mainly originated from a combination of HAP-LF interaction. These results indicated that hydroxyapatite particles can work as a controlled releasing carrier of lactoferrin successfully, and lactoferrin showed better potentiality on using in the field of bone regeneration by coupling with hydroxyapatite. This study would provide a new biomaterial and might offer a new insight for enhancement of bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Graft Resorption in an Experimental Model of Maxillary Alveolar Arch Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Pilanci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most commonly used treatments use autologous bone grafts to address bony defects in patients with cleft palate. Major disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts include donor site morbidity and resorption. Suggestions to overcome such problems include biomaterials that can be used alone or in combination with bone. We examined the effect of hydroxyapatite cement on bone graft resorption in a rabbit maxillary alveolar defect model. We divided 16 young adult albino New Zealand rabbits into two groups. A defect 1 cm wide was created in each rabbit's maxillary arch. In Group 1, the removed bone was disrupted, and the pieces were replaced in the defect. In the other group, the pieces were replaced after mixing (1:1 with hydroxyapatite cement. Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of these grafts was performed in axial and coronal planes for each rabbit at 2 and 12 weeks. In axial images at 12 weeks, the group without cement showed mean bone resorption of 15%. In the cement group, a mean volumetric increase of 68% was seen. No resorption occurred when bone grafts were mixed with hydroxyapatite cement. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 170-175

  17. 3D silicon doped hydroxyapatite scaffolds decorated with Elastin-like Recombinamers for bone regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Mercedes; García, Ana; Girotti, Alessandra; Alonso, Matilde; Rodríguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; González-Vázquez, Arlyng; Planell, Josep A; Engel, Elisabeth; Buján, Julia; García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Vallet-Regí, María

    2016-11-01

    The current study reports on the manufacturing by rapid prototyping technique of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds based on silicon substituted hydroxyapatite with Elastin-like Recombinamers (ELRs) functionalized surfaces. Silicon doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA), with Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 5.7 (SiO 4 ) 0.3 (OH) 1.7 h 0.3 nominal formula, was surface functionalized with two different types of polymers designed by genetic engineering: ELR-RGD that contain cell attachment specific sequences and ELR-SN A 15/RGD with both hydroxyapatite and cells domains that interact with the inorganic phase and with the cells, respectively. These hybrid materials were subjected to in vitro assays in order to clarify if the ELRs coating improved the well-known biocompatible and bone regeneration properties of calcium phosphates materials. The in vitro tests showed that there was a total and homogeneous colonization of the 3D scaffolds by Bone marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (BMSCs). In addition, the BMSCs were viable and able to proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts. Bone tissue engineering is an area of increasing interest because its main applications are directly related to the rising life expectancy of the population, which promotes higher rates of several bone pathologies, so innovative strategies are needed for bone tissue regeneration therapies. Here we use the rapid prototyping technology to allow moulding ceramic 3D scaffolds and we use different bio-polymers for the functionalization of their surfaces in order to enhance the biological response. Combining the ceramic material (silicon doped hydroxyapatite, Si-HA) and the Elastin like Recombinamers (ELRs) polymers with the presence of the integrin-mediate adhesion domain alone or in combination with SNA15 peptide that possess high affinity for hydroxyapatite, provided an improved Bone marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (BMSCs) differentiation into osteoblastic linkage. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier

  18. Bone-Like Hydroxyapatite Formation in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Anatoly T.; Larionov, Peter M.; Ivanova, Alexandra S.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Chernyavskiy, Mikhail A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the mechanism of mineralization, when hydroxyapatite (HAP) is formed in blood plasma. These observations were substantiated by in vitro simulation of HAP crystallization in the plasma of healthy adults in a controllable quasi-physiological environment (T = 37°C, pH = 7.4) and at concentrations of dissolved Ca…

  19. Development of hydroxyapatite bone cement for controlled drug ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing with water, cement forms hydroxyapatite as the only final product (Takagi ... nistered to defect regions to induce therapeutic effects. (Lebugle et al 2002 .... the pore of the product, and the more the large pores. But ... of curve is nearly linear with a weak slope. ... energy is decreased, and thus the thermodynamic stability of.

  20. The effect of Hydroxyapatite/collagen I composites, bone marrow aspirate and bone graft on fixation of bone implants in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan

      The effect of Hydroxyapatite/collagen I composites, bone marrow aspirate and bone graft on fixation of bone implants IN SHEEP   Ph.D. Student, Hassan Babiker; Associate Professor, Ph.D. Ming Ding; Professor, dr.med., Soren Overgaard. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital......, Odense, Denmark   Background: Hydroxyapatite and collagen composites (HA/coll) have the potential in mimicking and replacing skeletal bones. This study attempted to determine the effect of newly developed HA/coll-composites with and without bone marrow aspirate (BMA) in order to enhance the fixation...... of bone implants.   Materials and Methods: Titanium alloy implants were inserted into bilateral femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep, four in each sheep. The implant has a circumferential gap of 2 mm. The gap was filled with: HA/coll; HA/coll-BMA; autograft or allograft. Allograft was served...

  1. Synthesis of dense nano cobalt-hydroxyapatite by modified electroless deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Zaheruddin, K., E-mail: zaheruddin@unimap.edu.my; Rahmat, A., E-mail: azmirahmat@unimap.edu.my; Shamsul, J. B., E-mail: sbaharin@unimap.edu.my; Mohd Nazree, B. D., E-mail: nazree@unimap.edu.my; Aimi Noorliyana, H., E-mail: aimiliyana@unimap.edu.my [School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Taman Muhibbah, Jejawi 02600 Arau Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Cobalt-hydroxyapatite (Co-HA) composites was successfully prepared by simple electroless deposition process of Co on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles. Co deposition was carried out in an alkaline bath with sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent. The electroless process was carried out without sensitization and activation steps. The deposition of Co onto HA was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The Co-HA composite powder was compacted and sintered at 1250°C. The Co particles were homogeneously dispersed in the HA matrix after sintering and the mechanical properties of composites was enhanced to 100 % with 3 % wt Co and gradually decreased at higher Co content.

  2. Subtractive manufacturing of customized hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone regeneration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trunec, M.; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 14 (2017), s. 11265-11273 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : tissue engineering applications * in-vivo * porous hydroxyapatite * phosphate bioceramics * suspensions * ceramics * laser * optimization * osteogenesis * deposition * Milling (A) * Porosity (B) * Apatite (D) * Biopmedical properties (E) * Scaffold Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016

  3. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P2O5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  4. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO 2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P 2 O 5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  5. Calcium silicate ceramic scaffolds toughened with hydroxyapatite whiskers for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Pei; Wei, Pingpin; Li, Pengjian; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Calcium silicate possessed excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and degradability, while the high brittleness limited its application in load-bearing sites. Hydroxyapatite whiskers ranging from 0 to 30 wt.% were incorporated into the calcium silicate matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance. Porous scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effects of hydroxyapatite whiskers on the mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the scaffolds had a uniform and continuous inner network with the pore size ranging between 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm. The mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing hydroxyapatite whiskers, reached a maximum at 20 wt.% (compressive strength: 27.28 MPa, compressive Young's modulus: 156.2 MPa, flexural strength: 15.64 MPa and fracture toughness: 1.43 MPa·m 1/2 ) and then decreased by addition of more hydroxyapatite whiskers. The improvement of mechanical properties was due to whisker pull-out, crack deflection and crack bridging. Moreover, the degradation rate decreased with the increase of hydroxyapatite whisker content. A layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the scaffold surfaces after being soaked in simulated body fluid. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells spread well on the scaffolds and proliferated with increasing culture time. These findings suggested that the calcium silicate scaffolds reinforced with hydroxyapatite whiskers showed great potential for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • HA whiskers were incorporated into CS to improve the properties. • The scaffolds were successfully fabricated by SLS. • Toughening mechanisms was whisker pull-out, crack deflection and bridging. • The scaffolds showed excellent apatite forming ability

  6. Calcium silicate ceramic scaffolds toughened with hydroxyapatite whiskers for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Pei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China, (China); Wei, Pingpin [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Pengjian; Gao, Chengde [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China, (China); Shuai, Cijun, E-mail: shuai@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China, (China); Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Peng, Shuping, E-mail: shuping@csu.edu.cn [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Calcium silicate possessed excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and degradability, while the high brittleness limited its application in load-bearing sites. Hydroxyapatite whiskers ranging from 0 to 30 wt.% were incorporated into the calcium silicate matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance. Porous scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effects of hydroxyapatite whiskers on the mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the scaffolds had a uniform and continuous inner network with the pore size ranging between 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm. The mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing hydroxyapatite whiskers, reached a maximum at 20 wt.% (compressive strength: 27.28 MPa, compressive Young's modulus: 156.2 MPa, flexural strength: 15.64 MPa and fracture toughness: 1.43 MPa·m{sup 1/2}) and then decreased by addition of more hydroxyapatite whiskers. The improvement of mechanical properties was due to whisker pull-out, crack deflection and crack bridging. Moreover, the degradation rate decreased with the increase of hydroxyapatite whisker content. A layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the scaffold surfaces after being soaked in simulated body fluid. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells spread well on the scaffolds and proliferated with increasing culture time. These findings suggested that the calcium silicate scaffolds reinforced with hydroxyapatite whiskers showed great potential for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • HA whiskers were incorporated into CS to improve the properties. • The scaffolds were successfully fabricated by SLS. • Toughening mechanisms was whisker pull-out, crack deflection and bridging. • The scaffolds showed excellent apatite forming ability.

  7. Hydroxyapatite-coated magnesium implants with improved in vitro and in vivo biocorrosion, biocompatibility, and bone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Mi; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Sung-Mi; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Estrin, Yuri; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jung-Woo; Koh, Young-Hag

    2014-02-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are candidate materials for biodegradable implants; however, excessively rapid corrosion behavior restricts their practical uses in biological systems. For such applications, surface modification is essential, and the use of anticorrosion coatings is considered as a promising avenue. In this study, we coated Mg with hydroxyapatite (HA) in an aqueous solution containing calcium and phosphate sources to improve its in vitro and in vivo biocorrosion resistance, biocompatibility and bone response. A layer of needle-shaped HA crystals was created uniformly on the Mg substrate even when the Mg sample had a complex shape of a screw. In addition, a dense HA-stratum between this layer and the Mg substrate was formed. This HA-coating layer remarkably reduced the corrosion rate of the Mg tested in a simulated body fluid. Moreover, the biological response, including cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, of the HA-coated samples was enhanced considerably compared to samples without a coating layer. The preliminary in vivo experiments also showed that the biocorrosion of the Mg implant was significantly retarded by HA coating, which resulted in good mechanical stability. In addition, in the case of the HA-coated implants, biodegradation was mitigated, particularly over the first 6 weeks of implantation. This considerably promoted bone growth at the interface between the implant and bone. These results confirmed that HA-coated Mg is a promising material for biomedical implant applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Thermal and electron stimulated luminescence of natural bones, commercial hydroxyapatite and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Lopez, J; Correcher, V; Garcia-Guinea, J; Rivera, T; Lozano, I B

    2014-01-01

    The luminescence (cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence) properties of natural bones (Siberian mammoth and adult elephant), commercial hydroxyapatite and collagen were analyzed. Chemical analyses of the natural bones were determined using by Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EMPA). Structural, molecular and thermal characteristics were determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Differential Thermal and Thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG). Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of natural bones and collagen showed similar intense broad bands at 440 and 490 nm related to luminescence of the tetrahedral anion [Formula: see text] or structural defects. A weaker luminescence exhibited at 310 nm could be attributed to small amount of rare earth elements (REEs). Four luminescent bands at 378, 424, 468 and 576 nm were observed in the commercial hydroxyapatite (HAP). Both natural bones and collagen samples exhibited natural thermoluminescence (NTL) with well-defined glow curves whereas that the induced thermoluminescence (ITL) only appears in the samples of commercial hydroxyapatite and collagen. Additional explanations for the TL anomalous fading of apatite, as a crucial difficulty performing dosimetry and dating, are also considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coralline hydroxyapatite: a bone graft alternative in foot and ankle surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, F; Maurer, B T; Enzweiler, M G

    1997-01-01

    The use of coralline hydroxyapatite has become a viable bone grafting alternative. Its efficacy has been well established through multiple human and animal studies. Coralline hydroxyapatite enhances osteogenesis by providing a biocompatible lattice for the passage and assembly of vascular, fibroblastic, and osteoblastic tissues. It also provides support for surrounding osseous structures. The uses of this material are expanding into the realm of foot and ankle surgery. Its consideration as an appropriate bone graft substitute as well as multiple case studies demonstrating its surgical applicability are discussed. The implants utilized at Thorek Hospital and Medical Center over the past eight years, with an average follow-up of three and one-half years, have proven to be a valuable resource for augmentation where an osseous defect has occurred.

  10. Bone integration capability of nanopolymorphic crystalline hydroxyapatite coated on titanium implants

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Yamada,Masahiro; Ueno,; Tsukimura,Naoki; Ikeda,; Nakagawa,; Hori,; Suzuki,

    2012-01-01

    Masahiro Yamada*, Takeshi Ueno*, Naoki Tsukimura, Takayuki Ikeda, Kaori Nakagawa, Norio Hori, Takeo Suzuki, Takahiro OgawaLaboratory of Bone and Implant Sciences, The Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The mechanism by which hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium promotes bone–implant integratio...

  11. Coralline hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes in a canine metaphyseal defect model: Radiographic-biomechanical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Holmes, R.E.; Tencer, A.F.; Texas Univ., Dallas; Mooney, V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic and biomechanical assessment of a new type of bone graft substitute derived from reef-building sea coral was performed in a canine metaphyseal defect model. Blocks of this material and autogenous iliac crest graft were implanted, respectively, into the right and left proximal tibial metaphyses of eight dogs. Qualitative and quantitative radiographic evaluation was performed in the immediate postoperative period and at 6 months after surgery. Biomechanical testing was carried out on all grafts following harvest at 6 months, as well as on nonimplanted coralline hydroxyapatite and autogenous iliac cancellous bone. In contrast to autografts, incorporation of coralline implants was characterized by predictable osseous growth and apposition with preservation of intrinsic architecture. Greater percent increase in radiography density, higher ultimate compressive strength, and lower stiffness with incorporation were documented advantages of coralline hydroxyapatite over autogenous graft. Densitometric measurements correlated moderately with strength for both types of graft material (r=0.65). These promising results have important implications to the clinical application of coralline hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes as an alternative to autogenous grafting. (orig.)

  12. A Bone Graft Substitutes Hydroxyapatite Coated Gentamycin (Bonigent) As Drug Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnah Mustaffa; Fauziah Othman; Asmah Rahmat; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Shaaban Kasim; Narimah Abu Baka; Nasani Nasrul

    2014-01-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite coated with antibiotic gentamycin for drug delivery system is namely Bonigent. In this product, antibiotic (gentamycin) is coated into the scaffolds HA porous and Would then be released slowly into the bone tissue upon implantation, this way would increase drug penetration, thus avoiding systemic infection, preventing the formation of biofilm and improved healing. When a foreign material (implants or scaffolds of bone graft substitutes) is introduced into the body, there would be normally formation of biofilm that can lead to systemic infection and cause device failure. Surgeon will use antibiotic such as gentamycin to avoid these effects. The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of fabricating a drug delivery system (DDS) that serves dual functions, to combating biofilms and to enhance bone in growths. We also successfully producing a scaffold HA bone graft substitutes incorporated with antibiotic gentamycin to combating bio-film and prevent the failure medical device implant for healthy and human nation. Bone graft substitutes into porous scaffolds suitable for drug delivery; loading the scaffolds with gentamycin; and study release rate in vivo were studied. Porous bone grafts substitutes are coated with antibiotic gentamycin by immerse technique. In order to limit biofilm formation, biomaterials loaded with suitable antibiotics can be used as a preventative measure. The biomaterials hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive space filler and is produced locally by Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Porous HA and HA/ TCP has the potential to be used as synthetic bone graft materials because it is bioactive and biocompatible with bone tissues. Development of a product as bone graft substitute (BGS) with special ability of delivering drug (gentamycin) to bone tissue for better and more effective healing process. Characterization of the physical analysis, porosity, surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis (SEM) and

  13. New concept of 3D printed bone clip (polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite/silk composite) for internal fixation of bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Yeung Kyu; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Ji Seung; Lee, Young Jin; Sultan, Md Tipu; Seo, Ye Bin; Lee, Ok Joo; Kim, Soon Hee; Park, Chan Hum

    Open reduction with internal fixation is commonly used for the treatment of bone fractures. However, postoperative infection associated with internal fixation devices (intramedullary nails, plates, and screws) remains a significant complication, and it is technically difficult to fix multiple fragmented bony fractures using internal fixation devices. In addition, drilling in the bone to install devices can lead to secondary fracture, bone necrosis associated with postoperative infection. In this study, we developed bone clip type internal fixation device using three- dimensional (3D) printing technology. Standard 3D model of the bone clip was generated based on computed tomography (CT) scan of the femur in the rat. Polylacticacid (PLA), hydroxyapatite (HA), and silk were used for bone clip material. The purpose of this study was to characterize 3D printed PLA, PLA/HA, and PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip and evaluate the feasibility of these bone clips as an internal fixation device. Based on the results, PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip showed similar mechanical property, and superior biocompatibility compared to other types of the bone clip. PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip demonstrated excellent alignment of the bony segments across the femur fracture site with well-positioned bone clip in an animal study. Our 3D printed bone clips have several advantages: (1) relatively noninvasive (drilling in the bone is not necessary), (2) patient-specific design (3) mechanically stable device, and (4) it provides high biocompatibility. Therefore, we suggest that our 3D printed PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip is a possible internal fixation device.

  14. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dejan; Jokanović, Vukoman; Petrović, Bojan; Perić, Tamara; Vukomanović, Biserka

    2014-05-01

    Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material's particles took place after 25 weeks. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects.

  15. Investigation of the histology and interfacial bonding between carbonated hydroxyapatite cement and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Keya; Hao Libo; Tang Peifu; Wang Zheng; Wen Ning; Du Mingkui; Wang Jifang; Wang Yan; Yang Yun; Li Jiangtao

    2009-01-01

    An ideal bone implant should facilitate the formation of a new bone layer as an osteo-integrated interface between bone and the implanted biomaterials. In the present work, the interface between carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) cement and bone was evaluated by interfacial bonding strength measurements and histological characterizations. CHA cement was implanted into a mongrel dog's femoral supracondylar and below the tibial plateau area, and was then tested ex vivo by, respectively, detaching and pullout experiments. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was used as a control. CHA cement could be directly injected and solidified in situ to repair bone defects. Histology results showed that CHA bonded with bone through gradual remodeling and was replaced by new bone tissue, which is an attribute for excellent biocompatibility. The interfacial bonding strength increased with implantation time. After 16 weeks implantation, the measured detaching force and the pullout force between CHA and bone were 281 ± 16 N and 512.5 ± 14.5 N, respectively. These values were several times higher compared to 5 days implantation. In contrast, the control showed a fibrous microstructure between PMMA and bone, and the detaching force and the pullout force decreased with implantation time. The results strongly suggest that CHA can form a better osteo-integrated interface compared to PMMA, and could be used as an ideal biomaterial for bone defect repair.

  16. In Vivo Bone Formation Within Engineered Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds in a Sheep Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, A B; Lopa, S; Recordati, C; Talò, G; Turrisi, C; Bottagisio, M; Losa, M; Scanziani, E; Moretti, M

    2016-08-01

    Large bone defects still represent a major burden in orthopedics, requiring bone-graft implantation to promote the bone repair. Along with autografts that currently represent the gold standard for complicated fracture repair, the bone tissue engineering offers a promising alternative strategy combining bone-graft substitutes with osteoprogenitor cells able to support the bone tissue ingrowth within the implant. Hence, the optimization of cell loading and distribution within osteoconductive scaffolds is mandatory to support a successful bone formation within the scaffold pores. With this purpose, we engineered constructs by seeding and culturing autologous, osteodifferentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells within hydroxyapatite (HA)-based grafts by means of a perfusion bioreactor to enhance the in vivo implant-bone osseointegration in an ovine model. Specifically, we compared the engineered constructs in two different anatomical bone sites, tibia, and femur, compared with cell-free or static cell-loaded scaffolds. After 2 and 4 months, the bone formation and the scaffold osseointegration were assessed by micro-CT and histological analyses. The results demonstrated the capability of the acellular HA-based grafts to determine an implant-bone osseointegration similar to that of statically or dynamically cultured grafts. Our study demonstrated that the tibia is characterized by a lower bone repair capability compared to femur, in which the contribution of transplanted cells is not crucial to enhance the bone-implant osseointegration. Indeed, only in tibia, the dynamic cell-loaded implants performed slightly better than the cell-free or static cell-loaded grafts, indicating that this is a valid approach to sustain the bone deposition and osseointegration in disadvantaged anatomical sites.

  17. Muscle as an osteoinductive niche for local bone formation with the use of a biphasic calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biomaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, D. B.; Gupta, A.; Petersen, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We have observed clinical cases where bone is formed in the overlaying muscle covering surgically created bone defects treated with a hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial. Our objective was to investigate the osteoinductive potential of the biomaterial and to determine if growth...... factors secreted from local bone cells induce osteoblastic differentiation of muscle cells. Materials and Methods: We seeded mouse skeletal muscle cells C2C12 on the hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial and the phenotype of the cells was analysed. To mimic surgical conditions with leakage of extra...

  18. Efficacy of a small cell-binding peptide coated hydroxyapatite substitute on bone formation and implant fixation in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Andreasen, Christina Møller; Dencker, Mads L.

    2015-01-01

    hydroxyapatite (ABM/P-15); hydroxyapatite + βtricalciumphosphate+ Poly-Lactic-Acid (HA/βTCP-PDLLA); or ABM/P-15+HA/βTCP-PDLLA. After nine weeks, bone-implant blocks were harvested and sectioned for micro-CT scanning, push-out test, and histomorphometry. Significant bone formation and implant fixation could...

  19. Onlay bone augmentation on mouse calvarial bone using a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with total blood or platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Sumita, Yoshinori; Umebayashi, Mayumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Hisato; Matsuda, Shinpei; Kimura, Hideki; Asahina, Izumi; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess newly formed onlay bone on mouse calvarial bone using a new artificial bone material, a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite, with total blood or platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with normal saline, total blood or platelet-rich plasma was transplanted on mouse calvarial bone. The mice were sacrificed and the specimens were harvested four weeks after surgery. The newly formed bone area was measured on hematoxylin and eosin stained specimens using Image J software. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma induced a significantly greater amount of newly formed bone than that with normal saline. Moreover, bone marrow was observed four weeks after surgery in the transplanted materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma but not with normal saline. However, there were no significant differences in the amount of newly formed bone between materials used with total blood versus platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material was valid for onlay bone augmentation and this material should be soaked in total blood or platelet-rich plasma prior to transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dense bone - too much bone: Radiological considerations and differential diagnosis. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1985-02-01

    In conclusion, the attempt has been made to demonstrate that three major forms of new bone formation exist: reactive, neoplastic, and the newborn or relative skeletal sclerosis in congenital (developmental) disorders. A classification of skeletal disorders has been presented and four major groups have been selected from the nine categories in this classification. These are: congenital-developmental, metabolic and endocrine, benign neoplasms and malignant neoplasms. In all four categories a large group of entities which may present with new bone (sclerosis) are listed and are discussed in some, but limited, detail. A number of these entities in each of the four categories are illustrated. Some difficulty is encountered in considering the mechanisms for the production of bony sclerosis in the group of congenital-developmental disorders. In such entities as osteopetrosis, the overproduction of cartilage cords and subsequent excessive mineralization is known to be responsible for the dense bone. However, in various skeletal dysplasias (e.g. pyknodysostosis, van Bucherm disease), the exact mechanism for the development of the diffuse sclerotic process is not clearly understood. In the metabolic and endocrine category, the situation as to mechanism is less unclear in considering the reason for the development of bony sclerosis. Yet even in evaluating disorders such as renal osteodystrophy, the reactive bony sclerosis in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia is a source of speculation with no definite proof, as yet.

  1. Porous hydroxyapatite composite with alumina for bone repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnah Mustaffa; Mohd Reusmaazran Mohd Yusof; Idris Besar

    2010-01-01

    Porous fabrications, a number of techniques were investigated using polyurethane foam as the scaffold. These techniques involve dipping of the foam into a slurry prepared by mixing of HA+Al 2 O 3 powder with PVA and Sago as binder and subjecting to burn off procedure to get the porous products. Sintering parameter was studied at 1100, 1200 and 1300 degree Celsius. Initially HA powder was prepared by the sol-gel precipitation method using calcium hydroxide and ortho-phosphoric acid meanwhile Al 2 O 3 powder from supplier (MERK). The fine HA powder, measuring 2 O 3 . These techniques also produce the uniformity pore shape. Characterization of the physical analysis, porosity, surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis (SEM) and compression strength were studied. Mechanical properties showing that the composite of porous HA+Al 2 O 3 gives higher maximum compression strength compared to the porous hydroxyapatite itself. Observation from this studied the increasing of temperature will increase the strength. (author)

  2. Electrospun Hydroxyapatite-Containing Chitosan Nanofibers Crosslinked with Genipin for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohbergh, Michael E.; Katsman, Anna; Botta, Gregory P.; Lazarovici, Phillip; Schauer, Caroline L.; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.; Lelkes, Peter I.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of large bone defects remains problematic in orthopedic and craniofacial clinical practice. Autografts are limited in supply and are associated with donor site morbidity while other materials show poor integration with the host’s own bone. This lack of integration is often due to the absence of periosteum, the outer layer of bone that contains osteoprogenitor cells and is critical for the growth and remodeling of bone tissue. In this study we developed a one-step platform to electrospin nanofibrous scaffolds from chitosan, which also contain hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and are crosslinked with genipin. We hypothesized that the resulting composite scaffolds represent a microenvironment that emulates the physical, mineralized structure and mechanical properties of non-weight bearing bone extracellular matrix while promoting osteoblast differentiation and maturation similar to the periosteum. The ultrastructure and physicochemical properties of the scaffolds were studied using scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. The average fiber diameters of the electrospun scaffolds were 227±154 nm as spun, and increased to 335±119 nm after crosslinking with genipin. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of characteristic features of hydroxyapatite in the composite chitosan fibers. The Young’s modulus of the composite fibrous scaffolds was 142±13 MPa, which is similar to that of the natural periosteum. Both pure chitosan scaffolds and composite hydroxyapatite-containing chitosan scaffolds supported adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mouse 7F2 osteoblast-like cells. Expression and enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early osteogenic marker, were higher in cells cultured on the composite scaffolds as compared to pure chitosan scaffolds, reaching a significant, 2.4 fold, difference by day 14 (phydroxyapatite

  3. Resolution of the hydroxyapatite crystal lattice in bone and dental enamel by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvig, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    The molecular and atomic structure of hydroxyapatite was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The form, size and packing of hydroxyapatite crystals in sections of bone and dental hard tissues could be determined. Lattice fringe patterns with repeat distances in the range 2.7-8.2 A occurred in images of individual crystals. On the basis of these fringes the true orientation of the crystals relative to the plane of sectioning was calculated. The observed crystal lattice spacings and interplanar angles were in close agreement with data derived from X-ray diffraction analysis. This study shows that the possibility exists of relating crystallographic analysis to the morphology and fine structure of calcified tissue in health and disease

  4. Preparation and characterization of dense nanohydroxyapatite/PLLA composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Sandrine; Arostegui, Saioa; Lemaitre, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic bone graft substitutes based on PLLA have been largely studied during the past decade. PLLA/hydroxyapatite composites appear as promising materials for large bone defect healing. In this study dense PLLA/nano-hydroxyapatite composites were prepared by hot pressing. Dense samples were investigated rather than porous scaffolds, in order to shed light on possible correlations between intrinsic mechanical properties and nano-hydroxyapatite concentration. Hydroxyapatite deagglomerated by wet attrition milling, and further dispersed into chloroform was used (median diameter = 80 nm). Particle size distribution measurements and transmission electron microscopy show evidence that particle size and dispersion are maintained throughout the successive steps of composite processing. Mechanical properties were tested (uni-axial and diametral compression tests) as a function of nano-hydroxyapatite content. Increasing concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite (0, 25 and 50 wt.%) increase the Young's modulus and the mechanical strength of the composite; at the same time, the failure mechanism of the material changes from plastic to brittle. Young's modulus over 6 GPa and uniaxial compressive strength over 100 MPa have been achieved. These values expressed in terms of intrinsic tensile and shear strengths indicate that 50 wt.% nano-hydroxyapatite containing samples develop properties comparable to those of cortical bone. PLLA/nano-hydroxyapatite composites are thus promising candidates to develop bioresorbable porous bone substitutes showing superior mechanical performance

  5. Heterogeneous and self-organizing mineralization of bone matrix promoted by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, G; Cristofaro, F; Pani, G; Fratini, M; Pascucci, B; Corsetto, P A; Weinhausen, B; Cedola, A; Rizzo, A M; Visai, L; Rea, G

    2017-11-16

    The mineralization process is crucial to the load-bearing characteristics of the bone extracellular matrix. In this work, we have studied the spatiotemporal dynamics of mineral deposition by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiating toward osteoblasts promoted by the presence of exogenous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. At the molecular level, the added nanoparticles positively modulated the expression of bone-specific markers and enhanced calcified matrix deposition during osteogenic differentiation. The nucleation, growth and spatial arrangement of newly deposited hydroxyapatite nanocrystals have been evaluated using scanning micro X-ray diffraction and scanning micro X-ray fluorescence. As leading results, we have found the emergence of a complex scenario where the spatial organization and temporal evolution of the process exhibit heterogeneous and self-organizing dynamics. At the same time the possibility of controlling the differentiation kinetics, through the addition of synthetic nanoparticles, paves the way to empower the generation of more structured bone scaffolds in tissue engineering and to design new drugs in regenerative medicine.

  6. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with alendronate as bioactive components for bone implant coatings to decrease osteoclastic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Ruggero; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Jansen, John A.; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C. G.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of bone implants within native bone tissue depends on periprosthetic bone quality, which is severely decreased in osteoporotic patients. In this work, we have synthesized bone-like hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nHA) using an acid-base neutralization reaction and analysed their physicochemical properties. Subsequently, we have functionalized the nHA with alendronate (nHAALE), a well-known bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. An in vitro osteoclastogenesis test was carried out to evaluate the effect of nHAALE on the formation of osteoclast-like cells from monocytic precursor cells (i.e. RAW264.7 cell line) showing that nHAALE significantly promoted apoptosis of osteoclast-like cells. Subsequently, nHA and nHAALE were deposited on titanium disks using electrospray deposition (ESD), for which characterisation of the deposited coatings confirmed the presence of alendronate in nHAALE coatings with nanoscale thickness of about 700 nm. These results indicate that alendronate linked to hydroxyapatite nanocrystals has therapeutic potential and nHAALE can be considered as an appealing coating constituent material for orthopaedic and oral implants for application in osteoporotic patients.

  7. Battery-powered bone drill: caution needed in densely blastic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Simeone, F.J.; Huang, Ambrose J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Image-guided biopsies play an important role for pathologic diagnosis of bone tumors. Recently, motorized, battery powered bone marrow biopsy devices have been used to biopsy focal bone lesions with high accuracy. We present here two cases of densely blastic metastases where the biopsy sample could not be removed from the needle. These two cases suggest that if the lesion is densely blastic, then the sample should be small (<5 mm) to ensure that the biopsy specimen will not be stuck within the biopsy needle. (orig.)

  8. Diode λ830nm laser associated with hydroxyapatite and biological membranes: bone repair in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Vanda S. M.; Limeira, Francisco d. A.; Gerbi, Marleny E. M.; Menezes, Rebeca F. d.; Santos-Neto, Alexandrino P. d.; Araújo, Natália C.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to histologically assess the effect of laser therapy (AsGaAl, 830nm, 40mW, CW, φ ~0,6mm, 16J/cm2 per session, four points of 4J/cm2) on the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of Wistar rats. Background data: Several techniques have been proposed for the correction of bone defects, including the use of grafts and membranes. Despite the increase in the use of laser therapy for the biomodulation of bone repair, very few studies have assessed the associations between laser light and biomaterials. Method: The defects were filled with synthetic micro granular hydroxyapatite (HA) Gen-phos® implants and associated with bovine bone membranes (Gen-derm®). Surgical bone defects were created in 48 rats and divided into four groups: Group IA (control, n=12); Group IB (laser, n=12); Group IIA (HA + membrane, n=12); Group IIB (HA + membrane + laser, n=12). The irradiated groups received the first irradiation immediately after surgery. This radiation was then repeated seven times every 48h. The animals were sacrificed after 15, 21, and 30 days. Results: When comparing the groups irradiated with implants and membranes, it was found that the repair of the defects submitted to laser therapy occurred more quickly, starting 15 and 21 days after surgery. By the 30th day, the level of repair of the defects was similar in the irradiated and the non-irradiated groups. New bone formation was confirmed inside the cavity by the implant's osteoconduction. In the irradiated groups, there was an increment of this new bone formation. Conclusions: In conclusion, the use of laser therapy, particularly when associated with hydroxyapatite and biological membranes, produced a positive biomodulation effect on the healing process of bone defects on the femurs of rats.

  9. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, Jayanta [Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Kolkata (India); Mahato, Arnab; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-04-01

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations.

  10. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Samit K.; Kundu, Biswanath; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Mahato, Arnab; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations

  11. Porous Polyethylene Coated with Functionalized Hydroxyapatite Particles as a Bone Reconstruction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fouad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, porous polyethylene scaffolds were examined as bone substitutes in vitro and in vivo in critical-sized calvarial bone defects in transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats. A microscopic examination revealed that the pores appeared to be interconnected across the material, making them suitable for cell growth. The creep recovery behavior of porous polyethylene at different loads indicated that the creep strain had two main portions. In both portions, strain increased with increased applied load and temperature. In terms of the thermographic behavior of the material, remarkable changes in melting temperature and heat fusion were revealed with increased the heating rates. The tensile strength results showed that the material was sensitive to the strain rate and that there was adequate mechanical strength to support cell growth. The in vitro cell culture results showed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells attached to the porous polyethylene scaffold. Calcium sulfate–hydroxyapatite (CS–HA coating of the scaffold not only improved attachment but also increased the proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo, histological analysis showed that the study groups had active bone remodeling at the border of the defect. Bone regeneration at the border was also evident, which confirmed that the polyethylene acted as an osteoconductive bone graft. Furthermore, bone formation inside the pores of the coated polyethylene was also noted, which would enhance the process of osteointegration.

  12. Electrospun polyurethane/hydroxyapatite bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: the role of solvent and hydroxyapatite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, G; Khan, A S; Delaine-Smith, R M; Reilly, G C; Rehman, I U

    2014-11-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a promising polymer to support bone-matrix producing cells due to its durability and mechanical resistance. In this study two types of medical grade poly-ether urethanes Z3A1 and Z9A1 and PU-Hydroxyapatite (PU-HA) composites were investigated for their ability to act as a scaffold for tissue engineered bone. PU dissolved in varying concentrations of dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvents were electrospun to attain scaffolds with randomly orientated non-woven fibres. Bioactive polymeric composite scaffolds were created using 15 wt% Z3A1 in a 70/30 DMF/THF PU solution and incorporating micro- or nano-sized HA particles in a ratio of 3:1 respectively, whilst a 25 wt% Z9A1 PU solution was doped in ratio of 5:1. Chemical properties of the resulting composites were evaluated by FTIR and physical properties by SEM. Tensile mechanical testing was carried out on all electrospun scaffolds. MLO-A5 osteoblastic mouse cells and human embryonic mesenchymal progenitor cells, hES-MPs were seeded on the scaffolds to test their biocompatibility and ability to support mineralised matrix production over a 28 day culture period. Cell viability was assayed by MTT and calcium and collagen deposition by Sirius red and alizarin red respectively. SEM images of both electrospun PU scaffolds and PU-HA composite scaffolds showed differences in fibre morphology with changes in solvent combinations and size of HA particles. Inclusion of THF eliminated the presence of beads in fibres that were present in scaffolds fabricated with 100% DMF solvent, and resulted in fibres with a more uniform morphology and thicker diameters. Mechanical testing demonstrated that the Young׳s Modulus and yield strength was lower at higher THF concentrations. Inclusion of both sizes of HA particles in PU-HA solutions reinforced the scaffolds leading to higher mechanical properties, whilst FTIR characterisation confirmed the presence of HA in all composite scaffolds. Although

  13. Multifunctional nano-hydroxyapatite and alginate/gelatin based sticky gel composites for potential bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yurong; Yu, Juhong; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    To improve the fixations of the implant and implant-bone integration after joint arthroplasty from locally preventing inflammation and promoting the bone regeneration, we design a multifunctional biomaterial consisting of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite with an alginate/gelatin sticky gel. We investigate its role for the prevention of the inflammation and possibility of inducing a new bone growth along with its adhesive ability. The stickiness exists in the composite, which may help to fix itself on the bone fracture surface. The composite sustains the antibacterial effect and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro. In vivo experimentation also shows that the composite gel has a role for the reduction of inflammation. It enhances the formation of new bone and blood vessels compared to both the sole rhBMP-2 and non-rhBMP-2/antibiotic loaded composite gels. The multifunctional composite provides a promising material for the prosthetic and bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Multifunctional nanohydroxyapatite composite is fabricated. • The composite consists of nHAP, growth factor, antibiotic and alginate/gelatin gel. • The composite shows antibacterial effect and good cytocompatibility. • No adverse effect to the cells tested in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Multifunctional nano-hydroxyapatite and alginate/gelatin based sticky gel composites for potential bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yurong; Yu, Juhong [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Kundu, Subhas C. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yao, Juming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-09-15

    To improve the fixations of the implant and implant-bone integration after joint arthroplasty from locally preventing inflammation and promoting the bone regeneration, we design a multifunctional biomaterial consisting of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite with an alginate/gelatin sticky gel. We investigate its role for the prevention of the inflammation and possibility of inducing a new bone growth along with its adhesive ability. The stickiness exists in the composite, which may help to fix itself on the bone fracture surface. The composite sustains the antibacterial effect and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro. In vivo experimentation also shows that the composite gel has a role for the reduction of inflammation. It enhances the formation of new bone and blood vessels compared to both the sole rhBMP-2 and non-rhBMP-2/antibiotic loaded composite gels. The multifunctional composite provides a promising material for the prosthetic and bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Multifunctional nanohydroxyapatite composite is fabricated. • The composite consists of nHAP, growth factor, antibiotic and alginate/gelatin gel. • The composite shows antibacterial effect and good cytocompatibility. • No adverse effect to the cells tested in vitro and in vivo.

  15. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: In vitro cell culture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovac, Dajana; Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C.; Ivankovic, Marica; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold with interconnected pores was prepared • Cytotoxicity test showed that the scaffold was not cytotoxic towards MC3T3-E1 cells • The scaffold supported the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells • A 3D cell colonization was confirmed using the fluorescence microscopy • The scaffold might be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering

  16. Intercalated chitosan/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites: Promising materials for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Muhammad Anwaar; Yilgör, Emel; Yilgör, Iskender

    2017-11-01

    Preparation and characterization of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (CS/HA) nanocomposites displaying an intercalated structure is reported. Hydroxyapatite was synthesized through sol-gel process. Formic acid was introduced as a new solvent to obtain stable dispersions of nano-sized HA particles in polymer solution. CS/HA dispersions with HA contents of 5, 10 and 20% by weight were prepared. Self-assembling of HA nanoparticles during the drying of the solvent cast films led to the formation of homogeneous CS/HA nanocomposites. Composite films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-rays diffraction (XRD) analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and AFM confirmed the presence of uniformly distributed HA nanoparticles on the chitosan matrix surface. XRD patterns and cross-sectional SEM images showed the formation of layered nanocomposites. Complete degradation of chitosan matrix in TGA experiments, led to the formation of nanoporous 3D scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate and calcium pyrophosphate. CS/HA composites can be considered as promising materials for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyether ether ketone implants achieve increased bone fusion when coated with nano-sized hydroxyapatite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär; Jimbo, Ryo; Naito, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and is considered the best alternative material other than titanium for orthopedic spine and trauma implants. However, the deficient osteogenic properties and the bioinertness of PEEK limit its...... fields of application. The aim of this study was to limit these drawbacks by coating the surface of PEEK with nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HA) minerals. In the study, the biological response to PEEK, with and without HA coating, was investigated. Twenty-four screw-like and apically perforated implants...

  18. Radiolabeling hydroxyapatite nanorods as theranostic agents for osteosarcoma and bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipreste, Marcelo Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    The theranostic nanobiomaterials have received much attention of the scientific community around the world since these materials can accumulate spontaneously and selectively in tumor regions, being internalized by its cells and promoting simultaneously the diagnosis and the treatment of many types of cancer. Among many nanobiomaterials able to act as theranostic systems, hydroxyapatite nanorods (HA) stand up as promising theranostic agents to act in the early stages of osteosarcoma due to their important properties such as biocompatibility, bioactivity and high affinity to bone tissues, being able to act as drug delivery systems and radioisotopes carries, among many others biomedical applications. Apatite structures such as HA have high stability and flexibility that make them susceptible to the doping process and the conjugation with other crystallographic phases to confer theranostic properties to the material. However, the performance of these materials depends directly on the ability of these nanoparticles to bind to tumor cells. The process of surface functionalization of hydroxyapatite improves the adhesion of this material to the cell membranes. An important property acquired by hydroxyapatite functionalized with folic acid refers to the active and preferential accumulation in tumor sites of osteosarcoma. The present work consists in the investigation of theranostic systems through the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods doped with gadolinium and copper, and functionalized with folic acid (FA). The process of neutron activation enabled the production of the radioisotopes 32 P, 159 Gd and 64 Cu in the HA lattice. A systematic study of the morphological and physicochemical characteristics was carried out, as well as the characterization of the magnetic and structural properties of these samples, including a study on the chemical interaction between folic acid, gadolinium, tenorite and the surface of nanoparticles. The synthesized materials were characterized

  19. The Bisphosphonate Clodronate Modifying Hydroxyapatite Bioceramics for Bone Scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the efficiency of clodronate modifying HA bioceramics , and to evaluate the effect of clodronate modifying HA bioceramies on the cells in vitro, clodronate modified the porous HA bioceramics for bone scaffold by chelation. The outermost layer of the specimens was analyzed by XPS and FI- IR. The depth profile was investigated by the argon-ion sputtering method. The cell culture test was conducted using MC3 T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The cells were inoculated and cultured on the scaffolds. Morphological observation of the cells,MTT test and ALP activity test evaluated the cell attachment, proliferation and activity on the materials. Characteristic peaks in XPS and FT-IR spectra indicated clodronate being immobilized on the surface of the bioceramics.The cell culture test in cell quantity and morphology indicated active proliferation of the cells on the scaffolds. The ALP activity of the cells cultured for 3d and 7 d on clodronate- HA bioceramics was slightly higher than that on HA bioceramics, but the difference was not significant. This result indicated that clodronate- HA bioceramics had favorable cytocompatibility to be used as bone scaffold with potential ability to improve osteogenesis.

  20. Hydroxyapatite fiber reinforced poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R. C.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Powers, J. M.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A process has been developed to manufacture biodegradable composite foams of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite short fibers for use in bone regeneration. The processing technique allows the manufacture of three-dimensional foam scaffolds and involves the formation of a composite material consisting of a porogen material (either gelatin microspheres or salt particles) and hydroxyapatite short fibers embedded in a PLGA matrix. After the porogen is leached out, an open-cell composite foam remains which has a pore size and morphology defined by the porogen. By changing the weight fraction of the leachable component it was possible to produce composite foams with controlled porosities ranging from 0.47 +/- 0.02 to 0.85 +/- 0.01 (n = 3). Up to a polymer:fiber ratio of 7:6, short hydroxyapatite fibers served to reinforce low-porosity PLGA foams manufactured using gelatin microspheres as a porogen. Foams with a compressive yield strength up to 2.82 +/- 0.63 MPa (n = 3) and a porosity of 0.47 +/- 0.02 (n = 3) were manufactured using a polymer:fiber weight ratio of 7:6. In contrast, high-porosity composite foams (up to 0.81 +/- 0.02, n = 3) suitable for cell seeding were not reinforced by the introduction of increasing quantities of hydroxyapatite short fibers. We were therefore able to manufacture high-porosity foams which may be seeded with cells but which have minimal compressive yield strength, or low porosity foams with enhanced osteoconductivity and compressive yield strength.

  1. The Foreign Body Giant Cell Cannot Resorb Bone, But Dissolves Hydroxyapatite Like Osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ten Harkel

    Full Text Available Foreign body multinucleated giant cells (FBGCs and osteoclasts share several characteristics, like a common myeloid precursor cell, multinuclearity, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP. However, there is an important difference: osteoclasts form and reside in the vicinity of bone, while FBGCs form only under pathological conditions or at the surface of foreign materials, like medical implants. Despite similarities, an important distinction between these cell types is that osteoclasts can resorb bone, but it is unknown whether FBGCs are capable of such an activity. To investigate this, we differentiated FBGCs and osteoclasts in vitro from their common CD14+ monocyte precursor cells, using different sets of cytokines. Both cell types were cultured on bovine bone slices and analyzed for typical osteoclast features, such as bone resorption, presence of actin rings, formation of a ruffled border, and characteristic gene expression over time. Additionally, both cell types were cultured on a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating to discriminate between bone resorption and mineral dissolution independent of organic matrix proteolysis. Both cell types differentiated into multinucleated cells on bone, but FBGCs were larger and had a higher number of nuclei compared to osteoclasts. FBGCs were not able to resorb bone, yet they were able to dissolve the mineral fraction of bone at the surface. Remarkably, FBGCs also expressed actin rings, podosome belts and sealing zones--cytoskeletal organization that is considered to be osteoclast-specific. However, they did not form a ruffled border. At the gene expression level, FBGCs and osteoclasts expressed similar levels of mRNAs that are associated with the dissolution of mineral (e.g., anion exchange protein 2 (AE2, carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAII, chloride channel 7 (CIC7, and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase, in contrast the matrix degrading

  2. Engineering the bone-ligament interface using polyethylene glycol diacrylate incorporated with hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Jennifer Z; Donnelly, Kenneth; Keatch, Robert P; Baar, Keith

    2009-06-01

    Ligaments and tendons have previously been tissue engineered. However, without the bone attachment, implantation of a tissue-engineered ligament would require it to be sutured to the remnant of the injured native tissue. Due to slow repair and remodeling, this would result in a chronically weak tissue that may never return to preinjury function. In contrast, orthopaedic autograft reconstruction of the ligament often uses a bone-to-bone technique for optimal repair. Since bone-to-bone repairs heal better than other methods, implantation of an artificial ligament should also occur from bone-to-bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HA) and the cell-adhesion peptide RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) as a material for creating an in vitro tissue interface to engineer intact ligaments (i.e., bone-ligament-bone). Incorporation of HA into PEG hydrogels reduced the swelling ratio but increased mechanical strength and stiffness of the hydrogels. Further, HA addition increased the capacity for cell growth and interface formation. RGD incorporation increased the swelling ratio but decreased mechanical strength and stiffness of the material. Optimum levels of cell attachment were met using a combination of both HA and RGD, but this material had no better mechanical properties than PEG alone. Although adherence of the hydrogels containing HA was achieved, failure occurs at about 4 days with 5% HA. Increasing the proportion of HA improved interface formation; however, with high levels of HA, the PEG HA composite became brittle. This data suggests that HA, by itself or with other materials, might be well suited for engineering the ligament-bone interface.

  3. Cytocompatibility and biocompatibility of nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite spheres for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALASANS-MAIA, Mônica Diuana; de MELO, Bruno Raposo; ALVES, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; RESENDE, Rodrigo Figueiredo de Brito; LOURO, Rafael Seabra; SARTORETTO, Suelen Cristina; GRANJEIRO, José Mauro; ALVES, Gutemberg Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/calcium alginate (CHA) microspheres used for alveolar bone repair, compared to sintered hydroxyapatite (HA). Material and Methods The maxillary central incisors of 45 Wistar rats were extracted, and the dental sockets were filled with HA, CHA, and blood clot (control group) (n=5/period/group). After 7, 21 and 42 days, the samples of bone with the biomaterials were obtained for histological and histomorphometric analysis, and the plasma levels of RANKL and OPG were determined via immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by Two-Way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test at 95% level of significance. Results The CHA and HA microspheres were cytocompatible with both human and murine cells on an in vitro assay. Histological analysis showed the time-dependent increase of newly formed bone in control group characterized by an intense osteoblast activity. In HA and CHA groups, the presence of a slight granulation reaction around the spheres was observed after seven days, which was reduced by the 42nd day. A considerable amount of newly formed bone was observed surrounding the CHA spheres and the biomaterials particles at 42-day time point compared with HA. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone in CHA group compared with HA after 21 and 42 days from surgery, moreover, CHA showed almost 2-fold greater biosorption than HA at 42 days (two-way ANOVA, p<0.05) indicating greater biosorption. An increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio was observed in the CHA group on the 7th day. Conclusion CHA spheres were osteoconductive and presented earlier biosorption, inducing early increases in the levels of proteins involved in resorption. PMID:26814461

  4. Cytocompatibility and biocompatibility of nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite spheres for bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Diuana CALASANS-MAIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/calcium alginate (CHA microspheres used for alveolar bone repair, compared to sintered hydroxyapatite (HA. Material and Methods The maxillary central incisors of 45 Wistar rats were extracted, and the dental sockets were filled with HA, CHA, and blood clot (control group (n=5/period/group. After 7, 21 and 42 days, the samples of bone with the biomaterials were obtained for histological and histomorphometric analysis, and the plasma levels of RANKL and OPG were determined via immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by Two-Way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test at 95% level of significance. Results The CHA and HA microspheres were cytocompatible with both human and murine cells on an in vitro assay. Histological analysis showed the time-dependent increase of newly formed bone in control group characterized by an intense osteoblast activity. In HA and CHA groups, the presence of a slight granulation reaction around the spheres was observed after seven days, which was reduced by the 42nd day. A considerable amount of newly formed bone was observed surrounding the CHA spheres and the biomaterials particles at 42-day time point compared with HA. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone in CHA group compared with HA after 21 and 42 days from surgery, moreover, CHA showed almost 2-fold greater biosorption than HA at 42 days (two-way ANOVA, p<0.05 indicating greater biosorption. An increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio was observed in the CHA group on the 7th day. Conclusion CHA spheres were osteoconductive and presented earlier biosorption, inducing early increases in the levels of proteins involved in resorption.

  5. Biomimetic three-dimensional nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and magnetically synthesized single-walled carbon nanotube chitosan nanocomposite for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Owen; Li, Jian; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Lijie Grace; Keidar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Many shortcomings exist in the traditional methods of treating bone defects, such as donor tissue shortages for autografts and disease transmission for allografts. The objective of this study was to design a novel three-dimensional nanostructured bone substitute based on magnetically synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), biomimetic hydrothermally treated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, and a biocompatible hydrogel (chitosan). Both nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and SWCNT have a biomimetic nanostructure, excellent osteoconductivity, and high potential to improve the load-bearing capacity of hydrogels. Methods Specifically, three-dimensional porous chitosan scaffolds with different concentrations of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and SWCNT were created to support the growth of human osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) using a lyophilization procedure. Two types of SWCNT were synthesized in an arc discharge with a magnetic field (B-SWCNT) and without a magnetic field (N-SWCNT) for improving bone regeneration. Results Nanocomposites containing magnetically synthesized B-SWCNT had superior cytocompatibility properties when compared with nonmagnetically synthesized N-SWCNT. B-SWCNT have much smaller diameters and are twice as long as their nonmagnetically prepared counterparts, indicating that the dimensions of carbon nanotubes can have a substantial effect on osteoblast attachment. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a chitosan nanocomposite with both B-SWCNT and 20% nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite could achieve a higher osteoblast density when compared with the other experimental groups, thus making this nanocomposite promising for further exploration for bone regeneration. PMID:22619545

  6. Efficacy of platelet rich plasma and hydroxyapatite crystals in bone regeneration after surgical removal of mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti; Maria, Anisha

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) & porous hydroxyapatite crystals in bone regeneration after surgical removal of mandibular third molar with the help of radiographs and its comparison with control side. A total of 40 patients; both male and female aged between 18 and 35 years, who had impacted mandibular third molars were randomly selected for this study. Twenty patients were taken for control group and 20 patients for study group. The extraction socket of the study group was packed with PRP and hydroxyapatite granules and that of control group was sutured without PRP and hydroxyapatite. The bone density of both extraction sockets were evaluated radiographically using gray level histogram and compared periodically on immediate postoperative day, 1st and 3rd month postoperatively and postoperative sequelae of both the control group and study group in terms of oedema & pain or any other adverse reactions were also assessed. Data suggested evidence of early bone formation and maturation radiographically in study group as compared to control group. The percentage of facial swelling was numerically greater on the control side as compared to the study side, Pain was also assessed with VAS and it was found that the severity of pain was equal in both study and control groups and the results were not significant. This study clearly indicated a definitive improvement in the wound healing, increase in bone density, which signifies and highlights the use of PRP and hydroxyapatite granules, certainly as a valid method in inducing and accelerating bone regeneration.

  7. Biologically inspired rosette nanotubes and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite hydrogel nanocomposites as improved bone substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lijie; Webster, Thomas J; Rodriguez, Jose; Raez, Jose; Myles, Andrew J; Fenniri, Hicham

    2009-01-01

    Today, bone diseases such as bone fractures, osteoporosis and bone cancer represent a common and significant public health problem. The design of biomimetic bone tissue engineering materials that could restore and improve damaged bone tissues provides exciting opportunities to solve the numerous problems associated with traditional orthopedic implants. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to create a biomimetic orthopedic hydrogel nanocomposite based on the self-assembly properties of helical rosette nanotubes (HRNs), the osteoconductive properties of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), and the biocompatible properties of hydrogels (specifically, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), pHEMA). HRNs are self-assembled nanomaterials that are formed from synthetic DNA base analogs in water to mimic the helical nanostructure of collagen in bone. In this study, different geometries of nanocrystalline HA were controlled by either hydrothermal or sintering methods. 2 and 10 wt% nanocrystalline HA particles were well dispersed into HRN hydrogels using ultrasonication. The nanocrystalline HA and nanocrystalline HA/HRN hydrogels were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical testing studies revealed that the well dispersed nanocrystalline HA in HRN hydrogels possessed improved mechanical properties compared to hydrogel controls. In addition, the results of this study provided the first evidence that the combination of either 2 or 10 wt% nanocrystalline HA and 0.01 mg ml -1 HRNs in hydrogels greatly increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion up to 236% compared to hydrogel controls. Moreover, this study showed that HRNs stimulated HA nucleation and mineralization along their main axis in a way that is very reminiscent of the HA/collagen assembly pattern in natural bone. In summary, the presently observed excellent properties of the biomimetic nanocrystalline HA/HRN hydrogel composites

  8. Towards optimization of the silanization process of hydroxyapatite for its use in bone cement formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros-Pineda, Olga G.; Herrera Kao, Wilberth; Loría-Bastarrachea, María I.; Veranes-Pantoja, Yaymarilis; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V.; Cervantes-Uc, José M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to provide some fundamental information for optimization of silanization of hydroxyapatite intended for bone cement formulations. The effect of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) concentration and solvent system (acetone/water or methanol/water mixtures) during HA silanization was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and EDX analysis. The effect of silanized HA on the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cements is also reported. It was found that the silanization process rendered hydroxyapatite with lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. Through EDX, it was observed that the silicon concentration in the HA particles was higher for acetone–water than that obtained for methanol–water system, although the mechanical performance of cements prepared with these particles exhibited the opposite behavior. Taking all these results together, it is concluded that methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results during silanization process of HA. - Highlights: • Effect of MPS concentration and solvents during HA silanization was studied. • Silanization rendered HA has lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. • Silicon concentration was higher for acetone than that obtained using methanol. • Methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results

  9. Preparation and characterization of carbon nanofibrous/hydroxyapatite sheets for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aziz, A M; El Backly, Rania M; Taha, Nahla A; El-Maghraby, Azza; Kandil, Sherif H

    2017-07-01

    Critical size bone defects are orthopedic defects that will not heal without intervention or that will not completely heal over the natural life time of the animal. Although bone generally has the ability to regenerate completely however, critical defects require some sort of scaffold to do so. In the current study we proposed a method to obtain a carbon nanofibrous/Hydroxyapatite (HA) bioactive scaffold. The carbon nanofibrous (CNF) nonwoven fabrics were obtained by the use of the electrospinning process of the polymeric solution of poly acrylonitrile "PAN" and subsequent stabilization and carbonization processes. The CNFs sheets were functionalized by both hydroxyapatite (HA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The HA was added to the electrospun solution, but in case of (BSA), it was adsorbed after the carbonization process. The changes in the properties taking place in the precursor sheets were investigated using the characterization methods (SEM, FT-IR, TGA and EDX). The prepared materials were tested for biocompatibility via subcutaneous implantation in New Zealand white rabbits. We successfully prepared biocompatible functionalized sheets, which have been modified with HA or HA and BSA. The sheets that were functionalized by both HA and BSA are more biocompatible with fewer inflammatory cells of (neutrophils and lymphocytes) than ones with only HA over the period of 3weeks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards optimization of the silanization process of hydroxyapatite for its use in bone cement formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros-Pineda, Olga G.; Herrera Kao, Wilberth; Loría-Bastarrachea, María I. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Veranes-Pantoja, Yaymarilis [Centro de Biomateriales, Universidad de la Habana, Avenida Universidad, s/n, e/G y Ronda, C.P. 10600 C. de La Habana (Cuba); Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Cervantes-Uc, José M., E-mail: manceruc@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to provide some fundamental information for optimization of silanization of hydroxyapatite intended for bone cement formulations. The effect of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) concentration and solvent system (acetone/water or methanol/water mixtures) during HA silanization was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and EDX analysis. The effect of silanized HA on the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cements is also reported. It was found that the silanization process rendered hydroxyapatite with lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. Through EDX, it was observed that the silicon concentration in the HA particles was higher for acetone–water than that obtained for methanol–water system, although the mechanical performance of cements prepared with these particles exhibited the opposite behavior. Taking all these results together, it is concluded that methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results during silanization process of HA. - Highlights: • Effect of MPS concentration and solvents during HA silanization was studied. • Silanization rendered HA has lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. • Silicon concentration was higher for acetone than that obtained using methanol. • Methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results.

  11. The Development of Biomimetic Spherical Hydroxyapatite/Polyamide 66 Biocomposites as Bone Repair Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel biomedical material composed of spherical hydroxyapatite (s-HA and polyamide 66 (PA biocomposite (s-HA/PA was prepared, and its composition, mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility were characterized and evaluated. The results showed that HA distributed uniformly in the s-HA/PA matrix. Strong molecule interactions and chemical bonds were presented between the s-HA and PA in the composites confirmed by IR and XRD. The composite had excellent compressive strength in the range between 95 and 132 MPa, close to that of natural bone. In vitro experiments showed the s-HA/PA composite could improve cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, the developed s-HA/PA composites in this study might be used for tissue engineering and bone repair.

  12. Determination of bone and tissue concentrations of teicoplanin mixed with hydroxyapatite cement to repair cortical defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenreich, K; Zeipper, U; Schwendenwein, E; Hadju, S; Kaltenecker, G; Laslo, I; Lang, S; Roschger, P; Vecsei, V; Wintersteiger, R

    2002-01-01

    A highly specific and sensitive isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of the major component of teicoplanin in tissue is reported. Comparing fluorescamine and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) as derivatizing agents, the derivative formed with the latter exhibits superior fluorescence intensity allowing detection of femtomole quantities. Pretreatment for tissue samples is by solid-phase extraction which uses Bakerbond PolarP C(18) cartridges and gives effective clean up from endogenous by-products. Linearity was given from 0.6 to 100 ng per injection. The coefficient of variation did not exceed 5.8% for both interday and intraday assays. It was found that when bone defects are repaired with a hydroxyapatite-teicoplanin mixture, the antibiotic does not degrade, even when it is in the cement for several months. The stability of teicoplanin in bone cement was determined fluorodensitometrically.

  13. The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 μm and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. Results. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material’s particles took place after 25 weeks. Conclusion. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  14. Hydroxyapatite particles maintain peri-implant bone mantle during osseointegration in osteoporotic bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tami, A.E.; Leitner, M.M.; Baucke, M.G.; Mueller, T.L.; Lenthe, van G.H.; Müller, R.; Ito, K.

    2009-01-01

    In osteoporotic bones, resorption exceeds formation during the remodelling phase of bone turnover. As a consequence, decreased bone volume and bone contact result in the peri-implant region. This may subsequently lead to loss of fixation. In this study we investigated whether the presence of

  15. Cellular compatibility of nanocomposite scaffolds based on hydroxyapatite entrapped in cellulose network for bone repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beladi, Faranak [Material and Biomaterial Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saber-Samandari, Samaneh, E-mail: samaneh.saber@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, TRNC via Mersin 10 (Turkey); Saber-Samandari, Saeed, E-mail: saeedss@aut.ac.ir [New Technologies Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    In the past few decades, artificial graft materials for bone tissue engineering have gained much importance. In this study, novel porous 3D nanocomposite scaffolds composed of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose and hydroxyapatite were proposed. They were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The swelling behavior of the scaffolds was examined in both water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. The cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was determined by MTT assays on human fibroblast gum (HuGu) cells. Results showed that the nanocomposite scaffolds were highly porous with maximum porosity of 85.7% interconnected with a pore size of around 72–125 μm. The results of cell culture experiments showed that the scaffolds extracts do not have cytotoxicity in any concentration. Obtained results suggested that the introduced scaffolds are comparable with the trabecular bone from the compositional, structural, and mechanical perspectives and have a great potential as a bone substitute. - Highlights: • A series of biocompatible scaffolds were synthesized through a novel multi-step route. • The porosity increased by increasing n-HAp amounts in the structure of the scaffold. • The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were found close to those of trabecular bone. • The results suggest that the scaffold extracts do not have any cell cytotoxicity. • The scaffold can be efficient as a bioactive bone implant for tissue engineering.

  16. Cellular compatibility of nanocomposite scaffolds based on hydroxyapatite entrapped in cellulose network for bone repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beladi, Faranak; Saber-Samandari, Samaneh; Saber-Samandari, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, artificial graft materials for bone tissue engineering have gained much importance. In this study, novel porous 3D nanocomposite scaffolds composed of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose and hydroxyapatite were proposed. They were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The swelling behavior of the scaffolds was examined in both water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. The cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was determined by MTT assays on human fibroblast gum (HuGu) cells. Results showed that the nanocomposite scaffolds were highly porous with maximum porosity of 85.7% interconnected with a pore size of around 72–125 μm. The results of cell culture experiments showed that the scaffolds extracts do not have cytotoxicity in any concentration. Obtained results suggested that the introduced scaffolds are comparable with the trabecular bone from the compositional, structural, and mechanical perspectives and have a great potential as a bone substitute. - Highlights: • A series of biocompatible scaffolds were synthesized through a novel multi-step route. • The porosity increased by increasing n-HAp amounts in the structure of the scaffold. • The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were found close to those of trabecular bone. • The results suggest that the scaffold extracts do not have any cell cytotoxicity. • The scaffold can be efficient as a bioactive bone implant for tissue engineering.

  17. Biomimetic three-dimensional nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and magnetically synthesized single-walled carbon nanotube chitosan nanocomposite for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im O

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Owen Im1, Jian Li2, Mian Wang2, Lijie Grace Zhang2,3, Michael Keidar2,31Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC; 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 3Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Nanotechnology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USABackground: Many shortcomings exist in the traditional methods of treating bone defects, such as donor tissue shortages for autografts and disease transmission for allografts. The objective of this study was to design a novel three-dimensional nanostructured bone substitute based on magnetically synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, biomimetic hydrothermally treated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, and a biocompatible hydrogel (chitosan. Both nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and SWCNT have a biomimetic nanostructure, excellent osteoconductivity, and high potential to improve the load-bearing capacity of hydrogels.Methods: Specifically, three-dimensional porous chitosan scaffolds with different concentrations of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and SWCNT were created to support the growth of human osteoblasts (bone-forming cells using a lyophilization procedure. Two types of SWCNT were synthesized in an arc discharge with a magnetic field (B-SWCNT and without a magnetic field (N-SWCNT for improving bone regeneration.Results: Nanocomposites containing magnetically synthesized B-SWCNT had superior cytocompatibility properties when compared with nonmagnetically synthesized N-SWCNT. B-SWCNT have much smaller diameters and are twice as long as their nonmagnetically prepared counterparts, indicating that the dimensions of carbon nanotubes can have a substantial effect on osteoblast attachment.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that a chitosan nanocomposite with both B-SWCNT and 20% nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite could achieve a higher osteoblast density when compared with the other experimental groups, thus making this nanocomposite

  18. Characterization of derived natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, A. N. K. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite, (HAp), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is recognised as a biomaterial that is widely used for bone implant due to its chemical and structural similarity to the mineral components in human bone and enamel. The elements of HAp are primarily composed of calcium and phosphorus molar ratio of calcium to phosphorous is 1.67 capable to promote bone in-growth into prosthetic implant. Enormous amounts of by-product waste produced from fish factories generated an undesirable environmental impact. Thus, this study was conducted to obtain natural biological HAp from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales from fishery waste. Therefore, fish bones and scales can be as cheap source to produce biological HAp for medical applications. For this purpose, fish bones and scales of tilapia fish were boiled at 100°C to remove adhering meat and other impurities. Later, fish bones and scales were separated into several groups and subjected to different calcination temperatures of 800° C and 900° C for 3h respectively. Afterward, all calcined samples were crushed to form a fine powder. The XRD result revealed the presence of derived Hapfrom the samples powder and were identical with standard Hap. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was carried out to show the thermal stability of the HAp powder from different types of fish bones and scales. SEM results show porous structure appeared in calcined samples compared to raw samples. The findings are the promising alternative to produce calcium and phosphorus from fishery wastes that beneficial to medical applications.

  19. Effect of membranes and porous hydroxyapatite on healing in bone defects around titanium dental implants. An experimental study in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Warrer, K; Hjørting-Hansen

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of treating bony craters around titanium dental implant with polytetrafluoroethylene membranes (PTFE), with and without grafting of hydroxyapatite (HA), and with HA alone. 4 standardized bone defects were prepared in the alveolar ridge...

  20. Induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/β-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre...

  1. Scaffolds for bone regeneration made of hydroxyapatite microspheres in a collagen matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholas, Rahmatullah, E-mail: rahmat.cholas@gmail.com; Kunjalukkal Padmanabhan, Sanosh, E-mail: sanosh2001@gmail.com; Gervaso, Francesca; Udayan, Gayatri; Monaco, Graziana; Sannino, Alessandro; Licciulli, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic scaffolds with a structural and chemical composition similar to native bone tissue may be promising for bone tissue regeneration. In the present work hydroxyapatite mesoporous microspheres (mHA) were incorporated into collagen scaffolds containing an ordered interconnected macroporosity. The mHA were obtained by spray drying of a nano hydroxyapatite slurry prepared by the precipitation technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the microspheres were composed only of hydroxyapatite (HA) phase, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed the Ca/P ratio to be 1.69 which is near the value for pure HA. The obtained microspheres had an average diameter of 6 μm, a specific surface area of 40 m{sup 2}/g as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analysis showed a mesoporous structure with an average pore diameter of 16 nm. Collagen/HA-microsphere (Col/mHA) composite scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying followed by dehydrothermal crosslinking. SEM observations of Col/mHA scaffolds revealed HA microspheres embedded within a porous collagen matrix with a pore size ranging from a few microns up to 200 μm, which was also confirmed by histological staining of sections of paraffin embedded scaffolds. The compressive modulus of the composite scaffold at low and high strain values was 1.7 and 2.8 times, respectively, that of pure collagen scaffolds. Cell proliferation measured by the MTT assay showed more than a 3-fold increase in cell number within the scaffolds after 15 days of culture for both pure collagen scaffolds and Col/mHA composite scaffolds. Attractive properties of this composite scaffold include the potential to load the microspheres for drug delivery and the controllability of the pore structure at various length scales. - Highlights: • Mesoporous hydroxyapatite microsphere(mHA) synthesized by spray drying method • Porous collagen/mHA composite scaffold made by freeze

  2. Nanosized Hydroxyapatite Coating on PEEK Implants Enhances Early Bone Formation: A Histological and Three-Dimensional Investigation in Rabbit Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Johansson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyether ether ketone (PEEK has been frequently used in spinal surgery with good clinical results. The material has a low elastic modulus and is radiolucent. However, in oral implantology PEEK has displayed inferior ability to osseointegrate compared to titanium materials. One idea to reinforce PEEK would be to coat it with hydroxyapatite (HA, a ceramic material of good biocompatibility. In the present study we analyzed HA-coated PEEK tibial implants via histology and radiography when following up at 3 and 12 weeks. Of the 48 implants, 24 were HA-coated PEEK screws (test and another 24 implants served as uncoated PEEK controls. HA-coated PEEK implants were always osseointegrated. The total bone area (BA was higher for test compared to control implants at 3 (p < 0.05 and 12 weeks (p < 0.05. Mean bone implant contact (BIC percentage was significantly higher (p = 0.024 for the test compared to control implants at 3 weeks and higher without statistical significance at 12 weeks. The effect of HA-coating was concluded to be significant with respect to early bone formation, and HA-coated PEEK implants may represent a good material to serve as bone anchored clinical devices.

  3. Mag-seeding of rat bone marrow stromal cells into porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Ito, Akira; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2007-09-01

    Bone tissue engineering has been investigated as an alternative strategy for autograft transplantation. In the process of tissue engineering, cell seeding into three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds is the first step for constructing 3-D tissues. We have proposed a methodology of cell seeding into 3-D porous scaffolds using magnetic force and magnetite nanoparticles, which we term Mag-seeding. In this study, we applied this Mag-seeding technique to bone tissue engineering using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and 3-D hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds. BMSCs were magnetically labeled with our original magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) having a positive surface charge to improve adsorption to cell surface. Magnetically labeled BMSCs were seeded onto a scaffold, and a 1-T magnet was placed under the scaffold. By using Mag-seeding, the cells were successfully seeded into the internal space of scaffolds with a high cell density. The cell seeding efficiency into HA scaffolds by Mag-seeding was approximately threefold larger than that by static-seeding (conventional method, without a magnet). After a 14-d cultivation period using the osteogenic induction medium by Mag-seeding, the level of two representative osteogenic markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) were significantly higher than those by static-seeding. These results indicated that Mag-seeding of BMSCs into HA scaffolds is an effective approach to bone tissue engineering.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of novel biomimetic PLLA/cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone repair applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftekhari, Samin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); El Sawi, Ihab; Bagheri, Zahra Shaghayegh [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); Turcotte, Ginette [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada); Bougherara, Habiba, E-mail: habiba.bougherara@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and characterize a novel biomimetic nanocomposite that closely mimics the properties of real bone such as morphology, composition and mechanical characteristics. This novel porous nanocomposite is composed of cotton-sourced cellulose microcrystals, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and poly L-lactide acid. A unique combination of commonly used fabrication procedures has been developed including pre-treatment of particles using a coupling agent. The effect of various weight ratios of the reinforcing agents was evaluated to assess their influence on the chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and compression testing. Our results indicated the presence of molecular interactions between all components leading to an increase of the crystallinity of the polymer from 50% to 80%. Compression test results revealed that increasing the weight ratio of microcrystalline cellulose/poly L-lactide acid and hydroxyapatite/poly L-lactide acid from 0.1 to 0.5 enhanced the compressive yield stress from 0.127 to 2.2 MPa and The Young's modulus from 6.6 to 38 MPa, respectively. It was found that the fabricated nanocomposites are comparable with the trabecular bone from compositional, structural, and mechanical point of view. - Highlights: • Fabrication of PLLA/HA/cellulose composites that mimic the spongeous bone • Homogenous dispersion of the reinforcing agents in the PLLA matrix was attained. • More efficient interface between the PLLA and the reinforcing agents was achieved. • Preliminary in vitro biocompatibility test showed the nontoxicity of the composite. • The crystallinity, the compressive strength and modulus were investigated.

  5. Effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of hydroxyapatite-collagen composites as artificial bone materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunoki, Shunji [Life Science Group, Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-11-1 Fukasawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0081 (Japan); Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori [Department of Sports Medicine and Joint Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15 Nishi-7, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 Japan (Japan); Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo, E-mail: yunoki.shunji@iri-tokyo.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, 2-12-1-S7-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-collagen composites as artificial bone materials. Seven types of porous HAp-collagen composites were prepared from HAp nanocrystals and dense collagen fibrils. Their densities and HAp/collagen weight ratios ranged from 122 to 331 mg cm{sup -3} and from 20/80 to 80/20, respectively. The flexural modulus and strength increased with an increase in density, reaching 2.46 {+-} 0.48 and 0.651 {+-} 0.103 MPa, respectively. The porous composites with a higher collagen-matrix density exhibited much higher mechanical properties at the same densities, suggesting that increasing the collagen-matrix density is an effective way of improving the mechanical properties. It was also suggested that other structural factors in addition to collagen-matrix density are required to achieve bone-like mechanical properties. The in vivo absorbability of the composites was investigated in bone defects of rabbit femurs, demonstrating that the absorption rate decreased with increases in the composite density. An exhaustive increase in density is probably limited by decreases in absorbability as artificial bones.

  6. Effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of hydroxyapatite-collagen composites as artificial bone materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, Shunji; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-collagen composites as artificial bone materials. Seven types of porous HAp-collagen composites were prepared from HAp nanocrystals and dense collagen fibrils. Their densities and HAp/collagen weight ratios ranged from 122 to 331 mg cm -3 and from 20/80 to 80/20, respectively. The flexural modulus and strength increased with an increase in density, reaching 2.46 ± 0.48 and 0.651 ± 0.103 MPa, respectively. The porous composites with a higher collagen-matrix density exhibited much higher mechanical properties at the same densities, suggesting that increasing the collagen-matrix density is an effective way of improving the mechanical properties. It was also suggested that other structural factors in addition to collagen-matrix density are required to achieve bone-like mechanical properties. The in vivo absorbability of the composites was investigated in bone defects of rabbit femurs, demonstrating that the absorption rate decreased with increases in the composite density. An exhaustive increase in density is probably limited by decreases in absorbability as artificial bones.

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment Temperature on Chemical Compositions of Extracted Hydroxyapatite from Bovine Bone Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, M.; Javadpour, S.; Bahrololoom, M. E.

    2011-11-01

    This article presents the effect of heat treating temperature on chemical composition of hydroxyapatite (HA) that was produced by burning bovine bone, and then heat treating the obtained bone ash at different temperatures in range of 600-1100 °C in air. Bone ash and the resulting white powder from heat treating were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The FT-IR spectra confirmed that heat treating of bone ash at temperature of 800 °C removed the total of organic substances. x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the white powder was HA and HA was the only crystalline phase indicated in heat treating product. x-ray fluorescence analyses revealed that calcium and phosphorous were the main elements and magnesium and sodium were minor impurities of produced powder at 800 °C. The results of the energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that Ca/P ratio in produced HA varies in range of 1.46-2.01. The resulting material was found to be thermally stable up to 1100 °C.

  8. Hydroxyapatite coating on cobalt alloys using electrophoretic deposition method for bone implant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminatun; M, Shovita; I, Chintya K.; H, Dyah; W, Dwi

    2017-05-01

    Damage on bone due to osteoporosis and cancer triggered high demand for bone implant prosthesis which is a permanent implant. Thus, a prosthesis coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) is required because it is osteoconductive that can trigger the growth of osteoblast cells. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of HA suspension in terms of the surface morphology, coating thickness, adhesion strength and corrosion rate resulting in the HA coating with the best characteristics for bone implant. Coating using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method with concentrations of 0.02M, 0.04M, 0.06M, 0.08M, and 0.1M was performed on the voltage and time of 120V and 30 minutes respectively. The process was followed by sintering at the temperature of 900 °C for 10 minutes. The results showed that the concentration of HA suspension influences the thickness and the adhesion of layer of HA. The higher the concentration of HA-ethanol suspension the thicker the layer of HA, but its coating adhesion strength values became lower. The concentration of HA suspension of 0.04 M is the best concentration, with characteristics that meet the standards of the bone implant prosthesis. The characteristics are HA coating thickness of 199.93 ± 4.85 μm, the corrosion rate of 0.0018 mmpy and adhesion strength of 4.175 ± 0.716 MPa.

  9. Comparison of new bone formation, implant integration, and biocompatibility between RGD-hydroxyapatite and pure hydroxyapatite coating for cementless joint prostheses--an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitschnau, Achim; Alt, Volker; Böhner, Felicitas; Heerich, Katharina Elisabeth; Margesin, Erika; Hartmann, Sonja; Sewing, Andreas; Meyer, Christof; Wenisch, Sabine; Schnettler, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    This is the first work to report on additional Arginin-Glycin-Aspartat (RGD) coating on precoated hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces regarding new bone formation, implant bone contact, and biocompatibility compared to pure HA coating and uncoated stainless K-wires. There were 39 rabbits in total with 6 animals for the RGD-HA and HA group for the 4 week time period and 9 animals for each of the 3 implant groups for the 12 week observation. A 2.0 K-wire either with RGD-HA or with pure HA coating or uncoated was placed into the intramedullary canal of the tibia. After 4 and 12 weeks, the tibiae were harvested and three different areas of the tibia were assessed for quantitative and qualitative histology for new bone formation, direct implant bone contact, and formation of multinucleated giant cells. Both RGD-HA and pure HA coating showed statistically higher new bone formation and implant bone contact after 12 weeks than the uncoated K-wire. There were no significant differences between the RGD-HA and the pure HA coating in new bone formation and direct implant bone contact after 4 and 12 weeks. The number of multinucleated giant did not differ significantly between the RGD-HA and HA group after both time points. Overall, no significant effects of an additional RGD coating on HA surfaces were detected in this model after 12 weeks. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Strontium hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanohybrid scaffolds with enhanced osteoinductivity for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yong [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Xu, Zhengliang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Ke, Qinfei [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Yin, Wenjing; Chen, Yixuan [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zhang, Changqing, E-mail: zhangcq@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Guo, Yaping, E-mail: ypguo@shnu.edu.cn [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2017-03-01

    For the clinical application of bone tissue engineering with the combination of biomaterials and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), bone scaffolds should possess excellent biocompatibility and osteoinductivity to accelerate the repair of bone defects. Herein, strontium hydroxyapatite [SrHAP, Ca{sub 10−x}Sr{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}]/chitosan (CS) nanohybrid scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze-drying method. The SrHAP nanocrystals with the different x values of 0, 1, 5 and 10 are abbreviated to HAP, Sr1HAP, Sr5HAP and Sr10HAP, respectively. With increasing x values from 0 to 10, the crystal cell volumes and axial lengths of SrHAP become gradually large because of the greater ion radius of Sr{sup 2+} than Ca{sup 2+}, while the crystal sizes of SrHAP decrease from 70.4 nm to 46.7 nm. The SrHAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds exhibits three-dimensional (3D) interconnected macropores with pore sizes of 100–400 μm, and the SrHAP nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed within the scaffolds. In vitro cell experiments reveal that all the HAP/CS, Sr1HAP/CS, Sr5HAP/CS and Sr10HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds possess excellent cytocompatibility with the favorable adhesion, spreading and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The Sr5HAP nanocrystals in the scaffolds do not affect the adhesion, spreading of hBMSCs, but they contribute remarkably to cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. As compared with the HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffold, the released Sr{sup 2+} ions from the SrHAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds enhance alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization and osteogenic-related COL-1 and ALP expression levels. Especially, the Sr5HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds exhibit the best osteoinductivity among four groups because of the synergetic effect between Ca{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} ions. Hence, the Sr5HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds with excellent cytocompatibility and osteogenic property have promising application for

  11. Strontium hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanohybrid scaffolds with enhanced osteoinductivity for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Yong; Xu, Zhengliang; Ke, Qinfei; Yin, Wenjing; Chen, Yixuan; Zhang, Changqing; Guo, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    For the clinical application of bone tissue engineering with the combination of biomaterials and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), bone scaffolds should possess excellent biocompatibility and osteoinductivity to accelerate the repair of bone defects. Herein, strontium hydroxyapatite [SrHAP, Ca 10−x Sr x (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ]/chitosan (CS) nanohybrid scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze-drying method. The SrHAP nanocrystals with the different x values of 0, 1, 5 and 10 are abbreviated to HAP, Sr1HAP, Sr5HAP and Sr10HAP, respectively. With increasing x values from 0 to 10, the crystal cell volumes and axial lengths of SrHAP become gradually large because of the greater ion radius of Sr 2+ than Ca 2+ , while the crystal sizes of SrHAP decrease from 70.4 nm to 46.7 nm. The SrHAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds exhibits three-dimensional (3D) interconnected macropores with pore sizes of 100–400 μm, and the SrHAP nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed within the scaffolds. In vitro cell experiments reveal that all the HAP/CS, Sr1HAP/CS, Sr5HAP/CS and Sr10HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds possess excellent cytocompatibility with the favorable adhesion, spreading and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The Sr5HAP nanocrystals in the scaffolds do not affect the adhesion, spreading of hBMSCs, but they contribute remarkably to cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. As compared with the HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffold, the released Sr 2+ ions from the SrHAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds enhance alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization and osteogenic-related COL-1 and ALP expression levels. Especially, the Sr5HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds exhibit the best osteoinductivity among four groups because of the synergetic effect between Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ ions. Hence, the Sr5HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds with excellent cytocompatibility and osteogenic property have promising application for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We

  12. The effects of hydroxyapatite coating and bone allograft on fixation of loaded experimental primary and revision implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søballe, Kjeld; Mouzin, Olivier R G; Kidder, Louis A

    2003-01-01

    We used our established experimental model of revision joint replacement to examine the roles of hydroxyapatite coating and bone graft in improving the fixation of revision implants. The revision protocol uses the Søballe micromotion device in a preliminary 8-week period of implant instability...... a titanium alloy (Ti) or a hydroxyapatite (HA) 6.0 mm plasma-sprayed implant, in the presence or absence of allograft packed into the initial 0.75 mm peri-implant gap. The contralateral limb is subjected to primary surgery with the same implant configuration, and serves as control. 8 implants were included...

  13. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Kristen A., E-mail: kazimmer@vt.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); LeBlanc, Jill M.; Sheets, Kevin T.; Fox, Robert W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  14. Properties and in vitro biological evaluation of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan membranes for bone guided regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Xianmiao [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Department of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Li Yubao [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China)], E-mail: nic7504@scu.edu.cn; Zuo Yi; Zhang Li [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Li Jidong [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Department of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Wang Huanan [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China)

    2009-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite(n-HA)/chitosan(CS) composite membranes were prepared by solvent casting and evaporation methods for the function of guided bone regeneration (GBR). The effect of n-HA content and solvent evaporation temperature on the properties of the composite membranes was studied. The n-HA/CS membranes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, swelling measurement, mechanical test, cell culture and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenylte-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The results show that the surface roughness and micropores of the composite membranes increase with the rise of n-HA content, suitable for adhesion, crawl and growth of cells. The hydroxyapatite holds nano size and distributes uniformly in the composite membranes. Chemical bond interaction exists between Ca ions and -OH groups of n-HA and -NH{sub 2} or -OH groups of CS. The n-HA content and solvent evaporation temperature have obvious influence on the swelling ratio, tensile strength and elongation rate of the composite membranes. Cell culture and MTT assays show that n-HA and its content can affect the proliferation of cells. The n-HA/CS composite membranes have no negative effect on the cell morphology, viability and proliferation and possess good biocompatibility. This study makes the n-HA/CS composite membrane be a prospective biodegradable GBR membrane for future applications.

  15. Properties and in vitro biological evaluation of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan membranes for bone guided regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xianmiao; Li Yubao; Zuo Yi; Zhang Li; Li Jidong; Wang Huanan

    2009-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite(n-HA)/chitosan(CS) composite membranes were prepared by solvent casting and evaporation methods for the function of guided bone regeneration (GBR). The effect of n-HA content and solvent evaporation temperature on the properties of the composite membranes was studied. The n-HA/CS membranes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, swelling measurement, mechanical test, cell culture and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenylte-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The results show that the surface roughness and micropores of the composite membranes increase with the rise of n-HA content, suitable for adhesion, crawl and growth of cells. The hydroxyapatite holds nano size and distributes uniformly in the composite membranes. Chemical bond interaction exists between Ca ions and -OH groups of n-HA and -NH 2 or -OH groups of CS. The n-HA content and solvent evaporation temperature have obvious influence on the swelling ratio, tensile strength and elongation rate of the composite membranes. Cell culture and MTT assays show that n-HA and its content can affect the proliferation of cells. The n-HA/CS composite membranes have no negative effect on the cell morphology, viability and proliferation and possess good biocompatibility. This study makes the n-HA/CS composite membrane be a prospective biodegradable GBR membrane for future applications

  16. Processing and characterization of biocomposites Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) / hydroxyapatite for temporary support in bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Cyntia Esteves; Ferreira, Willian Hermogenes; Andrade, Cristina Tristao

    2011-01-01

    Composite materials like biopolymer / hydroxyapatite (HA) has been attracting the interest of researchers because of its applications in medicine. These materials have been used as temporary supports during the regeneration of bone tissue. In this work, poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was chosen as matrix because it has good processability and biocompatibility. The HA was obtained by precipitation from calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid, varying the speed of dripping, the synthesis temperature and time of calcination. The techniques of infrared absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples synthesized HA. The biocomposites were prepared in an internal mixer, with compositions PHB / HA varied. After processing, the biocomposites were ground, characterized by XRD analysis and the crystallinity index. The aim of this study was to examine the variables during the synthesis of HA and its thermal treatment in order to obtain a powder of HA using a simple technique and accessible, creating good properties for the biocomposites prepared. (author)

  17. Hydroxyapatite grafted carbon nanotubes and graphene nanosheets: Promising bone implant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyefusi, Adebola; Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Peterson, Deforest; Stone, Julia M.; Williams, Ebonee; Carson, Laura; Regisford, Gloria; Oki, Aderemi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was successfully grafted to carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets. The HA grafted CNTs and HA-graphene nanosheets were characterized using FT-IR, TGA, SEM and X-ray diffraction. The HA grafted CNTs and graphene nanosheets (CNTs-HA and Gr-HA) were further used to examine the proliferation and differentiation rate of temperature-sensitive human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB 1.19). Total protein assays and western blot analysis of osteocalcin expression were used as indicators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Results indicated that hFOB 1.19 cells proliferate and differentiate well in treatment media containing CNTs-HA and graphene-HA. Both CNTs-HA and graphene-HA could be promising nanomaterials for use as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering.

  18. Hydroxyapatite grafted carbon nanotubes and graphene nanosheets: promising bone implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyefusi, Adebola; Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Peterson, Deforest; Stone, Julia M; Williams, Ebonee; Carson, Laura; Regisford, Gloria; Oki, Aderemi

    2014-11-11

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was successfully grafted to carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets. The HA grafted CNTs and HA-graphene nanosheets were characterized using FT-IR, TGA, SEM and X-ray diffraction. The HA grafted CNTs and graphene nanosheets (CNTs-HA and Gr-HA) were further used to examine the proliferation and differentiation rate of temperature-sensitive human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB 1.19). Total protein assays and western blot analysis of osteocalcin expression were used as indicators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Results indicated that hFOB 1.19 cells proliferate and differentiate well in treatment media containing CNTs-HA and graphene-HA. Both CNTs-HA and graphene-HA could be promising nanomaterials for use as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Scaffold of chitosan-sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite with application potential for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Marcia de A.; Alves, Thais F.R.; Lopes, Francielly C.C.N; Oliveira Junior, Jose Martins de; Pontes, Katiusca S.; Fogaca, Bruna A.C.; Chaud, Marco V.

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold for organic tissue regeneration are architectural, three-dimensional, porous, biocompatible and biodegradable devices. The first challenges to be met in the development of these devices to mimic the biomechanical properties of the target tissue. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize scaffolds composed of chitosan (Ch), sodium alginate (SA), hydroxyapatite (HA). The scaffolds were obtained by lyophilization. HA has been incorporated into the polymer dispersion in Ch-AS concentration of 20 and 60%. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were determined by tensile and compression tests. Swelling capacity was assessed in the presence of simulated saliva, purified water, HCl 0.01M, NaOH 0.01M. The calcium content was quantified using fluorescence X-rays. Analysis of the results indicates that the Qt-AS-HA-60% scaffold obtained by lyophilization meets promising properties for bone tissue regeneration. (author)

  20. Accelerated craniofacial bone regeneration through dense collagen gel scaffolds seeded with dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Frédéric; Collignon, Anne-Margaux; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Lesieur, Julie; Ribes, Sandy; Sadoine, Jérémy; Llorens, Annie; Nicoletti, Antonino; Letourneur, Didier; Colombier, Marie-Laure; Nazhat, Showan N.; Bouchard, Philippe; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gael Y.

    2016-12-01

    Therapies using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded scaffolds may be applicable to various fields of regenerative medicine, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. Plastic compression of collagen scaffolds seeded with MSC has been shown to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of MSC as it increases the collagen fibrillary density. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the osteogenic effects of dense collagen gel scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) on bone regeneration in a rat critical-size calvarial defect model. Two symmetrical full-thickness defects were created (5 mm diameter) and filled with either a rat DPSC-containing dense collagen gel scaffold (n = 15), or an acellular scaffold (n = 15). Animals were imaged in vivo by microcomputer tomography (Micro-CT) once a week during 5 weeks, whereas some animals were sacrificed each week for histology and histomorphometry analysis. Bone mineral density and bone micro-architectural parameters were significantly increased when DPSC-seeded scaffolds were used. Histological and histomorphometrical data also revealed significant increases in fibrous connective and mineralized tissue volume when DPSC-seeded scaffolds were used, associated with expression of type I collagen, osteoblast-associated alkaline phosphatase and osteoclastic-related tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Results demonstrate the potential of DPSC-loaded-dense collagen gel scaffolds to benefit of bone healing process.

  1. Comparative facile methods for preparing graphene oxide-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, M G; Giugliano, D; Longo, A; Zeppetelli, S; Carotenuto, G; Ambrosio, L

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the success of using graphene oxide (GO) as a nanofiller of composites, there is a drive to search for this new kind of carbon material as a bioactive component in ceramic materials. In the present study, biomineralized GO was prepared by two different approaches, represented by in situ sol-gel synthesis and biomimetic treatment. It was found that in the biocomposites obtained by the sol-gel approach, the spindle-like hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, with a diameter of ca. 5 ± 0.37 nm and a length of ca. 70 ± 2.5 nm, were presented randomly and strongly on the surface. The oxygen-containing functional groups, such as hydroxyl and carbonyl, present on the basal plane and edges of the GO sheets, play an important role in anchoring calcium ions, as demonstrated by FT-IR and TEM investigations. A different result was obtained for biocomposites after biomimetic treatment: an amorphous calcium phosphate on GO sheet was observed after 5 days of treatment. These different approaches resulted in a diverse effect on the proliferation and differentiation of osteogenic mesenchymal stem cells. In fact, in biocomposites prepared by the sol-gel approach the expression of an early marker of osteogenic differentiation, ALP, increases with the amount of GO in the first days of cell culture. Meanwhile, biomimetic materials sustain cell viability and proliferation, even if the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity in a basal medium is delayed. These findings may provide new prospects for utilizing GO-based hydroxyapatite biocomposites in bone repair, bone augmentation and coating of biomedical implants and broaden the application of GO sheets in biological areas. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Ribose mediated crosslinking of collagen-hydroxyapatite hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration using biomimetic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Gopal Shankar; Gostynska, Natalia; Campodoni, Elisabetta; Dapporto, Massimiliano; Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Tampieri, Anna; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio; Sprio, Simone; Sandri, Monica

    2017-08-01

    This study explores for the first time the application of ribose as a highly biocompatible agent for the crosslinking of hybrid mineralized constructs, obtained by bio-inspired mineralization of self-assembling Type I collagen matrix with magnesium-doped-hydroxyapatite nanophase, towards a biomimetic mineralized 3D scaffolds (MgHA/Coll) with excellent compositional and structural mimicry of bone tissue. To this aim, two different crosslinking mechanisms in terms of pre-ribose glycation (before freeze drying) and post-ribose glycation (after freeze drying) were investigated. The obtained results explicate that with controlled freeze-drying, highly anisotropic porous structures with opportune macro-micro porosity are obtained. The physical-chemical features of the scaffolds characterized by XRD, FTIR, ICP and TGA demonstrated structural mimicry analogous to the native bone. The influence of ribose greatly assisted in decreasing solubility and increased enzymatic resistivity of the scaffolds. In addition, enhanced mechanical behaviour in response to compressive forces was achieved. Preliminary cell culture experiments reported good cytocompatibility with extensive cell adhesion, proliferation and colonization. Overall, scaffolds developed by pre-ribose glycation process are preferred, as the related crosslinking technique is more facile and robust to obtain functional scaffolds. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated that ribose crosslinking is cost-effective, safe and functionally effective. This study also offers new insights and opportunities in developing promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomaterials recycling: bioglasses obtained from reuse of hydroxyapatite (HA) bovine bone with term exceeded validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.C.; Santos, S.C.; Braga, F.J.C.; Aparecida, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) is a reference bioceramic for bone replacement and regeneration medical practice, becoming one of the most produced and researched bone graft material. Since it is a material for biomedical application, the manufacture and storage of this bioceramic must comply with severe conservation criteria, and its validity date is the lawful major factor for disposal. Materials with the exceeded expiration date are usually discarded and incinerated, resulting in ash, environmental contamination and energy expenditure. This study evaluates the possibility of reuse of bovine HA collected after its validity date as raw material to obtain bioglass, aiming to natural resources saving and environmental emissions mitigation. 45S5 similar compositions were obtained by melting the materials at 1500 ° C, followed by rapid cooling and annealing thermal treatment (500 ° C for 2h), analytical grade chemical reagents were used to set the final composition. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and hydrolysis resistance techniques. The results of comparative chemical resistance (Hydrolytic) tests indicate the potential use of the materials developed for bone replacement applications. (author)

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Nanorods for Rapid Formation of Bone-Like Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Tran Thanh; Nga, Nguyen Kim; Giang, Luu Truong; Huy, Tran Quang; Tuan, Phan Nguyen Minh; Binh, Bui Thi Thanh

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an excellent biomaterial for bone repair and regeneration. The biological functions of HAp particles, such as biomineralization, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation, can be enhanced when their size is reduced to the nanoscale. In this work, HAp nanoparticles were synthesized by the hydrothermal technique with addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). These particles were also characterized, and their size controlled by modifying the CTAB concentration and hydrothermal duration. The results show that most HAp nanoparticles were rod-like in shape, exhibiting the most uniform and smallest size (mean diameter and length of 39 nm and 125 nm, respectively) at optimal conditions of 0.64 g CTAB and hydrothermal duration of 12 h. Moreover, good biomineralization capability of the HAp nanorods was confirmed through in vitro tests in simulated body fluid. A bone-like mineral layer of synthesized HAp nanorods formed rapidly after 7 days. This study shows that highly bioactive HAp nanorods can be easily prepared by the hydrothermal method, being a potential nanomaterial for bone regeneration.

  5. Fixation of Hydroxyapatite-Coated Revision Implants Is Improved by the Surgical Technique of Cracking the Sclerotic Bone Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmengaard, Brian; Bechtold, Joan E.; Chen, Xinqian; Søballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Revision joint replacement has poorer outcomes that have been associated with poorer mechanical fixation. We investigate a new bone-sparing surgical technique that locally cracks the sclerotic bone rim formed during aseptic loosening. We inserted 16 hydroxyapatite-coated implants bilaterally in the distal femur of eight dogs, using a controlled weight-bearing experimental model that replicates important features of a typical revision setting. At 8 weeks, a control revision procedure and a crack revision procedure were performed on contralateral implants. The crack procedure used a splined tool to perform a systematic local perforation of the sclerotic bone rim of the revision cavity. After 4 weeks, the hydroxyapatite-coated implants were evaluated for mechanical fixation by a push-out test and for tissue distribution by histomorphometry. The cracking revision procedure resulted in significantly improved mechanical fixation, significantly more bone ongrowth and bone volume in the gap, and reduced fibrous tissue compared to the control revision procedure. The study demonstrates that the sclerotic bone rim prevents bone ingrowth and promotes fixation by fibrous tissue. The effect of the cracking technique may be due to improved access to the vascular compartment of the bone. The cracking technique is a simple surgical method that potentially can improve the fixation of revision implants in sclerotic regions important for obtaining the fixation critical for overall implant stability. PMID:19148940

  6. Development of model hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds with multiscale porosity for potential load bearing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Jennifer Gwynne

    2005-11-01

    Model hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffolds consisting of a latticed pattern of rods were fabricated by a solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique based on the robotic deposition of colloidal pastes. An optimal HA paste formulation for this method was developed. Local porosity, i.e. microporosity (1--30 mum) and sintering porosity (less than 1 mum), were produced by including polymer microsphere porogens in the HA pastes and by controlling the sintering of the scaffolds. Scaffolds with and without local porosity were evaluated with and without in vitro accelerated degradation. Percent weight loss of the scaffolds and calcium and phosphorus concentrations in solution increased with degradation time. After degradation, compressive strength and modulus decreased significantly for scaffolds with local porosity, but did not change significantly for scaffolds without local porosity. The compressive strength and modulus of scaffolds without local porosity were comparable to human cortical bone and were significantly greater than the scaffolds with local porosity. Micropores in HA disks caused surface pits that increased the surface roughness as compared to non-microporous HA disks. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells extended their cell processes into these microporous pits on HA disks in vitro. ALP expression was prolonged, cell attachment strength increased, and ECM production appeared greater on microporous HA disks compared to non-microporous HA disks and tissue culture treated polystyrene controls. Scaffolds with and without microporosity were implanted in goats bones. Microporous scaffolds with rhBMP-2 increased the percent of the scaffold filled with bone tissue compared to microporous scaffolds without rhBMP-2. Lamellar bone inside scaffolds was aligned near the rods junctions whereas lamellar bone was aligned in a more random configuration away from the rod junctions. Microporous scaffolds stained darkly with toluidine blue beneath areas of contact with new bone. This

  7. Design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite as a potential bone graft substitute material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    Utilization of bone grafts for the treatment of skeletal pathology is a common practice in orthopaedic, craniomaxillofacial, dental, and plastic surgery. Autogenous bone graft is the established archetype but has disadvantages including donor site morbidity, limited supply, and prolonging operative time. In order to avoid these and other issues, bone graft substitute materials are becoming increasingly prevalent among surgeons for reconstructing skeletal defects and arthrodesis applications. Bone graft substitutes are biomaterials, biologics, and guided tissue/bone regenerative devices that can be used alone or in combinations as supplements or alternatives to autogenous bone graft. There is a growing interest and trend to specialize graft substitutes for specific indications and although there is good rationale for this indication-specific approach, the development and utility of a more universal bone graft substitute may provide a better answer for patients and surgeons. The aim of the present research focuses on the design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite composites for potential use as a bone graft substitutes. After initial establishment of rational material design, gelatinhydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated with different gelatin:hydroxyapatite ratios and crosslinking concentrations. The synthesized scaffolds were subsequently evaluated on the basis of their swelling behavior, porosity, density, percent composition, mechanical properties, and morphology and further assessed with respect to cell-biomaterial interaction and biomineralization in vitro. Although none of the materials achieved mechanical properties suitable for structural graft applications, a reproducible material design and synthesis was achieved with properties recognized to facilitate bone formation. Select scaffold formulations as well as a subset of scaffolds loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 were

  8. Effects of combined hydroxyapatite and human platelet rich plasma on bone healing in rabbit model: radiological, macroscopical, hidtopathological and biomechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, A; Meimandi Parizi, A; Shafiei-Sarvestani, Z; Bigham, A S

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and exhibits excellent biocompatibility with soft tissues such as skin, muscle and gums, making it an ideal candidate for orthopedic and dental implants or components of implants. Synthetic hydroxyapatite has been widely used in repair of hard tissues, and common uses include bone repair, bone augmentation, as well as coating of implants or acting as fillers in bone or teeth. On the other hand, human platelet rich plasma (hPRP) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factor. A combination of hPRP and hydroxyapatite is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of hydroxyapatite and hPRP on osteogenesis in vivo, using rabbit model bone healing. A critical size defect of 10 mm long was created in the radial diaphysis of 36 rabbit and either supplied with hydroxyapatite-human PRP or hydroxyapatite or was left empty (control group). Radiographs of each forelimb were taken postoperatively on 1st day and then at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks post injury to evaluate bone formation, union and remodeling of the defect. The operated radiuses of half of the animals in each group were removed on 56th postoperative day and were grossly and histopathologically evaluated. In addition, biomechanical test was conducted on the operated and normal forearms of the other half of the animals of each group. This study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite-humanPRP, could promote bone regeneration in critical size defects with a high regenerative capacity. The results of the present study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite-hPRP could be an attractive alternative for reconstruction of the major diaphyseal defects of the long bones in animal models.

  9. Vascular and micro-environmental influences on MSC-coral hydroxyapatite construct-based bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lei; Wang, Qian; Gu, Congmin; Wu, Jingguo; Wang, Jian; Kang, Ning; Hu, Jiewei; Xie, Fang; Yan, Li; Liu, Xia; Cao, Yilin; Xiao, Ran

    2011-11-01

    Bone tissue engineering (BTE) has been demonstrated an effective approach to generate bone tissue and repair bone defect in ectopic and orthotopic sites. The strategy of using a prevascularized tissue-engineered bone grafts (TEBG) fabricated ectopically to repair bone defects, which is called live bone graft surgery, has not been reported. And the quantitative advantages of vascularization and osteogenic environment in promoting engineered bone formation have not been defined yet. In the current study we generated a tissue engineered bone flap with a vascular pedicle of saphenous arteriovenous in which an organized vascular network was observed after 4 weeks implantation, and followed by a successful repaire of fibular defect in beagle dogs. Besides, after a 9 months long term observation of engineered bone formation in ectopic and orthotopic sites, four CHA (coral hydroxyapatite) scaffold groups were evaluated by CT (computed tomography) analysis. By the comparison of bone formation and scaffold degradation between different groups, the influences of vascularization and micro-environment on tissue engineered bone were quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that in the first 3 months vascularization improved engineered bone formation by 2 times of non-vascular group and bone defect micro-environment improved it by 3 times of ectopic group, and the CHA-scaffold degradation was accelerated as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Precipitation of hydroxyapatite on electrospun polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugavel, Suganya; Reddy, Venugopal Jayarama; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Lakshmi, B S; Dev, Vr Giri

    2014-07-01

    Advances in electrospun nanofibres with bioactive materials have enhanced the scope of fabricating biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering. The present research focuses on fabrication of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds by electrospinning followed by hydroxyapatite deposition by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering. Morphology, composition, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds along with controls polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle and tensile tests, respectively. Adipose-derived stem cells cultured on polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds displayed highest cell proliferation, increased osteogenic markers expression (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), osteogenic differentiation and increased mineralization in comparison with polycaprolactone control. The obtained results indicate that polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds have appropriate physico-chemical and biological properties to be used as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Evaluation of the bone microstructures after the mandibular reconstruction, using bioresorbable hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide mesh tray and the particulate cancellous bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Matsuo, Akira; Chiba, Hiroshige

    2010-01-01

    The combination of particulate cancellous bone and marrow (PCBM) and a titanium tray is frequently used for mandibular reconstruction. However, there are difficulties in bending the tray and forming a suitable contour. In addition, the metallic ions elute into the living body and the hinders the implant insertion; therefore, a removable operation is required after reconstruction. Hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HA/PLLA) is a bone-bonding material that has both bio-activity and bio-resorbability. It may overcome the weakness of a titanium tray, but the bone microstructures have not been evaluated after the use of this tray for PCBM reconstruction. We created defects on the mandible of a beagle and reconstructed it by filling it with a mixture of PCBM and PRP using the HA/PLLA tray. We examined the bone-formation mechanism using a confocal laser microscope and bone microstructural analysis using microCT. As a result, compared to the titanium tray, the bone-formation is delayed during the first 3 to 6 months with an HA/PLLA tray. However, a formation of new bone with equal quality is observed after 12 months. According to the bone microstructural measurement, both of them had higher bone volume fraction than the native bone but other parameters were the same. From the above, the quantity of the new bone in the HA/PLLA tray is the same as the bone in the titanium tray, and has equal bone microstructures with the surrounding native bone. (author)

  12. Bone-like hydroxyapatite precipitated from 10×SBF-like solution by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolga Demirtaş, T.; Kaynak, Gökçe; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-assisted methods have been frequently used in many processes owing to their numerous advantages such as performing fast, efficient and homogenous processes and reducing side reactions. In view of these benefits, in this study it was purposed to produce bone-like hydroxyapatite (HA) by inducing biomimetic process with microwave-irradiation. This is why, concentrated body fluid (SBF) i.e. 10×SBF-like solution was used and it was precipitated in different microwave powers i.e. 90 W, 360 W, 600 W, and 1200 W and in different exposure times. For comparison, precipitation process was also carried out at room temperature for 6 h and at 80 °C for 1 h. The obtained HA structures were characterized by appropriate instrumental techniques. As a result, microwave-induced precipitation at 600 W for 9 times 30 s was determined as the optimum condition for the production of HA which has similar properties to the cortical bone. At this condition, B-type HA with 9.22% (wt.) carbonate content, 1.61 Ca/P molar ratio and amorphous structure was obtained easily, rapidly and efficiently. So, this is the first time microwave technology has been used to precipitate HA from SBF solution. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and efficient method was developed to produce bone-like HA. • Microwave radiation and biomimetic approach via 10×SBF-like solution were combined. • Microwave irradiation at 600 W for 9 × 30 s was determined as the optimum condition. • B-type HA (carbonate content: 9.22%; 1.61 Ca/P:1.61; amorph) was produced. • This method may be employed for the effective HA coating of 3D bone scaffolds

  13. Bone-like hydroxyapatite precipitated from 10×SBF-like solution by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolga Demirtaş, T.; Kaynak, Gökçe [Bioengineering Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe, E-mail: menemse@hacettepe.edu.tr [Bioengineering Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Chemical Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-04-01

    Microwave-assisted methods have been frequently used in many processes owing to their numerous advantages such as performing fast, efficient and homogenous processes and reducing side reactions. In view of these benefits, in this study it was purposed to produce bone-like hydroxyapatite (HA) by inducing biomimetic process with microwave-irradiation. This is why, concentrated body fluid (SBF) i.e. 10×SBF-like solution was used and it was precipitated in different microwave powers i.e. 90 W, 360 W, 600 W, and 1200 W and in different exposure times. For comparison, precipitation process was also carried out at room temperature for 6 h and at 80 °C for 1 h. The obtained HA structures were characterized by appropriate instrumental techniques. As a result, microwave-induced precipitation at 600 W for 9 times 30 s was determined as the optimum condition for the production of HA which has similar properties to the cortical bone. At this condition, B-type HA with 9.22% (wt.) carbonate content, 1.61 Ca/P molar ratio and amorphous structure was obtained easily, rapidly and efficiently. So, this is the first time microwave technology has been used to precipitate HA from SBF solution. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and efficient method was developed to produce bone-like HA. • Microwave radiation and biomimetic approach via 10×SBF-like solution were combined. • Microwave irradiation at 600 W for 9 × 30 s was determined as the optimum condition. • B-type HA (carbonate content: 9.22%; 1.61 Ca/P:1.61; amorph) was produced. • This method may be employed for the effective HA coating of 3D bone scaffolds.

  14. In vitro study on the degradation of lithium-doped hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaping; Yang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Qin, Huanhuan [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Li [Department of Oncology, The 452 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Chengdu, Sichuan Province 610021 (China); Liu, Jingwang [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu, Xixun, E-mail: yuxixun@163.com [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-09-01

    Li-doped hydroxyapatite (LiHA) which is prepared through introducing low dose of Li into hydroxyapatite (HA) has been increasingly studied as a bone tissue-engineered scaffold. The degradation properties play a crucial role in the success of long-term implantation of a bone tissue-engineered construct. Herein, the in vitro degradation behaviors of LiHA scaffolds via two approaches were investigated in this study: solution-mediated degradation and osteoblast-mediated degradation. In solution-mediated degradation, after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for some time, some characteristics of these scaffolds (such as release of ionized lithium and phosphate, pH change, mechanical properties, cytocompatibility and SEM surface characterization) were systematically tested. A similar procedure was also employed to research the degradation behaviors of LiHA scaffolds in osteoblast-mediated degradation. The results suggested that the degradation in SBF and degradation in culture medium with cell existed distinguishing mechanisms. LiHA scaffolds were degraded via a hydrolytic mechanism when they were soaked in SBF. Upon degradation, an apatite precipitation (layer) was formed on the surfaces of scaffolds. While a biological mechanism was presented for the degradation of scaffolds in cell-mediated degradation. Compared with pure HA, LiHA scaffolds had a better effect on the growth of osteoblast cells, meanwhile, the release amount of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in a degradation medium indicated that osteoblasts could accelerate the degradation of LiHA due to the more physiological activities of osteoblast. According to the results from compressive strength test, doping Li into HA could enhance the strength of HA. Moreover, the results from MTT assay and SEM observation showed that the degradation products of LiHA scaffolds were beneficial to the proliferation of osteoblasts. The results of this research can provide the theoretical basis for the clinical application of Li

  15. A graded graphene oxide-hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin biomimetic scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chu, Yanyan; He, Jianxin; Shao, Weili; Zhou, Yuman; Qi, Kun; Wang, Lidan; Cui, Shizhong

    2017-11-01

    To better mimic natural bone, a graphene oxide-hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin (cGO-HA/SF) scaffold was fabricated by biomineralizing carboxylated GO sheets, blending with SF, and freeze-drying. The material has increasing porosity and decreasing density from outside to inside. Analysis of GO mineralization in simulated body fluid indicated that carboxylation and Chitosan may synergistically regulate HA growth along the c-axis of weakly crystalline, rod-like GO-HA particles. Compared with HA/SF gradient composites, a cGO-HA gradient scaffold with cGO:HA mass ratio 1:4 has 5-fold and 2.5-fold higher compressive strength and compressive modulus, respectively. Additionally, the cGO-HA/SF composite stimulated mouse mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation, alkaline phosphatase secretion, and mineral deposition more strongly than HA/SF and pure HA scaffolds. Hence, the material may prove to be an excellent and versatile scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro deposition of hydroxyapatite on cortical bone collagen stimulated by deformation-induced piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris-Suárez, Karem; Lira-Olivares, Joaquin; Ferreira, Ana Marina; Feijoo, José Luis; Suárez, Nery; Hernández, Maria C; Barrios, Esteban

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, we have studied the effect of the piezoelectricity of elastically deformed cortical bone collagen on surface using a biomimetic approach. The mineralization process induced as a consequence of the piezoelectricity effect was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SEM micrographs showed that mineralization occurred predominantly over the compressed side of bone collagen, due to the effect of piezoelectricity, when the sample was immersed in the simulated body fluid (SBF) in a cell-free system. The TSDC method was used to examine the complex collagen dielectric response. The dielectric spectra of deformed and undeformed collagen samples with different hydration levels were compared and correlated with the mineralization process followed by SEM. The dielectric measurements showed that the mineralization induced significant changes in the dielectric spectra of the deformed sample. DSC and TSDC results demonstrated a reduction of the collagen glass transition as the mineralization process advanced. The combined use of SEM, TSDC, and DSC showed that, even without osteoblasts present, the piezoelectric dipoles produced by deformed collagen can produce the precipitation of hydroxyapatite by electrochemical means, without a catalytic converter as occurs in classical biomimetic deposition.

  17. Surface topography of hydroxyapatite promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanlei; Han, Weiqi; He, Wei; Li, Jianlei; Wang, Jirong; Feng, Haotian; Qian, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Effective and safe induction of osteogenic differentiation is one of the key elements of bone tissue engineering. Surface topography of scaffold materials was recently found to promote osteogenic differentiation. Utilization of this topography may be a safer approach than traditional induction by growth factors or chemicals. The aim of this study is to investigate the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation by surface topography and its mechanism of action. Hydroxyapatite (HA) discs with average roughness (Ra) of surface topography ranging from 0.2 to 1.65 μm and mean distance between peaks (RSm) ranging from 89.7 to 18.6 μm were prepared, and human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on these discs. Optimal osteogenic differentiation was observed on discs with surface topography characterized by Ra ranging from 0.77 to 1.09 μm and RSm ranging from 53.9 to 39.3 μm. On this surface configuration of HA, hBMSCs showed oriented attachment, F-actin arrangement, and a peak in the expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and PDZ binding motif (TAZ) (YAP/TAZ). These results indicated that the surface topography of HA promoted osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, possibly by increasing cell attachment and promoting the YAP/TAZ signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Nano-Hydroxyapatite from Salmon Fish Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nano-Hydroxyapatite (nHA was isolated from salmon bone by alkaline hydrolysis. The resulting nHA was characterized using several analytical tools, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, to determine the purity of the nHA sample. The removal of organic matter from the raw fish was confirmed by TGA. FT-IR confirmed the presence of a carbonated group and the similarities to synthetic Sigma HA. XRD revealed that the isolated nHA was amorphous. Microscopy demonstrated that the isolated nHA possessed a nanostructure with a size range of 6–37 nm. The obtained nHA interacted with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and was non-toxic. Increased mineralization was observed for nHA treated MSCs compared to the control group. These results suggest that nHA derived from salmon is a promising biomaterial in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  19. Nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-starch nanocomposite as a novel bone construct: Synthesis and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Mohammad; Jolly, Reshma; Khan, Mohd Shoeb; Iram, Noor e; Khan, Haris M

    2015-09-01

    A novel ternary nanocomposite system incorporating hydroxyapatite, chitosan and starch (n-HA/CS-ST) has been synthesized by co-precipitation method at room temperature, addressing the issues of biocompatibility, mechanical strength and cytotoxicity required for bone tissue engineering. The interactions, crystallite size, surface morphology and thermal stability against n-HA/CS nanocomposite have been obtained by comparing the results of FTIR, SEM, TEM, DLS, XRD and TGA/DTA. A comparative study of bioactivity and thermal stability of n-HA/CS and n-HA/CS-ST nanocomposites revealed that the incorporation of starch as templating agent enhanced these properties in n-HA/CS-ST nanocomposite. A lower swelling rate of n-HA/CS-ST relative to n-HA/CS indicates a higher mechanical strength supportive of bone tissue ingrowths. The MTT assay on murine fibroblast L929 and human osteoblasts-like MG-63 cells and in vitro bioactivity of n-HA/CS-ST matrix referred superior non-toxic nature of n-HA/CS-ST nanocomposite and greater possibility of osteointegration in vivo respectively. Furthermore n-HA/CS-ST exhibited improved antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria relative to n-HA/CS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasnelli, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.frasnelli@unitn.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); INSTM Research Unit, Via G. Giusti 9, 50123 Firenze (Italy); Cristofaro, Francesco [Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/b, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sglavo, Vincenzo M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); INSTM Research Unit, Via G. Giusti 9, 50123 Firenze (Italy); Dirè, Sandra; Callone, Emanuela [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); “Klaus Müller” NMR Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); Ceccato, Riccardo [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); Bruni, Giovanna [Department of Chemistry, Physical-Chemistry Section, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, 27100 Pavia (PV) (Italy); Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro [Department of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pavia (Italy); Visai, Livia [Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/b, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Department of Occupational Medicine, Toxicology and Environmental Risks, S. Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Via S. Boezio, 28, 27100 Pavia (PV) (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    The production of stable suspensions of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) nanopowders, as Sr ions vector for bone tissue regeneration, was carried out in the present work. Sr-HA nanopowders were synthesized via aqueous precipitation methods using Sr{sup 2+} amount from 0 to 100 mol% and were characterized by several complementary techniques such as solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} physisorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The substitution of Ca{sup 2+} with Sr{sup 2+} in HA is always isomorphic with gradual evolution between the two limit compositions (containing 100% Ca and 100% Sr), this pointing out the homogeneity of the synthesized nanopowders and the complete solubility of strontium in HA lattice. Strontium addition is responsible for an increasing c/a ratio in the triclinic unit cell. A significant variation of the nanopowders shape and dimension is also observed, a preferential growth along the c-axis direction being evident at higher strontium loads. Modifications in the local chemical environment of phosphate and hydroxyl groups in the apatite lattice are also observed. Stable suspensions were produced by dispersing the synthesized nanopowders in bovine serum albumin. Characterization by Dynamic Light Scattering and ζ-potential determination allowed to show that Ca{sup 2+} → Sr{sup 2+} substitution influences the hydrodynamic diameter, which is always twice the particles size determined by TEM, the nanoparticles being always negatively charged as a result from the albumin rearrangement upon the interaction with nanoparticles surface. The biocompatibility of the suspensions was studied in terms of cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation and morphology, using osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2. The data pointed out an increased cell proliferation for HA nanoparticles containing larger Sr{sup 2+} load, the cells morphology remaining essentially unaffected. - Highlights

  1. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Smilja; Veselinovic, Ljiljana; Lukic, Miodrag J; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Uskokovic, Dragan [Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Karanovic, Ljiljana [Laboratory for Crystallography, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Bracko, Ines, E-mail: dragan.uskokovic@itn.sanu.ac.rs [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-15

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [0 0 l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 {sup 0}C, from HAp to {beta}-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  2. Mechanical and cytotoxicity evaluation of nanostructured hydroxyapatite-bredigite scaffolds for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilbagi, Marjan; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kharaziha, Mahshid, E-mail: ma.kharaziha@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valiani, Ali [Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Despite the attractive characteristics of three-dimensional pure hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, due to their weak mechanical properties, researches have focused on the development of composite scaffolds via introducing suitable secondary components. The aim of this study was to develop, for the first time, three-dimensional HA-bredigite (Ca{sub 7}MgSi{sub 4}O{sub 16}) scaffolds containing various amounts of bredigite nanopowder (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt.%) using space holder technique. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy were applied in order to study the morphology, fracture surface and phase compositions of nanopowders and scaffolds. Furthermore, the effects of scaffold composition on the mechanical properties, bioactivity, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. Results showed that the composite scaffolds with average pore size in the range of 220–310 μm, appearance porosity of 63.1–75.9% and appearance density of 1.1 ± 0.04 g/cm{sup 3} were successfully developed, depending on bredigite content. Indeed, the micropore size of the scaffolds reduced with increasing bredigite content confirming that the sinterability of the scaffolds was improved. Furthermore, the compression strength and modulus of the scaffolds significantly enhanced via incorporation of bredigite content from 0 to 15 wt.%. The composite scaffolds revealed superior bioactivity and biodegradability with increasing bredigite content. Moreover, MTT assay confirmed that HA-15 wt.% bredigite scaffold significantly promoted cell proliferation compared to tissue culture plate (control) and HA scaffold. Based on these results, three-dimensional HA-bredigite scaffolds could be promising replacements for HA scaffolds in bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Nanostructured hydroxyapatite-bredigite composite scaffolds were developed using space holder technique. • Presence of bredigite

  3. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, Smilja; Veselinovic, Ljiljana; Lukic, Miodrag J; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Uskokovic, Dragan; Karanovic, Ljiljana; Bracko, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [0 0 l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 0 C, from HAp to β-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  4. Osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on strontium-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite coated roughened titanium surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hua-Wei; Lin, Mao-Han; Xu, Yuan-Zhi; Shang, Guang-Wei; Wang, Rao-Rao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on strontium-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) coated roughened titanium surfaces. Methods: Sr-HA coating and HA coating were fabricated on roughened titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition technique and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESM). BMSCs were cultured on Sr-HA coating, HA coating and roughened titanium surfaces respectively. Cell proliferation, alkaline p...

  5. Physiochemical characterizations of hydroxyapatite extracted from bovine bones by three different methods: Extraction of biologically desirable HAp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, Nasser A.M.; Khalil, K.A.; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Omran, A.M.; Gaihre, Babita; Khil, Soeb M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, subcritical water and alkaline hydrolysis methods are proposed methodologies for extraction of natural hydroxyapatite bioceramic from bovine bone. In these processes, the bovine bones powder were treated by high pressure water at 250 deg. C for 1 h and 25% (wt) sodium hydroxide at 250 deg. C for 5 h, respectively. Also the conventional calcination methodology has been utilized as well (T = 850 deg. C for 1 h). The obtained apatites from the three treatment processes have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), electron scanning microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM). FT IR and XRD results affirmed that both the proposed methods and the traditional one can eliminate the collagen and other organic materials present in the bovine bones. The physiochemical characterizations for the obtained apatites have proved that the subcritical water and the alkaline hydrolysis relatively preserve the carbonate content present in the biological apatite, so they yield carbonated hydroxyapatite which is medically preferable. While, the thermal process produces almost hydroxyapatite carbonate-free

  6. In situ observation of fluoride-ion-induced hydroxyapatite-collagen detachment on bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, J H; Thurner, P J; Lauer, M E; Bosma, B L; Schitter, G; Fantner, G E; Izumi, M; Weaver, J C; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2007-01-01

    The topography of freshly fractured bovine and human bone surfaces was determined by the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fracture surfaces from both kinds of samples exhibited complex landscapes formed by hydroxyapatite mineral platelets with lateral dimensions ranging from ∼90 nm x 60 nm to ∼20 nm x 20 nm. Novel AFM techniques were used to study these fracture surfaces during various chemical treatments. Significant topographical changes were observed following exposure to aqueous solutions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or highly concentrated sodium fluoride (NaF). Both treatments resulted in the apparent loss of the hydroxyapatite mineral platelets on a timescale of a few seconds. Collagen fibrils situated beneath the overlying mineral platelets were clearly exposed and could be resolved with high spatial resolution in the acquired AFM images. Time-dependent mass loss experiments revealed that the applied agents (NaF or EDTA) had very different resulting effects. Despite the fact that the two treatments exhibited nearly identical results following examination by AFM, bulk bone samples treated with EDTA exhibited a ∼70% mass loss after 72 h, whereas for the NaF-treated samples, the mass loss was only of the order of ∼10%. These results support those obtained from previous mechanical testing experiments, suggesting that enhanced formation of superficial fluoroapatite dramatically weakens the protein-hydroxyapatite interfaces. Additionally, we discovered that treatment with aqueous solutions of NaF resulted in the effective extraction of noncollagenous proteins from bone powder

  7. Bone-repair properties of biodegradable hydroxyapatite nano-rod superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elía, Noelia L.; Mathieu, Colleen; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Laiuppa, Juan A.; Santillán, Graciela E.; Messina, Paula V.

    2015-11-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures for the in vitro conditions of bone-repair. Experiments are underway to investigate the effects of the material microstructure, surface roughness and hydrophilicity on their osseo-integration, osteo-conduction and osteo-induction abilities. Materials were tested in the presence of both, rat primary osteoblasts and rabbit mesenchymal stem cells. The following aspects are discussed: (i) cytotoxicity and material degradation; (ii) rat osteoblast spreading, proliferation and differentiation; and (iii) rabbit mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on nano-HAp and nano-HAp/collagen type I coatings. We effectively prepared a material based on biomimetic HAp nano-rods displaying the appropriate surface topography, hydrophilicity and degradation properties to induce the in vitro desired cellular responses for bone bonding and healing. Cells seeded on the selected material readily attached, proliferated and differentiated, as confirmed by cell viability, mitochondrial metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cytoskeletal integrity analysis by immunofluorescence localization of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein. These results highlight the influence of material's surface characteristics to determine their tissue regeneration potential and their future use in engineering osteogenic scaffolds for orthopedic implants.Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures

  8. Bone cell-material interactions on metal-ion doped polarized hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of Mg 2+ and Sr 2+ dopants on in vitro bone cell-material interactions of electrically polarized hydroxyapatite [HAp, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] ceramics with an aim to achieve additional advantage of matching bone chemistry along with the original benefits of electrical polarization treatment relevant to biomedical applications. To achieve our research objective, commercial phase pure HAp has been doped with MgO, and SrO in single, and binary compositions. All samples have been sintered at 1200 deg. C for 2 h and subsequently polarized using an external d.c. field (2.0 kV/cm) at 400 deg. C for 1 h. Combined addition of 1 wt.% MgO/1 wt.% SrO in HAp has been most beneficial in enhancing the polarizability in which stored charge was 4.19 μC/cm 2 compared to pure HAp of 2.23 μC/cm 2 . Bone cell-material interaction has been studied by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) for a maximum of 7 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of cell morphology reveal that favorable surface properties and dopant chemistry lead to good cellular adherence and spreading on negatively charged surfaces of both Sr 2+ and Mg 2+ doped HAp samples over undoped HAp. MTT assay results at 7 days show the highest viable cell densities on the negatively charged surfaces of binary doped HAp samples, while positive charged doped HAp surfaces exhibit limited cellular growth in comparison to neutral surfaces.

  9. Amorphous hydroxyapatite-sintered polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration: physical characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushnie, Emily K; Khan, Yusuf M; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-01-01

    Given the inherent shortcomings of autografts and allografts, donor-site morbidity and risk of disease transmission, respectively, alternatives to traditional bone grafting options are warranted. To this end, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) and in situ-synthesized amorphous hydroxyapatite (HA) were used to construct three-dimensional microsphere-based composite scaffolds of varying HA content for bone regeneration. In the current study, the effect of adding amorphous HA to the PLAGA scaffolds on their physical characteristics and in vitro degradation mechanism was investigated. Porosimetry and uniaxial compression testing were used to analyze the internal structure and elastic modulus of the scaffolds, respectively. Additionally, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was performed to assess the polymer molecular weight over the course of an 8-week degradation study. HA content (17% or 27%) of the composite scaffolds was found to increase scaffold pore volume from 33.86% for pure polymer scaffolds, to 40.49% or 46.29%, depending on the amount of incorporated HA. This increased pore volume provided the composite scaffolds with a greater surface area and a corresponding decrease in elastic modulus. Scaffold degradation studies conducted over 8 weeks showed PLAGA to degrade in a first-order mechanism, with the rate of polymer degradation for the 27% HA composite scaffold being significantly slower than that of the pure PLAGA scaffold (degradation constants of 0.0324 and 0.0232 week(-1), respectively). These results suggest that the addition of amorphous HA to PLAGA microspheres resulted in porous, bioactive scaffolds that offer potential as alternative bone grafting materials for the field of regenerative medicine. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2008.

  10. Hydroxyapatite reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin for bone substitute applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Fatemeh; Noor, Ahmad-Fauzi Mohd

    2016-12-01

    The similarity of the chemical composition of HA to the mineral phase of bone and its excellent biocompatibility meets the requirement of materials designed for bone substitute purpose. The application of HA in load bearing devices is limited by its poor mechanical properties. CNTs with outstanding stiffness, strength, combined with their small size and large interfacial area, suggest that they may have great potential as a reinforcing agent for HA. This work aims to develop the Hydroxyapatite/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Bovine Serum Albumin (HA/MWCNTs/BSA) composites with different types of MWCNTs including hydroxylated and carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH, MWCNTs-COOH), and evaluation of mechanical strength and in vitro cellular response of developed composites. HA powder was mixed with de-ionized water, 15 wt.% BSA, and 0.5 wt.% of different MWCNTs* (> 95%), MWCNTs (> 99.9%), MWCNTs-OH (> 99.9%), MWCNTs-COOH (> 99.9%) to produce composites. Among all developed composites, the HA/MWCNTs-COOH/BSA shows the highest compressive strength (29.57 MPa). The cytotoxic effect of HA/MWCNTs-COOH/BSA with different concentrations (6.25 to 200 µg/ml) was evaluated by MTT assay against normal human colon fibroblast (CCD-18Co cell line). At low concentration, all developed composites were found to be non-cytotoxic when treated to the human fibroblast cells and did not elicit cytotoxic effects on cell proliferation and the highest values of cell viability (283%) for the HA/MWCNTs-COOH/BSA composites obtained; whereas when the concentration was increased, the reduction in cell viability was observed. The novel composites showed favorable cytocompatibility with improved compressive strength which make it applicable to use in range of trabecular bone.

  11. Biomimetic nanocomposites of carboxymethyl cellulose-hydroxyapatite: novel three dimensional load bearing bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Subhadra; Sinha, Arvind

    2014-03-01

    An innovative biomimetic synthesis of novel three dimensional micro/macro porous carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposites having four systematically different compositions has been established for its possible application as a load bearing synthetic bone graft. Our process, being in situ, involves a simple and cost effective route akin to a matrix mediated biomineralization process. Developed synthesis route not only controls the size of HA particles in the range of 15-50 nm, embedded in CMC matrix, but also assists in the formation of a mechanically strong three dimensional nanocomposite structures due to physical cross linking of HA impregnated CMC matrix. The process does not involve any toxic cross linker and works at near ambient conditions. The nanocomposites are systematically structurally and mechanically characterized using various techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR (FTIR), solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Universal mechanical test. It reveals that the ionic/polar or electrostatic interactions are the main driving force for formation of load bearing three dimensional nanocomposites via a process similar to matrix mediated biomineralization. Compressive strength and compressive modulus of nanocomposites, being in the range of 1.74-12 MPa and 157-330 MPa, respectively, meet the desired range of compressive strength for the synthetic grafts used in cancellous bone. An increase in the compressive strength with increase in the porosity has been an interesting observation in the present study. In vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized nanocomposites has been evaluated using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) isolated from Wistar rat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-natural nano hydroxyapatite-fucoidan nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Baboucarr; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Anil, Sukumaran; Shim, Min Suk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2016-12-01

    Solid three dimensional (3D) composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering were prepared using the freeze-drying method. The scaffolds were composed of chitosan, natural nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) and fucoidan in the following combinations: chitosan, chitosan-fucoidan, chitosan-nHA, and chitosan-nHA-fucoidan. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy (OM) were used to determine the physiochemical constituents and the morphology of the scaffolds. The addition of nHA into the chitosan-fucoidan composite scaffold reduced the water uptake and water retention. FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of a phosphate group in the chitosan-nHA-fucoidan scaffold. This group is present because of the presence of nHA (isolated via alkaline hydrolysis from salmon fish bones). Microscopic results indicated that the dispersion of nHA and fucoidan in the chitosan matrix was uniform with a pore size of 10-400μm. The composite demonstrated a suitable micro architecture for cell growth and nutrient supplementation. This compatibility was further elucidated in vitro using periosteum-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs). The cells demonstrated high biocompatibility and excellent mineralization for the chitosan-nHA-fucoidan scaffold. We believe that a chitosan-nHA-fucoidan composite is a promising biomaterial for the scaffold that can be used for bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of multisubstituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders as biomedical materials for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba Ismail, Yanny M; Wimpenny, Ian; Bretcanu, Oana; Dalgarno, Kenneth; El Haj, Alicia J

    2017-06-01

    Ionic substitutions have been proposed as a tool to control the functional behavior of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), particularly for Bone Tissue Engineering applications. The effect of simultaneous substitution of different levels of carbonate (CO 3 ) and silicon (Si) ions in the HA lattice was investigated. Furthermore, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on multi-substituted HA (SiCHA) to determine if biomimetic chemical compositions were osteoconductive. Of the four different compositions investigates, SiCHA-1 (0.58 wt % Si) and SiCHA-2 (0.45 wt % Si) showed missing bands for CO 3 and Si using FTIR analysis, indicating competition for occupation of the phosphate site in the HA lattice; 500°C was considered the most favorable calcination temperature as: (i) the powders produced possessed a similar amount of CO 3 (2-8 wt %) and Si (<1.0 wt %) as present in native bone; and (ii) there was a minimal loss of CO 3 and Si from the HA structure to the surroundings during calcination. Higher Si content in SiCHA-1 led to lower cell viability and at most hindered proliferation, but no toxicity effect occurred. While, lower Si content in SiCHA-2 showed the highest ALP/DNA ratio after 21 days culture with hMSCs, indicating that the powder may stimulate osteogenic behavior to a greater extent than other powders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1775-1785, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paşcu, Elena I.; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B., E-mail: garrett.mcguinness@dcu.ie

    2013-12-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw = 90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (± 0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (± 0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples

  15. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paşcu, Elena I.; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw = 90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (± 0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (± 0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples

  16. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşcu, Elena I; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2013-12-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw=90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (±0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (±0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples prepared with

  17. Strontium hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanohybrid scaffolds with enhanced osteoinductivity for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong; Xu, Zhengliang; Ke, Qinfei; Yin, Wenjing; Chen, Yixuan; Zhang, Changqing; Guo, Yaping

    2017-03-01

    For the clinical application of bone tissue engineering with the combination of biomaterials and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), bone scaffolds should possess excellent biocompatibility and osteoinductivity to accelerate the repair of bone defects. Herein, strontium hydroxyapatite [SrHAP, Ca 10-x Sr x (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ]/chitosan (CS) nanohybrid scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze-drying method. The SrHAP nanocrystals with the different x values of 0, 1, 5 and 10 are abbreviated to HAP, Sr1HAP, Sr5HAP and Sr10HAP, respectively. With increasing x values from 0 to 10, the crystal cell volumes and axial lengths of SrHAP become gradually large because of the greater ion radius of Sr 2+ than Ca 2+ , while the crystal sizes of SrHAP decrease from 70.4nm to 46.7nm. The SrHAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds exhibits three-dimensional (3D) interconnected macropores with pore sizes of 100-400μm, and the SrHAP nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed within the scaffolds. In vitro cell experiments reveal that all the HAP/CS, Sr1HAP/CS, Sr5HAP/CS and Sr10HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds possess excellent cytocompatibility with the favorable adhesion, spreading and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The Sr5HAP nanocrystals in the scaffolds do not affect the adhesion, spreading of hBMSCs, but they contribute remarkably to cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. As compared with the HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffold, the released Sr 2+ ions from the SrHAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds enhance alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization and osteogenic-related COL-1 and ALP expression levels. Especially, the Sr5HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds exhibit the best osteoinductivity among four groups because of the synergetic effect between Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ ions. Hence, the Sr5HAP/CS nanohybrid scaffolds with excellent cytocompatibility and osteogenic property have promising application for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016. Published

  18. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adam K MacMillan,1 Francis V Lamberti,1 Julia N Moulton,2 Benjamin M Geilich,2 Thomas J Webster2,3 1RTI Surgical, Alachua, FL, USA; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]. This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL] are normal (ie, non-diseased on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic

  19. Influence of Starting Powders on Hydroxyapatite Coatings Fabricated by Room Temperature Spraying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Seok; Lee, Jong Kook; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Hahn, Byung Dong; Yoon, Seog Young

    2015-08-01

    Three types of raw materials were used for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite coatings by using the room temperature spraying method and their influence on the microstructure and in vitro characteristics were investigated. Starting hydroxyapatite powders for coatings on titanium substrate were prepared by a heat treatment at 1100 °C for 2 h of bovine bone, bone ash, and commercial hydroxyapatite powders. The phase compositions and Ca/P ratios of the three hydroxyapatite coatings were similar to those of the raw materials without decomposition or formation of a new phase. All hydroxyapatite coatings showed a honeycomb structure, but their surface microstructures revealed different features in regards to surface morphology and roughness, based on the staring materials. All coatings consisted of nano-sized grains and had dense microstructure. Inferred from in vitro experiments in pure water, all coatings have a good dissolution-resistance and biostability in water.

  20. Main properties of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite as a bone graft material in treatment of periodontal defects. A review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayani, Mojtaba; Torabi, Sepehr; Shahnaz, Aysan; Pourali, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to provide a literature review on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (n-HA). n-HA constitutes the principle inorganic part of hard tissues. Therefore, preparation of commercial synthetic analogues, the so-called ‘biomimetic’, has gained a lot of attention since it can precisely mimic the physicochemical features of biological apatite compounds. Due to its improved osseointegrative properties, n-HA may represent a promising class of bone graft materials. n-HA binds to the bone and by stimulation of osteoblast activity and enhancing local growth factors it improves bone healing. Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition in response to microbial plaque that leads to periodontal tissue destruction and osseous defects in alveolar bone. A review of the extant literature reveals that n-HA has certain advantages in periodontal tissue regeneration including minimal patient morbidity, better biocompatibility, and lack of toxicity

  1. Mechanical and biological properties of the micro-/nano-grain functionally graded hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Deng, Congying; Chen, Xuening; Zhao, Xiufen; Chen, Ying; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) open the promising approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, a novel functionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic with micrograin and nanograin structure was fabricated. Its mechanical properties were tailored by composition of micrograin and nanograin. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the graded HA ceramics had similar mechanical property compared to natural bones. Their cytocompatibility was evaluated via fluorescent microscopy and MTT colorimetric assay. The viability and proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on ceramics indicated that this functionally graded HA ceramic had better cytocompatibility than conventional HA ceramic. This study demonstrated that functionally graded HA ceramics create suitable structures to satisfy both the mechanical and biological requirements of bone tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of zinc-doped mesoporous hydroxyapatite microspheres for the construction of a novel biomimetic scaffold optimized for bone augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu W

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Weilin Yu,1,* Tuan-Wei Sun,2,3,* Chao Qi,2,3 Zhenyu Ding,1 Huakun Zhao,1 Shichang Zhao,1 Zhongmin Shi,1 Ying-Jie Zhu,2,3 Daoyun Chen,1 Yaohua He1,4 1Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 4School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Biomaterials with high osteogenic activity are desirable for sufficient healing of bone defects resulting from trauma, tumor, infection, and congenital abnormalities. Synthetic materials mimicking the structure and composition of human trabecular bone are of considerable potential in bone augmentation. In the present study, a zinc (Zn-doped mesoporous hydroxyapatite microspheres (Zn-MHMs/collagen scaffold (Zn-MHMs/Coll was developed through a lyophilization fabrication process and designed to mimic the trabecular bone. The Zn-MHMs were synthesized through a microwave-hydrothermal method by using creatine phosphate as an organic phosphorus source. Zn-MHMs that consist of hydroxyapatite nanosheets showed relatively uniform spherical morphology, mesoporous hollow structure, high specific surface area, and homogeneous Zn distribution. They were additionally investigated as a drug nanocarrier, which was efficient in drug delivery and presented a pH-responsive drug release behavior. Furthermore, they were incorporated into the collagen matrix to construct a biomimetic scaffold optimized for bone tissue regeneration. The Zn-MHMs/Coll scaffolds showed an interconnected pore structure in the range of 100–300 µm and a sustained release of Zn ions. More importantly, the Zn-MHMs/Coll scaffolds could enhance the osteogenic differentiation

  3. Characterization of biocomposites of sheep hydroxyapatite (SHA)/shellac/sugar as bone filler material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyono, Joko; Rizha, Yushak; Triyono, Teguh

    2018-04-01

    The use of biomaterials in orthopedics is increasing. This led to the growth of innovations in the field of medicine, one of them is the development of biomaterials. Study of Sheep Hydroxyapatite (SHA)/shellac/sugar biocomposite characterization was to determine the phase of the material, porosity, hardness and compressive strength of them. This research was conducted to develop new types of biomaterials that can be used as bone filler material. The analysis that used in this research was dry methods. The results showed that observation of XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) shows the pattern of diffraction 2θ: 31.6472°, 32.7753°, 32.0723°, The highest hardness of SHA/shellac/sugar ratio was 70:30% (7.38±0.1395 VHN) and the lowest at 50:50% (4.91±0.37 VHN). The highest Diametral Tensile Strength (DTS) test was 70:30% (5.43±1.395 MPa) and the lowest at 50:50% (3.10±0.26 MPa). SEM observations are performed to see the material porosity.

  4. Novel polypropylene biocomposites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and hydroxyapatite nanorods for bone replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Cheng Zhu; Li, Kai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong, Hoi Man; Tong, Wing Yin; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok [Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Tjong, Sie Chin, E-mail: aptjong@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) of 0.1 and 0.3 wt.% and hydoxyapatite nanorods (nHAs) of 8–20 wt.% were incorporated into polypropylene (PP) to form biocomposites using melt-compounding and injection molding techniques. The structural, mechanical, thermal and in vitro cell responses of the PP/MWNT–nHA hybrids were investigated. Tensile and impact tests demonstrated that the MWNT additions are beneficial in enhancing the stiffness, tensile strength and impact toughness of the PP/nHA nanocomposites. According to thermal analysis, the nHA and MWNT fillers were found to be very effective to improve dimensional and thermal stability of PP. The results of osteoblast cell cultivation and dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) tests showed that the PP/MWNT–nHA nanocomposites are biocompatible. Such novel PP/MWNT–nHA hybrids are considered to be potential biomaterials for making orthopedic bone implants. - Highlights: ► Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA) are used as hybrid fillers to reinforce polypropylene. ► MWNT additions are beneficial in enhancing tensile strength and stiffness of PP/nHA composites. ► Hybridizing MWNT with nHA fillers enhance thermal and dimensional stability of PP significantly. ► Hybridizing MWNT with nHA greatly enhance osteoblast adhesion and proliferation. ► PP/MWNT–nHA composites show attractive applications as load-bearing materials in orthopedics.

  5. Fabrication of novel biodegradable porous bone scaffolds based on amphiphilic hydroxyapatite nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Hui, Junfeng [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069, Shaanxi, PR China2 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Li, Hui; Zhu, Chenhui [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069, Shaanxi, PR China2 (China); Hua, Xiufu, E-mail: hua_xiufu@163.com [Department of Scientific Research and Development, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ma, Haixia, E-mail: mahx@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Fan, Daidi, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069, Shaanxi, PR China2 (China)

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a new synthetic strategy and biological application for novel amphiphilic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods. The prepared HAp nanorods were able to be dispersed in water, ethyl alcohol and cyclohexane. The co-anchoring of the multidentate ligands of PEG 20000 and hydrophobic oleic acid (OA) on the rods' surfaces endowed them with excellent amphibious properties. Utilizing amphiphilic HAp nanorods with excellent biocompatibility as the inorganic phase, human-like collagen (HLC) as the organic phase and natural genipin as the cross-linker, optimal HLC/HAp porous scaffolds (HLC: HAp = 1:4, w/w) were fabricated. The compression stress and three-point bending strength of the scaffolds with pore diameters of 150 to 200 μm reached approximately 3.4 MPa and 5.4 MPa, respectively, and their porosity was 77.35 ± 3.75%. Cytological tests showed that HLC/HAp scaffolds could contribute to cell proliferation and differentiation. The results indicated that these novel amphiphilic HAp nanorods can be expected to become recognized as an excellent inorganic material for the porous scaffolds used in repairing bone and related applications. - Highlights: • A simple and effective hydrothermal method was developed for preparing uniform HAp nanorods with amphiphilic surfaces. • The synthesized amphiphilic HAp nanorods could be dispersed in water, ethyl alcohol or cyclohexane. • The prepared HLC/HAp porous scaffolds had good mechanical properties, biocompatibility and osteoconductive etc.

  6. 3D printing of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds intended for use in bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sophie C; Thornby, John A; Gibbons, Gregory J; Williams, Mark A; Mallick, Kajal K

    2015-02-01

    A systematic characterisation of bone tissue scaffolds fabricated via 3D printing from hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(vinyl)alcohol (PVOH) composite powders is presented. Flowability of HA:PVOH precursor materials was observed to affect mechanical stability, microstructure and porosity of 3D printed scaffolds. Anisotropic behaviour of constructs and part failure at the boundaries of interlayer bonds was highlighted by compressive strength testing. A trade-off between the ability to facilitate removal of PVOH thermal degradation products during sintering and the compressive strength of green parts was revealed. The ultimate compressive strength of 55% porous green scaffolds printed along the Y-axis and dried in a vacuum oven for 6h was 0.88 ± 0.02 MPa. Critically, the pores of 3D printed constructs could be user designed, ensuring bulk interconnectivity, and the imperfect packing of powder particles created an inherent surface roughness and non-designed porosity within the scaffold. These features are considered promising since they are known to facilitate osteoconduction and osteointegration in-vivo. Characterisation techniques utilised in this study include two funnel flow tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), compressive strength testing and computed tomography (CT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fabrication of novel biodegradable porous bone scaffolds based on amphiphilic hydroxyapatite nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Hui, Junfeng; Li, Hui; Zhu, Chenhui; Hua, Xiufu; Ma, Haixia; Fan, Daidi

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a new synthetic strategy and biological application for novel amphiphilic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods. The prepared HAp nanorods were able to be dispersed in water, ethyl alcohol and cyclohexane. The co-anchoring of the multidentate ligands of PEG 20000 and hydrophobic oleic acid (OA) on the rods' surfaces endowed them with excellent amphibious properties. Utilizing amphiphilic HAp nanorods with excellent biocompatibility as the inorganic phase, human-like collagen (HLC) as the organic phase and natural genipin as the cross-linker, optimal HLC/HAp porous scaffolds (HLC: HAp = 1:4, w/w) were fabricated. The compression stress and three-point bending strength of the scaffolds with pore diameters of 150 to 200 μm reached approximately 3.4 MPa and 5.4 MPa, respectively, and their porosity was 77.35 ± 3.75%. Cytological tests showed that HLC/HAp scaffolds could contribute to cell proliferation and differentiation. The results indicated that these novel amphiphilic HAp nanorods can be expected to become recognized as an excellent inorganic material for the porous scaffolds used in repairing bone and related applications. - Highlights: • A simple and effective hydrothermal method was developed for preparing uniform HAp nanorods with amphiphilic surfaces. • The synthesized amphiphilic HAp nanorods could be dispersed in water, ethyl alcohol or cyclohexane. • The prepared HLC/HAp porous scaffolds had good mechanical properties, biocompatibility and osteoconductive etc.

  8. Novel cerium doped glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite with antibacterial and osteoconductive properties for bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, D S; Fernandes, S; Santos, J D; Lopes, M A; Gomes, P S; Fernandes, M H; Sampaio, P; Ferraz, M P; Sooraj Hussain, N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a bioactive bone substitute with an effective antibacterial ability based on a cerium (Ce) doped glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite (GR-HA) composite. Developed composites were physicochemically characterized, using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, SEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and flexural bending strength (FBS) tests. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was performed to analyze the oxidation state of Ce in the prepared doped glass. The antimicrobial activity of the composites was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; whether the cytocompatibility profile was assayed with human osteoblastic-like cells (Mg-63 cell line). The results revealed that the Ce inclusion in the GR-HA matrix induced the antimicrobial ability of the composite. In addition, Ce-doped materials reported an adequate biological behavior following seeding of osteoblastic populations, by inducing cell adhesion and proliferation. Developed materials were also found to enhance the expression of osteoblastic-related genes. Overall, the developed GR-HA-Ce composite is a prospective candidate to be used within the clinical scenario with a successful performance due to the effective antibacterial properties and capability of enhancing the osteoblastic cell response. (paper)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of bovine femur bone hydroxyapatite containing silver nanoparticles for the biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmala, R.; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Kanjwal, Muzafar A.; Lee, John Hwa; Park, Soo-Jin; Navamathavan, R.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-01-01

    Bovine femur bone hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag) nanoparticles was synthesized by thermal decomposition method and subsequent reduction of silver nitrate with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of poly(vinylacetate) (PVAc). The structural, morphological, and chemical properties of the HA–Ag nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TEM images showed that the Ag nanoparticles with size ranging from 8 to 20 nm and were arranged at the periphery of HA crystals. Bactericidal activity of HA–Ag with different concentration of Ag nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of HA was investigated against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, non-MRSA), Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and gram-negative Escherichia coli (E.coli) by the disc diffusion susceptibility test. The HA–Ag nanoparticles showed that broad spectrum activity against non-MRSA, MRSA, and E. coli bacterial strains.

  10. In vitro biomechanical and biocompatible evaluation of natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiaoying; Zheng, Buzhong; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Lifeng; Lu, Jieyan; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jizhong; Cui, Wei

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical properties and biocompatibility of natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan (HA/CS) composites. The natural HA/CS composites with a different proportion of HA and CS were prepared by the cross-linking method, and then the compressive strength, microstructure and pH values of extracts from these composites were measured by SEM and pH meter, respectively. Subsequently, the biocompatibility of the composites was evaluated by means of a series of biological tests, including MTT, acute systemic toxicity, heat source, and hemolysis tests in vitro. The chitosan content in the composites had significantly influenced the mechanical properties and microstructure of the composites. The pH value of the composite extract was approximately 7.0, which was very close to that of human plasma. Furthermore, the natural HA/CS composites showed no cytotoxicity, irritation, teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and special pyrogen. These results indicated that the natural HA/CS composite may be a potential bone repair material.

  11. Influence of surface features of hydroxyapatite on the adsorption of proteins relevant to bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montes Moraleda, Belén; San Román, Julio; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Luís M

    2013-08-01

    Protein-surface interaction may determine the success or failure of an implanted device. Not much attention have been paid to the specific surface parametes of hydroxyapatite (OHAp) that modulates and determines the formation and potential activity of the layer of proteins that is first formed when the material get in contact with the host tissue. the influence of specific surface area (SSA), crystallite size (CS) and particle size (PS) of OHAp on the adsorption of proteins relevant for bone regeneration is evaluated in this article. OHAp have been prepared by a wet chemical reaction of Ca(OH)2 with H3PO4. One set of reactions included poly acrylic acid in the reactant solution to modify the properties of the powder. Fibrinogen (Fg) Fraction I, type I: from Human plasma, (67% Protein), and Fibronectin (Fn) from Human plasma were selected to perform the adsorption experiments. The analysis of protein adsorption was carried out by UV/Vis spectrometry. A lower SSA and a different aspect ratio are obtained when the acrylic acid is included in the reaction badge. The deconvolution of the amide I band on the Raman spectra of free and adsorbed proteins reveals that the interaction apatite-protein happens through the carboxylate groups of the proteins. The combined analysis of CS, SSA and PS should be considered on the design of OHAp materials intended to interact with proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pure hydroxyapatite phantoms for the calibration of in vivo X-ray fluorescence systems of bone lead and strontium quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Eric; Kirkham, Brian; Heyd, Darrick V; Pejović-Milić, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Plaster of Paris [poP, CaSO4·(1)/(2) H2O] is the standard phantom material used for the calibration of in vivo X-ray fluorescence (IVXRF)-based systems of bone metal quantification (i.e bone strontium and lead). Calibration of IVXRF systems of bone metal quantification employs the use of a coherent normalization procedure which requires the application of a coherent correction factor (CCF) to the data, calculated as the ratio of the relativistic form factors of the phantom material and bone mineral. Various issues have been raised as to the suitability of poP for the calibration of IVXRF systems of bone metal quantification which include its chemical purity and its chemical difference from bone mineral (a calcium phosphate). This work describes the preparation of a chemically pure hydroxyapatite phantom material, of known composition and stoichiometry, proposed for the purpose of calibrating IVXRF systems of bone strontium and lead quantification as a replacement for poP. The issue with contamination by the analyte was resolved by preparing pure Ca(OH)2 by hydroxide precipitation, which was found to bring strontium and lead levels to bone mineral component of NIST SRM 1486 (bone meal), as determined by powder X-ray diffraction spectrometry.

  13. A novel squid pen chitosan/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa; Ali, Azam [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Gould, Maree [Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-10-01

    Squid pen chitosan was used in the fabrication of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) obtained from waste mussel shells were used as the calcium phosphate source. The composite was prepared using 2.5% tripolyphosphate (TPP) and 1% glycerol as a cross-linker and plasticizer, respectively. The weight percent (wt.%) ratios of the ceramic components in the composite were 20/10/70, 30/20/50 and 40/30/30 (HA/β-TCP/Chi). The biodegradation rate and structural properties of the scaffolds were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microCT(μCT) results indicated that the composites have a well defined lamellar structure with an average pore size of 200 μm. The porosity of the composites decreased from 88 to 56% by increasing the ratio of HA/β-TCP from 30 to 70%. After 28 days of incubation in a physiological solution, the scaffolds were degraded by approximately 30%. In vitro investigations showed that the composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. The obtained data suggests that the squid pen chitosan composites are potential candidates for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Biocomposite scaffolds were made from mussel shells HA and β-TCP, and squid pin chitosan. • The porosity of the composites decreased with an increase in HA/β-TCP ratio. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. • Composite containing 50% HA and β-TCP had the best mechanical properties.

  14. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Klyui, Nickolai I; Temchenko, Volodymyr P; Kyselov, Vitalii S; Chatterjee, Anamika; Belyaev, Alexander E; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Iarmolenko, Dmytro; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO2) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO2 using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO2 to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO2 coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO2 coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute leads to sufficient bone tissue formation already after 3 months: histological and histomorphometrical analysis 3 and 6 months following human sinus cavity augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Willershausen, Ines; Thimm, Benjamin; Stuebinger, Stefan; Korzinskas, Tadas; Obreja, Karina; Landes, Constantin; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    In this study the de novo bone formation capacity of a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute was assessed 3 and 6 months after its insertion into the human sinus cavity. Sinus cavity augmentation was performed in a total of 14 patients (n = 7 implantation after 3 months; n = 7 implantation after 6 months) with severely atrophic maxillary bone. The specimens obtained after 3 and 6 months were analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with special focus on bone metabolism within the residual bone and the augmented region. This study revealed that bone tissue formation started from the bone-biomaterial-interface and was directed into the most cranial parts of the augmented region. There was no statistically significant difference in new bone formation after 3 and 6 months (24.89 ± 10.22% vs 31.29 ± 2.29%), respectively. Within the limits of the present study and according to previously published data, implant insertion in regions augmented with this bone substitute material could be considered already after 3 months. Further clinical studies with bone substitute materials are necessary to validate these findings. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bone integration capability of nanopolymorphic crystalline hydroxyapatite coated on titanium implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Masahiro Yamada*, Takeshi Ueno*, Naoki Tsukimura, Takayuki Ikeda, Kaori Nakagawa, Norio Hori, Takeo Suzuki, Takahiro OgawaLaboratory of Bone and Implant Sciences, The Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The mechanism by which hydroxyapatite (HA-coated titanium promotes bone–implant integration is largely unknown. Furthermore, refining the fabrication of nanostructured HA to the level applicable to the mass production process for titanium implants is challenging. This study reports successful creation of nanopolymorphic crystalline HA on microroughened titanium surfaces using a combination of flame spray and low-temperature calcination and tests its biological capability to enhance bone–implant integration. Sandblasted microroughened titanium implants and sandblasted + HA-coated titanium implants were subjected to biomechanical and histomorphometric analyses in a rat model. The HA was 55% crystallized and consisted of nanoscale needle-like architectures developed in various diameters, lengths, and orientations, which resulted in a 70% increase in surface area compared to noncoated microroughened surfaces. The HA was free from impurity contaminants, with a calcium/phosphorus ratio of 1.66 being equivalent to that of stoichiometric HA. As compared to microroughened implants, HA-coated implants increased the strength of bone–implant integration consistently at both early and late stages of healing. HA-coated implants showed an increased percentage of bone–implant contact and bone volume within 50 µm proximity of the implant surface, as well as a remarkably reduced percentage of soft tissue intervention between bone and the implant surface. In contrast, bone volume outside the 50 µm border was lower around HA-coated implants. Thus, this study

  17. Bone formation in mono cortical mandibular critical size defects after augmentation with two synthetic nanostructured and one xenogenous hydroxyapatite bone substitute - in vivo animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Michael; Kämmerer, Peer W; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Gerber, Thomas; Frerich, Bernhard; Gundlach, Karsten K H

    2016-05-01

    Healing characteristics as well as level of tissue integration and degradation of two different nanostructured hydroxyapatite bone substitute materials (BSM) in comparison with a deproteinized hydroxyapatite bovine BSM were evaluated in an in vivo animal experiment. In the posterior mandible of 18 minipigs, bilateral mono cortical critical size bone defects were created. Randomized augmentation procedures with NanoBone(®) (NHA1), Ostim(®) (NHA2) or Bio-Oss(®) (DBBM) were conducted (each material n = 12). Samples were analyzed after five (each material n = 6) and 8 months (each material n = 6). Defect healing, formation of soft tissue and bone as well as the amount of remaining respective BSM were quantified both macro- and microscopically. For NHA2, the residual bone defect after 5 weeks was significantly less compared to NHA1 or DBBM. There was no difference in residual BSM between NHA1 and DBBM, but the amount in NHA2 was significantly lower. NHA2 also showed the least amount of soft tissue and the highest amount of new bone after 5 weeks. Eight months after implantation, no significant differences in the amount of residual bone defects, in soft tissue or in bone formation were detected between the groups. Again, NHA2 showed significant less residual material than NHA1 and DBBM. We observed non-significant differences in the biological hard tissue response of NHA1 and DBBM. The water-soluble NHA2 initially induced an increased amount of new bone but was highly compressed which may have a negative effect in less stable augmentations of the jaw. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Spence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.

  19. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Sell, Scott A.; McCool, Jennifer M.; Saxena, Gunjan; Spence, Andrew J.; Bowlin, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma), hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone. PMID:24709699

  20. Ionic liquid as a potential solvent for preparation of collagen-alginate-hydroxyapatite beads as bone filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Bushra; Sarfaraz, Zenab; Muhammad, Nawshad; Ahmad, Pervaiz; Iqbal, Jibran; Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Gonfa, Girma; Iqbal, Farasat; Jamal, Arshad; Rahim, Abdur

    2018-07-01

    In this study, collagen/alginate/hydroxyapatite beads having different proportions were prepared as bone fillers for the restoration of osteological defects. Ionic liquid was used to dissolve the collagen and subsequently the solution was mixed with sodium alginate solution. Hydroxyapatite was added in different proportions, with the rationale to enhance mechanical as well as biological properties. The prepared solutions were given characteristic bead shapes by dropwise addition into calcium chloride solution. The prepared beads were characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM analysis. Microhardness testing was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. The prepared beads were investigated for water adsorption behavior to ascertain its ability for body fluid uptake and adjusted accordingly to the bone cavity. Drug loading and subsequently the antibacterial activity was investigated for the prepared beads. The biocompatibility was assessed using the hemolysis testing and cell proliferation assay. The prepared collagen-alginate-HA beads, having biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, have showed an option of promising biologically active bone fillers for bone regeneration.

  1. Selective effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on osteoporotic and healthy bone formation correlates with intracellular calcium homeostasis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Xie, Pengfei; Zhang, Kun; Tang, Zhurong; Chen, Xuening; Zhu, Xiangdong; Fan, Yujiang; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xingdong

    2017-09-01

    Adequate bone substitutes osseointegration has been difficult to achieve in osteoporosis. Hydroxyapatite of the osteoporotic bone, secreted by pathologic osteoblasts, had a smaller crystal size and lower crystallinity than that of the normal. To date, little is known regarding the interaction of synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) with osteoblasts born in bone rarefaction. The present study investigated the biological effects of HANPs on osteoblastic cells derived from osteoporotic rat bone (OVX-OB), in comparison with the healthy ones (SHM-OB). A selective effect of different concentrations of HANPs on the two cell lines was observed that the osteoporotic osteoblasts had a higher tolerance. Reductions in cell proliferation, ALP activity, collagen secretion and osteoblastic gene expressions were found in the SHM-OB when administered with HANPs concentration higher than 25µg/ml. In contrast, those of the OVX-OB suffered no depression but benefited from 25 to 250µg/ml HANPs in a dose-dependent manner. We demonstrated that the different effects of HANPs on osteoblasts were associated with the intracellular calcium influx into the endoplasmic reticulum. The in vivo bone defect model further confirmed that, with a critical HANPs concentration administration, the osteoporotic rats had more and mechanically matured new bone formation than the non-treated ones, whilst the sham rats healed no better than the natural healing control. Collectively, the observed epigenetic regulation of osteoblastic cell function by HANPs has significant implication on defining design parameters for a potential therapeutic use of nanomaterials. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) on osteoporotic rat bone and the derived osteoblast. Our findings revealed a previously unrecognized phenomenon that the osteoporotic individuals could benefit from higher concentrations of HANPs, as compared with the healthy individuals. The in

  2. Hydroxyapatite from fish scale for potential use as bone scaffold or regenerative material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon-On, Weeraphat, E-mail: fsciwpp@ku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Suntornsaratoon, Panan [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Thongbunchoo, Jirawan [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Krishnamra, Nateetip [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Tang, I. Ming [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2016-05-01

    The present paper studies the physico-chemical, bioactivity and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) which is derived from fish scale (FS) (FSHA) and compares them with those of synthesized HA (sHA) obtained by co-precipitation from chemical solution as a standard. The analysis shows that the FSHA is composed of flat-plate nanocrystal with a narrow width size of about 15–20 nm and having a range of 100 nm in length and that the calcium phosphate ratio (Ca/P) is 2.01 (Ca-rich CaP). Whereas, synthesized HA consists of sub-micron HA particle having a Ca/P ratio of 1.65. Bioactivity test shows that the FSHA forms more new apatite than does the sHA after being incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. Moreover, the biocompatibility study shows a higher osteoblast like cell adhesion on the FSHA surface than on the sHA substrate after 3 days of culturing. Our results also show the shape of the osteoblast cells on the FSHA changes from being a rounded shape to being a flattened shape reflecting its spreading behavior on this surface. MTT assay and ALP analysis show significant increases in the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts over the FSHA scaffold after 5 days of culturing as compared to those covering the sHA substrates. These results confirm that the bio-materials derived from fish scale (FSHA) are biologically better than the chemically synthesized HA and have the potential for use as a bone scaffold or as regenerative materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of hydroxyapatite (HA) which is derived from fish scale (FS) (FSHA) and their bioactivities • The FSHA is composed of flat-plate nanocrystal with a narrow size of 15–20 nm. • Bioactivity test shows that the FSHA forms more new apatite than does the sHA after being incubated SBF. • In vitro cell availability tests show a higher cell adhesion on the FSHA surface.

  3. Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uswatta, Suren P.; Okeke, Israel U. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study we have fabricated porous injectable spherical scaffolds using chitosan biopolymer, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). TPP was primarily used as an ionic crosslinker to crosslink nHA/chitosan droplets. We hypothesized that incorporating nHA into chitosan could support osteoconduction by emulating the mineralized cortical bone structure, and improve the Ultimate Compressive Strength (UCS) of the scaffolds. We prepared chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentration and used simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques to obtain spherical scaffolds. Lyophilized spherical scaffolds had a mean diameter of 1.33 mm (n = 25). Further, portion from each group lyophilized scaffolds were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds. LSD scaffolds had a mean diameter of 0.93 mm (n = 25) which is promising property for the injectability. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures inside the scaffolds. Lyophilized and LSD scaffolds had surface pores < 10 and 2 μm, respectively. 2% nHA/chitosan LSD scaffolds exhibited UCS of 8.59 MPa compared to UCS of 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds at 3.93 MPa. Standardize UCS values were 79.98 MPa and 357 MPa for 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized and LSD particles respectively. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to 0% and 0.5% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. Moreover, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (p < 0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. In a drawback, all scaffolds have lost their mechanical properties by 95% on the 2nd day when fully immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Additionally live and dead cell assay showed no cytotoxicity and excellent osteoblast attachment to both lyophilized and LSD scaffolds at the end of 14th day of in vitro

  4. Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uswatta, Suren P.; Okeke, Israel U.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have fabricated porous injectable spherical scaffolds using chitosan biopolymer, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). TPP was primarily used as an ionic crosslinker to crosslink nHA/chitosan droplets. We hypothesized that incorporating nHA into chitosan could support osteoconduction by emulating the mineralized cortical bone structure, and improve the Ultimate Compressive Strength (UCS) of the scaffolds. We prepared chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentration and used simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques to obtain spherical scaffolds. Lyophilized spherical scaffolds had a mean diameter of 1.33 mm (n = 25). Further, portion from each group lyophilized scaffolds were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds. LSD scaffolds had a mean diameter of 0.93 mm (n = 25) which is promising property for the injectability. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures inside the scaffolds. Lyophilized and LSD scaffolds had surface pores < 10 and 2 μm, respectively. 2% nHA/chitosan LSD scaffolds exhibited UCS of 8.59 MPa compared to UCS of 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds at 3.93 MPa. Standardize UCS values were 79.98 MPa and 357 MPa for 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized and LSD particles respectively. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to 0% and 0.5% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. Moreover, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (p < 0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. In a drawback, all scaffolds have lost their mechanical properties by 95% on the 2nd day when fully immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Additionally live and dead cell assay showed no cytotoxicity and excellent osteoblast attachment to both lyophilized and LSD scaffolds at the end of 14th day of in vitro

  5. Immunohistochemical characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel (NanoBone(r)) osteogenesis: a study on biopsies from human jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Werner; Gerber, Thomas; Michel, Barbara; Lossdörfer, Stefan; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2008-10-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials may be osteogenic, osteoconductive or osteoinductive. To test for these probable characteristics in a new nanoporous grafting material consisting of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in a porous silica gel matrix (NanoBone(s)), applied in humans, we studied biopsies from 12 patients before dental implantation following various orofacial augmentation techniques with healing times of between 3.5 and 12 months. Sections from decalcified specimens were investigated using histology, histochemistry [periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)] and immunohistochemistry, with markers for osteogenesis, bone remodelling, resorption and vessel walls (alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-2, collagen type I, ED1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, runx2 and Von-Willebrand factor). Histologically, four specific stages of graft transformation into lamellar bone could be characterized. During early stages of healing, bone matrix proteins were absorbed by NanoBone(s) granules, forming a proteinaceous matrix, which was invaded by small vessels and cells. We assume that the deposition of these molecules promotes early osteogenesis in and around NanoBone(s) and supports the concomitant degradation probably by osteoclast-like cells. TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells were localized directly on the granular surfaces. Runx2-immunoreactive pre-osteoblasts, which are probably involved in direct osteogenesis forming woven bone that is later transformed into lamellar bone, were attracted. Graft resorption and bone apposition around the graft granules appear concomitantly. We postulate that NanoBone(s) has osteoconductive and biomimetic properties and is integrated into the host's physiological bone turnover at a very early stage.

  6. Sinus Floor Elevation and Augmentation Using Synthetic Nanocrystalline and Nanoporous Hydroxyapatite Bone Substitute Materials: Preliminary Histologic Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouka, Sofia-Maria; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    To compare the tissue composition of augmented sites after using two different synthetic bone substitute materials, nanocrystalline and nanoporous hydroxyapatite (HA), for sinus floor elevation and augmentation. Forty-four patients received 88 titanium screw implants (Camlog Promote plus) of 4.3-mm diameter and 11- or 13-mm length, placed simultaneously during sinus floor elevation and augmentation. Nanocrystalline (Ostim) or nanoporous (NanoBone) HA were used exclusively. Bone substitute materials and implant lengths were allocated by randomization. Bone biopsy specimens were obtained from the former area of the lateral access window at implant exposure during healing abutment placement after 6 months. Biopsy specimens were prepared and examined histologically and histomorphometrically. All implants were osseointegrated at the time of exposure. Clinically and histologically, no signs of inflammation in the augmented sites were present. The histomorphometric analysis of 44 biopsy specimens revealed 31.8% ± 11.6% newly formed bone for sites augmented with nanocrystalline HA and 34.6% ± 9.2% for nanoporous HA (P = .467). The proportion of remaining bone substitute material was 28.4% ± 18.6% and 30% ± 13%, respectively (P = .453). The proportion of soft tissue within the biopsy specimens was 39.9% ± 11.1% and 35.4% ± 6.8%, respectively (P = .064). No significant differences were found between the area fractions of bone, bone substitute material, and soft tissue concerning the bone substitute material utilized. Within the present study, both synthetic bone substitute materials, nanocrystalline and nanoporous HA, were found to support bone formation in sinus floor elevation and augmentation procedures by osteoconductivity. They were not completely resorbed after 6 months. The amounts of newly formed bone, soft tissue, and bone substitute material remnants were found to be similar, indicating that both materials are likewise suitable for sinus floor elevation and

  7. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, Alessandra; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela; Montanaro, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and (b) titration of Ca(OH) 2 . The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m 2 /g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH) 2 were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH) 2

  8. In vitro and in vivo investigation of bisphosphonate-loaded hydroxyapatite particles for peri-implant bone augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettenberger, Ulrike; Luginbuehl, Vera; Procter, Philip; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2017-07-01

    Locally applied bisphosphonates, such as zoledronate, have been shown in several studies to inhibit peri-implant bone resorption and recently to enhance peri-implant bone formation. Studies have also demonstrated positive effects of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles on peri-implant bone regeneration and an enhancement of the anti-resorptive effect of bisphosphonates in the presence of calcium. In the present study, both hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA) and zoledronate were combined to achieve a strong reinforcing effect on peri-implant bone. The nHA-zoledronate combination was first investigated in vitro with a pre-osteoclastic cell assay (RAW 264.7) and then in vivo in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The in vitro study confirmed that the inhibitory effect of zoledronate on murine osteoclast precursor cells was enhanced by loading the drug on nHA. For the in vivo investigation, either zoledronate-loaded or pure nHA were integrated in hyaluronic acid hydrogel. The gels were injected in screw holes that had been predrilled in rat femoral condyles before the insertion of miniature screws. Micro-CT-based dynamic histomorphometry and histology revealed an unexpected rapid mineralization of the hydrogel in vivo through formation of granules, which served as scaffold for new bone formation. The delivery of zoledronate-loaded nHA further inhibited a degradation of the mineralized hydrogel as well as a resorption of the peri-implant bone as effectively as unbound zoledronate. Hyaluronic acid with zoledronate-loaded nHA, thanks to its dual effect on inducing a rapid mineralization and preventing resorption, is a promising versatile material for bone repair and augmentation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide nanofibers coated with collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tavakoli-Darestani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Tavakoli-Darestani R, Kazemian GH, Emami M, Kamrani-Rad A. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide nanofibers coated with collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. Novel Biomed 2013;1:8-15.Background: A combination of polymeric nanofibrous scaffold and bioactive materials is potentially useful in bone regeneration applications.Materials and Methods: In the present study, Poly (lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanofibrous scaffolds, fabricated via electrospinning, were initially coated with Type I collagen and then with nano-hydroxyapatite. The prepared scaffolds were then characterized using SEM and their ability for bone regeneration was investigated in a rat critical size bone defect using digital mammography, multislice spiral-computed tomography (MSCT imaging, and histological analysis.Results: Electrospun scaffolds had nanofibrous structure with homogenous distribution of n-HA on collagen-grafted PLGA. After 8 weeks of implantation, no sign of inflammation or complication was observed at the site of surgery. According to digital mammography and MSCT, PLGA nanofibers coated simultaneously with collagen and HA showed the highest regeneration in rat calvarium. In addition, no significant difference was observed in bone repair in the group which received PLGA and the untreated control. This amount was lower than that observed in the group implanted with collagen-coated PLGA. Histological studies confirmed these data and showed osteointegration to the surrounding tissue.Conclusion: Taking all together, it was demonstrated that nanofibrous structures can be used as appropriate support for tissue-engineered scaffolds, and coating them with bioactive materials will provide ideal synthetic grafts. Fabricated PLGA coated with Type I collagen and HA can be used as new bone graft substitutes in orthopaedic surgery and is capable of enhancing bone regeneration via characteristics such as osteoconductivity and

  10. Biological Assessment of a Calcium Silicate Incorporated Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin Nanocomposite: A Comparison to Decellularized Bone Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Joon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our laboratory utilized biomimicry to develop a synthetic bone scaffold based on hydroxyapatite-gelatin-calcium silicate (HGCS. Here, we evaluated the potential of HGCS scaffold in bone formation in vivo using the rat calvarial critical-sized defect (CSD. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups: control (defect only, decellularized bone matrix (DECBM, and HGCS with and without multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs. DECBM was prepared by removing all the cells using SDS and NH4OH. After 12 weeks, the CSD specimens were harvested to evaluate radiographical, histological, and histomorphometrical outcomes. The in vitro osteogenic effects of the materials were studied by focal adhesion, MTS, and alizarin red. Micro-CT analysis indicated that the DECBM and the HGCS scaffold groups developed greater radiopaque areas than the other groups. Bone regeneration, assessed using histological analysis and fluorochrome labeling, was the highest in the HGCS scaffold seeded with MAPCs. The DECBM group showed limited osteoinductivity, causing a gap between the implant and host tissue. The group grafted with HGCS+MAPCs resulting in twice as much new bone formation seems to indicate a role for effective bone regeneration. In conclusion, the novel HGCS scaffold could improve bone regeneration and is a promising carrier for stem cell-mediated bone regeneration.

  11. In vitro and in vivo investigations on bone regeneration potential of laminated hydroxyapatite/gelatin nanocomposite scaffold along with DBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakol, Shima [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Nanotechnology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ragerdi Kashani, Iraj [School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Anatomy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azami, Mahmood [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Tissue Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshzaban, Ahad [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakol, Behnaz [Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kharrazi, Sharmin [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Nanotechnology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Somayeh [University of Tarbiat Moallem, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi, E-mail: sh_tavakol@razi.tums.ac.ir [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Nanotechnology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Bone regeneration ability of a scaffold strongly depends on its structure and the size of its components. In this study, a nanostructured scaffold was designed for bone repair using nano hydroxyapatite (nHA) (8-16 nm Multiplication-Sign 50-80 nm) and gelatin (GEL) as main components. In vitro investigations of calcium matrix deposition and gene expression of the seeded cells for this scaffold, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), scaffold plus DBM, and the control group were carried out. Bone regeneration in rat calvarium with critical defect size after 1, 4, and 8 weeks post implantation was investigated. The calcium matrix depositions by the osteoblast and RUNX2, ALP, osteonectin, and osteocalcin gene expression in scaffold were more significant than in other groups. Histomorphometry analysis confirmed in vitro results. In vitro and in vivo bone regeneration were least in scaffold plus DBM group. Enhanced effects in scaffold could be attributed to the shape and size of nHA particles and good architecture of the scaffold. Reduction of bone regeneration might be due to tight bonding of BMPs and nHA particles in the third group. Results obtained from this study confirmed that nano-scale size of the main components and the scaffold architecture (pore diameter, interconnectivity pores, etc.) have significant effects on bone regeneration ability of the scaffold and are important parameters in designing a temporary bone substitute.

  12. Bioactivation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite with foamed gelatin gel. A new injectable self-setting bone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, M; Alvarez-Perez, M A; De Santis, R; Ginebra, M P; Planell, J A; Ambrosio, L

    2014-02-01

    An alternative approach to bone repair for less invasive surgical techniques, involves the development of biomaterials directly injectable into the injury sites and able to replicate a spatially organized platform with features of bone tissue. Here, the preparation and characterization of an innovative injectable bone analogue made of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite and foamed gelatin is presented. The biopolymer features and the cement self-setting reaction were investigated by rheological analysis. The porous architecture, the evolution of surface morphology and the grains dimension were analyzed with electron microscopy (SEM/ESEM/TEM). The physico-chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis. Moreover, an injection test was carried out to prove the positive effect of gelatin on the flow ensuing that cement is fully injectable. The cement mechanical properties are adequate to function as temporary substrate for bone tissue regeneration. Furthermore, MG63 cells and bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were able to migrate and proliferate inside the pores, and hMSCs differentiated to the osteoblastic phenotype. The results are paving the way for an injectable bone substitute with properties that mimic natural bone tissue allowing the successful use as bone filler for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions in regenerative medicine.

  13. In vitro and in vivo investigations on bone regeneration potential of laminated hydroxyapatite/gelatin nanocomposite scaffold along with DBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakol, Shima; Ragerdi Kashani, Iraj; Azami, Mahmood; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Tavakol, Behnaz; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Ebrahimi, Somayeh; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Bone regeneration ability of a scaffold strongly depends on its structure and the size of its components. In this study, a nanostructured scaffold was designed for bone repair using nano hydroxyapatite (nHA) (8–16 nm × 50–80 nm) and gelatin (GEL) as main components. In vitro investigations of calcium matrix deposition and gene expression of the seeded cells for this scaffold, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), scaffold plus DBM, and the control group were carried out. Bone regeneration in rat calvarium with critical defect size after 1, 4, and 8 weeks post implantation was investigated. The calcium matrix depositions by the osteoblast and RUNX2, ALP, osteonectin, and osteocalcin gene expression in scaffold were more significant than in other groups. Histomorphometry analysis confirmed in vitro results. In vitro and in vivo bone regeneration were least in scaffold plus DBM group. Enhanced effects in scaffold could be attributed to the shape and size of nHA particles and good architecture of the scaffold. Reduction of bone regeneration might be due to tight bonding of BMPs and nHA particles in the third group. Results obtained from this study confirmed that nano-scale size of the main components and the scaffold architecture (pore diameter, interconnectivity pores, etc.) have significant effects on bone regeneration ability of the scaffold and are important parameters in designing a temporary bone substitute.

  14. Assessment of vascularization within hydroxyapatite ocular implant by bone scintigraphy: compartive analysis of planar and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Park, Soon Ah

    1999-01-01

    Complete fibrovascular ingrowth within the hydroxyapatite ocular implant is necessary for peg drilling which is performed to prevent infection and to provide motility to the ocular prosthesis. We compared planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT for the evaluation of the vascularization within hydroxyapatite ocular implants. Seventeen patients (M:F=12:5, mean age: 50.4±17.5 years) who had received a coralline hydroxyapatite ocular implant after enucleation surgery were enrolled. Patients underwent Tc-99m MDP planar bone and SPECT imaging by dual head gamma camera after their implant surgery (interval: 197±81 days). Uptake on planar and SPECT images was graded visually as less than (grade 1), equal to (grade 2), and greater than (grade 3) nasal bridge activity. Quantitative ratio of implanted to non-implanted intraorbital activity was also measured. Vascularization within hydroxyapatite implants was confirmed by slit lamp examination and ocular movement. All but three patients were considered to be vascularized within hydroxyapatite implants. In visual analysis of planar image and SPECT, grade 1 was noted in 9/18 (50%) and 6/18 (33%), respectively. Grade 2 pattern 7/18 (39%) and 4/18 (22%), and grade 3 pattern was 2/18 (11%) and 8/18 (44%) respectively. When grade 2 or 3 was considered to be positive for vascularization, the sensitivity of planar and SPECT imaging were 60% (9/15) and 80% (12/15), respectively. In 3 patients with incomplete vascularization, both planar and SPECT showed grade 1 uptake. The orbital activity ratios on planar imaging were not significantly different between complete and incomplete vascularization (1.96±9.87 vs 1.17±0.08 , p>0.05), however, it was significantly higher on SPECT in patients with complete vascularization (8.44±5.45 vs 2.20±0.87, p<0.05). In the assessment of fibrovascular ingrowth within ocular implants by Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy, SPECT image appears to be more effective than planar scintigraphy

  15. Highly porous hydroxyapatite with and without local harvested bone in sinus floor augmentation: a histometric study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Björn; Acil, Yahya; Birkenfeld, Falk; Behrens, Eleonore; Terheyden, Hendrik; Wiltfang, Jörg

    2014-07-01

    Sinus floor augmentation with autologous bone is an accepted treatment option in dental implantology. In this study, an entirely synthetic, nano-structured, hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute material (SBSM, NanoBone(®); Artoss, Rostock, Germany) was supplemented with a mixture of locally harvested bone to enhance osteogenesis. Bilateral sinus augmentation procedures were performed in eight domestic pigs using the lateral window technique. On the right side (control), 2.6 ml of SBSM was used, and on the left side (test), 2.6 ml of SBSM with additional 15% (390 μl) autologous bone was used. At the time of augmentation, a titanium implant (ITI(®)) was inserted from a laterocaudal direction. After 3 months, the sites of augmentation were removed and examined in non-decalcified sections by microradiography and fluorescence microscopy of sequentially labelled specimens and histometry. On both sides, a significant amount of newly formed bone was observed. However, a statistically significant difference in the bone-implant contact was observed in the control group (median, 28.9%) compared with the test side with the additional autologous bone (median, 40.6%) (P = 0.01). Different bone density was achieved from the coronal to apical surfaces (medians, 54.6%, 9.6%, and 27.5%) compared with the test side (medians, 55.2%, 40.6%, and 44.2%). The median of augmentation height was 8.6 mm on the control side and 11.5 mm on the test side (P = 0.01). Bone apposition was observed in both groups after 15 days. The SBSM shows acceptable results in sinus floor augmentation. The additional use of locally harvested autologous bone enhances bone density and osseointegration of the implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Influence of chronic alcoholism and oestrogen deficiency on the variation of stoichiometry of hydroxyapatite within alveolar bone crest of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Adriana M P S; Deco, Camila P; Lodi, Karina B; Marchini, Leonardo; Santo, Ana M E; Rocha, Rosilene F

    2012-10-01

    Previous findings suggest that chronic alcoholism and oestrogenic deficiency may affect bones in general (including alveolar bone) and increase individuals' susceptibility to the development of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to assess possible alterations in the chemical composition of alveolar bone in rats subjected to chronic alcoholism, oestrogen deficiency or both. Fifty-four rats were initially divided into two groups: ovariectomized (Ovx), and Sham operated (Sham). A month after surgery, the groups were sub-divided and received the following dietary intervention for eight weeks: 20% alcohol, isocaloric diet and ad libitum diet. Samples of the mandible, in the alveolar bone crest region, were analyzed to verify possible changes in the stoichiometric composition of bone hydroxyapatite, by measuring the relationship between the concentration of calcium and phosphorus (Ca/P ratios), using micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The ad libitum groups presented the highest average values of Ca/P ratios, while the groups with dietary restrictions presented the smallest average values. The Ovx ad libitum group presented the highest values of Ca/P ratios (2.03 ± 0.04). However, these values were not considered statistically different (p>0.05) from the Sham ad libitum group (2.01 ± 0.01). The Ovx alcohol group presented lower values for Ca/P ratios (1.92 ± 0.06), being the only group statistically different (palcohol consumption at 20% significantly changed the stoichiometry composition of hydroxyapatite in the alveolar bone crest, leading to a reduction in Ca/P ratios. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The biocompatibility of carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite for bone tissue engineering studied with Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Kimber, James A; Borkowski, Leszek; Pawlowska, Marta; Polkowska, Izabela; Kalisz, Grzegorz; Belcarz, Anna; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Ginalska, Grazyna; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-10-01

    The spectroscopic approaches of FTIR imaging and Raman mapping were applied to the characterisation of a new carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite developed for bone tissue engineering. The composite is an artificial bone material with an apatite-forming ability for the bone repair process. Rabbit bone samples were tested with an implanted bioactive material for a period of several months. Using spectroscopic and chemometric methods, we were able to determine the presence of amides and phosphates and the distribution of lipid-rich domains in the bone tissue, providing an assessment of the composite's bioactivity. Samples were also imaged in transmission using an infrared microscope combined with a focal plane array detector. CaF2 lenses were also used on the infrared microscope to improve spectral quality by reducing scattering artefacts, improving chemometric analysis. The presence of collagen and lipids at the bone/composite interface confirmed biocompatibility and demonstrate the suitability of FTIR microscopic imaging with lenses in studying these samples. It confirmed that the composite is a very good background for collagen growth and increases collagen maturity with the time of the bone growth process. The results indicate the bioactive and biocompatible properties of this composite and demonstrate how Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging have been used as an effective tool for tissue characterisation.

  18. Assessment of polycaprolacton (PCL) nanocomposite scaffold compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healing of segmental femur bone defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hadi; Jahandideh, Alireza; Asghari, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2017-08-01

    Segmental bone loss due to trauma, infection, and tumor resection and even non-union results in the vast demand for replacement and restoration of the function of the lost bone. The objective of this study is to utilize novel inorganic-organic nanocomposites for biomedical applications. Biodegradable implants have shown great promise for the repair of bone defects and have been commonly used as bone substitutes, which traditionally would be treated using metallic implants. In this study, 45 mature male New Zealand white rabbits 6-8 months and weighting 3-3.5 kg were examined. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Surgical procedures were done after an intramuscular injection of Ketamine 10% (ketamine hydrochloride, 50 mg/kg), Rompun 5% (xylazine, 5 mg/kg). Then an approximately 6 mm diameter - 5 mm cylinder bone defect was created in the femur of one of the hind limbs. After inducing the surgical wound, all rabbits were colored and randomly divided into three experimental groups of nine animals each: Group 1 received medical pure nanocomposite polycaprolactone (PCL) granules, Group 2 received hydroxyapatite and Group 3 was a control group with no treatment. Histopathological evaluation was performed on days 15, 30 and 45 after surgery. On day 45 after surgery, the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone in the healing site in PCL group was better than onward compared with HA and control groups. Finally, nanocomposite PCL granules exhibited a reproducible bone-healing potential.

  19. Application of interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramic block for onlay block bone grafting in implant treatment: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kouji; Tada, Misato; Ninomiya, Yoshiaki; Kato, Hiroki; Ishida, Fumi; Abekura, Hitoshi; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Takechi, Masaaki

    2017-12-01

    Autogenous block bone grafting as treatment for alveolar ridge atrophy has various disadvantages, including a limited availability of sufficiently sized and shaped grafts, donor site morbidity and resorption of the grafted bone. As a result, interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramic (IP-CHA) materials with high porosity have been developed and used successfully in orthopedic cases. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report of clinical application of an IP-CHA block for onlay grafting for implant treatment in a patient with horizontal alveolar atrophy. The present study performed onlay block grafting using an IP-CHA block to restore bone volume for implant placement in the alveolar ridge area without collecting autogenous bone. Dental X-ray findings revealed that the border of the IP-CHA block became increasingly vague over the 3-year period, whereas CT scanning revealed that the gap between the block and bone had a smooth transition, indicating that IP-CHA improved the process of integration with host bone. In follow-up examinations over a period of 5 years, the implants and superstructures had no problems. An IP-CHA block may be useful as a substitute for onlay block bone grafting in implant treatment.

  20. Bone Marrow Stem Cells Added to a Hydroxyapatite Scaffold Result in Better Outcomes after Surgical Treatment of Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intertrochanteric hip fractures occur in the proximal femur. They are very common in the elderly and are responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. The authors hypothesized that adding an autologous bone marrow stem cells concentrate (ABMC to a hydroxyapatite scaffold and placing it in the fracture site would improve the outcome after surgical fixation of intertrochanteric hip fractures. Material and Methods. 30 patients were randomly selected and divided into 2 groups of 15 patients, to receive either the scaffold enriched with the ABMC (Group A during the surgical procedure, or fracture fixation alone (Group B. Results. There was a statistically significant difference in favor of group A at days 30, 60, and 90 for Harris Hip Scores (HHS, at days 30 and 60 for VAS pain scales, for bedridden period and time taken to start partial and total weight bearing (P<0.05. Discussion. These results show a significant benefit of adding a bone marrow enriched scaffold to surgical fixation in intertrochanteric hip fractures, which can significantly reduce the associated morbidity and mortality rates. Conclusion. Bone marrow stem cells added to a hydroxyapatite scaffold result in better outcomes after surgical treatment of intertrochanteric hip fractures.

  1. Bone Marrow Stem Cells Added to a Hydroxyapatite Scaffold Result in Better Outcomes after Surgical Treatment of Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierres, Manuel; Lopes, M. Ascenção; Santos, J. Domingos; Cabral, A. T.; Pinto, R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Intertrochanteric hip fractures occur in the proximal femur. They are very common in the elderly and are responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. The authors hypothesized that adding an autologous bone marrow stem cells concentrate (ABMC) to a hydroxyapatite scaffold and placing it in the fracture site would improve the outcome after surgical fixation of intertrochanteric hip fractures. Material and Methods. 30 patients were randomly selected and divided into 2 groups of 15 patients, to receive either the scaffold enriched with the ABMC (Group A) during the surgical procedure, or fracture fixation alone (Group B). Results. There was a statistically significant difference in favor of group A at days 30, 60, and 90 for Harris Hip Scores (HHS), at days 30 and 60 for VAS pain scales, for bedridden period and time taken to start partial and total weight bearing (P < 0.05). Discussion. These results show a significant benefit of adding a bone marrow enriched scaffold to surgical fixation in intertrochanteric hip fractures, which can significantly reduce the associated morbidity and mortality rates. Conclusion. Bone marrow stem cells added to a hydroxyapatite scaffold result in better outcomes after surgical treatment of intertrochanteric hip fractures. PMID:24955356

  2. Strontium-Doped Calcium Phosphate and Hydroxyapatite Granules Promote Different Inflammatory and Bone Remodelling Responses in Normal and Ovariectomised Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Emanuelsson, Lena; Norlindh, Birgitta; Omar, Omar; Thomsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The healing of bone defects may be hindered by systemic conditions such as osteoporosis. Calcium phosphates, with or without ion substitutions, may provide advantages for bone augmentation. However, the mechanism of bone formation with these materials is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process in bone defects implanted with hydroxyapatite (HA) or strontium-doped calcium phosphate (SCP) granules, in non-ovariectomised (non-OVX) and ovariectomised (OVX) rats. After 0 (baseline), six and 28d, bone samples were harvested for gene expression analysis, histology and histomorphometry. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), at six days, was higher in the HA, in non-OVX and OVX, whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6), at six and 28d, was higher in SCP, but only in non-OVX. Both materials produced a similar expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Higher expression of osteoclastic markers, calcitonin receptor (CR) and cathepsin K (CatK), were detected in the HA group, irrespective of non-OVX or OVX. The overall bone formation was comparable between HA and SCP, but with topological differences. The bone area was higher in the defect centre of the HA group, mainly in the OVX, and in the defect periphery of the SCP group, in both non-OVX and OVX. It is concluded that HA and SCP granules result in comparable bone formation in trabecular bone defects. As judged by gene expression and histological analyses, the two materials induced different inflammatory and bone remodelling responses. The modulatory effects are associated with differences in the spatial distribution of the newly formed bone. PMID:24376855

  3. 3D printing of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds intended for use in bone tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sophie C.; Thornby, John A.; Gibbons, Gregory J., E-mail: G.J.Gibbons@warwick.ac.uk; Williams, Mark A.; Mallick, Kajal K.

    2015-02-01

    A systematic characterisation of bone tissue scaffolds fabricated via 3D printing from hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(vinyl)alcohol (PVOH) composite powders is presented. Flowability of HA:PVOH precursor materials was observed to affect mechanical stability, microstructure and porosity of 3D printed scaffolds. Anisotropic behaviour of constructs and part failure at the boundaries of interlayer bonds was highlighted by compressive strength testing. A trade-off between the ability to facilitate removal of PVOH thermal degradation products during sintering and the compressive strength of green parts was revealed. The ultimate compressive strength of 55% porous green scaffolds printed along the Y-axis and dried in a vacuum oven for 6 h was 0.88 ± 0.02 MPa. Critically, the pores of 3D printed constructs could be user designed, ensuring bulk interconnectivity, and the imperfect packing of powder particles created an inherent surface roughness and non-designed porosity within the scaffold. These features are considered promising since they are known to facilitate osteoconduction and osteointegration in-vivo. Characterisation techniques utilised in this study include two funnel flow tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), compressive strength testing and computed tomography (CT). - Highlights: • Flowability of HA and PVOH powders corresponded to scaffold printability. • Anisotropic behaviour of 3D printed scaffolds was highlighted by compressive tests. • Maximum compressive strength of 3D printed 55% porous scaffolds was 0.88 MPa. • Imperfect packing of precursors resulted in a rough surface and microporosity. • A CT method was designed and used to quantify designed and non-designed porosity.

  4. 3D printing of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds intended for use in bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Sophie C.; Thornby, John A.; Gibbons, Gregory J.; Williams, Mark A.; Mallick, Kajal K.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic characterisation of bone tissue scaffolds fabricated via 3D printing from hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(vinyl)alcohol (PVOH) composite powders is presented. Flowability of HA:PVOH precursor materials was observed to affect mechanical stability, microstructure and porosity of 3D printed scaffolds. Anisotropic behaviour of constructs and part failure at the boundaries of interlayer bonds was highlighted by compressive strength testing. A trade-off between the ability to facilitate removal of PVOH thermal degradation products during sintering and the compressive strength of green parts was revealed. The ultimate compressive strength of 55% porous green scaffolds printed along the Y-axis and dried in a vacuum oven for 6 h was 0.88 ± 0.02 MPa. Critically, the pores of 3D printed constructs could be user designed, ensuring bulk interconnectivity, and the imperfect packing of powder particles created an inherent surface roughness and non-designed porosity within the scaffold. These features are considered promising since they are known to facilitate osteoconduction and osteointegration in-vivo. Characterisation techniques utilised in this study include two funnel flow tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), compressive strength testing and computed tomography (CT). - Highlights: • Flowability of HA and PVOH powders corresponded to scaffold printability. • Anisotropic behaviour of 3D printed scaffolds was highlighted by compressive tests. • Maximum compressive strength of 3D printed 55% porous scaffolds was 0.88 MPa. • Imperfect packing of precursors resulted in a rough surface and microporosity. • A CT method was designed and used to quantify designed and non-designed porosity

  5. Nano-hydroxyapatite/β-CD/chitosan nanocomposite for potential applications in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Mohammad; Jolly, Reshma; Khan, Mohd Shoeb; Rauf, Ahmar; Kazmi, Shadab

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel tri-component nanocomposite system incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and chitosan (CS), (n-HA/β-CD/CS) at three different temperatures via co-precipitation method. The chemical interactions and surface morphology have been evaluated by TEM, SEM and AFM techniques revealing the agglomerated nanoparticles in CS/n-HA-HA binary system whereas the ternary systems produced needle shaped nanoparticles dispersed homogeneously at low temperature with more porous and rougher surface. The addition of β-CD in CS/n-HA at low temperature decreased the particle size and raised the thermal stability as compared to CS/n-HA. The comparative hemolytic, protein adsorption and platelet adhesion studies confirmed the better hemocompatibility of n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT,LT) nanocomposites relative to CS/n-HA. The cell viability has been evaluated in vitro using MG-63 cell line which revealed superior non toxicity of n-HA/β-CD/CS-LT nanocomposite in comparison to n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT) and CS/n-HA nanocomposites. Thus it may be concluded that the orchestrated organic/inorganic n-HA/β-CD/CS-(RT,HT,LT) nanocomposites exhibited relatively higher cell viability of human osteoblast cells, stimulated greater osteogenesis, controlled biodegradation, enhanced antibacterial activity with excellent in-vitro biomineralization and remarkable mechanical parameters as compared to CS/n-HA nanocomposite and thus may provide opportunities for potential use as an alternative biomaterial for Bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of phosphorylation and freezing temperature on the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite as bone scaffold biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albab, Muh Fadhil; Giovani, Nicholas; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Ramahdita, Ghiska; Whulanza, Yudan

    2018-02-01

    Biomaterials composite of hydroxyapatite/chitosan is a preeminent material for medical applications including bone scaffold. To improve its mechanical properties, the chitosan as the matrix needs to be modified with particular chemical agents. One of the methods is phosphorylation of chitosan by using orthophosphoric acid prior to the biomaterials fabrication. In the current study, biomaterials with the weight composition of 70% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 30% phosphorylated chitosan have been fabricated using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method with freezing temperature variation of -20, -30, -40 and -80°C prior to three day-freeze drying. The results obtained by this work showed that the highest compression modulus of 376.9 kPa, highest compressive strength of 38.4 kPa and biggest pore size of 48.24 µm were achieved in the freezing temperature of -20°C. In comparison to non-phosphorylated chitosan/hydroxyapatite, the modification of chitosan using orthophosphoric acid in this work has been found to increase the compressive strength of composite up to 5.5 times.

  7. In vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite coating on magnesium alloy for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huawei; Yan, Xueyu; Ling, Min; Xiong, Zuquan; Ou, Caiwen; Lu, Wei

    2015-03-17

    We report here the successful fabrication of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite (nHA) coatings on Mg alloy by using a simple one-step hydrothermal process in aqueous solution. The nHA coating shows uniform structure and high crystallinity. Results indicate that nHA coating is promising for improving the in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of Mg-based implants and devices for bone tissue engineering. In addition, the simple hydrothermal deposition method used in the current study is also applicable to substrates with complex shapes or surface geometries.

  8. In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility Properties of Nano-Whisker Hydroxyapatite Coating on Magnesium Alloy for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the successful fabrication of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite (nHA coatings on Mg alloy by using a simple one-step hydrothermal process in aqueous solution. The nHA coating shows uniform structure and high crystallinity. Results indicate that nHA coating is promising for improving the in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of Mg-based implants and devices for bone tissue engineering. In addition, the simple hydrothermal deposition method used in the current study is also applicable to substrates with complex shapes or surface geometries.

  9. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr, E-mail: gryshkov@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Klyui, Nickolai I., E-mail: klyuini@ukr.net [College of Physics, Jilin University, 130012 Changchun (China); V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Temchenko, Volodymyr P., E-mail: tvp@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kyselov, Vitalii S., E-mail: kyselov@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Chatterjee, Anamika, E-mail: chatterjee@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Belyaev, Alexander E., E-mail: belyaev@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Lauterboeck, Lothar, E-mail: lauterboeck@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Iarmolenko, Dmytro, E-mail: iarmolenko.dmytro@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Glasmacher, Birgit, E-mail: glasmacher@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO{sub 2}) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO{sub 2} using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO{sub 2} to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO{sub 2} coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO{sub 2} coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of porous biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from wood • Successful deposition of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings using gas detonation deposition • Porosity and pore size of Si

  10. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Klyui, Nickolai I.; Temchenko, Volodymyr P.; Kyselov, Vitalii S.; Chatterjee, Anamika; Belyaev, Alexander E.; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Iarmolenko, Dmytro; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO 2 ) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO 2 using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO 2 to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO 2 coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO 2 coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of porous biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from wood • Successful deposition of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings using gas detonation deposition • Porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on wood

  11. Calcite as a bone substitute. Comparison with hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate with regard to the osteoblastic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchau, F., E-mail: Francine.monchau@univ-artois.fr [Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo-Environnement (EA 4515, Universite Lille Nord de France), Equipe Biomateriaux Artois (Universite d' Artois), IUT/GMP, 1230, rue de l' Universite, BP 819, 62408 Bethune cedex (France); Hivart, Ph.; Genestie, B. [Laboratoire Genie Civil et geo-Environnement (EA 4515, Universite Lille Nord de France), Equipe Biomateriaux Artois (Universite d' Artois), IUT/GMP, 1230, rue de l' Universite, BP 819, 62408 Bethune cedex (France); Chai, F. [Laboratoire Medicaments et Biomateriaux a Liberation Controlee (INSERM U 1008, Universite Lille Nord de France), Groupe de Recherche sur les Biomateriaux (Universite Lille-2), Faculte de Medecine, 1, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille cedex (France); and others

    2013-01-01

    Close to the bone mineral phase, the calcic bioceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), are commonly used as substitutes or filling materials in bone surgery. Besides, calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) is also used for their excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. However, the problem with the animal-origin aragonite demands the new technique to synthesize pure calcite capable of forming 3D bone implant. This study aims to manufacture and evaluate a highly-pure synthetic crystalline calcite with good cytocompatibility regarding to the osteoblasts, comparing to that of HA and {beta}-TCP. After the manufacture of macroporous bioceramic scaffolds with the identical internal architecture, their cytocompatibility is studied through MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts with the tests of cell viability, proliferation, vitality, etc. The results confirmed that the studied process is able to form a macroporous material with a controlled internal architecture, and this synthesized calcite is non-cytotoxic and facilitate the cell proliferation. Indeed requiring further improvement, the studied calcite is definitely an interesting alternative not only to coralline aragonite but also to calcium phosphate ceramics, particularly in bone sites with the large bone remodelling. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Macroporous calcite manufacturing with controlled architecture as bone substitute Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytotoxicity: adaptation of the colony-forming method with the target cells: MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of osteoblast proliferation and activity on calcite, HA and TCP.

  12. Effects of Titanium Mesh Surfaces-Coated with Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Nanotubes on Acetabular Bone Defects in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy-Duong Thi Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of severe acetabular bone defects in revision reconstructive orthopedic surgery is challenging. In this study, cyclic precalcification (CP treatment was used on both nanotube-surface Ti-mesh and a bone graft substitute for the acetabular defect model, and its effects were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Nanotube-Ti mesh coated with hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP was manufactured by an anodizing and a sintering method, respectively. An 8 mm diameter defect was created on each acetabulum of eight rabbits, then treated by grafting materials and covered by Ti meshes. At four and eight weeks, postoperatively, biopsies were performed for histomorphometric analyses. The newly-formed bone layers under cyclic precalcified anodized Ti (CP-AT meshes were superior with regard to the mineralized area at both four and eight weeks, as compared with that under untreated Ti meshes. Active bone regeneration at 2–4 weeks was stronger than at 6–8 weeks, particularly with treated biphasic ceramic (p < 0.05. CP improved the bioactivity of Ti meshes and biphasic grafting materials. Moreover, the precalcified nanotubular Ti meshes could enhance early contact bone formation on the mesh and, therefore, may reduce the collapse of Ti meshes into the defect, increasing the sufficiency of acetabular reconstruction. Finally, cyclic precalcification did not affect bone regeneration by biphasic grafting materials in vivo.

  13. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of bone regeneration using nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and human freeze-dried bone graft : An experimental study in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Najafi, Mohammad; Semyari, Hassan; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    Bone regeneration is an important concern in periodontal treatment and implant dentistry. Different biomaterials and surgical techniques have been used for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and human freeze-dried bone graft (FDBG) in regeneration of rabbit calvarium bony defects by histologic and histomorphometric evaluation. In this experimental study, three similar defects, measuring 8 mm in diameter, were created in the calvaria of 16 white New Zealand rabbits. Two defects were filled with FDBG and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel, while the other one remained unfilled to be considered as control. All the defects were covered with collagen membranes. During the healing period, two animals perished; so 14 rabbits were divided into two groups: half of them were euthanized after 6 weeks of healing and the other half after 12 weeks. The specimens were subjected to histologic and histomorphometric examinations for assessment of the following variables: percentage of bone formation and residual graft material, inflammation scores, patterns of bone formation and type of newly formed bone. The percentages of new bone formation after 6 weeks were 14.22 ± 7.85, 21.57 ± 6.91, and 20.54 ± 10.07% in FDBG, NanoBone, and control defects. These values were 27.54 ± 20.19, 23.86 ± 6.27, and 26.48 ± 14.18% in 12-week specimens, respectively. No significant differences were found in the amount of bone formation between the groups. With regard to inflammation, the control and NanoBone groups showed significantly less inflammation compared to FDBG at the 6-week healing phase (P = 0.04); this difference was not significant in the 12-week specimens. Based on the results of this experimental study, both NanoBone and FDBG exhibited a similar effect on bone formation.

  14. Ectopic bone formation cannot occur by hydroxyapatite/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in green fluorescent protein chimeric mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lijia [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Duan Xin [Department of Orthopaedics, Chengdu Second People' s Hospital, Chengdu (China); Department of Orthopaedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xiang Zhou [Department of Orthopaedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Shi Yujun; Lu Xiaofeng; Ye Feng [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Bu Hong, E-mail: hongbu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Firstly, chimeric mouse model could be established successfully by bone marrow transplantation after irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondly, bone induction can occur in wild-type mice 90 days after implantation, but not occur in chimeric mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thirdly, destruction of immune function will block osteoinduction by calcium phosphate ceramics. - Abstract: Many studies have shown that calcium phosphate ceramics (CP) have osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties; however, the exact mechanism of bone induction has not yet been reported. This study was performed to investigate if destroying immunological function will influence osteogenesis, to explain the mechanism which is unclear. In this study, twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (n = 10), in group 1, a hydroxyapatite/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate (HA/{beta}-TCP) ceramic was implanted into both the left and right leg muscles of each mouse; in group 2, ten mice experienced lethal irradiation, then were injected bone marrow (BM) cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by tail veil, after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle were harvested for biological analysis, after the GFP chimera model was established successfully, the same HA/{beta}-TCP ceramic was implanted into both leg muscles of each mouse immediately after irradiation. 45 and 90 days after implantation, the ceramics of the two groups were harvested to perform with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining; the results showed that there was no bone formation in group 2, while new bone tissues were detected in group 1. Our findings suggest that the BM cell from GFP transgenic mice is a good biomarker and it could set a good platform for chimera model; it also shows that BM cell is one of cell resources of bone induction, and destruction of immune function will impede

  15. Development of Antibiotics Impregnated Nanosized Silver Phosphate-Doped Hydroxyapatite Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Suvannapruk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized Ag3PO4 loaded hydroxyapatite which was prepared by a novel low temperature phosphorization of 3D printed calcium sulfate dihydrate at the nominal silver concentration of 0.001 M and 0.005 M was impregnated by two antibiotics including gentamicin and vancomycin. Phase composition, microstructure, antibiotics loading, silver content, antimicrobial performance, and cytotoxic potential of the prepared samples were characterized. It was found that the fabricated sample consisted of hydroxyapatite as a main phase and spherical-shaped silver phosphate nanoparticles distributing within the cluster of hydroxyapatite crystals. Antibacterial activity of the samples against two bacterial strains (gram negative P. aeruginosa and gram positive S. aureus was carried out. It was found that the combination of antibiotics and nanosized Ag3PO4 in hydroxyapatite could enhance the antibacterial performance of the samples by increasing the duration in which the materials exhibited antibacterial property and the size of the inhibition zone depending on the type of antibiotics and bacterial strains compared to those contained antibiotics or nanosilver phosphate alone. Cytotoxic potential against osteoblasts of antibiotics impregnated nanosilver phosphate hydroxyapatite was found to depend on the combination of antibiotics content, type of antibiotics, and nanosilver phosphate content.

  16. Three-dimensional poly (ε-caprolactone)/hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds incorporating bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xin; Huang, Yinjun; Zhang, Jieyuan; Cao, Jiaqing; Jin, Xiangyun; Huang, Jinghuan; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Ting; Han, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that three-dimensional (3D) hydroxyapatite (HAP)-collagen (COL)-coated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds (HAP-COL-PCL) possess appropriate nano-structures, surface roughness, and nutrients, providing a favorable environment for osteogenesis. However, the effect of using 3D HAP-COL-PCL scaffolds incorporating BMSCs for the repair of bone defects in rats has been not evaluated. 3D PCL scaffolds coated with HAP, collagen or HAP/COL and incorporating BMSCs were implanted into calvarial defects. At 12 weeks after surgery, the rats were sacrificed and crania were harvested to assess the bone defect repair using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histology, immunohistochemistry and sequential fluorescent labeling analysis. 3D micro-CT reconstructed images and quantitative analysis showed that HAP-COL-PCL groups possessed better bone-forming capacity than HAP-PCL groups or COL-PCL groups. Fluorescent labeling analysis revealed the percentage of tetracycline labeling, alizarin red labeling, and calcein labeling in HAP-COL-PCL groups were all greater than in the other two groups (P  <  0.05), and the result was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining and histological analysis of bone regeneration. This study demonstrates that 3D HAP-COL-PCL scaffolds incorporating BMSCs markedly enhance bone regeneration of bone defects in rats. (paper)

  17. Effect of drying on the porosity of the hydroxyapatite and cellulose nata de coco compositeas bone graft candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitasari, S.; Mu’ti, A.; Hutahaean, YO

    2018-04-01

    Bone graft is used to replace bone parts damaged by illness and accident. As a bone replacement material, the bone graft should be able to stimulate the process of the osteogenesis. The process of osteogenesis is influenced by the osteoconductive properties of a biomaterial, that porosity affects this process. The shells of blood scallop (Anadaragranosa) are producing hydroxyapatite (HAp),having high compressive strength, biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties, but low porosity while cellulose nata de coco (Cnc) have low compressive strength but high porosity. Therefore, the combination of two biomaterials are expected to produce composite that have high osteoconductive properties. The purpose of this research wasknowing the porosity of HAp/Cnc composite which wasbeingprecipitated for 5 hours, 15 hours, 25 hours and wasdried for 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. This research usedwise drop technique to synthesis HAp powder and cellulose immersion technique for synthesis of HAp/Cnc. Results of this research, there was difference in porosity between HAp/Cnc that was precipitated for 5 hours, 15 hours and 25 hours, as well as was dried for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. The conclusion, the synthesis of HAp/Cncwasuseful as bone graft candidate.

  18. Bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber composite: biomechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bo; Li, Jidong; Zhu, Qingmao; Guo, Shuquan; Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Weichao; Wu, Jun; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Dianming

    2014-01-01

    An ideal bone plate for internal fixation of bone fractures should have good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this study, we prepared a new nondegradable bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber (n-HA/PA66/GF) composite. A breakage area on the n-HA/PA66/GF plate surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Its mechanical properties were investigated using bone-plate constructs and biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The results confirmed that adhesion between the n-HA/PA66 matrix and the glass fibers was strong, with only a few fibers pulled out at the site of breakage. Fractures fixed by the n-HA/PA66/GF plate showed lower stiffness and had satisfactory strength compared with rigid fixation using a titanium plate. Moreover, the results with regard to mesenchymal stem cell morphology, MTT assay, Alizarin Red S staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin showed that the n-HA/PA66/GF composite was suitable for attachment and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, and did not have a negative influence on matrix mineralization or osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. These observations indicate that the n-HA/PA66/GF plate has good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may be considered a new option for internal fixation in orthopedic surgery.

  19. Collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffold enriched with polycaprolactone nanofibers, thrombocyte-rich solution and mesenchymal stem cells promotes regeneration in large bone defect in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prosecká, Eva; Rampichová, Michala; Litvinec, Andrej; Tonar, Z.; Králíčková, M.; Vojtová, L.; Kochová, P.; Plencner, Martin; Buzgo, Matej; Míčková, Andrea; Jančář, J.; Amler, Evžen

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2015), s. 671-682 ISSN 1549-3296 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : bone regeneration * mesenchymal stem cells * collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffold Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2015

  20. Three dimensional printed macroporous polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for promoting bone formation in a critical-size rat calvarial defect model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haifeng; Mao, Xiyuan; Du, Zijing; Jiang, Wenbo; Han, Xiuguo; Zhao, Danyang; Han, Dong; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We have explored the applicability of printed scaffold by comparing osteogenic ability and biodegradation property of three resorbable biomaterials. A polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite (PLA/HA) composite with a pore size of 500??m and 60% porosity was fabricated by three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printed PLA/HA, ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and partially demineralized bone matrix (DBM) seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were evaluated by cell adhesion, prolife...

  1. Polyether ether ketone implants achieve increased bone fusion when coated with nano-sized hydroxyapatite: a histomorphometric study in rabbit bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Pär; Jimbo, Ryo; Naito, Yoshihito; Kjellin, Per; Currie, Fredrik; Wennerberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and is considered the best alternative material other than titanium for orthopedic spine and trauma implants. However, the deficient osteogenic properties and the bioinertness of PEEK limit its fields of application. The aim of this study was to limit these drawbacks by coating the surface of PEEK with nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HA) minerals. In the study, the biological response to PEEK, with and without HA coating, was investigated. Twenty-four screw-like and apically perforated implants in the rabbit femur were histologically evaluated at 3 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery. Twelve of the 24 implants were HA coated (test), and the remaining 12 served as uncoated PEEK controls. At 3 weeks and 12 weeks, the mean bone-implant contact was higher for test compared to control (P<0.05). The bone area inside the threads was comparable in the two groups, but the perforating hole showed more bone area for the HA-coated implants at both healing points (P<0.01). With these results, we conclude that nano-sized HA coating on PEEK implants significantly improved the osteogenic properties, and in a clinical situation this material composition may serve as an implant where a rapid bone fusion is essential.

  2. Ectopic bone formation cannot occur by hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in green fluorescent protein chimeric mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijia; Duan, Xin; Xiang, Zhou; Shi, Yujun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have shown that calcium phosphate ceramics (CP) have osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties; however, the exact mechanism of bone induction has not yet been reported. This study was performed to investigate if destroying immunological function will influence osteogenesis, to explain the mechanism which is unclear. In this study, twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (n = 10), in group 1, a hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) ceramic was implanted into both the left and right leg muscles of each mouse; in group 2, ten mice experienced lethal irradiation, then were injected bone marrow (BM) cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by tail veil, after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle were harvested for biological analysis, after the GFP chimera model was established successfully, the same HA/β-TCP ceramic was implanted into both leg muscles of each mouse immediately after irradiation. 45 and 90 days after implantation, the ceramics of the two groups were harvested to perform with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining; the results showed that there was no bone formation in group 2, while new bone tissues were detected in group 1. Our findings suggest that the BM cell from GFP transgenic mice is a good biomarker and it could set a good platform for chimera model; it also shows that BM cell is one of cell resources of bone induction, and destruction of immune function will impede osteoinduction by CP. Overall, our results may shed light on clear mechanism study of bone induction in the future.

  3. Biocompatibility of Poly-ε-caprolactone-hydroxyapatite composite on mouse bone marrow-derived osteoblasts and endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooley Paul H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue-engineered bone may be developed by seeding the cells capable of both osteogenesis and vascularization on biocompatible composite scaffolds. The current study investigated the performance of mice bone marrow-derived osteogenic cells and endothelial cells as seeded on hydroxyapatite (HA and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL composite scaffolds. Methods Mononuclear cells were induced to osteoblasts and endothelial cells respectively, which were defined by the expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and deposits of calcium-containing crystal for osteoblasts, or by the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 and von Willebrand factor (vWF, and the formation of a capillary network in Matrigel™ for endothelial cells. Both types of cell were seeded respectively on PCL-HA scaffolds at HA to PCL weight ratio of 1:1, 1:4, or 0:1 and were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, ALP activity (of osteoblasts and nitric oxide production (of endothelial cells plus the assessment of cell viability. Results The results indicated that HA led to a positive stimulation of osteoblasts viability and ALP activity, while HA showed less influence on endothelial cells viability. An elevated nitric oxide production of endothelial cells was observed in HA-containing group. Conclusion Supplement of HA into PCL improved biocompatible for bone marrow-derived osteoblasts and endothelial cells. The PCL-HA composite integrating with two types of cells may provide a useful system for tissue-engineered bone grafts with vascularization.

  4. Ectopic bone formation in nude rats using human osteoblasts seeded poly(3)hydroxybutyrate embroidery and hydroxyapatite-collagen tapes constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ronald; Hagedorn, Manolo Gunnar; Gelinsky, Michael; Werner, Carsten; Turhani, Dritan; Späth, Heike; Gedrange, Tomas; Lauer, Günter

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ectopic bone formation using tissue engineered cell-seeded constructs with two different scaffolds and primary human maxillary osteoblasts in nude rats over an implantation period of up to 96 days. Collagen I-coated Poly(3)hydroxybutyrate (PHB) embroidery and hydroxyapatite (HAP) collagen tapes were seeded with primary human maxillary osteoblasts (hOB) and implanted into athymic rnu/run rats. A total of 72 implants were placed into the back muscles of 18 rats. 24, 48 and 96 days after implantation, histological and histomorphometric analyses were made. The osteoblastic character of the cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR for osteocalcin. Histological analysis demonstrated that all cell-seeded constructs induced ectopic bone formation after 24, 48 and 96 days of implantation. There was more mineralized tissue in PHB constructs than in HAP-collagen tapes (at day 24; p embroidery or HAP-collagen tapes can induce ectopic bone formation. However, the amount of bone formed decreased with increasing length of implantation.

  5. The effect of hydroxyapatite addition on the mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan biomaterials for bone scaffolds application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramahdita, Ghiska; Puspita, Debie Maya; Albab, Muh Fadhil; Alfata, Rowi; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman

    2018-02-01

    The increasing number of bone fracture incident in Indonesia from year to year needs an urgent problem solving of the limited bone substitute which can meet the necessary criteria for that purpose. Motivated by this, therefore, the current study is focusing on the optimization of material properties used as bone scaffold. A biomaterial of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan-hydroxyapatite (HA) composite was successfully made by wet chemistry method, followed by freeze thawing and freeze drying. For comparison purposes, the percentage of HA has been varied from 0, 25 and 40 % (wt/v). The resulting composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, and swelling behavior. The results showed that the addition of HA up to 40% (wt/v) has yielded a porous structure with an average pore size of 42.39 µm. In addition, the compressive modulus was enhanced from 14 MPa for 0% HA to 143, and 191 MPa for composites with the addition of HA from 25 to 40% (wt/v). The addition of HA has also reduced the swelling ratio from 296% for the sample without HA to 85 and 78 % for sample with addition of HA from 25 to 40 (wt/v), respectively. The obtained results show that PVA/chitosan-HA in this study is potential to be used as scaffold in bone tissue engineering.

  6. Biomimetic fabrication of a three-level hierarchical calcium phosphate/collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Changchun; Ye, Xingjiang; Fan, Yujiang; Tan, Yanfei; Qing, Fangzu; Zhang, Xingdong; Ma, Liang

    2014-01-01

    A three-level hierarchical calcium phosphate/collagen/hydroxyapatite (CaP/Col/HAp) scaffold for bone tissue engineering was developed using biomimetic synthesis. Porous CaP ceramics were first prepared as substrate materials to mimic the porous bone structure. A second-level Col network was then composited into porous CaP ceramics by vacuum infusion. Finally, a third-level HAp layer was achieved by biomimetic mineralization. The three-level hierarchical biomimetic scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectra, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the mechanical properties of the scaffold were evaluated using dynamic mechanical analysis. The results show that this scaffold exhibits a similar structure and composition to natural bone tissues. Furthermore, this three-level hierarchical biomimetic scaffold showed enhanced mechanical strength compared with pure porous CaP scaffolds. The biocompatibility and osteoinductivity of the biomimetic scaffolds were evaluated using in vitro and in vivo tests. Cell culture results indicated the good biocompatibility of this biomimetic scaffold. Faster and increased bone formation was observed in these scaffolds following a six-month implantation in the dorsal muscles of rabbits, indicating that this biomimetic scaffold exhibits better osteoinductivity than common CaP scaffolds. (papers)

  7. Polyurethane/fluor-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Part I: morphological, physical, and mechanical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefnejad, Azadeh; Behnamghader, Aliasghar; Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi; Farsadzadeh, Babak

    2011-01-01

    In this study, new nano-fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polyurethane composite scaffolds were fabricated for potential use in bone tissue engineering. Polyester urethane samples were synthesized from polycaprolactone, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and 1,4-butanediol as chain extender. Nano fluor-hydroxyapatite (nFHA) was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The solid–liquid phase separation and solvent sublimation methods were used for preparation of the porous composites. Mechanical properties, chemical structure, and morphological characteristics of the samples were investigated by compressive test, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, respectively. The effect of nFHA powder content on porosity and pore morphology was investigated. SEM images demonstrated that the scaffolds were constituted of interconnected and homogeneously distributed pores. The pore size of the scaffolds was in the range 50–250 μm. The result obtained in this research revealed that the porosity and pore average size decreased and compressive modulus increased with nFHA percentage. Considering morphological, physical, and mechanical properties, the scaffold with a higher ratio of nFHA has suitable potential use in tissue regeneration. PMID:21289986

  8. Environmental pH-controlled loading and release of protein on mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Gao, Tianlin; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zongliang; Zhang, Peibiao; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    To explore the controlled delivery of protein drugs in micro-environment established by osteoblasts or osteoclasts, the loading/release properties of bovine serum albumin (BSA) depending on pH environment were assessed. The adsorption amounts over mesoporous hydroxyapatite (MHA) or hydroxyapatite (HA) decreased as the pH increased, negatively correlating with zeta-potential values. The adsorption behavior over MHA fits well with the Freundlich and Langmuir models at different pHs. The results suggest that the adsorbed amount of protein on MHA or HA depended on the pH of protein solution. MHA adsorbed BSA at basic pH (MHApH 8.4) exhibited a different release kinetics compared with those in acid and neutral environments (MHApH 4.7 and MHApH 7.4), indicating that the release of protein could be regulated by environmental pH at which MHAs adsorb protein. MHApH 8.4 showed a sustained release for 6h before a gradual release when immersing in acidic environment, which is 2h longer than that in neutral environment. This suggests that MHApH 8.4 showed a more sustained release in acidic environment, which can be established by osteoclasts. The variation of adsorption strength between protein and MHA may be responsible for these behaviors. Our findings may be very useful for the development of MHA applications on both bone repair and protein delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Hydroxyapatite-lignin composite as a metallic implant-bone tissue osseointegration improver: experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luciani Valente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate biocompatibility, osteoconduction and osseointegration of a pasty composite of hydroxyapatite (20% and lignin (80% as a promoter of metal implant and bone tissue integration. An intramedullary Schanz pin was implanted in both tibias of fifteen bitches. In the left tibia, the pin was coated with the biomaterial at the time of surgery. Marrow cavity was also filled with the biomaterial. Right limb did not receive the biomaterial, then constituting the control group. Tibias were harvested from five animals at 8, 60 and 150 days after surgery; three of them were analyzed by histological and biomechanical assessment and the two remaining tibias by X-ray diffraction. Results showed that the biomaterial is biocompatible, with osteoconductivity and osseointegration properties. Histological analysis and diffractograms showed the presence of hydroxyapatite in samples in all periods, although the presence of organic material of low crystallinity was variable. There was no statistical difference in the forces required for removal of the biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and osseointegration, it was not able to promote a better intramedullary pin anchorage.

  10. Effect of Zinc Oxide Addition on Antibacterial Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Abotalebi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infection after the surgery is one of the problems of bone scaffolds implants which is normally treated by systemic administration of antibiotics. But due to the poor blood circulation in bone tissue, large antibiotic doses are needed which lead to further drawbacks to renal and hepatic systems. Material and method: In this study, the effect of zinc oxide addition on antibacterial behavior of hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold was evaluated. The synthesized composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectra. In order to determine the antibacterial activity of the fabricated scaffold, Staphylococcus aureus (ATTC 25922 and Escherichia coli (ATTC 25923 were used as test microorganisms. Results: The results showed that Hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold did not make inhibition zone in culture medium but the modification of Hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold’s surface by zinc oxide particles caused Hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid- zinc oxide scaffold to have antibacterial inhibition zone of 12 and 20 mm for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: This study revealed that the addition of antibacterial agent to applicable bone tissue engineering scaffolds could be considered as an appropriate way to prevent the growth of infection at the scaffold site.

  11. Changes in physicochemical and biological properties of porcine bone derived hydroxyapatite induced by the incorporation of fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Liu, Quan; Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Hanqing; Chen, Zhuofan

    2017-12-01

    As the main inorganic component of xenogenic bone graft material, bone-derived biological apatite (BAp) has been widely used in implant dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery and orthopedics. However, BAp produced via calcination of animal bones still suffers from some drawbacks, such as insufficient mechanical strength and inadequate degradation rate, which impede its application. Fluoride is known to play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes of human hard tissues for its double effects on bones and teeth. In order to understand the effects of fluoride on the properties of BAp, as well as the mechanism behind them, porcine bone derived hydroxyapatite (PHAp) was prepared via thermal treatment, which was then fluoride incorporated at a series concentrations of sodium fluoride, and noted as 0.25-FPHAp, 0.50-FPHAp, and 0.75-FPHAp respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the materials, including crystal morphology, crystallinity, functional groups, elemental composition, compressive strength, porosity and solubility, were then determined. The biological properties, such as protein adsorption and cell attachment, were also evaluated. It was found that the spheroid-like crystals of PHAp were changed into rod-like after fluoride substitution, resulting in a fluoride concentration-dependent increase in compressive strength, as well as a decreased porosity and solubility of the apatite. However, even though the addition of fluoride was demonstrated to enhance protein adsorption and cell attachment of the materials, the most favorable results were intriguingly achieved in FPHAp with the least fluoride content. Collectively, low level of fluoride incorporation is proposed promising for the modification of clinically used BAp based bone substitute materials, because of its being able to maintain a good balance between physicochemical and biological properties of the apatite.

  12. Implantation of silicon dioxide-based nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and pure phase beta-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute granules in caprine muscle tissue does not induce new bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanaati Shahram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoinductive bone substitutes are defined by their ability to induce new bone formation even at heterotopic implantation sites. The present study was designed to analyze the potential osteoinductivity of two different bone substitute materials in caprine muscle tissue. Materials and methods One gram each of either a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP or an hydroxyapatite/silicon dioxide (HA/SiO2-based nanocrystalline bone substitute material was implanted in several muscle pouches of goats. The biomaterials were explanted at 29, 91 and 181 days after implantation. Conventional histology and special histochemical stains were performed to detect osteoblast precursor cells as well as mineralized and unmineralized bone matrix. Results Both materials underwent cellular degradation in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells were involved. The ß-TCP was completely resorbed within the observation period, whereas some granules of the HA-groups were still detectable after 180 days. Neither osteoblasts, osteoblast precursor cells nor extracellular bone matrix were found within the implantation bed of any of the analyzed biomaterials at any of the observed time points. Conclusions This study showed that ß-TCP underwent a faster degradation than the HA-based material. The lack of osteoinductivity for both materials might be due to their granular shape, as osteoinductivity in goat muscle has been mainly attributed to cylindrical or disc-shaped bone substitute materials. This hypothesis however requires further investigation to systematically analyze various materials with comparable characteristics in the same experimental setting.

  13. Chemical synthesis of bone-like carbonate hydroxyapatite from hen eggshells and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo-Dávila, J. L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHAp was synthesized from domestic hen eggshells by using three alternative wet chemical methods at room temperature. In the first method, the powdered eggshells were reacted directly with H3PO4. In the other two methods, calcium acetate was obtained in a first step by dissolving the eggshells in acetic acid. Then, calcium acetate was reacted with Na3PO4•12H2O and (NH42HPO4 in the second and third methods, respectively. The synthesized CHAp was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Fine and poorly crystallized CHAp was obtained under all experimental conditions employed. Among all synthesized materials, the one produced by the first method showed the closest resemblance to bovine bone, which was related to similar carbonate contents in both materials. In general, acicular CHAp crystals with a size ranging from 10 to 100 nm were obtained, which had an aspect ratio of ∼1/4. The morphology of the synthesized CHAp crystals was consistent with their estimated carbonate content.

    Se sintetizó carbonato-hidroxiapatita (CHAp a partir de cascarón de huevo de gallina, usando tres métodos químicos alternativos vía húmeda a temperatura ambiente. En el primer método, el cascarón pulverizado fue hecho reaccionar directamente con H3PO4. En los otros dos métodos, el primer paso fue la obtención de acetato de calcio mediante la disolución del cascarón en ácido acético. Luego, el acetato de calcio fue hecho reaccionar con Na3PO4•12H2O y (NH42HPO4 en el segundo y tercer método, respectivamente. El CHAp sintetizado fue caracterizado por difracción de rayos X (DRX, espectroscopia infrarroja por transformada de Fourier (FT-IR, microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB y microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET. Bajo todas las condiciones experimentales empleadas se obtuvo CHAp

  14. Biomimetic scaffolds based on hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid with their corresponding apatite-forming capability and biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Nguyen Kim; Hoai, Tran Thanh; Viet, Pham Hung

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a facile synthesis of biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid (HAp/PDLLA) scaffolds with the use of solvent casting combined with a salt-leaching technique for bone-tissue engineering. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to observe the morphologies, pore structures of synthesized scaffolds, interactions between hydroxyapatite nanorods and poly(D,L) lactic acid, as well as the compositions of the scaffolds, respectively. Porosity of the scaffolds was determined using the liquid substitution method. Moreover, the apatite-forming capability of the scaffolds was evaluated through simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation tests, whereas the viability, attachment, and distribution of human osteoblast cells (MG 63 cell line) on the scaffolds were determined through alamarBlue assay and confocal laser microscopy after nuclear staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and actin filaments of a cytoskeleton with Oregon Green 488 phalloidin. Results showed that hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid scaffolds that mimic the structure of natural bone were successfully produced. These scaffolds possessed macropore networks with high porosity (80-84%) and mean pore sizes ranging 117-183 μm. These scaffolds demonstrated excellent apatite-forming capabilities. The rapid formation of bone-like apatites with flower-like morphology was observed after 7 days of incubation in SBFs. The scaffolds that had a high percentage (30 wt.%) of hydroxyapatite demonstrated better cell adhesion, proliferation, and distribution than those with low percentages of hydroxyapatite as the days of culture increased. This work presented an efficient route for developing biomimetic composite scaffolds, which have potential applications in bone-tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Zhou,1,2 Hongchang Yao,1 Jianshe Wang,1 Dalu Wang,1 Qian Liu,1 Zhongjun Li11College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Enviromental and Municipal Engineering, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In bone tissue engineering, collagen/hydroxyapatite (HAP fibrous composite obtained via electrospinning method has been demonstrated to support the cells’ adhesion and bone regeneration. However, electrospinning of natural collagen often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents, and the HAP crystals were usually aggregated and randomly distributed within a fibrous matrix of collagen, limiting their clinical potential. Here, an effective and greener method for the preparation of collagen/HAP composite fibers was developed for the first time, and this green product not only had 40 times higher mechanical properties than that previously reported, but also had an excellent microstructure similar to that of natural bone. By dissolving type I collagen in environmentally friendly phosphate buffered saline/ethanol solution instead of the frequently-used cytotoxic organic solvents, followed with the key step of desalination, co-electrospinning the collagen solution with the HAP sol, generates a collagen/HAP composite with a uniform and continuous fibrous morphology. Interestingly, the nano-HAP needles were found to preferentially orient along the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibers, which mimicked the nanostructure of natural bones. Based on the characterization of the related products, the formation mechanism for this novel phenomenon was proposed. After cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide, the obtained composite exhibited a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of the

  16. In-situ solvothermal processing of polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and biological performance for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Moeini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in biodegradable polymer-matrix nanocomposites with bone regeneration potential has been increasing in recent years. In the present work, a solvothermal process is introduced to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA nanorod-reinforced polycaprolactone in-situ. A non-aqueous polymer solution containing calcium and phosphorous precursors is prepared and processed in a closed autoclave at different temperatures in the range of 60–150 °C. Hydroxyapatite nanorods with varying aspect ratios are formed depending on the processing temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicate that the HA nanorods are semi-crystalline. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry determine that the ratio of calcium to phosphorous increases as the processing temperature increases. To evaluate the effect of in-situ processing on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites, highly porous scaffolds (>90% containing HA nanorods are prepared by employing freeze drying and salt leaching techniques. It is shown that the elastic modulus and strength of the nanocomposites prepared by the in-situ method is superior (∼15% to those of the ex-situ samples (blended HA nanorods with the polymer solution. The enhanced bone regeneration potential of the nanocomposites is shown via an in vitro bioactivity assay in a saturated simulated body fluid. An improved cell viability and proliferation is also shown by employing (3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in human osteosarcoma cell lines. The prepared scaffolds with in vitro regeneration capacity could be potentially useful for orthopaedic applications and maxillofacial surgery.

  17. Human recombinant cementum attachment protein (hrPTPLa/CAP) promotes hydroxyapatite crystal formation in vitro and bone healing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Gonzalo; Arenas, Jesús; Romo, Enrique; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Alvarez, Marco; Narayanan, A Sampath; Velázquez, Ulises; Mercado, Gabriela; Arzate, Higinio

    2014-12-01

    Cementum extracellular matrix is similar to other mineralized tissues; however, this unique tissue contains molecules only present in cementum. A cDNA of these molecules, cementum attachment protein (hrPTPLa/CAP) was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. This molecule is an alternative splicing of protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A (PTPLa). In this study, we wanted to determine the structural and functional characteristics of this protein. Our results indicate that hrPTPLa/CAP contains a 43.2% α-helix, 8.9% β-sheet, 2% β-turn and 45.9% random coil secondary structure. Dynamic light scattering shows that this molecule has a size distribution of 4.8 nm and aggregates as an estimated mass of 137 kDa species. AFM characterization and FE-SEM studies indicate that this protein self-assembles into nanospheres with sizes ranging from 7.0 to 27 nm in diameter. Functional studies demonstrate that hrPTPLa/CAP promotes hydroxyapatite crystal nucleation: EDS analysis revealed that hrPTPLa/CAP-induced crystals had a 1.59 ± 0.06 Ca/P ratio. Further confirmation with MicroRaman spectrometry and TEM confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. In vivo studies using critical-size defects in rat cranium showed that hrPTPLa/CAP promoted 73% ± 2.19% and 87% ± 1.97% new bone formation at 4 and 8 weeks respectively. Although originally identified in cementum, PTPLa/CAP is very effective at inducing bone repair and healing and therefore this novel molecule has a great potential to be used for mineralized tissue bioengineering and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct Scaffolding of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite-gelatin Nanocomposites using Aminosilane Cross-linker for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Chi-Kai; Ferreira, Joao; Luo, Tzy-Jiun M.; Geng, Haixia; Lin, Feng-Chang; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite-gelatin modified siloxane (GEMOSIL) nanocomposite was developed by coating, kneading and hardening processes to provide formable scaffolding for alloplastic graft applications. The present study aims to characterize scaffolding formability and mechanical properties of GEMOSIL, and to test the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of GEMOSIL. Buffer Solution initiated formable paste followed by the sol-gel reaction led to a final hardened composite. Results showed the adequate c...

  19. Facilitated receptor-recognition and enhanced bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Tong; Ding, Sai; Zhang, Wenjing; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial surface functionalized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a promising approach to fabricating successful orthopedic implants/scaffolds. However, the bioactivity of BMP-2 on material surfaces is still far from satisfactory and the mechanism of related protein-surface interaction remains elusive. Based on the most widely used bone-implants/scaffolds material, hydroxyapatite (HAP), we developed a matrix of magnesium-substituted HAP (Mg-HAP, 2.2 at% substitution) to address these issues. Further, we investigated the adsorption dynamics, BMPRs-recruitment, and bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the preferred orientations, conformation changes, and cysteine-knot stabilities of adsorbed BMP-2 molecules. The results showed that rhBMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface exhibited greater bioactivity, evidenced by more facilitated BMPRs-recognition and higher ALP activity than on the HAP surface. Moreover, molecular simulations indicated that BMP-2 favoured distinct side-on orientations on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. Intriguingly, BMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface largely preserved the active protein structure evidenced by more stable cysteine-knots than on the HAP surface. These findings explicitly clarify the mechanism of BMP-2-HAP/Mg-HAP interactions and highlight the promising application of Mg-HAP/BMP-2 matrixes in bone regeneration implants/scaffolds. PMID:27075233

  20. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite surfaces-mediated adsorption alters recognition of BMP receptor IA and bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Ding, Sai; Li, Jianbo; Ren, Jie; Feng, Bo; Li, Tong; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-11-01

    Highly efficient loading of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) onto carriers with desirable performance is still a major challenge in the field of bone regeneration. Till now, the nanoscaled surface-induced changes of the structure and bioactivity of BMP-2 remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of nanoscaled surface on the adsorption and bioactivity of BMP-2 was investigated with a series of hydroxyapatite surfaces (HAPs): HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP), HAP crystal-coated polished surface (HAP-Pol), and sintered HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP-Sin). The adsorption dynamics of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and the accessibility of the binding epitopes of adsorbed rhBMP-2 for BMP receptors (BMPRs) were examined by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Moreover, the bioactivity of adsorbed rhBMP-2 and the BMP-induced Smad signaling were investigated with C2C12 model cells. A noticeably high mass-uptake of rhBMP-2 and enhanced recognition of BMPR-IA to adsorbed rhBMP-2 were found on the HAP-Pol surface. For the rhBMP-2-adsorbed HAPs, both ALP activity and Smad signaling increased in the order of HAP-Sinuses of rhBMP-2 in clinical applications and arouse broad interests among researchers in the fields of nano-biotechnology, biomaterials and bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of the compressive strength of a cuttlefish bone-derived porous hydroxyapatite scaffold via polycaprolactone coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Cuttlefish bones (CBs) have emerged as attractive biomaterials because of their porous structure and components that can be converted into hydroxyapatite (HAp) via a hydrothermal reaction. However, their brittleness and low strength restrict their application in bone tissue engineering. Therefore, to improve the compressive strength of the scaffold following hydrothermal conversion to a HAp form of CB (CB-HAp), the scaffold was coated using a polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer at various concentrations. In this study, raw CB was successfully converted into HAp via a hydrothermal reaction. We then evaluated their surface properties and composition by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The CB-HAp coated with PCL showed improved compressive performance and retained a microporous structure. The compressive strength was significantly increased upon coating with 5 and 10% PCL, by 2.09- and 3.30-fold, respectively, as compared with uncoated CB-HAp. However, coating with 10% PCL resulted in a reduction in porosity. Furthermore, an in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that MG-63 cells adhered well, proliferated and were able to be differentiated on the PCL-coated CB-HAp scaffold, which was noncytotoxic. These results suggest that a simple coating method is useful to improve the compressive strength of CB-HAp for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yao, Hongchang; Wang, Jianshe; Wang, Dalu; Liu, Qian; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    In bone tissue engineering, collagen/hydroxyapatite (HAP) fibrous composite obtained via electrospinning method has been demonstrated to support the cells’ adhesion and bone regeneration. However, electrospinning of natural collagen often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents, and the HAP crystals were usually aggregated and randomly distributed within a fibrous matrix of collagen, limiting their clinical potential. Here, an effective and greener method for the preparation of collagen/HAP composite fibers was developed for the first time, and this green product not only had 40 times higher mechanical properties than that previously reported, but also had an excellent microstructure similar to that of natural bone. By dissolving type I collagen in environmentally friendly phosphate buffered saline/ethanol solution instead of the frequently-used cytotoxic organic solvents, followed with the key step of desalination, co-electrospinning the collagen solution with the HAP sol, generates a collagen/HAP composite with a uniform and continuous fibrous morphology. Interestingly, the nano-HAP needles were found to preferentially orient along the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibers, which mimicked the nanostructure of natural bones. Based on the characterization of the related products, the formation mechanism for this novel phenomenon was proposed. After cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide, the obtained composite exhibited a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of the obtained composite fibers was evaluated by in vitro culture of the human myeloma cells (U2-OS). Taken together, the process outlined herein provides an effective, non-toxic approach for the fabrication of collagen/HAP composite nanofibers that could be good candidates for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25995630

  3. Surface-enrichment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in stereolithography-fabricated composite polymer scaffolds promotes bone repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume, O.; Geven, M. A.; Sprecher, C. M.; Stadelmann, V. A.; Grijpma, D. W.; Tang, T.T.; Qin, L.; Lai, Y.; Alini, M.; de Bruijn, J. D.; Yuan, H.; Richards, R.G.; Eglin, D.

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication of composite scaffolds using stereolithography (SLA) for bone tissue engineering has shown great promises. However, in order to trigger effective bone formation and implant integration, exogenous growth factors are commonly combined to scaffold materials. In this study, we fabricated

  4. Composite coating of 58S bioglass and hydroxyapatite on a poly (ethylene terepthalate) artificial ligament graft for the graft osseointegration in a bone tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hong; Wu Yang; Ge Yunsheng; Jiang Jia; Gao Kai [Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang Pengyun; Wu Lingxiang [Shanghai Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai (China); Chen Shiyi, E-mail: cshiyi@163.com [Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass (BG) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament graft osseointegration within the bone tunnel. The results of in vitro culturing of MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells proved that this HA/BG composite coating can promote the cell compatibility of grafts. A rabbit extraarticular tendon-to-bone healing model was used to evaluate the effect of this composite coating on PET artificial ligaments in vivo. The final results demonstrated that HA/BG coating improved new bone formation at the graft-bone interface and increased the load-to-failure property of graft in bone tunnel compared to the control group at early time. The study has shown that HA/BG composite coating on the PET artificial ligament surface has a positive effect in the induction of artificial ligament osseointegration within the bone tunnel.

  5. Composite coating of 58S bioglass and hydroxyapatite on a poly (ethylene terepthalate) artificial ligament graft for the graft osseointegration in a bone tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Wu Yang; Ge Yunsheng; Jiang Jia; Gao Kai; Zhang Pengyun; Wu Lingxiang; Chen Shiyi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass (BG) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament graft osseointegration within the bone tunnel. The results of in vitro culturing of MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells proved that this HA/BG composite coating can promote the cell compatibility of grafts. A rabbit extraarticular tendon-to-bone healing model was used to evaluate the effect of this composite coating on PET artificial ligaments in vivo. The final results demonstrated that HA/BG coating improved new bone formation at the graft-bone interface and increased the load-to-failure property of graft in bone tunnel compared to the control group at early time. The study has shown that HA/BG composite coating on the PET artificial ligament surface has a positive effect in the induction of artificial ligament osseointegration within the bone tunnel.

  6. Preparation of bone-implants by coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on self-formed titanium dioxide thin-layers on titanium metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, W.P.S.L.; Mantilaka, M.M.M.G.P.G.; Chathuranga Senarathna, K.G. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Herath, H.M.T.U. [Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Premachandra, T.N. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Ranasinghe, C.S.K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Rajapakse, R.P.V.J. [Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Rajapakse, R.M.G., E-mail: rmgr@pdn.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Bandara, I.M.C.C.D. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane 4001, QLD (Australia); Singh, Sanjleena [Central Analytical Research Facility, Institute of Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane 4001, QLD (Australia)

    2016-06-01

    Preparation of hydroxyapatite coated custom-made metallic bone-implants is very important for the replacement of injured bones of the body. Furthermore, these bone-implants are more stable under the corrosive environment of the body and biocompatible than bone-implants made up of pure metals and metal alloys. Herein, we describe a novel, simple and low-cost technique to prepare biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated titanium metal (TiM) implants through growth of self-formed TiO{sub 2} thin-layer (SFTL) on TiM via a heat treatment process. SFTL acts as a surface binder of HA nanoparticles in order to produce HA coated implants. Colloidal HA nanorods prepared by a novel surfactant-assisted synthesis method, have been coated on SFTL via atomized spray pyrolysis (ASP) technique. The corrosion behavior of the bare and surface-modified TiM (SMTiM) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium is also studied. The highest corrosion rate is found to be for the bare TiM plate, but the corrosion rate has been reduced with the heat-treatment of TiM due to the formation of SFTL. The lowest corrosion rate is recorded for the implant prepared by heat treatment of TiM at 700 °C. The HA-coating further assists in the passivation of the TiM in the SBF medium. Both SMTiM and HA coated SMTiM are noncytotoxic against osteoblast-like (HOS) cells and are in high-bioactivity. The overall production process of bone-implant described in this paper is in high economic value. - Highlights: • Colloidal hydroxyapatite nanorods are prepared by a novel method. • Surfaces of titanium metal plates are modified by self-forming TiO{sub 2} thin-films. • Prostheses are prepared by coating hydroxyapatite on surface modified Ti metal. • Bioactivity and noncytotoxicity are increased with surface modifications.

  7. Preparation of bone-implants by coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on self-formed titanium dioxide thin-layers on titanium metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesinghe, W.P.S.L.; Mantilaka, M.M.M.G.P.G.; Chathuranga Senarathna, K.G.; Herath, H.M.T.U.; Premachandra, T.N.; Ranasinghe, C.S.K.; Rajapakse, R.P.V.J.; Rajapakse, R.M.G.; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, S.; Bandara, I.M.C.C.D.; Singh, Sanjleena

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of hydroxyapatite coated custom-made metallic bone-implants is very important for the replacement of injured bones of the body. Furthermore, these bone-implants are more stable under the corrosive environment of the body and biocompatible than bone-implants made up of pure metals and metal alloys. Herein, we describe a novel, simple and low-cost technique to prepare biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated titanium metal (TiM) implants through growth of self-formed TiO_2 thin-layer (SFTL) on TiM via a heat treatment process. SFTL acts as a surface binder of HA nanoparticles in order to produce HA coated implants. Colloidal HA nanorods prepared by a novel surfactant-assisted synthesis method, have been coated on SFTL via atomized spray pyrolysis (ASP) technique. The corrosion behavior of the bare and surface-modified TiM (SMTiM) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium is also studied. The highest corrosion rate is found to be for the bare TiM plate, but the corrosion rate has been reduced with the heat-treatment of TiM due to the formation of SFTL. The lowest corrosion rate is recorded for the implant prepared by heat treatment of TiM at 700 °C. The HA-coating further assists in the passivation of the TiM in the SBF medium. Both SMTiM and HA coated SMTiM are noncytotoxic against osteoblast-like (HOS) cells and are in high-bioactivity. The overall production process of bone-implant described in this paper is in high economic value. - Highlights: • Colloidal hydroxyapatite nanorods are prepared by a novel method. • Surfaces of titanium metal plates are modified by self-forming TiO_2 thin-films. • Prostheses are prepared by coating hydroxyapatite on surface modified Ti metal. • Bioactivity and noncytotoxicity are increased with surface modifications.

  8. Comparative in vivo study of six hydroxyapatite-based bone graft substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Juhl, Maria V.; Clyens, Stuart; Martinetti, Roberta; Dolcini, Laura; Theilgaard, Naseem; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2008-01-01

    Improvement of synthetic bone graft substitutes as suitable alternatives to a patient's own bone graft remains a challenge in biomaterials research. Our goal was to answer the question of whether improved osteoinductivity of a material would also translate to better bone-healing orthotopically.

  9. Molecular interactions in biomineralized hydroxyapatite amino acid modified nanoclay: In silico design of bone biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, Dinesh R.; Sharma, Anurag; Ambre, Avinash H.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2015-01-01

    A simulations driven approach to design of a novel biomaterial nanocomposite system is described in this study. Nanoclays modified with amino acids (OMMT) were used to mineralize hydroxyapatite (HAP), mimicking biomineralization. Representative models of organically modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and OMMT-hydroxyapatite (OMMT-HAP) were constructed using molecular dynamics and validated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transforms Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Attractive interactions exist between Ca atoms of HAP and C=O group of aminovaleric acid, indicating chelate formation in OMMT-HAP. Interaction energy maps describe molecular interactions among different constituents and their quantitative contributions in the OMMT and OMMT-HAP systems at both parallel and perpendicular orientations. High attractive and high repulsive interactions were found between PO 4 3− and MMT clay as well as aminovaleric molecules in OMMT-HAP perpendicular and parallel models. Large non-bonded interactions in OMMT-HAP indicate influence of neighboring environment on PO 4 3− in in situ HAPclay. Extensive hydrogen bonds were observed between functional hydrogen atoms of modifier and MMT clay in OMMT-HAP as compared to OMMT. Thus, HAP interacts with clay through the aminovaleric acid. This computational study provides a framework for materials design and selection for biomaterials used in tissue engineering and other areas of regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Representative models of a hybrid nanoclay-hydroxyapatite biomaterial are built. • Interaction energy maps are constructed using a molecular dynamics. • Quantitative interactions between the three components of the biomaterial are found. • The modeling and experimental approach provides insight into the complex nanomaterial

  10. PMMA-hydroxyapatite composite material retards fatigue failure of augmented bone compared to augmentation with plain PMMA: in vivo study using a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabmotlagh, Mohammad; Bachmaier, Samuel; Geiger, Florian; Rauschmann, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used void filler for augmentation of osteoporotic vertebral fracture, but the differing mechanical features of PMMA and osteoporotic bone result in overload and failure of adjacent bone. The aim of this study was to compare fatigue failure of bone after augmentation with PMMA-nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) composite material or with plain PMMA in a sheep model. After characterization of the mechanical properties of a composite material consisting of PMMA and defined amounts (10, 20, and 30% volume fraction) of HA, the composite material with 30% volume fraction HA was implanted in one distal femur of sheep; plain PMMA was implanted in the other femur. Native non-augmented bone served as control. Three and 6 months after implantation, the augmented bone samples were exposed to cyclic loading and the evolution of damage was investigated. The fatigue life was highest for the ovine native bone and lowest for bone-PMMA specimens. Bone-composite specimens showed significantly higher fatigue life than the respective bone-PMMA specimens in both 3- and 6-month follow-up groups. These results suggest that modification of mechanical properties of PMMA by addition of HA to approximate those of cancellous bone retards fatigue failure of the surrounding bone compared to augmented bone with plain PMMA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Study the bonding mechanism of binders on hydroxyapatite surface and mechanical properties for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinghua; Wang, Yanen; Li, Xinpei; Yang, Mingming; Chai, Weihong; Wang, Kai; zhang, Yingfeng

    2016-04-01

    In 3DP fabricating artificial bone scaffolds process, the interaction mechanism between binder and bioceramics power determines the microstructure and macro mechanical properties of Hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffold. In this study, we applied Molecular Dynamics (MD) methods to investigating the bonding mechanism and essence of binders on the HA crystallographic planes for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds. The cohesive energy densities of binders and the binding energies, PCFs g(r), mechanical properties of binder/HA interaction models were analyzed through the MD simulation. Additionally, we prepared the HA bone scaffold specimens with different glues by 3DP additive manufacturing, and tested their mechanical properties by the electronic universal testing machine. The simulation results revealed that the relationship of the binding energies between binders and HA surface is consistent with the cohesive energy densities of binders, which is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA. The PCFs g(r) indicated that their interfacial interactions mainly attribute to the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds which formed between the polar atoms, functional groups in binder polymer and the Ca, -OH in HA. The results of mechanical experiments verified the relationship of Young׳s modulus for three interaction models in simulation, which is PVA/HA>PAM/HA>PVP/HA. But the trend of compressive strength is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA, this is consistent with the binding energies of simulation. Therefore, the Young׳s modulus of bone scaffolds are limited by the Young׳s modulus of binders, and the compressive strength is mainly decided by the viscosity of binder. Finally, the major reasons for differences in mechanical properties between simulation and experiment were found, the space among HA pellets and the incomplete infiltration of glue were the main reasons influencing the mechanical properties of 3DP fabrication HA bone scaffolds. These results provide useful information in choosing binder for 3DP fabrication

  12. Hydroxyapatite additive influenced the bioactivity of bioactive nano-titania ceramics and new bone-forming capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhensheng [Third Military Medical University, College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging (China); Yang Xiaozhan [Chongqing University of Technology, School of Optoelectronic Information (China); Guo Hongfeng [Third Military Medical University, Tissue Engineering Research Center of Chongqing, Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences (China); Yang Xiaochao; Sun Lili [Third Military Medical University, College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging (China); Dong Shiwu, E-mail: shiwudong@gmail.com [Third Military Medical University, Tissue Engineering Research Center of Chongqing, Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences (China)

    2012-09-15

    Bioceramics plays an important role in bone-substitutes. In this study, titania porous ceramics with excellent bioactivity were prepared using hydroxyapatite (HA, 10 vol.% contents) as a grain growth inhibitor. The pure TiO{sub 2} porous ceramics were also prepared as a control. After sintered at 1,000 Degree-Sign C with a pressureless sintering method, the particle size of the pure TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/HA (10 vol.%) porous ceramics were 450 and 310 nm, respectively. Each of the porous ceramics presented numerous pores, which were cross-connected. The size of the pores ranged from 100 to 300 {mu}m. There were also profuse micropores inside the pore wall and between the particles. A SBF soaking experiment demonstrated that the HA additive played an important role in promoting apatite formation. The cell proliferation demonstrated that osteoblasts on the TiO{sub 2}/HA (10 vol.%) porous ceramics proliferated faster than that on the pure TiO{sub 2} ceramics. The histological sections and EDX assay results of the two porous ceramics also illustrated that TiO{sub 2}/HA (10 vol.%) composite ceramics combined with Ca and P elements induced much better apatite formation than that of the pure TiO{sub 2} ceramics. These results indicated that titania ceramics combined with HA holds great promise for bone-substitutes.

  13. Nano-scaled hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin sheets support osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Hirose, Motohiro; Kotobuki, Noriko; Ohgushi, Hajime; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Sato, Junichi

    2007-01-01

    A novel biomaterial that was composed of nano-scaled sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) and silk fibroin (SF) was fabricated. We cultured rat marrow mesenchymal cells (MMCs) on this biomaterial (nano-HAp/SF sheet), on bare SF sheets, and on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes as controls, then evaluated cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of the MMCs. After 1 h of culture, a large number of viable cells were observed on the nano-HAp/SF sheets in comparison to the controls. In addition, after 3 h of culture, the morphology of the cells on the nano-HAp/SF sheets was quite different from that on the SF sheets. MMCs extrude their cytoplasmic processes to nano-HAp particles and are well attached to the sheets. After 14 days of culture, under osteogenic conditions, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone-specific osteocalcin secretion of the cells on nano-HAp/SF sheets were higher than were those on the controls. These results indicated that the surface of the nano-HAp/SF sheets is covered with appropriate HAp crystal for MMC adhesion/proliferation and that the sheets effectively support the osteogenic differentiation of MMCs. Therefore, the nano-HAp/SF sheet is an effective biomaterial that is applicable in bone reconstruction surgery

  14. Adverse Biological Effect of TiO2 and Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Used in Bone Repair and Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangxue Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The adverse biological effect of nanoparticles is an unavoidable scientific problem because of their small size and high surface activity. In this review, we focus on nano-hydroxyapatite and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs to clarify the potential systemic toxicological effect and cytotoxic response of wear nanoparticles because they are attractive materials for bone implants and are widely investigated to promote the repair and reconstruction of bone. The wear nanoparticles would be prone to binding with proteins to form protein-particle complexes, to interacting with visible components in the blood including erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and to being phagocytosed by macrophages or fibroblasts to deposit in the local tissue, leading to the formation of fibrous local pseudocapsules. These particles would also be translocated to and disseminated into the main organs such as the lung, liver and spleen via blood circulation. The inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and signaling pathway are elaborated to analyze the potential toxicological mechanism. Inhibition of the oxidative stress response and signaling transduction may be a new therapeutic strategy for wear debris–mediated osteolysis. Developing biomimetic materials with better biocompatibility is our goal for orthopedic implants.

  15. In Vitro Degradation of PHBV Scaffolds and nHA/PHBV Composite Scaffolds Containing Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naznin Sultana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the long-term in vitro degradation properties of scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers and osteoconductive bioceramic/polymer composite materials for the application of bone tissue engineering. The three-dimensional porous scaffolds were fabricated using emulsion-freezing/freeze-drying technique using poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV which is a natural biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHA particles were successfully incorporated into the PHBV scaffolds to render the scaffolds osteoconductive. The PHBV and nHA/PHBV scaffolds were systematically evaluated using various techniques in terms of mechanical strength, porosity, porous morphology, and in vitro degradation. PHBV and nHA/PHBV scaffolds degraded over time in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C. PHBV polymer scaffolds exhibited slow molecular weight loss and weight loss in the in vitro physiological environment. Accelerated weight loss was observed in nHA incorporated PHBV composite scaffolds. An increasing trend of crystallinity was observed during the initial period of degradation time. The compressive properties decreased more than 40% after 5-month in vitro degradation. Together with interconnected pores, high porosity, suitable mechanical properties, and slow degradation profile obtained from long-term degradation studies, the PHBV scaffolds and osteoconductive nHA/PHBV composite scaffolds showed promises for bone tissue engineering application.

  16. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vani, R; Sridevi, T S; Kalkura, S Narayana [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Savithri, K; Devaraj, S Niranjali [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Girija, E K [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011 (India); Thamizhavel, A, E-mail: kalkurasn@annauniv.edu, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  17. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon; Qian Zhongji

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 μm, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63.

  18. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon [Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Qian Zhongji, E-mail: sknkim@pknu.ac.kr [Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 {mu}m, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63.

  19. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vani, R; Sridevi, T S; Kalkura, S Narayana; Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Savithri, K; Devaraj, S Niranjali; Girija, E K; Thamizhavel, A

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m 2 g -1 and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  20. Effects of cell-attachment and extracellular matrix on bone formation in vivo in collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Max M; Wang, Liping; Rowe, David W; Wei, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based tissue engineering can be used to replace missing or damaged bone, but the optimal methods for delivering therapeutic cells to a bony defect have not yet been established. Using transgenic reporter cells as a donor source, two different collagen-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, and a critical-size calvarial defect model, we investigated the effect of a cell-attachment period prior to implantation, with or without an extracellular matrix-based seeding suspension, on cell engraftment and osteogenesis. When quantitatively compared, the in-house scaffold implanted immediately had a higher mean radiopacity than in-house scaffolds incubated overnight. Both scaffold types implanted immediately had significantly higher area fractions of donor cells, while the in-house collagen-HA scaffolds implanted immediately had higher area fractions of the mineralization label compared with groups incubated overnight. When the cell loading was compared in vitro for each delivery method using the in-house scaffold, immediate loading led to higher numbers of delivered cells. Immediate loading may be preferable in order to ensure robust bone formation in vivo. The use of a secondary ECM carrier improved the distribution of donor cells only when a pre-attachment period was applied. These results have improved our understanding of cell delivery to bony defects in the context of in vivo outcomes.

  1. Evaluation of Synthesized Nano hydroxyapatite-Nano cellulose Composites as Biocompatible Scaffolds for Applications in Bone Tissue Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdocia-Lluberes, C.S.; Herdocia-Lluberes, C.S.; Laboy-Lopez, S.; Morales, S.; Gonzalez-Roobles, T.J.; Gonzalez-Feliciano, J.A.; Nicolau, E.; Laboy-Lopez, S.; Gonzalez-Roobles, T.J.; Nicolau, E.

    2015-01-01

    Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals have been associated with many diseases due to their activation of signaling pathways that lead to their mineralization and deposition in intra-articular and peri articular locations in the bones. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been placed in a polysaccharide network as a strategy to minimize this deposition. This research consisted of the evaluation of varying proportions of the polysaccharide network, cellulose nano crystals (CNC_s), and HAp synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. The resulting biocompatible composites were extensively characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that an nHAp = CNC ratio presented greater homogeneity in the size and distribution of the nanoparticles without compromising the crystalline structure. Also, incorporation of bone morpho genetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was performed to evaluate the effects that this interaction would have in the constructs. Finally, the osteoblast cell (hFOB 1.19) viability assay was executed and it showed that all of the materials promoted greater cell proliferation while the nHAp > CNC proportion with the inclusion of the BMP-2 protein was the best composite for the purpose of this study

  2. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, R.; Bharathi Raja, Subramaniya; Sridevi, T. S.; Savithri, K.; Niranjali Devaraj, S.; Girija, E. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2011-07-01

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m2 g - 1 and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of irradiated injectable bone substitute paste based on hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yessy Warastuti; Basril Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite, chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) composite in injectable paste form have been done. The composite was synthesized by stirring hydroxyapatite, chitosan and HPMC until homogen. IBS paste was irradiated at the dose of 25 kGy (sterile dose). Characterization of IBS paste was conducted by measuring of the water content, identification of functional group with Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and identification of sample morphology with Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive Spectrophotometer (SEM EDS). The result showed that the water content of irradiated sample was higher than unirradiated sample due to water radiolysis. Several specific bands of IBS paste were identified, i.e., carbonate (CO 3 2- ), at 1420 cm -1 , phosphate (PO 4 3- ) at 1043 cm -1 , 605 cm -1 , 568 cm -1 and chitosan (NH 2 ) at 1599 cm -1 . There is no significant difference in absorbed band between irradiated and unirradiated samples. IBS paste has a microstructure with the size of 0.05 – 0.1 μm. Electron beam irradiation did not change the structure and morphology of sample. (author)

  4. Development of Novel Biodegradable Amino Acid Ester Based Polyphosphazene-Hydroxyapatite Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Nair, Lakshmi S; Singh, Anurima; Bender, Jared D; Greish, Yaser E; Brown, Paul W; Allcock, H. R; Laurencin, Cato T

    2005-01-01

    .... CPCs are attractive candidates for the development of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, since they are moldable, resorbable, set at physiological temperature without the use of toxic chemicals...

  5. Polyether ether ketone implants achieve increased bone fusion when coated with nano-sized hydroxyapatite: a histomorphometric study in rabbit bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pär Johansson,1 Ryo Jimbo,1 Yoshihito Naito,2 Per Kjellin,3 Fredrik Currie,3 Ann Wennerberg1 1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Oral Implant Center, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan; 3Promimic AB, Stena Center, Göteborg, Sweden Abstract: Polyether ether ketone (PEEK possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and is considered the best alternative material other than titanium for orthopedic spine and trauma implants. However, the deficient osteogenic properties and the bioinertness of PEEK limit its fields of application. The aim of this study was to limit these drawbacks by coating the surface of PEEK with nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HA minerals. In the study, the biological response to PEEK, with and without HA coating, was investigated. Twenty-four screw-like and apically perforated implants in the rabbit femur were histologically evaluated at 3 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery. Twelve of the 24 implants were HA coated (test, and the remaining 12 served as uncoated PEEK controls. At 3 weeks and 12 weeks, the mean bone–implant contact was higher for test compared to control (P<0.05. The bone area inside the threads was comparable in the two groups, but the perforating hole showed more bone area for the HA-coated implants at both healing points (P<0.01. With these results, we conclude that nano-sized HA coating on PEEK implants significantly improved the osteogenic properties, and in a clinical situation this material composition may serve as an implant where a rapid bone fusion is essential. Keywords: HA, PEEK, osseointegration, histology, orthopedics, in vivo

  6. Periprosthetic bone densitometry of the hip: Influence of design and hydroxyapatite coating on regional bone remodeling; 5 year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthall

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine bone mineral density changes surrounding two differently designed titanium alloy porous-coated femoral hip prostheses (S-ROM and Multilock) as a function of time. Materials and Methods: The periprosthetic bone regions were defined by the seven Gruen zones. Measurements were obtained by DXA utilizing a dedicated software program (LUNAR ORTH). Inclusion criteria required that the patients were asymptomatic with Harris hip scores >95, showed no radiographic evidence of loosening and that they had primary implants. The protocol specified that bone measurements be obtained within one week after implantation as a baseline reference and at 6 months, 12 months and yearly thereafter. 111 consecutive S-ROM and 65 consecutive Multilock patients were enrolled in this ongoing prospective study. Of the 65 patients with Multilock implants, 25 had a 50 micron thick coating of hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA) sprayed over the porous surface and 40 were without coating. Results: At 6 months the mean BMD of all zones showed a significant decrease relative to the baseline measurement, varying from 6% to 17%. Gruen zones 2 to 6 exhibited variable degrees of recovery by 60 months. The maximum mineral losses were registered proximally in zone 1 (greater trochanter) and zone 7 (calcar and lesser trochanter), which are recognized sites of prosthetic stress shielding. The detailed results at 60 months are presented. In Gruen zone 1 the mineral loss in the S-ROM implant is significantly less the than either Multilock type. Also, mineral loss with Multilock-HA is about 55% less than the Multilock-uncoated. In Gruen zone 7 there is no difference between S-ROM and Multilock-uncoated, but Multilock-HA lost 44% less density than Multilock-uncoated. Conclusion: Regional bone remodeling appears to be related to prosthesis design. HA coating substantially and significantly reduces mineral loss in the proximal porous area; the mechanism is speculative

  7. Enzymatically crosslinked carboxymethyl-chitosan/gelatin/nano-hydroxyapatite injectable gels for in situ bone tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Debasish; Bhunia, Bibhas; Banerjee, Indranil [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Datta, Pallab; Dhara, Santanu [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Maiti, Tapas K., E-mail: maititapask@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India)

    2011-10-10

    Present study reports synthesis and characterization of an enzymatically crosslinked injectable gel (iGel) suitable for cell based bone tissue engineering application. The gel comprises of carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC)/gelatin/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) susceptible to tyrosinase/p-cresol mediated in situ gelling at physiological temperature. Study revealed that a combination of tyrosinase (60U) and p-cresol (2 mM) as crosslinking agents yield rigid gels at physiological temperature when applied to CMC/gelatin within 35 min in presence or absence of nHAp. Rheological study in conjugation with FT-IR analysis showed that an increase in CMC concentration in the gel leads to higher degree of crosslinking and higher strength. Scanning electron microscopy showed that pore sizes of iGels increased with higher gelatin concentration. In vitro study of osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation showed that, although all iGels are supportive towards the growth of primary osteoblast cells, GC1:1 supported cellular differentiation to the maximum. Application of iGels in mice revealed that stability of the in situ formed gels depends on the degree of crosslinking and CMC concentration. In conclusion, the iGels may be used in treating irregular small bone defects with minimal clinical invasion as well as for bone cell delivery. - Research Highlights: {yields} Enzymatically crosslinked injectable gel made up of CM-chitosan (C)/gelatin (G)/nHAp. {yields} Tyrosinase/p-cresol used for crosslinking and in situ gelling of polymers at 37deg. C. {yields} 60U tyrosinase and 2mM p-cresol is needed for gelation in 35 min. {yields} Higher GC ratio manifests lower crosslinking and gel strength but higher porosity. {yields} GC1:1 shows maximum in vivo gel stability and in vitro osteoblast differentiation.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of novel nano-biocomposite scaffold of chitosan–gelatin–alginate–hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Chhavi, E-mail: chhavisharma19@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India); Dinda, Amit Kumar, E-mail: amit_dinda@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Medicine and Biology, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai 400 026 (India); Potdar, Pravin D., E-mail: ppotdar@jaslokhospital.net [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Chou, Chia-Fu, E-mail: cfchou@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Mishra, Narayan Chandra, E-mail: mishrawise@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2016-07-01

    A novel nano-biocomposite scaffold was fabricated in bead form by applying simple foaming method, using a combination of natural polymers–chitosan, gelatin, alginate and a bioceramic–nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp). This approach of combining nHAp with natural polymers to fabricate the composite scaffold, can provide good mechanical strength and biological property mimicking natural bone. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images of the nano-biocomposite scaffold revealed the presence of interconnected pores, mostly spread over the whole surface of the scaffold. The nHAp particulates have covered the surface of the composite matrix and made the surface of the scaffold rougher. The scaffold has a porosity of 82% with a mean pore size of 112 ± 19.0 μm. Swelling and degradation studies of the scaffold showed that the scaffold possesses excellent properties of hydrophilicity and biodegradability. Short term mechanical testing of the scaffold does not reveal any rupturing after agitation under physiological conditions, which is an indicative of good mechanical stability of the scaffold. In vitro cell culture studies by seeding osteoblast cells over the composite scaffold showed good cell viability, proliferation rate, adhesion and maintenance of osteoblastic phenotype as indicated by MTT assay, ESEM of cell–scaffold construct, histological staining and gene expression studies, respectively. Thus, it could be stated that the nano-biocomposite scaffold of chitosan–gelatin–alginate–nHAp has the paramount importance for applications in bone tissue-engineering in future regenerative therapies. - Highlights: • nHAp–chitosan–gelatin–alginate composite scaffold was successfully fabricated. • Foaming method, without surfactant, was applied successfully for fabricating the scaffold. • nHAp provided mechanical stability and nanotopographic features to scaffold matrix. • This scaffold shows good biocompatibility and proliferation with

  9. Enhancement of Osteoblastic-Like Cell Activity by Glow Discharge Plasma Surface Modified Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute

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    Eisner Salamanca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glow discharge plasma (GDP treatments of biomaterials, such as hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP composites, produce surfaces with fewer contaminants and may facilitate cell attachment and enhance bone regeneration. Thus, in this study we used argon glow discharge plasma (Ar-GDP treatments to modify HA/β-TCP particle surfaces and investigated the physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles (HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP. The HA/β-TCP particles were treated with GDP for 15 min in argon gas at room temperature under the following conditions: power: 80 W; frequency: 13.56 MHz; pressure: 100 mTorr. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations showed similar rough surfaces of HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP HA/β-TCP particles, and energy dispersive spectrometry analyses showed that HA/β-TCP surfaces had more contaminants than HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP surfaces. Ca/P mole ratios in HA/β-TCP and HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP were 1.34 and 1.58, respectively. Both biomaterials presented maximal intensities of X-ray diffraction patterns at 27° with 600 a.u. At 25° and 40°, HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP and HA/β-TCP particles had peaks of 200 a.u., which are similar to XRD intensities of human bone. In subsequent comparisons, MG-63 cell viability and differentiation into osteoblast-like cells were assessed on HA/β-TCP and HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP surfaces, and Ar-GDP treatments led to improved cell growth and alkaline phosphatase activities. The present data indicate that GDP surface treatment modified HA/β-TCP surfaces by eliminating contaminants, and the resulting graft material enhanced bone regeneration.

  10. In vivo bone regeneration with injectable chitosan/hydroxyapatite/collagen composites and mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Chen, Yan; Feng, Qing-Ling; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Bo; Tian, Jing; Li, Song-Jian; Lin, Bo-Miao

    2011-09-01

    For reconstruction of irregular bone defects, injectable biomaterials are more appropriate than the preformed biomaterials. We herein develop a biomimetic in situ-forming composite consisting of chitosan (CS) and mineralized collagen fibrils (nHAC), which has a complex hierarchical structure similar to natural bone. The CS/nHAC composites with or without mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are injected into cancellous bone defects at the distal end of rabbit femurs. Defects are assessed by radiographic, histological diagnosis and Raman microscopy until 12 weeks. The results show that MSCs improve the biocompatibility of CS/nHAC composites and enhance new bone formation in vivo at 12 weeks. It can be concluded that the injectable CS/nHAC composites combined with MSCs may be a novel method for reconstruction of irregular bone defects.

  11. Angiogenesis and bone regeneration of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline blocks coated with rhVEGF165 in critical-size alveolar bone defects in vivo

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    Du B

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bing Du,1,2 Weizhen Liu,1 Yue Deng,1,3 Shaobing Li,1 Xiangning Liu,4 Yan Gao,1 Lei Zhou1 1Department of Oral Implantology, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Center of Stomatology, The First People’s Hospital of Foshan, Foshan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Qingdao Stomatological Hospital, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To improve the regenerative performance of nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline (nHA/coral block grafting in a canine mandibular critical-size defect model, nHA/coral blocks were coated with recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor165 (rhVEGF via physical adsorption (3 µg rhVEGF165 per nHA/coral block. After the nHA/coral blocks and VEGF/nHA/coral blocks were randomly implanted into the mandibular box-shaped defects in a split-mouth design, the healing process was evaluated by histological observation and histomorphometric and immunohistological analyses. The histological evaluations revealed the ingrowth of newly formed blood vessels and bone at the periphery and cores of the blocks in both groups at both 3 and 8 weeks postsurgery, respectively. In the histomorphometric analysis, the VEGF/nHA/coral group exhibited a larger quantity of new bone formation at 3 and 8 weeks postsurgery. The percentages of newly formed bone within the entire blocks in the VEGF/nHA/coral group were 27.3%±8.1% and 39.3%±12.8% at 3 weeks and 8 weeks, respectively, and these values were slightly greater than those of the nHA/coral group (21.7%±3.0% and 32.6%±10.3%, respectively, but the differences were not significant (P>0.05. The immunohistological evaluations revealed that the neovascular density in the VEGF/nHA/coral group (146±32.9 vessel/mm2 was much greater than

  12. A comparative evaluation of porous hydroxyapatite bone graft with and without platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of periodontal intrabony osseous defects: A clinico-Radiographic study

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    Gouri Bhatia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, regenerative attempts for treatment of periodontal disease focus on the introduction of a filler material into the defect in hope of inducing bone regeneration. The purpose of this study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate the use of porous hydroxyapatite bone graft with and without platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the treatment of intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in ten patients between 18 and 60 years. Patients with pocket depth ≥5 mm and radiographic evidence of vertical bone loss in the affected site were randomly assigned to treatment with a combination of PRP + Hydroxyapatite (HA (test sites or HA alone (control sites. The parameters were compared at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gain in clinical attachment in both the groups individually (more in experimental group; however, on comparing the two groups, the net reduction was not significant. Radiographic assessment showed a decrease in the defect size in both the groups. Conclusion: PRP in addition to a bone graft in the treatment of intrabony defects is safe and shows improved defect fill as compared to the use of bone graft alone.

  13. Hydroxyapatite synthesis using EDTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nak Heon; Kim, Soon Je; Song, Seung Han; Choi, Sang mun; Choi, Sik Young; Kim, Youn Jung

    2013-01-01

    Bone comprises structure of body and is consisted of inorganic substances. It exists in an organic structure in the body. Even though it is firm and has self healing mechanism, it can be damaged by trauma, cancer, or bone diseases. Allograft can be an alternative solution for autologous bone graft. Hydroxyapatite(Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), an excellent candidate for allograft, can be applied to bone defect area. There are several methods to produce hydroxyapatite, however economical cost and time consuming make the production difficult. In this study we synthesized the hydroxyapatite with Ethyenediamine tetraacetic acid. Freeze Dried Bone Allograft(Hans Biomed) was used to be a control group. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was a rod shape, white powdery type substance with 2 ~ 5 μm length and 0.5 ~ 1 μm width. X-ray diffraction showed the highest sharp peak at 32° and high peaks at 25.8°, 39.8°, 46.8°, 49.5°, and 64.0° indicating a similar substance to the freeze Dried Bone Allograft. 3 days after the cell growth of synthesized hydroxyapatite showed 1.5 fold more than the Bone Allograft. Cellular and media alkaline phosphate activity increased similar to the bone alloagraft. In this study we came up with a new method to produce the hydroxyapatite. It is a convenient method that can be held in room temperature and low pressure. Also the the product can be manufactured in large quantity. It can be also transformed into scaffold structure which will perform a stronger configuration. The manufacturing method will help the bony defect patients and make future medical products. PMID:23714942

  14. Hydroxyapatite synthesis using EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nak Heon; Kim, Soon Je; Song, Seung Han; Choi, Sang mun; Choi, Sik Young; Kim, Youn Jung

    2013-05-01

    Bone comprises structure of the body and consisted of inorganic substances. It exists in an organic structure in the body. Even though it is firm and has self-healing mechanism, it can be damaged by trauma, cancer, or bone diseases. Allograft can be an alternative solution for autologous bone graft. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), an excellent candidate for allograft, can be applied to bone defect area. There are several methods to produce hydroxyapatite; however, economical cost and being time consuming make the production difficult. In this study, we synthesized hydroxyapatite with EDTA. Freeze-dried bone allograft (Hans Biomed) was used as the control group. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was a rod-shaped, white powdery substance with 2- to 5-μm length and 0.5- to 1-μm width. X-ray diffraction showed the highest sharp peak at 32°C and high peaks at 25.8°C, 39.8°C, 46.8°C, 49.5°C, and 64.0°C, indicating a similar substance to the freeze-dried bone allograft. After 3 days, the cell growth of synthesized hydroxyapatite showed 1.5-fold more than did the bone allograft. Cellular and media alkaline phosphate activity increased similar to the bone allograft. In this study, we came up with a new method to produce the hydroxyapatite. It is a convenient method that can be held in room temperature and low pressure. Also, the product can be manufactured in large quantity. It can be also transformed into scaffold structure, which will perform a stronger configuration. The manufacturing method will help the bony defect patients and make future medical products.

  15. Fabrication of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite doped degradable composite hollow fiber for guided and biomimetic bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ning [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Nichols, Heather L. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Tylor, Shila [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Wen Xuejun [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States)]. E-mail: xjwen@clemson.edu

    2007-04-15

    Natural bone tissue possesses a nanocomposite structure interwoven in a three-dimensional (3-D) matrix, which plays critical roles in conferring appropriate physical and biological properties to the bone tissue. Single type of material may not be sufficient to mimic the composition, structure and properties of native bone, therefore, composite materials consisting of both polymers, bioceramics, and other inorganic materials have to be designed. Among a variety of candidate materials, polymer-nanoparticle composites appear most promising for bone tissue engineering applications because of superior mechanical properties, improved durability, and surface bioactivity when compared with conventional polymers or composites. The long term objective of this project is to use highly aligned, bioactive, biodegradable scaffold mimicking natural histological structure of human long bone, and to engineer and regenerate human long bone both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, bioactive, degradable, and highly permeable composite hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated using a wet phase phase-inversion approach. The structure of the hollow fiber membranes was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); degradation behavior was examined using weigh loss assay, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); and bioactivity was evaluated with the amount of calcium deposition from the culture media onto HFM surface. Doping PLGA HFMs with nanoHA results in a more bioactive and slower degrading HFM than pure PLGA HFMs.

  16. Effects of electron-beam irradiation to the hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate mixtures for the development of new synthetic bone substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soung Min; Eo, Mi Young; Kang, Ji Young; Park, Jung Min; Seo, Mi Hyun; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect and potential of electron beam irradiation treatment to new bone formation and healing in rat calvarial bone defects using hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate mixtures. We used 1.0-2.0 MeV linear accelerator and 2.0 MeV superconductive linear accelerator with different irradiation dose such as 1, 30, 60 kGy. Structural changes in this synthetic bone material were analyzed in vitro, such as SEM, elementary and FE-SEM, ATR-IR, and CSR. And after sterilization with ethylene oxide, we use it as a bone graft material, in vivo. Bilateral, standardized truenesses circular calvarial defects, 7.0 mm in diameter, were created in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In each experimental group, the defect was filled with electron beam irradiated synthetic bony mixtures. Rate were sacrificed 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-op. for radiographic, histomorphologic, immunohistochemical staining, TEM, and elementary analysis.

  17. Tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) bone scaffold as potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shamsul Bin; Keong, Tan Kok; Cheng, Chen Hui; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2013-06-01

    Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering. HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were induced in the osteogenic medium for three weeks prior to implantation in nude mice. The HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsum of nude mice on each side of the midline. These constructs were harvested after 8 wk of implantation. Constructs before and after implantation were analyzed through histological staining, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and gene expression analysis. The HA-SMC constructs demonstrated minimal bone formation. TCP/HA-SMC construct showed bone formation eight weeks after implantation. The bone formation started on the surface of the ceramic and proceeded to the centre of the pores. H&E and Alizarin Red staining demonstrated new bone tissue. Gene expression of collagen type 1 increased significantly for both constructs, but more superior for TCP/HA-SMC. SEM results showed the formation of thick collagen fibers encapsulating TCP/HA-SMC more than HA-SMC. Cells attached to both constructs surface proliferated and secreted collagen fibers. The findings suggest that TCP/HA-SMC constructs with better osteogenic potential compared to HA-SMC constructs can be a potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

  18. Chemical Synthesis, Characterization, and Biocompatibility Study of Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Phosphate Nanocomposite for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakumar Pramanik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel bioanalogue hydroxyapatite (HAp/chitosan phosphate (CSP nanocomposite has been synthesized by a solution-based chemical methodology with varying HAp contents from 10 to 60% (w/w. The interfacial bonding interaction between HAp and CSP has been investigated through Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra (FTIR and x-ray diffraction (XRD. The surface morphology of the composite and the homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix have been investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, respectively. The mechanical properties of the composite are found to be improved significantly with increase in nanoparticle contents. Cytotoxicity test using murine L929 fibroblast confirms that the nanocomposite is cytocompatible. Primary murine osteoblast cell culture study proves that the nanocomposite is osteocompatible and highly in vitro osteogenic. The use of CSP promotes the homogeneous distribution of particles in the polymer matrix through its pendant phosphate groups along with particle-polymer interfacial interactions. The prepared HAp/CSP nanocomposite with uniform microstructure may be used in bone tissue engineering applications.

  19. A simple approach for synthesis, characterization and bioactivity of bovine bones to fabricate the polyurethane nanofiber containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we had introduced polyurethane (PU nanofibers that contain hydroxyapatite (HAp nanoparticles (NPs as a result of an electrospinning process. A simple method that does not depend on additional foreign chemicals had been employed to synthesize HAp NPs through the calcination of bovine bones. Typically, a colloidal gel consisting of HAp/PU had been electrospun to form nanofibers. In this communication, physiochemical aspects of prepared nanofibers were characterized by FE-SEM, TEM and TEM-EDS, which confirmed that nanofibers were well-oriented and good dispersion of HAp NPs, over the prepared nanofibers. Parameters, affecting the utilization of the prepared nanofibers in various nano-biotechnological fields have been studied; for instance, the bioactivity of the produced nanofiber mats was investigated while incubating in simulated body fluid (SBF. The results from incubation of nanofibers, indicated that incorporation of HAp strongly activates the precipitation of the apatite-like particles, because of the HAp NPs act as seed, that accelerate crystallization of the biological HAp from the utilized SBF.

  20. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xiong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR, transmission electron microscope(TEM, scanning electron microscope(SEM, universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material.

  1. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuyun, Jiang; Yubao, Li; Chengdong, Xiong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR), transmission electron microscope(TEM), scanning electron microscope(SEM), universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material. PMID:19594953

  2. Micro-/Nano- sized hydroxyapatite directs differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhou, Gang; Zheng, Lisha; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-03-01

    Regenerative medicine consisting of cells and materials provides a new way for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs. Nano-biomaterials are highlighted due to their advantageous features compared with conventional micro-materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of micro-/nano- sized hydroxyapatite (μ/n-HA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). μ/n-HA were prepared by a microwave synthesizer and precipitation method, respectively. Different sizes of μ/n-HA were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and co-cultured with rBMSCs. It was shown that rBMSCs expressed higher levels of osteoblast-related markers by n-HA than μ-HA stimulation. The size of HA is an important factor for affecting the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. This provides a new avenue for mechanistic studies of stem cell differentiation and a new approach to obtain more committed differentiated cells.

  3. Can the Hydroxyapatite-Coated Skin-Penetrating Abutment for Bone Conduction Hearing Implants Integrate with the Surrounding Skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Marc; Wigren, Stina; Duimel, Hans; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Flynn, Mark; Stokroos, Robert Jan

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous implants, such as bone conduction hearing implants, suffer from complications that include inflammation of the surrounding skin. A sealed skin-abutment interface can prevent the ingress of bacteria, which should reduce the occurrence of peri-abutment dermatitis. It was hypothesized that a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated abutment in conjunction with soft tissue preservation surgery should enable integration with the adjacent skin. Previous research has confirmed that integration is never achieved with as-machined titanium abutments. Here, we investigate, in vivo, if skin integration is achievable in patients using a HA-coated abutment. One titanium abutment (control) and one HA-coated abutment (case) together with the surrounding skin were surgically retrieved from two patients who had a medical indication for this procedure. Histological sections of the skin were investigated using light microscopy. The abutment was qualitatively analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The titanium abutment only had a partial and thin layer of attached amorphous biological material. The HA-coated abutment was almost fully covered by a pronounced thick layer of organized skin, composed of different interconnected structural layers. Proof-of-principle evidence that the HA-coated abutment can achieve integration with the surrounding skin was presented for the first time.

  4. Gelatin/nano-hydroxyapatite hydrogel scaffold prepared by sol-gel technology as filler to repair bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, Maria Grazia; Demitri, Christian; Soriente, Alessandra; Fasolino, Ines; Sannino, Alessandro; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2018-07-01

    This study reports on the development of a scaffold with a gradient of bioactive solid signal embedded in the biodegradable polymer matrix by combining a sol-gel approach and freeze-drying technology. The chemical approach based on the sol-gel transition of calcium phosphates ensures the particles dispersion into the gelatin matrix and a direct control of interaction among COOH gelatin /Ca 2+ ions. Morphological analysis demonstrated that on the basis of the amount of inorganic component and by using specific process conditions, it is possible to control the spatial distribution of nanoparticles around the gelatin helix. In fact, methodology and formulations were able to discriminate between the different hydroxyapatite concentrations and their respective morphology. The good biological response represented by good cell attachment, proliferation and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase as an indicator of osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells toward the osteogenic lineage, demonstrating the effect of bioactive solid signals on cellular behavior. Furthermore, the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by composite materials predicted potential anti-inflammatory properties of scaffolds thus confirming their biocompatibility. Indeed, these interesting biological results suggest good potential application of this scaffold as filler to repair bone defects. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 2007-2019, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Randomised controlled clinical trial of augmentation of the alveolar ridge using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 with hydroxyapatite and bovine-derived xenografts: comparison of changes in volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J W; Khureltogtokh, S; Choi, H M; Lee, A R; Park, Y B; Kim, H J

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this randomised controlled clinical trial was to assess the early efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein-2 with hydroxyapatite granules (BMP-2/hydroxyapatite) on augmentation of the alveolar ridge, by comparing changes in volume with those associated with the use of an inorganic bovine-derived xenograft (BDX). We studied 20 patients who were divided into two groups using a table of random numbers, and BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were applied accordingly. Computed tomographic (CT) images and panoramic radiographs were obtained immediately after operation and four months later. CT images were reconstructed in three dimensions to measure volumetric changes, and linear measurements were made on panoramic images. The mean (SD) absorption rates for BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were 13.2 (8.8)% and 13.8 (20.5)%, respectively. While the mean value did not differ significantly between the two materials, the SD was higher in the BDX group than in the BMP-2/hydroxyapatite group. No clinically important complications occurred in either group. We conclude that both BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were effective in augmenting the alveolar ridge, but BMP-2/hydroxyapatite seemed to be more useful in complicated bone defects. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microcracks induce osteoblast alignment and maturation on hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yutian

    Physiological bone tissue is a mineral/collagen composite with a hierarchical structure. The features in bone, such as mineral crystals, fibers, and pores can range from the nanometer to the centimeter in size. Currently available bone tissue scaffolds primarily address the chemical composition, pore size, and pore size distribution. While these design parameters are extensively investigated for mimicking bone function and inducing bone regeneration, little is known about microcracks, which is a prevalent feature found in fractured bone in vivo and associated with fracture healing and repair. Since the purpose of bone tissue engineering scaffold is to enhance bone regeneration, the coincidence of microcracks and bone densification should not be neglected but rather be considered as a potential parameter in bone tissue engineering scaffold design. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that microcracks enhance bone healing. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the osteoblast (bone forming cells) response to microcracks in dense (94%) hydroxyapatite substrates. Microcracks were introduced using a well-established Vickers indentation technique. The results of our study showed that microcracks induced osteoblast alignment, enhanced osteoblast attachment and more rapid maturation. These findings may provide insight into fracture healing mechanism(s) as well as improve the design of bone tissue engineering orthopedic scaffolds for more rapid bone regeneration.

  7. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ain, Qurat Ul [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Ahmad Nawaz, E-mail: ahmad.nawaz@scme.nust.edu.pk [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Nabavinia, Mahboubeh [Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mujahid, Mohammad [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-06-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60 ± 20 nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30 wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA ≤ 10 wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations > 10 wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3 MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74 MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1 day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • TOPAS/HA hybrid composites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties owing to better dispersion and interaction of HA. • Without affecting the degradation rate, the

  8. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, Qurat Ul; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz; Nabavinia, Mahboubeh; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60 ± 20 nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30 wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA ≤ 10 wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations > 10 wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3 MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74 MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1 day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • TOPAS/HA hybrid composites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties owing to better dispersion and interaction of HA. • Without affecting the degradation rate, the

  9. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Qurat Ul; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz; Nabavinia, Mahboubeh; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60±20nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA≤10wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations >10wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydroxyapatite-TiO(2)-based nanocomposites synthesized in supercritical CO(2) for bone tissue engineering: physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarian, Mehrnaz; Xu, William Z; Wang, Zhiqiang; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Charpentier, Paul A

    2014-10-08

    Calcium phosphate-based nanocomposites offer a unique solution toward producing scaffolds for orthopedic and dental implants. However, despite attractive bioactivity and biocompatibility, hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been limited in heavy load-bearing applications due to its intrinsically low mechanical strength. In this work, to improve the mechanical properties of HAp, we grew HAp nanoplates from the surface of one-dimensional titania nanorod structures by combining a coprecipitation and sol-gel methodology using supercritical fluid processing with carbon dioxide (scCO2). The effects of metal alkoxide concentration (1.1-1.5 mol/L), reaction temperature (60-80 °C), and pressure (6000-8000 psi) on the morphology, crystallinity, and surface area of the resulting nanostructured composites were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method. Chemical composition of the products was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses. HAp nanoplates and HAp-TiO2 nanocomposites were homogeneously mixed within poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to develop scaffolds with enhanced physical and mechanical properties for bone regeneration. Mechanical behavior analysis demonstrated that the Young's and flexural moduli of the PCL/HAp-TiO2 composites were substantially higher than the PCL/HAp composites. Therefore, this new synthesis methodology in scCO2 holds promise for bone tissue engineering with improved mechanical properties.

  11. Degradation and biocompatibility of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Zhihong [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li Yubao, E-mail: nic7504@scu.edu.cn [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zou Qin [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2009-04-01

    Porous scaffold containing 30 wt% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and 70 wt% polyurethane (PU) from castor oil was prepared by a foaming method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that n-HA particles disperse homogeneously in the PU matrix. The porous scaffold has not only macropores of 100-800 {mu}m in size but also a lot of micropores on the walls of macropores. The porosity and compressive strength of scaffold are 80% and 271 kPa, respectively. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), hydrolysis and deposition partly occur on the scaffold. The biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo shows that the n-HA/PU scaffold is non-cytotoxic and degradable. The porous structure provides a good microenvironment for cell adherence, growth and proliferation. The n-HA/PU composite scaffold can be satisfied with the basic requirement for tissue engineering, and has the potential to be applied in repair and substitute of human menisci of the knee-joint and articular cartilage.

  12. Preparation of chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdi; Pan, Panpan; Zhang, Yujue; Zhong, Shengnan; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we encapsulated icariin (ICA) into chitosan (CS)/nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP) composite microspheres to form organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for drug delivery carrier. The composition and morphology of composite microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry- thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). Moreover, we further studied the performance of swelling properties, degradation properties and drug release behavior of the microspheres. ICA, the extract of traditional Chinese medicine-epimedium, was combined to study drug release properties of the microspheres. ICA loaded microspheres take on a sustained release behavior, which can be not only ascribed to electrostatic interaction between reactive negative hydroxyl (OH) of ICA and positive amine groups (NH₂) of CS, but also depended on the homogeneous dispersion of HAP nanoparticles inside CS organic matrix. In addition, the adhesion and morphology of osteoblasts were detected by inverted fluorescence microscopy. The biocompatibility of CS/nHAP/ICA microspheres was evaluated by the MTT cytotoxicity assay, Hoechst 33258 and PI fluorescence staining. These studies demonstrate that composite microspheres provide a suitable microenvironment for osteoblast attachment and proliferation. It can be speculated that the ICA loaded CS-based organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres might have potential applications in drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles onto modified polypropylene surface to be used in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellet, Thelma Sley P.; Pereira, Guilherme M.; Fragal, Elizangela H.; Rubira, Adley F.; Companhoni, Mychelle V.P.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification of polypropylene (PP) films can be explored to prepare innovative materials, for instance materials which can be used in tissue engineering application. The maleimide synthesis onto PP films was made for later polymerizes glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and to grow up hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) by biomimetization method (BM) in metastable simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7, 14 and 21 days. The modification steps were proved by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the n-HA synthesis evidenced by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). PP films exposed to SBF for 14 and 21 days showed n-HA on all over the films surface. The interaction of pre-osteoblasts with the films after 48 hours was evaluated by SEM. The results demonstrate that cells on the surface of n-HA films showed spreading, and number of filopodia similar to the control, wherein the films with greater amount of n-HA appear to have higher filopodia connections between the cells and appear to have its surface covered with higher cell density. (author)

  14. In Vivo Performance of Bilayer Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration in the Rabbit Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    no treatments and the pres- ence of periosteal callus-like layer surrounding defects with scaffold implantation were observed after 8 weeks post...vivo evaluation of resorbable bone graft substitutes in a rabbit tibial defect model. Biomaterials. 2004; 25(20):5037–44. 20. Lu JX, Gallur A, Flautre

  15. [Biomaterials for bone filling: comparisons between autograft, hydroxyapatite and one highly purified bovine xenograft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappard, D; Zhioua, A; Grizon, F; Basle, M F; Rebel, A

    1993-12-01

    Bone grafts are becoming increasingly common in orthopaedics, neurosurgery and periodontology. Twenty one New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study comparing several materials usable as bone substitutes. A 4.5 mm hole was drilled in the inner femoral condyles. Holes were filled with either an autograft (from the opposite condyle), an hydroxylapatite (Bioapatite), or a highly purified bovine xenograft (T650 Lubboc). Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months post implantation and a quantitative analysis of newly-formed bone volume (BNF/IV) and remaining biomaterials (BMAT/IV) was done. In addition, some holes were left unfilled and served as controls. At 6 months, there was no tendency for spontaneous repair in the control animals. The autografted animals have repaired their trabecular mass and architecture within the first month. Hydroxylapatite appeared unresorbed at six months and only thin and scanty new trabeculae were observed. The xenograft induced woven bone trabeculae formation on the first month. This was associated with resorption of the material by two multinucleated cell populations. At six months, the epiphyseal architecture was restored and the biomaterial has disappeared in most cases. Xenografts appear a promising alternative to autografts and allografts, whose infectious risks and ethical problems should always be borne in mind.

  16. Ceramic hydroxyapatite coating on titanium implants drives selective bone marrow stromal cell adhesion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torensma, R.; Brugge, P.J. ter; Jansen, J.A.; Figdor, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cell characteristics that regulate implant osseointegration. The heterogeneity of bone marrow stromal cells obtained from 11 donors was assessed by measuring the expression of a large panel of adhesion molecules. Large differences in expression of adhesion

  17. Combined effects of porous hydroxyapatite and demineralized bone matrix on bone induction: in vitro and in vivo study using a nude rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Ho; Ryu, Hyun-Seung

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factors. A combination of DBM and HA is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of DBM and HA on osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo using an athymic nude rat abdominal muscle pouch model, and evaluated the possibility of HA as a carrier of DBM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP assay and measurements of the mRNA expression of ALP and Runx2 by RT-PCR were performed by transplanting human mesenchymal stem cells onto a plate. Five athymic nude rats each were assigned to one of two experimental groups (DBM/HA putty and only HA, i.e. 15 pouches per group). The muscle pouches were filled with DBM/HA putty or only HA. Radiographs were obtained at weeks 4 and 8, postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed at week 8 postoperatively and high resolution microCT was used to confirm the newly formed mineralized tissue. Each pouch was fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The ALP value of the DBM/HA putty was higher than those of HA and control (p < 0.05, each). The expression of ALP mRNA appeared higher on the DBM/HA putty than on HA and control. MicroCT and histology examinations of the DBM/HA putty demonstrated the presence of newly generated mineralized tissues but there was no mineralized tissue in the HA cases. In conclusion, the DBM/HA putty indicated osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and showed ectopic mineralized tissue formation in the rat abdominal pouch model. These findings indicate that the DBM/HA putty can retain its oteoinductivity and HA can be used as a carrier of DBM.

  18. Combined effects of porous hydroxyapatite and demineralized bone matrix on bone induction: in vitro and in vivo study using a nude rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Kyung-Mee; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Ho [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University School of Medicine, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyun-Seung, E-mail: spinelee@snu.ac.kr [Research and Development Center, CGBio Inc., Seong-Nam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factors. A combination of DBM and HA is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of DBM and HA on osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo using an athymic nude rat abdominal muscle pouch model, and evaluated the possibility of HA as a carrier of DBM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP assay and measurements of the mRNA expression of ALP and Runx2 by RT-PCR were performed by transplanting human mesenchymal stem cells onto a plate. Five athymic nude rats each were assigned to one of two experimental groups (DBM/HA putty and only HA, i.e. 15 pouches per group). The muscle pouches were filled with DBM/HA putty or only HA. Radiographs were obtained at weeks 4 and 8, postoperatively. The animals were sacrificed at week 8 postoperatively and high resolution microCT was used to confirm the newly formed mineralized tissue. Each pouch was fixed, embedded, sectioned and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The ALP value of the DBM/HA putty was higher than those of HA and control (p < 0.05, each). The expression of ALP mRNA appeared higher on the DBM/HA putty than on HA and control. MicroCT and histology examinations of the DBM/HA putty demonstrated the presence of newly generated mineralized tissues but there was no mineralized tissue in the HA cases. In conclusion, the DBM/HA putty indicated osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and showed ectopic mineralized tissue formation in the rat abdominal pouch model. These findings indicate that the DBM/HA putty can retain its oteoinductivity and HA can be used as a carrier of DBM.

  19. Comparative evaluation of hydroxyapatite and nano-bioglass in two forms of conventional micro- and nano-particles in repairing bone defects (an animal study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosouhian, Saied; Razavi, Mohammad; Jafari-Pozve, Nasim; Rismanchian, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Many synthetic bone materials have been introduced for repairing bone defects. The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) and nano-bioglass bone materials with their traditional micro counterparts in repairing bone defects. In this prospective animal study, four healthy dogs were included. First to fourth premolars were extracted in each quadrant and five cavities in each quadrant were created using trephine. Sixteen cavities in each dog were filled by HA, nano-HA, bioglass, and nano-bioglass and four defects were left as the control group. All defects were covered by a nonrestorable membrane. Dogs were sacrificed after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days sequentially. All 20 samples were extracted by trephine #8 with a sufficient amount of surrounding bone. All specimens were investigated under an optical microscope and the percentage of total regenerated bone, lamellar, and woven bone were evaluated. Data analysis was carried out by SPSS Software ver. 15 and Mann-Whitney U-test (α =0.05). After 15 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between HA and nano-HA and between HA and bioglass (P bone formation after 15 days. Nano-bioglass and bioglass and nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups represented a significant difference and nano-bioglass showed the highest rate of bone formation after 30 days (P = 0.01). After 45 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between nano-bioglass and bioglass and between nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups (P = 0.01). Nano-HA and nano-bioglass biomaterials showed promising results when compared to conventional micro-particles in the repair of bone defects.

  20. Time-dependent cytokine expression in bone of experimental animals after hydroxyapatite (Hap) implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilmane, M; Salms, G; Salma, I; Skagers, A; Locs, J; Loca, D; Berzina-Cimdina, L

    2011-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines mediate bone loss around the implants in patients with peri-implant disease. However, there is no complete data about the expression of cytokines into the bone around the implants. The aim of this work was to investigate the distribution and appearance of inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory proteins in the bone of jaw of experimental rabbits in different time periods after HAp implantation. Material was obtained from 8 rabbits in lower jaw 6 and 8 months after HAp implants were placed. Tissues were processed for immunohistochemical detection of tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFα), Interleukin 1, 6, 8, 10 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) and defensin 2. Results demonstrated practically unchanged expression of IL-6 and IL-10 between both - experimental and control side 6 months after implantation, while IL-1 and IL-8 notably increased in control side. IL-1 and IL-10 expression did not change in either the experimental side nor the controle side after 8 months HAP implantation, but IL-6 and IL-8 demonstrated a decrease in the control sites. Only IL-8 was elevated with time in experimental sites, while IL-10 showed individual variations in 2 cases.

  1. Time-dependent cytokine expression in bone of experimental animals after hydroxyapatite (Hap) implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilmane, M [Riga Stradins University, Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Dzirciema 16, LV-1007, Riga (Latvia); Salms, G; Salma, I; Skagers, A [Riga Stradins University, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dzirciema 20. LV-1007, Riga (Latvia); Locs, J; Loca, D; Berzina-Cimdina, L, E-mail: pilmane@latnet.lv [Riga Technical University, Riga Biomaterials innovation and development centre, Pulka 3/3, LV-1007, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Proinflammatory cytokines mediate bone loss around the implants in patients with peri-implant disease. However, there is no complete data about the expression of cytokines into the bone around the implants. The aim of this work was to investigate the distribution and appearance of inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory proteins in the bone of jaw of experimental rabbits in different time periods after HAp implantation. Material was obtained from 8 rabbits in lower jaw 6 and 8 months after HAp implants were placed. Tissues were processed for immunohistochemical detection of tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF{alpha}), Interleukin 1, 6, 8, 10 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) and defensin 2. Results demonstrated practically unchanged expression of IL-6 and IL-10 between both - experimental and control side 6 months after implantation, while IL-1 and IL-8 notably increased in control side. IL-1 and IL-10 expression did not change in either the experimental side nor the controle side after 8 months HAP implantation, but IL-6 and IL-8 demonstrated a decrease in the control sites. Only IL-8 was elevated with time in experimental sites, while IL-10 showed individual variations in 2 cases.

  2. Biocomposite scaffolds based on electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) nanofibers and electrosprayed hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramier, Julien; Bouderlique, Thibault; Stoilova, Olya; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya; Langlois, Valérie; Renard, Estelle; Albanese, Patricia; Grande, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The electrospinning technique combined with the electrospraying process provides a straightforward and versatile approach for the fabrication of novel nanofibrous biocomposite scaffolds with structural, mechanical, and biological properties potentially suitable for bone tissue regeneration. In this comparative investigation, three types of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-based scaffolds were engineered: (i) PHB mats by electrospinning of a PHB solution, (ii) mats of PHB/hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA) blends by electrospinning of a mixed solution containing PHB and nHAs, and (iii) mats constituted of PHB nanofibers and nHAs by simultaneous electrospinning of a PHB solution and electrospraying of a nHA dispersion. Scaffolds based on PHB/nHA blends displayed improved mechanical properties compared to those of neat PHB mats, due to the incorporation of nHAs within the fibers. The electrospinning/electrospraying approach afforded biocomposite scaffolds with lower mechanical properties, due to their higher porosity, but they displayed slightly better biological properties. In the latter case, the bioceramic, i.e. nHAs, largely covered the fiber surface, thus allowing for a direct exposure to cells. The 21 day-monitoring through the use of MTS assays and SEM analyses demonstrated that human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) remained viable on PHB/nHA biocomposite scaffolds and proliferated continuously until reaching confluence. - Highlights: • Three different types of PHB-based scaffolds are engineered and thoroughly investigated. • The combination of electrospinning and electrospraying affords original nanofibrous biocomposite scaffolds. • PHB-based scaffolds show a strong capability of supporting viable cell development for 21 days

  3. Biocomposite scaffolds based on electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) nanofibers and electrosprayed hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramier, Julien [Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, UMR 7182 CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 2, rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Bouderlique, Thibault [Laboratoire “Croissance, Réparation et Régénération Tissulaires”, EAC 7149 CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61, avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France); Stoilova, Olya; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Langlois, Valérie; Renard, Estelle [Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, UMR 7182 CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 2, rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Albanese, Patricia [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grande, Daniel, E-mail: grande@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, UMR 7182 CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 2, rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2014-05-01

    The electrospinning technique combined with the electrospraying process provides a straightforward and versatile approach for the fabrication of novel nanofibrous biocomposite scaffolds with structural, mechanical, and biological properties potentially suitable for bone tissue regeneration. In this comparative investigation, three types of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-based scaffolds were engineered: (i) PHB mats by electrospinning of a PHB solution, (ii) mats of PHB/hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA) blends by electrospinning of a mixed solution containing PHB and nHAs, and (iii) mats constituted of PHB nanofibers and nHAs by simultaneous electrospinning of a PHB solution and electrospraying of a nHA dispersion. Scaffolds based on PHB/nHA blends displayed improved mechanical properties compared to those of neat PHB mats, due to the incorporation of nHAs within the fibers. The electrospinning/electrospraying approach afforded biocomposite scaffolds with lower mechanical properties, due to their higher porosity, but they displayed slightly better biological properties. In the latter case, the bioceramic, i.e. nHAs, largely covered the fiber surface, thus allowing for a direct exposure to cells. The 21 day-monitoring through the use of MTS assays and SEM analyses demonstrated that human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) remained viable on PHB/nHA biocomposite scaffolds and proliferated continuously until reaching confluence. - Highlights: • Three different types of PHB-based scaffolds are engineered and thoroughly investigated. • The combination of electrospinning and electrospraying affords original nanofibrous biocomposite scaffolds. • PHB-based scaffolds show a strong capability of supporting viable cell development for 21 days.

  4. Antioxidant and bone repair properties of quercetin-functionalized hydroxyapatite: An in vitro osteoblast-osteoclast-endothelial cell co-culture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Lucia; Torricelli, Paola; Boanini, Elisa; Gazzano, Massimo; Rubini, Katia; Fini, Milena; Bigi, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxy-flavone) is a flavonoid known for its pharmacological activities, which include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as possible beneficial action on diseases involving bone loss. In this work, we explored the possibility to functionalize hydroxyapatite (HA) with quercetin in order to obtain new materials for bone repair through local administration of the flavonoid. HA was synthesized in presence of different concentrations of quercetin according to two different procedures: direct synthesis and phase transition from monetite. Direct synthesis lead to composite nanocrystals containing up to 3.1 wt% quercetin, which provokes a reduction of the crystals mean dimensions and of the length of the coherently scattering domains. Synthesis conditions provoke a partial oxidation of quercetin and, as a consequence, a significant reduction of its radical scavenging activity (RSA). On the other hand, synthesis through phase transition yields samples containing up to 1.3 wt% of quercetin incorporated into hydroxyapatite, with minor structural modifications, which exhibit relevant anti-oxidant activities, as testified by their high RSA levels, (slightly lower than that of pure quercetin). The biological response to these materials was tested using an innovative triculture model involving osteoblast, osteoclast and endothelial cells, in order to mimic bone microenvironment. The results show that the presence of quercetin in the composite materials enhances human osteoblast-like MG63 proliferation and differentiation, whereas it downregulates osteoclastogenesis of osteoclast precursors 2T-110, and supports proliferation and differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The pharmacological activities of the flavonoid quercetin include anti-oxidant and antiinflammatory properties, as well as capability to prevent bone loss. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to synthesize hydroxyapatite

  5. Preparation of bone-implants by coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on self-formed titanium dioxide thin-layers on titanium metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, W P S L; Mantilaka, M M M G P G; Chathuranga Senarathna, K G; Herath, H M T U; Premachandra, T N; Ranasinghe, C S K; Rajapakse, R P V J; Rajapakse, R M G; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, S; Bandara, I M C C D; Singh, Sanjleena

    2016-06-01

    Preparation of hydroxyapatite coated custom-made metallic bone-implants is very important for the replacement of injured bones of the body. Furthermore, these bone-implants are more stable under the corrosive environment of the body and biocompatible than bone-implants made up of pure metals and metal alloys. Herein, we describe a novel, simple and low-cost technique to prepare biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated titanium metal (TiM) implants through growth of self-formed TiO2 thin-layer (SFTL) on TiM via a heat treatment process. SFTL acts as a surface binder of HA nanoparticles in order to produce HA coated implants. Colloidal HA nanorods prepared by a novel surfactant-assisted synthesis method, have been coated on SFTL via atomized spray pyrolysis (ASP) technique. The corrosion behavior of the bare and surface-modified TiM (SMTiM) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium is also studied. The highest corrosion rate is found to be for the bare TiM plate, but the corrosion rate has been reduced with the heat-treatment of TiM due to the formation of SFTL. The lowest corrosion rate is recorded for the implant prepared by heat treatment of TiM at 700 °C. The HA-coating further assists in the passivation of the TiM in the SBF medium. Both SMTiM and HA coated SMTiM are noncytotoxic against osteoblast-like (HOS) cells and are in high-bioactivity. The overall production process of bone-implant described in this paper is in high economic value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogel-embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite granules (elastic blocks based on a cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone as bone grafting substitute in a rat tibia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dau M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael Dau,1 Cornelia Ganz,2 Franziska Zaage,2 Bernhard Frerich,1 Thomas Gerber2 1Department of Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock, Germany; 2Institute of Physics, Rostock University, Rostock, Germany Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo characteristics and levels of integration and degradation of a ready-to-use bone grafting block with elastic properties (elastic block for the use in surgery. Materials and methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats underwent surgical creation of a well-defined bone defect in the tibia. All created defects – one per animal – were filled with an unsintered nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded either with a non-cross-linked hydrogel carrier (CONT, n=18 or a cross-linked hydrogel carrier (elastic block [EB], n=18 based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and silica sol, respectively. The animals were killed after 12 (n=12, 21 (n=12 and 63 days (n=12. The bone formation and defect healing were quantified by histomorphometric measurements made in paraffin sections. Additionally, immunohistochemical (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP] and alkaline phosphatase [aP], antibody-based examinations (CD68 and energy-dispersive x-ray scattering measurements of silica atom concentration were carried out. Results: A larger remaining bone defect area overall was observed in EB after 12 days and 21 days. After 63 days, similar areas of remaining bone defects were found. The amount of the remaining carrier material in EB overall was higher at all times. In CONT no residual carrier material was found at 12 days and later. CD68 analyses showed significantly lower level of CD68-positive marked cells after 21 days in CONT, and nonsignificant differences at 12 and 63 days, respectively. Additionally, a significantly higher level of aP-positive marked cells was observed in CONT after 12 days. Later on, the levels of aP-positive marked cells were slightly higher

  7. Enhancing the bioactivity of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold with a nano-hydroxyapatite coating for the treatment of segmental bone defect in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang DX

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available De-Xin Wang,1,* Yao He,2,* Long Bi1,* Ze-Hua Qu,2 Ji-Wei Zou,1 Zhen Pan,2 Jun-Jun Fan,1 Liang Chen,2 Xin Dong,1 Xiang-Nan Liu,2 Guo-Xian Pei,1 Jian-Dong Ding,21Department of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA is excellent as a scaffolding matrix due to feasibility of processing and tunable biodegradability, yet the virgin scaffolds lack osteoconduction and osteoinduction. In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA was coated on the interior surfaces of PLGA scaffolds in order to facilitate in vivo bone defect restoration using biomimetic ceramics while keeping the polyester skeleton of the scaffolds.Methods: PLGA porous scaffolds were prepared and surface modification was carried out by incubation in modified simulated body fluids. The nHA coated PLGA scaffolds were compared to the virgin PLGA scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo. Viability and proliferation rate of bone marrow stromal cells of rabbits were examined. The constructs of scaffolds and autogenous bone marrow stromal cells were implanted into the segmental bone defect in the rabbit model, and the bone regeneration effects were observed.Results: In contrast to the relative smooth pore surface of the virgin PLGA scaffold, a biomimetic hierarchical nanostructure was found on the surface of the interior pores of the nHA coated PLGA scaffolds by scanning electron microscopy. Both the viability and proliferation rate of the cells seeded in nHA coated PLGA scaffolds were higher than those in PLGA scaffolds. For bone defect repairing, the radius defects had, after 12 weeks implantation of nHA coated PLGA scaffolds, completely recuperated with significantly better bone formation than in

  8. Rational design of a high-strength bone scaffold platform based on in situ hybridization of bacterial cellulose/nano-hydroxyapatite framework and silk fibroin reinforcing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei; Ran, Jiabing; Yan, Pan; Zheng, Lingyue; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite (BC/HAp) composite had favourable bioaffinity but its poor mechanical strength limited its widespread applications in bone tissue engineering (BTE). Silk fibroin, which possesses special crystalline structure, has been widely used as organic reinforcing material, and different SFs have different amino acid sequences, which exhibit different bioaffinity and mechanical properties. In this regard, bacterial cellulose-Antheraea yamamai silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (BC-AYSF/HAp), bacterial cellulose-Bombyx mori silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (BC-BMSF/HAp), and BC/HAp nano-composites were synthesized via a novel in situ hybridization method. Compared with BC/HAp and BC-BMSF/HAp, the BC-AYSF/HAp exhibited better interpenetration, which may benefit for the transportation of nutrients and wastes, the adhesion of cells as well. Additionally, the BC-AYSF/HAp also presented superior thermal stability than the other two composites revealed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Compression testing indicated that the mechanical strength of BC-BMSF/HAp was greatly reinforced compared with BC/HAp and was even a little higher than that of BC-AYSF/HAp. Tensile testing showed that BC-AYSF/HAp possesses extraordinary mechanical properties with a higher elastic modulus at low strain and higher fracture strength simultaneously than the other two composites. In vitro cell culture exhibited that MC3T3-E1 cells on the BC-AYSF/HAp membrane took on higher proliferative potential than those on the BC-BMSF/HAp membrane. These results suggested that compared with BC-BMSF/HAp, the BC-AYSF/HAp composite was more appropriate as an ideal bone scaffold platform or biomedical membrane to be used in BTE.

  9. Mechanical properties of radial bone defects treated with autogenous graft covered with hydroxyapatite in rabbit Propriedades mecânicas de defeito de osso radial tratado com enxerto autógeno coberto com nano-hydroxyapatite em coelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Sharifi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine biomechanical property of autogenous bone graft covered with hydroxyapatite in the defect of radial bone in rabbit. METHODS: Eighteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits were used which were divided into three groups (I, II, III of six rabbits each. A segmental bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radial shaft under general effective anesthesia in all rabbits and were stabilized using mini-plate with four screws. The defects In group I were left as such without filler, whereas in group II the defect were filled up with harvested 10 mm rib bone and in group III the defect were packed with rib bone covered with nano-hydroxyapatite. All rabbits in three groups were divided into two subgroups (one month and three months duration with three rabbits in each one. RESULTS: The mechanical property and the mean load for fracturing normal radial bone was recorded 388.2±6 N whereas it was 72.4±12.8 N for group I in 1 month duration which was recorded 182.4±14.2 N for group II and 211.6±10.4 N for group III at the end of 1 month. These values were 97.6±10.2 N for group I and 324.6±8.2 N for group II and 372.6±17.4 N for group III at the end of three months after implantation. CONCLUSION: Implantation of autologous graft covered with hydroxyapatite indicated to have positive effect in integral formation of qualitative callus at the site of fracture and early re-organization of callus to regain mechanical strength too.OBJETIVO: Determinar as propriedades biomecânicas de enxerto ósseo autógeno coberto com hidroxiapatita em defeito do osso radial em coelhos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 coelhos adultos, machos, brancos, Nova Zelândia, distribuídos em três grupos (I, II, III de seis coelhos cada. Um defeito segmentar de 10 mm de comprimento foi criado no meio do eixo radial direito sob anestesia geral efetiva em todos os coelhos e foram fixados usando mini-placa com quatro parafusos. Os

  10. Hydroxyapatite-coated double network hydrogel directly bondable to the bone: Biological and biomechanical evaluations of the bonding property in an osteochondral defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Susumu; Kitamura, Nobuto; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Kiyama, Ryuji; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2016-10-15

    We have developed a novel hydroxyapatite (HAp)-coated double-network (DN) hydrogel (HAp/DN gel). The purpose of this study was to determine details of the cell and tissue responses around the implanted HAp/DN gel and to determine how quickly and strongly the HAp/DN gel bonds to the bone in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. Immature osteoid tissue was formed in the space between the HAp/DN gel and the bone at 2weeks, and the osteoid tissue was mineralized at 4weeks. The push-out load of the HAp/DN gel averaged 37.54N and 42.15N at 4 and 12weeks, respectively, while the push-out load of the DN gel averaged less than 5N. The bonding area of the HAp/DN gel to the bone was above 80% by 4weeks, and above 90% at 12weeks. This study demonstrated that the HAp/DN gel enhanced osseointegration at an early stage after implantation. The presence of nanoscale structures in addition to osseointegration of HAp promoted osteoblast adhesion onto the surface of the HAp/DN gel. The HAp/DN gel has the potential to improve the implant-tissue interface in next-generation orthopaedic implants such as artificial cartilage. Recent studies have reported the development of various hydrogels that are sufficiently tough for application as soft supporting tissues. However, fixation of hydrogels on bone surfaces with appropriate strength is a great challenge. We have developed a novel, tough hydrogel hybridizing hydroxyapatite (HAp/DN gel), which is directly bondable to the bone. The present study demonstrated that the HAp/DN gel enhanced osseointegration in the early stage after implantation. The presence of nanoscale structures in addition to the osseointegration ability of hydroxyapatite promoted osteoblast adhesion onto the surface of the HAp/DN gel. The HAp/DN gel has the potential to improve the implant-tissue interface in next-generation orthopaedic implants such as artificial cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Three dimensional printed macroporous polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for promoting bone formation in a critical-size rat calvarial defect model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Mao, Xiyuan; Du, Zijing; Jiang, Wenbo; Han, Xiuguo; Zhao, Danyang; Han, Dong; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    We have explored the applicability of printed scaffold by comparing osteogenic ability and biodegradation property of three resorbable biomaterials. A polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite (PLA/HA) composite with a pore size of 500 μm and 60% porosity was fabricated by three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printed PLA/HA, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and partially demineralized bone matrix (DBM) seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were evaluated by cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic gene expression of osteopontin (OPN) and collagen type I (COL-1). Moreover, the biocompatibility, bone repairing capacity and degradation in three different bone substitute materials were estimated using a critical-size rat calvarial defect model in vivo. The defects were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis at four and eight weeks after surgery, respectively. The results showed that each of the studied scaffolds had its own specific merits and drawbacks. Three-dimensional printed PLA/HA scaffolds possessed good biocompatibility and stimulated BMSC cell proliferation and differentiation to osteogenic cells. The outcomes in vivo revealed that 3D printed PLA/HA scaffolds had good osteogenic capability and biodegradation activity with no difference in inflammation reaction. Therefore, 3D printed PLA/HA scaffolds have potential applications in bone tissue engineering and may be used as graft substitutes in reconstructive surgery.

  12. Effects of atomic-level nano-structured hydroxyapatite on adsorption of bone morphogenetic protein-7 and its derived peptide by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Wang, Menghao; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Kefeng; Fang, Liming; Ren, Fuzeng; Lu, Guoming

    2017-11-09

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principal inorganic component of bones and teeth and has been widely used as a bone repair material because of its good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Understanding the interactions between proteins and HA is crucial for designing biomaterials for bone regeneration. In this study, we evaluated the effects of atomic-level nano-structured HA (110) surfaces on the adsorption of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and its derived peptide (KQLNALSVLYFDD) using molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods. The results indicated that the atomic-level morphology of HA significantly affected the interaction strength between proteins and HA substrates. The interactions of BMP-7 and its derived peptide with nano-concave and nano-pillar HA surfaces were stronger than those with flat or nano-groove HA surfaces. The results also revealed that if the groove size of nano-structured HA surfaces matched that of residues in the protein or peptide, these residues were likely to spread into the grooves of the nano-groove, nano-concave, and nano-pillar HA, further strengthening the interactions. These results are helpful in better understanding the adsorption behaviors of proteins onto nano-structured HA surfaces, and provide theoretical guidance for designing novel bioceramic materials for bone regeneration and tissue engineering.

  13. Bone regeneration with a combination of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel, platelet-rich growth factor, and mesenchymal stem cells: a histologic study in rabbit calvaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Hossein; Khojasteh, Arash; Kiani, Mohammad Taghi; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Bashtar, Maryam; Dashti, Seyedeh Ghazaleh

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess NanoBone as a carrier construct for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich growth factor (PRGF). In the calvarial bone of 8 mature New Zealand White male rabbits, four 8-mm defects were created. Each defect received one of the following treatments: Group 1, 0.2 mg Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) granule + 2 mL culture medium; Group 2, 0.2 mg Nano-HA + 1 mL autologous PRGF + 2 mL acellular culture medium; Group 3, 0.2 mg Nano-HA + 2 mL culture medium containing 100,000 autogenous MSCs; Group 4, 0.2 mg Nano-HA + 2 mL culture medium containing 100,000 autogenous MSCs + 1 mL autologous PRGF. Histomorphometric analysis at 6 and 12 weeks demonstrated significantly higher bone formation in group 4 (29.45% and 44.55%, respectively) (P NanoBone with MSCs and PRGF seems to be an effective combination for bone regeneration in a rabbit calvaria model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. Conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings demonstrate poor adhesion and poor mechanical integrity. We have developed hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon bilayer film. The diamondlike carbon interlayer serves to prevent metal ion release and improve adhesion of the hydroxyapatite film. These films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation, and microscratch adhesion testing. Based on the results of this study, hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon bilayers demonstrate promise for use in several orthopedic implants

  15. Hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Roger J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)]. E-mail: roger.narayan@mse.gatech.edu

    2005-05-15

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. Conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings demonstrate poor adhesion and poor mechanical integrity. We have developed hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon bilayer film. The diamondlike carbon interlayer serves to prevent metal ion release and improve adhesion of the hydroxyapatite film. These films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation, and microscratch adhesion testing. Based on the results of this study, hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon bilayers demonstrate promise for use in several orthopedic implants.

  16. Biosafety of the Novel Vancomycin-loaded Bone-like Hydroxyapatite/Poly-amino Acid Bony Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Dong Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, local sustained-release antibiotics systems have been developed because they can increase local foci of concentrated antibiotics without increasing the plasma concentration, and thereby effectively decrease any systemic toxicity and side effects. A vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (V-BHA/PAA bony scaffold was successfully fabricated with vancomycin-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres and BHA/PAA, which was demonstrated to exhibit both porosity and perfect biodegradability. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the biosafety of this novel scaffold by conducting toxicity tests in vitro and in vivo. Methods: According to the ISO rules for medical implant biosafety, for in vitro tests, the scaffold was incubated with L929 fibroblasts or rabbit noncoagulant blood, with simultaneous creation of positive control and negative control groups. The growth condition of L929 cells and hemolytic ratio were respectively evaluated after various incubation periods. For in vivo tests, a chronic osteomyelitis model involving the right proximal tibia of New Zealand white rabbits was established. After bacterial identification, the drug-loaded scaffold, drug-unloaded BHA/PAA, and poly (methyl methacrylate were implanted, and a blank control group was also set up. Subsequently, the in vivo blood drug concentrations were measured, and the kidney and liver functions were evaluated. Results: In the in vitro tests, the cytotoxicity grades of V-BHA/PAA and BHA/PAA-based on the relative growth rate were all below 1. The hemolysis ratios of V-BHA/PAA and BHA/PAA were 2.27% and 1.42%, respectively, both below 5%. In the in vivo tests, the blood concentration of vancomycin after implantation of V-BHA/PAA was measured at far below its toxic concentration (60 mg/L, and the function and histomorphology of the liver and kidney were all normal. Conclusion: According to ISO standards, the V-BHA/PAA scaffold

  17. Comparison between alkali heat treatment and sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on thermally-sprayed rough Ti surface in rabbit model: Effects on bone-bonding ability and osteoconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Toshiyuki; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Masashi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of different surface treatments (hydroxyapatite (HA) coating, alkali heat treatment, and no treatment) on the ability of bone to bond to a rough arc-sprayed Ti metal surface, using rabbit models. The bone-to-implant contacts for untreated, HA-coated, and alkali heat-treated implants were 21.2%, 72.1%, and 33.8% at 4 weeks, 21.8%, 70.9%, and 30.0% at 8 weeks, and 16.3%, 70.2%, and 29.9% at 16 weeks, respectively (n = 8). HA -coated implants showed significantly higher bone-to-implant contacts than the untreated and alkali heat-treated implants at all the time point, whereas alkali heat-treated implants showed significantly higher bone-to-implant contacts than untreated implants at 4 and 16 weeks. The failure loads in a mechanical test for untreated, HA coated, alkali heat-treated plates were 65.4 N, 70.7 N, and 90.8 N at 4 weeks, 76.1 N, 64.7 N, and 104.8 N at 8 weeks and 88.7 N, 92.6 N, and 118.5 N at 16 weeks, respectively (n = 8). The alkali heat-treated plates showed significantly higher failure loads than HA-coated plates at 8 and 16 weeks. The difference between HA-coated plates and untreated plates were not statistically significant at any time point. Thus HA coating, although it enables high bone-to-implant contact, may not enhance the bone-bonding properties of thermally-sprayed rough Ti metal surfaces. In contrast, alkali heat treatment can be successfully applied to thermally-sprayed Ti metal to enhance both bone-to-implant contact and bone-bonding strength. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 3D-Printed Atsttrin-Incorporated Alginate/Hydroxyapatite Scaffold Promotes Bone Defect Regeneration with TNF/TNFR Signaling Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Xia, Qingqing; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wen, Feiqiu; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shufang; Heng, Boon Chin; He, Yong; Ouyang, Hong-Wei

    2015-08-05

    High expression levels of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α within bone defects can decelerate and impair bone regeneration. However, there are few available bone scaffolds with anti-inflammatory function. The progranulin (PGRN)-derived engineered protein, Atsttrin, is known to exert antagonistic effects on the TNF-α function. Hence, this study investigates whether 3D-printed Atsttrin-incorporated alginate(Alg)/hydroxyapatite(nHAp) scaffolds can facilitate bone healing through affecting the TNF/TNFR signaling. A 3D bioprinting system is used to fabricate Atsttrin-Alg/nHAp composite scaffolds, and the Atsttrin release from this scaffold is characterized, followed by evaluation of its efficacy on bone regeneration both in vitro and in vivo. The 3D-printed Atsttrin-Alg/nHAp scaffold exhibits a precisely defined structure, can sustain Atsttrin release for at least 5 days, has negligible cytotoxicity, and supports cell adhesion. Atsttrin can also attenuate the suppressive effects of TNF-α on BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. The 3D-printed Atsttrin-Alg/nHAp scaffold significantly reduces the number of TNF-α positive cells within wound sites, 7 days after post-calvarial defect surgery. Additionally, histological staining and X-ray scanning results also show that the 3D-printed Atsttrin-Alg/nHAp scaffold enhances the regeneration of mice calvarial bone defects. These findings thus demonstrate that the precise structure and anti-inflammatory properties of 3D-printed Atsttrin-Alg/nHAp scaffolds may promote bone defect repair. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A simple approach for synthesis, characterization and bioactivity of bovine bones to fabricate the polyurethane nanofiber containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, F. A.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Macossay, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we had introduced polyurethane (PU) nanofibers that contain hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of an electrospinning process. A simple method that does not depend on additional foreign chemicals had been employed to synthesize HAp NPs through the calcination...

  20. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis of a silica matrix embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute using the subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Orth, Carina; Barbeck, Mike; Kirkpatrick, Charles James [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55101 Mainz (Germany); Willershausen, Ines [Institute for Dental Material Sciences and Technology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Anselm-Franz-von-Bentzel-Weg 14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Thimm, Benjamin W [Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str.10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Booms, Patrick [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Section of Medicine, Surgery and Anaesthesia, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Stuebinger, Stefan; Landes, Constantin; Sader, Robert Anton, E-mail: ghanaati@uni-mainz.d [Department for Oral, Cranio-Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery, Medical Center of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stein-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    The clinical suitability of a bone substitute material is determined by the ability to induce a tissue reaction specific to its composition. The aim of this in vivo study was to analyze the tissue reaction to a silica matrix-embedded, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute. The subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was chosen to assess the effect of silica degradation on the vascularization of the biomaterial and its biodegradation within a time period of 6 months. Already at day 10 after implantation, histomorphometrical analysis showed that the vascularization of the implantation bed reached its peak value compared to all other time points. Both vessel density and vascularization significantly decreased until day 90 after implantation. In this time period, the bone substitute underwent a significant degradation initiated by TRAP-positive and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells together with macrophages and lymphocytes. Although no specific tissue reaction could be related to the described silica degradation, the biomaterial was close to being fully degraded without a severe inflammatory response. These characteristics are advantageous for bone regeneration and remodeling processes.

  1. Stem cell engineered bone with calcium-phosphate coated porous titanium scaffold or silicon hydroxyapatite granules for revision total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gareta, Elena; Hua, Jia; Rayan, Faizal; Blunn, Gordon W

    2014-06-01

    Aseptic loosening in total joint replacements (TJRs) is mainly caused by osteolysis which leads to a reduction of the bone stock necessary for implant fixation in revision TJRs. Our aim was to develop bone tissue-engineered constructs based on scaffolds of clinical relevance in revision TJRs to reconstitute the bone stock at revision operations by using a perfusion bioreactor system (PBRS). The hypothesis was that a PBRS will enhance mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and will provide an even distribution of MSCs throughout the scaffolds when compared to static cultures. A PBRS was designed and implemented. Scaffolds, silicon substituted hydroxyapatite granules and calcium-phosphate coated porous TiAl6V4 cylinders, were seeded with MSCs and cultured either in static conditions or in the PBRS at 0.75 mL/min. Statistically significant increased cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity was found in samples cultured in the PBRS. Histology revealed a more even cell distribution in the perfused constructs. SEM showed that cells arranged in sheets. Long cytoplasmic processes attached the cells to the scaffolds. We conclude that a novel tissue engineering approach to address the issue of poor bone stock at revision operations is feasible by using a PBRS.

  2. Porous stable poly(lactic acid)/ethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by a combined method for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Daoyong; Li, Qing; Bai, Ningning; Dong, Hongzhou; Li, Daikun

    2018-01-15

    A major challenge in bone tissue engineering is the development of biomimetic scaffolds which should simultaneously meet mechanical strength and pore structure requirements. Herein, we combined technologies of high concentration solvent casting, particulate leaching, and room temperature compression molding to prepare a novel poly(lactic acid)/ethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite (PLA/EC/HA) scaffold. The functional, structural and mechanical properties of the obtained porous scaffolds were characterized. The results indicated that the PLA/EC/HA scaffolds at the 20wt% HA loading level showed optimal mechanical properties and desired porous structure. Its porosity, contact angle, compressive yield strength and weight loss after 56days were 84.28±7.04%, 45.13±2.40°, 1.57±0.09MPa and 4.77±0.32%, respectively, which could satisfy the physiological demands to guide bone regeneration. Thus, the developed scaffolds have potential to be used as a bone substitute material for bone tissue engineering application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis of a silica matrix embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute using the subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Orth, Carina; Barbeck, Mike; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Willershausen, Ines; Thimm, Benjamin W; Booms, Patrick; Stuebinger, Stefan; Landes, Constantin; Sader, Robert Anton

    2010-01-01

    The clinical suitability of a bone substitute material is determined by the ability to induce a tissue reaction specific to its composition. The aim of this in vivo study was to analyze the tissue reaction to a silica matrix-embedded, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute. The subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was chosen to assess the effect of silica degradation on the vascularization of the biomaterial and its biodegradation within a time period of 6 months. Already at day 10 after implantation, histomorphometrical analysis showed that the vascularization of the implantation bed reached its peak value compared to all other time points. Both vessel density and vascularization significantly decreased until day 90 after implantation. In this time period, the bone substitute underwent a significant degradation initiated by TRAP-positive and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells together with macrophages and lymphocytes. Although no specific tissue reaction could be related to the described silica degradation, the biomaterial was close to being fully degraded without a severe inflammatory response. These characteristics are advantageous for bone regeneration and remodeling processes.

  4. Cytotoxicity of nano-hydroxyapatite on human-derived oral epithelium cell line: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Abassi; Mandana Sattari; Noushin Jalayer Naderi; Marzie Sorooshzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a more surface contact and solubility than conventional hydroxyapatite. Hydroxynanoparticles enhances the biological and mechanical properties of new regenerated tissues. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have received attention as a new and effective osseous graft for using as scaffolds in bone regeneration. The reports on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles biocompatibility are controversial. It has been shown that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles induces i...

  5. Pedicle screws with a thin hydroxyapatite coating for improving fixation at the bone-implant interface in the osteoporotic spine: experimental study in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Makoto; Moridaira, Hiroshi; Inami, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Daisaku; Nohara, Yutaka; Taneichi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-30

    OBJECTIVE Instrumentation failure caused by the loosening of pedicle screws (PSs) in patients with osteoporosis is a serious problem after spinal surgery. The addition of a thin hydroxyapatite (HA) surface coating applied by using a sputtering process was reported recently to be a promising method for providing bone conduction around an implant without a significant risk of coating-layer breakage. In this study, the authors evaluated the biomechanical and histological features of the bone-implant interface (BII) of PSs with a thin HA coating in an in vivo porcine osteoporotic spine model. METHODS Three types of PSs (untreated/standard [STPS], sandblasted [BLPS], and HA-coated [HAPS] PSs) were implanted into the thoracic and lumbar spine (T9-L6) of 8 mature Clawn miniature pigs (6 ovariectomized [osteoporosis group] and 2 sham-operated [control group] pigs). The spines were harvested from the osteoporosis group at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 weeks after PS placement and from the control group at 0 or 24 weeks. Their bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by peripheral quantitative CT. Histological evaluation of the BIIs was conducted by performing bone volume/tissue volume and bone surface/implant surface measurements. The strength of the BII was evaluated with extraction torque testing. RESULTS The BMD decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group (p < 0.01). HAPSs exhibited the greatest mean extraction peak torque at 8 weeks, and HAPSs and BLPSs exhibited significantly greater mean torque than the STPSs at 12 weeks (p < 0.05). The bone surface/implant surface ratio was significantly higher for HAPSs than for STPSs after 2 weeks (p < 0.05), and bonding between bone and the implant surface was maintained until 24 weeks with no detachment of the coating layer. In contrast, the bone volume/tissue volume ratio was significantly higher for HAPSs than for BLPSs or STPSs only at 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS Using PSs with a thin HA coating applied using a sputtering process

  6. Preparing hydroxyapatite-silicon composite suspensions with homogeneous distribution of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes for electrophoretic coating of NiTi bone implant and their effect on the surface morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Xia, Wei; Parsa, Alireza B.; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Eggeler, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The stable composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes was prepared using functionalization of and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes in HNO_3 vapor and triethanolamine as dispersing agent. • The zeta potential of composite suspensions is less than that of hydroxyapatite suspension. • The silicon particles presence in suspension causes to decrease the charge carrier in suspension and current density during electrophoretic deposition. • The orientation of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes to parallel direction of the applied electric field during electrophoretic deposition can facilitate their moving towards the cathode and increase current density. • The more zeta potential of suspension, the lower roughness of coatings during electrophoretic deposition. - Abstract: Preparing a stable suspension is a main step towards the electrophoretically depositing of homogeneous and dense composite coatings on NiTi for its biomedical application. In the present study, different composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes were prepared using n-butanol and triethanolamine as media and dispersing agent, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were first functionalized in the nitric acid vapor for 15 h at 175 °C, and then mixed into suspensions. Thermal desorption spectroscopy profiles indicate the formation of functional groups on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes. An excellent suspension stability can be achieved for different amounts of triethanolamine. The amount of triethanolamine can be increased by adding a second component to a stable hydroxyapatite suspension due to an electrostatic interaction between components in suspension. The stability of composite suspension is less than that of the hydroxyapatite suspension, due to density differences, which under the gravitational force promote the demixing. The scanning electron microscopy images of the

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fibre (n-HA/PA66/GF as a novel bioactive bone screw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Su

    Full Text Available In this study, we prepared nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fibre (n-HA/PA66/GF bioactive bone screws. The microstructure, morphology and coating of the screws were characterised, and the adhesion, proliferation and viability of MC3T3-E1 cells on n-HA/PA66/GF scaffolds were determined using scanning electron microscope, CCK-8 assays and cellular immunofluorescence analysis. The results confirmed that n-HA/PA66/GF scaffolds were biocompatible and had no negative effect on MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility, internal fixation properties and osteogenesis of the bioactive screws, both n-HA/PA66/GF screws and metallic screws were used to repair intercondylar femur fractures in dogs. General photography, CT examination, micro-CT examination, histological staining and biomechanical assays were performed at 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after operation. The n-HA/PA66/GF screws exhibited good biocompatibility, high mechanical strength and extensive osteogenesis in the host bone. Moreover, 24 weeks after implantation, the maximum push-out load of the bioactive screws was greater than that of the metallic screws. As shown by their good cytocompatibility, excellent biomechanical strength and fast formation and ingrowth of new bone, n-HA/PA66/GF screws are thus suitable for orthopaedic clinical applications.

  8. Fabrication and Microstructure of Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Zirconia by Room Temperature Spray Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Seok; Chae, Hak Cheol; Lee, Jong Kook

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings were fabricated on zirconia substrates by a room temperature spray process and were investigated with regards to their microstructure, composition and dissolution in water. An initial hydroxyapatite powder was prepared by heat treatment of bovine-bone derived powder at 1100 °C for 2 h, while dense zirconia substrates were fabricated by pressing 3Y-TZP powder and sintering it at 1350 °C for 2 h. Room temperature spray coating was performed using a slit nozzle in a low pressure-chamber with a controlled coating time. The phase composition of the resultant hydroxyapatite coatings was similar to that of the starting powder, however, the grain size of the hydroxyapatite particles was reduced to about 100 nm due to their formation by particle impaction and fracture. All areas of the coating had a similar morphology, consisting of reticulated structure with a high surface roughness. The hydroxyapatite coating layer exhibited biostability in a stimulated body fluid, with no severe dissolution being observed during in vitro experimentation.

  9. Bone regeneration in critical bone defects using three-dimensionally printed β-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite scaffolds is enhanced by coating scaffolds with either dipyridamole or BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishack, Stephanie; Mediero, Aranzazu; Wilder, Tuere; Ricci, John L; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2017-02-01

    Bone defects resulting from trauma or infection need timely and effective treatments to restore damaged bone. Using specialized three-dimensional (3D) printing technology we have created custom 3D scaffolds of hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) to promote bone repair. To further enhance bone regeneration we have coated the scaffolds with dipyridamole, an agent that increases local adenosine levels by blocking cellular uptake of adenosine. Nearly 15% HA:85% β-TCP scaffolds were designed using Robocad software, fabricated using a 3D Robocasting system, and sintered at 1100°C for 4 h. Scaffolds were coated with BMP-2 (200 ng mL -1 ), dypiridamole 100 µM or saline and implanted in C57B6 and adenosine A2A receptor knockout (A2AKO) mice with 3 mm cranial critical bone defects for 2-8 weeks. Dipyridamole release from scaffold was assayed spectrophotometrically. MicroCT and histological analysis were performed. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) showed significant bone formation and remodeling in HA/β-TCP-dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds when compared to scaffolds immersed in vehicle at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (n = 5 per group; p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.05, and p ≤ 0.01, respectively). Histological analysis showed increased bone formation and a trend toward increased remodeling in HA/β-TCP- dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds. Coating scaffolds with dipyridamole did not enhance bone regeneration in A2AKO mice. In conclusion, scaffolds printed with HA/β-TCP promote bone regeneration in critical bone defects and coating these scaffolds with agents that stimulate A2A receptors and growth factors can further enhance bone regeneration. These coated scaffolds may be very useful for treating critical bone defects due to trauma, infection or other causes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 366-375, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The processing and characterization of animal-derived bone to yield materials with biomedical applications. Part II: milled bone powders, reprecipitated hydroxyapatite and the potential uses of these materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G S; Mucalo, M R; Lorier, M A; Gieland, U; Mucha, H

    2000-11-01

    Further studies on the processing and use of animal-bone-derived calcium phosphate materials in biomedical applications are presented. Bone powders sourced either from the direct crushing and milling of bovine, ovine and cervine bone or after being subjected to defatting and acid digestion/NaOH reprecipitation and sodium hypochlorite hydrogen peroxide treatment of animal bones were characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 13C solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometric techniques. Bone powders were trialled for their potential use as a substrate for phosphine coupling and enzyme immobilization as well as a feedstock powder for plasma spraying on titanium metal substrates. Results indicated that enzyme immobilization by phosphine coupling could be successfully achieved on milled cervine bone with the immobilized enzyme retaining some activity. It was found that the presence of impurities normally carried down with the processing of the bone materials (viz., fat and collagen) played an important role in influencing the adsorbency and reactivity of the powders. Plasma spraying studies using reprecipitated bovine-derived powders produced highly adherent coatings on titanium metal, the composition of which was mostly hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) with low levels of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-Ca3(PO4)2) and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4P2O9) also detected. In general, animal derived calcium phosphate materials constitute a potentially cheaper source of calcium phosphate materials for biomedical applications and make use of a largely under-utilized resource from abattoir wastes. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  11. Biocomposite scaffolds for bone regeneration: Role of chitosan and hydroxyapatite within poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate on mechanical properties and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Qin, Xiaohong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-11-01

    Bio-engineered scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration is an exploding area of research mainly because they can satisfy the essential demands and current challenges in bone replacement therapies, by imitating the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the native bone. We fabricated bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds with a blend of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV), chitosan (CTS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) during this study. Morphological evaluation confirmed the fiber diameters of PHBV, PHBV/CTS (90:10), PHBV/CTS/HA4 (85.5:9.5:5) and PHBV/CTS/HA8 (81:9:10) as 405 ± 74 nm, 334 ± 82 nm, 316 ± 103 nm and 256 ± 110 nm, respectively. The PHBV/CTS/HA4 and PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffolds were capable of enduring the long term culture of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) with ultimate tensile strength of 3.55 ± 0.22 MPa and 4.19 ± 0.19 MPa, respectively. The proliferation of osteoblasts on PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffold was found 34.10% higher than that on PHBV scaffold on day 20. Cell maturation identified by alkaline phosphatase activity on day 20 was significantly higher on PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffold than that on PHBV scaffold. The cells on PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffold also acquired higher mineral deposition (25.79%) than the mineral deposition on PHBV scaffold by day 20, confirmed by EDX analysis. Based on the results, we concluded that the electrospun PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffolds hold great potential to promote the regeneration of bone tissue due to the synergistic effect of chitosan and HA, whereby chitosan provided cell recognition sites while HA acted as a chelating agent for organizing the apatite-like mineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of 3D-Printed Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Scaffolds Functionalized with Tricalcium Phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, Bio-Oss, or Decellularized Bone Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Ethan; Rindone, Alexandra; Dorafshar, Amir; Grayson, Warren L

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)-printing facilitates rapid, custom manufacturing of bone scaffolds with a wide range of material choices. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for 3D-printing bioactive (i.e., osteo-inductive) scaffolds for use in bone regeneration applications. In this study, we 3D-printed porous poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) process and functionalized them with mineral additives that have been widely used commercially and clinically: tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), Bio-Oss (BO), or decellularized bone matrix (DCB). We assessed the "print quality" of the composite scaffolds and found that the print quality of PCL-TCP, PCL-BO, and PCL-DCB measured ∼0.7 and was statistically lower than PCL and PCL-HA scaffolds (∼0.8). We found that the incorporation of mineral particles did not significantly decrease the compressive modulus of the graft, which was on the order of 260 MPa for solid blocks and ranged from 32 to 83 MPa for porous scaffolds. Raman spectroscopy revealed the surfaces of the scaffolds maintained the chemical profile of their dopants following the printing process. We evaluated the osteo-inductive properties of each scaffold composite by culturing adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in vitro and assessing their differentiation into osteoblasts. The calcium content (normalized to DNA) increased significantly in PCL-TCP (p  0.05). Collagen 1 expression was 10-fold greater than PCL in PCL-BO and PCL-DCB (p < 0.05) and osteocalcin expression was 10-fold greater in PCL-BO and PCL-DCB (p < 0.05) as measured by quantitative-real time-polymerase chain reaction. This study suggests that PCL-BO and PCL-DCB hybrid material may be advantageous for bone healing applications over PCL-HA or PCL-TCP blends.

  13. Transplantation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite scaffold improves bone repair in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Jun; Huang, Jian; Huang, Fang; Fu, Jianhong; Yang, Xinjing; Miao, Zongning

    2014-11-01

    The main requirements for successful tissue engineering of the bone are non-immunogenic cells with osteogenic potential and a porous biodegradable scaffold. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of a silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (SF/HA) porous material as a delivery vehicle for human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) in a rabbit radius defect model. In this study, we randomly assigned 16 healthy adult New Zealand rabbits into two groups, subjected to transplantation with either SF/HA and PMSCs (experimental group) or SF/HA alone (control group). To evaluate fracture healing, we assessed the extent of graft absorption, the quantity of newly formed bone, and re-canalization of the cavitas medullaris using radiographic and histological tools. We performed flow cytometric analysis to characterize PMSCs, and found that while they express CD90, CD105 and CD73, they stain negative for HLA-DR and the hematopoietic cell surface markers CD34 and CD45. When PMSCs were exposed to osteogenic induction medium, they secreted calcium crystals that were identified by von Kossa staining. Furthermore, when seeded on the surface of SF/HA scaffold, they actively secreted extracellular matrix components. Here, we show, through radiographic and histological analyses, that fracture healing in the experimental group is significantly improved over the control group. This strongly suggests that transplantation of human PMSCs grown in an SF/HA scaffold into injured radius segmental bone in rabbits, can markedly enhance tissue repair. Our finding provides evidence supporting the utility of human placenta as a potential source of stem cells for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxygen Plasma Treatment on 3D-Printed Chitosan/Gelatin/Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Min; Yang, Seong-Won; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The 3D hydroxyapatite/gelatin/chitosan composite scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printing technique. The scaffolds were treated by oxygen plasma to improve the bioactivity and its surface characterization and in vitro cell culture were investigated. The scaffolds exhibited the good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. After oxygen plasma etching, roughness and wettability on the scaffolds surface are increased. Plasma treated scaffolds showed higher proliferation than that of untreated scaffolds. Oxygen plasma treatment could be used as potential tool to enhance the biocompatibility on the 3D composite scaffolds.

  15. A novel chitosan-tussah silk fibroin/nano-hydroxyapatite composite bone scaffold platform with tunable mechanical strength in a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jiabing; Hu, Jingxiao; Sun, Guanglin; Chen, Si; Jiang, Pei; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2016-12-01

    Currently, great efforts have been made to enhance the mechanical strength of bone tissue engineering (BTE) scaffolds, which are composed of biopolymeric matrices and inorganic nano-fillers. But the tunability of mechanical strength in a wide range for BTE scaffolds has seldom been investigated in spite of the great importance of this performance. In this work, a chitosan-tussah silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CS-TSF/HAp) hydrogel was synthesized by using a novel in situ precipitation method. Through in situ inducing the conformation transition of TSF in the CS-TSF/HAp hydrogel, which could be monitored by XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and DTA, the elastic modulus and fracture strength of the final CS-TSF/HAp composite could be tailored in a wide range without changing its composition, morphology, roughness, and crystal structures. The elastic modulus of the CS-TSF/HAp composite ranged from ∼250 to ∼400MPa while its fracture strength ranged from ∼45 to ∼100MPa. In order to clarify the rationale behind this process, a speculative explanation was provided. In vitro cell culture indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the CS-TSF/HAp composite had positive adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation potential. We believed that the CS-TSF/HAp composite could be used as an ideal scaffold platform for cell culture and implantation of bone reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a composite based on hydroxyapatite and magnesium and zinc‐containing sol–gel-derived bioactive glass for bone substitute applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashuri, Maziar; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Nezafati, Nader; Ansari Hamedani, Ali; Tahriri, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a bioceramic-based composite was prepared by sintering compacts made up of mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HA) and sol–gel-derived bioactive glass (64SiO 2 -26CaO-5MgO-5ZnO) (based on mol%) powders. HA powder was mixed with different concentrations of the glass powders up to 30 wt.%. The effect of adding bioactive glass powder to HA matrix, on the mechanical properties of the composite was assessed by compression test. The specimen with the highest compressive strength was chosen to be immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) to study apatite forming ability and dissolution behavior. It was found that compressive strength of the specimen was decreased 65% after maintaining in the SBF for 14 days. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed prevalence of HA and β-TCP related peaks. Also, the surface morphology of the composite was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study of degradation behavior revealed Si release capability of this composite. Biological evaluations in vitro confirmed the composite studied could induce osteoblast-like cells' activities. - Highlights: ► A novel composite based on HA/bioactive glass for bone substitutes was developed. ► Evaluations in vitro confirmed the composites induce bone-like cells' activities. ► A successful compromise of bioactivity and cytocompatibility was observed.

  17. Biofabrication and in vitro study of hydroxyapatite/mPEG–PCL–mPEG scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using air pressure-aided deposition technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Cho-Pei; Chen, Yo-Yu; Hsieh, Min-Fa

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to fabricate biopolymer and biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by an air pressure-aided deposition system and to carry out osteoblast cell culture tests to validate the biocompatibility of fabricated scaffolds. A mPEG–PCL–mPEG triblock copolymer was synthesized as a biopolymer material. Biocomposite material was composed of synthesized biopolymer and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a mean diameter of 100 μm. The weight ratio of HA added to the synthesized biopolymer was 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1. The experimental results show that the maximum average compressive strength of biocomposite scaffolds, made of weight ratio 0.5, with mean pore size of 410 μm (porosity 81%) is 18.38 MPa which is two times stronger than that of biopolymer scaffolds. Osteoblast cells, MC3T3-E1, were seeded on both types of fabricated scaffolds to validate the biocompatibility using methylthianzol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and cell morphology observation. After 28 days of in vitro culturing, the seeded osteoblasts were well distributed in the interior of both types of scaffolds. Furthermore, MTT experimental results show that the cell viability of the biocomposite scaffold is higher than that of the biopolymer scaffold. This indicates that adding HA into synthesized biopolymer can enhance compressive strength and the proliferation of the osteoblast cell. Highlights: ► A mPEG-PCL-mPEG copolymer was synthesized as a biopolymer. ► Biocomposite was made of adding hydroxyapatite (HA) in biopolymer. ► Biopolyer and biocomposite scaffolds were made by an air pressure-aided deposition system. ► Average compressive strength of biocomposite scaffold is 18.38 MPa. ► After 28 days in vitro cell culturing, adding HA into biopolymer can enhance the proliferation.

  18. Facile green synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin nanocomposite in the dual acting fluorine-containing ionic liquid medium for bone substitute applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegatheeswaran, S. [Advanced Green Chemistry Lab, Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-3, Tamil Nadu (India); Selvam, S. [Laser and Sensor Application Laboratory, Pusan National University, Busan 609735 (Korea, Republic of); Sri Ramkumar, V. [Deptartment of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Environmental, Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu (India); Sundrarajan, M., E-mail: sundrarajan@yahoo.com [Advanced Green Chemistry Lab, Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-3, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Fluorine based ionic liquid was highly influenced the morphological structure of nanocomposites. • These composites has been motivated controlled release of silver nanoparticles for uniform antibacterial activity. • These material has given excellent antibacterial biofilm activity and favourable cytotoxical behavior on the human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells. • These material has been highly suitable for bone substitute appliactions. - Abstract: A novel green route has approached for the synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite by the assistance of fluorine-based ionic liquid. The selected [BMIM]BF{sub 4} ionic liquid for this work plays a dual role as fluoride source and templating agent. It helps to improve the crystalline structures and the shape of the composites. The crystallinity, surface morphology, topographical studies of the synthesized composite were validated. The XRD results of the composite show typical Ag reflection peaks at 38.1°, 44.2° and 63.4°. The ionic liquid assisted composite displayed the hexagonal shaped HA particles, which are surrounded by spherical nano-Ag particles and these particles are uniformly dispersed in the β-cyclodextrin matrix in both horizontal and cross sections from surface morphology observations. The Ionic liquid assisted silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite exhibited very good antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Serratia liquefaciens pathogens. The antibacterial proficiencies were established using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic developed biofilms images and bacterial growth curve analysis. The cytotoxicity results of the ionic liquid assisted composite analyzed by cell proliferation in vitro studies using human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63) and this study has shown excellent biocompatibility.

  19. Facile green synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin nanocomposite in the dual acting fluorine-containing ionic liquid medium for bone substitute applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegatheeswaran, S.; Selvam, S.; Sri Ramkumar, V.; Sundrarajan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fluorine based ionic liquid was highly influenced the morphological structure of nanocomposites. • These composites has been motivated controlled release of silver nanoparticles for uniform antibacterial activity. • These material has given excellent antibacterial biofilm activity and favourable cytotoxical behavior on the human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells. • These material has been highly suitable for bone substitute appliactions. - Abstract: A novel green route has approached for the synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite by the assistance of fluorine-based ionic liquid. The selected [BMIM]BF_4 ionic liquid for this work plays a dual role as fluoride source and templating agent. It helps to improve the crystalline structures and the shape of the composites. The crystallinity, surface morphology, topographical studies of the synthesized composite were validated. The XRD results of the composite show typical Ag reflection peaks at 38.1°, 44.2° and 63.4°. The ionic liquid assisted composite displayed the hexagonal shaped HA particles, which are surrounded by spherical nano-Ag particles and these particles are uniformly dispersed in the β-cyclodextrin matrix in both horizontal and cross sections from surface morphology observations. The Ionic liquid assisted silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite exhibited very good antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Serratia liquefaciens pathogens. The antibacterial proficiencies were established using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic developed biofilms images and bacterial growth curve analysis. The cytotoxicity results of the ionic liquid assisted composite analyzed by cell proliferation in vitro studies using human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63) and this study has shown excellent biocompatibility.

  20. Synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorinated hydroxyapatite by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The biological hydroxyapatite in the human bone and tooth is of nanosize and ... The crystal size and morphology of the nanopowders were examined by X-ray powder diffraction .... tal growth along the c axis of HA crystalline structure. The.

  1. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  2. In vitro and in vivo bioactivity assessment of a polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite for bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danoux, Charlene; Barbieri, D.; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic bone graft substitutes based on composites consisting of a polymer and a calcium-phosphate (CaP) ceramic are developed with the aim to satisfy both mechanical and bioactivity requirements for successful bone regeneration. In the present study, we have employed extrusion to produce a

  3. Fabrication, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of poly(lactic acid glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite composite microsphere-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in rotating bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing; Nair, Lakshmi; Laurencin, Cato T

    2009-12-01

    Dynamic flow culture bioreactor systems have been shown to enhance in vitro bone tissue formation by facilitating mass transfer and providing mechanical stimulation. Our laboratory has developed a biodegradable poly (lactic acid glycolic acid) (PLAGA) mixed scaffold consisting of lighter-than-water (LTW) and heavier-than-water (HTW) microspheres as potential matrices for engineering tissue using a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) rotating bioreactor system. We have demonstrated enhanced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization on PLAGA scaffolds in the HARV rotating bioreactor system when compared with static culture. The objective of the present study is to improve the mechanical properties and bioactivity of polymeric scaffolds by designing LTW polymer/ceramic composite scaffolds suitable for dynamic culture using a HARV bioreactor. We employed a microsphere sintering method to fabricate three-dimensional PLAGA/nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) mixed scaffolds composed of LTW and HTW composite microspheres. The mechanical properties, pore size and porosity of the composite scaffolds were controlled by varying parameters, such as sintering temperature, sintering time, and PLAGA/n-HA ratio. The PLAGA/n-HA (4:1) scaffold sintered at 90 degrees C for 3 h demonstrated the highest mechanical properties and an appropriate pore structure for bone tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, evaluation human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) response to PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds was performed. HMSCs on PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds demonstrated enhanced proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization when compared with those on PLAGA scaffolds. Therefore, PLAGA/n-HA mixed scaffolds are promising candidates for HARV bioreactor-based bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Assessment of the use of LED phototherapy on bone defects grafted with hydroxyapatite on rats with iron-deficiency anemia and nonanemic: a Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Isabele Cardoso Vieira; Rosa, Cristiane Becher; Dos Reis Júnior, João Alves; Moreira, Luiz Gaudêncio Passos; Aragão, Juliana S; Barbosa, Artur Felipe dos Santos; Silveira, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antonio L B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess bone repair in defects grafted or not with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healthy and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) rats submitted or not to LED phototherapy (LED-PT) by Raman spectroscopy. The animals were divided in eight groups with five rats each: Clot; Clot + LED; IDA + Clot; IDA + LED; Graft; Graft + LED; IDA + Graft; and IDA + Graft + LED. When appropriated, irradiation with IR LED (λ850 ± 10 nm, 150 mW, CW, Φ = 0.5 cm(2), 16 J/cm(2), 15 days) was carried out. Raman shifts: ∼ 960 [symmetric PO4 stretching (phosphate apatite)], ∼ 1,070 [symmetric CO3 stretching (B-type carbonate apatite)], and ∼ 1,454 cm(-1) [CH2/CH3 bending in organics (protein)] were analyzed. The mean peak values for ∼ 960, ∼ 1,070, and ∼ 1,454 cm(-1) were nonsignificantly different on healthy or anemic rats. The group IDA + Graft + LED showed the lowest mean values for the peak ∼ 960 cm(-1) when compared with the irradiated IDA group or not (p ≤ 0.001; p ≤ 0.001). The association of LED-PT and HA-graft showed lowest mean peak at ∼ 1,454 cm(-1) for the IDA rats. The results of this study indicated higher HA peaks as well as a decrease in the level of organic components on healthy animals when graft and LED phototherapy are associated. In the other hand, IDA condition interfered in the graft incorporation to the bone as LED phototherapy only improved bone repair when graft was not used.

  5. Facial skeletal augmentation using hydroxyapatite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, M L; Costantino, P D; Friedman, C D; Chow, L C

    1993-02-01

    This study investigates the use of a new calcium phosphate cement, which sets to solid, microporous hydroxyapatite, for facial bone augmentation. In six dogs, the supraorbital ridges were augmented bilaterally with this hydroxyapatite cement. On one side, the hydroxyapatite cement was placed directly onto the bone within a subperiosteal pocket. On the opposite side, the cement was contained within a collagen membrane tubule and then inserted into a subperiosteal pocket. The use of collagen tubules facilitated easy, precise placement of the cement. All implants maintained their original augmented height throughout the duration of the study. They were well tolerated without extrusion or migration, and there was no significant sustained inflammatory response. Histologic studies, performed at 3, 6, and 9 months revealed that when the cement was placed directly onto bone, progressive replacement of the implant by bone (osseointegration of the hydroxyapatite with the underlying bone) without a loss of volume was observed. In contrast, when the cement-collagen tubule combination was inserted, primarily a fibrous union was noted. Despite such fibrous union, the hydroxyapatite-collagen implant solidly bonded to the underlying bone, and no implant resorption was observed. Hydroxyapatite cement can be used successfully for the experimental augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton and may be applicable for such uses in humans.

  6. Osteoinduction and proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells in three-dimensional poly (ε-caprolactone)/ hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Yang, Xiaoyan; Qi, Xin; Jiang, Chaoyin

    2015-05-08

    Osteoinduction and proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds have not been studied throughly and are technically challenging. This study aimed to optimize nanocomposites of 3D PCL scaffolds to provide superior adhesion, proliferation and differentiation environment for BMSCs in this scenario. BMSCs were isolated and cultured in a novel 3D tissue culture poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold coated with poly-lysine, hydroxyapatite (HAp), collagen and HAp/collagen. Cell morphology was observed and BMSC biomarkers for osteogenesis, osteoblast differentiation and activation were analyzed. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that coating materials were uniformly deposited on the surface of PCL scaffolds and BMSCs grew and aggregated to form clusters during 3D culture. Both mRNA and protein levels of the key players of osteogenesis and osteoblast differentiation and activation, including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphates (ALP), osterix, osteocalcin, and RANKL, were significantly higher in BMSCs seeded in PCL scaffolds coated with HAp or HAp/collagen than those seeded in uncoated PCL scaffolds, whereas the expression levels were not significantly different in collagen or poly-lysine coated PCL scaffolds. In addition, poly-lysine, collagen, HAp/collagen, and HAp coated PCL scaffolds had significantly more viable cells than uncoated PCL scaffolds, especially scaffolds with HAp/collagen and collagen-alone coatings. That BMSCs in HAp or HAp/collagen PCL scaffolds had remarkably higher ALP activities than those in collagen-coated alone or uncoated PCL scaffolds indicating higher osteogenic differentiation levels of BMSCs in HAp or HAp/collagen PCL scaffolds. Moreover, morphological changes of BMSCs after four-week of 3D culture confirmed that BMSCs successfully differentiated into osteoblast with spread-out phenotype in HAp/collagen coated PCL scaffolds

  7. Do Bone Graft and Cracking of the Sclerotic Cavity Improve Fixation of Titanium and Hydroxyapatite-coated Revision Implants in an Animal Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmengaard, Brian; Baas, Joergen; Jakobsen, Thomas; Kold, Soren; Jensen, Thomas B; Bechtold, Joan E; Soballe, Kjeld

    2017-02-01

    We previously introduced a manual surgical technique that makes small perforations (cracks) through the sclerotic bone shell that typically forms during the process of aseptic loosening ("crack" revision technique). Perforating just the shell (without violating the proximal cortex) can maintain overall bone continuity while allowing marrow and vascular elements to access the implant surface. Because many revisions require bone graft to fill defects, we wanted to determine if bone graft could further increase implant fixation beyond what we have experimentally shown with the crack technique alone. Also, because both titanium (Ti6Al4V) and hydroxyapatite (HA) implant surfaces are used in revisions, we also wanted to determine their relative effectiveness in this model. We hypothesized that both (1) allografted plasma-sprayed Ti6Al4V; and (2) allografted plasma-sprayed HA-coated implants inserted with a crack revision technique have better fixation compared with a noncrack revision technique in each case. Under approval from our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, a female canine animal model was used to evaluate the uncemented revision technique (crack, noncrack) using paired contralateral implants while implant surface (Ti6Al4V, HA) was qualitatively compared between the two (unpaired) series. All groups received bone allograft tightly packed around the implant. This revision model includes a cylindrical implant pistoning 500 μm in a 0.75-mm gap, with polyethylene particles, for 8 weeks. This engenders a bone and tissue response representative of the metaphyseal cancellous region of an aseptically loosened component. At 8 weeks, the original implants were revised and followed for an additional 4 weeks. Mechanical fixation was assessed by load, stiffness, and energy to failure when loaded in axial pushout. Histomorphometry was used to determine the amount and location of bone and fibrous tissue in the grafted gap. The grafted crack revision improved

  8. Clinical evaluation of porous hydroxyapatite bone graft (Periobone G with and without collagen membrane (Periocol in the treatment of bilateral grade II furcation defects in mandibular first permanent molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthy Prathap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Furcation invasions represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges in periodontics. This investigation assessed and compared the clinical efficacy of hydroxyapatite bone graft material when used alone and with collagen membrane in the treatment of grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with comparable bilateral furcation defects in relation to mandibular first molars were selected and treated in a split-mouth design. After the hygiene phase of therapy was completed, the groups were selected randomly either for treatment with hydroxyapatite bone graft (Periobone G alone or with a combination of bone graft and guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane (Periocol. Clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, vertical probing depth, horizontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, position of marginal gingiva, and the amount of bone fill were used at baseline and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At 6 months, both surgical procedures resulted in statistically significant reduction in vertical and horizontal probing depths and gain in the clinical attachment level. Conclusion: The use of combination technique yielded superior results compared to sites treated with bone graft alone. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  9. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hydroxyapatite-doped polycaprolactone nanofiber membrane improves tendon-bone interface healing for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Yaying; Lin, Chao; Zhao, Peng; Chen, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    Hamstring tendon autograft is a routine graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, ways of improving the healing between the tendon and bone is often overlooked in clinical practice. This issue can be addressed by using a biomimetic scaffold. Herein, a biomimetic nanofiber membrane of polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHAp/Col) is fabricated that mimics the composition of native bone tissue for promoting tendon-bone healing. This membrane has good cytocompatibility, allowing for osteoblast cell adhesion and growth and bone formation. As a result, MC3T3 cells reveal a higher mineralization level in PCL/nHAp/Col membrane compared with PCL membrane alone. Further in vivo studies in ACL reconstruction in a rabbit model shows that PCL/nHAp/Col-wrapped tendon may afford superior tissue integration to nonwrapped tendon in the interface between the tendon and host bone as well as improved mechanical strength. This study shows that PCL/nHAp/Col nanofiber membrane wrapping of autologous tendon is effective for improving tendon healing with host bone in ACL reconstruction.

  11. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  12. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Socol, Gabriel; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Rădulescu, Marius; Surdu, Adrian; Trusca, Roxana; Rădulescu, Radu; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Stan, Miruna S.; Constanda, Sabrina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  13. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş [Bucharest University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Valentina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Andronescu, Ecaterina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1–3 Portocalelor Lane, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Research Institute of the University of Bucharest –ICUB, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Socol, Gabriel [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Oprea, Alexandra Elena [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Rădulescu, Marius [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HAp/PLGA thin coatings by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation. • Anti-adherent coating on medical surfaces against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa colonization. • Coatings with potential applications in implant osseointegration. - Abstract: In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  14. In situ annealing of hydroxyapatite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Shevon; Haluska, Michael; Narayan, Roger J.; Snyder, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. Unfortunately, problems with adhesion, poor mechanical integrity, and incomplete bone ingrowth limit the use of many conventional hydroxyapatite surfaces. In this work, we have developed a novel technique to produce crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films involving pulsed laser deposition and postdeposition annealing. Hydroxyapatite films were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Si (100) using pulsed laser deposition, and annealed within a high temperature X-ray diffraction system. The transformation from amorphous to crystalline hydroxyapatite was observed at 340 deg. C. Mechanical and adhesive properties were examined using nanoindentation and scratch adhesion testing, respectively. Nanohardness and Young's modulus values of 3.48 and 91.24 GPa were realized in unannealed hydroxyapatite films. Unannealed and 350 deg. C annealed hydroxyapatite films exhibited excellent adhesion to Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates. We anticipate that the adhesion and biological properties of crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films may be enhanced by further consideration of deposition and annealing parameters

  15. Addition of MgO nanoparticles and plasma surface treatment of three-dimensional printed polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffolds for improving bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hee-Sang; Lee, Chang-Min; Hwang, Young-Hyoun [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Min-Suk [Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seong-Won [Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Donghun [Department of Herbal Pharmacology, Kyung Hee University College of Korean Medicine, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) plays an important role in the body in mediating cell-extracellular matrix interactions and controlling bone apatite structure and density. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been used for osteoconductive bone replacement because of its good compressive strength and biocompatibility. The object of this study is to investigate the effects of adding Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles to polycaprolactone (PCL)/HAp composites and treating PCL/HAp/MgO scaffolds with oxygen and nitrogen plasma. The 3D PCL/HAp/MgO scaffolds were fabricated using a 3D bioextruder. PCL was mixed with 1–15 wt% of MgO and HAp. The scaffolds were treated with oxygen and nitrogen plasma under anisotropic etching conditions to improve the bioactivity. The plasma-treated surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of pre-osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells were examined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and alkaline phosphatase activity. Cell mineralization within the produced scaffolds was analyzed by the quantification of alizarin stainings. The addition of MgO/HAp nanoparticles and plasma treatment enhanced the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in the PCL scaffolds. Hence, changes in physical surface morphology and surface chemical properties of the 3D scaffold by plasma treatment can affect the behavior of MC3T3-E1 cells. - Highlights: • 3D-printed PCL/HAp/MgO showed good porosity and interconnectivity. • O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} plasma improved the surface roughness and hydrophilicity on scaffolds. • Addition of HAp/MgO nanoparticles enhanced the cell behavior of preosteoblast.

  16. Degradation pattern of porous CaCO3 and hydroxyapatite microspheres in vitro and in vivo for potential application in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwei; Li, Wenhua; Su, Xiuping; Li, Geng; Zhou, Ying; Kundu, Subhas C; Yao, Juming; Cai, Yurong

    2016-07-01

    Despite superior clinical handling, excellent biocompatibility, biodegradation property of calcium phosphate needs to be improved to coincide with the rate of new bone formation. In this study, spherical CaCO3 are fabricated in the presence of the silk sericin and then transformed into porous hydroxyapatite (HAP) microspheres via hydrothermal method. The degradation behavior of obtained CaCO3, HAP and their mixture is first investigated in vitro. The result demonstrates that the weight loss of HAP microspheres are almost 24.3% after immersing in pH 7.40 Tris-HCl buffer solution for 12 weeks, which is far slower than that of spherical CaCO3 (97.5%). The degradation speed of the mixtures depends on the proportion of CaCO3 and HAP. The mixture with higher content of CaCO3 possesses a quicker degradation speed. The obtained CaCO3 and HAP microspheres are injected into subcutaneous tissue of ICR mice with the assistance of sodium alginate. The result in vivo also shows an obvious difference of degradation speed between the obtained CaCO3 and HAP microspheres, implying it is feasible to modulate the degradation property of the mixture through changing the proportion of CaCO3 and HAP The good cytocompatibility of the two kinds of microspheres is proved and a mild inflammation response is observed only at early stage of implantation. The job offers a simple method to modify the degradation properties of biomaterial for potential use in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication of human hair keratin/jellyfish collagen/eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: From waste to regenerative medicine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yavuz Emre; Sezgin Arslan, Tugba; Derkus, Burak; Emregul, Emel; Emregul, Kaan C

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we aimed at fabricating an osteoinductive biocomposite scaffold using keratin obtained from human hair, jellyfish collagen and eggshell-derived nano-sized spherical hydroxyapatite (nHA) for bone tissue engineering applications. Keratin, collagen and nHA were characterized with the modified Lowry method, free-sulfhydryl groups and hydroxyproline content analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) which confirmed the success of the extraction and/or isolation processes. Human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were isolated and the cell surface markers were characterized via flow cytometry analysis in addition to multilineage differentiation capacity. The undifferentiated hAMSCs were highly positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, but were not seen to express hematopoietic cell surface markers such as CD14, CD34 and CD45. The cells were successfully directed towards osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages in vitro. The microarchitecture of the scaffolds and cell attachment were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cell viability on the scaffolds was assessed by the MTT assay which revealed no evidence of cytotoxicity. The osteogenic differentiation of hAMSCs on the scaffolds was determined histologically using alizarin red S, osteopontin and osteonectin stainings. Early osteogenic differentiation markers of hAMSCs were significantly expressed on the collagen-keratin-nHA scaffolds. In conclusion, it is believed that collagen-keratin-nHA osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds have the potential of being used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Properties of novel bone hemostat prepared using sugar-modified hydroxyapatite, phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium and thermoplastic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimira, Tokio; Umeda, Tomohiro; Itatani, Kiyoshi; Musha, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    A novel hemostatic agent was prepared using phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca), hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ; HAp) obtained by the hydrolysis of POs-Ca or sugar-containing HAp (s-HAp; 60.3 mass% calcium-deficient HAp and 39.5 mass% organic materials, Ca/P ratio = 1.56) and thermoplastic resin (the mixture of random copolymer of ethylene oxide/propylene oxide (EPO) and polyethylene oxide (EO); EPO : EO : water = 25 : 15 : 60 (mass ratio); 25EPO-15EO). The gel formed by mixing 25EPO-15EO with water (25EPO-15EO/water mass ratio: 0.20) was flash frozen at -80°C, freeze-dried at -50°C for 15 h and then ground using mixer. The consistency conditions of hemostats mixed with POs-Ca or s-HAp were optimized for the practical uses. The mean stanching times of hemostats were: s-HAp/25EPO-15EO (8.2 h; s-HAp/25EPO-15EO = 0.20) > 25EPO-15EO (5.3 h) > POs-Ca/25EPO-15EO (4.7 h; POs-Ca/25EPO-15EO = 0.20). The gentamicin, a typical antibiotic agent, loaded s-HAp/25EPO-15EO composite hemostat showed the steady state releasing in phosphate buffered saline till 10 h immersion at 37.0°C

  19. Properties of novel bone hemostat prepared using sugar-modified hydroxyapatite, phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium and thermoplastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimira, Tokio; Umeda, Tomohiro; Musha, Yoshiro; Itatani, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    A novel hemostatic agent was prepared using phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca), hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; HAp) obtained by the hydrolysis of POs-Ca or sugar-containing HAp (s-HAp; 60.3 mass% calcium-deficient HAp and 39.5 mass% organic materials, Ca/P ratio = 1.56) and thermoplastic resin (the mixture of random copolymer of ethylene oxide/propylene oxide (EPO) and polyethylene oxide (EO); EPO : EO : water = 25 : 15 : 60 (mass ratio); 25EPO-15EO). The gel formed by mixing 25EPO-15EO with water (25EPO-15EO/water mass ratio: 0.20) was flash frozen at -80°C, freeze-dried at -50°C for 15 h and then ground using mixer. The consistency conditions of hemostats mixed with POs-Ca or s-HAp were optimized for the practical uses. The mean stanching times of hemostats were: s-HAp/25EPO-15EO (8.2 h; s-HAp/25EPO-15EO = 0.20) > 25EPO-15EO (5.3 h) > POs-Ca/25EPO-15EO (4.7 h; POs-Ca/25EPO-15EO = 0.20). The gentamicin, a typical antibiotic agent, loaded s-HAp/25EPO-15EO composite hemostat showed the steady state releasing in phosphate buffered saline till 10 h immersion at 37.0°C.

  20. Preparation, characterization and biological test of 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan, fibroin and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Autran Leite; Resende, Cristiane Xavier; Soares, Glória Dulce de Almeida; Anselme, Karine; Almeida, Luís Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of porous 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan (CHI), chitosan/silk fibroin (CHI/SF) and chitosan/silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CHI/SF/HA) by freeze drying. The biomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, studies of porosity, pore size, contact angle and biological response of SaOs-2osteoblastic cells were performed. The CHI scaffolds have a porosity of 94.2±0.9%, which is statistically higher than the one presented by CHI/SF/HA scaffolds, 89.7±2.6%. Although all scaffolds were able to promote adhesion, growth and maintenance of osteogenic differentiation of SaOs-2 cells, the new 3D-scaffold based on CHI/SF/HA showed a significantly higher cell growth at 7 days and 21 days and the level of alkaline phosphatase at 14 and 21 days was statistically superior compared to other tested materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation, characterization and biological test of 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan, fibroin and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Paulo Autran Leite; Resende, Cristiane Xavier; Dulce de Almeida Soares, Glória; Anselme, Karine; Almeida, Luís Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of porous 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan (CHI), chitosan/silk fibroin (CHI/SF) and chitosan/silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CHI/SF/HA) by freeze drying. The biomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, studies of porosity, pore size, contact angle and biological response of SaOs-2osteoblastic cells were performed. The CHI scaffolds have a porosity of 94.2 ± 0.9%, which is statistically higher than the one presented by CHI/SF/HA scaffolds, 89.7 ± 2.6%. Although all scaffolds were able to promote adhesion, growth and maintenance of osteogenic differentiation of SaOs-2 cells, the new 3D-scaffold based on CHI/SF/HA showed a significantly higher cell growth at 7 days and 21 days and the level of alkaline phosphatase at 14 and 21 days was statistically superior compared to other tested materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of 3D-scaffolds based on CHI, with or without addition of SF and HA. • Scaffolds exhibited interconnected porous structure (pore size superior to 50 μm). • The tripolyphosphate did not induce any significant cytotoxic response. • The CHI/SF/HA composite showed a higher cell growth and ALP activity

  2. Interface mechanics and histomorphometric analysis of hydroxyapatite-coated and porous glass-ceramic implants in canine bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimb, L; Jensen, J S; Gotfredsen, K

    1995-01-01

    A canine study was performed to make a histological and biomechanical evaluation of the interface between bone and two different bioceramic implants. A newly developed glass-ceramic formed by P2O5, CaO, SiO2, and Al2O3, giving a crystal phase composed of CaP2O6-AlPO4-SiP2O7, was compared...... analysis. The ultimate shear strength for the HA-coated implants was significantly higher than in the glass-ceramic group. When these values were related to the histomorphometric measurements, the difference could be explained by the tissue-to-implant contact. The glass-ceramic showed direct contact only...... with nonmineralized, osteoid bone. The HA-coated implants, however, were integrated into the bone. The study indicated that porous glass-ceramic containing AlPO4 causes local osteomalacia and might not be suitable for clinical purposes....

  3. Radiographic Bone Density around Dental Implants with Surface Modification by Laser Ablation followed by Hydroxyapatite Coating: A Study in Rabbit Tibiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazelato, Tiago; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Morais, J

    followed by hydroxyapatite coating with a surface that was oxide-blasted followed by acid etching. On this study twenty-four rabbits received two implants in each tibia, an oxide-blasted + acid-etched (ATS) and a hydroxyapatite-coated (HAP) implant. Radiographs of the implants were recorded after 4, 8...

  4. Osteoconductive hydroxyapatite coated PEEK for spinal fusion surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Byung-Dong, E-mail: cera72@kims.re.kr [Functional Ceramics Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwon-daero, Seongsan-gu, Changwon, Gyeong-Nam, 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ahn, Cheol-Woo [Functional Ceramics Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwon-daero, Seongsan-gu, Changwon, Gyeong-Nam, 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoun-Ee [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Byung-Ho; Jung, In-Kwon [GENOSS, Gyeonggi R and DB Center, Iui-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much interest as biomaterial for interbody fusion cages due to its similar stiffness to bone and good radio-transparency for post-op visualization. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating stimulates bone growth to the medical implant. The objective of this work is to make an implant consisting of biocompatible PEEK with an osteoconductive HA surface for spinal or orthopedic applications. Highly dense and well-adhered HA coating was developed on medical-grade PEEK using aerosol deposition (AD) without thermal degradation of the PEEK. The HA coating had a dense microstructure with no cracks or pores, and showed good adhesion to PEEK at adhesion strengths above 14.3 MPa. The crystallinity of the HA coating was remarkably enhanced by hydrothermal annealing as post-deposition heat-treatment. In addition, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of cell adhesion morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone-to-implant contact ratio, were remarkably enhanced by the HA coating through AD.

  5. Osteoconductive hydroxyapatite coated PEEK for spinal fusion surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Byung-Dong; Park, Dong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Jung, In-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much interest as biomaterial for interbody fusion cages due to its similar stiffness to bone and good radio-transparency for post-op visualization. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating stimulates bone growth to the medical implant. The objective of this work is to make an implant consisting of biocompatible PEEK with an osteoconductive HA surface for spinal or orthopedic applications. Highly dense and well-adhered HA coating was developed on medical-grade PEEK using aerosol deposition (AD) without thermal degradation of the PEEK. The HA coating had a dense microstructure with no cracks or pores, and showed good adhesion to PEEK at adhesion strengths above 14.3 MPa. The crystallinity of the HA coating was remarkably enhanced by hydrothermal annealing as post-deposition heat-treatment. In addition, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of cell adhesion morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone-to-implant contact ratio, were remarkably enhanced by the HA coating through AD.

  6. Osteoconductive hydroxyapatite coated PEEK for spinal fusion surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Byung-Dong; Park, Dong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Jung, In-Kwon

    2013-10-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much interest as biomaterial for interbody fusion cages due to its similar stiffness to bone and good radio-transparency for post-op visualization. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating stimulates bone growth to the medical implant. The objective of this work is to make an implant consisting of biocompatible PEEK with an osteoconductive HA surface for spinal or orthopedic applications. Highly dense and well-adhered HA coating was developed on medical-grade PEEK using aerosol deposition (AD) without thermal degradation of the PEEK. The HA coating had a dense microstructure with no cracks or pores, and showed good adhesion to PEEK at adhesion strengths above 14.3 MPa. The crystallinity of the HA coating was remarkably enhanced by hydrothermal annealing as post-deposition heat-treatment. In addition, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of cell adhesion morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone-to-implant contact ratio, were remarkably enhanced by the HA coating through AD.

  7. Implanted hydroxyapatite ossification kinetics study and interface bone-implant analysis by P.I.X.E. nuclear method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Oudadesse, H.; Braye, F.; Jallot, E.

    1994-06-01

    The hydroxy apatite (Hap) formula Ca-5(P O-4)--3 OH ceramics, may be doped when it is produced by elements (Ca, Zn...) which may influence the bone cells. We must determine the doping effects on the mechanical properties. The laboratory possesses a compression/traction bench, which measures the applied force on the sample according to the sensor engine moving. 27 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Healing of Large Segmental Bone Defect after Implantation of Autogenous Cancellous Bone Graft in Comparison to Hydroxyapatite and 0.5% Collagen Scaffold Combined with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečas, A.; Proks, P.; Urbanová, L.; Srnec, R.; Stehlík, L.; Crha, M.; Raušer, P.; Plánka, L.; Janovec, J.; Dvořák, M.; Amler, Evžen; Vojtová, L.; Jančář, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2010), s. 607-612 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : fracture fixation * bone healing * comminuted fracture Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 0.534, year: 2010

  9. Bioactive polyurethane implants with hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhnova, R.; Kebuladze, I.; Galatenko, N. [NAS Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Dept. of Polymers of Medical Appointment

    2001-07-01

    Biologically active polyurethane compositions for plastic of bone defects that contain bioceramic - hydroxyapatite (HAP) and immunomodulator - levamisole (LEV) were designed. The influence of the biologically active fillers in structure polyurethane compositions on their physical and chemical properties in condition in vivo by method of Equilibrium Swelling, method of IR-spectroscopy, roentgen-structural analysis was studied. The introduce in structure of the biodegraded polymeric matrix of HAP is established to promote accumulation of the inorganic component of bone tissue in vivo which is being by basis of the bone formation in regenerating tissue. (orig.)

  10. Radiolabeling hydroxyapatite nanorods as theranostic agents for osteosarcoma and bone metastases; Nanobastões de hidroxiapatita radiomarcados como agentes teranósticos para osteossarcomas e metastases ósseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipreste, Marcelo Fernandes

    2017-07-01

    The theranostic nanobiomaterials have received much attention of the scientific community around the world since these materials can accumulate spontaneously and selectively in tumor regions, being internalized by its cells and promoting simultaneously the diagnosis and the treatment of many types of cancer. Among many nanobiomaterials able to act as theranostic systems, hydroxyapatite nanorods (HA) stand up as promising theranostic agents to act in the early stages of osteosarcoma due to their important properties such as biocompatibility, bioactivity and high affinity to bone tissues, being able to act as drug delivery systems and radioisotopes carries, among many others biomedical applications. Apatite structures such as HA have high stability and flexibility that make them susceptible to the doping process and the conjugation with other crystallographic phases to confer theranostic properties to the material. However, the performance of these materials depends directly on the ability of these nanoparticles to bind to tumor cells. The process of surface functionalization of hydroxyapatite improves the adhesion of this material to the cell membranes. An important property acquired by hydroxyapatite functionalized with folic acid refers to the active and preferential accumulation in tumor sites of osteosarcoma. The present work consists in the investigation of theranostic systems through the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods doped with gadolinium and copper, and functionalized with folic acid (FA). The process of neutron activation enabled the production of the radioisotopes {sup 32}P, {sup 159}Gd and {sup 64}Cu in the HA lattice. A systematic study of the morphological and physicochemical characteristics was carried out, as well as the characterization of the magnetic and structural properties of these samples, including a study on the chemical interaction between folic acid, gadolinium, tenorite and the surface of nanoparticles. The synthesized materials were

  11. Excavating the Role of Aloe Vera Wrapped Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Frame Ornamentation in Newly Architectured Polyurethane Scaffolds for Osteogenesis and Guided Bone Regeneration with Microbial Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Francis, Nimmy K; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-03-09

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are unsuccessful in many clinical applications due to a high incidence of postoperative infection. The objective of this work is to fabricate GBR with an anti-infective electrospun scaffold by ornamenting segmented polyurethane (SPU) with two-dimensional Aloe vera wrapped mesoporous hydroxyapatite (Al-mHA) nanorods. The antimicrobial characteristic of the scaffold has been retrieved from the prepared Al-mHA frame with high aspect ratio (∼14.2) via biosynthesis route using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extract. The Al-mHA frame was introduced into an unprecedented SPU matrix (solution polymerized) based on combinatorial soft segments of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, pristine mHA nanorods are also ornamented into it. An enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segment of (PCL-PEC-b-PDMS). Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Al-mHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (175%) in the mechanical properties with promising antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast-like MG63 cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits as an animal model by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Improved in vivo biocompatibilities, biodegradation, osteoconductivity, and the ability to provide an adequate biomimetic environment for biomineralization for GBR of the scaffolds (SPU and ornamented SPUs) have been found from the various histological sections. Early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks were found in the defects filled with Al-mHA ornamented

  12. Development of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl alcohol bionanocomposite for prosthesis implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, V.; Pabi, S. K.; Chowdhury, S. K. Roy

    2018-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) has similar structural and chemical properties of natural bone mineral and hence widely used as a bone replacement substitute. Natural bone consists of hydroxyapatite and collagen. For mimicking the natural, in the present work, a sintered porous hydroxyapatite component has been vacuum impregnated with Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which has better properties like biocompatibility, biodegradability and water- solubility. Hydroxyapatite powders have been made into nanosize to reduce the melting point and hence the sintering temperature. In the present investigation high energy ball mill is used to produce nano-hydroxyapatite powders in bulk quantity by optimizing the milling parameters using stainless steel grinding media. Pellets of 10 mm diameter have been produced from nano- hydroxyapatite powders under different uniaxial compaction pressures. The pellets have been sintered to form porous compacts. The vacuum impregnation of sintered pallets with PVA solution of different strength has been done to find the optimum impregnation condition. Microhardness, compressive strength, wear loss and haemocompatibility of hydroxyapatite ceramics have been studied before and after impregnation of PVA. The nano- hydroxyapatite/PVA composites have superior mechanical properties and reduced wear loss than the non-impregnated porous nano-hydroxyapatite ceramics.

  13. Histologic analysis of a retrieved hydroxyapatite-coated femoral prosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søballe, K; Gotfredsen, K; Brockstedt-Rasmussen, H

    1991-01-01

    A hydroxyapatite-coated hip hemi-prosthesis was retrieved from a 98-year-old osteoporotic woman 12 weeks after implantation. Histologic analysis revealed bone and fibrous tissue almost evenly distributed around the surface of the implant circumference. Quantitative histologic analysis showed...... that 48% of the hydroxyapatite surface was covered by bone. Fibrous tissue covered 30% of the prosthetic surface, and 20% of the surface had no tissue coverage. Scanning electron microscopy showed direct contact without any clear boundary between the newly formed bone and the hydroxyapatite ceramic....

  14. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  15. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  16. The Production of Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds with Graded Porosity by Sequential Freeze-Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun; Jang, Tae-Sik; Song, Juha; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jung, Hyun-Do

    2017-03-31

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with porosity-graded structures were fabricated by sequential freeze-casting. The pore structures, compressive strengths, and biocompatibilities of the fabricated porous HA scaffolds were evaluated. The porosities of the inner and outer layers of the graded HA scaffolds were controlled by adjusting the initial HA contents of the casting slurries. The interface between the dense and porous parts was compact and tightly adherent. The porosity and compressive strengths of the scaffold were controlled by the relative thicknesses of the dense/porous parts. In addition, the porous HA scaffolds showed good biocompatibility in terms of preosteoblast cell attachment and proliferation. The results suggest that porous HA scaffolds with load-bearing parts have potential as bone grafts in hard-tissue engineering.

  17. Micromechanical finite element modeling and experimental characterization of the compressive mechanical properties of polycaprolactone:hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman

    2012-01-01

    Bioresorbable scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) by selective laser sintering (SLS) and modeled by finite element analysis (FEA). Both solid gage parts and scaffolds having 1-D, 2-D and 3-D orthogonal, periodic porous architectures were made with 0, 10, 20 and 30% HA by volume. PCL:HA scaffolds manufactured by SLS had nearly full density (99%) in the designed solid regions and had excellent geometric and dimensional control. Through optimization of the SLS process, the compressive moduli for our solid gage parts and scaffolds are the highest reported in the literature for additive manufacturing. The compressive moduli of solid gage parts were 299.3, 311.2, 415.5 and 498.3 MPa for PCL:HA loading at 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 respectively. The compressive effective stiffness tended to increase as the loading of HA was increased and the designed porosity was lowered. In the case of the most 3-D porous scaffold, the compressive modulus more than doubled from 14.9 MPa to 36.2 MPa when changing the material from 100:0 to 70:30 PCL:HA. A micromechanical finite element analysis (FEA) model was developed to investigate the reinforcement effect of HA loading on the compressive modulus of the bulk material. Using a first-principles based approach, the random distribution of HA particles in a solidified PCL matrix was modeled for any loading of HA to predict the bulk mechanical properties of the composites. The bulk mechanical properties were also used for FEA of the scaffold geometries. Results of the FEA were found to be in good agreement with experimental mechanical testing. The development of patient and site-specific composite tissue engineering constructs with tailored properties can be seen as a direct extension of this work on computational design, a priori modeling of mechanical properties and direct digital manufacturing. PMID:22522129

  18. Micromechanical finite-element modeling and experimental characterization of the compressive mechanical properties of polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Bioresorbable scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) by selective laser sintering (SLS) and modeled by finite-element analysis (FEA). Both solid gage parts and scaffolds having 1-D, 2-D and 3-D orthogonal, periodic porous architectures were made with 0, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% HA. PCL:HA scaffolds manufactured by SLS had nearly full density (99%) in the designed solid regions and had excellent geometric and dimensional control. Through optimization of the SLS process, the compressive moduli for our solid gage parts and scaffolds are the highest reported in the literature for additive manufacturing. The compressive moduli of solid gage parts were 299.3, 311.2, 415.5 and 498.3 MPa for PCL:HA loading at 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30, respectively. The compressive effective stiffness tended to increase as the loading of HA was increased and the designed porosity was lowered. In the case of the most 3-D porous scaffold, the compressive modulus more than doubled from 14.9 to 36.2 MPa when changing the material from 100:0 to 70:30 PCL:HA. A micromechanical FEA model was developed to investigate the reinforcement effect of HA loading on the compressive modulus of the bulk material. Using a first-principles based approach, the random distribution of HA particles in a solidified PCL matrix was modeled for any HA loading to predict the bulk mechanical properties of the composites. The bulk mechanical properties were also used for FEA of the scaffold geometries. The results of the FEA were found to be in good agreement with experimental mechanical testing. The development of patient- and site-specific composite tissue-engineering constructs with tailored properties can be seen as a direct extension of this work on computational design, a priori modeling of mechanical properties and direct digital manufacturing. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone ...

  20. Study of the viability and adhesion of osteoblast cells to bone cements mixed with hydroxyapatite at different concentrations to use in vertebral augmentation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Mínguez, J; Jorge-Mora, A; Couceiro-Otero, R; García-Santiago, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the biocompatibility and the effect in osteoblasts of polymethyl methacrylate alone, and mixed with hydroxyapatite in different concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20%, without exceeding 20%, as it can alter mechanical properties of the composite. Experimental study comparing osteoblast response to Polymethyl methacrylate alone and with hydroxyapatite in different concentrations. Composites at 15 and 20% obtained better osteoblast response, with higher osteoblastic activity markers, and lower apoptosis markers. Electron microscopy images show improved adhesion of osteoblasts. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Red'kin, N. A.; Frolov, O. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm-1 ((PO4)3- (ν1) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm-1 ((CO3)2-(ν1) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy.

  2. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, P E; Timchenko, E V; Pisareva, E V; Vlasov, M Yu; Red’kin, N A; Frolov, O O

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm -1 ((PO 4 ) 3- (ν 1 ) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm -1 ((CO 3 ) 2- (ν 1 ) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy. (paper)

  3. Macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics by solid freeform fabrication: towards custom implants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richter, PW

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available structure that would be impossible to make by conventional manufacturing methods. Application of this technology to the manufacture of macro porous hydroxyapatite bio ceramics for bone substitute applications is discussed. A new design is described...

  4. Influence of preparation method on hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is extensively used in medical applications as an artificial bone because of its similarity to ... system, have been applied to fabricate HA porous scaffolds. In this work .... ceramic structured by the colloidal processing was.

  5. Implantes de hidroxiapatita em falhas ósseas produzidas no fêmur de ratos submetidos ao tabagismo passivo Hydroxyapatite implants in bone defects produced in rat femurs submitted to passive tobacco exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cerizza Pinheiro

    2008-10-01

    menores quando comparados com os do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A neoformação óssea em defeitos do esqueleto pode ocorrer naturalmente em animais submetidos ao tabagismo passivo, no entanto, de forma mais lenta e em menor proporção.INTRODUCTION: Defects with bone mass loss are frequently treated with bone autografts. Endografts of bones using biomaterials, such as hydroxyapatite (HA also have been used for the same purpose, replacing autografts. However, bone tissue health conditions are basic for osteointegration of the implant. Thus, excessive tobacco consumption, either as an active or as a passive smoker, may harm the process of bone neoformation with a hydroxyapatite implant due to its deleterious effects to bone tissue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status of the animals and the process of bone neoformation when porous hydroxyapatite granules are implanted in bone defects of the femur of rats submitted to passive tobacco exposure. METHOD: Porous hydroxyapatite granules were implanted in bone defects produced in the left distal femoral epiphysis of rats subjected to prolonged passive tobacco exposure. The animals were followed along the treatment of tobacco exposure during six months, to evaluate their physical conditions. After eight weeks of the bone implant with the biomaterial, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens of the implant region were submitted to routine histological testing, and maintained in paraffin blocks for morphometric histological and radiological analysis. RESULTS: The mass variation of the experimental group was found to be more intense than that of the control group. As to radiological findings, the control group had an apparent more radio lucent and organized image. In the morphological analysis, there was a better closing of the bone defect and osteointegration of hydroxyapatite in the control group. Upon comparing the volume of bone formed in the receiving area of the femur between the control and the experimental group

  6. The chemical composition of synthetic bone substitutes influences tissue reactions in vivo: histological and histomorphometrical analysis of the cellular inflammatory response to hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Hilbig, Ulrike; Rausch, Vera; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Detsch, Rainer; Ziegler, Guenter; Deisinger, Ulrike; Sader, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Bone substitute material properties such as granule size, macroporosity, microporosity and shape have been shown to influence the cellular inflammatory response to a