WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydroxide carbonate nanorods

  1. Controllable preparation of multi-dimensional hybrid materials of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide nanorods/nanosheets on electrospun carbon nanofibers for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Feili; Huang, Yunpeng; Miao, Yue-E; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical Abstract: Multi-dimensional hybrid materials of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide nanorods/nanosheets grown on electrospun carbon nanofiber membranes were prepared via electrospinning combined with solution co-deposition for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. - Highlights: • Ni-Co LDH@CNFhybridswerepreparedbyelectrospinningandsolutionco-deposition. • Ni-Co LDH@CNF hybrids show high electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. • This method can be extended to other bimetallic@CNF hybrids for electrode materials. - Abstract: Hybrid nanomaterials with hierarchical structures have been considered as one kind of the most promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors with high capacity and long cycle lifetime. In this work, multi-dimensional hybrid materials of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanorods/nanosheets on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by electrospinning technique combined with one-step solution co-deposition method. Carbon nanofiber membranes were obtained by electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) followed by pre-oxidation and carbonization. The successful growth of Ni-Co LDH with different morphologies on CNF membrane by using two kinds of auxiliary agents reveals the simplicity and universality of this method. The uniform and immense growth of Ni-Co LDH on CNFs significantly improves its dispersion and distribution. Meanwhile the hierarchical structure of carbon nanofiber@nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide nanorods/nanosheets (CNF@Ni-Co LDH NR/NS) hybrid membranes provide not only more active sites for electrochemical reaction but also more efficient pathways for electron transport. Galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements reveal high specific capacitances of 1378.2 F g −1 and 1195.4 F g −1 (based on Ni-Co LDH mass) at 1 A g −1 for CNF@Ni-Co LDH NR and CNF@Ni-Co LDH NS hybrid membranes, respectively. Moreover, cycling stabilities for both hybrid membranes are

  2. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Abdel Moneim, Soha S.; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu III (OH) 3 ] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg -1 day -1 ) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  3. Synthesis of neodymium hydroxide nanotubes and nanorods by soft chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Haishui; Yang, Jianhui; Zhang, Hongjie

    2006-08-01

    A facile soft chemical approach using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as template is successfully designed for synthesis of neodymium hydroxide nanotubes. These nanotubes have an average outer diameter around 20 nm, inner diameter around 2 nm, and length ranging from 100 to 120 nm, high BET surface area of 495.71 m(2) g(-1). We also find that neodymium hydroxide nanorods would be obtained when CTAB absented in reaction system. The Nd(OH)3 nanorods might act as precursors that are converted into Nd2O3 nanorods through dehydration at 550 degrees C. The nanorods could exhibit upconversion emission characteristic under excitation of 591 nm at room temperature.

  4. Synthesis of carbon nanorods by reduction of carbon bisulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Zhengsong; He Minglong; Zhao Dejian; Li Zhongchun; Shang Tongming

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: Our manuscript is a concise preliminary account of original and of significant research, which illuminates carbon nanorods and variously shaped Y-junction carbon nanorods are successfully fabricated on a large scale through a carbon bisulfide thermal reduction process. Various shaped Y-junction carbon nanorods can be used as studying the electronic and transport properties of the nano-meter carbon material. - Abstract: Carbon nanorods are synthesized at large scale by the reduction of carbon bisulfide at 600 o C. Moreover, novel Y-junction carbon nanorods are detected in the samples. The X-ray power diffraction pattern indicates that the products are hexagonal graphite. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and N 2 physisorption studies show that carbon nanorods predominate in the product. Based on the supercritical carbon bisulfide system, the possible growth mechanism of the carbon nanorods was discussed. This method provides a simple and cheap route to large-scale synthesis of carbon nanorods.

  5. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO 2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH) 2 ] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14 CO 2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH) 2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH) 2 . Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

  6. Growth of PbTe nanorods controlled by polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides via composite-hydroxide-mediated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Buyong [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); College of Physics and Information Technology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047 (China); Hu Chenguo, E-mail: hucg@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu Hong [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xiong Yufeng [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100080 (China); Li Feiyun; Xi Yi; He Xiaoshan [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The pure face-centered-cubic PbTe nanorods have been synthesized by the composite-hydroxide-mediated approach using hydrazine as a reducing agent. The method is based on reaction among reactants in the melts of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide eutectic at 170-220 deg. C and normal atmosphere without using any organic dispersant or surface-capping agent. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the samples. The diameters of nanorods are almost fixed, while the lengths can be tunable under different growth time and temperatures. The growth mechanism of PbTe nanorods is investigated via UV-vis absorption, demonstrating that polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides in the hydrazine hydroxide melts could control the crystallization and growth process of PbTe nanostructures. The band gap of as-synthesized PbTe nanorods has been calculated based on UV-vis-NIR optical diffuse reflectance spectra data.

  7. Growth of PbTe nanorods controlled by polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides via composite-hydroxide-mediated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Buyong; Hu Chenguo; Liu Hong; Xiong Yufeng; Li Feiyun; Xi Yi; He Xiaoshan

    2009-01-01

    The pure face-centered-cubic PbTe nanorods have been synthesized by the composite-hydroxide-mediated approach using hydrazine as a reducing agent. The method is based on reaction among reactants in the melts of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide eutectic at 170-220 deg. C and normal atmosphere without using any organic dispersant or surface-capping agent. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the samples. The diameters of nanorods are almost fixed, while the lengths can be tunable under different growth time and temperatures. The growth mechanism of PbTe nanorods is investigated via UV-vis absorption, demonstrating that polymerized tellurium anions and metal(II) amides in the hydrazine hydroxide melts could control the crystallization and growth process of PbTe nanostructures. The band gap of as-synthesized PbTe nanorods has been calculated based on UV-vis-NIR optical diffuse reflectance spectra data.

  8. Growth of aragonite calcium carbonate nanorods in the biomimetic anodic aluminum oxide template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inho; Han, Haksoo; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2010-04-01

    In this study, a biomimetic template was prepared and applied for growing calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) nanorods whose shape and polymorphism were controlled. A biomimetic template was prepared by adsorbing catalytic dipeptides into the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. Using this peptide-adsorbed template, mineralization and aggregation of CaCO 3 was carried out to form large nanorods in the pores. The nanorods were aragonite and had a structure similar to nanoneedle assembly. This aragonite nanorod formation was driven by both the AAO template and catalytic function of dipeptides. The AAO membrane pores promoted generation of aragonite polymorph and guided nanorod formation by guiding the nanorod growth. The catalytic dipeptides promoted the aggregation and further dehydration of calcium species to form large nanorods. Functions of the AAO template and catalytic dipeptides were verified through several control experiments. This biomimetic approach makes possible the production of functional inorganic materials with controlled shapes and crystalline structures.

  9. DOUBLE-SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-01-01

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Biocompatibility Study of Highly Crystalline Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Caibao; Chen, Yingzhi; Huang, Yongzhuo; Zhu, Peizhi

    2015-08-01

    Highly crystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanorods with different carbonate contents were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. The crystallinity and chemical structure of synthesized nanorods were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo-electronic spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The biocompatibility of synthesized CHA nanorods was evaluated by cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MG-63 cell line. The biocompatibility evaluation results show that these CHA nanorods are biologically active apatites and potentially promising bone-substitute biomaterials for orthopedic application.

  11. Strong blue emission from zinc hydroxide carbonate nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Jing; Chen, Xuemin; Ling, Tao; Du, Xiwen

    2016-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide carbonate (ZHC) is a typical layered salt composed of zinc hydroxide layers separated with carbonate ions and water molecules. Studies of morphology control and the constitution of functional ZHC material with intercalated ions has been widely developed. Also, ZnO can be easily obtained by anneal treatment of ZHC, and the porous structure as synthesized had great potential in gas sensors, photocatalysts and dye-sensitized solar cells. However, the optical of ZHC have rarely been investigated. In our research, a strong blue emission of ZHC is reported. The effect of growth time, annealing treatment and modification of surfactants on blue emission have been systematically studied. Combined with information of interior effect of OH groups, crystal structure and electronegativity of surfactants, a possible emission mechanism of ZHC has been proposed.

  12. Room-temperature vertically-aligned copper oxide nanoblades synthesized by electrochemical restructuring of copper hydroxide nanorods: An electrode for high energy density hybrid device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuetao; Zhou, Jinyuan; Dou, Wei; Wang, Junya; Mu, Xuemei; Zhang, Yue; Abas, Asim; Su, Qing; Lan, Wei; Xie, Erqing; Zhang, Chuanfang (John)

    2018-04-01

    The fast growing of portable electronics has greatly stimulated the development of energy storage materials, such as transition metal oxides (TMOs). However, TMOs usually involve harsh synthesis conditions, such as high temperature. Here we take advantage of the metastable nature of Cu(OH)2 and grow CuO nanoblades (NBs) on Cu foam under the electric field at room temperature. The electrochemical polarization accelerates the dissolution of Cu(OH)2 nanorods, guides the deposition of the as-dissolved Cu(OH)42- species and eventually leads to the phase transformation of CuO NBs. The unique materials architecture render the vertically-aligned CuO NBs with enhanced electronic and ionic diffusion kinetics, high charge storage (∼779 mC cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), excellent rate capability and long-term cycling performances. Further matching with activated carbon electrode results in high-performance hybrid device, which displays a wide voltage window (1.7 V) in aqueous electrolyte, high energy density (0.17 mWh cm-2) and power density (34 mW cm-2) coupled with long lifetime, surpassing the best CuO based device known. The hybrid device can be randomly connected and power several light-emitting diodes. Importantly, such an electrochemical restructuring approach is cost-effective, environmentally green and universal, and can be extended to synthesize other metastable hydroxides to in-situ grow corresponding oxides.

  13. Structure and photoluminescence of boron and nitrogen co-doped carbon nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.B. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, 69 Hongguang Rd, Lijiatuo, Banan District, Chongqing 400054 (China); Gao, B. [College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Municipal Education Examinations Authority, Chongqing 401147 (China); Zhong, X.X., E-mail: xxzhong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shao, R.W.; Zheng, K. [Institute of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron- and nitrogen- doped carbon nanorods. - Highlights: • The co-doping of nitrogen and boron in carbon nanorods. • The doping mechanism of nitrogen and boron in carbon nanorods by plasma. • Photoluminescence properties of nitrogen- and boron-doped carbon nanorods. - Abstract: Boron and nitrogen doped carbon nanorods (BNCNRs) were synthesized by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, where methane, nitrogen and hydrogen were used as the reaction gases and boron carbide was the boron source. The results of scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that boron and nitrogen can be used as co-dopants in amorphous carbon nanorods. Combined with the characterization results, the doping mechanism was studied. The mechanism is used to explain the formation of different carbon materials by different methods. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of BNCNRs were studied. The PL results show that the BNCNRs generate strong green PL bands and weak blue PL bands, and the PL intensity lowered due to the doping of boron. The outcomes advance our knowledge on the synthesis and optical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials and contribute to the development of optoelectronic nanodevices based on nano-carbon mateirals.

  14. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  15. Nonenzymetic glucose sensing using carbon functionalized carbon doped ZnO nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Pinak; Majumder, Tanmoy; Dhar, Saurab; Mondal, Suvra Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Fabrication of highly sensitive, long stability and low cost glucose sensors are attractive for biomedical applications and food industries. Most of the commercial glucose sensors are based on enzymatic detection which suffers from problems underlying in enzyme activities. Development of high sensitive, enzyme free sensors is a great challenge for next generation glucose sensing applications. In our study Zinc oxide nanorod sensing electrodes have been grown using low cost hydrothermal route and their nonenzymatic glucose sensing properties have been demonstrated with carbon functionalized, carbon doped ZnO nanorods (C-ZnO NRs) in neutral medium (0.1M PBS, pH 7.4) using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements. The C-ZnO NRs electrodes demonstrated glucose sensitivity˜ 13.66 µAmM-1cm-2 in the concentration range 0.7 - 14 mM.

  16. WO3 nanorods-modified carbon electrode for sustained electron uptake from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 with suppressed biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Ko, Chi-Chiu; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 nanorods-modified carbon paper was used as the anode of MFC. • WO 3 nanorods suppressed biofilm growth on the electrode surface. • Sustained electron transfer from cells to electrode via riboflavin was achieved. • C–WO 3 nanorods enable stable and efficient EET process in long-time operation. - Abstract: Carbon materials are widely used as electrodes for bioelectrochemical systems (BES). However, a thick biofilm tends to grow on the electrode surface during continuous operation, resulting in constrained transport of electrons and nutrients at the cell-electrode interface. In this work, we tackled this problem by adopting a WO 3 -nanorods modified carbon electrode (C–WO 3 nanorods), which completely suppressed the biofilm growth of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1. Moreover, the C–WO 3 nanorods exhibited high electric conductivity and strong response to riboflavin. These two factors together make it possible for the C–WO 3 nanorods to maintain a sustained, efficient process of electron transfer from the MR-1 planktonic cells. As a consequence, the microbial fuel cells with C–WO 3 nanorods anode showed more stable performance than the pure carbon paper and WO 3 -nanoparticles systems in prolonged operation. This work suggests that WO 3 nanorods have the potential to be used as a robust and biofouling-resistant electrode material for practical bioelectrochemical applications

  17. Urea controlled hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) rods were controllably prepared using the hydrothermal method by manipulating the amount of urea in the reaction system. The experimental results showed that AACH in rod shape was able to be gradually transformed from γ-AlOOH in cluster shape during the molar ratios of urea to Al in the reactants were ranged from 8 to 10, and the yield of AACH has increased accordingly. When the molar ratio of urea to Al reaches 11, pure AACH rods with a diameter of 500 nm and a length of 10 μm approximately was able to be produced. Due to the slow decomposition of urea during the hydrothermal reaction, the nucleation and growth of AACH crystal proceed step by step. Therefore, the crystal can fully grow on each crystal plane and eventually produce a highly crystalline rod-shaped product. The role of urea in controlling the morphology and yield of AACH was also discussed in this paper systematically.

  18. Cobalt nanorods fully encapsulated in carbon nanotube and magnetization measurements by off-axis electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Fully encapsulated face-centered-cubic (fcc) Co nanorods in multiwalled carbon nanotubes were produced by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Quantitative magnetization measurements of the Co nanorods were carried out by off-axis electron holography using a theoretical cylindrical model. The component of magnetic induction was then measured to be 1.2±0.1 T, which is lower than the expected saturation magnetization of fcc Co of 1.7 T. The reason for the reduced magnetic component was discussed

  19. Zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide nanohybrid material as a precursor to produce carbon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Bagheri, Narjes; Sadrnezhaad, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this work, a new organic-clay nanohybrid material, in which the organic moiety is intercalated between the inorganic layers, was synthesized using stearate anion as a guest and zinc hydroxide nitrate as an inorganic layered host by ion-exchange technique. Carbon nanoparticles were obtained by heat treating of the nanohybrid material, zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide. The proposed method is very simple, the chemicals used in the synthesis are cheap and the manner is economic and suitable for a large scale production of nano-sized carbon nanoparticles. - Abstract: Zinc-stearate-layered hydroxide nanohybrid was prepared using stearate anion as an organic guest, and zinc layered hydroxide nitrate, as a layered inorganic host by the ion-exchange method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared results indicated that the stearate anion was actually intercalated into the interlayer of zinc layered hydroxide nitrate and confirmed the formation of the host-guest nanohybrid material. Also, surface properties data showed that the intercalation process has changed the porosity for the as-prepared nanohybrid material in comparison with that of the parent material, zinc hydroxide nitrate. The nanohybrid material was heat-treated at 600 deg. C under argon atmosphere. Stearate anion was chosen as a carbonaceous reservoir in the nanohybrid to produce carbon nanoparticles after heat-treating of the nanohybrid and subsequently acid washing process.

  20. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  1. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not

  2. Titration of Monoprotic Acids with Sodium Hydroxide Contaminated by Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Tadeusz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effects of using carbon dioxide contaminated sodium hydroxide solution as a titrant for a solution of a weak monoprotic acid and the resulting distortion of the titration curve in comparison to one obtained when an uncontaminated titrant is used. (CW)

  3. Direct Synthesis of MnO2 Nanorods on Carbon Cloth as Flexible Supercapacitor Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MnO2 nanorod/carbon cloth (MnO2/CC composites were prepared through in situ redox deposition as freestanding electrodes for flexible supercapacitors. The CC substrates possessing porous and interconnecting structures enable the uniform decoration of MnO2 nanorods on each fiber, thus forming conformal coaxial micro/nanocomposites. Three-dimensional CC can provide considerable specific surface area for high mass loading of MnO2, and the direct deposition process without using polymeric binders enables reliable electrical connection of MnO2 with CC. The effect of MnO2 decoration on the electrochemical performances was further investigated, indicating that the electrode prepared with 40 min deposition time shows high specific capacitance (220 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s and good cycling property (90% of the initial specific capacitance was maintained after 2500 cycles in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. This enhanced electrochemical performance is ascribed to the synergistic effect of good conductivity of carbon substrates as well as outstanding pseudocapacitance of MnO2 nanorods. The obtained MnO2/CC compositing electrode with the advantages of low cost and easy fabrication is promising in applications of flexible supercapacitors.

  4. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on carbon nanoparticles/MnO2 nanorods hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Longyan; Lu, Xi-Hong; Xiao, Xu; Zhai, Teng; Dai, Junjie; Zhang, Fengchao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Xue; Gong, Li; Chen, Jian; Hu, Chenguo; Tong, Yexiang; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-01-24

    A highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor was fabricated through a simple flame synthesis method and electrochemical deposition process based on a carbon nanoparticles/MnO(2) nanorods hybrid structure using polyvinyl alcohol/H(3)PO(4) electrolyte. Carbon fabric is used as a current collector and electrode (mechanical support), leading to a simplified, highly flexible, and lightweight architecture. The device exhibited good electrochemical performance with an energy density of 4.8 Wh/kg at a power density of 14 kW/kg, and a demonstration of a practical device is also presented, highlighting the path for its enormous potential in energy management. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaoxu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs.

  6. Synthesis and carbon dioxide sorption of layered double hydroxide/silica foam nanocomposites with hierarchical mesostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling; Qi, Genggeng; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Esté vez, Luis Antonio; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hierarchical mesostructure are successfully synthesized on mesoporous silica foams by simple impregnation and hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized LDH/silica foam nanocomposites show well-defined mesostructures with high surface areas, large pore volumes, and mesopores of 6-7 nm. The nanocomposites act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. They also exhibit significantly enhanced CO2 capacities under high-pressure conditions and high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities. Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis and carbon dioxide sorption of layered double hydroxide/silica foam nanocomposites with hierarchical mesostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling

    2014-03-05

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hierarchical mesostructure are successfully synthesized on mesoporous silica foams by simple impregnation and hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized LDH/silica foam nanocomposites show well-defined mesostructures with high surface areas, large pore volumes, and mesopores of 6-7 nm. The nanocomposites act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. They also exhibit significantly enhanced CO2 capacities under high-pressure conditions and high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities. Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Vertically aligned TiO2 nanorods-woven carbon fiber for reinforcement of both mechanical and anti-wear properties in resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jie; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Dan; Cui, Yali; Li, Hejun; Lu, Zhaoqing; Huang, Jianfeng

    2018-03-01

    A series of TiO2 nanorods were successfully grown on woven carbon fiber by hydrothermal method to reinforce the resin composite. The TiO2 nanorods improved the mechanical interlocking among woven carbon fibers and resin matrix, resulting in better fibers/resin interfacial bonding. Compared with desized-woven carbon fiber, the uniform TiO2 nanorods array resulted in an improvement of 84.3% and 73.9% in the tensile and flexural strength of the composite. However, the disorderly TiO2 nanorods on woven carbon fiber leaded to an insignificant promotion of the mechanical strength. The enhanced performance of well-proportioned TiO2 nanorods-woven carbon fiber was also reflected in the nearly 56% decrease of wear rate, comparing to traditional woven carbon fiber reinforced composite.

  9. High photocatalytic activity of immobilized TiO{sub 2} nanorods on carbonized cotton fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin, E-mail: bwang23@cityu.edu.hk [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Karthikeyan, Rengasamy; Lu, Xiao-Ying [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Xuan, Jin [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State-Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Leung, Michael K.H., E-mail: mkh.leung@cityu.edu.hk [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Hollow carbon fibers derived from natural cotton was successfully prepared by pyrolysis method. • TiO{sub 2} nanorods immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile hydrothermal method showed high photocatalytic activity. • The enhancement was due to the reduced band gap, improved dye adsorption capacity and effective electron–hole separation. -- Abstract: In this study, TiO{sub 2} nanorods were successfully immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile pyrolysis of natural cotton in nitrogen atmosphere followed by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Carbonized cotton fibers (CCFs) and TiO{sub 2}-CCFs composites were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results implied that the band gap narrowing of TiO{sub 2} was achieved after integration of CCFs. Dye adsorption isotherm indicated that the maximum dye adsorption capacity (q{sub m}) of CCFs-1000 (13.4 mg/g) was 2 times higher than that of cotton fibers and q{sub m} of TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 (9.0 mg/g) was 6–7 times higher than that of TiO{sub 2} nanorods. Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanorods prepared with 3 mL Ti(OBu){sub 4} showed the highest photocatalytic activity. TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 exhibited higher activity than TiO{sub 2} immobilized on CCFs-400, CCFs-600 and CCFs-800. Good photostability of TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 was found for dye degradation under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic dye degradation was due to the high adsorptivity of dye molecules, enhanced light adsorption and effective separation of electron–hole pairs. This work provides a low-cost and sustainable approach to immobilize nanostructured TiO{sub 2} on carbon fibers for environmental remediation.

  10. Recovery of carbonates and hydroxides from cocoa pod ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashes of cocoa pods contain alkali which is traditionally leached out and used to produce 'alata' soap. Ghana's Institute of Industrial Research has tested a pilot plant that produces liquid soap from cocoa pod ash, waste lime (Ca(OH)2), and palm kernel oil by initially converting the potassium carbonate in the leachate to ...

  11. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-07-01

    A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizes a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

  12. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  13. Formation of silicon carbide nanorods from wood-based carbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T; Castro, [No Value; Fujisawa, M; Imamura, Y; Bonnamy, S; Bronsveld, P; Kikuchi, H

    2005-01-01

    Man-made ceramic wood similar to petrified wood found in nature can be used at high temperature as the high oxidation rate of carbon above 500 degrees C is suppressed by a mu m thin SiC coating similar to the shuttle's heat shield. Possible applications are in the field of energy production, e.g.,

  14. Adsorption of pharmaceuticals to microporous activated carbon treated with potassium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Heyun; Yang, Liuyan; Wan, Yuqiu; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of sulfapyridine, tetracycline, and tylosin to a commercial microporous activated carbon (AC) and its potassium hydroxide (KOH)-, CO-, and steam-treated counterparts (prepared by heating at 850°C) was studied to explore efficient adsorbents for the removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water. Phenol and nitrobenzene were included as additional adsorbates, and nonporous graphite was included as a model adsorbent. The activation treatments markedly increased the specific surface area and enlarged the pore sizes of the mesopores of AC (with the strongest effects shown on the KOH-treated AC). Adsorption of large-size tetracycline and tylosin was greatly enhanced, especially for the KOH-treated AC (more than one order of magnitude), probably due to the alleviated size-exclusion effect. However, the treatments had little effect on adsorption of low-size phenol and nitrobenzene due to the predominance of micropore-filling effect in adsorption and the nearly unaffected content of small micropores causative to such effect. These hypothesized mechanisms on pore-size dependent adsorption were further tested by comparing surface area-normalized adsorption data and adsorbent pore size distributions with and without the presence of adsorbed antibiotics. The findings indicate that efficient adsorption of bulky pharmaceuticals to AC can be achieved by enlarging the adsorbent pore size through suitable activation treatments. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Carbonation acceleration of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles: induced by yeast fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Zornoza-Indart, Ainara

    2015-09-01

    Carbonation of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles and consolidation of limestone are accelerated by high humidity and a yeast fermentation system that supplies a saturated atmosphere on CO2, H2O vapor and ethanol during 28 days. Nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analyses with thermogravimetry. Spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy analyses, and hydric and mechanical tests were also performed in stones specimens. Samples exposed to the yeast environment achieve 100 % relative CaCO3 yield, whereas at high humidity but without the yeast and under laboratory environment, relative yields of 95 % CaCO3 and 15 % CaCO3 are, respectively, reached, with white crusts and glazing left on the stone surfaces when the nanoparticles are applied at a concentration of 25 g/l. The largest increase in the drilling resistance and surface hardness values with slight increase in the capillarity absorption and desorption coefficients and with lesser stone color changes are produced at a concentration of 5 g/l, in the yeast system environment. This especially happens in stone specimens initially with bimodal pore size distributions, more amounts of pores with diameters between 0.1 and 1 µm, higher open porosity values and faster capillary coefficients. An inexpensive and reliable method based on water and yeast-sugar solution is presented to speed up carbonation of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles used as a consolidating product to improve the mechanical properties of decayed limestone from archaeological and architectural heritage.

  16. Protein Biosensors Based on Polymer Nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes and Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeksoo Ji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of biosensors using electrochemical methods is a promising application in the field of biotechnology. High sensitivity sensors for the bio-detection of proteins have been developed using several kinds of nanomaterials. The performance of the sensors depends on the type of nanostructures with which the biomaterials interact. One dimensional (1-D structures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanorods are proven to have high potential for bio-applications. In this paper we review these three different kinds of nanostructures that have attracted much attention at recent times with their great performance as biosensors. Materials such as polymers, carbon and zinc oxide have been widely used for the fabrication of nanostructures because of their enhanced performance in terms of sensitivity, biocompatibility, and ease of preparation. Thus we consider polymer nanowires, carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide nanorods for discussion in this paper. We consider three stages in the development of biosensors: (a fabrication of biomaterials into nanostructures, (b alignment of the nanostructures and (c immobilization of proteins. Two different methods by which the biosensors can be developed at each stage for all the three nanostructures are examined. Finally, we conclude by mentioning some of the major challenges faced by many researchers who seek to fabricate biosensors for real time applications.

  17. Novel polypropylene biocomposites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and hydroxyapatite nanorods for bone replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Cheng Zhu; Li, Kai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong, Hoi Man; Tong, Wing Yin; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok [Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Tjong, Sie Chin, E-mail: aptjong@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) of 0.1 and 0.3 wt.% and hydoxyapatite nanorods (nHAs) of 8–20 wt.% were incorporated into polypropylene (PP) to form biocomposites using melt-compounding and injection molding techniques. The structural, mechanical, thermal and in vitro cell responses of the PP/MWNT–nHA hybrids were investigated. Tensile and impact tests demonstrated that the MWNT additions are beneficial in enhancing the stiffness, tensile strength and impact toughness of the PP/nHA nanocomposites. According to thermal analysis, the nHA and MWNT fillers were found to be very effective to improve dimensional and thermal stability of PP. The results of osteoblast cell cultivation and dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) tests showed that the PP/MWNT–nHA nanocomposites are biocompatible. Such novel PP/MWNT–nHA hybrids are considered to be potential biomaterials for making orthopedic bone implants. - Highlights: ► Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA) are used as hybrid fillers to reinforce polypropylene. ► MWNT additions are beneficial in enhancing tensile strength and stiffness of PP/nHA composites. ► Hybridizing MWNT with nHA fillers enhance thermal and dimensional stability of PP significantly. ► Hybridizing MWNT with nHA greatly enhance osteoblast adhesion and proliferation. ► PP/MWNT–nHA composites show attractive applications as load-bearing materials in orthopedics.

  18. Growth of hybrid carbon nanostructures on iron-decorated ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuyisa, Puleng N.; Rigoni, Federica; Sangaletti, Luigi; Ponzoni, Stefano; Pagliara, Stefania; Goldoni, Andrea; Ndwandwe, Muzi; Cepek, Cinzia

    2016-04-01

    A novel carbon-based nanostructured material, which includes carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous carbon, nanostructured ZnO and Fe nanoparticles, has been synthetized using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of acetylene on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs). The deposition of Fe before the CVD process induces the presence of dense CNTs in addition to the variety of nanostructures already observed on the process done on the bare NRs, which range from amorphous graphitic carbon up to nanostructured dendritic carbon films, where the NRs are partially or completely etched. The combination of scanning electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy indicate that Fe enhances the ZnO etching, and that the CNT synthesis is favoured by the reduced Fe mobility due to the strong interaction between Fe and the NRs, and to the presence of many defects, formed during the CVD process. Our results demonstrate that the resulting new hybrid shows a higher sensitivity to ammonia gas at ambient conditions (∼60 ppb) than the carbon nanostructures obtained without the aid of Fe, the bare ZnO NRs, or other one-dimensional carbon nanostructures, making this system of potential interest for environmental ammonia monitoring. Finally, in view of the possible application in nanoscale optoelectronics, the photoexcited carrier behaviour in these hybrid systems has been characterized by time-resolved reflectivity measurements.

  19. Nano-rod Ca-decorated sludge derived carbon for removal of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingjun; Han, Meina; Shih, Kaimin; Su, Minhua; Diao, Zenghui; Long, Jianyou; Chen, Diyun; Hou, Li'an; Peng, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Recovering phosphorus (P) from waste streams takes the unique advantage in simultaneously addressing the crisis of eutrophication and the shortage of P resource. A novel calcium decorated sludge carbon (Ca-SC) was developed from dyeing industry wastewater treatment sludge by decorating calcium (Ca) to effectively adsorb phosphorus from solution. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used to characterize the Ca-SCs, followed by isotherm and kinetic sorption experiments. A preferred design with CaCO 3 to sludge mass ratio of 1:2 was found to have a sorption capacity of 116.82 mg/g for phosphorus. This work reveals the crucial role of well-dispersed nano-rod calcium on the Ca-SC surface for the sorption of phosphorus. Moreover, the decoration of nano-rod calcium was found to further promote the uptake of phosphorus through the formation of hydroxylapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH)). Thus, the development of decorated Ca-SC for sorption of phosphorus is very important in solving the P pollution and resource loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. One-step synthesis of N-doped activated carbon with controllable Ni nanorods for ethanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Wenjuan; Gao, Haiyan; Yu, Jianguo; Jia, Miaomiao; Dai, Tangming; Zhao, Yongnan; Xu, Jingjing; Li, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    N-doped activated carbons with controllable Ni nanorods (NiNC) catalysts were fabricated by a facile one-pot method for electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol. The effects of carbon source and Ni precursor for the different microstructures of the forming Ni are discussed in this work. The sucrose and chloride ion are the key factors for forming nanorod-like nickel catalyst. The sizes of Ni nanorods can be controlled by the reactant ratios and influence the catalytic performance for ethanol oxidation. The doped N atoms are also used to improve the catalytic performance for ethanol oxidation. The NiNC–3 catalyst with the proper content and size of Ni exhibits an improved catalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation with a 5 times current density and 16 times rate constant in comparison with the NiNC–1 catalysts. A current density of 47.5 mA cm −2 is generated on NiNC–3 electrode. Furthermore, current density retention of 80.7% suggests an excellent cyclic stability after 1500 cycle on the NiNC–3 electrode. All of these elevated performances can be attributed to the relatively uniform nanorods size, as well as the excellent electrical conductivity and stability of the carbon support.

  1. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Hackley, K.; Dagamac, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Schanche, G. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This research was an investigation of calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent, as a binder for coal fines. The reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, referred to as carbonation, was studied as a method for improving pellet quality. Carbonation forms a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate. Research has demonstrated that calcium hydroxide is a viable binder for coal fines and that a roller-and-die pellet mill is an effective method of pellet formation. From a minus 28 mesh preparation plant fine coal sample, a roller-and-die pellet mill produced strong pellets when 5 and 10% calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. The pellets containing 10% calcium hydroxide strengthened considerably when air cured. This increase in strength was attributed to carbonation via atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide were produced using an extruder but pellets formed in this manner were much weaker than pellets produced with the roller-and-die mill. In tests performed using a laboratory hydraulic press, the effect of particle size and compaction pressure on pellet strength was studied. Particle distributions with mean sizes of 200, 90 and 40 microns were tested. The results indicate that pellet strength increased with decreasing particle size and increasing compaction pressure when calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide increased in strength by approximately 40% when air dried for one day. As above, this increase in strength was attributed to carbonation of the calcium hydroxide via atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  2. Field emission from carbon nanotube bundle arrays grown on self-aligned ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun; Fang Guojia; Yuan Longyan; Liu Nishuang; Ai Lei; Xiang Qi; Zhao Dongshan; Pan Chunxu; Zhao Xingzhong

    2007-01-01

    The field emission (FE) properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle arrays grown on vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) are reported. The ZNRs were first synthesized on ZnO-seed-coated Si substrate by the vapour phase transport method, and then the radically grown CNTs were grown directly on the surface of the ZNRs from ethanol flames. The CNT/ZNR composite showed a turn-on field of 1.5 V μm -1 (at 0.1 μA cm -2 ), a threshold field of 4.5 V μm -1 (at 1 mA cm -2 ) and a stable emission current with fluctuations of 5%, demonstrating significantly enhanced FE of ZNRs due to the low work function and high aspect ratio of the CNTs, and large surface-to-volume ratio of the underlying ZNRs

  3. Effects of potassium hydroxide post-treatments on the field-emission properties of thermal chemical vapor deposited carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ying; Lee, Shih-Fong; Chang, Yung-Ping; Hsiao, Wei-Shao

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a simple potassium hydroxide treatment was applied to functionalize the surface and to modify the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on silicon substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry were employed to investigate the mechanism causing the modified field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes. From our experimental data, the emitted currents of carbon nanotubes after potassium hydroxide treatment are enhanced by more than one order of magnitude compared with those of untreated carbon nanotubes. The emitted current density of carbon nanotubes increases from 0.44 mA/cm2 to 7.92 mA/cm2 after 30 minutes KOH treatment. This technique provides a simple, economical, and effective way to enhance the field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes.

  4. Carbon coated Li4Ti5O12 nanorods as superior anode material for high rate lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hongjun; Shen, Laifa; Rui, Kun; Li, Hongsen; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel approach has been developed to fabricate 1D Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C nanorods by a wet-chemical route. •Carbon coating layer effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance electronic conductivity. •The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C nanorods exhibit remarkable rate capability and long cycle life. -- Abstract: We describe a novel approach for the synthesis of carbon coated Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C) nanorods for high rate lithium ion batteries. The carbon coated TiO 2 nanotubes using the glucose as carbon source are first synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The commercial anatase TiO 2 powder is immersed in KOH sulotion and subsequently transforms into Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C in LiOH solution under hydrothermal condition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and Raman spectra are performed to characterize their morphologies and structures. Compared with the pristine Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , one-dimensional (1D) Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C nanostructures show much better rate capability and cycling stability. The 1D Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C architectures effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance their electronic conductivity, enabling fast ion and electron transport

  5. Highly selective electrodeposition of sub-10 nm crystalline noble metallic nanorods inside vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuyang; Wang, Ranran; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yang, Zhaohui; Guo, Jun; Chen, Muzi; Tang, Minghua; Cheng, Yajun; Chu, Haibin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper crystalline noble metallic nanorods including Au and Ag with sub-10 nm diameter, are encapsulated within prealigned and open-ended multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through an electrodeposition method. As the external surface of CNTs has been insulated by the epoxy the CNT channel becomes the only path for the mass transport as well as the nanoreactor for the metal deposition. Highly crystallized Au and Ag2O nanorods parallel to the radial direction of CNTs are confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffraction spectroscopy. The Ag2O nanorods are formed by air oxidation on the Ag metals and show a single crystalline structure with (111) planes. The Au nanorods exhibit a complex crystalline structure including twin-crystal and lattice dislocation with (111) and (200) planes. These crystalline noble metallic nanostructures may have important applications for nanocatalysts for fuel cells as well as nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. This method is deemed to benefit the precise deposition of other crystalline nanostructures inside CNTs with a small diameter.

  6. Carbon dioxide absorbents containing potassium hydroxide produce much larger concentrations of compound A from sevoflurane in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakage, M; Yamada, S; Chen, X; Iwasaki, S; Tsujiguchi, N; Namiki, A

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the concentrations of degraded sevoflurane Compound A during low-flow anesthesia with four carbon dioxide (CO(2)) absorbents. The concentrations of Compound A, obtained from the inspiratory limb of the circle system, were measured by using a gas chromatograph. In the groups administered 2 L/min fresh gas flow with 1% sevoflurane, when the conventional CO(2) absorbents, Wakolime(TM) (Wako, Tokyo, Japan) and Drägersorb(TM) (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany), were used, the concentrations of Compound A increased steadily from a baseline to 14.3 ppm (mean) and 13.2 ppm, respectively, at 2 h after exposure to sevoflurane. In contrast, when the other novel types of absorbents containing decreased or no potassium hydroxide/sodium hydroxide, Medisorb(TM) (Datex-Ohmeda, Louisville, CO) and Amsorb(TM) (Armstrong, Coleraine, Northern Ireland), were used, Compound A remained at baseline (potassium hydroxide/sodium hydroxide produce much larger concentrations of Compound A from sevoflurane in clinical practice. An absorbent containing neither potassium hydroxide nor sodium hydroxide produces the smallest concentrations of Compound A.

  7. Facile synthesis of nanorod-type graphitic carbon nitride/Fe2O3 composite with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangpeng; Li, Changqing; Cong, Jingkun; Liu, Ziwei; Zhang, Hanzhuo; Liang, Mei; Gao, Junkuo; Wang, Shunli; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a facile synthesis of nanorod-type graphitic carbon nitride/Fe 2 O 3 composite (Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 ) by using Fe-melamine supramolecular framework as precursor. The chemical and optical properties of the nanocomposites are well-characterized. The Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposite demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activities under visible light due to the efficient utilization of sunlight and the construction of Z-scheme electron transfer pathway. The results indicated that it could be a promising approach for the preparation of efficient g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites photocatalysts by using metal-melamine supramolecular framework as precursors. - Graphical abstract: Nanorod-type graphitic carbon nitride/Fe 2 O 3 composite (Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 ) was synthesized by using Fe-melamine supramolecular framework as precursor. The Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposite demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activities under visible light. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nanorod-type graphitic carbon nitride/Fe 2 O 3 composite (Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 ) was synthesized. • Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 showed strong optical absorption in the visible-light region. • The Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposite demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activities.

  8. Improved electrochemical performance of porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon core/shell nanorods as an anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Q.Q.; Lu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, X.L., E-mail: wangxl@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Gu, C.D.; Qiao, Y.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Tu, J.P., E-mail: tujp@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C core/shell nanorods by a facile hydrothermal method using porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods as the precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorods are homogenously coated by an amorphous carbon layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorod electrode shows high capacity and good cycle stability, as well as enhanced rate performance. - Abstract: Porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C core/shell nanorods have been prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods as the precursor and glucose as the carbon source. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorods possess a uniform size with 50-80 nm in diameter and 300-500 nm in length, and are homogenously coated by amorphous carbon layer. The porous nanorods greatly increase the electrical contact, thus facilitating the Li-ion and electron transportation, and enhancing the reactivity of the electrode. Also, the carbon layer can effectively limit the volume expansion and detachment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and thus increase its structure stability during cycling. In the context of lithium storage behavior, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorod electrode shows high capacity and good cycle stability, as well as enhanced rate performance. After 50 cycles, the reversible capacity of the porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorods is 762.1 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.1 C and 597.2 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.5 C, much higher than that of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods (276.4 mAh g{sup -1}) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (307.9 mAh g{sup -1}). At a high rate of 1 C, the specific capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanorods is still as high as 630.1 mAh g{sup -1}.

  9. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  10. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamed.djebbi@etu.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Braiek, Mohamed [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Namour, Philippe [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Irstea, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  11. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  12. Ultrathin nickel hydroxide on carbon coated 3D-porous copper structures for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Ik-Hee; Ramadoss, Ananthakumar; Kim, Sun-I; Yoon, Jong-Chul; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2018-01-03

    An ultrathin nickel hydroxide layer electrodeposited on a carbon-coated three-dimensional porous copper structure (3D-C/Cu) is suggested as an additive and binder-free conductive electrode with short electron path distances, large electrochemical active sites, and improved structural stability, for high performance supercapacitors. The 3D-porous copper structure (3D-Cu) provides high electrical conductivity and facilitates electron transport between the Ni(OH) 2 active materials and the current collector of the Ni-plate. A carbon coating was applied to the 3D-Cu to prevent the oxidation of Cu, without degrading the electron transport behavior of the 3D-Cu. The 3D-Ni(OH) 2 /C/Cu exhibited a high specific capacitance of 1860 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , and good cycling performance, with an 86.5% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles. When tested in a two-electrode system, an asymmetric supercapacitor exhibited an energy density of 147.9 W h kg -1 and a power density of 37.0 kW kg -1 . These results open a new area of ultrahigh-performance supercapacitors, supported by 3D-Cu electrodes.

  13. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43 (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  14. Carbon-Coated Perovskite BaMnO3 Porous Nanorods with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Perporites for Oxygen Reduction and Oxygen Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yujiao; Tsou, Alvin; Fu, Yue; Wang, Jin; Tian, Jing-Hua; Yang, Ruizhi

    2015-01-01

    A thin carbon layer has been introduced to coat on the perovskite BaMnO 3 nanorods by a facile method, which exhibit significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for both the ORR and OER with excellent stability. - Highlights: • A non-rare-earth element based perovskite BaMnO 3 nanorods as an active electrocatalyst for the ORR and OER have been prepared and investigated for the first time. • A thin carbon-coating layer with thickness of approximately 10 nm has been successfully introduced to enhance the electrical conductivity and the electrocatalytic activities of the bare perovskite for both ORR and OER. • The stabilities of bare BaMnO 3 nanorods for both ORR and OER have also been improved dramatically with the help of carbon coating, especially for the OER process. - Abstract: Highly efficient, low-cost catalysts, especially with bifunctional electrocatalytic capabilities for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are vital for the wide commercialization of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. In this study, BaMnO 3 - a non-rare-earth element based perovskite nanorods have been prepared and investigated for the first time, and a thin carbon-coating with a thickness of approximately 10 nm has been successfully introduced to enhance the electrical conductivity of the bare perovskite. Electrochemical tests reveal that bare BaMnO 3 nanorods exhibit very good catalytic activity. More interestingly, a remarkably enhanced ORR activity for the perovskite BaMnO 3 nanorods was observed after coating with a thin layer of carbon, which dominated with a direct four-electron pathway. Meanwhile, the OER process has also been enhanced extraordinarily with the carbon-coating, reaching a maximum of 14.8 mA cm −2 at 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is far superior to both the bare BaMnO 3 nanorods and commercial Pt/C (20 wt%) catalysts. Furthermore, the stabilities of bare BaMnO 3 nanorods for both ORR and OER have also been improved

  15. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  16. Carbonate anion controlled growth of LiCoPO4/C nanorods and its improved electrochemical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangulibabu; Nallathamby, Kalaiselvi; Meyrick, Danielle; Minakshi, Manickam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbonate anion controlled growth of LiCoPO 4 nanorods has been prepared. ► Mixture of H 2 CO 3 + (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 increases the CO 3 2− concentration and acts as an effective growth inhibitor. ► Heating the carbonate rich precursor in an inert atmosphere produces a Co 2 P phase that is conductive. ► Addition of super P carbon resulted in an amorphous carbon coating on LiCoPO 4 particles. ► LiCoPO 4 /C nanorods with a co-existence of Co 2 P exhibit excellent discharge capacity with retention on multiple cycling. -- Abstract: LiCoPO 4 /C nanocomposite with growth controlled by carbonate anions was synthesized via a unique solid-state fusion method. Carbonate anions in the form of H 2 CO 3 or a mixture of H 2 CO 3 + (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 have been used as a growth inhibiting modifier to produce morphology controlled lithium cobalt phosphate. The presence of cobalt phosphide (Co 2 P) as a second phase improved the conductivity and electrochemical properties of the parent LiCoPO 4. The formation of Co 2 P is found to be achievable only in an inert atmosphere. Super P ® carbon (10 wt.%) provided an adherent carbon coating on pristine LiCoPO 4 resulting in the LiCoPO 4 /C composite cathode. This electrode exhibited enhanced electrochemical properties: capacity of 123 mAh g −1 with excellent capacity retention of 89% after 30 cycles, and reasonable rate capability of up to 5 C rate. The synergistic effect of carbonate anions and formation of Co 2 P under inert atmosphere has influenced the electrochemical behavior of LiCoPO 4 /C cathode through controlling the morphology and increasing the conductivity

  17. Coating magnesium hydroxide on surface of carbon microspheres and interface binding with poly (ethylene terephthalate) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Baoxia [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Niu, Mei, E-mail: niumei@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Yang, Yongzhen, E-mail: yyztyut@126.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Bai, Jie; Song, Yinghao; Peng, Yun [College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Liu, Xuguang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Magnesium hydroxide (MH) as a capsule wall was firstly coated on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) to obtain MH@CMSs by liquid phase deposition method. • An organic layer of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was then introduced on the surface of MH@CMSs. • The formed two layers provided the FMH@CMSs/PET with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties. - Abstract: In this account, magnesium hydroxide (MH) employed as a capsule wall was firstly coated on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) to obtain MH@CMSs using liquid phase deposition, then was modified by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to form FMH@CMSs. To investigate the interface binding forces, a series of PET composites was prepared by melt compounding with MH@CMSs or FMH@CMSs. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, chemical structure, and effect of functionalization of CMSs. The coating degree and thermal stability were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis. The results showed that CMSs were coated by an inorganic shell layer of MH as a capsule wall. On the other hand, MH@CMSs were coated with an organic layer of APTS. When compared to MH@CMSs, the interface binding forces between FMH@CMSs and PET matrix were significantly improved, and the tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET was higher than that of MH@CMSs/PET. At 1 wt% mass fraction of FMH@CMSs, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of PET composites increased from 21% to 27.6% following a V-0 rating. The tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET increased by 66.2% to reach 47.20 MPa, a value nearly similar to that of PET. Overall, the formed two layers provided the FMH@CMSs/PET with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties, which would broaden their scope of application.

  18. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Martin; Kim, Jung Sub; Choi, Jeong-Gil; Lee, Joong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores

  19. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Martin [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Sub [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Gil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hannam University, 461-1 Junmin-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores.

  20. Cadmium hydroxide nanowire loaded on activated carbon as efficient adsorbent for removal of Bromocresol Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Khajesharifi, Habibollah; Hemmati Yadkuri, Amin; Roosta, Mostafa; Sahraei, Reza; Daneshfar, Ali

    2012-02-01

    In the present research, cadmium hydroxide nanowire loaded on activated carbon (Cd(OH) 2-NW-AC) was synthesized and characterized. This new adsorbent was applied for the removal of Bromocresol Green (BCG) molecules from aqueous solutions. The influence of effective variables such as solution pH, contact time, initial BCG concentration, amount of Cd(OH) 2-NW-AC and temperature on the adsorption efficiency of BCG in batch system was examined. During all experiments BCG contents were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Fitting the experimental data to different kinetic models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models show the suitability of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model to interpret in the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherm studies were examined by application of different conventional models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin models to explain the experimental data. Based on considering R2 value as criterion the adsorption data well fitted to Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 108.7 mg g -1. Thermodynamic parameters (Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy) of adsorption were calculated according to general procedure to take some information about the on-going adsorption process. The high negative value of Gibb's free energy and positive value of enthalpy show the feasibility and endothermic nature of adsorption process.

  1. Fabrication and Corrosion Resistance of Superhydrophobic Hydroxide Zinc Carbonate Film on Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate (HZC films were fabricated on aluminum substrate through a convenient in situ deposition process. Firstly, HZC films with different morphologies were deposited on aluminum substrates through immersing the aluminum substrates perpendicularly into aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate hexahydrate and urea. Secondly, the films were then modified with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS: CH3(CF26(CH23Si(OCH33 molecules by immersing in absolute ethanol solution containing FAS. The morphologies, hydrophobicity, chemical compositions, and bonding states of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, water contact angle measurement (CA, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, respectively. It was shown by surface morphological observation that HZC films displayed different microstructures such as microporous structure, rose petal-like structure, block-shaped structure, and pinecone-like structure by altering the deposition condition. A highest water contact angle of 156.2° was obtained after FAS modification. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum substrate was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The EIS measurements’ results revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  2. Enhancing the Lithium Storage Performance of Graphene/SnO2 Nanorods by a Carbon-Riveting Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianghong; Ma, Tiantian; Sun, Li; Xu, Yongshan; Zhang, Jun; Pinna, Nicola

    2018-04-25

    Graphene/metal oxide (MO) nanocomposites hold great promise for application as anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the restacking of graphene during subsequent processing remains a challenge to overcome for enhanced lithium storage properties. Herein, the fabrication of sandwich-architecture carbon-riveted graphene/SnO 2 nanorods, in which the SnO 2 nanorods are confined in the nanospaces formed by the carbon layers on graphene, by a two-step hydrothermal process followed by thermal treatment, is reported. Electrochemical tests show that the carbon-riveted nanolayers significantly improve the lithium storage performance of graphene/SnO 2 . The nanocomposite displays a high reversible capacity of 815 mAh g -1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g -1 and high cycling stability at 1000 mA g -1 . This work provides an efficient way to manipulate graphene/MO-based nanocomposites for LIBs with improved performance. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Study of Activated Carbons by Pyrolysis of Mangifera Indica Seed (Mango in Presence of Sodium and Potassium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Moreno-Piraján

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared by pyrolysis of seeds mango in presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide (chemical activities. Seeds mango from Colombian Mango cultives were impregnated with aqueous solutions of NaOH and KOH following a variant of the incipient wetness method. Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios of 3:1 (weight terms. Activation was carried out under argon flow by heating to 823 K with 1 h soaking time. The porous texture of the obtained ACs was characterized by physical adsorptions of N2 at 77 K and CO2 at 273 K. The impregnation ration and hydroxide type had a strong influence on the pore structure of these ACs, which could be easily controlled by simply varying the proportion of the hydroxides used in the activation. Thus, the development of porosity for precursors with low structural order (high reactivity is better with NaOH than KOH, whereas the opposite is observed for the highly ordered ones. Variable adsorption capacities and porosity distributions can be achieved depending on the activating agent selected. In general, KOH produces activated carbons with narrower micropore distributions than those prepared by NaOH.

  4. Influence of carbonate intercalation in the surface-charging behavior of Zn-Cr layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, R., E-mail: rrojas@mail.fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Barriga, C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); De Pauli, C.P. [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Avena, M.J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    The influence of interlayer composition in the surface charge and reactivity of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been explored. With this purpose, a chloride-intercalated Zn-Cr-LDH has been synthesized by the constant pH coprecipitation method and afterwards exchanged with carbonate to obtain solids with different Cl{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ratios. The solids structure has been characterized by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, while its surface-charging behavior and reactivity have been studied by acid-base potentiometric titrations and electrophoretic mobility determinations. The chloride-intercalated sample shows an increasing hydroxyl adsorption with increasing pH and decreasing support electrolyte concentration and the particles present positive electrophoretic mobility in the measured pH range. As carbonate content increases in the samples, the total OH{sup -} uptake diminishes and the samples show an isoelectric point at pH around 10. When the gallery is totally occupied by carbonate anions, the OH uptake vs. pH curves registered at different electrolyte concentrations merge at around pH 10. A LDH-water interface model has been used to give an interpretation to the experimental data. The model indicates that as carbonate content increases, the sample behavior becomes similar to that of a metal (hydr)oxide and that surface (bi)carbonate anions undergo acid-base reactions.

  5. Influence of carbonate intercalation in the surface-charging behavior of Zn-Cr layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, R.; Barriga, C.; De Pauli, C.P.; Avena, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of interlayer composition in the surface charge and reactivity of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been explored. With this purpose, a chloride-intercalated Zn-Cr-LDH has been synthesized by the constant pH coprecipitation method and afterwards exchanged with carbonate to obtain solids with different Cl - /CO 3 2- ratios. The solids structure has been characterized by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, while its surface-charging behavior and reactivity have been studied by acid-base potentiometric titrations and electrophoretic mobility determinations. The chloride-intercalated sample shows an increasing hydroxyl adsorption with increasing pH and decreasing support electrolyte concentration and the particles present positive electrophoretic mobility in the measured pH range. As carbonate content increases in the samples, the total OH - uptake diminishes and the samples show an isoelectric point at pH around 10. When the gallery is totally occupied by carbonate anions, the OH uptake vs. pH curves registered at different electrolyte concentrations merge at around pH 10. A LDH-water interface model has been used to give an interpretation to the experimental data. The model indicates that as carbonate content increases, the sample behavior becomes similar to that of a metal (hydr)oxide and that surface (bi)carbonate anions undergo acid-base reactions.

  6. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  7. Technological aspects in fabrication of micro- and nano-sized carbon based features: nanorods, periodical arrays and self-standing membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ižák, Tibor; Domonkos, Mária; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Rezek, Bohuslav; Jurka, Vlastimil; Hruška, Karel; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2015), s. 282-286 ISSN 0013-578X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond * carbon * nanorods * microsphere lithography * selective area deposition * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Synthetic Applications and Mechanistic Studies of the Hydroxide-Mediated Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Andrea; Makarov, Ilya S.; Fristrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The hydroxide-mediated cleavage of ketones into alkanes and carboxylic acids has been reinvestigated and the substrate scope extended to benzyl carbonyl compounds. The transformation is performed with a 0.05 M ketone solution in refluxing xylene in the presence of 10 equiv of potassium hydroxide....... The studies were complemented by a theoretical investigation where two possible pathways were characterized by DFT/M06-2X. The calculations showed that the scission takes place by nucleophilic attack of hydroxide on the ketone followed by fragmentation of the resulting oxyanion into the carboxylic acid...

  9. A study of the electro-catalytic oxidation of methanol on a cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, M.; Mahjani, M.G.; Heli, H.; Gobal, F.; Khajehsharifi, H.; Hamedi, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrodes (CHM/GC) prepared by the anodic deposition in presence of tartrate ions have been used for the electro-catalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline solutions where the methods of cyclic voltammetery (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) have been employed. In CV studies, in the presence of methanol the peak current of the oxidation of cobalt hydroxide increase is followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This suggests that the oxidation of methanol is being catalysed through the mediated electron transfer across the cobalt hydroxide layer comprising of cobalt ions of various valence states. A mechanism based on the electro-chemical generation of Co(IV) active sites and their subsequent consumptions by methanol have been discussed and the corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer has been developed and kinetic parameters have been derived. In this context the charge transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through the IS studies have been used as a criteria. Under the CA regimes the reaction followed a Cottrellian behaviour

  10. An enzymatic glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with cylinder-shaped titanium dioxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhanjun; Xu, Youbao; Li, Juan; Jian, Zhiqin; Yu, Suhua; Zhang, Yongcai; Hu, Xiaoya; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive electrochemical enzymatic glucose biosensor. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with cylinder-shaped titanium dioxide nanorods (TiO 2 -NRs) for the immobilization of glucose oxidase. The modified nanorods and the enzyme biosensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The glucose oxidase on the TiO 2 -NRs displays a high activity and undergoes fast surface-controlled electron transfer. A pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks was observed at −0.394 and −0.450 V. The TiO 2 -NRs provide a good microenvironment to facilitate the direct electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. The biosensor has two linear response ranges, viz. from 2.0 to 52 μM, and 0.052 to 2.3 mM. The lower detection limit is 0.5 μM, and the sensitivity is 68.58 mA M −1 cm −2 . The glucose biosensor is selective, well reproducible, and stable. In our perception, the cylindrically shaped TiO 2 -NRs provide a promising support for the immobilization of proteins and pave the way to the development of high-performance biosensors. (author)

  11. Synthetic Applications and Mechanistic Studies of the Hydroxide-Mediated Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Andrea; Makarov, Ilya S.; Fristrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The hydroxide-mediated cleavage of ketones into alkanes and carboxylic acids has been reinvestigated and the substrate scope extended to benzyl carbonyl compounds. The transformation is performed with a 0.05 M ketone solution in refluxing xylene in the presence of 10 equiv of potassium hydroxide....... The reaction constitutes a straightforward protocol for the synthesis of certain phenyl-substituted carboxylic acids from 2-phenylcycloalkanones. The mechanism was investigated by kinetic experiments which indicated a first order reaction in hydroxide and a full negative charge in the rate-determining step....... The studies were complemented by a theoretical investigation where two possible pathways were characterized by DFT/M06-2X. The calculations showed that the scission takes place by nucleophilic attack of hydroxide on the ketone followed by fragmentation of the resulting oxyanion into the carboxylic acid...

  12. Synthetic Applications and Mechanistic Studies of the Hydroxide-Mediated Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotta, Andrea; Makarov, Ilya S; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Robert

    2017-06-02

    The hydroxide-mediated cleavage of ketones into alkanes and carboxylic acids has been reinvestigated and the substrate scope extended to benzyl carbonyl compounds. The transformation is performed with a 0.05 M ketone solution in refluxing xylene in the presence of 10 equiv of potassium hydroxide. The reaction constitutes a straightforward protocol for the synthesis of certain phenyl-substituted carboxylic acids from 2-phenylcycloalkanones. The mechanism was investigated by kinetic experiments which indicated a first order reaction in hydroxide and a full negative charge in the rate-determining step. The studies were complemented by a theoretical investigation where two possible pathways were characterized by DFT/M06-2X. The calculations showed that the scission takes place by nucleophilic attack of hydroxide on the ketone followed by fragmentation of the resulting oxyanion into the carboxylic acid and a benzyl anion.

  13. The effectiveness of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) on the impurities removal of saturated salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, C.; Ngatilah, Y.; Sumada, K.; Muljani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the quality of salt can be done through various methods such as washing (hydro-extraction), re-crystallization, ion exchange methods and others. In the process of salt quality improvement by re-crystallization method where salt product diluted with water to form saturated solution and re-crystallized through heating process. The quality of the salt produced is influenced by the quality of the dissolved salt and the crystallization mechanism applied. In this research is proposed a concept that before the saturated salt solution is recrystallized added a chemical for removal of the impurities such as magnesium ion (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4) is contained in a saturated salt solution. The chemical reagents that used are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 2 N and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 2 N. This research aims to study effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the impurities removal of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4). The results showed that the addition of sodium hydroxide solution can be decreased the impurity ions of magnesium (Mg) 95.2%, calcium ion (Ca) 45%, while the addition of sodium carbonate solution can decreased magnesium ion (Mg) 66.67% and calcium ion (Ca) 77.5%, but both types of materials are not degradable sulfate ions (SO4). The sodium hydroxide solution more effective to decrease magnesium ion than sodium carbonate solution, and the sodium carbonate solution more effective to decrease calcium ion than sodium hydroxide solution.

  14. Amperometric sensor for detection of bisphenol A using a pencil graphite electrode modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poorahong, S.; Thammakhet, C.; Numnuam, A.; Kanatharana, P.; Thavarungkul, P.; Limbut, W.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a simple and highly sensitive amperometric method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) using pencil graphite electrodes modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified electrodes display enhanced electroactivity for the oxidation of BPA compared to the unmodified pencil graphite electrode. Under optimized conditions, the sensor has a linear response to BPA in the 1. 0 and 400 μM concentration range, with a limit of detection of 10 nM (at S/N = 3). The modified electrode also has a remarkably stable response, and up to 95 injections are possible with a relative standard deviation of 4. 2% at 100 μM of BPA. Recoveries range from 86 to 102% for boiling water spiked with BPA from four brands of baby bottles. (author)

  15. Assembling gold nanorods on a poly-cysteine modified glassy carbon electrode strongly enhance the electrochemical response to tetrabromobisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanying; Liu, Guishen; Hou, Xiaodong; Huang, Yina; Li, Chunya; Wu, Kangbing

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine (Cys) was electrochemically deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry. The poly-Cys modified electrode was placed in a solution of gold nanorods (GNRs) to induced self-assembly of the GNRs. The GNRs/poly-Cys/GCEs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A voltammetric study on tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) with this GCE showed the current response to be enhanced by a factor of 11 compared to a non-modified GCE. Based on these findings, a square wave voltammetric assay was worked out. Under optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and TBBPA is found for the 10 nM to 10 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 3.2 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of TBBPA in spiked tap water and lake water samples. (author)

  16. Metal-Organic Framework Derived Iron Sulfide-Carbon Core-Shell Nanorods as a Conversion-Type Battery Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Shuo; Cao, Xianyi

    2017-01-01

    of a redox conversion-type lithium-ion battery, this composite material has demonstrated high lithium-ion storage capacity at 1148 mA h g-1 under the current rate of 500 mA g-1 for 170 cycles and an impressive rate-retention capability at 657 mA h g-1 with a current density of 2000 mA g-1. On the basis......We report the design and nanoengineering of carbon-film-coated iron sulfide nanorods (C@Fe7S8) as an advanced conversion-type lithium-ion storage material. The structural advantages of the iron-based metal-organic framework (MIL-88-Fe) as both a sacrificed template and a precursor are explored...

  17. Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based upon Co9S8 nanorod//Co3O4@RuO2 nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Qiufan; Wang, Xiaowei; Xiang, Qingyi; Liang, Bo; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-06-25

    We have successfully fabricated flexible asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on acicular Co9S8 nanorod arrays as positive materials and Co3O4@RuO2 nanosheet arrays as negative materials on woven carbon fabrics. Co9S8 nanorod arrays were synthesized by a hydrothermal sulfuration treatment of acicular Co3O4 nanorod arrays, while the RuO2 was directly deposited on the Co3O4 nanorod arrays. Carbon cloth was selected as both the substrate and the current collector for its good conductivity, high flexibility, good physical strength, and lightweight architecture. Both aqueous KOH solutions and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/KOH were employed as electrolyte for electrochemical measurements. The as-fabricated ASCs can be cycled reversibly in the range of 0-1.6 V and exhibit superior electrochemical performance with an energy density of 1.21 mWh/cm(3) at a power density of 13.29 W/cm(3) in aqueous electrolyte and an energy density of 1.44 mWh/cm(3) at the power density of 0.89 W/cm(3) in solid-state electrolyte, which are almost 10-fold higher than those reported in early ASC work. Moreover, they present excellent cycling performance at multirate currents and large currents after thousands of cycles. The high-performance nanostructured ASCs have significant potential applications in portable electronics and electrical vehicles.

  18. Preparation and investigation of ion exchange properties of sorbent based on activated carbon BAU and zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.A.; Semenov, M.I.; Taushkanov, V.P.; Andronov, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The method of obtaining the sorbent based on the activated carbon and zirconium hydroxide, performed by carbon soaking by zirconium salt solution, hydrolytic decomposition, being in salt pores by ammonia solution and drying of the obtained sorbet in the air at the temperature of 105-115 deg. The kinetic characteristics of the obtained sorbent in the wide range of pH value of solutions are studied; sodium, chloride, fluoride and phosphate ion sorbtion taken as examples. A high selectivity of the sorbent to phosphate and fluoride ions has been established. The usefullness of the obtained sorbent for extraction of phosphorus microquantities from 1M sodium chloride solution and its concentration at the elution stage is shown

  19. Volumetric determination of hydroxide, aluminate, and carbonate in alkaline solutions of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.

    1975-06-01

    An integrated procedure was developed for determining OH - , Al(OH) 4 - , and CO 3 2- in alkaline nuclear waste. The free alkali, the hydroxide released when Al(OH) 3 is complexed with oxalate, and the precipitated BaCO 3 were determined by acidimetric titration. With a 50-μl sample, the relative standard deviations were 1 to 2 percent for nonradioactive test solutions and 2 to 5 percent for radioactive process solutions. (U.S.)

  20. Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  1. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  2. Phase-controlled synthesis of α-NiS nanoparticles confined in carbon nanorods for High Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chencheng; Ma, Mingze; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yufei; Chen, Peng; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2014-11-01

    A facile and phase-controlled synthesis of α-NiS nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in carbon nanorods (CRs) is reported by in-situ sulfurating the preformed Ni/CRs. The nanopore confinement by the carbon matrix is essential for the formation of α-NiS and preventing its transition to β-phase, which is in strong contrast to large aggregated β-NiS particles grown freely without the confinement of CRs. When used as electrochemical electrode, the hybrid electrochemical charge storage of the ultrasmall α-NiS nanoparticels dispersed in CRs is benefit for the high capacitor (1092, 946, 835, 740 F g-1 at current densities of 1, 2, 5, 10 A g-1, respectively.). While the high electrochemical stability (approximately 100% retention of specific capacitance after 2000 charge/discharge cycles) is attributed to the supercapacitor-battery electrode, which makes synergistic effect of capacitor (CRs) and battery (NiS NPs) components rather than a merely additive composite. This work not only suggests a general approach for phase-controlled synthesis of nickel sulfide but also opens the door to the rational design and fabrication of novel nickel-based/carbon hybrid supercapacitor-battery electrode materials.

  3. Effect of potassium hydroxide activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li

    2018-03-01

    Series sludge straw-based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons was studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that when the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw, and KOH was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacities, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times, respectively, those of samples prepared by the nonactivated raw materials. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reducing the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both have great production and wide distribution and are readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by these processes. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceeding with the study of preparing activated carbon by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economic, and environmental benefits.

  4. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China); Liu Yinping [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. > This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. > This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 {mu}M and with a detection limit of 0.5 {mu}M. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  5. Electro-oxidation nitrite based on copper calcined layered double hydroxide and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lin; Meng Xiaomeng; Xu Minrong; Shang Kun; Ai Shiyun; Liu Yinping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A nitrite sensor fabricated based on copper calcined layered double hydroxides and gold nanoparticles modified electrode. → This sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation to nitrite. → This nitrite sensor exhibited very good analytical performance with low cost, convenient preparation and rapid detection. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel nitrite sensor was constructed based on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a copper calcined layered double hydroxide (Cu-CLDH) modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical experiments showed that AuNPs/CLDH composite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity with nitrite due to the synergistic effect of the Cu-CLDH with AuNPs. The fabricated sensor exhibited excellent performance for nitrite detection within a wide concentration interval of 1-191 μM and with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The superior electrocatalytic response to nitrite was mainly attributed to the large surface area, minimized diffusion resistance, and enhanced electron transfer of the Cu-CLDH and AuNPs composition film. This platform offers a novel route for nitrite sensing with wide analytical applications and will supply the practical applications for a variety of simple, robust, and easy-to-manufacture analytical approaches in the future.

  6. Growth and structure of carbide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieber, C.M.; Wong, E.W.; Dai, H.; Maynor, B.W.; Burns, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on the growth and structure of carbide nanorods is reviewed. Carbide nanorods have been prepared by reacting carbon nanotubes with volatile transition metal and main group oxides and halides. Using this approach it has been possible to obtain solid carbide nanorods of TiC, SiC, NbC, Fe 3 C, and BC x having diameters between 2 and 30 nm and lengths up to 20 microm. Structural studies of single crystal TiC nanorods obtained through reactions of TiO with carbon nanotubes show that the nanorods grow along both [110] and [111] directions, and that the rods can exhibit either smooth or saw-tooth morphologies. Crystalline SiC nanorods have been produced from reactions of carbon nanotubes with SiO and Si-iodine reactants. The preferred growth direction of these nanorods is [111], although at low reaction temperatures rods with [100] growth axes are also observed. The growth mechanisms leading to these novel nanomaterials have also been addressed. Temperature dependent growth studies of TiC nanorods produced using a Ti-iodine reactant have provided definitive proof for a template or topotactic growth mechanism, and furthermore, have yielded new TiC nanotube materials. Investigations of the growth of SiC nanorods show that in some cases a catalytic mechanism may also be operable. Future research directions and applications of these new carbide nanorod materials are discussed

  7. A comparative study of Ni-Mn layered double hydroxide/carbon composites with different morphologies for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Liu, F; Zhang, X B; Cheng, J P

    2016-11-02

    A variety of carbon materials varying from 0D to 2D, i.e. 0D nanoparticles, 1D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are selected to in situ combine with Ni-Mn layered double hydroxide (LDH) to prepare electrode materials for supercapacitors. Through a simple solution method, hierarchical Ni-Mn LDH/carbon composites can be easily fabricated. A comparative study is carried out on the sandwich-like LDH/rGO, flower-like LDH/carbon black, turbostratic-structured LDH/CNTs and ternary LDH/CNTs/rGO for their structure, morphology, porous properties and electrochemical performances. The results show that the ternary Ni-Mn LDH/CNTs/rGO composite yields the highest specific capacitance of 1268 F g -1 in 2 M KOH electrolyte and a long lifespan, exhibiting great potential for supercapacitor applications. Meanwhile, investigation on the influence of the cation species of MOH (M = Li + , Na + or K + ) and the alkali concentration of the KOH electrolyte illustrates that increasing the concentration of the KOH electrolyte can benefit the capacitive performance of the electrode and that NaOH shows great advantages as an electrolyte for the Ni-Mn LDH/CNTs/rGO electrode due to its high capacitance and small resistance.

  8. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich single-walled carbon nanotubes from perpendicular layered double hydroxide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-04-07

    Direct bulk growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with required properties, such as diameter, length, and chirality, is the first step to realize their advanced applications in electrical and optical devices, transparent conductive films, and high-performance field-effect transistors. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich SWCNTs is a great challenge to the carbon nanotube community. We report the bulk preferential growth of short aligned SWCNTs from perpendicular Mo-containing FeMgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) film by a facile thermal chemical vapor deposition with CH(4) as carbon source. The growth of the short aligned SWCNTs showed a decreased growth velocity with an initial value of 1.9 nm s(-1). Such a low growth velocity made it possible to get aligned SWCNTs shorter than 1 μm with a growth duration less than 15 min. Raman spectra with different excitation wavelengths indicated that the as-grown short aligned SWCNTs showed high selectivity of metallic SWCNTs. Various kinds of materials, such as mica, quartz, Cu foil, and carbon fiber, can serve as the substrates for the growth of perpendicular FeMoMgAl LDH films and also the growth of the short aligned SWCNTs subsequently. These findings highlight the easy route for bulk preferential growth of aligned metallic-rich SWCNTs with well defined length for further bulk characterization and applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Palladium nanoparticles supported on layered hydroxide salts and their use in carbon-carbon coupling organic reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez,Maby; Ocampo,Rogelio; Rios,Luz Amalia; Ramírez,Alfonso; Giraldo,Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles supported on zinc hydroxide salts were prepared by intercalation of [PdCl6]2- and its further reduction with ethanol under reflux. All the materials were completely characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/derivative thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis confirmed that the palladium nanoparticles we...

  10. Kinetic analysis of anionic surfactant adsorption from aqueous solution onto activated carbon and layered double hydroxide with the zero length column method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, N.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Euverink, G.J.W.; de Haan, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Low cost adsorption technology offers high potential to clean-up laundry rinsing water. From an earlier selection of adsorbents, layered double hydroxide (LDH) and granular activated carbon (GAC) proved to be interesting materials for the removal of anionic surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol over a carbon paste electrode modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez F, D.; Palomar P, M.; Licona S, T. de J.; Romero R, M.; Valente, Jaime S.

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented on the electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol (4cp) in aqueous solution using a bare carbon paste electrode, Cpe, and another one that was modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The electro-oxidation was effected at ph values ranging from 3 up to 11. It was found through cyclic voltammetry that this process was irreversible, namely, there were no reduction peaks, and that depending on the nature of the electrode, the anodic current was limited either by adsorption (Cpe) or diffusion (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The energy required and the oxidation reaction rate depended on the ph and on the nature of the electrode, such that the greater rates were obtained when the Cpe/Zn Al-LDH electrode and acid ph were used. The Zn Al-LDH was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  12. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  13. The preparation of layered double hydroxide wrapped carbon nanotubes and their application as a flame retardant for polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Baoxian; Fang Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) wrapped with layered double hydroxide (LDH-w-CNTs) were facilely obtained through in situ introduction of CNTs into the hydrothermal reaction system of LDH, with the goal of combining their unique physical and chemical characteristics to meet new advanced applications. Morphological observations indicated that LDH lamellae enwrapped the surface of CNTs and the wrapping degree was dependent on the functionalization of CNTs. ζ-potential measurements showed that the interaction between the positive charge of LDH and the negative charge of CNTs was the main driving force of the wrapping process. Both hybrids led to a reduction in the peak heat release rate (PHRR) of polypropylene, indicating that they could confer better flame retardancy on polypropylene with respect to LDH and CNTs.

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol over a carbon paste electrode modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez F, D.; Palomar P, M.; Licona S, T. de J.; Romero R, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central No. 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    A study is presented on the electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol (4cp) in aqueous solution using a bare carbon paste electrode, Cpe, and another one that was modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The electro-oxidation was effected at ph values ranging from 3 up to 11. It was found through cyclic voltammetry that this process was irreversible, namely, there were no reduction peaks, and that depending on the nature of the electrode, the anodic current was limited either by adsorption (Cpe) or diffusion (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The energy required and the oxidation reaction rate depended on the ph and on the nature of the electrode, such that the greater rates were obtained when the Cpe/Zn Al-LDH electrode and acid ph were used. The Zn Al-LDH was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  15. Confinement of carbon dots localizing to the ultrathin layered double hydroxides toward simultaneous triple-mode bioimaging and photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yangziwan; Guan, Shanyue; Lu, Heng; Meng, Xiangmin; Kaassis, Abdessamad Y; Ren, Xiaoxue; Qu, Xiaozhong; Sun, Chenghua; Xie, Zheng; Zhou, Shuyun

    2018-07-01

    It is a great challenge to develop multifunctional nanocarriers for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, versatile CDs/ICG-uLDHs nanovehicles for triple-modal fluorescence/photoacoustic/two-photon bioimaging and effective photothermal therapy were prepared via a facile self-assembly of red emission carbon dots (CDs), indocyanine green (ICG) with the ultrathin layered double hydroxides (uLDHs). Due to the J-aggregates of ICG constructed in the self-assembly process, CDs/ICG-uLDHs was able to stabilize the photothermal agent ICG and enhanced its photothermal efficiency. Furthermore, the unique confinement effect of uLDHs has extended the fluorescence lifetime of CDs in favor of bioimaging. Considering the excellent in vitro and in vivo phototherapeutics and multimodal imaging effects, this work provides a promising platform for the construction of multifunctional theranostic nanocarrier system for the cancer treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polyhedral-Like NiMn-Layered Double Hydroxide/Porous Carbon as Electrode for Enhanced Electrochemical Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Liu, Ruili; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei; Ma, Yuxiao

    2017-11-01

    Polyhedral-like NiMn-layered double hydroxide/porous carbon (NiMn-LDH/PC-x) composites are successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method (x = 1, 2 means different mass percent of porous carbon (PC) in composites). The NiMn-LDH/PC-1 composites possess specific capacitance 1634 F g -1 at a current density of 1 A g -1 , and it is much better than that of pure LDH (1095 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 ). Besides, the sample can retain 84.58% of original capacitance after 3000 cycles at 15 A g -1 . An asymmetric supercapacitor with NiMn-LDH/PC-1 as anode and activated carbon as cathode is fabricated, and the supercapacitor can achieve an energy density of 18.60 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 225.03 W kg -1 . The enhanced electrochemical performance attributes to the high faradaic pseudocapacitance of NiMn-LDH, the introduction of PC, and the 3D porous structure of LDH/PC-1 composites. The introduction of PC hinders serious agglomeration of LDH and further accelerates ions transport. The encouraging results indicate that these materials are one of the most potential candidates for energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Controlled Growth of NiCo2O4 Nanorods and Ultrathin Nanosheets on Carbon Nanofibers for High-performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genqiang; (David) Lou, Xiong Wen

    2013-01-01

    Two one-dimensional hierarchical hybrid nanostructures composed of NiCo2O4 nanorods and ultrathin nanosheets on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are controllably synthesized through facile solution methods combined with a simple thermal treatment. The structure of NiCo2O4 can be easily controlled to be nanorods or nanosheets by using different additives in the synthesis. These two different nanostructures are evaluated as electrodes for high performance supercapacitors, in view of their apparent advantages, such as high electroactive surface area, ultrathin and porous features, robust mechanical strength, shorter ion and electron transport path. Their electrochemical performance is systematically studied, and both of these two hierarchical hybrid nanostructures exhibit high capacitance and excellent cycling stability. The remarkable electrochemical performance will undoubtedly make these hybrid structures attractive for high-performance supercapacitors with high power and energy densities. PMID:23503561

  18. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin using an ionic liquid-modified carbon paste electrode coated with Co3O4 nanorods and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; You, Zheng; Sha, Hailiang; Gong, Shixing; Niu, Qingjuan; Sun, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A nanohybrid biomaterial was fabricated by mixing Co 3 O 4 nanorods, gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) and myoglobin (Mb), and depositing it on the surface of a carbon paste electrode containing the ionic liquid N-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate as the binder. UV–vis and FT-IR revealed the Mb in the composite film to have remained in its native structure. A pair of well-defined redox peaks appears in cyclic voltammograms and indicates direct electron transfer from the Mb to the underlying electrode. The results are attributed to the favorable orientation of Mb in the composite film, to the synergistic effects of Co 3 O 4 nanorods and Au-NPs. The modified electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic ability towards the reduction of substrates such as trichloroacetic acid and nitrite, and displays good stability and reproducibility. (author)

  19. Preparation and Lithium-Storage Performance of a Novel Hierarchical Porous Carbon from Sucrose Using Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides as Template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Liluo; Chen, Yaxin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Ang; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Ma, Zhaokun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hierarchical porous carbon containing slit-shaped mesopores and 3D carbon nanosheets were prepared using Mg-Al layered double hydroxides as template. • The hierarchical porous carbon electrode showed a high capacity and excellent cycle stability when used in lithium-ion battery. • The excellent performance is ascribed to its hierarchical porous structure, especially the mesoporous struture. - Abstract: Novel hierarchical porous carbons (NHPCs) containing 3D carbon nanosheets and slit-mesopores are prepared in this work, using MgAl-layered double hydroxides as template and sucrose as carbon source, and their electrochemical performances as anodes of lithium-ion batteries are also investigated. Owing to the existence of abundant carbon nanosheets and slit-mesopores, the NHPCs electrode exhibits the specific reversible capacity of 1151.9 mA h/g at the current density of 50 mA/g, which is significantly higher than other hierarchical porous carbons reported in previous literatures. The contributions of carbon nanosheets and mesopores to the electrochemical performance are further clarified by nitrogen adsorption-desorption test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammograms and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. This work not only provides an easy and effective method to prepare hierarchical porous carbon materials, but also is beneficial for the design of high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  20. Direct electron transfer of hemoglobin in a CdS nanorods and Nafion composite film on carbon ionic liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Wang Dandan; Li Guicun; Zhai Ziqin; Zhao Ruijun; Jiao Kui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the direct electron transfer of hemoglobin (Hb) was carefully investigated by using a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF 6 ) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) as the basal working electrode. Hb was immobilized on the surface of CILE with the nanocomposite film composed of Nafion and CdS nanorods by a step-by-step method. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra showed that Hb in the composite film remained its native structure. The direct electrochemical behaviors of Hb in the composite film were further studied in a pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks of Hb was obtained with the formal potential (E 0 ') at -0.295 V (vs. SCE), which was the characteristic of heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. The direct electrochemistry of Hb was achieved on the modified electrode and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) was calculated to be 0.291 s -1 . The formal potentials of Hb Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple shifted negatively with the increase of buffer pH and a slope value of -45.1 mV/pH was got, which indicated that one electron transfer accompanied with one proton transportation. The fabricated Hb sensor showed good electrocatalytic manner to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)

  1. Environmental Effects on Zirconium Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Chemical Warfare Agent Decomposition: Implications of Atmospheric Water and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balow, Robert B; Lundin, Jeffrey G; Daniels, Grant C; Gordon, Wesley O; McEntee, Monica; Peterson, Gregory W; Wynne, James H; Pehrsson, Pehr E

    2017-11-15

    Zirconium hydroxide (Zr(OH) 4 ) has excellent sorption properties and wide-ranging reactivity toward numerous types of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals. Under pristine laboratory conditions, the effectiveness of Zr(OH) 4 has been attributed to a combination of diverse surface hydroxyl species and defects; however, atmospheric components (e.g., CO 2 , H 2 O, etc.) and trace contaminants can form adsorbates with potentially detrimental impact to the chemical reactivity of Zr(OH) 4 . Here, we report the hydrolysis of a CWA simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) on Zr(OH) 4 determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy under ambient conditions. DMMP dosing on Zr(OH) 4 formed methyl methylphosphonate and methoxy degradation products on free bridging and terminal hydroxyl sites of Zr(OH) 4 under all evaluated environmental conditions. CO 2 dosing on Zr(OH) 4 formed adsorbed (bi)carbonates and interfacial carbonate complexes with relative stability dependent on CO 2 and H 2 O partial pressures. High concentrations of CO 2 reduced DMMP decomposition kinetics by occupying Zr(OH) 4 active sites with carbonaceous adsorbates. Elevated humidity promoted hydrolysis of adsorbed DMMP on Zr(OH) 4 to produce methanol and regenerated free hydroxyl species. Hydrolysis of DMMP by Zr(OH) 4 occurred under all conditions evaluated, demonstrating promise for chemical decontamination under diverse, real-world conditions.

  2. Mechanistic Study of Magnesium Carbonate Semibatch Reactive Crystallization with Magnesium Hydroxide and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates semibatch precipitation of magnesium carbonate at ambient temperature and pressure using Mg(OH)(2) and CO2 as starting materials. A thermal analysis method was developed that reflects the dissolution rate of Mg(OH)(2) and the formation of magnesium carbonate. The method...... the liquid and solid phases. A stirring rate of 650 rpm was found to be the optimum speed as the flow rate of CO2 was 1 L/min. Precipitation rate increased with gas flow rate, which indicates that mass transfer of CO2 plays a critical role in this precipitation case. Magnesium carbonate trihydrate...

  3. Electrochemical determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid based on the gold nanorods/carbon nanotubes composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Chunyan, E-mail: dengchunyan81@126.com [Key Laboratory of Resources Chemistry of Nonferrous Metals, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Chen Jinzhuo; Yang Minghui [Key Laboratory of Resources Chemistry of Nonferrous Metals, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Nie Zhou [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Si Shihui [Key Laboratory of Resources Chemistry of Nonferrous Metals, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > The GNR/CNT/GC electrode was fabricated simply. It has higher catalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and ascorbic acid (AA). The selective determination of DA was carried out with low detection limit (0.8 nM, S/N = 3). The proposed method was feasible to detect the concentration of DA in human blood serum. - Abstract: In this paper, the gold nanorods (GNRs)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite film-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was fabricated simply by the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged GNRs and the negatively charged CNT. And the GNRs/CNT/GC electrode was used for the selective and sensitive determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA). It was found that the GNRs/CNT/GC electrode had higher catalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and ascorbic acid (AA) comparing with the bare GC and CNT/GC electrodes. It may be due to the synergic effect of GNRs and CNT, because the surface area of the GNRs/CNT/GC electrode increased, the edge plan sites presented on the CNT surface can improve the electron transfer between the modified electrode and DA, and the rod-shaped gold may be served as the mediator for the oxidation of dopamine and provided the electrocatalytic ability. Moreover, the voltammetric peaks of AA and DA were separated enough at the GNRs/CNT/GC electrode, which was sufficiently enough for the selective determination of DA. Thus, the selective determination of DA was carried out with low detection limit (0.8 nM, S/N = 3). Also it was obtained that the proposed method was feasible to detect the concentration of DA in human blood serum. Therefore, it can be concluded that the GNRs/CNT modified electrode may be advantageous for the DA determination.

  4. Carbon coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} nanorods as superior anode material for high rate lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongjun; Shen, Laifa; Rui, Kun; Li, Hongsen; Zhang, Xiaogang, E-mail: azhangxg@nuaa.edu.cn

    2013-09-25

    Highlights: •A novel approach has been developed to fabricate 1D Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C nanorods by a wet-chemical route. •Carbon coating layer effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance electronic conductivity. •The Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C nanorods exhibit remarkable rate capability and long cycle life. -- Abstract: We describe a novel approach for the synthesis of carbon coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C) nanorods for high rate lithium ion batteries. The carbon coated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes using the glucose as carbon source are first synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The commercial anatase TiO{sub 2} powder is immersed in KOH sulotion and subsequently transforms into Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C in LiOH solution under hydrothermal condition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and Raman spectra are performed to characterize their morphologies and structures. Compared with the pristine Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, one-dimensional (1D) Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C nanostructures show much better rate capability and cycling stability. The 1D Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C architectures effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance their electronic conductivity, enabling fast ion and electron transport.

  5. A Novel Gas Sensor Based on MgSb2O6 Nanorods to Indicate Variations in Carbon Monoxide and Propane Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Guillén-Bonilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bystromite (MgSb2O6 nanorods were prepared using a colloidal method in the presence of ethylenediamine, after a calcination step at 800 °C in static air. From X-ray powder diffraction analyses, a trirutile-type structure with lattice parameters a = 4.64 Å and c = 9.25 Å and space group P42/mnm was identified. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, microrods with sizes from 0.2 to 1.6 μm were observed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses revealed that the nanorods had a length of ~86 nm and a diameter ~23.8 nm. The gas-sensing properties of these nanostructures were tested using pellets elaborated with powders of the MgSb2O6 oxide (calcined at 800 °C at temperatures 23, 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C. The pellets were exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO and propane (C3H8 at these temperatures. The results showed that the MgSb2O6 nanorods possess excellent stability and high sensitivity in these atmospheres.

  6. A Novel Gas Sensor Based on MgSb2O6 Nanorods to Indicate Variations in Carbon Monoxide and Propane Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Bonilla, Héctor; Flores-Martínez, Martín; Rodríguez-Betancourtt, Verónica-María; Guillen-Bonilla, Alex; Reyes-Gómez, Juan; Gildo-Ortiz, Lorenzo; de la Luz Olvera Amador, María; Santoyo-Salazar, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Bystromite (MgSb2O6) nanorods were prepared using a colloidal method in the presence of ethylenediamine, after a calcination step at 800 °C in static air. From X-ray powder diffraction analyses, a trirutile-type structure with lattice parameters a = 4.64 Å and c = 9.25 Å and space group P42/mnm was identified. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microrods with sizes from 0.2 to 1.6 μm were observed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed that the nanorods had a length of ~86 nm and a diameter ~23.8 nm. The gas-sensing properties of these nanostructures were tested using pellets elaborated with powders of the MgSb2O6 oxide (calcined at 800 °C) at temperatures 23, 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C. The pellets were exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and propane (C3H8) at these temperatures. The results showed that the MgSb2O6 nanorods possess excellent stability and high sensitivity in these atmospheres. PMID:26840318

  7. Structural and surface functionality changes in reticulated vitreous carbon produced from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with sodium hydroxide additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Silvia Sizuka, E-mail: silviaoishi@uol.com.br [LAS, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Botelho, Edson Cocchieri [Departamento de Materiais e Tecnologia, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. Doutor Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, Guaratinguetá, SP 12516-410 (Brazil); Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Talim 330, São José dos Campos, SP 12231-280 (Brazil); Ferreira, Neidenêi Gomes [LAS, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) was processed from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with different amounts of NaOH. • A correlation between microstructure and surface functionalities was proposed. • The structural ordering was mainly influenced by the cured PFA polymerization degree and carboxylic acid content on RVC surface. - Abstract: The use of sodium hydroxide to neutralize the acid catalyst increases the storage life of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) resin avoiding its continuous polymerization. In this work, a concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) was added directly to the PFA resin in order to minimize the production of wastes generated when PFA is washed with diluted basic solution. Thus, different amounts of this concentrated basic solution were added to the resin up to reaching pH values of around 3, 5, 7, and 9. From these four types of modified PFA two sample sets of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) were processed and heat treated at two different temperatures (1000 and 1700 °C). A correlation among cross-link density of PFA and RVC morphology, structural ordering and surface functionalities was systematically studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The PFA neutralization (pH 7) led to its higher polymerization degree, promoting a crystallinity decrease on RVC treated at 1000 °C as well as its highest percentages of carboxylic groups on surface. A NaOH excess (pH 9) substantially increased the RVC oxygen content, but its crystallinity remained similar to those for samples from pH 3 and 5 treated at 1000 °C, probably due to the reduced presence of carboxylic group and the lower polymerization degree of its cured resin. Samples with pH 3 and 5 heat treated at 1000 and 1700 °C can be considered the most ordered which indicated that small quantities of NaOH may be advantageous to minimize continuous

  8. A very low potential electrochemical detection of L-cysteine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes/gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francisco de Assis dos Santos; da Silva, Monique Gabriella Angelo; Lima, Phabyanno Rodrigues; Meneghetti, Mario Roberto; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-12-15

    A nanohybrid platform built with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanorods, prepared via a cationic surfactant-containing seed-mediated sequential growth process, in aqueous solution, on a glassy carbon substrate has been successfully developed to be used in the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine (Cys). The nanohybrid was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. Cyclic voltammetry results had shown that the modified electrode allows the oxidation of Cys at a very low anodic potential (0.00 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The kinetic constant kcat for the catalytic oxidation of Cys was evaluated by chronoamperometry and provided a value of 5.6×10(4) L mol(-1) s(-1). The sensor presents a linear response range from 5.0 up to 200.0 µmol L(-1), detection limit of 8.25 nmol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 120 nA L µmol(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni; Vignesh, K.; Sreekantan, Srimala; Pung, Swee-Yong; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Othman, Radzali; Thant, Aye Aye; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Salim, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbonation conversions of (a) CC, (b) CH-2, (c) CH-4, (d) CH-6, (e) CH-8 precursor adsorbents for 10 cycles. - Highlights: • Ca(OH)_2 precursor was synthesized using precipitation method. • The effect of CTAB concentration on the synthesis of Ca(OH)_2 was studied. • The sorbent synthesized using 0.8 M of CTAB showed good CO_2 adsorption capacity. • The cyclic stability of Ca(OH)_2 was increased with increase of CTAB concentration. - Abstract: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)_2) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH)_2 based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO_2) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2–0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO_2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH)_2 was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and CO_2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH)_2 precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH)_2 phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH)_2 precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  10. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni, E-mail: nwenihlaing76@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Vignesh, K., E-mail: vignesh134@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Anano Sphere Sdn Bhd, Lorong Industri 11, Kawasan Industri Bukit Panchor, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Sreekantan, Srimala, E-mail: srimala@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Pung, Swee-Yong [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto [Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Othman, Radzali [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca (Malaysia); Thant, Aye Aye [Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Salim, Chris [Department of Environmental Engineering, Surya University, Tangerang 15810, Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbonation conversions of (a) CC, (b) CH-2, (c) CH-4, (d) CH-6, (e) CH-8 precursor adsorbents for 10 cycles. - Highlights: • Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor was synthesized using precipitation method. • The effect of CTAB concentration on the synthesis of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied. • The sorbent synthesized using 0.8 M of CTAB showed good CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. • The cyclic stability of Ca(OH){sub 2} was increased with increase of CTAB concentration. - Abstract: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH){sub 2} based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2–0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH){sub 2} phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  11. Important role of calcium chloride in preventing carbon monoxide generation during desflurane degradation with alkali hydroxide-free carbon dioxide absorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takahiro; Mori, Atsushi; Ito, Rie; Nishiwaki, Kimitoshi

    2017-12-01

    We investigated whether calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), a supplementary additive in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) absorbents, could affect carbon monoxide (CO) production caused by desflurane degradation, using a Japanese alkali-free CO 2 absorbent Yabashi Lime ® -f (YL-f), its CaCl 2 -free and 1% CaCl 2 -added derivatives, and other commercially available alkali-free absorbents with or without CaCl 2 . The reaction between 1 L of desflurane gas (3-10%) and 20 g of desiccated specimen was performed in an artificial closed-circuit anesthesia system for 3 min at 20 or 40 °C. The CO concentration was measured using a gas chromatograph equipped with a semiconductor sensor detector. The systems were validated by detecting dose-dependent CO production with an alkali hydroxide-containing CO 2 absorbent, Sodasorb ® . Compared with YL-f, the CaCl 2 -free derivative caused the production of significantly more CO, while the 1% CaCl 2 -added derivative caused the production of a comparable amount of CO. These phenomena were confirmed using commercially available absorbents AMSORB ® PLUS, an alkali-free absorbent with CaCl 2 , and LoFloSorb™, an alkali-free absorbent without CaCl 2 . These results suggest that CaCl 2 plays an important role in preventing CO generation caused by desflurane degradation with alkali hydroxide-free CO 2 absorbents like YL-f.

  12. A cheap and non-destructive approach to increase coverage/loading of hydrophilic hydroxide on hydrophobic carbon for lightweight and high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-based substrates offer unprecedented advantages in lightweight supercapacitors. However, it is still challenging to achieve high coverage or loading. Different from the traditional belief that a lack of defects or functional groups is the cause of poor growth on carbon-based substrates, we reckon that the major cause is the discrepancy between the hydrophilic nature of the metal oxide/hydroxide and the hydrophobic nature of carbon. To solve this incompatibility, we introduced ethanol into the precursor solution. The method to synthesize nickel copper hydroxide on carbon fiber paper employs only water and ethanol, in addition to nickel acetate and copper acetate. The results revealed good growth and tight adhesion of active materials on carbon fiber paper substrates. The specific capacitance and energy density per total weight of the active material plus substrate (carbon fiber paper, current collector) reached 770 F g−1 and 33 Wh kg−1 (1798 F g−1 and 54 Wh kg−1 per weight of the active materials), owing to the high loading of active material and the light weight of carbon fiber paper. These results signified the achievability of light, cheap and high-performance supercapacitors by an environmental-friendly approach. PMID:26643665

  13. A cheap and non-destructive approach to increase coverage/loading of hydrophilic hydroxide on hydrophobic carbon for lightweight and high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Carbon-based substrates offer unprecedented advantages in lightweight supercapacitors. However, it is still challenging to achieve high coverage or loading. Different from the traditional belief that a lack of defects or functional groups is the cause of poor growth on carbon-based substrates, we reckon that the major cause is the discrepancy between the hydrophilic nature of the metal oxide/hydroxide and the hydrophobic nature of carbon. To solve this incompatibility, we introduced ethanol into the precursor solution. The method to synthesize nickel copper hydroxide on carbon fiber paper employs only water and ethanol, in addition to nickel acetate and copper acetate. The results revealed good growth and tight adhesion of active materials on carbon fiber paper substrates. The specific capacitance and energy density per total weight of the active material plus substrate (carbon fiber paper, current collector) reached 770 F g-1 and 33 Wh kg-1 (1798 F g-1 and 54 Wh kg-1 per weight of the active materials), owing to the high loading of active material and the light weight of carbon fiber paper. These results signified the achievability of light, cheap and high-performance supercapacitors by an environmental-friendly approach.

  14. Efficient carbon dots/NiFe-layered double hydroxide/BiVO4 photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaowei; Xiao, Xin; Cao, Minglei; Bu, Yi; Wang, Chuanqing; Wang, Mingkui; Shen, Yan

    2018-05-01

    Modification of semiconductor photoanodes with oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC) is an effective approach for improving photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting efficiency. In the configuration, how to increase the activity of OEC is crucial to further improve PEC performance. Herein, a ternary photoanode system was designed to enhance PEC efficiency of photoelectrodes through introducing carbon dots (CDs), NiFe-layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) nanosheets on BiVO4 particles. Systematic research shows that NiFe-LDH serves as an OEC which accelerates oxygen evolution kinetics, while the introduction of CDs can further reduce charge transfer resistance and overpotential for oxygen evolution. Under the synergistic effect of NiFe-LDH and CDs, the photocurrent and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the resulting CDs/NiFe-LDH/BiVO4 photoanode is improved significantly than those of the NiFe-LDH/BiVO4 electrode. Consequently, such a ternary heterostructure could be an alternative way to further enhance PEC water splitting performance.

  15. Recognition and extraction of cesium hydroxide and carbonate by using a neutral multitopic ion-pair receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qing; Peters, Gretchen Marie; Lynch, Vincent M.; Sessler, Jonathan L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Current approaches to lowering the pH of basic media rely on the addition of a proton source. An alternative approach is described herein that involves the liquid-liquid extraction-based removal of cesium salts, specifically CsOH and Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, from highly basic media. A multitopic ion-pair receptor (2) is used that can recognize and extract the hydroxide and carbonate anions as their cesium salts, as confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic titrations, ICP-MS, single-crystal structural analyses, and theoretical calculations. A sharp increase in the pH and cesium concentrations in the receiving phase is observed when receptor 2 is employed as a carrier in U-tube experiments involving the transport of CsOH through an intervening chloroform layer. The pH of the source phase likewise decreases. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying, E-mail: clu@nchu.edu.tw; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: A comparison of TMAH adsorption capacity with GO, NaY and GAC is conducted and the result reveals that the magnitude of qe follows the order of GO > NaY > GAC. The adsorption capacity of GO is significantly higher than those of zeolite and activated carbon in this and reported studies, showing its encouraging potential. GO also exhibits good reversibility of TMAH adsorption through 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. This reflects that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of TMAH to GO, NaY and GAC are compared. • Thermodynamics of TMAH adsorption to GO, NaY and GAC is determined. • GO exhibits the highest TMAH adsorption capacity, followed by NaY and GAC. • Recyclabilities of NaY and GO remain above 95% but that of GAC dropped to 70%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  17. The effect of carbon type on arsenic and trichloroethylene removal capabilities of iron (hydr)oxide nanoparticle-impregnated granulated activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Anne Marie, E-mail: Anne.M.Cooper@asu.edu [Environmental Technology, College of Technology and Innovation. Arizona State University - Polytechnic Campus, 6075 South Williams Campus Loop West, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Hristovski, Kiril D., E-mail: Kiril.Hristovski@asu.edu [Environmental Technology, College of Technology and Innovation, Arizona State University - Polytechnic Campus, 6073 South Backus Mall, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Moeller, Teresia, E-mail: tmoller@solmetex.com [SolmeteX - Division of Layne Christiansen, 50 Bearfoot Road, Northborough, MA 01532 (United States); Westerhoff, Paul, E-mail: p.westerhoff@asu.edu [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Box 5306, Tempe, AZ 85287-5306 (United States); Sylvester, Paul, E-mail: psylvester@solmetex.com [SolmeteX - Division of Layne Christiansen, 50 Bearfoot Road, Northborough, MA 01532 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This study investigates the impact of the type of virgin granular activated carbon (GAC) media used to synthesize iron (hydr)oxide nanoparticle-impregnated granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) on its properties and its ability to remove arsenate and organic trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. Two Fe-GAC media were synthesized via a permanganate/ferrous ion synthesis method using bituminous and lignite-based virgin GAC. Data obtained from an array of characterization techniques (pore size distribution, surface charge, etc.) in correlation with batch equilibrium tests, and continuous flow modeling suggested that GAC type and pore size distribution control the iron (nanoparticle) contents, Fe-GAC synthesis mechanisms, and contaminant removal performances. Pore surface diffusion model calculations predicted that lignite Fe-GAC could remove {approx}6.3 L g{sup -1} dry media and {approx}4 L g{sup -1} dry media of water contaminated with 30 {mu}g L{sup -1} TCE and arsenic, respectively. In contrast, the bituminous Fe-GAC could remove only {approx}0.2 L/g dry media for TCE and {approx}2.8 L/g dry media for As of the same contaminated water. The results show that arsenic removal capability is increased while TCE removal is decreased as a result of Fe nanoparticle impregnation. This tradeoff is related to several factors, of which changes in surface properties and pore size distributions appeared to be the most dominant.

  18. Graphene-oxide-supported CuAl and CoAl layered double hydroxides as enhanced catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling via Ullmann reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesreen S.; Menzel, Robert; Wang, Yifan; Garcia-Gallastegui, Ainara; Bawaked, Salem M.; Obaid, Abdullah Y.; Basahel, Sulaiman N.; Mokhtar, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Two efficient catalyst based on CuAl and CoAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) supported on graphene oxide (GO) for the carbon-carbon coupling (Classic Ullmann Homocoupling Reaction) are reported. The pure and hybrid materials were synthesised by direct precipitation of the LDH nanoparticles onto GO, followed by a chemical, structural and physical characterisation by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The GO-supported and unsupported CuAl-LDH and CoAl-LDH hybrids were tested over the Classic Ullman Homocoupling Reaction of iodobenzene. In the current study CuAl- and CoAl-LDHs have shown excellent yields (91% and 98%, respectively) at very short reaction times (25 min). GO provides a light-weight, charge complementary and two-dimensional material that interacts effectively with the 2D LDHs, in turn enhancing the stability of LDH. After 5 re-use cycles, the catalytic activity of the LDH/GO hybrid is up to 2 times higher than for the unsupported LDH.

  19. The effect of carbon type on arsenic and trichloroethylene removal capabilities of iron (hydr)oxide nanoparticle-impregnated granulated activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Anne Marie; Hristovski, Kiril D.; Moeller, Teresia; Westerhoff, Paul; Sylvester, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the type of virgin granular activated carbon (GAC) media used to synthesize iron (hydr)oxide nanoparticle-impregnated granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) on its properties and its ability to remove arsenate and organic trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. Two Fe-GAC media were synthesized via a permanganate/ferrous ion synthesis method using bituminous and lignite-based virgin GAC. Data obtained from an array of characterization techniques (pore size distribution, surface charge, etc.) in correlation with batch equilibrium tests, and continuous flow modeling suggested that GAC type and pore size distribution control the iron (nanoparticle) contents, Fe-GAC synthesis mechanisms, and contaminant removal performances. Pore surface diffusion model calculations predicted that lignite Fe-GAC could remove ∼6.3 L g -1 dry media and ∼4 L g -1 dry media of water contaminated with 30 μg L -1 TCE and arsenic, respectively. In contrast, the bituminous Fe-GAC could remove only ∼0.2 L/g dry media for TCE and ∼2.8 L/g dry media for As of the same contaminated water. The results show that arsenic removal capability is increased while TCE removal is decreased as a result of Fe nanoparticle impregnation. This tradeoff is related to several factors, of which changes in surface properties and pore size distributions appeared to be the most dominant.

  20. RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of carbon nanotubes for targeted photoacoustic imaging of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Bao, Chenchen; Liang, Shujing; Fu, Hualin; Wang, Kan; Deng, Min; Liao, Qiande; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-05-01

    Herein, we reported for the first time that RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes were successfully used for targeted photoacoustic imaging of in vivo gastric cancer cells. A simple strategy was used to attach covalently silica-coated gold nanorods (sGNRs) onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to fabricate a hybrid nanostructure. The cross-linked reaction occurred through the combination of carboxyl groups on the MWNTs and the amino group on the surface of sGNRs modified with a silane coupling agent. RGD peptides were conjugated with the sGNR/MWNT nanostructure; resultant RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were investigated for their influences on viability of MGC803 and GES-1 cells. The nude mice models loaded with gastric cancer cells were prepared, the RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were injected into gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models via the tail vein, and the nude mice were observed by an optoacoustic imaging system. Results showed that RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes showed good water solubility and low cellular toxicity, could target in vivo gastric cancer cells, and obtained strong photoacoustic imaging in the nude model. RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes will own great potential in applications such as targeted photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy in the near future.

  1. Zn–Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with carbonate, nitrate, chloride and sulphate ions: Synthesis, characterisation and dye removal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Mahjoubi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Zn–Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with carbonate, nitrate, chloride and sulphate ions were synthesised via a co-precipitation method at a constant solution pH. The as-synthesised samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and simultaneous thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA. The XRD patterns showed that Zn-Al-SO4 had the greatest interlayer spacing, followed by Zn-Al-Cl, Zn-Al-NO3 and Zn-Al-CO3. The FTIR spectra clearly confirmed the presence of intercalated anions in the structure of the LDHs. Batch experiments for methyl orange (MO adsorption onto synthesised samples were investigated under various conditions such as contact time, initial dye concentration and solution pH. The experimental results show that pH is the most influencing factor. The effective pH range for the MO removal was found to be 3.5–4.5. The kinetics data can be described accurately by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model instead of a pseudo-first-order model. The equilibrium data were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. The results showed that the Langmuir and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models fit well to the experimental data. The Zn-Al-LDH samples exhibited exceptional Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of 2758, 2455, 2270 and 1684 mg/g for Zn-Al-SO4, Zn-Al-Cl, Zn-Al-NO3 and Zn-Al-CO3, respectively.

  2. Pr3+ doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays grown on activated carbon fibers: Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Praseodymium-doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays (Pr-TiO2 NRAs) were successfully prepared via a two-step hydrothermal reaction on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) which pre-coated with TiO2 nanoparticles at first step. The bicrystalline arrays grown on ACFs are primarily constructed by the well-aligned TiO2 nanorods growing along [0 0 1] direction, which were indicated by the results of SEM and XRD. The nanorods are uniform in diameter and length with about 250 nm and 2.5 μm. The composite photocatalyst with high specific surface area and well-aligned nanostructure are beneficial to enhance the adsorption capacity and even help to suppress electron-hole recombination effectively, which consequently revealed much better (2 times) catalytic performance than that of commercially available P25 TiO2 on methylene blue(MB) photodegradation. In addition, the existence of praseodymium in TiO2 gives rise to shift of absorption edge towards long wavelength, which was indicated by the results of UV-vis DRS. Photodegradation results reveal that Pr-doping significantly improves the activity of TiO2, which was 20% higher than that of undoped TiO2 NRAs for the photodegradation of MB in aqueous medium under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the doped amount of Pr had a tiny influence on the photocatalytic performance of the composites. In our experiment, 3% Pr-doped molar concentration was proven to be the relatively optimal dopant concentration for the doping of TiO2 NRAs. Moreover, the photocatalyst grown on ACFs substrates is favorable to reuse and photodegradation rate kept on 76% even after 4 times of reuse.

  3. Simultaneous tracking of drug molecules and carriers using aptamer-functionalized fluorescent superstable gold nanorod-carbon nanocapsules during thermo-chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Wei; Gao, Wei; Fan, Huanhuan; Ding, Ding; Lai, Xiao-Fang; Zou, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Long; Chen, Zhuo; Tan, Weihong

    2016-04-01

    Controlling and monitoring the drug delivery process is critical to its intended therapeutic function. Many nanocarrier systems for drug delivery have been successfully developed. However, biocompatibility, stability, and simultaneously tracing drugs and nanocarriers present significant limitations. Herein, we have fabricated a multifunctional nanocomposite by coating the gold nanorod (AuNR) with a biocompatible, superstable and fluorescent carbon layer, obtaining the AuNR@carbon core-shell nanocapsule. In this system, the carbon shell, originally obtained in aqueous glucose solutions and, therefore, biocompatible in physiological environments, could be simply loaded with cell-specific aptamers and therapeutic molecules through π-π interactions, a useful tool for cancer-targeted cellular imaging and therapy. Moreover, such a stable and intrinsic fluorescence effect of the AuNR@carbon enabled simultaneous tracking of released therapeutic molecules and nanocarriers under thermo-chemotherapy. The AuNR@carbons had high surface areas and stable shells, as well as unique optical and photothermal properties, making them promising nanostructures for biomedical applications.Controlling and monitoring the drug delivery process is critical to its intended therapeutic function. Many nanocarrier systems for drug delivery have been successfully developed. However, biocompatibility, stability, and simultaneously tracing drugs and nanocarriers present significant limitations. Herein, we have fabricated a multifunctional nanocomposite by coating the gold nanorod (AuNR) with a biocompatible, superstable and fluorescent carbon layer, obtaining the AuNR@carbon core-shell nanocapsule. In this system, the carbon shell, originally obtained in aqueous glucose solutions and, therefore, biocompatible in physiological environments, could be simply loaded with cell-specific aptamers and therapeutic molecules through π-π interactions, a useful tool for cancer-targeted cellular imaging and

  4. Hydrothermal encapsulation of VO2(A) nanorods in amorphous carbon by carbonization of glucose for energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiqi; Zhang, Yifu; Wang, Qiushi; Jiang, Hanmei; Liu, Yanyan; Lv, Tianming; Meng, Changgong

    2018-01-02

    In recent decades, tremendous attention has been paid to the development of new electrode materials with high capacitance to meet the requirements of electrode materials in supercapacitors. Among vanadium oxides, VO 2 (A) has recently received increasing attention due to its unique layered structure, phase transformation and applications in Li-ion batteries. However, few studies have focused on the electrochemical properties of VO 2 (A) as electrochemical capacitors. Herein, we develop a facile hydrothermal method to prepare VO 2 (A)@C core-shell structured composites by carbonization of glucose in the presence of V 2 O 5 nanowires. The electrochemical properties of the VO 2 (A)@C core-shell composites are investigated as a supercapacitor electrode material for the first time; the composites show excellent pseudocapacitive behavior and display a specific capacitance as high as 179 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 . A flexible asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated using VO 2 (A)@C composites and activated carbon and delivers an excellent capacitance of 0.5 F cm -2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s -1 . Replacing the aqueous electrolyte with a LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte can efficiently improve the cycling performance to 85% retention after 1600 cycles. The good electrochemical performance of the composites indicates their high potential as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  5. Three-dimensional carbon cloth-supported ZnO nanorod arrays as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lanyan; Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxin@scnu.edu.cn [South China Normal University, Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics (China); Yin, Fuxing [Synergy Innovation Institute of GDUT (China); Zhang, Chengwei [Hebei University of Technology, Research Institute for Energy Equipment Materials, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Materials Laminating Fabrication and Interface Control Technology (China); Gao, Jinwei; Liu, Junming [South China Normal University, Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics (China); Zhou, Guofu [South China Normal University, Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics (China); Zhang, Yongguang, E-mail: yongguangzhang@hebut.edu.cn; Bakenov, Zhumabay [Synergy Innovation Institute of GDUT (China)

    2017-02-15

    Three-dimensional ZnO nanorod arrays on flexible high surface area carbon cloth were successfully synthesized and directly used as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries without using any binder additive. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared hybrid ZnO electrode were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). When tested as anodes in a lithium cell, the hybrid electrode demonstrated a high discharge capacity along with excellent rate capability and good cycling stability, delivering a reversible capacity of 891 mAh g{sup −1} at the second cycle and retaining a capacity of 469 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles.

  6. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Azad, F. Nasiri; Dashtian, K.; Hajati, S.; Goudarzi, A.; Soylak, M.

    2016-10-01

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20 mg g- 1) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99 min).

  7. Clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides and soil organic carbon distribution within soil aggregates in temperate forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Virto, Iñigo; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-04-01

    Soil mineralogy is of primary importance for key environmental services provided by soils like carbon sequestration. However, current knowledge on the effects of clay mineralogy on soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization is based on limited and conflicting data. In this study, we investigated the relationship between clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides and SOC distribution within soil aggregates in mature Pinus radiata D.Don forest plantations. Nine forest stands located in the same geographical area of the Basque Country (North of Spain) were selected. These stands were planted on different parent material (3 on each of the following: sandstone, basalt and trachyte). There were no significant differences in climate and forest management among them. Moreover, soils under these plantations presented similar content of clay particles. We determined bulk SOC storage, clay mineralogy, the content of Fe-Si-Al-oxides and oxyhydroxides and the distribution of organic C in different soil aggregate sizes at different soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm). The relationship between SOC and abiotic factors was investigated using a factor analysis (PCA) followed by stepwise regression analysis. Soils developed on sandstone showed significantly lower concentration of SOC (29 g C kg-1) than soils developed on basalts (97 g C kg-1) and trachytes (119 g C kg-1). The soils on sandstone presented a mixed clay mineralogy dominated by illite, with lesser amounts of hydroxivermiculite, hydrobiotite and kaolinite, and a total absence of interstratified chlorite/vermiculite. In contrast, the major crystalline clay mineral identified in the soils developed on volcanic rocks was interstratified chlorite/vermiculite. Nevertheless, no major differences were observed between basaltic and trachytic soils in the clay mineralogy. The selective extraction of Fe showed that the oxalate extractable iron was significantly lower in soils on sandstone (3.7%) than on basalts (11.2%) and

  8. In situ fabrication of nickel aluminum-layered double hydroxide nanosheets/hollow carbon nanofibers composite as a novel electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Hu, Zhibiao; Liu, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shuirong; Liu, Hongtao; Sang, Shangbin

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a new design route to fabricate nickel aluminum-layered double hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) nanosheets/hollow carbon nanofibers (CNFs) composite through an in situ growth method. The NiAl-LDH thin layers which grow on hollow carbon nanofibers have an average thickness of 13.6 nm. The galvanostatic charge-discharge test of the NiAl-LDH/CNFs composite yields an impressive specific capacitance of 1613 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH solution, the composite shows a remarkable specific capacitance of 1110 F g-1 even at a high current density of 10 A g-1. Furthermore, the composite remains a specific capacitance of 1406 F g-1 after 1000 cycles at 2 A g-1, indicating the composite has excellent high-current capacitive behavior and good cycle stability in compared to pristine NiAl-LDH.

  9. Graphene-oxide-supported CuAl and CoAl layered double hydroxides as enhanced catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling via Ullmann reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nesreen S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia); Surface Chemistry and Catalytic Studies Group, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia); Menzel, Robert [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bio Nano Consulting, The Gridiron Building, One Pancras Square, London N1C 4AG (United Kingdom); Wang, Yifan [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Garcia-Gallastegui, Ainara [Bio Nano Consulting, The Gridiron Building, One Pancras Square, London N1C 4AG (United Kingdom); Bawaked, Salem M.; Obaid, Abdullah Y.; Basahel, Sulaiman N. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia); Surface Chemistry and Catalytic Studies Group, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia); Mokhtar, Mohamed, E-mail: mmokhtar2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia); Surface Chemistry and Catalytic Studies Group, King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-15

    Two efficient catalyst based on CuAl and CoAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) supported on graphene oxide (GO) for the carbon-carbon coupling (Classic Ullmann Homocoupling Reaction) are reported. The pure and hybrid materials were synthesised by direct precipitation of the LDH nanoparticles onto GO, followed by a chemical, structural and physical characterisation by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The GO-supported and unsupported CuAl-LDH and CoAl-LDH hybrids were tested over the Classic Ullman Homocoupling Reaction of iodobenzene. In the current study CuAl- and CoAl-LDHs have shown excellent yields (91% and 98%, respectively) at very short reaction times (25 min). GO provides a light-weight, charge complementary and two-dimensional material that interacts effectively with the 2D LDHs, in turn enhancing the stability of LDH. After 5 re-use cycles, the catalytic activity of the LDH/GO hybrid is up to 2 times higher than for the unsupported LDH. - Graphical abstract: CuAl- and CoAl-LDHs have shown excellent yields (91% and 98%, respectively) at very short reaction times (25 min). GO provides a light-weight, charge complementary, two-dimensional material that interacts effectively with the 2D LDHs, in turn enhancing the stability of LDH. - Highlights: • CuAl LDH/GO and CoAl LDH/GO hybrid materials with different LDH compositions were prepared. • Hybrids were fully characterised and their catalytic efficiency over the Classic Ullman Reaction was studied. • CuAl- and CoAl-LDHs have shown excellent yields (91% and 98%, respectively) in 25 min reaction times. • GO provides a light-weight, charge complementary, two-dimensional material that interacts effectively with the 2D LDHs. • After 5 re-use cycles, the catalytic activity of the LDH/GO hybrid is up to 2 times higher than for the unsupported LDH.

  10. Oxidative desulfurization of diesel by potato based-carbon as green support for H5PMo10V2O40: Efficient composite nanorod catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Rafiee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The C@POM (carbon@polyoxometalate containing H3PMo12O40 (PMo12, H5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2, H6PMo9V3O40 (PMo9V3, H7PMo8V4O40 (PMo8V4, H3PW12O40 (PW, and H4SiW12O40 (SiW were prepared from natural potato as green, and cheap catalyst support source. The C@PMo10V2 was found to be a unique, effective, and eco-friendly catalyst for selective oxidation of sulfides, using 30% aq. H2O2. C@PMo10V2 composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrophotometry, zeta sizer, and zeta potential. The XRD results show that during immobilization PMo10V2 on the carbon catalyst support (CCS, the crystallite structure of PMo10V2 and CCS was not changed. The SEM results show that PMo10V2 crystals deposited on the surface CCS rods as composite nanorod structure. A variety of sulfides, sulfur-containing model and real oil were oxidized with the C@PMo10V2/H2O2 at room temperature. Recovered catalyst show excellent activity for at least four repeating cycles.

  11. Voltammetric sensing of paracetamole, dopamine and 4-aminophenol at a glassy carbon electrode coated with gold nanoparticles and an organophillic layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, H.; Shang, K.; Meng, X.; Ai, S.

    2011-01-01

    A differential pulse voltammetric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamole, 4-aminophenol and dopamine at pH 7.0 using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a layered double hydroxide sodium modified with dodecyl sulfate (SDS-LDH). The modified electrode displays excellent redox activity towards paracetamole, and the redox current is increased (and the corresponding over-potential decreased) compared to those of the bare GCE, the AuNPs-modified GCE, and the SDS-LDH-modified GCE. The modified electrode enables the determination of paracetamole in the concentration range from 0.5 to 400 μM, with a detection limit of 0.13 μM (at an S/N of 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of paracetamole and dopamine, and of paracetamole and 4-aminophenol, respectively, in pharmaceutical tablets and in spiked human serum samples. (author)

  12. Adsorption of carbon dioxide on TEPA-modified TiO_2/titanate composite nano-rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapica-Kozar, Joanna; Michalkiewicz, Beata; Wrobel, Rafal J.; Mozia, Sylwia; Pirog, Ewa; Usiak-Nejman, Ewelina K.; Serafin, Jaroslaw; Morawski, Antoni W.; Narkiewicz, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    A titanate-TiO_2 composite was obtained through hydrothermal treatment of TiO_2 in KOH solution. The presence of a titanate phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements showed the porous nano-rod structure of the material. The obtained nano-rods were treated with tetra-ethylene-pentamine (TEPA). Such synthesized sorbents were applied for CO_2 removal. The CO_2 capacity under a pressure of 1 bar and at 80 C was 0.47, 0.34, and 3.11 mmol.g"-"1 for the starting TiO_2, the titanate-TiO_2 composite and the TEPA-titanate-TiO_2 composite (27.4 wt% of TEPA), respectively. The experimental isotherms of CO_2 were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Toth, Unilan, Redlich-Peterson, Radke-Prausnitz, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Pyzhev, and Jovanovich models. The error sums of squares (SSR) function was used to test the fit of the models. The analysis revealed that the Sips isotherm is the best-fitting model for the CO_2 adsorption on the starting TiO_2, whereas the Freundlich equation should be used to describe the CO_2 adsorption isotherm on the titanate-TiO_2 composite. The CO_2 adsorption on the TEPA-modified sorbents was proposed to be described using the Sips isotherm for physical sorption and the modified Sips model for chemical sorption. The calculated isosteric heat of adsorption was found to be E46 kJ mol"-"1, which is about two times higher than the heat of CO_2 absorption in liquid TEPA reported in the literature (i.e. E85 kJ.mol"-"1). Therefore, it was concluded that the TEPA-titanate-TiO_2 composite is an attractive alternative for liquid amines due to the lower energy of regeneration in the sorption-desorption process. The material was proved to be stable during multiple sorption-desorption cycles. Moreover, its thermal stability up to 150 C was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). All these features make it a promising alternative for sorbents based on liquid amines. (authors)

  13. Effect of carbon dioxide on the rate of iodine vapor absorption by aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Wataru; Adachi, Motonari; Miyake, Yoshikazu

    1978-01-01

    There is always carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as an impurity. Since this is an acid gas similar to iodine, each absorption rate seems to be affected by the other due to the coexistence of these two. Experiments have been conducted to clarify the absorption rate and absorption mechanism of iodine in the simultaneous absorption of iodine and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide coexisting with gas phases as an impurity decreases the absorption rate of iodine in the removal by washing with water of iodine mixed in the air. The first cause of this is that the diffusion coefficient of iodine in gas phase decreases with the carbon dioxide content in the gas phase. The second cause is that coexistent carbon dioxide is an acid gas, dissociates by dissolving into the absorbing solution, increases hydrogen ion concentration together with the formation of negative ions of bicarbonate and carbonate, and reduces hydroxyl ion concentration as a result. It is more important that existence of iodine has a catalytic effect to the rate of basic catalytic hydrolysis of carbon dioxide simultaneously dissolved in water phase, and accelerates this reaction rate. The mechanism of catalytic effect of iodine for the hydrolysis of carbon dioxide can not be clarified in detail only by this experiment, but the simultaneous absorption rate of iodine and carbon dioxide can be explained satisfactorily. (Wakatsuki, Y

  14. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoyan; Hou, Shihua; Miao, Zhiying; Zhang, Cong; Ji, Yanhong

    2015-09-18

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD)₄/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01-8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance.

  15. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs and glucose oxidase (GOD onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD4/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01–8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance.

  16. Cyclovoltammetric acetylcholinesterase activity assay after inhibition and subsequent reactivation by using a glassy carbon electrode modified with palladium nanorods composited with functionalized C60 fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Cui; Zhong, Xia; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Wang, Min-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a nanocomposite consisting of tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB), C 60 fullerene, and palladium nanorods (PdNRs). The PdNRs were hydrothermally prepared and had a typical width of 20 ± 2 nm. The nanocomposite forms stable films on the GCE and exhibits a reversible redox pair for the C 60 /C 60 − system while rendering the surface to be positively charged. The modified GCE was applied to fabricate an electrochemical biosensor for detecting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by measurement of the amount of thiocholine formed from acetylthiocholine, best at a working voltage of −0.19 V (vs. SCE). The detection scheme is based on (a) measurement of the activity of ethyl paraoxon-inhibited AChE, and (b) measurement of AChE activity after reactivation with pralidoxime (2-PAM). Compared to the conventional methods using acetylthiocholine as a substrate, the dual method presented here provides data on the AChE activity after inhibition and subsequent reactivation, thereby yielding credible data on reactivated enzyme activity. The linear analytical range for AChE activity extends from 2.5 U L −1 to 250 kU·L −1 , and the detection limit is 0.83 U L −1 . (author)

  17. Voltammetric determination of nitric oxide using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanohybrid consisting of myoglobin, gold nanorods, and reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlinda, Ab Rahman; Jayabal, Subramaniam; Yusoff, Norazriena; Huang, Nay Ming; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Suriani, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Myoglobin-modified gold nanorods incorporating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were fabricated and deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to obtain a sensor for nitric oxide (NO). The Mb-AuNR/rGO nanohybrid showed a transverse localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band with a peak at 508 nm, and a longitudinal LSPR band at 724 nm. The AuNRs have an average length of 38 ± 3 nm and a width of 11 ± 1 nm. The GCE modified with the nanohybrid is shown to be a viable sensor for the determination of NO by linear sweep voltammetry. Its electrocatalytic response toward the oxidation of NO is distinctly enhanced compared to other electrodes. The sensor, best operated at a working voltage of 0.85 V (vs. SCE), showed two linear response ranges (from 10 to 100 μM, and from 100 to 1000 μM), with a detection limit of 5.5 μM. Furthermore, it exhibits excellent selectivity for NO over common interferents such as NaNO 3 , and also over electroactive species such as ascorbate, dopamine, glucose, and uric acid. These properties make it a promising tool for the detection of NO in situations such as capillary and pulmonary hypertension and embolism, and during vasodilation. (author)

  18. Effect of Different Seed Solutions on the Morphology and Electrooptical Properties of ZnO Nanorods

    OpenAIRE

    Kashif, M.; Hashim, U.; Ali, M. E.; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Rusop, M.; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and electrooptical properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized on monoethanolamine-based seed layer and KOH-based seed layer were compared. The seed solutions were prepared in monoethanolamine in 2-methoxyethanol and potassium hydroxide in methanol, respectively. Zinc acetate dihydrate was as a common precursor in both solutions. The nanorod-ZnOs were synthesized via the spin coating of two different seed solutions on silicon substrates followed by their hydrothermal growth. The sca...

  19. Physical properties of activated carbon from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches by microwave assisted potassium hydroxide activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, Rakhmawati; Fatjrin, Delika; Awitdrus, Deraman, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    The activated carbon adsorption was influenced by the quality of activated carbon. The activated carbon quality can be improved by chemical activation and microwave irradiation. In this study, activated carbon has been made using biomass from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The microwave irradiation was applied at various irradiation times of 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, and at output power of 630 Watt. The physical properties of activated carbon were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and methylene blue adsorption. Analysis of microstructure showed that the activated carbon was semicrystalline with two peaks of 002 and 100 at 2θ around of 22° and 44°, respectively. The values of stack height (Lc) before and after irradiation increased from 2,799 nm to 3,860 nm, which indicated increasing surface area. Characteristics of surface morphology of activated carbon showed the pores number increased after microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation time of 15 minutes resulted the highest pores number justified in the activated carbon with their surface area of 319,60 m2/g and adsorption of methylene blue of 86,07 mg/g.

  20. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yong; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi 2 CdO 4 phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  1. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yong [Xinjiang Univ., Xinjiang (China). School of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Anhui (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-07-15

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi{sub 2}CdO{sub 4} phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  2. Electrochromic nickel oxide films and their compatibility with potassium hydroxide and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate: Optical, electrochemical and stress-related properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Rui-Tao, E-mail: Ruitao.Wen@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-28

    Porous nickel oxide films were deposited onto unheated indium tin oxide coated glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. These films had a cubic NiO structure. Electrochromic properties were evaluated in 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and in 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li–PC). Large optical modulation was obtained for ∼ 500-nm-thick films both in KOH and in Li–PC (∼ 70% and ∼ 50% at 550 nm, respectively). In KOH, tensile and compressive stresses, due to the expansion and contraction of the lattice, were found for films in their bleached and colored state, respectively. In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films. Durability tests with voltage sweeps between − 0.5 and 0.65 V vs Ag/AgCl in KOH showed good durability for 10,000 cycles, whereas voltage sweeps between 2.0 and 4.7 V vs Li/Li{sup +} in Li–PC yielded significant degradation after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Ni oxide films were studied in KOH and in LiClO{sub 4} + propylene carbonate (Li–PC). • Good electrochromism was found in both electrolytes. • In KOH, tensile/compressive stresses were seen in bleached/colored films. • In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films.

  3. Electrochromic nickel oxide films and their compatibility with potassium hydroxide and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate: Optical, electrochemical and stress-related properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Porous nickel oxide films were deposited onto unheated indium tin oxide coated glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. These films had a cubic NiO structure. Electrochromic properties were evaluated in 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and in 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li–PC). Large optical modulation was obtained for ∼ 500-nm-thick films both in KOH and in Li–PC (∼ 70% and ∼ 50% at 550 nm, respectively). In KOH, tensile and compressive stresses, due to the expansion and contraction of the lattice, were found for films in their bleached and colored state, respectively. In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films. Durability tests with voltage sweeps between − 0.5 and 0.65 V vs Ag/AgCl in KOH showed good durability for 10,000 cycles, whereas voltage sweeps between 2.0 and 4.7 V vs Li/Li + in Li–PC yielded significant degradation after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Ni oxide films were studied in KOH and in LiClO 4 + propylene carbonate (Li–PC). • Good electrochromism was found in both electrolytes. • In KOH, tensile/compressive stresses were seen in bleached/colored films. • In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films

  4. Conformal Coating of Cobalt-Nickel Layered Double Hydroxides Nanoflakes on Carbon Fibers for High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Supercapacitor Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2014-07-01

    High specific capacitance coupled with the ease of large scale production is two desirable characteristics of a potential pseudo-supercapacitor material. In the current study, the uniform and conformal coating of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (CoNi0.5LDH,) nanoflakes on fibrous carbon (FC) cloth has been achieved through cost-effective and scalable chemical precipitation method, followed by a simple heat treatment step. The conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH/FC electrode showed 1.5 times greater specific capacitance compared to the electrodes prepared by conventional non-conformal (drop casting) method of depositing CoNi0.5LDH powder on the carbon microfibers (1938 Fg-1 vs 1292 Fg-1). Further comparison of conformally and non-conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH electrodes showed the rate capability of 79%: 43% capacity retention at 50 Ag-1 and cycling stability 4.6%: 27.9% loss after 3000 cycles respectively. The superior performance of the conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH is mainly due to the reduced internal resistance and fast ionic mobility between electrodes as compared to non-conformally coated electrodes which is evidenced by EIS and CV studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Conformal Coating of Cobalt-Nickel Layered Double Hydroxides Nanoflakes on Carbon Fibers for High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Supercapacitor Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Shakir, Imran; Shahid, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Mansoor M.; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir; Gilani, Zaheer Abbas

    2014-01-01

    High specific capacitance coupled with the ease of large scale production is two desirable characteristics of a potential pseudo-supercapacitor material. In the current study, the uniform and conformal coating of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (CoNi0.5LDH,) nanoflakes on fibrous carbon (FC) cloth has been achieved through cost-effective and scalable chemical precipitation method, followed by a simple heat treatment step. The conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH/FC electrode showed 1.5 times greater specific capacitance compared to the electrodes prepared by conventional non-conformal (drop casting) method of depositing CoNi0.5LDH powder on the carbon microfibers (1938 Fg-1 vs 1292 Fg-1). Further comparison of conformally and non-conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH electrodes showed the rate capability of 79%: 43% capacity retention at 50 Ag-1 and cycling stability 4.6%: 27.9% loss after 3000 cycles respectively. The superior performance of the conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH is mainly due to the reduced internal resistance and fast ionic mobility between electrodes as compared to non-conformally coated electrodes which is evidenced by EIS and CV studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Low temperature synthesis and characterization of carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Aneela; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Kanwal, Qudsia; Kazmi, Mohsin; Sadiqa, Ayesha

    2016-08-01

    Carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanorods were synthesized via coprecipitation method from aqueous solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (with urea as carbonate ion source) in the presence of ammonium hydroxide solution at 70 °C at the conditions of pH 11. The obtained powders were physically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), and FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The particle size was evaluated by Dynamic light scattering (DLS). The chemical structural analysis of as prepared sample was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After ageing for 12 h, and heat treatment at 1000 °C for 1 h, the product was obtained as highly crystalline nanorods of CHA.

  7. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H S

    2017-11-03

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg -1 at current density 1 Ag -1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg -1 ), power density (250 W Kg -1 ) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  8. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H. S.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg-1 at current density 1 Ag-1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg-1), power density (250 W Kg-1) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  9. Drastically Enhanced High-Rate Performance of Carbon-Coated LiFePO4 Nanorods Using a Green Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Method for Lithium Ion Battery: A Selective Carbon Coating Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ruiyuan; Liu, Haiqiang; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Jiankun; Tan, Xinghua; Liu, Guangyao; Zhang, Lina; Gu, Xiaohua; Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Hanfu; Sun, Lianfeng; Chu, Weiguo

    2015-06-03

    Application of LiFePO4 (LFP) to large current power supplies is greatly hindered by its poor electrical conductivity (10(-9) S cm(-1)) and sluggish Li+ transport. Carbon coating is considered to be necessary for improving its interparticle electronic conductivity and thus electrochemical performance. Here, we proposed a novel, green, low cost and controllable CVD approach using solid glucose as carbon source which can be extended to most cathode and anode materials in need of carbon coating. Hydrothermally synthesized LFP nanorods with optimized thickness of carbon coated by this recipe are shown to have superb high-rate performance, high energy, and power densities, as well as long high-rate cycle lifetime. For 200 C (18s) charge and discharge, the discharge capacity and voltage are 89.69 mAh g(-1) and 3.030 V, respectively, and the energy and power densities are 271.80 Wh kg(-1) and 54.36 kW kg(-1), respectively. The capacity retention of 93.0%, and the energy and power density retention of 93.6% after 500 cycles at 100 C were achieved. Compared to the conventional carbon coating through direct mixing with glucose (or other organic substances) followed by annealing (DMGA), the carbon phase coated using this CVD recipe is of higher quality and better uniformity. Undoubtedly, this approach enhances significantly the electrochemical performance of high power LFP and thus broadens greatly the prospect of its applications to large current power supplies such as electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  10. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  11. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  12. A simple wet chemical synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingkai; Hou Dedong; Wang Guanghou

    2004-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH):HAP) nanorods have been synthesized successfully via wet chemical technique at low temperature in the presence of suitable surfactant. The as-made nanorods have a diameter of 50-80 nm and a length of 0.5-1.2 μm. The microstructures and composition are characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The formation mechanism of HAP nanorod is discussed in detail. It has been found that nanorods are pure, there is no HAP carbonated HAP. The growth mechanism of HAP nanorods could be explained by a soft template

  13. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  14. Monodisperse embedded nanoparticles derived from an atomic metal-dispersed precursor of layered double hydroxide for architectured carbon nanotube formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Gui-Li; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Bingsen

    2014-01-01

    . When the areal density was increased from 0.039 to 0.55, and to 2.1 x 10(15) m(-2), the Fe NPs embedded on the LDO flakes exhibited good catalytic performance for the growth of entangled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), aligned CNTs, and double helical CNTs, respectively. This work provides not only new...

  15. Photoelectrochemical sensitive detection of insulin based on CdS/polydopamine co-sensitized WO3 nanorod and signal amplification of carbon nanotubes@polydopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongyu; Ma, Hongmin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Qi; Yang, Zhongping; Du, Bin; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2017-10-15

    An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical sandwich immunosensor was designed for detection of insulin based on WO 3 /CdS/polydopamine (WO 3 /CdS/PDA) co-sensitized and PDA@carbon nanotubes (PDA@CNT) conjugates for signal amplification. The CdS nanoparticles were first deposited on the WO 3 nanorods via sequential chemical bath deposition to form the WO 3 /CdS structure to enhance photocurrent. Then equipped with PDA to form the WO 3 /CdS/PDA photosensitive structure. The PDA was used not only to reduce the toxicity of CdS but also adsorb insulin primary antibodies (Ab 1 ). Meanwhile, insulin secondary antibodies (Ab 2 ) were decorated by PDA@CNT conjugates for signal amplification and further enhance photocurrent. Different photocurrent intensities were obtained by the photoelectrochemical workstation at applied bias of 0V due to the different amount of the PDA@CNT conjugates introduced by the different concentrations of insulin. A good linear relationship was obtained between the increased photocurrent and insulin concentrations range from 0.01ngmL -1 to 50ngmL -1 . And a detection limit of 2.8pgmL -1 was obtained. The proposed sensor was applied to the determination of the insulin in human serum sample, and satisfactory results were obtained. The sensor presented good specificity, reproducibility and stability, thus it might find application in the clinical diagnosis of insulin or other biomarkers in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solvothermal one-step synthesis of Ni-Al layered double hydroxide/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide sheet ternary nanocomposite with ultrahigh capacitance for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanlu; Gao, Zan; Wang, Jun; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Milin; Liu, Lianhe

    2013-06-26

    A Ni-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), mutil-wall carbon nanotube (CNT), and reduced graphene oxide sheet (GNS) ternary nanocomposite electrode material has been developed by a facile one-step ethanol solvothermal method. The obtained LDH/CNT/GNS composite displayed a three-dimensional (3D) architecture with flowerlike Ni-Al LDH/CNT nanocrystallites gradually self-assembled on GNS nanosheets. GNS was used as building blocks to construct 3D nanostructure, and the LDH/CNT nanoflowers in turn separated the two-dimensional (2D) GNS sheets, which preserved the high surface area of GNSs. Furthermore, the generated porous networks with a narrow pore size distribution in the LDH/CNT/GNS composite were also demonstrated by the N2 adsorption/desorption experiment. Such morphology would be favorable to improve the mass transfer and electrochemical action of the electrode. As supercapacitor electrode material, the LDH/CNT/GNS hybrid exhibited excellent electrochemical performance, including ultrahigh specific capacitance (1562 F/g at 5 mA/cm(2)), excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling performance, which could be a promising energy storage/conversion material for supercapacitor application.

  17. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3......) or aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in 11 dialysis patients participating in a randomised cross-over study. Each treatment period lasted 6 months. Serum phosphorus was maintained in the range 1.5-2.0 mmol/l. During Al(OH)3 treatment bone mineral content (BMC) decreased by 11% per half-year (mean), but only by 3...... 0.05), osteocalcin decreased (89% versus 117%, P less than 0.01), alkaline phosphatase decreased (92% versus 116%, P less than 0.05), and aluminium decreased (56% versus 189%, P less than 0.05). 1,25(OH)2D3 remained unchanged in both periods. No increase in soft-tissue calcification was demonstrated...

  18. Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide anchored zinc oxide nanowires grown on carbon fiber cloth for high-performance flexible pseudocapacitive energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Imran; Shahid, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Nashef, Inas M Al; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2014-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array has been directly synthesized on a carbon cloth substrate by a facile cost-effective two-step hydrothermal route. As electrode materials for flexible pseudocapacitors, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibits a significantly enhanced specific capacitance of 1927 Fg-1, which is a ∼1.8 time greater than pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes. The synthesized Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array shows a maximum energy density of 45.55 Whkg-1 at a power density of 46.15 kWkg -1, which is 35% higher than the pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes electrode. Moreover, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibit excellent excellent rate capability (80.3% capacity retention at 30 Ag -1) and cycling stability (only 3.98% loss after 3000 cycles), due to the significantly improved faradaic redox reaction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Laccase electrodes based on the combination of single-walled carbon nanotubes and redox layered double hydroxides: Towards the development of biocathode for biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shou-Nian; Holzinger, Michael; Mousty, Christine; Cosnier, Serge

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were combined with layered double hydroxides (LDH) intercalated with 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt [ZnCr-ABTS] to entrap and electrically connect laccase enzyme. The resulting laccase electrodes exhibited an electro-enzymatic activity for O 2 reduction. To improve this electrocatalytic activity, varying SWCNT quantities and loading methods were tested to optimize the configuration of the laccase electrodes. Furthermore, the resulting bioelectrode was successfully used as a biocathode for the elaboration of a membrane-less glucose/air biofuel cell. In 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PBS) of pH 6.0, containing glucose (5 mM) under ambient conditions, the assembled biofuel cell yielded a maximum power density of 18 μW cm -2 at a cell voltage of 0.3 V whereas this power decreased to 8.3 μW cm -2 for a biofuel cell based on the identical biocathode setup without SWCNT.

  20. Mesoporous-activated carbon prepared from chitosan flakes via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrakchi, F; Ahmed, M J; Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-05-01

    In this work, mesoporous-activated carbon (CSAC) was prepared from chitosan flakes (CS) via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). CSAC was prepared using different impregnation ratios of NaOH:CS (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1) at 800°C for 90min. The adsorption performance of CSAC was evaluated for MB at different adsorption variables, such MB initial concentrations (25-400mg/L), solution pH (3-11), and temperature (30-50°C). The adsorption isotherm data of CSAC-MB were well fitted to Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity 143.53mg/g at 50°C. Best representation of kinetic data was obtained by the pseudo-second order model. CSAC exhibited excellent adsorption uptake for MB and can potentially be used for other cationic dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Laccase electrodes based on the combination of single-walled carbon nanotubes and redox layered double hydroxides: Towards the development of biocathode for biofuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shou-Nian; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire UMR-5250, ICMG FR-2607, CNRS Universite Joseph Fourier, BP-53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mousty, Christine [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS UMR-6002, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2010-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were combined with layered double hydroxides (LDH) intercalated with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt [ZnCr-ABTS] to entrap and electrically connect laccase enzyme. The resulting laccase electrodes exhibited an electro-enzymatic activity for O{sub 2} reduction. To improve this electrocatalytic activity, varying SWCNT quantities and loading methods were tested to optimize the configuration of the laccase electrodes. Furthermore, the resulting bioelectrode was successfully used as a biocathode for the elaboration of a membrane-less glucose/air biofuel cell. In 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PBS) of pH 6.0, containing glucose (5 mM) under ambient conditions, the assembled biofuel cell yielded a maximum power density of 18 {mu}W cm{sup -2} at a cell voltage of 0.3 V whereas this power decreased to 8.3 {mu}W cm{sup -2} for a biofuel cell based on the identical biocathode setup without SWCNT. (author)

  2. Comparison of sodium carbonate-oxygen and sodium hydroxide-oxygen pretreatments on the chemical composition and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wenhui; Huang, Ting; Jin, Yongcan; Song, Junlong; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with a combination of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with oxygen (O2) 0.5MPa was evaluated for its delignification ability at relatively low temperature 110°C and for its effect on enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. In the pretreatment, the increase of alkali charge (as Na2O) up to 12% for Na2CO3 and 6% for NaOH, respectively, resulted in enhancement of lignin removal, but did not significantly degrade cellulose and hemicellulose. When the pretreated solid was hydrolyzed with a mixture of cellulases and hemicellulases, the sugar yield increased rapidly with the lignin removal during the pretreatment. A total sugar yield based on dry matter of raw material, 63.8% for Na2CO3-O2 and 71.9% for NaOH-O2 was achieved under a cellulase loading of 20FPU/g-cellulose. The delignification efficiency and total sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis were comparable to the previously reported results at much higher temperature without oxygen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide anchored zinc oxide nanowires grown on carbon fiber cloth for high-performance flexible pseudocapacitive energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-05-01

    Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array has been directly synthesized on a carbon cloth substrate by a facile cost-effective two-step hydrothermal route. As electrode materials for flexible pseudocapacitors, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibits a significantly enhanced specific capacitance of 1927 Fg-1, which is a ∼1.8 time greater than pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes. The synthesized Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array shows a maximum energy density of 45.55 Whkg-1 at a power density of 46.15 kWkg -1, which is 35% higher than the pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes electrode. Moreover, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibit excellent excellent rate capability (80.3% capacity retention at 30 Ag -1) and cycling stability (only 3.98% loss after 3000 cycles), due to the significantly improved faradaic redox reaction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Vertically aligned cobalt hydroxide nano-flake coated electro-etched carbon fiber cloth electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Han; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2014-11-01

    We describe preparation and characterization of nanostructured electrodes using Co(OH)2 nano-flakes and carbon fiber cloth for supercapacitors. Nanostructured Co(OH)2 flakes are produced by electrodeposition and they are coated onto the electro-etched carbon fiber cloth. A highest specific capacitance of 3404.8 F g-1 and an area-normalized specific capacitance of 3.3 F cm-2 have been obtained from such electrodes. Morphology and structure of the nanostructured electrodes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), constant-current charge and discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and long-time cycling.

  5. Synthesis of NiMn-LDH Nanosheet@Ni3S2 Nanorod Hybrid Structures for Supercapacitor Electrode Materials with Ultrahigh Specific Capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Yingxi; Lou, Gaobo; Wu, Yatao; Zhu, Xinqiang; Chen, Hao; Shen, Zhehong; Fu, Shenyuan; Bao, Binfu; Wu, Limin

    2018-03-27

    One of the key challenges for pseudocapacitive electrode materials with highly effective capacitance output and future practical applications is how to rationally construct hierarchical and ordered hybrid nanoarchitecture through the simple process. Herein, we design and synthesize a novel NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheet@Ni 3 S 2 nanorod hybrid array supported on porous nickel foam via a one-pot hydrothermal method. Benefited from the ultrathin and rough nature, the well-defined porous structure of the hybrid array, as well as the synergetic effect between NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheets and Ni 3 S 2 nanorods, the as-fabricated hybrid array-based electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2703 F g -1 at 3 A g -1 . Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor with this hybrid array as a positive electrode and wood-derived activated carbon as a negative electrode demonstrates high energy density (57 Wh Kg -1 at 738 W Kg -1 ) and very good electrochemical cycling stability.

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fabrication of nickel hydroxide electrodes with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays for high capacitance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Huang, Kuo-Chih

    2011-11-28

    A nickel hydroxide electrode with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays, prepared by hydrolysis of nickel chloride in the presence of hexagonal ZnO nanorods, shows a very high capacitance of 1328 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) due to the significantly improved ion transport.

  8. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods, etc., has gained increas- ing research ... method with zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide as starting materials ... also available for detecting ammonia gas. They are: Figaro ... 2.4 Characterization. Degradation .... The temper- ature was tuned by means of varying current through heater.

  9. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Photocatalytic Property of β-Ga2O3 Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L. Sivananda; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-09-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) nanorods were facilely prepared by a simple hydrothermal synthesis, and their morphology and photocatalytic property were studied. The gallium oxide hydroxide (GaOOH) nanorods were formed in aqueous growth solution containing gallium nitrate and ammonium hydroxide at 95 °C of growth temperature. Through the calcination treatment at 500 and 1000 °C for 3 h, the GaOOH nanorods were converted into single crystalline α-Ga2O3 and β-Ga2O3 phases. From X-ray diffraction analysis, it could be confirmed that a high crystalline quality of β-Ga2O3 nanorods was achieved by calcinating at 1000 °C. The thermal behavior of the Ga2O3 nanorods was also investigated by differential thermal analysis, and their vibrational bands were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In order to examine the photocatalytic activity of samples, the photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution was observed under UV light irradiation. As a result, the α-Ga2O3 and β-Ga2O3 nanorods exhibited high photodegeneration efficiencies of 62 and 79 %, respectively, for 180 min of UV irradiation time.

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Photocatalytic Property of β-Ga2O3 Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L Sivananda; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-12-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) nanorods were facilely prepared by a simple hydrothermal synthesis, and their morphology and photocatalytic property were studied. The gallium oxide hydroxide (GaOOH) nanorods were formed in aqueous growth solution containing gallium nitrate and ammonium hydroxide at 95 °C of growth temperature. Through the calcination treatment at 500 and 1000 °C for 3 h, the GaOOH nanorods were converted into single crystalline α-Ga2O3 and β-Ga2O3 phases. From X-ray diffraction analysis, it could be confirmed that a high crystalline quality of β-Ga2O3 nanorods was achieved by calcinating at 1000 °C. The thermal behavior of the Ga2O3 nanorods was also investigated by differential thermal analysis, and their vibrational bands were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In order to examine the photocatalytic activity of samples, the photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution was observed under UV light irradiation. As a result, the α-Ga2O3 and β-Ga2O3 nanorods exhibited high photodegeneration efficiencies of 62 and 79 %, respectively, for 180 min of UV irradiation time.

  11. Influence of the competition of anions (hydroxides, carbonates) on the complexation of trivalent lanthanides by natural organic matter: case of humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouhail, Yasmine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to acquire and refine complexation data for understanding the fate of lanthanides in the environment where the concentrations of organic matter are highly variable. This study is focusing on both the description and understanding of the interactions between the europium(III) and a Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) as a representative of humic substances (HS), and the influence of major anions present in natural waters, i.e. hydroxides and carbonates ions, in these interactions. To understand the ternary systems Eu-OH-SRFA and EU-CO_3-SRFA, Eu-SRFA and EU-CO_3 binary systems are first investigated by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS) for wide ranges of pH, ionic strength, Eu(III), SRFA and CO_3 concentrations. This study shows that the structures of humic substances are influenced by the presence of Eu(III). Interaction constants are determined for the Eu-SRFA binary system and are used for the understanding of the EU-CO_3-SRFA ternary system. EU-CO_3-SRF A ternary complexes are highlighted by SLRT, and an interaction constant has also been proposed in the frame of the NICA-Donnan model. Variations in size of EuSRFA complexes as a function of europium and SRFA concentrations are presented, and the impact of these variations on NICA-Donnan parameters is investigated. The results of this work are challenging modeling concepts of metal-HS interactions at various HS concentrations, in particular for the consideration of electrostatic effects. (author) [fr

  12. Rapid Synthesis of Lead Oxide Nanorods by One-step Solid-state Chemical Reaction at Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO, Ya-Li(曹亚丽); JIA, Dian-Zeng(贾殿赠); LIU, Lang(刘浪); LUO, Jian-Min(骆建敏)

    2004-01-01

    A simple and facile method was reported to synthesize lead oxide nanorods. Nanorods of lead oxide were obtained directly from grinding solid metal salt and sodium hydroxide in agate mortar with the assistance of a suitable nonionic surfactant in only one step, which is different from the result of hydroxide in solution. The product has been characterized by XRD, TEM and SEM. The formation mechanism of rod-like morphology is discussed and the surfactant plays an important soft-template role in modifying the interface of solid-state reaction and according process of rod-formation.

  13. The Effect of Single, Binary and Ternary Anions of Chloride, Carbonate and Phosphate on the Release of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate Intercalated into the Zn–Al-layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Zulkarnain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intercalation of beneficial anion into inorganic host has lead to an opportunity to synthesize various combinations of new organic–inorganic nanohybrids with various potential applications; especially, for the controlled release formulation and storage purposes. Investigation on the release behavior of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D intercalated into the interlayer of Zn–Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAN have been carried out using single, binary and ternary aqueous systems of chloride, carbonate and phosphate. The release behavior of the active agent 2,4-D from its double-layered hydroxide nanohybrid ZANDI was found to be of controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. It was found that carbonate medium yielded the highest accumulated release of 2,4-D, while phosphate in combination with carbonate and/or nitrate speeds up the release rate of 2,4-D. These results indicate that it is possible to design and develop new delivery system of latex stimulant compound with controlled release property based on 2,4-D that is known as a substance to increase latex production of rubber tree,Hevea brasiliensis.

  14. Role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and calcium homeostasis in human lymphocyte death induced by nickel carbonate hydroxide in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Bemba-Meka, Prosper [Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, QC (Canada); University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Lemieux, Nicole [Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology and Cellular Biology, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); Chakrabarti, Saroj K. [Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    When isolated human lymphocytes were treated in vitro with various concentrations of soluble form of nickel carbonate hydroxide (NiCH) (0-1 mM), at 37 C for 4 h, both concentration- and time-dependent effects of NiCH on lymphocyte death were observed. Increased generation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), superoxide anion (O{sub 2} {sup -}), depletion of both no protein (NP-) and protein (P-) sulfhydryl (SH) contents and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were induced by NiCH. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with either catalase (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenger), or deferoxamine (DFO) (iron chelator), or excess glutathione (GSH) (an antioxidant) not only significantly reduced the NiCH-induced generation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and LPO, but also increased the NP-SH and P-SH contents initially reduced by NiCH. NiCH-induced generation of excess O{sub 2} {sup -} but not excess LPO was significantly reduced by pretreatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD). NiCH-induced lymphocyte death was significantly prevented by pre-treatment with either catalase, or dimethylthiourea/mannitol (hydroxyl radical scavengers), or DFO, or excess GSH/N-acetylcysteine. NiCH-induced lymphocyte death was also significantly prevented by pretreatment with excess SOD. Thus, various types of oxidative stresses play an important role in NiCH-induced lymphocyte death. Cotreatment with cyclosporin A, a specific inhibitor of alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}), not only inhibited NiCH-induced alteration in {delta}{psi}{sub m}, but also significantly prevented Ni-compound-induced lymphocyte death. Furthermore, NiCH-induced destabilization of cellular calcium homeostasis. As such, NiCH-induced lymphocyte death was significantly prevented by modulating intracellular calcium fluxes such as Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} antagonist. Thus, the mechanism of NiCH (soluble form)-induced activation of lymphocyte death signalling pathways involves not only the excess

  15. Crystal structure of cobalt hydroxide carbonate Co2CO3(OH)2: density functional theory and X-ray diffraction investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Jorge; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Fernández-González, Ángeles; Jimenez, Amalia; Grau-Crespo, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    The cobalt carbonate hydroxide Co 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 is a technologically important solid which is used as a precursor for the synthesis of cobalt oxides in a wide range of applications. It also has relevance as a potential immobilizer of the toxic element cobalt in the natural environment, but its detailed crystal structure is so far unknown. The structure of Co 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 has now been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) simulations and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements on samples synthesized via deposition from aqueous solution. Two possible monoclinic phases are considered, with closely related but symmetrically different crystal structures, based on those of the minerals malachite [Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 ] and rosasite [Cu 1.5 Zn 0.5 CO 3 (OH) 2 ], as well as an orthorhombic phase that can be seen as a common parent structure for the two monoclinic phases, and a triclinic phase with the structure of the mineral kolwezite [Cu 1.34 Co 0.66 CO 3 (OH) 2 ]. The DFT simulations predict that the rosasite-like and malachite-like phases are two different local minima of the potential energy landscape for Co 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 and are practically degenerate in energy, while the orthorhombic and triclinic structures are unstable and experience barrierless transformations to the malachite phase upon relaxation. The best fit to the PXRD data is obtained using a rosasite model [monoclinic with space group P112 1 /n and cell parameters a = 3.1408 (4) Å, b = 12.2914 (17) Å, c = 9.3311 (16) Å and γ = 82.299 (16)°]. However, some features of the PXRD pattern are still not well accounted for by this refinement and the residual parameters are relatively poor. The relationship between the rosasite and malachite phases of Co 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 is discussed and it is shown that they can be seen as polytypes. Based on the similar calculated stabilities of these two polytypes, it is speculated that some level of stacking disorder could account for the poor

  16. Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the removal of metals and sulphate from mine water. ... equivalent to the Ba(OH)2 dosage. During CO2-dosing, CaCO3 is precipitated to the saturation level of CaCO3. Keywords: Magnesium hydroxide; barium hydroxide; sulphate removal; water treatment ...

  17. Physical properties of nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahne, Roman; George, Chandramohan [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa (Italy). Nanostructures; Manna, Liberato [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa (Italy). Nanochemistry; Morello, Giovanni [CNR, Lecce (Italy). Nanoscience Institute; Figuerola, Albert [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Inst. de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia; Deka, Sasanka [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-06-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are among the most investigated objects nowadays, both in fundamental science and in various technical applications. In this book the physical properties of nanowires formed by nanoparticles with elongated shape, i.e. rod-like or wire-like, are described. The transition in the physical properties is analyzed for nanorods and nanowires consisting of spherical and rod-like nanoparticles. The physical properties of nanowires and elongated inorganic nanoparticles are reviewed too. The optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical and catalytic properties of nanowires consisting of semiconductors, noble and various other metals, metal oxides properties and metal alloys are presented. The applications of nanorods and nanowires are discussed in the book.

  18. Two step continuous method to synthesize colloidal spheroid gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S; Doran, J; McCormack, S J

    2015-12-01

    This research investigated a two-step continuous process to synthesize colloidal suspension of spheroid gold nanorods. In the first step; gold precursor was reduced to seed-like particles in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone and ascorbic acid. In continuous second step; silver nitrate and alkaline sodium hydroxide produced various shape and size Au nanoparticles. The shape was manipulated through weight ratio of ascorbic acid to silver nitrate by varying silver nitrate concentration. The specific weight ratio of 1.35-1.75 grew spheroid gold nanorods of aspect ratio ∼1.85 to ∼2.2. Lower weight ratio of 0.5-1.1 formed spherical nanoparticle. The alkaline medium increased the yield of gold nanorods and reduced reaction time at room temperature. The synthesized gold nanorods retained their shape and size in ethanol. The surface plasmon resonance was red shifted by ∼5 nm due to higher refractive index of ethanol than water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  20. Soft-template mediated synthesis of GaOOH nanorod-shelled microspheres and thermal conversion to beta-Ga2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Qi; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Yujian; Liu, Wei

    2010-07-01

    Micrometer-scale hollow spheres self-assembled by GaOOH nanorods were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using gallium nitrate and sodium hydroxide as starting materials. The structures and morphologies of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Time-dependent experiments revealed three stages involved in the process of reaction including the initial stage of formation of surfactant vesicles which can be considered as soft templates, followed by the nucleation of GaOOH nanoclusters, and the assembling and growth of nanorods under the modulation of the spherical vesicles. The growth kinetics of the GaOOH nanorods was systematically investigated. Based on the experimental observation, a template-mediated assembling mechanism was proposed. We further demonstrated that the GaOOH nanorods could be converted to gallium oxide (beta-Ga2O3) nanorods by calcination without changing the spherical morphology of the assemblies.

  1. Layered-metal-hydroxide nanosheet arrays with controlled nanostructures to assist direct electronic communication at biointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Lu, Shan; Zhao, Liwei; He, Jing

    2011-10-18

    In this work, ordered vertical arrays of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets have been developed to achieve electron transfer (eT) at biointerfaces in electrochemical devices. It is found that tailoring the gap size of LDH nanosheet arrays could significantly promote the eT rate. This research has successfully extended nanomaterials for efficient modifications of electrode surfaces from nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes to nanosheets. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  3. Solubility of AnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O(am) in carbonate solution and formation of ternary An(IV) hydroxide-carbonate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neck, V.; Altmaier, M. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fanghaenel, Th. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The solubility of amorphous An(IV) hydroxides or hydrous oxides is studied with Th(IV) as a redox-stable surrogate for the other tetravalent actinides at I = 0.1 - 4 M (NaHCO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaOHNaCl) and 22 deg. C. Several series of closed system experiments at total carbonate concentrations of C{sub tot} = [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}] + [CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}] = 0.02 and 0.1 M in the range pH{sub c} = 8 - 13 and in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaOH mixtures are performed with Th(IV) and additionally with Pu(IV). In our recent study with Th(IV) at I = 0.5 M [1], the simultaneous evaluation of solubility data at widely varied pH and carbonate concentrations has shown that Th(OH)(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-}, Th(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2-} and Th(OH){sub 4}(CO{sub 3}){sup 2-} are the most important ternary complexes. The present results at I = 0.1 - 4 M are used to describe the ionic strength dependence of the equilibrium constants log K{sub s,1yz} = log K{sub sp} + log {beta}{sub 1yz} for the reactions An(OH){sub 4}(am) + z CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} {r_reversible} An(OH){sub y}(CO{sub 3}){sub z}{sup 4-y-2z} + (4-y) OH{sup -}. Using the evaluated ion interaction (SIT) coefficients, available solubility data for U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) in wide ranges of pH, carbonate concentration and ionic strength, in particular apparently conflicting literature data for Np(IV) [2, 3] and Pu(IV) [2, 4], can be described with a consistent set of equilibrium constants. The predominant complexes An(OH){sub y}(CO{sub 3}){sub z}{sup 4-y-2z} and their formation constants log {beta}{sup 0}{sub 1yz} show pronounced analogies and systematic tendencies in the series Th(IV)-U(IV)-Np(IV)-Pu(IV). [1] Altmaier, M., Neck, V., Mueller, R., Fanghaenel, Th., Radiochim. Acta 93 (2005), in press.; [2] Rai, D., Hess, N.J., Felmy, A.R., Moore, D.A., Yui, M., Vitorge, P., a) Radiochim. Acta 84 (1999), 159, b) Radiochim. Acta 86 (1999), 89.; [3] Kitamura, A., Kohara, Y., J. Nucl

  4. Magnetic-plasmonic multilayered nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumthan, Orathai

    Multilayered nanorods which consist of alternating magnetic layers separated by Au layers combine two distinctive properties, magnetic properties and surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) properties into one nano-entity. Their magnetic properties are tunable by changing the layer thickness, varying from single domain to superparamagnetic state. Superparamagnetic is a key requirement for magnetic nanoparticles for bioapplications. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles exhibit high magnetic moments at low applied magnetic field while retain no magnetic moments when magnetic field is removed preventing them from aggregation due to magnetic attraction. Au layers in the nanorods provide anchorage sites for functional group attachment. Also, Au nanodisks exhibit SPR properties. The SPR peak can be tuned from 540 nm to 820 nm by controlling the thickness of magnetic segments while keeping Au thickness constant. In this research, there are three types of multilayered nanorod have been fabricated: Au/NiFe nanorods, Au/Fe nanorods, and Au/Co nanorods. These magnetic nanorods were fabricated by templated electrodeposition into the channels in Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membrane. The setup for AAO fabrication was developed as a part of this research. Our fabricated AAO membrane has channels with a diameter ranging from 40nm to 80 nm and a thickness of 10um to 12um. Magnetic properties of nanorods such as saturation field, saturation moment, coercivity and remanence are able to manipulate through their shape anisotropy. The magnetization will be easier in long axis rather than short axis of particle. In addition, Au nanodisks in the nanorod structure are not only serving as anchorage sites for functional groups but also provide SPR properties. Under irradiation of light Au nanodisks strongly absorb light at SPR frequency which ranging from 540 nm to 820 nm by controlling the thickness of magnetic segments while keeping Au thickness constant. The SPR tunability of nanorods in near

  5. Nickel hydroxide electrode. 3: Thermogravimetric investigations of nickel (II) hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennstedt, W.; Loeser, W.

    1982-01-01

    Water contained in Ni hydroxide influences its electrochemical reactivity. The water content of alpha and beta Ni hydroxides is different with respect to the amount and bond strength. Thermogravimetric experiments show that the water of the beta Ni hydroxides exceeding the stoichiometric composition is completely removed at 160 deg. The water contained in the interlayers of the beta hydroxide, however, is removed only at higher temperatures, together with the water originating from the decomposition of the hydroxide. These differences are attributed to the formation of II bonds within the interlayers and between interlayers and adjacent main layers. An attempt is made to explain the relations between water content and the oxidizability of the Ni hydroxides.

  6. Effect of Different Seed Solutions on the Morphology and Electrooptical Properties of ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kashif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and electrooptical properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized on monoethanolamine-based seed layer and KOH-based seed layer were compared. The seed solutions were prepared in monoethanolamine in 2-methoxyethanol and potassium hydroxide in methanol, respectively. Zinc acetate dihydrate was as a common precursor in both solutions. The nanorod-ZnOs were synthesized via the spin coating of two different seed solutions on silicon substrates followed by their hydrothermal growth. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, and Raman studies revealed that the ZnO nanorods obtained from monoethanolamine-based seed layer had fewer defects, better crystals, and better alignment than those realized via KOH-based seed layer. However, the current-voltage (I-V characteristics demonstrated better conductivity of the ZnO nanorods obtained via KOH-based seed layer. The current measured in forward bias was 4 mA and 40 μA for ZnO-nanorods grown on KOH-based seed layer and monoethanolamine-based with the turn on voltage of approximately 1.5 V and 2.5 V, respectively, showing the feasibility of using both structures in optoelectric devices.

  7. One-step enrichment and chemiluminescence detection of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate in river water using Mg-Al-carbonate layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Weijiang; Zhou, Wenjuan; Han, Dongmei; Zhang, Mengchun; Lu, Chao; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2014-03-01

    In this work, Mg-Al CO3-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were used as adsorbent materials for sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in aqueous solutions, the enriched SDBS can be directly detected by IO4(-)-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) system. The commonly existing cations cannot be enriched by Mg-Al CO3-LDHs due to the structurally positively charged layers of LDHs, while other adsorbed anionic interferents had no effect on the IO4(-)-H2O2 CL reaction. The corresponding linear regression equation was established in the range of 0.1-10 μM for SDBS. The detection limit at a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 for SDBS was 0.08 μM. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for nine repeated measurements of 0.5 μM SDBS was 2.6%. This proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of SDBS in river water samples. To the best of our knowledge, we have first time coupled the high enrichment capacity of LDHs towards anions with CL detection for analytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microporous-mesoporous carbons for energy storage synthesized by activation of carbonaceous material by zinc chloride, potassium hydroxide or mixture of them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmas, M.; Thomberg, T.; Kurig, H.; Romann, T.; Jänes, A.; Lust, E.

    2016-09-01

    Various electrochemical methods have been applied to establish the electrochemical characteristics of the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) consisting of the 1 M triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate solution in acetonitrile and activated carbon based electrodes. Activated microporous carbon materials used for the preparation of electrodes have been synthesized from the hydrothermal carbonization product (HTC) prepared via hydrothermal carbonization process of D-(+)-glucose solution in H2O, followed by activation with ZnCl2, KOH or their mixture. Highest porosity and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area (SBET = 2150 m2 g-1), micropore surface area (Smicro = 2140 m2 g-1) and total pore volume (Vtot = 1.01 cm3 g-1) have been achieved for HTC activated using KOH with a mass ratio of 1:4 at 700 °C. The correlations between SBET, Smicro, Vtot and electrochemical characteristics have been studied to investigate the reasons for strong dependence of electrochemical characteristics on the synthesis conditions of carbon materials studied. Wide region of ideal polarizability (ΔV ≤ 3.0 V), very short characteristic relaxation time (0.66 s), and high specific series capacitance (134 F g-1) have been calculated for the mentioned activated carbon material, demonstrating that this system can be used for completing the EDLC with high energy- and power densities.

  9. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...... equation showing maximum release at pH 5.2, reaching approximately 45% of the total Zn content. The Zn concentrations in the plants receiving the LDHs were between 2- and 9.5-fold higher than those in plants without Zn addition. A positive effect of the LDHs was also found in soil. This work documents...

  10. Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide Using Zn–Cu–Ga Layered Double Hydroxides Assembled with Cu Phthalocyanine: Cu in Contact with Gaseous Reactant is Needed for Methanol Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Shogo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into fuels is an attractive option in terms of both reducing the increased concentration of atmospheric CO2 as well as generating renewable hydrocarbon fuels. It is necessary to investigate good catalysts for CO2 conversion and to clarify the mechanism irradiated by natural light. Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH have been attracting attention for CO2 photoreduction with the expectation of sorption capacity for CO2 in the layered space and tunable semiconductor properties as a result of the choice of metal cations. This study first clarifies the effects of Cu doping to LDH comprising Zn and Al or Ga. Cu could be incorporated in the cationic layers of LDH as divalent metal cations and/or interlayer anions as Cu(OH42−. The formation rates of methanol and CO were optimized for [Zn1.5Cu1.5Ga(OH8]+2Cu(OH42−·mH2O at a total rate of 560 nmol h−1 gcat−1 irradiated by UV–visible light. Cu phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate hydrate (CuPcTs4− and silver were effective as promoters of LDH for CO2 photoreduction. Especially, the total formation rate using CuPcTs-[Zn3Ga(OH8]+2CO32−·mH2O irradiated by visible light was 73% of that irradiated by UV–visible light. The promotion was based on HOMO–LUMO excitation of CuPcTs4− by visible light. The LUMO was distributed on N atoms of pyrrole rings bound to central Cu2+ ions. The photogenerated electrons diffused to the Cu site would photoreduce CO2 progressively in a similar way to inlayer and interlayer Cu sites in the LDH in this study.

  11. Optical imaging and magnetophoresis of nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jit Kang; Tan, David X.; Lanni, Frederick; Tilton, Robert D.; Majetich, Sara A.

    2009-01-01

    Peclet number analysis is performed to probe the convective motion of nanospheres and nanorods under the influence of magnetophoresis and diffusion. Under most circumstances, magnetophoretic behaviour dominates diffusion for nanorods, as the magnetic field lines tend to align the magnetic moment along the rod axis. The synthesis and dispersion of fluorophore-tagged nanorods are described. Fluorescence microscopy is employed to image the nanorod motion in a magnetic field gradient. The preliminary experimental data are consistent with the Peclet number analysis.

  12. Solubility Model for Ferrous Iron Hydroxide, Hibbingite, Siderite, and Chukanovite in High Saline Solutions of Sodium Chloride, Sodium Sulfate, and Sodium Carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungtae; Marrs, Cassandra; Nemer, Martin; Jang, Jay Je-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Here, a solubility model is presented for ferrous iron hydroxide (Fe(OH) 2 (s)), hibbingite (Fe 2 Cl(OH) 3 (s)), siderite (FeCO 3 (s)), and chukanovite (Fe 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 (s)). The Pitzer activity coefficient equation was utilized in developing the model to account for the excess free energies of aqueous species in the background solutions of high ionic strength. Solubility limiting minerals were analyzed before and after experiments using X-ray diffraction. Formation of Fe(OH) 2 (s) was observed in the experiments that were initiated with Fe 2 Cl(OH) 3 (s) in Na 2 SO 4 solution. Coexistence of siderite and chukanovite was observed in the experiments in Na 2 CO 3 + NaCl solutions. Two equilibrium constants that had been reported by us for the dissolution of Fe(OH) 2 (s) and Fe 2 Cl(OH) 3 (s) (Nemer et al.) were rederived in this paper, using newer thermodynamic data selected from the literature to maintain internal consistency of the series of our data analyses in preparation, including this paper. Three additional equilibrium constants for the following reactions were determined in this paper: dissolution of siderite and chukanovite and dissociation of the aqueous species Fe(CO 3 ) 2 –2 . Five Pitzer interaction parameters were derived in this paper: β (0) , β (1) , and C φ parameters for the species pair Fe +2 /SO 4 –2 ; β (0) and β (1) parameters for the species pair Na+/Fe(CO3)2–2. Our model predicts that, among the four inorganic ferrous iron minerals, siderite is the stable mineral in two WIPP-related brines (WIPP: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), i.e., GWB and ERDA6 (Brush and Domski), and the electrochemical equilibrium between elemental iron and siderite provides a low oxygen fugacity (10 –91.2 atm) that can keep the actinides at their lowest oxidation states. (Nemer et al., Brush and Domski; references numbered 1 and 2 in the main text).

  13. Isotherms and kinetic study of ultrasound-assisted adsorption of malachite green and Pb2+ ions from aqueous samples by copper sulfide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: Experimental design optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifpour, Ebrahim; Khafri, Hossein Zare; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asfaram, Arash; Jannesar, Ramin

    2018-01-01

    Copper sulfide nanorods loaded on activated carbon (CuS-NRs-AC) was synthesized and used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of malachite green (MG) and Pb 2+ ions from aqueous solution. Following characterization of CuS-NRs-AC were investigated by SEM, EDX, TEM and XRD, the effects of pH (2.0-10), amount of adsorbent (0.003-0.011g), MG concentration (5-25mgL -1 ), Pb 2+ concentration (3-15mgL -1 ) and sonication time (1.5-7.5min) and their interactions on responses were investigated by central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology. According to desirability function on the Design Expert optimum removal (99.4%±1.0 for MG and 68.3±1.8 for Pb 2+ ions) was obtained at pH 6.0, 0.009g CuS-NRs-AC, 6.0min mixing by sonication and 15 and 6mgL -1 for MG and Pb 2+ ions, respectively. High determination coefficient (R 2 >0.995), Pred-R 2 -value (>0.920) and Adju-R 2 -value (>0.985) all are good indication of best agreement between the experimental and design modelling. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second order model and adsorption isotherm follows the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 145.98 and 47.892mgg -1 for MG and Pb 2+ ions, respectively. This adsorbent over short contact time is good choice for simultaneous removal of large content of both MG and Pb 2+ ions from wastewater sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural Biowaste-Cocoon-Derived Granular Activated Carbon-Coated ZnO Nanorods: A Simple Route To Synthesizing a Core-Shell Structure and Its Highly Enhanced UV and Hydrogen Sensing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Adhimoorthy; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Kathiravan, Deepa; Prasannan, Adhimoorthy

    2017-11-15

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) materials were prepared via simple gas activation of silkworm cocoons and were coated on ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) by the facile hydrothermal method. The present combination of GAC and ZNRs shows a core-shell structure (where the GAC is coated on the surface of ZNRs) and is exposed by systematic material analysis. The as-prepared samples were then fabricated as dual-functional sensors and, most fascinatingly, the as-fabricated core-shell structure exhibits better UV and H 2 sensing properties than those of as-fabricated ZNRs and GAC. Thus, the present core-shell structure-based H 2 sensor exhibits fast responses of 11% (10 ppm) and 23.2% (200 ppm) with ultrafast response and recovery. However, the UV sensor offers an ultrahigh photoresponsivity of 57.9 A W -1 , which is superior to that of as-grown ZNRs (0.6 A W -1 ). Besides this, switching photoresponse of GAC/ZNR core-shell structures exhibits a higher switching ratio (between dark and photocurrent) of 1585, with ultrafast response and recovery, than that of as-grown ZNRs (40). Because of the fast adsorption ability of GAC, it was observed that the finest distribution of GAC on ZNRs results in rapid electron transportation between the conduction bands of GAC and ZNRs while sensing H 2 and UV. Furthermore, the present core-shell structure-based UV and H 2 sensors also well-retained excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and long-term stability. Thus, the salient feature of this combination is that it provides a dual-functional sensor with biowaste cocoon and ZnO, which is ecological and inexpensive.

  15. A facile hydrothermal strategy for synthesis of SnO2 nanorods-graphene nanocomposites for high performance photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-Ya; Zhang, Wei-De; Xu, Bin; Yu, Yu-Xiang

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we report a facilely hydrothermal process for synthesizing SnO2 nanorods-graphene (SnO2 nanorods-GR) composite using graphite oxide and SnCl4 as raw materials. The SnO2 nanorods-GR composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Compared to commercial TiO2 nanoparticles P25 and neat SnO2 nanorods, the SnO2 nanorods-GR composite exhibits higher photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation. The mechanism of its high photocatalytic activity is mainly ascribed to the synergy effect between SnO2 and graphene, in which graphene acts as an adsorbent and electron acceptor due to its large structure of pi-pi conjugation from sp2 hybrid carbon atoms. The results demonstrated in this study provide a promising way to enhance the photocatalytic activity by compounding semiconductive nanocrystals with graphene.

  16. Mechanisms of mineral membrane fouling growth modulated by pulsed modes of current during electrodialysis: evidences of water splitting implications in the appearance of the amorphous phases of magnesium hydroxide and calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Araya, Nicolás; Astudillo-Castro, Carolina; Bazinet, Laurent

    2014-07-15

    Experiments revealed the fouling nature evolutions along different electrodialysis (ED) trials, and how it disappears when current pulsation acts repetitively on the interfaces of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). Fouling was totally controlled on the diluate side of cation-exchange membrane (CEM) by the repetitive pulsation frequency of the higher on-duty ratios applied. They created steady water splitting proton-barriers that neutralized OH(-) leakage through the membrane, decreasing the interfacial pH, and fouling of the concentrate side. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) on the diluate side was similarly protected, but it was fouled once water splitting OH(-) generation became either intense enough or excessively weak. Interestingly, amorphous magnesium hydroxide (AMH) stemmed on the CEM-diluate side from brucite under intense water splitting OH(-) generation, and/or strong OH(-) leakage electromigration through the membrane. Water dissociation and overlimiting current regimes triggered drastic water molecule removal from crystal lattices through an accelerated cascade water splitting reaction. Also, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) appeared on CEM under intense water splitting reaction, and disappeared once intense OH(-) leakage was allowed by the water splitting proton-barrier dissipation. Our findings have implications for membrane fouling control, as well as for the understanding of the growth behavior of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 species on electromembrane interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective Oxidation of Glycerol to Glyceric Acid in Base-Free Aqueous Solution at Room Temperature Catalyzed by Platinum Supported on Carbon Activated with Potassium Hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Hua

    2016-04-18

    Pt supported on KOH-activated mesoporous carbon (K-AMC) was used to catalyze glycerol oxidation under base-free conditions at room temperature. To study the relationship between the carbon surface chemistry and the catalytic performance of the K-AMC-based Pt catalysts, different levels of surface oxygen functional groups (SOFGs) on the AMC supports were induced by thermal treatment at different temperatures under inert or H2 gas. A strong effect of the surface chemistry was observed on AMC-supported Pt catalysts for glycerol oxidation. The presence of carboxylic acid groups impedes the adsorption of glycerol, which leads to the reduction of catalytic activity, whereas the presence of high-desorption-temperature SOFGs, such as phenol, ether, and carbonyl/quinone groups, provide hydrophilicity to the carbon surface that improves the adsorption of glycerol molecules on Pt metal surface, which is beneficial for the catalytic activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthesis of iron oxide nanorods via chemical scavenging and phase transformations of intermediates at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ruchi; Mehra, Anurag; Thaokar, Rochish, E-mail: rochish@che.iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2017-01-15

    Chemically induced shape transformations of isotropic seeds, comprised of iron oxyhydroxides and iron oxide borate into nanorods, is reported. Transient growth studies show that the nanorods are formed via phase transformation and aggregation of various metastable species. Addition of tetra-methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to the in situ synthesized seeds ensures a typical reaction pathway that favors formation of magnetite (Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4}) via the steps of chemical etching, phase transformation of intermediates, and crystal consolidation. Whereas, with addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), either magnetite (Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4}) or a mixture of (γ-Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3} + α-FeOOH) is obtained. The shape with both the additives is always that of nanorods. When the seeds treated with TMAH were aged in an ultrasonication bath, rods with almost twice the length and diameter (length = 2800 nm, diameter = 345 nm) are obtained as compared to the sample aged without ultrasonication (length = 1535 nm, diameter = 172 nm). The morphology of nanostructures depending upon other experimental conditions such as, aging the sample at 60 {sup ∘}C, seeds synthesized under ultrasonication/ stirring or externally added are also examined and discussed in detail. All the samples show high coercivity and strong ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and should be promising candidates as ferro-fluids for various applications.

  19. A low-potential, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-assisted electrodeposition of cobalt oxide/hydroxide nanostructures onto vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jiang [Food and Bioprocess Engineering laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 460 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zhang Weide [Nanoscience Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Gunasekaran, Sundaram, E-mail: guna@wisc.edu [Food and Bioprocess Engineering laboratory, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 460 Henry Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > We successfully synthesized CoOx.nH{sub 2}O-MWCNTs nanocomposites using a cathodic electrochemical reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to deposit cobalt oxide/hydroxide nanostructures onto vertically well-aligned MWCNTs arrays. > This is an enzyme-free sensor. > Under optimal detection conditions, the sensor showed a good-enough sensitivity of 162.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, a low detection limit of 2.0 {mu}M (S/N = 3) and a fast response of less than 4 s within the linear range of up to 4.5 mM. > Other advantages of the sensor for Glc measurements include high insensitivity to common interferences, long-term stability, reproducibility and resistance to chloride poisoning without additional outer membrance like Nafion. Therefor it is useful for routine Glc analysis. > The novel nanocomposite material with good mechanical strength and high conductivity can be planted into microchannels to conduct sophisticated lab-on-a-chip Glc detection. - Abstract: A novel nanocomposite was synthesized using a cathodic, low-potential, electrochemical reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to homogeneously deposit cobalt oxide/hydroxide (denoted as CoOx.nH{sub 2}O) nanostructures onto vertically well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays (MWCNTs), while the MWCNTs were prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a tantalum (Ta) substrate. The CoOx.nH{sub 2}O-MWCNTs nanocomposite exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity towards glucose (Glc) after modification with CoOx.nH{sub 2}O than before. This non-enzymatic Glc sensor has a high sensitivity (162.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), fast response time (<4 s) and low detection limit (2.0 {mu}M at signal/noise ratio = 3), and a linear dynamic range up to 4.5 mM. The sensor output is stable over 30 days and unaffected by common interferents that co-exist with Glc in analytical samples; it is also resistant to chloride poisoning. These features make the CoOx.nH{sub 2}O-MWCNTs nanocomposite a promising electrode

  20. Hierarchically porous nitrogen-doped carbon derived from the activation of agriculture waste by potassium hydroxide and urea for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kaixiang; Deng, Yuanfu; Chen, Juping; Qian, Yunqian; Yang, Yuewang; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Guohua

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon with an ultra-high specific surface area and a hierarchically interconnected porous structure is synthesized in large scale from a green route, that is, the activation of bagasse via a one-step method using KOH and urea. KOH and urea play a synergistic effect for the enhancement of the specific surface area and the modification of pore size of the as-prepared material. Benefiting from the multiple synergistic roles originated from an ultra-high specific area (2905.4 m2 g-1), a high porous volume (2.05 mL g-1 with 75.6 vol% micropores, which is an ideal proportion of micropores for obtaining high specific capacitance), a suitable nitrogen content (2.63 wt%), and partial graphitization, the hierarchically interconnected porous N-doped carbon exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance (350.8, 301.9, and 259.5 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 in acidic, alkaline, and neutral electrolytes, respectively), superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability (almost no capacitance loss up to 5000 cycles). Furthermore, the symmetric device assembled by this material achieves high energy densities of 39.1 and 23.5 Wh kg-1 at power densities of 1.0 and 20 kW kg-1, respectively, and exhibits an excellent long-term cycling stability (with capacitance retention above 95.0% after 10 000 cycles).

  1. Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4} nanorod as high stability electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chun-Han; Shen, Yu-Wen; Chien, Li-Hsuan; Kuo, Ping-Lin, E-mail: plkuo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-01-15

    Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4} (LFS) nanorods, with a diameter of 80–100 nm and length of 0.8–1.0 μm, were synthesized successfully from a mixture of LiOH, FeSO{sub 4}, and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles via a simple hydrothermal process. The secondary structure with micro-sized bundles of nanorods was developed with high crystallinity under the hydrothermal condition of 180 °C for 72 h. Then, sucrose, as carbon source, was coated and carbonized on the surface of the LFS nanorods to fabricate LFS/C nanorod composite. The resulting LFS/C nanorod composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and surface area measurements. When used as the cathode materials for lithium-ion battery, the electrochemical performance of the LFS/C nanorod material delivers discharge capacities of 156 mAh g{sup −1} in the voltage window of 1.8−4.7 V and also demonstrates good cycle stability when it is cycled between 1.8 and 4.1 V. In short, superior electrochemical properties could be caused by the short lithium-ion diffusion path of its nanorod structure.

  2. Li2FeSiO4 nanorod as high stability electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chun-Han; Shen, Yu-Wen; Chien, Li-Hsuan; Kuo, Ping-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Li 2 FeSiO 4 (LFS) nanorods, with a diameter of 80–100 nm and length of 0.8–1.0 μm, were synthesized successfully from a mixture of LiOH, FeSO 4 , and SiO 2 nanoparticles via a simple hydrothermal process. The secondary structure with micro-sized bundles of nanorods was developed with high crystallinity under the hydrothermal condition of 180 °C for 72 h. Then, sucrose, as carbon source, was coated and carbonized on the surface of the LFS nanorods to fabricate LFS/C nanorod composite. The resulting LFS/C nanorod composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and surface area measurements. When used as the cathode materials for lithium-ion battery, the electrochemical performance of the LFS/C nanorod material delivers discharge capacities of 156 mAh g −1 in the voltage window of 1.8−4.7 V and also demonstrates good cycle stability when it is cycled between 1.8 and 4.1 V. In short, superior electrochemical properties could be caused by the short lithium-ion diffusion path of its nanorod structure

  3. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  4. F-radiographic study of uranium distribution in iron hydroxides from crusts of weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmodik, S.M.; Mironov, A.G.; Nemirovskaya, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of study of uranium concentrations and peculiarities of its distribution in iron hydroxides from crusts of weathering of aluminium silicate and carbonate rocks. The age of one crusts of weathering is Quaternary, of others - Tertiary. The effect of climatic conditions, composition of source rocks, hydrochemical zoning of the crust of weathering on the uranium fixation by iron hydroxides has been studied. Gamma-spectroscopy, luminescence and autoradiography methods have been used. The mechanism of formation of increased uranium concentrations in iron hydroxides is considered. A conclusion is made that increased uranium concentrations in iron hydroxides may appear in the process of weathering both of aluminium-silicate and carbonate-containing rocks as a result of uranium sorption by fine dispersed iron hydrates. The use of iron hydroxides with increased (anomalous) uranium concentrations as a direct search feature without additional investigations can lead to wrong conclusions

  5. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Biddy, Mary J.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-04-25

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  6. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Gregg T; Biddy, Mary J.; Kruger, Jacob S.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  7. Artificial neural network (ANN) method for modeling of sunset yellow dye adsorption using zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: Kinetic and isotherm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Zinali, A.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Habibi, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, ZnO nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NPs-AC) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure. The characterization and identification have been completed by different techniques such as SEM and XRD analysis. A three layer artificial neural network (ANN) model is applicable for accurate prediction of dye removal percentage from aqueous solution by ZnO-NRs-AC following conduction of 270 experimental data. The network was trained using the obtained experimental data at optimum pH with different ZnO-NRs-AC amount (0.005-0.015 g) and 5-40 mg/L of sunset yellow dye over contact time of 0.5-30 min. The ANN model was applied for prediction of the removal percentage of present systems with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) in the hidden layer with 6 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0008 and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998 were found for prediction and modeling of SY removal. The influence of parameters including adsorbent amount, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time on sunset yellow (SY) removal percentage were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Optimal conditions were set as follows: pH, 2.0; 10 min contact time; an adsorbent dose of 0.015 g. Equilibrium data fitted truly with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 142.85 mg/g for 0.005 g adsorbent. The adsorption of sunset yellow followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation.

  8. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Co (OH)2 Nanorods by Solid-state Chemical Reaction at Room Temperature%氢氧化钴纳米棒的室温固相化学合成及其表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾殿赠; 曹亚丽; 刘浪; 周杰; 肖定全

    2005-01-01

    Cobahous hydroxide nanorods were synthesized by solid-state chemical reactions of Co(Ac)2·4H2O, and NaOH at room temperature in the presence of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400). The compositions and morphologies of the products were characterized by XRD, TEM, IR and TG-DTA. The results show that Co(OH)2 nanorods can be obtained only in one-step by means of surfactant-assisted soft-template solid-state chemical reaction method. The surfactant (PEG-400) plays a soft-template like role in the process of Co(OH)2 nanorods formation and leads nanocrystallines to grow along certain direction into nanorods.

  10. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  11. Role of oxidative stress and intracellular calcium in nickel carbonate hydroxide-induced sister-chromatid exchange, and alterations in replication index and mitotic index in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Bemba-Meka, Prosper [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Lemieux, Nicole [Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); Chakrabarti, Saroj K. [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Human peripheral lymphocytes from whole blood cultures were exposed to either soluble form of nickel carbonate hydroxide (NiCH) (0-60 {mu}M), or of nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (0-120 {mu}M), or of nickel oxide (NiO) (0-120 {mu}M), or nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}) (0-120 {mu}M) for a short duration of 2 h. The treatments occurred 46 h after the beginning of the cultures. The cultures were harvested after a total incubation of 72 h, and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), replication index (RI), and mitotic index (MI) were measured for each nickel compound. The soluble form of NiCH at 30 {mu}M but those of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} and NiO at 120 {mu}M produced significant increase in the SCE per cell compared to the control value, whereas NiSO{sub 4} failed to produce any such significant increase. Except NiSO{sub 4}, the soluble forms of NiCH, Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}, and NiO produced significant cell-cycle delay (as measured by the inhibition of RI) as well as significant inhibition of the MI at respective similar concentrations as mentioned above. Pretreatment of human blood lymphocytes with catalase (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenger), or superoxide dismutase (superoxide anion scavenger), or dimethylthiourea (hydroxyl radical scavenger), or deferoxamine (iron chelator), or N-acetylcysteine (general antioxidant) inhibited NiCH-induced SCE, and changes in RI and MI. This suggests the participation of oxidative stress involving H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the superoxide anion radical, the hydroxyl radical, and iron in the NiCH-induced genotoxic responses. Cotreatment of NiCH with either verapamil (inhibitor of intracellular calcium ion ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) movement through plasma membranes), or dantrolene (inhibitor of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} release from sarcoplasmic reticulum), or BAPTA (Ca{sup 2+} chelator) also inhibited the NiCH-induced responses. These results suggest that [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is also implicated in the genotoxicity of NiCH. Overall these data indicate that various types

  12. Hollow Co2P nanoflowers organized by nanorods for ultralong cycle-life supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming; Fan, Hongsheng; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Rongming; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-01-01

    Hollow Co2P nanoflowers (Co2P HNF) are successfully prepared via a one-step, template-free method. Microstructure analysis reveals that Co2P HNF is assembled by nanorods, possesses abundant mesopores and a amorphous carbon shell. Density functional

  13. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. Double Fano resonances in plasmon coupling nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fei; Jin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Fano resonances are investigated in nanorods with symmetric lengths and side-by-side assembly. Single Fano resonance can be obtained by a nanorod dimer, and double Fano resonances are shown in nanorod trimers with side-by-side assembly. With transverse plasmon excitation, Fano resonances are caused by the destructive interference between a bright superradiant mode and dark subradiant modes. The bright mode originates from the electric plasmon resonance, and the dark modes originate from the magnetic resonances induced by near-field inter-rod coupling. Double Fano resonances result from double dark modes at different wavelengths, which are induced and tuned by the asymmetric gaps between the adjacent nanorods. Fano resonances show a high figure of merit and large light extinction in the periodic array of assembled nanorods, which can potentially be used in multiwavelength sensing in the visible and near-infrared regions. (paper)

  15. Stimulated emission from ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, R.; Lange, H.; Priller, H.; Klingshirn, C.; Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kling, R. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU-Braunschweig, H.-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Fan, H.J.; Zacharias, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    By means of time resolved spectroscopy we compare two samples of ZnO nanorods with respect to their suitability as stimulated emitters. In the case of narrow nanorods their wave guiding quality causes a suppression of exciton-exciton scattering whereas no laser emission is detectable. Unlike their narrow counterparts, wide nanorods not only benefit from a larger overlap of the guided mode with the gain medium but a variation in VLS growth results in gold nanoparticles being present at the bottom of nanorods. Consequently, laser emission from single wide rods is evidenced up to 150 K. In addition to experimental studies we carry out 3D numerical simulations of the electric field distribution to evaluate the influence of gold nanoparticles at the nanorod/substrate interface. This finite element analysis confirms that gold leads to an enhancement of confinement within the resonator. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Growth and characterization of iridium dioxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, R.S.; Huang, Y.S.; Liang, Y.M.; Tsai, D.S.; Tiong, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    Conductive iridium dioxide (IrO 2 ) nanorods have been successfully grown on the Si(1 0 0) substrates via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A wedge-shaped morphology and naturally formed sharp tips are observed for IrO 2 nanorods using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image and electron diffraction pattern show the growth of IrO 2 nanorods preferentially along c-axis. Structure and composition of IrO 2 nanorods have also been characterized using the techniques of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. It is noted that the IrO 2 nanorods are self-mediated instead of the conventional vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) approach or catalyst-mediated method

  17. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solution of potassium hydroxide with excess carbon dioxide to produce potassium carbonate; (3) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce potassium bicarbonate, which is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food...

  18. Highly crystalline zinc incorporated hydroxyapatite nanorods' synthesis, characterization, thermal, biocompatibility, and antibacterial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayakumar, Gayathri; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi

    2017-10-01

    Highly crystalline zinc incorporated hydroxyapatite (Zn-HAp) nanorods have been synthesized using microwave irradiation method. To improve bioactivity and crystallinity of pure HAp, zinc was incorporated into it. As-synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and the thermal and crystallinity behavior of Zn-HAp nanoparticle were studied by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Antibacterial activity of the as-synthesized nanorods was evaluated against two prokaryotic strains ( Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). The FT-IR studies show the presence of hydroxide and phosphate functional groups. HRTEM and FESEM images showed highly crystalline rod-shaped nanoparticles with the diameter of about 50-60 nm. EDAX revealed the presence of Ca, Zn, P, and O in the prepared samples. The crystallinity and thermal stability were further confirmed by TGA-DSC analysis. The biocompatibility evaluation results promoted that the Zn-HAp nanorods are biologically active apatites and potentially promising bone-substitute biomaterials for orthopaedic application.

  19. Synthesis of gold nanorods with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of around 1250 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Nhat Hang; Le Trinh Nguyen, Thi; Thanh Tuyen Luong, Thi; Thang Nguyen, Canh Minh; Nguyen, Thi Phuong Phong

    2016-03-01

    We prepared gold nanorods and joined them to chemicals such as tetrachloauric (III) acid trihydrate, silver nitrate, hydroquinone, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride using the seed-mediated method. The combination of hydroquinone, with or without salicylic acid, influences the size of the gold nanorods, and this is demonstrated by the results of TEM images, UV-vis spectra and the value of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak with respect to the UV-vis spectra. By changing the Ag+ ion and hydroquinone concentration and the combination of hydroquinone and salicylic acid, the size of the gold nanorods can be controlled and this is manifested by longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peaks forming between 875 and 1278 nm. In particular, sample E2 achieved a longitudinal surface plasmon peak at 1273 nm and an aspect ratio of more than 10 by modifying the hydroquinone to 2.5 mM and salicylic acid to 0.5 mM concentration in the growth solution.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of beryllium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Lecocq, A.

    1964-01-01

    The study of the hydro-thermal decomposition of beryllium hydroxide has made it possible to determine the free energy of formation and the entropy. The results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from the solubility product of this substance. They give furthermore the possibility of acquiring a better understanding of the BeO-H 2 O-Be (OH) 2 system between 20 and 1500 C. (authors) [fr

  1. Growth of Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods and its electrochemical performance for the determination of L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yong; Pei, Li-zhai; Wei, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods have been prepared using sodium bismuthate and Li acetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the nanorods are composed of monoclinic Bi_2O_4 and cubic LiBi_1_2O_1_8_._5_0 phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation shows that the nanorods have the length and diameter of 1-5 μm and 50-350 nm, respectively. The formation of the Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods is closely relative to the hydrothermal conditions. The electrochemical performance for the determination of L-cysteine based on a Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been developed. The CV peak current increases obviously and linearly with increasing the scan rate. Under the optimal conditions, Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods modified GCE exhibits good analytical performance with good reproducibility and stability. The linear range of L-cysteine is 0.0001-2 mM and the detection limit is 0.36 μM and 0.17 μM for cvp1 and cvp2, respectively. (author)

  2. Growth of Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods and its electrochemical performance for the determination of L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yong, E-mail: yongwen1982@163.com [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Xinjiang University (China); Pei, Li-zhai; Wei, Tian [chool of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology (China)

    2017-05-15

    Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods have been prepared using sodium bismuthate and Li acetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the nanorods are composed of monoclinic Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} and cubic LiBi{sub 12}O{sub 18.50} phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation shows that the nanorods have the length and diameter of 1-5 μm and 50-350 nm, respectively. The formation of the Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods is closely relative to the hydrothermal conditions. The electrochemical performance for the determination of L-cysteine based on a Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been developed. The CV peak current increases obviously and linearly with increasing the scan rate. Under the optimal conditions, Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods modified GCE exhibits good analytical performance with good reproducibility and stability. The linear range of L-cysteine is 0.0001-2 mM and the detection limit is 0.36 μM and 0.17 μM for cvp1 and cvp2, respectively. (author)

  3. Formation of gold nanorods and gold nanorod films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotsyuk, L.L.; Kulakovich, O.S.; Shabunya-Klyachkovskaya, E.V.; Gaponenko, S.V.; Vashchenko, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of gold nanorods as well as thin films prepared via electrostatic deposition of gold nanorods has been investigated. The obtained gold nanorods films have been used as substrates for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of sulfur-free organic molecules mitoxantrone and malachite green as well as inorganic malachite microcrystals for the first time. The additional modification of films with L-cysteine allows one to significantly extend the use of gold nanorods for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis. (authors)

  4. Growth of KOH etched AZO nanorods and investigation of its back scattering effect in thin film a-Si solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jayasree Roy; Mitra, Suchismita; Ghosh, Hemanta; Das, Gourab; Bose, Sukanta; Mandal, Sourav; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Saha, Hiranmay; Barua, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    In order to increase the stabilized efficiencies of thin film silicon (TFS) solar cells it is necessary to use better light management techniques. Texturization by etching of sputtered aluminum doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO or AZO) films has opened up a variety of promises to optimize light trapping schemes. RF sputtered AZO film has been etched by potassium hydroxide (KOH). A systematic study of etching conditions such as etchant concentration, etching time, temperature management etc. have been performed in search of improved electrical and optical performances of the films. The change in etching conditions has exhibited a noticeable effect on the structure of AZO films for which the light trapping effect differs. After optimizing the etching conditions, nanorods have been found on the substrate. Hence, nanorods have been developed only by chemical etching, rather than the conventional development method (hydrothermal method, sol-gel method, electrolysis method etc.). The optimized etched substrate has 82% transmittance, moderate haze in the visible range and sheet resistance ∼13 (Ω/□). The developed nanorods (optimized etched substrate) provide better light trapping within the cell as the optical path length has been increased by using the nanorods. This provides an effect on carrier collection as well as the efficiency in a-Si solar cells. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations have been performed to observe the light trapping by AZO nanorods formed on sputtered AZO films. For a p-i-n solar cell developed on AZO nanorods coated with sputtered AZO films, it has been found through simulations that, the incident light is back scattered into the absorbing layer, leading to an increase in photogenerated current and hence higher efficiency. It has been found that, the light that passes through the nanorods is not getting absorbed and maximum amount of light is back scattered towards the solar cell.

  5. Hexagonal nanorods of tungsten trioxide: Synthesis, structure, electrochemical properties and activity as supporting material in electrocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmaoui, Samiha; Sediri, Faouzi; Gharbi, Neji [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs, Universite de Tunis (Tunisia); Perruchot, Christian; Aeiyach, Salah [Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et DYnamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, 15, rue Jean de Baif, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Kulesza, Pawel J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Jouini, Mohamed, E-mail: jouini@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et DYnamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, 15, rue Jean de Baif, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Tungsten trioxide, unhydrated with hexagonal structure (h-WO{sub 3}), has been prepared by hydrothermal method at a temperature of 180 {sup o}C in acidified sodium tungstate solution. Thus prepared h-WO{sub 3} has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and using electrochemical techniques. The morphology has been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) and it is consistent with existence of nanorods of 50-70 nm diameter and up to 5 {mu}m length. Cyclic voltammetric characterization of thin films of h-WO{sub 3} nanorods has revealed reversible redox behaviour with charge-discharge cycling corresponding to the reversible lithium intercalation/deintercalation into the crystal lattice of the h-WO{sub 3} nanorods. In propylene carbonate containing LiClO{sub 4}, two successive redox processes of hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanorods are observed at the scan rate of 50 mV/s. Such behaviour shall be attributed to the presence of at least two W atoms of different surroundings in the lattice structure of h-WO{sub 3} nanorods. On the other hand, in aqueous LiClO{sub 4} solution, only one redox process is observed at the scan rate of 10 mV/s. The above observations can be explained in terms of differences in the diffusion of ions inside two types of channel cavities existing in the structure of the h-WO{sub 3} nanorods. Moreover, the material can be applied as active support for the catalytic bi-metallic Pt-Ru nanoparticles during electrooxidation of ethanol in acid medium (0.5 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}).

  6. Hexagonal nanorods of tungsten trioxide: Synthesis, structure, electrochemical properties and activity as supporting material in electrocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmaoui, Samiha; Sediri, Faouzi; Gharbi, Neji; Perruchot, Christian; Aeiyach, Salah; Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Kulesza, Pawel J.; Jouini, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide, unhydrated with hexagonal structure (h-WO 3 ), has been prepared by hydrothermal method at a temperature of 180 o C in acidified sodium tungstate solution. Thus prepared h-WO 3 has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and using electrochemical techniques. The morphology has been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) and it is consistent with existence of nanorods of 50-70 nm diameter and up to 5 μm length. Cyclic voltammetric characterization of thin films of h-WO 3 nanorods has revealed reversible redox behaviour with charge-discharge cycling corresponding to the reversible lithium intercalation/deintercalation into the crystal lattice of the h-WO 3 nanorods. In propylene carbonate containing LiClO 4 , two successive redox processes of hexagonal WO 3 nanorods are observed at the scan rate of 50 mV/s. Such behaviour shall be attributed to the presence of at least two W atoms of different surroundings in the lattice structure of h-WO 3 nanorods. On the other hand, in aqueous LiClO 4 solution, only one redox process is observed at the scan rate of 10 mV/s. The above observations can be explained in terms of differences in the diffusion of ions inside two types of channel cavities existing in the structure of the h-WO 3 nanorods. Moreover, the material can be applied as active support for the catalytic bi-metallic Pt-Ru nanoparticles during electrooxidation of ethanol in acid medium (0.5 mol dm -3 H 2 SO 4 ).

  7. Hexagonal nanorods of tungsten trioxide: Synthesis, structure, electrochemical properties and activity as supporting material in electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaoui, Samiha; Sediri, Faouzi; Gharbi, Néji; Perruchot, Christian; Aeiyach, Salah; Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Kulesza, Pawel J.; Jouini, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Tungsten trioxide, unhydrated with hexagonal structure (h-WO 3), has been prepared by hydrothermal method at a temperature of 180 °C in acidified sodium tungstate solution. Thus prepared h-WO 3 has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and using electrochemical techniques. The morphology has been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) and it is consistent with existence of nanorods of 50-70 nm diameter and up to 5 μm length. Cyclic voltammetric characterization of thin films of h-WO 3 nanorods has revealed reversible redox behaviour with charge-discharge cycling corresponding to the reversible lithium intercalation/deintercalation into the crystal lattice of the h-WO 3 nanorods. In propylene carbonate containing LiClO 4, two successive redox processes of hexagonal WO 3 nanorods are observed at the scan rate of 50 mV/s. Such behaviour shall be attributed to the presence of at least two W atoms of different surroundings in the lattice structure of h-WO 3 nanorods. On the other hand, in aqueous LiClO 4 solution, only one redox process is observed at the scan rate of 10 mV/s. The above observations can be explained in terms of differences in the diffusion of ions inside two types of channel cavities existing in the structure of the h-WO 3 nanorods. Moreover, the material can be applied as active support for the catalytic bi-metallic Pt-Ru nanoparticles during electrooxidation of ethanol in acid medium (0.5 mol dm -3 H 2SO 4).

  8. Photocatalytic paper using zinc oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Jaisai, Mayuree; Imani, Reza; Nazhad, Mousa M; Dutta, Joydeep

    2010-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were grown on a paper support prepared from soft wood pulp. The photocatalytic activity of a sheet of paper with ZnO nanorods embedded in its porous matrix has been studied. ZnO nanorods were firmly attached to cellulose fibers and the photocatalytic paper samples were reused several times with nominal decrease in efficiency. Photodegradation of up to 93% was observed for methylene blue in the presence of paper filled with ZnO nanorods upon irradiation with visible light at 963 Wm -2 for 120 min. Under similar conditions, photodegradation of approximately 35% was observed for methyl orange. Antibacterial tests revealed that the photocatalytic paper inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli under room lighting conditions.

  9. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a “nanoreactor” for oxidation.

  10. Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongshaug, K.O.; Fjellvaag, Helmer

    2004-01-01

    The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn 2 (OH) 2 (ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn 3 (OH) 4 (bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two μ 2 -OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) A, β=90.816(2) deg., V=583.97(6) A 3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) A, β=112.580(4) deg., V=3033.8(6) A 3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis

  11. Ion-assisted functional monolayer coating of nanorod arrays in hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, E.; Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.; Keidar, M.; Xu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Uniformity of postprocessing of large-area, dense nanostructure arrays is currently one of the greatest challenges in nanoscience and nanofabrication. One of the major issues is to achieve a high level of control in specie fluxes to specific surface areas of the nanostructures. As suggested by the numerical experiments in this work, this goal can be achieved by manipulating microscopic ion fluxes by varying the plasma sheath and nanorod array parameters. The dynamics of ion-assisted deposition of functional monolayer coatings onto two-dimensional carbon nanorod arrays in a hydrogen plasma is simulated by using a multiscale hybrid numerical simulation. The numerical results show evidence of a strong correlation between the aspect ratios and nanopattern positioning of the nanorods, plasma sheath width, and densities and distributions of microscopic ion fluxes. When the spacing between the nanorods and/or their aspect ratios are larger, and/or the plasma sheath is wider, the density of microscopic ion current flowing to each of the individual nanorods increases, thus reducing the time required to apply a functional monolayer coating down to 11 s for a 7-μm-wide sheath, and to 5 s for a 50-μm-wide sheath. The computed monolayer coating development time is consistent with previous experimental reports on plasma-assisted functionalization of related carbon nanostructures [B. N. Khare et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5237 (2002)]. The results are generic in that they can be applied to a broader range of plasma-based processes and nanostructures, and contribute to the development of deterministic strategies of postprocessing and functionalization of various nanoarrays for nanoelectronic, biomedical, and other emerging applications

  12. New trend for synthesizing of magnetic nanorods with titanomaghemite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Osama, E-mail: osmohamed@kfu.edu.sa [Faculty of Science, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, Al-Hassa 31982 (Saudi Arabia); Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, P.O. Box 11727, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-07-15

    This research aims at developing magnetic and optical materials through fabrication of uniform nanorods by facile and novel technique. In this trend, titanium and iron were successfully combined together forming nanorods without template or high temperature by urea hydrolysis. TEM images showed uniform and homogeneous nanorods with dimensions; 10 nm in width and 50 nm in length. In the same time, fine nanoparticles were observed around the nanorods. With further treatment for the nanorods at high temperature and pressure, FESEM images revealed that the dimensions of the rods slightly increased to be 70 nm in length and 12 nm in width with a complete disappearance of the nanoparticles. Using X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses and infrared spectra in addition to the results of the electron microscopy, the oriented attachment mechanism was suggested for the formation of titanium iron oxides nanorods. The magnetic measurements revealed that the prepared nanorods possess ferromagnetic behavior and exhibit high saturation magnetization. Also, the optical properties showed that the nanorods have high absorption in the visible region and possess low band gap energy. Finally, we concluded that it is probably the first time to prepare nanorods by urea hydrolysis. The advanced optical and magnetic properties give the prepared nanorods relevance to use as building blocks in functional nanoscale devices. - Graphical abstract: The present study has a dual aim for developing new and facile method for fabrication of nanorods containing titanomaghemite structure and improving their optical and magnetic properties - Highlights: • Synthesis of titanium iron oxides nanorods with titanomaghemite structure. • Using urea hydrolysis for preparation of nanorods. • Studying of the effect of pressure and temperature on the nanorods. • Enhancement of the magnetic properties of the nanorods in comparison with the nanoparticles. • Improvement of the optical properties of the nanorods

  13. Formation and electrical transport properties of pentacene nanorod crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akai-Kasaya, M; Ohmori, C; Kawanishi, T; Nashiki, M; Saito, A; Kuwahara, Y; Aono, M

    2010-01-01

    The monophasic formation of an uncharted pentacene crystal, the pentacene nanorod, has been investigated. The restricted formation of the pentacene nanorod on a bare mica surface reveals a peculiar surface catalytic crystal growth mode of the pentacene. We demonstrated the charge transport measurements through a single pentacene nanorod and analyzed the data using a periodic hopping conduction model. The results revealed that the pentacene nanorod has a periodic conductive node within their one-dimensional crystal.

  14. Formation and electrical transport properties of pentacene nanorod crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai-Kasaya, M; Ohmori, C; Kawanishi, T; Nashiki, M; Saito, A; Aono, M; Kuwahara, Y

    2010-09-10

    The monophasic formation of an uncharted pentacene crystal, the pentacene nanorod, has been investigated. The restricted formation of the pentacene nanorod on a bare mica surface reveals a peculiar surface catalytic crystal growth mode of the pentacene. We demonstrated the charge transport measurements through a single pentacene nanorod and analyzed the data using a periodic hopping conduction model. The results revealed that the pentacene nanorod has a periodic conductive node within their one-dimensional crystal.

  15. Alq3 nanorods: promising building blocks for optical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Peng, Qing; Li, Yadong

    2008-07-17

    Monodisperse Alq3 nanorods with hexagonal-prism-like morphology are produced via a facile, emulsion based synthesis route. The photoluminescence of individual nanorods differs from the bulk material. These nanorods are promising building blocks for novel optical devices. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Pt-Ni/WC Alloy Nanorods Arrays as ORR Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Mahbuba; Yurukcu, Mesut; Yurtsever, Fatma; Ergul, Busra; Kariuki, Nancy; Myers, Deborah J.; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-08-24

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) among the other types of fuel cell technology are attractive power sources, especially for electric vehicle applications. While significant progress and plausible prospects of PEMFCs have been achieved, there are still some challenges related to the performance, durability, and cost that need to be overcome to make them economically viable for widespread commercialization. Our strategy is to develop thin films of high-active and stable catalyst coated on vertically aligned nanorod arrays of conductive and stable support. In this work, we fabricated tungsten carbide (WC) nanorods as support and coated them with a platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) alloy shell denoted as Pt-Ni/WC catalysts. The Pt- Ni/WC nanorods were deposited on glassy carbon disks as well as on silicon substrates for evaluation of their electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and physical properties. Cyclic voltammetry experiments using rotating disk electrode were performed in perchloric acid (0.1 M HClO4) electrolyte at room temperature to characterize the ORR activity and stability of Pt-Ni/WC nanorods catalysts. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were utilized to study the morphology and crystallographic properties, respectively.

  17. Growth process for gallium nitride porous nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeson, Isaac Harshman; Sands, Timothy David

    2015-03-24

    A GaN nanorod and formation method. Formation includes providing a substrate having a GaN film, depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film, etching a growth opening through the SiN.sub.x and into the GaN film, growing a GaN nanorod through the growth opening, the nanorod having a nanopore running substantially through its centerline. Focused ion beam etching can be used. The growing can be done using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanopore diameter can be controlled using the growth opening diameter or the growing step duration. The GaN nanorods can be removed from the substrate. The SiN.sub.x layer can be removed after the growing step. A SiO.sub.x template can be formed on the GaN film and the GaN can be grown to cover the SiO.sub.x template before depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film. The SiO.sub.x template can be removed after growing the nanorods.

  18. Sensing based on the motion of enzyme-modified nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, Ada-Ioana; Pavel, Ileana-Alexandra; David, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    of nanorods modified with the appropriate enzyme. Nanorods, with a Pt and a polypyrrole (PPy) segment, were fabricated. The PPy segment of such nanorods was then modified with glucose oxidase (GOx), glutamate oxidase (GluOx), or xanthine oxidase (XOD). Calibration curves, linking the diffusion coefficient...... of the oxidase-modified nanorods to the concentration of the oxidase substrate, were subsequently built. The oxidase-modified nanorods and their calibration curves were finally used to determine substrate concentrations both in simple aqueous solutions and in complex samples such as horse serum and cell culture...

  19. Study of titania nanorod films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation as a function of laser fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, A. P.; Belviso, M. R.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P. D.; Luches, A.; Manera, M. G.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Taurino, A.

    2011-11-01

    Chemically synthesized brookite titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods with average diameter and length dimensions of 3-4 nm and 35-50 nm, respectively, were deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique. A toluene nanorod solution was frozen at the liquid-nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a KrF excimer laser ( λ=248 nm, τ=20 ns) at the repetition rate of 10 Hz, at different fluences (25 to 350 mJ/cm2). The deposited films were structurally characterized by high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy. single-crystal Si wafers and carbon-coated Cu grids were used as substrates. Structural analyses evidenced the occurrence of brookite-phase crystalline nanospheres coexisting with individually distinguishable TiO2 nanorods in the films deposited at fluences varying from 50 to 350 mJ/cm2. Nanostructured TiO2 films comprising only nanorods were deposited by lowering the laser fluence to 25 mJ/cm2. The observed shape and phase transitions of the nanorods are discussed taking into account the laser-induced heating effects, reduced melting temperature and size-dependent thermodynamic stability of nanoscale TiO2.

  20. Efficient visible light photocatalysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in aqueous solutions using supported zinc oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Tanujjal; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Dutta, Joydeep

    2017-01-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are some of the common environmental pollutants originating mainly from oil and gas industries, which are toxic to human as well as other living organisms in the ecosystem. Here we investigate photocatalytic degradation of BTEX under visible light irradiation using supported zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown on glass substrates using a microwave assisted hydrothermal method. ZnO nanorods were characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, UV/visible absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Visible light photocatalytic degradation products of BTEX are studied for individual components using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). ZnO nanorods with significant amount of electronic defect states, due to the fast crystallization of the nanorods under microwave irradiation, exhibited efficient degradation of BTEX under visible light, degrading more than 80% of the individual BTEX components in 180 minutes. Effect of initial concentration of BTEX as individual components is also probed and the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO nanorods in different conditions is explored. Formation of intermediate byproducts such as phenol, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and benzoic acid were confirmed by our HPLC analysis which could be due to the photocatalytic degradation of BTEX. Carbon dioxide was evaluated and showed an increasing pattern over time indicating the mineralization process confirming the conversion of toxic organic compounds into benign products. PMID:29261711

  1. Electrical characterization of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, E.; Bakin, A.; Postels, B.; Mofor, A.C.; Wehmann, H.H.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Weimann, T.; Hinze, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were grown by a wet chemical approach and by vapor phase transport. To explore the electrical properties of individual nanostructures current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were obtained by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a conductive tip or by detaching the nanorods from the growth substrate, transferring them to an isolating substrate and contacting them with evaporated Ti/Au electrodes patterned by electron-beam lithography. The AFM-approach only yields a Schottky diode behavior, while the Ti/Au forms ohmic contacts to the ZnO. For the latter method the obtained I-V curves reveal a resistivity of the nanorods in the order of 10{sup -5} {omega} cm which is unusually low for undoped ZnO. We therefore assume the existence of a highly conductive surface channel. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Kinetics of sodium borohydride direct oxidation and oxygen reduction in sodium hydroxide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, Marian; Micoud, Fabrice; Roche, Ivan; Chainet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The direct oxidation of sodium borohydride in concentrated sodium hydroxide medium has been studied by cyclic and linear voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry for silver and gold electrocatalysts, either bulk and polycrystalline or nanodispersed over high area carbon blacks. Gold and silver yield rather complete utilisation of the reducer: around 7.5 electrons are delivered on these materials, versus 4 at the most for platinum as a result of the BH 4 - non-negligible hydrolysis taking place on this latter material. The kinetic parameters for the direct borohydride oxidation are better for gold than for silver. A strong influence of the ratio of sodium hydroxide versus sodium borohydride is found: whereas the theoretical stoichiometry does forecast that eight hydroxide ions are needed for each borohydride ion, our experimental results prove that a larger excess hydroxide ion is necessary in quasi-steady state conditions. When the above-mentioned ratio is unity (1 M NaOH and 1 M NaBH 4 ), the tetrahydroborate ions direct oxidation is limited by the hydroxide concentration, and their hydrolysis is no longer negligible. The hydrolysis products are probably BH 3 OH - ions, for which gold displays a rather good oxidation activity. Additionally, silver, which is a weak BH 4 - oxidation electrocatalyst, exhibits the best activity of all the studied materials towards the BH 3 OH - direct oxidation. Finally, carbon-supported gold nanoparticles seem promising as anode material to be used in direct borohydride fuel cells

  3. Synthesis, characterization and performance of zinc ferrite nanorods for room temperature sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Archana; Singh, Ajendra; Singh, Satyendra; Tandon, Poonam; Yadav, B.C.; Yadav, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of zinc ferrite thin film LPG and CO 2 gas sensors. • Morphological growth of nanorods. • Significant advancement towards the fabrication of a reliable LPG sensor. • A new pathway to produce nanorods as sensorial material. - Abstract: In the present communication, nanorods of zinc ferrite was synthesized and fabricated by employing sol–gel spin coating process. The synthesized material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, acoustic particle sizer, atomic force microscopy, UV–visible absorption and infrared spectroscopic techniques. Thermal properties were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The XRD reveals cubic spinel structure with minimum crystallite size 10 nm. SEM image of the film shows porous surface morphology with uniform distribution of nanorods. The band gap of the zinc ferrite nanorods was found 3.80 eV using the Tauc plot. ZnFe 2 O 4 shows weak super paramagnetic behavior at room temperature investigated using the vibrating sample magnetometer. Further, the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and carbon dioxide gas (CO 2 ) sensing properties of the fabricated film were investigated at room temperature (25 °C). More variations in electrical resistance were observed for LPG in comparison to CO 2 gas. The parameters such as lattice constant, X-ray density, porosity and specific surface area were also calculated for the better understanding of the observed gas sensing properties. High sensitivity and percentage sensor response, small response and recovery times, good reproducibility and stability characterized the fabricated sensor for the detection of LPG at room temperature

  4. Synthesis, characterization and performance of zinc ferrite nanorods for room temperature sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Archana; Singh, Ajendra [Macromolecular Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Singh, Satyendra, E-mail: satyendra_nano84@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, U.P. (India); Tandon, Poonam [Macromolecular Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Yadav, B.C. [Department of Applied Physics, School for Physical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Yadav, R.R. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, U.P. (India)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Fabrication of zinc ferrite thin film LPG and CO{sub 2} gas sensors. • Morphological growth of nanorods. • Significant advancement towards the fabrication of a reliable LPG sensor. • A new pathway to produce nanorods as sensorial material. - Abstract: In the present communication, nanorods of zinc ferrite was synthesized and fabricated by employing sol–gel spin coating process. The synthesized material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, acoustic particle sizer, atomic force microscopy, UV–visible absorption and infrared spectroscopic techniques. Thermal properties were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The XRD reveals cubic spinel structure with minimum crystallite size 10 nm. SEM image of the film shows porous surface morphology with uniform distribution of nanorods. The band gap of the zinc ferrite nanorods was found 3.80 eV using the Tauc plot. ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} shows weak super paramagnetic behavior at room temperature investigated using the vibrating sample magnetometer. Further, the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and carbon dioxide gas (CO{sub 2}) sensing properties of the fabricated film were investigated at room temperature (25 °C). More variations in electrical resistance were observed for LPG in comparison to CO{sub 2} gas. The parameters such as lattice constant, X-ray density, porosity and specific surface area were also calculated for the better understanding of the observed gas sensing properties. High sensitivity and percentage sensor response, small response and recovery times, good reproducibility and stability characterized the fabricated sensor for the detection of LPG at room temperature.

  5. The Effect of Eu Doping on Microstructure, Morphology and Methanal-Sensing Performance of Highly Ordered SnO2 Nanorods Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Layered Eu-doped SnO2 ordered nanoarrays constructed by nanorods with 10 nm diameters and several hundred nanometers length were synthesized by a substrate-free hydrothermal route using alcohol and water mixed solvent of sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide at 200 °C. The Eu dopant acted as a crystal growth inhibitor to prevent the SnO2 nanorods growth up, resulting in tenuous SnO2 nanorods ordered arrays. The X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the tetragonal rutile-type structure with a systematic average size reduction and unit cell volume tumescence, while enhancing the residual strain as the Eu-doped content increases. The surface defects that were caused by the incorporation of Eu ions within the surface oxide matrix were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM. The results of the response properties of sensors based on the different levels of Eu-doped SnO2 layered nanoarrays demonstrated that the 0.5 at % Eu-doped SnO2 layered nanorods arrays exhibited an excellent sensing response to methanal at 278 °C. The reasons of the enhanced sensing performance were discussed from the complicated defect surface structure, the large specific surface area, and the excellent catalytic properties of Eu dopant.

  6. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  7. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer......) Delamination of the LDHs structure (oxGRC12) with the formation of single sheet iron (hydr)oxide (SSI). (3) Assembly of the new 2D nanosheets layer by layer to achieve desired functionalities....

  8. Bismuth titanate nanorods and their visible light photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Liu, H.D.; Lin, N.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth titanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process. • The size of bismuth titanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Bismuth titanate nanorods show good photocatalytic activities of methylene blue and Rhodamine B. - Abstract: Bismuth titanate nanorods have been prepared using a facile hydrothermal process without additives. The bismuth titanate products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectrum. XRD pattern shows that the bismuth titanate nanorods are composed of cubic Bi 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase. Electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the bismuth titanate nanorods are 50-200 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Hydrothermal temperature and reaction time play important roles on the formation and size of the bismuth titanate nanorods. UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectrum indicates that bismuth titanate nanorods have a band gap of 2.58 eV. The bismuth titanate nanorods exhibit good photocatalytic activities in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation. The bismuth titanate nanorods with cubic Bi 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase are a promising candidate as a visible light photocatalyst

  9. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  10. Metal oxide nanorod arrays on monolithic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Guo, Yanbing; Ren, Zheng

    2018-01-02

    A metal oxide nanorod array structure according to embodiments disclosed herein includes a monolithic substrate having a surface and multiple channels, an interface layer bonded to the surface of the substrate, and a metal oxide nanorod array coupled to the substrate surface via the interface layer. The metal oxide can include ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide. The substrate can include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a silicon substrate, a ceramic monolith, and a stainless steel monolith. The ceramic can include cordierite, alumina, tin oxide, and titania. The nanorod array structure can include a perovskite shell, such as a lanthanum-based transition metal oxide, or a metal oxide shell, such as ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide, or a coating of metal particles, such as platinum, gold, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium, over each metal oxide nanorod. Structures can be bonded to the surface of a substrate and resist erosion if exposed to high velocity flow rates.

  11. Electrophoretic growth of lead zirconate titanate nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, S.J.; Seraji, S.; Forbess, M.J.; Wu Yun; Chou, T.P.; Nguyen, C.; Cao Guozhong [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2001-08-16

    Nanorods of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-a ferro- and piezoelectric material-up to 10 {mu}m in length and 70 to 150 nm in diameter are produced by sol-gel electrophoresis of PZT in a track-etched polycarbonate membrane, which is used as a template. (orig.)

  12. Cadmium Sulphide Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and their Photocatalytic Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Vijayaraj, Arunachalam; Prabu, Raju; Narayanan, Vengidusamy

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanorods were prepared by a single precursor thermal decomposition (SPTD) method. The formation of CdS nanorods and their structure, morphology and elemental composition were studied by means of FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and EDAX analysis. Photoluminescence (PL) and lifetime measurements were recorded to study the luminescence properties of the material. The PL spectrum of the CdS nanorods showed one broad peak and four shoulders and the cause for this emission was discussed. The PL emissions from the band edge and deep trap state of the CdS nanorods were studied by lifetime measurements. Further, the synthesized CdS nanorods showed an increase in efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The increase in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the mixed phase of the CdS nanorods

  13. Cadmium Sulphide Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and their Photocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Vijayaraj, Arunachalam; Prabu, Raju; Narayanan, Vengidusamy [Univ. of Madras, Madras (India)

    2012-09-15

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanorods were prepared by a single precursor thermal decomposition (SPTD) method. The formation of CdS nanorods and their structure, morphology and elemental composition were studied by means of FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and EDAX analysis. Photoluminescence (PL) and lifetime measurements were recorded to study the luminescence properties of the material. The PL spectrum of the CdS nanorods showed one broad peak and four shoulders and the cause for this emission was discussed. The PL emissions from the band edge and deep trap state of the CdS nanorods were studied by lifetime measurements. Further, the synthesized CdS nanorods showed an increase in efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The increase in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the mixed phase of the CdS nanorods.

  14. High rate flame synthesis of highly crystalline iron oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchan-Merchan, W; Taylor, A M; Saveliev, A V

    2008-01-01

    Single-step flame synthesis of iron oxide nanorods is performed using iron probes inserted into an opposed-flow methane oxy-flame. The high temperature reacting environment of the flame tends to convert elemental iron into a high density layer of iron oxide nanorods. The diameters of the iron oxide nanorods vary from 10 to 100 nm with a typical length of a few microns. The structural characterization performed shows that nanorods possess a highly ordered crystalline structure with parameters corresponding to cubic magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) with the [100] direction oriented along the nanorod axis. Structural variations of straight nanorods such as bends, and T-branched and Y-branched shapes are frequently observed within the nanomaterials formed, opening pathways for synthesis of multidimensional, interconnected networks

  15. Zinc vanadate nanorods and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Lin, N.; Wei, T.; Liu, H.D.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • The size of zinc vanadate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Zinc vanadate nanorods show good photocatalytic activities of methylene blue under solar light. - Abstract: Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and sodium vanadate as the raw materials. The zinc vanadate nanorods have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum. XRD pattern and HRTEM image show that the zinc vanadate nanorods are composed of single crystalline monoclinic Zn 2 V 2 O 7 phase. SEM and TEM observations show that the diameter and length of the zinc vanadate nanorods are 50–100 nm and about 5 μm, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) has an essential role in the formation of zinc vanadate nanorods. The SDS-assisted nucleation and growth process have been proposed to explain the formation and growth of the zinc vanadate nanorods. Solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum shows that the zinc vanadate nanorods have a band gap of 2.76 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the zinc vanadate nanorods have been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under solar light irradiation. The MB with the concentration of 10 mg L −1 can be degraded totally under the solar light irradiation for 4 h. It is suggested that the zinc vanadate nanorods exhibit promising application potential for the degradation of organic pollutants under solar light irradiation

  16. Facile electrochemical synthesis of tellurium nanorods and their photoconductive properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.H. [Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang - 212013 (China); Zhang, P. [Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan-523808 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou - 510275 (China); Liang, C.L. [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, SunYat-sen University, Guangzhou - 510275 (China); Yang, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang - 212013 (China); Zhou, M. [Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang - 212013 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing - 10084 (China); Lu, X.H. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou - 510275 (China); Hope, G.A. [School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan - Qld 4111 (Australia)

    2012-10-15

    Tellurium nanorods have been successfully fabricated by template and surfactant-free electrochemical technique from an aqueous solution at room temperature. The as-prepared tellurium nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Films based on tellurium nanorods were constructed to study the photoresponse and I-V curves. These photoresponse measurements demonstrate that tellurium nanorods exhibited enhanced conductivity under illumination compared to in the dark measurement. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-01-01

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: → Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. → The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. → Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  18. Dissolution mechanism of aluminum hydroxides in acid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainer, Yu. A.; Gorichev, I. G.; Tuzhilin, A. S.; Gololobova, E. G.

    2008-08-01

    The effects of the concentration, temperature, and potential at the hydroxide/electrolyte interface on the aluminum hydroxide dissolution in sulfuric, hydrochloric, and perchloric acids are studied. The limiting stage of the aluminum hydroxide dissolution in the acids is found to be the transition of the complexes that form on the aluminum hydroxide surface from the solid phase into the solution. The results of the calculation of the acid-base equilibrium constants at the oxide (hydroxide)/solution interface using the experimental data on the potentiometric titration of Al2O3 and AlOOH suspensions are analyzed. A mechanism is proposed for the dissolution of aluminum hydroxides in acid media.

  19. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  20. Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering 129 I. Sorption coefficients (K d ) for I - and IO 3 - onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering 129 I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients ( 1.7 mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K d 's greater than 10 3 mL/g for both I - and IO 3 -

  1. Electrical contacts to nanorod networks at different length scales: From macroscale ensembles to single nanorod chains

    KAUST Repository

    Lavieville, Romain; Zhang, Yang; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Krahne, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is an important issue in micro- and nanoelectronic engineering. The study of charge transport through chains of CdSe semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represents an ideal model system for this matter, because the metal semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem. Here we show the controlled fabrication of all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks with different size, in which the semiconductor nanorods are linked by Au domains at their tips. We demonstrate different approaches to selectively contact the networks and single nanorod chains with planar electrodes, and we investigate their charge transport at room temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrical contacts to nanorod networks at different length scales: From macroscale ensembles to single nanorod chains

    KAUST Repository

    Lavieville, Romain

    2013-11-01

    The nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is an important issue in micro- and nanoelectronic engineering. The study of charge transport through chains of CdSe semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represents an ideal model system for this matter, because the metal semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem. Here we show the controlled fabrication of all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks with different size, in which the semiconductor nanorods are linked by Au domains at their tips. We demonstrate different approaches to selectively contact the networks and single nanorod chains with planar electrodes, and we investigate their charge transport at room temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, John W; Thornburg, Natalie J; Blum, David L; Kuhn, Sam J; Crowe Jr, James E; Wright, David W

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response. (paper)

  4. ADSORPTION OF PITCH AND STICKIES ON MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES TREATED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERAURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium aluminum hydroxides (MAH of nitrate and carbonate forms were prepared by co-precipitation, dried at different temperatures, and employed as an adsorbent for pitch and stickies in papermaking. Results indicated that MAH that had been heat-treated had higher adsorption capacity to model pitch and stickies at neutral pH. Low-temperature-dried magnesium aluminum hydroxides of nitrate form (MAH-NO3 had higher adsorption capacity to model pitch and model stickies than those of the carbonate form (MAH-CO3. Increasing the drying temperature of MAH reduced the difference of adsorption capacity between MAH-NO3 and MAH-CO3. Higher-temperature-dried magnesium aluminum hydroxides also showed higher adsorption capacity to model pitch and stickies when the drying temperature was lower than 550 oC. MAH displayed higher adsorption capacity while a lower initial adsorption rate of model stickies than of model pitch. The model pitch and stickies were adsorbed on MAH significantly by charge neutralization and distributed mainly on the surface of the platelets of magnesium aluminum hydroxides. The experimental isothermal adsorption data of model pitch and stickies on MAH dried at 500 oC fit well to the Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm equations.

  5. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 - 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  6. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  7. Far-Infrared Absorption of PbSe Nanorods

    KAUST Repository

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, A. C.; Koh, Weon-kyu; Agladze, N. I.; Wrubel, J. P.; Sievers, A. J.; Murray, Christopher B.; Wise, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the far-infrared absorption spectra of PbSe nanocrystals and nanorods are presented. As the aspect ratio of the nanorods increases, the Fröhlich sphere resonance splits into two peaks. We analyze this splitting with a classical

  8. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived ...

  9. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form γ-Al2O3 at ~ 400°C but the formation of α-Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material ...

  10. Thermal analysis of iron hydroxide microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.N.; Cornescu, M.

    1979-03-01

    The thermal treatment is an important step in the preparative technology of the iron oxids microspheres with well established mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics. The first indications on the heating procedure have been obtained from the thermal analysis on iron hydroxide microspheres prepared by the support precipitation and internal gelification methods. (author)

  11. Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Prokudina, A.F.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

  12. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of a...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  15. Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides for metal capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Ma, Shulan

    2017-04-04

    Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides and methods for their use in vapor and liquid-phase metal capture applications are provided. The layered double hydroxides comprise a plurality of positively charged host layers of mixed metal hydroxides separated by interlayer spaces. Polysulfide anions are intercalated in the interlayer spaces.

  16. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white, odorless...

  17. Organic biocides hosted in layered double hydroxides: enhancing antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Alejandra Santana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of layered double hydroxides containing carbonates as compensating anions were prepared by the urea method. These LDHs were used as hosts of anions coming from pipemidic and nalidixic acid. XRD results confirm that these anions were hosted in the interlayer space of LDHs. Further, from 27Al NMR MAS characterization of an interaction between the brucite-like layers and anions was suggested. Then the hybrids LDHs were used as biocide of Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The release profile of pipemidic and nalidixic anions from hybrid LDHs occurs for periods as long as 3.5 hours. The free-organic acid LDHs were not able to kill S. Typhi, neither E. coli. In contrast, the hybrids LDHs eliminate almost completely bacteria within short times.

  18. Templated synthesis of metal nanorods in silica nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yadong; Gao, Chuanbo

    2018-04-10

    A method of preparing a metal nanorod. The method includes seeding a metal nanoparticle within the lumen of a nanotube, and growing a metal nanorod from the seeded metal nanoparticle to form a metal nanorod-nanotube composite. In some cases, the nanotube includes metal binding ligands attached to the inner surface. Growing of the metal nanorod includes incubating the seeded nanotube in a solution that includes: a metal source for the metal in the metal nanorod, the metal source including an ion of the metal; a coordinating ligand that forms a stable complex with the metal ion; a reducing agent for reducing the metal ion, and a capping agent that stabilizes atomic monomers of the metal. Compositions derived from the method are also provided.

  19. Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of RuO2 nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Basse, Felix H.-U.; Schneider, Jochen M.; Hassdorf, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    We have explored the effect of the O/Ru ratio on the morphology and the Seebeck coefficient of RuO 2 nanorods (space group P4 2 /mnm) synthesized by reactive sputtering. At an O/Ru ratio of 1.69, a faceted surface is observed, while nanorod formation occurs at O/Ru ratios of 2.03 and 2.24. Using classical molecular dynamics with the potential parameters derived in this work, we show that volatile species enable nanorod formation. Based on ab initio calculations, two effects of the nanorod formation on the Seebeck coefficient are observed: (i) increase due to additional states in the vicinity of the Fermi level and (ii) decrease due to oxygen point defects (volatile species). These two competing effects give rise to a moderate increase in the Seebeck coefficient upon nanorod formation.

  20. Nanoscale Rheology and Anisotropic Diffusion Using Single Gold Nanorod Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Atefi, Ehsan; Crocker, John C.

    2018-03-01

    The complex rotational and translational Brownian motion of anisotropic particles depends on their shape and the viscoelasticity of their surroundings. Because of their strong optical scattering and chemical versatility, gold nanorods would seem to provide the ultimate probes of rheology at the nanoscale, but the suitably accurate orientational tracking required to compute rheology has not been demonstrated. Here we image single gold nanorods with a laser-illuminated dark-field microscope and use optical polarization to determine their three-dimensional orientation to better than one degree. We convert the rotational diffusion of single nanorods in viscoelastic polyethylene glycol solutions to rheology and obtain excellent agreement with bulk measurements. Extensions of earlier models of anisotropic translational diffusion to three dimensions and viscoelastic fluids give excellent agreement with the observed motion of single nanorods. We find that nanorod tracking provides a uniquely capable approach to microrheology and provides a powerful tool for probing nanoscale dynamics and structure in a range of soft materials.

  1. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn-Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei

    2015-05-01

    A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn-Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn-Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  2. Manganese oxalate nanorods as ballistic modifier for composite solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Supriya [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India); Chawla, Mohit [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Siril, Prem Felix, E-mail: prem@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Singh, Gurdip [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Manganese oxalate nanorods were prepared using mild thermal precipitation and aging. • The nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for solid propellants. • The nanorods sensitized the thermolysis of ammonium perchlorate. • Controlled thermal decomposition of nanorods yielded manganese oxide nanoparticles. • MnO nanoparticles formed insitu in the condensed phase enhance the burning rates. - Abstract: Rod-shaped nanostructures of manganese oxalate (MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized via mild thermal precipitation and aging process. Chemical composition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was confirmed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies revealed the crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to study the structural features of the nanorods. The MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for the burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants (CSPs). Thermal analysis using TGA-DSC showed that MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods sensitized the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the CSPs. Controlled thermal decomposition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods resulted in the formation of managanese oxide nanoparticles with mesoporosity. A plausible mechanism for the burning rate enhancement using MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was proposed.

  3. Engineering Gold Nanorod-Based Plasmonic Nanocrystals for Optical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals have a unique ability to support localized surface plasmon resonances and exhibit rich and intriguing optical properties. Engineering plasmonic nanocrystals can maximize their potentials for specific applications. In this dissertation, we developed three unprecedented Au nanorod-based plasmonic nanocrystals through rational design of the crystal shape and/or composition, and successfully demonstrated their applications in light condensation, photothermal conversion, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The “Au nanorod-Au nanosphere dimer” nanocrystal was synthesized via the ligand-induced asymmetric growth of a Au nanosphere on a Au nanorod. This dimeric nanostructure features an extraordinary broadband optical absorption in the range of 400‒1400nm, and it proved to be an ideal black-body material for light condensation and an efficient solar-light harvester for photothermal conversion. The “Au nanorod (core) @ AuAg alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was built through the epitaxial growth of homogeneously alloyed AuAg shells on Au nanorods by precisely controlled synthesis. The resulting core-shell structured, bimetallic nanorods integrate the merits of the AuAg alloy with the advantages of anisotropic nanorods, exhibiting strong, stable and tunable surface plasmon resonances that are essential for SERS applications in a corrosive environment. The “high-index faceted Au nanorod (core) @ AuPd alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was produced via site-specific epitaxial growth of AuPd alloyed horns at the ends of Au nanorods. The AuPd alloyed horns are bound with high-index side facets, while the Au nanorod concentrates an intensive electric field at each end. This unique configuration unites highly active catalytic sites with strong SERS sites into a single entity and was demonstrated to be ideal for in situ monitoring of Pd-catalyzed reactions by SERS. The synthetic strategies developed here are promising towards the fabrication of

  4. Enormous enhancement of ZnO nanorod photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.H.; Duan, W.J.; Wu, Z.L.; Zheng, D.; Zhou, X.W.; Zhou, B.Y.; Dai, L.J.; Wang, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on quartz slices in the aqueous solution of zinc acetate and hexamethylenetetramine at 90 °C. Then ZnO:Mg shells were epitaxially grown on the nanorods to form core/shell structures in the aqueous solution of zinc acetate, magnesium acetate and hexamethylenetetramine at the same temperature. Effects of the shells and UV laser beam irradiation on the crystal structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods were studied. ZnO:Mg shells suppress the green emission and enhance the UV emission intensity of the nanorods by 38 times. Enhancement of the UV emission depends on the Mg content in the shells. Short time UV laser beam irradiation could improve ZnO nanorod emission efficiently. The UV emission intensity of ZnO nanorods is enhanced by 71 times by capping and subsequent UV laser beam irradiation. - Highlights: ► ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on quartz slices in solution at 90 °C. ► The nanorods were capped by ZnO:Mg layers to form core/shell structures. ► ZnO:MgO shells suppress the green emission and enhance the UV emission intensity by 38 times. ► The enhancement depends on the Mg content in the shells. ► Exposing the nanorods to 325 laser beam improves the UV emission efficiently. ► Capping and 325 nm laser beam irradiation could enhance the nanorod UV emission intensity by 71 times.

  5. Preparation of hydroxide ion conductive KOH–layered double hydroxide electrolytes for an all-solid-state iron–air secondary battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Tsuneishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anion conductive solid electrolytes based on Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were prepared for application in an all-solid-state Fe–air battery. The ionic conductivity and the conducting ion species were evaluated from impedance and electromotive force measurements. The ion conductivity of LDH was markedly enhanced upon addition of KOH. The electromotive force in a water vapor concentration cell was similar to that of an anion-conducting polymer membrane. The KOH–LDH obtained was used as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte for all-solid-state Fe–air batteries. The cell performance of the Fe–air batteries was examined using a mixture of KOH–LDH and iron-oxide-supported carbon as the negative electrode.

  6. Direct growth of metal-organic frameworks thin film arrays on glassy carbon electrode based on rapid conversion step mediated by copper clusters and hydroxide nanotubes for fabrication of a high performance non-enzymatic glucose sensing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Khaki Sanati, Elnaz; Hosseini, Hadi

    2018-07-30

    The direct growth of self-supported metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) thin film can be considered as an effective strategy for fabrication of the advanced modified electrodes in sensors and biosensor applications. However, most of the fabricated MOFs-based sensors suffer from some drawbacks such as time consuming for synthesis of MOF and electrode making, need of a binder or an additive layer, need of expensive equipment and use of hazardous solvents. Here, a novel free-standing MOFs-based modified electrode was fabricated by the rapid direct growth of MOFs on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In this method, direct growth of MOFs was occurred by the formation of vertically aligned arrays of Cu clusters and Cu(OH) 2 nanotubes, which can act as both mediator and positioning fixing factor for the rapid formation of self-supported MOFs on GCE surface. The effect of both chemically and electrochemically formed Cu(OH) 2 nanotubes on the morphological and electrochemical performance of the prepared MOFs were investigated. Due to the unique properties of the prepared MOFs thin film electrode such as uniform and vertically aligned structure, excellent stability, high electroactive surface area, and good availability to analyte and electrolyte diffusion, it was directly used as the electrode material for non-enzymatic electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Moreover, the potential utility of this sensing platform for the analytical determination of glucose concentration was evaluated by the amperometry technique. The results proved that the self-supported MOFs thin film on GCE is a promising electrode material for fabricating and designing non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of bonding mechanisms during transfer hydrogenation reaction on heterogeneous catalysts of platinum nanoparticles supported on zinc oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Reem A.; Laxman, Karthik; Dastgir, Sarim; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-07-01

    For supported heterogeneous catalysis, the interface between a metal nanoparticle and the support plays an important role. In this work the dependency of the catalytic efficiency on the bonding chemistry of platinum nanoparticles supported on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods is studied. Platinum nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanorods (ZnO NR) using thermal and photochemical processes and the effects on the size, distribution, density and chemical state of the metal nanoparticles upon the catalytic activities are presented. The obtained results indicate that the bonding at Pt-ZnO interface depends on the deposition scheme which can be utilized to modulate the surface chemistry and thus the activity of the supported catalysts. Additionally, uniform distribution of metal on the catalyst support was observed to be more important than the loading density. It is also found that oxidized platinum Pt(IV) (platinum hydroxide) provided a more suitable surface for enhancing the transfer hydrogenation reaction of cyclohexanone with isopropanol compared to zero valent platinum. Photochemically synthesized ZnO supported nanocatalysts were efficient and potentially viable for upscaling to industrial applications.

  8. Textural and chemical characterizations of adsorbent prepared from palm shell by potassium hydroxide impregnation at different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Lua, Aik Chong

    2002-10-15

    Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from palm shell, a carbonaceous agricultural solid waste, by potassium hydroxide treatment at different stages were studied. The effects of activation temperature and chemical to sample ratio on the characteristics of the activated carbon were investigated. Fixed-bed adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) gas was carried out to evaluate the adsorptive capacity of the samples. Desorption tests were conducted to verify the occurrence of chemisorption due to some surface functional groups or of chemical reaction between SO(2) and KOH. It was found that pre-impregnation of raw palm shell was involved in replacement of some hydrogen ions with potassium ions to form cross-linked complexes, which retarded the tar formation during carbonization, resulting in a relatively high yield. Moreover, these potassium ions accelerated the reaction as catalysts during gasification of chars by carbon dioxide. For chars with mid-impregnation, potassium hydroxide acted in two ways: (i) formation of metallic potassium by dehydration and (ii) conversion into potassium carbonate. Metallic potassium intercalated to the carbon matrix accounted for pore development and potassium carbonate layer prevented the sample from over burn-off. Post-impregnation of final products modified the textural characteristics of the sample as some pore entrances were blocked by chemicals. However, potassium hydroxide enhanced the amount of SO(2) uptaken via formation of potassium sulfite.

  9. Silane decorated metallic nanorods for hydrophobic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Sharma, Rajesh; Liu Bo; Trigwell, Steve; Ryerson, Charles; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2010-01-01

    A novel technique to modify a metallic surface for anti-icing applications is presented. An oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique has been used to fabricate metallic nanorods of Aluminum and Tungsten on a glass substrate. A conformal coating of a silane has been applied using a molecular vapor deposition technique. The resulting surface has shown a static contact angle of 134 deg. with the water droplet. SEM, AFM and XPS have been used to study the surface modification. This is a highly promising approach for anti-icing applications due to its scalability at a very low cost.

  10. Fabricating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aiping; Lu Yan; Si Yunfeng; Dai Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO 4 3- to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  11. Frabicating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aiping; Lu, Yan; Si, Yunfeng; Dai, Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO43- to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  12. Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2012-12-04

    A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

  13. In vitro toxicity studies of polymer-coated gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayavarapu, Raja G; Petersen, Wilma; Manohar, Srirang; Van Leeuwen, Ton G [Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Otto, Cees [Medical Cell Biophysics, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Chin, Patrick; Van Leeuwen, Fijs W B [Division of Diagnostic Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, Hans, E-mail: S.Manohar@utwente.nl [Division of Cell Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-09

    We evaluated cellular responses to polymer-treated gold nanorods, which were synthesized using the standard wet-chemistry method that utilizes hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The nanorod dispersions were coated with either polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Two sizes of nanorods were tested, with optical responses peaking at 628 and 773 nm. The cells were from mammary adenocarcinoma (SKBR3), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), mouse myoblast (C2C12) and Human Leukemia (HL60) cell lines. Their mitochondrial function following exposure to the nanorods were assessed using the MTS assay. We found PEGylated particles to have superior biocompatibility compared with PSS-coated nanorods, which showed substantial cytotoxicity. Electron microscopy showed no cellular uptake of PEGylated particles compared with their PSS counterparts. PEGylated gold nanorods also exhibited better dispersion stability in the presence of cell growth medium; PSS-coated rods tended to flocculate or cluster. In the case of the PSS particles, toxicity correlated with surface area across the two sizes of nanorods studied.

  14. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  15. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  16. Calcium hydroxide silylation reaction with trimethylchlorosilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselnov Anatoliy A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The silylation reaction of a calcium hydroxide with a trimethylchlorosilane is studied as a silylation model by the gas-liquid chromatography. The silylation process is divided into three stages. A material balance of these stages is calculated. The schemes of the reactions at each stage of the process are proposed. The modified calcium hydroxide obtained at three repetitive stages of the silylation reaction has been investigated by the x-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, electron microscopy in a combination with the elemental analysis. It has been determined that at the first stage of the interaction the processes of the trimethylchlorosilane hydrolysis and of the hydrolysis products condensation dominate, and at the same time an adsorption process of the trimethylchlorosilane and its derivatives starts. Further, the hydrolysis of the trimethylchlorosilane by the «new» portions of a water formed in the reaction of a calcium hydroxide with a hydrogen chloride takes place, simultaneously the secondary reactions of the Si-O-Ca – ties’ formation and cleavage occur including as a silylation-desilylation dynamic equilibrium process.

  17. Shape dependent resonance light scattering properties of gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jian; Huang Liqing; Zhao Junwu; Wang Yongchang; Zhao Yanrui; Hao Limei; Lu Yimin

    2005-01-01

    Suspended gold nanorods with mean aspect ratio 2.5 have been synthesized via electrochemical method. Resonance scattering properties have been studied. Two scattering peaks fixed at 400 and 640 nm are due to the scattering of the gold nanorods via coupling to the transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance. The quasi-static calculation results indicate that with the increasing aspect ratio of the nanorods, the longer wavelength scattering peak red shifts linearly and the shorter wavelength peak blue shifts non-linearly. When aspect ratio a/b = 1.0, ellipse degenerate to sphere and the two peaks unite into one peak at 450 nm

  18. Facile Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on WO3Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Janarthanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTungsten trioxide nanorods have been generated by the thermal decomposition (450 °C of tetrabutylammonium decatungstate. The synthesized tungsten trioxide (WO3 nanorods have been characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and cyclic voltammetry. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the synthesized WO3nanorods are crystalline in nature with monoclinic structure. The electrochemical experiments showed that they constitute a better electrocatalytic system for hydrogen evolution reaction in acid medium compared to their bulk counterpart.

  19. Preparation of ZnS nanorods by ultrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behboudnia, M.; Majlesara, M.H.; Khanbabaee, B.

    2005-01-01

    ZnS nanorods of approximately 1 μm in length and 20 nm in diameter have been prepared by sonicating ethylenediamine solution of elemental S and zinc acetate in presence of 1-decanthiol under air. The nanorods were characterized using techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The as-prepared nanorods have regular shape, narrow size distribution and high purity, having band gap of 4.56 eV compared to 3.54 eV corresponding to its bulk single-crystal

  20. Superhydrophobic ZnAl double hydroxide nanostructures and ZnO films on Al and glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Debasis, E-mail: debasis.de@bcrec.ac.in [Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Department, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, West Bengal 713206 (India); Sarkar, D.K. [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l' Aluminium (CURAL), L' Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Blvd. Université, Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Québec G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and ZnO films have been fabricated on Al and glass substrates, respectively, by a simple and cost effective chemical bath deposition technique. Randomly oriented hexagonal patterned of ZnAl: LDHs thin nanoplates are clearly observed on Al-substrate in the scanning electron microscopic images. The average size of these hexagonal plates is ∼4 μm side and ∼30 nm of thickness. While on the glass substrate, a oriented hexagonal patterned ZnO nanorods (height ∼5 μm and 1 μm diameter) are observed and each rod is further decorated throughout the top few nanometers with several nanosteps. At the top of the nanorod, a perfectly hexagonal patterned ZnO surface with ∼250 nm sides is observed. The tendency to form hexagonal morphological features is due to the hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy image. The ZnAl: LDHs and/or ZnO coated substrates have been passivated by using stearic acid (SA) molecules. Infrared spectra of passivated ZnAl: LDHs coated substrates confirm the presence of SA. X-ray diffraction pattern also corroborates the results of infrared spectrum. The contact angle of the as prepared samples is zero. The superhydrophobicity is achieved by observing contact angle of ∼161° with a hysteresis of ∼4° for Al-substrate. On the glass substrate, a higher contact angle of ∼168° with a lower hysteresis of ∼3° is observed. A lower surface roughness of ∼4.93 μm is measured on ZnAl: LDHs surface layer on the Al substrate as compare to a higher surface roughness of 6.87 μm measured on ZnO layer on glass substrate. The superhydrophobicity of passivated nanostructured films on two different substrates is observed due to high surface roughness and low surface energy. - Highlights: • ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanoplates are fabricated on Al substrate. • ZnO nanorods are fabricated on

  1. Magnetic field control of fluorescent polymer nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyung; He, Le; Bardeen, Christopher J; Morales, Jason R; Beyermann, W P

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale objects that combine high luminescence output with a magnetic response may be useful for probing local environments or manipulating objects on small scales. Ideally, these two properties would not interfere with each other. In this paper, we show that a fluorescent polymer host material can be doped with high concentrations of 20–30 nm diameter magnetic γ-Fe 2 O 3 particles and then formed into 200 nm diameter nanorods using porous anodic alumina oxide templates. Two different polymer hosts are used: the conjugated polymer polydioctylfluorene and also polystyrene doped with the fluorescent dye Lumogen Red. Fluorescence decay measurements show that 14% by weight loading of the γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles quenches the fluorescence of the polydioctylfluorene by approximately 33%, but the polystyrene/Lumogen Red fluorescence is almost unaffected. The three-dimensional orientation of both types of nanorods can be precisely controlled by the application of a moderate strength (∼0.1 T) external field with sub-second response times. Transmission electron microscope images reveal that the nanoparticles cluster in the polymer matrix, and these clusters may serve both to prevent fluorescence quenching and to generate the magnetic moment that rotates in response to the applied magnetic field.

  2. Nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets: Synthesis, morphology and electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Barbora; Demel, Jan; Zhigunov, Alexander; Bohuslav, Jan; Tarábková, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Lang, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical performance of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets. The hydroxide nanosheets of approximately 0.7nm thickness were prepared by delamination of layered nickel-cobalt hydroxide lactate in water and formed transparent colloids that were stable for months. The nanosheets were deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by spin coating, and their electrochemical behavior was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in potassium hydroxide electrolyte. Our method of electrode preparation allows for studying the electrochemistry of nanosheets where the majority of the active centers can participate in the charge transfer reaction. The observed electrochemical response was ascribed to mutual compensation of the cobalt and nickel response via electron sharing between these metals in the hydroxide nanosheets, a process that differentiates the behavior of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets from single nickel hydroxide or cobalt hydroxide nanosheets or their physical mixture. The presence of cobalt in the nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets apparently decreases the time of electrochemical activation of the nanosheet layer, which for the nickel hydroxide nanosheets alone requires more potential sweeps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diameter Control and Photoluminescence of ZnO Nanorods from Trialkylamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Andelman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel solution method to control the diameter of ZnO nanorods is reported. Small diameter (2-3 nm nanorods were synthesized from trihexylamine, and large diameter (50–80 nm nanorods were synthesized by increasing the alkyl chain length to tridodecylamine. The defect (green emission of the photoluminescence (PL spectra of the nanorods varies with diameter, and can thus be controlled by the diameter control. The small ZnO nanorods have strong green emission, while the large diameter nanorods exhibit a remarkably suppressed green band. We show that this observation supports surface oxygen vacancies as the defect that gives rise to the green emission.

  4. Nucleation and growth kinetics of zirconium hydroxide by precipitation with ammonium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleson, T.E.; Chipman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study of the nucleation and growth kinetics of the precipitation of zirconium hydroxide from the reaction of hexafluorozirconate solution with ammonium hydroxide are reported. The McCabe linear growth rate model was used to correlate the results. The growth rate decreased with residence time and supersaturation for studies with 7 residence times (3.5 - 90 minutes and two supersaturation ratios (0.03 - 0.04, and 0.4). The nucleation rate increased with residence time and supersaturation. A negative kinetic order of nucleation was observed that may be due to the inhibition of particle growth by adsorption of reacting species on the crystal surfaces

  5. Electrical transport properties of single ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Y.W.; Tien, L.C.; Norton, D.P.; Kang, B.S.; Ren, F.; Gila, B.P.; Pearton, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Single ZnO nanorods with diameters of ∼130 nm were grown on Au-coated Al 2 O 3 substrates by catalyst-driven molecular beam epitaxy. Individual nanorods were removed from the substrate and placed between Ohmic contact pads and the current-voltage characteristics measured as a function of temperature and gas ambient. In the temperature range from 25 to 150 deg. C, the resistivity of nanorods treated in H 2 at 400 deg. C prior to measurement showed an activation energy of 0.089±0.02 eV and was insensitive to the ambient used (C 2 H 4 ,N 2 O,O 2 or 10% H 2 in N 2 ). By sharp contrast, the conductivity of nanorods not treated in H 2 was sensitive to trace concentrations of gases in the measurement ambient even at room temperature, demonstrating their potential as gas sensors

  6. Nanorotors using asymmetric inorganic nanorods in an optical trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Manas; Sood, A K; Deepak, F L; Rao, C N R

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate how light force, irrespective of the polarization of the light, can be used to run a simple nanorotor. While the gradient force of a single beam optical trap is used to hold an asymmetric nanorod, we utilize the scattering force to generate a torque on the nanorod, making it rotate about the optic axis. The inherent textural irregularities or morphological asymmetries of the nanorods give rise to the torque under the radiation pressure. Even a small surface irregularity with non-zero chirality is sufficient to produce enough torque for moderate rotational speed. Different sized rotors can be used to set the speed of rotation over a wide range with fine tuning possible through the variation of the laser power. We present a simple dimensional analysis to qualitatively explain the observed trend of the rotational motion of the nanorods

  7. Hydrodynamic fabrication of structurally gradient ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Min; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2016-02-26

    We studied a new approach where structurally gradient nanostructures were fabricated by means of hydrodynamics. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized in a drag-driven rotational flow in a controlled manner. The structural characteristics of nanorods such as orientation and diameter were determined by momentum and mass transfer at the substrate surface. The nucleation of ZnO was induced by shear stress which plays a key role in determining the orientation of ZnO nanorods. The nucleation and growth of such nanostructures were modeled theoretically and analyzed numerically to understand the underlying physics of the fabrication of nanostructures controlled by hydrodynamics. The findings demonstrated that the precise control of momentum and mass transfer enabled the formation of ZnO nanorods with a structural gradient in diameter and orientation.

  8. Stimulated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, R.; Lange, H.; Priller, H.; Klingshirn, C.; Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (TH), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kling, R. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU-Braunschweig, H.-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Fan, H.J.; Zacharias, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    We discuss the time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra of single ZnO nanorods taken at excitation fluences above and below the laser threshold. In the latter case, P-band emission related to polariton-polariton scattering is observed for certain rod geometries while stimulated emission occurs within the electron-hole plasma band. We calculate the intensity distribution of low-order waveguide modes as well as their energy dependence for given nanorod geometries to discuss their relevance with respect to nanorod lasing and polariton propagation. Additional finite-element analysis confirms that a gold layer formed at the nanorod-substrate interface under certain growth conditions leads to an enhancement of confinement within the resonator. (2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Cathodoluminescence of single ZnO nanorod heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechal, Bernard; Donatini, Fabrice; Dang, Le Si [CNRS-CEA-UJF joint group ' ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' ' , Universite Joseph Fourier (CNRS UMR 5588), Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Yoo, Jinkyoung; Yi, Gyu-Chul [National CRI Center for Semiconductor Nanorods and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea); Elshaer, Abdelhamid; Mofor, A.C.; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology (IHT), TU Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Optical properties of ZnO-based single nanorods are probed by cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements at T = 5 K. We observe a variation of the ZnO near band edge CL by three orders of magnitude along the nanorod axis, accompanied by a spectral blueshift of 10-30 meV. This indicates a rather poor structural quality of the nanorod bottom part, close to the substrate. ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells grown on top of ZnO nanorods are found to exhibit much stronger confinement effects as compared to their two-dimensional counterparts, suggesting a reduced spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Nanorods for Homogeneous Molecular Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongning Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is still difficult for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs to achieve homogeneous recognition since they cannot be easily dissolved in organic or aqueous phase. To address this issue, soluble molecularly imprinted nanorods have been synthesized by using soluble polyaniline doped with a functionalized organic protonic acid as the polymer matrix. By employing 1-naphthoic acid as a model, the proposed imprinted nanorods exhibit an excellent solubility and good homogeneous recognition ability. The imprinting factor for the soluble imprinted nanoroads is 6.8. The equilibrium dissociation constant and the apparent maximum number of the proposed imprinted nanorods are 248.5 μM and 22.1 μmol/g, respectively. We believe that such imprinted nanorods may provide an appealing substitute for natural receptors in homogeneous recognition related fields.

  11. Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Nanorods for Homogeneous Molecular Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rongning; Wang, Tiantian; Zhang, Huan; Yao, Ruiqing; Qin, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, it is still difficult for molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs) to achieve homogeneous recognition since they cannot be easily dissolved in organic or aqueous phase. To address this issue, soluble molecularly imprinted nanorods have been synthesized by using soluble polyaniline doped with a functionalized organic protonic acid as the polymer matrix. By employing 1-naphthoic acid as a model, the proposed imprinted nanorods exhibit an excellent solubility and good homogeneous recognition ability. The imprinting factor for the soluble imprinted nanoroads is 6.8. The equilibrium dissociation constant and the apparent maximum number of the proposed imprinted nanorods are 248.5 μM and 22.1 μmol/g, respectively. We believe that such imprinted nanorods may provide an appealing substitute for natural receptors in homogeneous recognition related fields.

  12. Adsorption of Organophosphate Pesticide Dimethoate on Gold Nanospheres and Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Momić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus pesticide dimethoate was adsorbed onto gold nanospheres and nanorods in aqueous solution using batch technique. Adsorption of dimethoate onto gold nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, TEM, AFM, and FTIR analysis. The adsorption of nanospheres resulted in aggregation which was not the case with nanorods. Nanoparticles adsorption features were characterized using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to have the best fit to the experimental data for both types of nanoparticles. Adsorption capacity detected for nanospheres is 456 mg/g and for nanorods is 57.1 mg/g. Also, nanoparticles were successfully used for dimethoate removal from spiked drinking water while nanospheres were shown to be more efficient than nanorods.

  13. Novel nanorods based on PANI / PEO polymers using electrospinning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hazeem, Nabeel Z., E-mail: nabeelnano333@gmail.com [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Ministry of Education, the General Directorate for Educational Anbar (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M.; Matjafri, M. Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Sabah, Fayroz A. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Rasheed, Hiba S. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    In this work, we fabricated nanorods by applying an electric potential on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and polyaniline (PANI) as a polymeric solution by electrospinning method. Testing was conducted on the samples by field emission scanning Electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Photoluminescence. And the results showed the emergence of nanorods in the sample within glass substrate. Diameters of nanorods have ranged between (52.78-122.40)nm And a length of between (1.15 – 1.32)μm. The emergence of so the results are for the first time, never before was the fabrication of nanorods for polymers using the same method used in this research.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of iron cobalt (FECO) nanorods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and characterization of iron cobalt (FECO) nanorods prepared by simple ... shaped by increasing annealing temperature from room temperature to 800 ... Keywords: FeCo nanoparticles, sodium borohydrid, CTAB, chemical synthesis ...

  15. Polarization Raman spectroscopy of GaN nanorod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tite, T.; Lee, C. J.; Chang, Y.-M.

    2010-01-01

    We performed polarization Raman spectroscopy on single wurtzite GaN nanorod bundles grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The obtained Raman spectra were compared with those of GaN epilayer. The spectral difference between the GaN nanorod bundles and epilayer reveals the relaxation of Raman selection rules in these GaN nanorod bundles. The deviation of polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy from the prediction of Raman selection rules is attributed to both the orientation of the crystal axis with respect to the polarization vectors of incident and scattered light and the structural defects in the merging boundary of GaN nanorods. The presence of high defect density induced by local strain at the merging boundary was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The averaged defect interspacing was estimated to be around 3 nm based on the spatial correlation model.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  17. Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, A [Department of Physics, Persian Gulf University, 75196 Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sandoghdar, V; Agio, M [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: mario.agio@phys.chem.ethz.ch

    2008-10-15

    We compute the radiative decay rate and the quantum efficiency for an emitter coupled to gold nanorods and nanospheroids using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. We study these quantities as a function of the nanoparticle aspect ratio and volume, showing that large enhancements can be achieved with realistic parameters. Moreover, we find that nanospheroids exhibit better performances than nanorods for applications in the visible and near-infrared spectral range.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdWO 4 nanorods and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CdWO4 nanorods with wolframite structure were synthesized in the presence of the surfactant SDBS by a hydrothermal method, and characterized by a variety of techniques. The obtained products are CdWO4 nanorods with length of 0.8–2.5 μm and width of 50–250 nm. The surfactant SDBS plays a key role in the ...

  19. Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, A; Sandoghdar, V; Agio, M

    2008-01-01

    We compute the radiative decay rate and the quantum efficiency for an emitter coupled to gold nanorods and nanospheroids using the body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method. We study these quantities as a function of the nanoparticle aspect ratio and volume, showing that large enhancements can be achieved with realistic parameters. Moreover, we find that nanospheroids exhibit better performances than nanorods for applications in the visible and near-infrared spectral range.

  20. Synthesis of polymer nanocomposites using layered hydroxide salts (LHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Paula F. de M.P.B.; Lona, Liliane M.F.; Marangoni, Rafael; Wypych, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this work latexes of poly (methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via emulsion polymerization using layered hydroxide salts (LHS) as reinforcements: zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn 5 (OH) 8 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O) and copper hydroxide acetate (Cu 2 (OH) 3 CH 3 COO.H 2 O). The LHSs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Mastersizer analysis indicated the particle diameter of the latexes. Molecular weights and conversion data were also obtained. (author)

  1. Nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets: Synthesis, morphology and electrochemical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schneiderová, Barbora; Demel, Jan; Zhigunov, Alexander; Bohuslav, Jan; Tarábková, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Lang, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 499, AUG (2017), s. 138-144 ISSN 0021-9797 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : Hydroxide nanosheets * Delamination * Exfoliation * Layered nickel hydroxide * Layered cobalt hydroxide * Electrode material Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W); CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W); Polymer science (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.233, year: 2016

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of metal oxide/hydroxide composite electrodes for high power supercapacitors - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Soheila; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2014-10-01

    Electrochemical capacitors (ECs), also known as pseudocapacitors or supercapacitors (SCs), is receiving great attention for its potential applications in electric and hybrid electric vehicles because of their ability to store energy, alongside with the advantage of delivering the stored energy much more rapidly than batteries, namely power density. To become primary devices for power supply, supercapacitors must be developed further to improve their ability to deliver high energy and power simultaneously. In this concern, a lot of effort is devoted to the investigation of pseudocapacitive transition-metal-based oxides/hydroxides such as ruthenium oxide, manganese oxide, cobalt oxide, nickel oxide, cobalt hydroxide, nickel hydroxide, and mixed metal oxides/hydroxides such as nickel cobaltite and nickel-cobalt oxy-hydroxides. This is mainly due to the fact that they can produce much higher specific capacitances than typical carbon-based electric double-layer capacitors and electronically conducting polymers. This review presents supercapacitor performance data of metal oxide thin film electrodes by microwave-assisted as an inexpensive, quick and versatile technique. Supercapacitors have established the specific capacitance (Cs) principles, therefore, it is likely that metal oxide films will continue to play a major role in supercapacitor technology and are expected to considerably increase the capabilities of these devices in near future.

  3. Cadmium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Microspheres for Photocatalytic CO2Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Daniel

    2016-03-30

    We report the synthesis of cadmium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (CdAl LDH) using the reaction-diffusion framework. As the hydroxide anions diffuse into an agar gel matrix containing the mixture of aluminum and cadmium salts at a given ratio, they react to give the LDH. The LDH self-assembles inside the pores of the gel matrix into a unique spherical-porous shaped microstructure. The internal and external morphologies of the particles are studied by electron microscopy and tomography revealing interconnected channels and a high surface area. This material is shown to exhibit a promising performance in the photoreduction of carbon dioxide using solar light. Moreover, the palladium-decorated version shows a significant improvement in its reduction potential at room temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cadmium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Microspheres for Photocatalytic CO2Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Daniel; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Sougrat, Rachid; Khashab, Niveen M.; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Al-Ghoul, Mazen

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis of cadmium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (CdAl LDH) using the reaction-diffusion framework. As the hydroxide anions diffuse into an agar gel matrix containing the mixture of aluminum and cadmium salts at a given ratio, they react to give the LDH. The LDH self-assembles inside the pores of the gel matrix into a unique spherical-porous shaped microstructure. The internal and external morphologies of the particles are studied by electron microscopy and tomography revealing interconnected channels and a high surface area. This material is shown to exhibit a promising performance in the photoreduction of carbon dioxide using solar light. Moreover, the palladium-decorated version shows a significant improvement in its reduction potential at room temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A facile mechanochemical approach to synthesize Zn-Al layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun, E-mail: forsjun@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); He, Xiaoman; Chen, Min; Huang, Pengwu [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Zhang, Qiwu, E-mail: zhangqw@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Liu, Xinzhong [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a mechanochemical route to synthesize Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was introduced, in which Zn basic carbonate and Al hydroxide were first dry milled into an activated state and then agitated in water to obtain the final products. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products possessed a high crystallinity of Zn–Al LDH phase without any other impurities, proving a facile and effective preparation of Zn–Al LDH by using non-heating mechanochemical approach. - Highlights: • A non-heating mechanochemical route to synthesize Zn-Al LDH. • The products possessed high crystalline Zn-Al LDH phase. • No emission of other impurities or wastewater.

  6. Cadmium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Microspheres for Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Daniel; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Sougrat, Rachid; Khashab, Niveen M; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Al-Ghoul, Mazen

    2016-04-21

    We report the synthesis of cadmium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (CdAl LDH) using the reaction-diffusion framework. As the hydroxide anions diffuse into an agar gel matrix containing the mixture of aluminum and cadmium salts at a given ratio, they react to give the LDH. The LDH self-assembles inside the pores of the gel matrix into a unique spherical-porous shaped microstructure. The internal and external morphologies of the particles are studied by electron microscopy and tomography revealing interconnected channels and a high surface area. This material is shown to exhibit a promising performance in the photoreduction of carbon dioxide using solar light. Moreover, the palladium-decorated version shows a significant improvement in its reduction potential at room temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Degradation of l-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Nathalie; Katiyar, Vimal; Koch, Christian Bender

    2012-01-01

    PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium–aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds...... in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces...... and catalytically active Mg site centers are causative factors for PLA degradation. Interestingly, the release of water under the processing conditions was found to have a rather small effect on the PLA degradation. Low loadings of sodium laurate also caused PLA degradation indicating that carboxylate chain ends...

  8. Preparation and characterization of dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanorod solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Lijian, E-mail: ljm@isep.ipp.pt [Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Chen, Hong [Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Changchun Institute of Optics, fine Mechanics and Physics of Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130033 (China); Li, Can [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023,China (China); Santos, M.P. dos [CEFITEC, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Évora (Portugal)

    2015-02-27

    TiO{sub 2} nanorods were prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique and applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The length of the TiO{sub 2} nanorods was varied from 1 μm to 6 μm. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the nanorods are perpendicular to the substrate. Both the X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman scattering results show that the nanorods have an anatase phase; no other phase has been observed. (101) and the (220) diffraction peaks have been observed for the TiO{sub 2} nanorods. The (101) diffraction peak intensity remained constant despite the increase of nanorod length, while the intensity of the (220) diffraction peak increased almost linearly with the nanorod length. These nanorods were used as the working electrodes in DSSCs and the effect of the nanorod length on the conversion efficiency has been studied. An optimum photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.8% has been achieved for 4 μm length nanorods. - Highlights: • [110] oriented TiO{sub 2} nanorods were deposited on ITO substrate by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. • The structural properties of these nanorods have been studied. • The (110) texture is dominated by strain energy minimization. • DSSCs were assembled using these nanorods as electrode.

  9. Synthesis and Tribological Properties of WSe2Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jinghai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The WSe2nanorods were synthesized via solid-state reaction method and characterized by X-ray diffractometer, TEM, and HRTEM. The results indicated the WSe2compounds had rod-like structures with diameters of 10–50 nm and lengths of 100–400 nm, and the growth process of WSe2nanorods was discussed on the basis of the experimental facts. The tribological properties of WSe2nanorods as additives in HVI500 base oil were investigated by UMT-2 multispecimen tribotester. Under the determinate conditions, the friction coefficient of the base oil containing WSe2nanorods was lower than that of the base oil, and decreased with increasing mass fraction of WSe2nanorods when it was <7 wt.%. Moreover, the base oil with the additives was rather suited to high load and high rotating speed. A combination of rolling friction, sliding friction, and stable tribofilm on the rubbing surface could explain the good friction and wear properties of WSe2nanorods as additives.

  10. Aqueous chemical growth and application of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postels, Bianca; Kasprzak, Anna; Mofor, Augustine C.; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    A very promising fabrication process for ZnO nanostructures is the aqueous chemical growth (ACG), since it is a cost efficient and low temperature approach. Using this growth technique we generated wafer-scale ZnO nanorod arrays on Si, sapphire, ITO coated glass and even on flexible polymer substrates. ACG is found to be only weakly influenced by the substrate material and we are also able to control the dimensions of the ZnO nanorods. Another benefit of ACG is the ability to fabricate patterned arrays of ZnO nanorods by a selective growth process on structured metallised surfaces. Results of structural analysis with SEM and XRD are reported. Additionally, optical properties were investigated by PL measurements. First attempts on the preparation of dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs) are also reported. Here, the traditional sintered TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are replaced by a densely packed and vertically aligned array of ACG ZnO nanorods. The size and morphology of the ZnO nanorods can be controlled. The influence of the length of the nanorods on the cell properties is investigated. A vapour phase transport technique was also used as alternative growth method.

  11. Electrodeposition of ZnO nanorods for device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postels, B.; Bakin, A.; Wehmann, H.H.; Suleiman, M.; Waag, A. [Technical University of Braunschweig, Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Weimann, T.; Hinze, P. [Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    We report the electrochemical growth of zinc oxide nanorods in a zinc nitrate/hexamethylenetetramine solution at 70 C. High-density vertical nanorods were grown on Au films on silicon substrates with a texture coefficient better than 99.9%. By varying the reactant concentration the diameter can be varied between 100 and 250 nm, with corresponding lengths of 1 to 4 {mu}m. Furthermore, this approach was used for the selective growth on Ti/Au strip conductors ordered in an interdigitated structure on an insulating substrate. We achieved the growth of ZnO nanorods between neighbouring strip conductors bridging the gap between them. In this configuration the nanorods are already contacted and electrical measurements can be directly performed. First I-V measurements show a good conductivity of the as-grown nanorods and the resistance could be estimated to be 0.1 {omega}cm. Under UV illumination the ZnO nanorods demonstrate a photoconductivity, but only after annealing the sample at 300 C in N{sub 2}. (orig.)

  12. Polarized Raman scattering of single ZnO nanorod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J. L.; Lai, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Z.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized Raman scattering measurement on single wurtzite c-plane (001) ZnO nanorod grown by hydrothermal method has been performed at room temperature. The polarization dependence of the intensity of the Raman scattering for the phonon modes A 1 (TO), E 1 (TO), and E 2 high in the ZnO nanorod are obtained. The deviations of polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy from the prediction of Raman selection rules are observed, which can be attributed to the structure defects in the ZnO nanorod as confirmed by the comparison of the transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectra as well as the polarization dependent Raman signal of the annealed and unannealed ZnO nanorod. The Raman tensor elements of A 1 (TO) and E 1 (TO) phonon modes normalized to that of the E 2 high phonon mode are |a/d|=0.32±0.01, |b/d|=0.49±0.02, and |c/d|=0.23±0.01 for the unannealed ZnO nanorod, and |a/d|=0.33±0.01, |b/d|=0.45±0.01, and |c/d|=0.20±0.01 for the annealed ZnO nanorod, which shows strong anisotropy compared to that of bulk ZnO epilayer

  13. Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-18

    The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

  14. Control of ZnO Nanorod Defects to Enhance Carrier Transportation in p-Cu₂O/i-ZnO Nanorods/n-IGZO Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Le Thi Tuyet; Mung, Nguyen Thi; Loan, Phan Thi Kieu; Tuan, Dao Anh; Truong, Nguyen Huu; Tran, Cao Vinh; Hung, Le Vu Tuan

    2017-01-01

    The p-Cu₂O/i-ZnO nanorods/n-IGZO heterojunctions were fabricated by electrochemical and sputtering method. ZnO nanorods were grown on conductive indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film and then p-Cu₂O layer was deposited on ZnO nanorods to form the heterojunction. ZnO nanorods play an important role in carrier transport mechanisms and performance of the junction. The changing of defects in ZnO nanorods by annealing samples in air and vacuum have studied. The XRD, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and FTIR were used to study about structure, and defects in ZnO nanorods. The SEM, i–V characteristics methods were also used to define structure, electrical properties of the heterojunctions layers. The results show that the defects in ZnO nanorods affected remarkably on performance of heterojunctions of solar cells.

  15. Sound velocity in potassium hydroxide aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapuryan, Kh.D.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Kochetkov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic velocities in potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions are carried out within the frames of studies on improvement of water chemistry in NPP cooling systems. Method of echo pulses superposition with acoustic path length of 41.447 mm is used for measurements. The measurements are performed at 2.6 MHz frequency. Complex temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is determined. Ultrasonic velocity dependence on pressure is close to linear one. The formula for calculation of thermodynamic properties of the studied solutions on the basis of experimental data obtained is proposed

  16. Dehydration-rehydration behaviour of zirconium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide coprecipitated hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, N.K.; Guha, P.; Basumajumdar, A.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium dehydration loss experiments on zirconium and aluminium hydroxide coprecipitated hyrogels were carried out up to 600deg and the above heat treated samples were subjected to rehydration at various humidities in order to study the structural flexibilties of the above hydrogel with respect to orientation of water molecules. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Thorium oxide dissolution kinetics for hydroxide and carbonate complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, R.; Curran, V.; Czerwinski, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the kinetics and thermodynamics of thorium oxide dissolution in the environment. Solubility is important because it establishes an upper concentration limit on the concentration of a dissolved radionuclide in solution L1. While understanding the behavior of thorium fuels in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is most applicable, a more rigorous study of thorium solubility over a wide pH range was performed so that the data could also be used to model the behavior of thorium fuels in any environmental system. To achieve this, the kinetics and thermodynamics of thorium oxide dissolution under both pure argon and argon with P CO2 of 0. 1 were studied under the full pH range available in each atmosphere. In addition, thorium oxide powder remnants were studied after each experiment to examine structural changes that may affect kinetics

  18. Fabricating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Aiping, E-mail: apzhu@yzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Lu Yan; Si Yunfeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Dai Sheng [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2011-02-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  19. Synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite nanorods in liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Dias Palombino de Campos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, carried out in systems formed from surfactant, oil and water, have resulted in materials with promising possibilities for application. The calcium phosphate particles were synthesized using two different liquid crystals, formed from RenexTM, cyclohexane and a salts solution. The morphology of the nanoparticles synthesized in the liquid crystals is similar to that of hydroxyapatite particles that form bone mineral, where collagen fibers connect these particles so as to form a composite. Therefore, the synthesis of calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the systems used in this work can advance current understanding of mineralization processes that result in the formation of bone mineral.

  20. Microstructures, surface properties, and topotactic transitions of manganite nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tao; Krumeich, Frank; Nesper, Reinhard; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Norby, Poul

    2009-07-06

    Manganite (gamma-MnOOH) nanorods with typical diameters of 20-500 nm and lengths of several micrometers were prepared by reacting KMnO(4) and ethanol under hydrothermal conditions. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal that the gamma-MnOOH nanorods crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with unit cell dimensions a = 5.2983(3) A, b = 5.2782(2) A, c = 5.3067(3) A, and beta = 114.401(2) degrees . Transmission electron microscopy shows that the gamma-MnOOH nanorods are single crystalline and that lateral attachment occurs for primary rods elongated along 101. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the surfaces of the gamma-MnOOH nanorods are hydrogen deficient and compensated by surface complexation. The Raman scattering spectrum features five main contributions at 360, 389, 530, 558, and 623 cm(-1) along with four weak ones at 266, 453, 492, and 734 cm(-1), attributed to Mn-O vibrations within MnO(6) octahedral frameworks. The structural stability of the gamma-MnOOH nanorods was discussed by means of in situ time-resolved synchrotron XRD. The monoclinic gamma-MnOOH nanorods transform into tetragonal beta-MnO(2) upon heating in air at about 200 degrees C. The reaction is topotactic and shows distinctive differences from those seen for bulk counterparts. A metastable, intermediate phase is observed, possibly connected with hydrogen release via the interstitial (1 x 1) tunnels of the gamma-MnOOH nanorods.

  1. Physical and chemical contributions of a plasma treatment in the growth of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.T. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis. •Oxygen plasma was done on the surface of seed ZnO nanorods. •The ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were characterized. •The results showed that the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods with plasma treatment were enhanced. -- Abstract: We analyzed the enhancement of optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods by using a plasma treatment. In this study, seed ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 1 h on a ZnO buffered Si substrate. The seed ZnO nanorods were then treated with an oxygen plasma. Next, ZnO was grown for an additional 4 h by hydrothermal synthesis. The resultant ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). The measurements showed that the plasma treatment of the seed ZnO nanorods increased the roughness of the buffer layer and the concentration of oxygen ions on the surfaces of the seed ZnO nanorods and the buffer layer, leading to improved optical and structural properties. In this study, we found that the plasma treatment on the seed ZnO nanorods enhanced the optical and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  2. Thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxides: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of volatile alkali hydroxides as a result of high-temperature steam corrosion plays an important role in nuclear technology. For the modeling of the volatilization processes, reliable thermodynamic data are required. In the present paper recent physico-chemical experiments by the authors will be discussed and the thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxide series will be evaluated. (orig.)

  3. Acid mine water neutralisation with ammonium hydroxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study showed that NH4OH can be used for treatment of acid mine drainage rich in sulphates and NH4OH can be recycled in the process. Hydrated lime treatment resulted in removal of the remaining ammonia using a rotary evaporator. Keywords: acid mine water, ammonium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, sulphate ...

  4. Carbon Dioxide Absorbers: An Engaging Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticich, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and direct method for measuring the absorption of carbon dioxide by two different substances is described. Lithium hydroxide has been used for decades to remove the gas from enclosed living spaces, such as spacecraft and submarines. The ratio of the mass of carbon dioxide absorbed to the mass of lithium hydroxide used obtained from this…

  5. Perovskite Nanoparticle-Sensitized Ga2O3 Nanorod Arrays for CO Detection at High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jan; Baltrus, John P; Gao, Haiyong; Ding, Yong; Nam, Chang-Yong; Ohodnicki, Paul; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2016-04-13

    Noble metal nanoparticles are extensively used for sensitizing metal oxide chemical sensors through the catalytic spillover mechanism. However, due to earth-scarcity and high cost of noble metals, finding replacements presents a great economic benefit. Besides, high temperature and harsh environment sensor applications demand material stability under conditions approaching thermal and chemical stability limits of noble metals. In this study, we employed thermally stable perovskite-type La(0.8)Sr(0.2)FeO3 (LSFO) nanoparticle surface decoration on Ga2O3 nanorod array gas sensors and discovered an order of magnitude enhanced sensitivity to carbon monoxide at 500 °C. The LSFO nanoparticle catalysts was of comparable performance to that achieved by Pt nanoparticles, with a much lower weight loading than Pt. Detailed electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested the LSFO nanoparticle sensitization effect is attributed to a spillover-like effect associated with the gas-LSFO-Ga2O3 triple-interfaces that spread the negatively charged surface oxygen ions from LSFO nanoparticles surfaces over to β-Ga2O3 nanorod surfaces with faster surface CO oxidation reactions.

  6. Discharge Characteristics of the Nickel Hydroxide Electrode in 30% KOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin

    1989-01-01

    The discharge behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode has been investigated in 30% KOH at 25 .deg. C. Two voltage plateaus are displayed on the discharge curve of C/20. It is shown that the impedance of the nickel hydroxide electrode increases with decrease of the discharge potential. The discharge behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode has been investigated in 30% KOH indicating the reduction of the β-NiOOH to the β-Ni(OH) 2 by proton diffusion process and hence the electronic conductivity change of the nickel hydroxide electrode. Furthermore, the γ-NiOOH, produced by prolonged oxidation of the β-NiOOH in 30% KOH, discharges at a slightly lower potential than the β-Ni(OH) 2 that could result in the life-limiting factor of several alkaline electrolyte storage batteries using the nickel hydroxide electrode as the positive plate

  7. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn5(OH)8Cl2·2H2O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C.

  8. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn 5 (OH) 8 Cl 2 ·2H 2 O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn 5 (OH) 8 Cl 2 ·2H 2 O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 °C, and in the LDH it was at 276 °C. Highlights: ► Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. ► ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. ► NH 3 molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. ► The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  9. Role of sodium hydroxide in the production of hydrogen gas from the hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The role of sodium hydroxide as a promoter of hydrogen gas production during the hydrothermal gasification of glucose and other biomass samples has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor with glucose and also in the presence of the alkali from 200 C, 2 MPa to 450 C, 34 MPa at constant water loading. Without sodium hydroxide, glucose decomposed to produce mainly carbon dioxide, water, char and tar. Furfural, its derivatives and reaction products dominated the ethyl acetate extract of the water (organic fraction) at lower reaction conditions. This indicated that the dehydration of glucose to yield these products was unfavourable to hydrogen gas production. In the presence of sodium hydroxide however, glucose initially decomposed to form mostly alkylated and hydroxylated carbonyl compounds, whose further decomposition yielded hydrogen gas. It was observed that at 350 C, 21.5 MPa, half of the optimum hydrogen gas yield had formed and at 450 C, 34 MPa, more than 80 volume percent of the gaseous effluent was hydrogen gas, while the balance was hydrocarbon gases, mostly methane ({>=}10 volume percent). Other biomass samples were also comparably reacted at the optimum conditions observed for glucose. The rate of hydrogen production for the biomass samples was in the following order; glucose > cellulose, starch, rice straw > potato > rice husk. (author)

  10. From covalent bonding to coalescence of metallic nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soohwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growth of metallic nanorods by physical vapor deposition is a common practice, and the origin of their dimensions is a characteristic length scale that depends on the three-dimensional Ehrlich-Schwoebel (3D ES barrier. For most metals, the 3D ES barrier is large so the characteristic length scale is on the order of 200 nm. Using density functional theory-based ab initio calculations, this paper reports that the 3D ES barrier of Al is small, making it infeasible to grow Al nanorods. By analyzing electron density distributions, this paper shows that the small barrier is the result of covalent bonding in Al. Beyond the infeasibility of growing Al nanorods by physical vapor deposition, the results of this paper suggest a new mechanism of controlling the 3D ES barrier and thereby nanorod growth. The modification of local degree of covalent bonding, for example, via the introduction of surfactants, can increase the 3D ES barrier and promote nanorod growth, or decrease the 3D ES barrier and promote thin film growth.

  11. Highly Uniform Epitaxial ZnO Nanorod Arrays for Nanopiezotronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Highly uniform and c-axis-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated in predefined patterns by a low temperature homoepitaxial aqueous chemical method. The nucleation seed patterns were realized in polymer and in metal thin films, resulting in, all-ZnO and bottom-contacted structures, respectively. Both of them show excellent geometrical uniformity: the cross-sectional uniformity according to the scanning electron micrographs across the array is lower than 2%. The diameter of the hexagonal prism-shaped nanorods can be set in the range of 90–170 nm while their typical length achievable is 0.5–2.3 μm. The effect of the surface polarity was also examined, however, no significant difference was found between the arrays grown on Zn-terminated and on O-terminated face of the ZnO single crystal. The transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the single crystalline nature of the nanorods. The current–voltage characteristics taken on an individual nanorod contacted by a Au-coated atomic force microscope tip reflected Schottky-type behavior. The geometrical uniformity, the designable pattern, and the electrical properties make the presented nanorod arrays ideal candidates to be used in ZnO-based DC nanogenerator and in next-generation integrated piezoelectric nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS.

  12. Nanorods of manganese oxides: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeheng; Zhang, Yuancheng; Zhang, Weixin; Wang, Xue; Qian, Yitai; Wen, Xiaogang; Yang, Shihe

    2006-03-01

    Single-crystalline nanorods of β-MnO 2, α-Mn 2O 3 and Mn 3O 4 were successfully synthesized via the heat-treatment of γ-MnOOH nanorods, which were prepared through a hydrothermal method in advance. The calcination process of γ-MnOOH nanorods was studied with the help of Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. When the calcinations were conducted in air from 250 to 1050 °C, the precursor γ-MnOOH was first changed to β-MnO 2, then to α-Mn 2O 3 and finally to Mn 3O 4. When calcined in N 2 atmosphere, γ-MnOOH was directly converted into Mn 3O 4 at as low as 500 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM were also used to characterize the products. The obtained manganese oxides maintain the one-dimensional morphology similar to the precursor γ-MnOOH nanorods. Further experiments show that the as-prepared manganese oxide nanorods have catalytic effect on the oxidation and decomposition of the methylene blue (MB) dye with H 2O 2.

  13. Vapour transport growth of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofor, A.C.; Bakin, A.S.; Elshaer, A.; Waag, A. [Technical University Braunschweig, Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Fuhrmann, D.; Hangleiter, A. [Technical University Braunschweig, Institute of Applied Physics, Braunschweig (Germany); Bertram, F.; Christen, J. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Solid State Physics, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The fabrication of low-dimensional ZnO structures has attracted enormous attention as such nanostructures are expected to pave the way for many interesting applications in optoelectronics, spin electronics gas sensor technology and biomedicine. Many reported fabrication methods, especially for ZnO nanorods are mostly based on catalyst-assisted growth techniques that employ metal-organic sources and other contaminating agents like graphite to grow ZnO nanorods at relatively high temperatures. We report on catalyst-free vapour-phase epitaxy growth of ZnO nanorods on 6H-SiC and (11-20)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using purely elemental sources at relatively low temperatures and growth pressure. ZnO nanorods with widths of 80-900 nm and lengths of up to 12 {mu}m were obtained. Nanorod density on the order of 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} with homogenous luminescence and high purity was also noted. (orig.)

  14. Light-activated microbubbles around gold nanorods for photoacoustic microsurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigli, Lucia; Centi, Sonia; Lai, Sarah; Borri, Claudia; Micheletti, Filippo; Tortoli, Paolo; Panettieri, Ilaria; Streit, Ingolf; Rossi, Francesca; Ratto, Fulvio; Pini, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    The increasing interest around imaging and microsurgery techniques based on the photoacoustic effect has boosted active research into the development of exogenous contrast agents that may enhance the potential of this innovative approach. In this context, plasmonic particles as gold nanorods are achieving resounding interest, owing to their efficiency of photothermal conversion, intense optical absorbance in the near infrared region, inertness in the body and convenience for conjugation with ligands of molecular targets. On the other hand, the photoinstability of plasmonic particles remains a remarkable obstacle. In particular, gold nanorods easily reshape into nanospheres and so lose their optical absorbance in the near infrared region, under exposure to few-ns-long laser pulses. This issue is attracting much attention and stimulating ad-hoc solutions, such as the addition of rigid shells and the optimization of multiple parameters. In this contribution, we focus on the influence of the shape of gold nanorods on their photothermal behavior and photostability. We describe the photothermal process in the gold nanorods by modeling their optical absorption and consequent temperature dynamics as a function of their aspect ratio (length / diameter). Our results suggest that increasing the aspect ratio does probably not limit the photostability of gold nanorods, while shifting the plasmonic peak towards wavelengths around 1100 nm, which hold more technological interest.

  15. Effects of Chromium Dopant on Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of ZnO Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, S.; Safa, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2017-07-01

    Structural and optical properties of bare ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods have been investigated. Encapsulated ZnO nanorods were grown using a simple two-stage method in which ZnO nanorods were first grown on a glass substrate directly from a hydrothermal bath, then encapsulated with a thin layer of Cr-doped ZnO by dip coating. Comparative study of x-ray diffraction patterns showed that Cr was successfully incorporated into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods. Moreover, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed presence of Cr in this sample. It was observed that the thickness of the shell layer around the core of the ZnO nanorods was at least about 20 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of bare ZnO nanorods revealed single-crystalline structure. Based on optical results, both the encapsulation process and addition of Cr dopant decreased the optical bandgap of the samples. Indeed, the optical bandgap values of Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and bare ZnO nanorods were 2.89 eV, 3.15 eV, and 3.34 eV, respectively. The ultraviolet (UV) parameters demonstrated that incorporation of Cr dopant into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods considerably facilitated formation and transportation of photogenerated carriers, optimizing their performance as a practical UV detector. As a result, the photocurrent of the Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods was the highest (0.6 mA), compared with ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods and bare ZnO nanorods (0.21 mA and 0.06 mA, respectively).

  16. Thermodynamic Properties of Alkali Metal Hydroxides. Part II. Potassium, Rubidium, and Cesium Hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, L.V.; Bergman, G.A.; Gorokhov, L.N.; Iorish, V.S.; Leonidov, V.Y.; Yungman, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    The data on thermodynamic and molecular properties of the potassium, rubidium and cesium hydroxides have been collected, critically reviewed, analyzed, and evaluated. Tables of the thermodynamic properties [C p circ , Φ=-(G -H(0)/T, S, H -H(0), Δ f H, Δ f G)] of these hydroxides in the condensed and gaseous states have been calculated using the results of the analysis and some estimated values. The recommendations are compared with earlier evaluations given in the JANAF Thermochemical Tables and Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances. The properties considered are: the temperature and enthalpy of phase transitions and fusion, heat capacities, spectroscopic data, structures, bond energies, and enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K. The thermodynamic functions in solid, liquid, and gaseous states are calculated from T=0 to 2000 K for substances in condensed phase and up to 6000 K for gases. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics and American Chemical Society

  17. ZnO nanorod arrays grown under different pressures and their photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Xiuqing [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhao Dongxu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China)]. E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.cn; Shen Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China); Zhang Jiying [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China); Li Binghui [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China); Wang Xiaohua [National Key Laboratory of High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and technology, 7089 Weixing Road Changchun (China); Fan Xiwu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China)

    2007-01-15

    The ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized via a simple vapor deposition method on Si (1 1 1) substrates at a low growth temperature of 520 deg. C. By selecting different source materials under different growth pressures, well-aligned hexagonal-shaped ZnO nanorod arrays were obtained under both conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the nanorods are c-axis orientated. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrated the individual nanorod is single crystal. Photoluminescence (PL) analyses show the superior optical properties of the nanorod arrays.

  18. ZnO nanorod arrays grown under different pressures and their photoluminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiuqing; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying; Li Binghui; Wang Xiaohua; Fan Xiwu

    2007-01-01

    The ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized via a simple vapor deposition method on Si (1 1 1) substrates at a low growth temperature of 520 deg. C. By selecting different source materials under different growth pressures, well-aligned hexagonal-shaped ZnO nanorod arrays were obtained under both conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the nanorods are c-axis orientated. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrated the individual nanorod is single crystal. Photoluminescence (PL) analyses show the superior optical properties of the nanorod arrays

  19. ZnO nanorod array solid phase micro-extraction fiber coating: fabrication and extraction capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dan; Zhang Zhuomin; Li Tiemei; Zhang Lan; Chen Guonan; Luo Lin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a ZnO nanorod array has been introduced as a coating to the headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HSSPME) field. The coating shows good extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by use of BTEX as a standard and can be considered suitable for sampling trace and small molecular VOC targets. In comparison with the randomly oriented ZnO nanorod HSSPME coating, ZnO nanorod array HSSPME fiber coating shows better extraction capability, which is attributed to the nanorod array structure of the coating. Also, this novel nanorod array coating shows good extraction selectivity to 1-propanethiol.

  20. Holey nickel hydroxide nanosheets for wearable solid-state fiber-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peipei; Chen, Rong; Li, Li; An, Jianing; Hua, Li; Zhou, Jinyuan; Liu, Bin; Chen, Peng; Huang, Wei; Sun, Gengzhi

    2018-03-28

    Holey nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH) 2 ) nanosheets with a mean thickness of 2 nm are facilely synthesized, and then embedded in carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds to construct a hybrid fiber electrode, which shows a high volumetric capacitance of 335.9 F cm -3 at 0.8 A cm -3 and superior rate performance. The hybrid supercapacitor made from the Ni(OH) 2 /CNT fiber can deliver a high specific capacitance of 24.8 F cm -3 and an energy density of 5.8 mW h cm -3 with outstanding mechanical stability under repeated bending conditions.

  1. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM−1 cm−2, low detection limit (0.2 μM and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  2. Metallic nickel nanorod arrays embedded into ordered block copolymer templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifarth, O.; Krenek, R.; Tokarev, I.; Burkov, Y.; Sidorenko, A.; Minko, S.; Stamm, M.; Schmeisser, D.

    2007-01-01

    We report on metallic Nickel nanorods prepared by utilizing a mask of ordered nanostructured hollow channels in a block copolymer matrix. These polymeric templates were formed by a self organized process in block copolymer supramolecular assemblies. Nickel was filled into with two different techniques, electrodeposition and washing in. We monitor the formation process of these nanorods by means of atomic force microscopy and synchrotron radiation soft X-ray based photoelectron emission microscopy. The oxidation state of the nickelrods is evaluated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at the Ni L edges and lateral distributions of the Ni nanorods were detected with micrometer resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The finding is that the Ni rods were metallic despite their preparation under ambient conditions, inside the particles no hints for NiO complexes were found. This indicates that the polymer protects Ni nanoparticles against oxidation

  3. Fabrication and Photocatalytic Properties of ZnSe Nanorod Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnSe nanorod films grown on fused quartz glass substrates via a simple two-step synthesis protocol were demonstrated to be environmentally safe and effective recyclable photocatalysts. These films showed greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pulsed laser deposition ZnSe films in the degradation of methyl orange dye solutions. The well-crystalized ZnSe nanorods had a length of 15 µm and a diameter of 200 nm and were densely grown on the substrate. The morphology, crystal structure, crystal phase, and photophysical properties of the ZnSe nanorod films were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM.

  4. Cr2O3 nanoparticle-functionalized WO3 nanorods for ethanol gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungbok; Bonyani, Maryam; Sun, Gun-Joo; Lee, Jae Kyung; Hyun, Soong Keun; Lee, Chongmu

    2018-02-01

    Pristine WO3 nanorods and Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of WO3 powder in an oxidizing atmosphere, followed by spin-coating of the nanowires with Cr2O3 nanoparticles and thermal annealing in an oxidizing atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphological features and X-ray diffraction was used to study the crystallinity and phase formation of the synthesized nanorods. Gas sensing tests were performed at different temperatures in the presence of test gases (ethanol, acetone, CO, benzene and toluene). The Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor showed a stronger response to these gases relative to the pristine WO3 nanorod sensor. In particular, the response of the Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor to 200 ppm ethanol gas was 5.58, which is approximately 4.4 times higher that of the pristine WO3 nanorods sensor. Furthermore, the Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor had a shorter response and recovery time. The pristine WO3 nanorods had no selectivity toward ethanol gas, whereas the Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor showed good selectivity toward ethanol. The gas sensing mechanism of the Cr2O3-functionalized WO3 nanorods sensor toward ethanol is discussed in detail.

  5. Fabrication and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Tanaike, Kohei; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Kazuya; Suzuki, Atsushi; Balachandran, Jeyadevan; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells with different lengths of ZnO nanorods were fabricated. The ZnO nanorods were prepared by chemical bath deposition and directly confirmed to be hexagon-shaped nanorods. The lengths of the ZnO nanorads were controlled by deposition condition of ZnO seed layer. Photovoltaic properties of the ZnO nanorods/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} solar cells were investigated by measuring current density-voltage characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency. The highest conversion efficiency was obtained in ZnO nanorods/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} with the longest ZnO nanorods.

  6. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  7. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  8. Fabrication of BaCO3 Nano-Rods in Water/poly Vinyl Alcohol Mixed Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Motahare; Ataie, Abolghasem; Mokhtabad Amrei, Diba

    Barium carbonate nano-particles have been synthesized by a simple PVA-assisted precipitation method using hydrated barium chloride and sodium carbonate as the starting materials. Crystal structure and morphology of the products were evaluated by XRD and SEM techniques, respectively. XRD results indicated that under the identical experimental conditions, single phase BaCO3 was produced. SEM results showed that in the presence of PVA as guide reagent in the solution, nano-rods with regular (facet) surfaces were obtained. The results also showed that the concentration of PVA in the solution, reaction time and temperature have obvious influence on the agglomeration nature and mean particle size of the products. At high concentration of PVA less agglomerated nano size particles of BaCO3 were synthesized. Increasing the synthesis time and temperature resulted in increasing the average diameter of BaCO3 nano-rods. The performance of produced barium carbonate in the processing of barium hexaferrite ceramic magnet via conventional route has been approved.

  9. Photoluminescence and lasing properties of ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Lee, Young Pak; Min, Sun Ki; Han, Sung Hwan; Lim, Hwan Hong; Cha, Myoung Sik; Kim, Sung Soo; Cheong, Hyeon Sik

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the structures, photoluminescence (PL), and lasing characteristics of the ZnO nanorods prepared by using chemical bath deposition. The continuous-wave HeCd laser excited PL spectra of the ZnO nanorods exhibited two emission bands, one in the UV region and the other in the visible region. The UV emission band has its peak at 3.25 eV with a bandwidth of 160 meV. However, the PL spectra under 355-nm, 35-ps pulse excitation exhibited a spectrally-narrowed UV emission band with a peak at 3.20 eV and a spectral width of 35 meV. The lasing phenomena were ascribed to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) caused by coupling of the microcavity effect of ZnO nanorods and the high-intensity excitation. Above the lasing threshold, the ASE peak intensity exhibited a superlinear dependence on the excitation intensity. For an excitation pulse energy of 3 mJ, the ASE peak intensity was increased by enlarging the length of the ZnO nanorods from 1 μm to 4 μm. In addition, the PL spectrum under 800-nm femtosecond pulse excitation exhibited second harmonic generation, as well as the multiphoton absorption-induced UV emission band. In this research, ZnO nanorods were grown on seed layers by using chemical bath deposition in an aqueous solution of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 and hexamethyltetramine. The seed layers were prepared on conducting glass substrates by dip coating in an aqueous colloidal dispersion containing 50% 70-nm ZnO nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed that ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on the seed layers.

  10. A high-performance carbon derived from corn stover via microwave and slow pyrolysis for supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Hong; wang, Xiaomin; Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Microwave and slow pyrolysis were conducted for converting corn stover to biochar. Chemical agents of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide were used to progressively produce activated carbon. The pore structures and surface area of the samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption....../desorption at 77 K. The results demonstrated that higher specific surface areas of activated carbons were obtained by microwave pyrolysis combined with potassium hydroxide activation. However, electrochemical measurements showed that the slow pyrolysis biochar treated with 0.05 mol g−1 (potassium hydroxide...

  11. Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Flip-Chip White Light-Emitting Diodes with Diffused Nanorod Reflector and with ZnO Nanorod Antireflection Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ying Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The GaN-based flip-chip white light-emitting diodes (FCWLEDs with diffused ZnO nanorod reflector and with ZnO nanorod antireflection layer were fabricated. The ZnO nanorod array grown using an aqueous solution method was combined with Al metal to form the diffused ZnO nanorod reflector. It could avoid the blue light emitted out from the Mg-doped GaN layer of the FCWLEDs, which caused more blue light emitted out from the sapphire substrate to pump the phosphor. Moreover, the ZnO nanorod array was utilized as the antireflection layer of the FCWLEDs to reduce the total reflection loss. The light output power and the phosphor conversion efficiency of the FCWLEDs with diffused nanorod reflector and 250 nm long ZnO nanorod antireflection layer were improved from 21.15 mW to 23.90 mW and from 77.6% to 80.1% in comparison with the FCWLEDs with diffused nanorod reflector and without ZnO nanorod antireflection layer, respectively.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

  13. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  14. Far-Infrared Absorption of PbSe Nanorods

    KAUST Repository

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool

    2011-07-13

    Measurements of the far-infrared absorption spectra of PbSe nanocrystals and nanorods are presented. As the aspect ratio of the nanorods increases, the Fröhlich sphere resonance splits into two peaks. We analyze this splitting with a classical electrostatic model, which is based on the dielectric function of bulk PbSe but without any free-carrier contribution. Good agreement between the measured and calculated spectra indicates that resonances in the local field factors underlie the measured spectra. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Towards nanorod LEDs: Numerical predictions and controlled growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelper, Christopher [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Computational Electronics and Photonics, Universitaet Kassel, Wilhelmshoeher Allee 71, 34121 Kassel (Germany); Bergbauer, Werner [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Drechsel, Philipp; Sabathil, Matthias; Strassburg, Martin; Lugauer, Hans-Juergen [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Witzigmann, Bernd [Computational Electronics and Photonics, Universitaet Kassel, Wilhelmshoeher Allee 71, 34121 Kassel (Germany); Fuendling, Soenke; Li, Shunfeng; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We present a numerical optimization of nanorod geometries with respect to the optical properties of an electrically driven LED emitting in the green spectral range. It is shown that an overall Purcell enhancement as well as directional emission can be achieved at an emission wavelength of 550 nm with nanorods of 110 nm radius. Position-controlled growth on patterned substrates demonstrates that the required dimensions are accessible by varying growth parameters and growth time in a large volume MOVPE reactor. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Properties of V-implanted ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, E [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Bakin, A [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schmid, H [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, University of Bonn, Roemerstrasse 164, 53117 Bonn (Germany); Mader, W [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, University of Bonn, Roemerstrasse 164, 53117 Bonn (Germany); Sievers, S [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Albrecht, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ronning, C [II. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Mueller, S [II. Institute of Physics, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Al-Suleiman, M [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Postels, B [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Wehmann, H-H [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Siegner, U [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Waag, A [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-03-28

    ZnO nanorods were grown on Si substrates by an aqueous chemical approach and subsequently doped by V implantation. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal a severely defective material directly after the implantation process. Subsequent annealing leads to a partial recovery of the crystal structure. The magnetic features of ZnO:V nanorods were investigated by magnetic force microscopy. Images taken of ensembles as well as of single rods clearly display contrast, which is seen as a strong indication of ferromagnetism at room temperature.

  17. Uptake, translocation, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Shahmansouri, Nastaran

    Nanomaterials are widely used in many different products, such as electronics, cosmetics, industrial goods, biomedical uses, and other material applications. The heavy emission of nanomaterials into the environment has motived increasing concern regarding the effects on ecosystems, food chains, and, human health. Plants can tolerate a certain amount of natural nanomaterials, but large amounts of ENMs released from a variety of industries could be toxic to plants and possibly threaten the ecosystem. Employing phytoremediation as a contamination treatment method may show promise. However a pre-requisite to successful treatment is a better understanding of the behavior and effects of nanomaterials within plant systems. This study is designed to investigate the uptake, translocation, bioavailability, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize plants. Maize is an important food and feed crop that can be used to understand the potential hazardous effects of nanoparticle uptake and distribution in the food chain. The findings could be an important contribution to the fields of phytoremediation, agri-nanotechnology, and nanoparticle toxicity on plants. In the first experiment, hydroponically grown maize seedlings were exposed to similar doses of commercial non-coated gold nanorods in three sizes, 10x34 nm, 20x75 nm, and 40x96 nm. The three nanorod species were suspended in solutions at concentrations of 350 mg/l, 5.8 mg/l, and 14 mg/l, respectively. Maize plants were exposed to all three solutions resulting in considerably lower transpiration and wet biomass than control plants. Likewise, dry biomass was reduced, but the effect is less pronounced than that of transpiration and wet biomass. The reduced transpiration and water content, which eventually proved fatal to exposed plants, were most likely a result of toxic effect of gold nanorod, which appeared to physically hinder the root system. TEM images proved that maize plants can uptake gold particles and accumulate them in

  18. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-03-14

    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  19. Preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jimin; Liu Zhimin; Wu Weize; Li Zhonghao; Han Buxing; Huang Ying

    2005-01-01

    This article, for the first time, reports the preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks. Using amorphous copper ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle as reaction precursor, single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG), however, copper ferrite nanodisks were prepared through the same procedures except the surfactant PEG. The resulting nanomaterials have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected electron area diffraction (SEAD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bulk composition of the samples was determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  20. Carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebutte, H G; Goutal, E

    1921-07-04

    Materials such as coal, peat, or schist are subjected to a rising temperature in successive stages in apparatus in which the distillation products are withdrawn at each stage. For example in a three-stage process, the acid products of the first or low-temperature stage are fixed in a suitable reagent, the basic products from a second or higher-temperature stage are absorbed in an acid reagent, hydrocarbons being retained by solvents, while the third are subjected to a pyrogenation process carried out in a closed vessel. Wherein the material is subjected in stages to a rising temperature, the gasified products being withdrawn at each stage, and are prevented as far as possible from mixing with the carbonized products.

  1. Hollow Co2P nanoflowers organized by nanorods for ultralong cycle-life supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming

    2017-08-24

    Hollow Co2P nanoflowers (Co2P HNF) are successfully prepared via a one-step, template-free method. Microstructure analysis reveals that Co2P HNF is assembled by nanorods, possesses abundant mesopores and a amorphous carbon shell. Density functional theory calculation and electrochemical measurements demonstrate the high electrical conductivity of Co2P. Benefiting from the unique nanostructures, when employed as electrode material for supercapacitors, Co2P HNF exhibits a high specific capacitance, an outstanding rate capability, and an ultralong cycle stability. Furthermore,. the constructed Co2P HNF//AC ASC yields a high energy density of 30.5 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 850 W kg-1, along with an superior cycling performance (108.0% specific capacitance retained after 10000 cycles at 5 A g-1). These impressive results make Co2P HNF a promising candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  2. Hollow Co2P nanoflowers assembled from nanorods for ultralong cycle-life supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming; Fan, Hongsheng; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Rongming; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-09-28

    Hollow Co 2 P nanoflowers (Co 2 P HNFs) were successfully prepared via a one-step, template-free method. Microstructure analysis reveals that Co 2 P HNFs are assembled from nanorods and possess abundant mesopores and an amorphous carbon shell. Density functional theory calculations and electrochemical measurements demonstrate the high electrical conductivity of Co 2 P. Benefiting from the unique nanostructures, when employed as an electrode material for supercapacitors, Co 2 P HNFs exhibit a high specific capacitance, an outstanding rate capability, and an ultralong cycling stability. Furthermore, the constructed Co 2 P HNF//AC ASC exhibits a high energy density of 30.5 W h kg -1 at a power density of 850 W kg -1 , along with a superior cycling performance (108.0% specific capacitance retained after 10 000 cycles at 5 A g -1 ). These impressive results make Co 2 P HNFs a promising candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  3. Reorientation of the crystalline planes in confined single crystal nickel nanorods induced by heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Abha; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Rai, Padmnabh; Misra, D. S.; Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent letter Tyagi et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253110 (2005)] have reported the special orientation of nickel planes inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to the tube axis. Heavy ion irradiation has been performed with 1.5 MeV Au 2+ and 100 MeV Au 7+ ions on these nickel filled MWCNTs at fluences ranging from 10 12 to 10 15 ions/cm 2 at room temperature. Ion-induced modifications have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern and the lattice imaging showed the presence of ion-induced planar defects on the tube walls and completely amorphized encapsulated nickel nanorods. The results are discussed in terms of thermal spike model

  4. Development of composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in mechanical operations and evaluation of its basic sorption properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gara Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research carried out on the possibility of obtaining composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in the process of two-step granulation, containing additional compounds of Al, Mg and Fe, and their textural and sorption studies. For this purpose, attempts were undertaken to compact commercial calcium hydroxide powder with six additives in the laboratory roll press. The resulting compacts were crushed and sieved in order to achieve the assumed sieve fraction. Based on the obtained results, basic parameters of the process of formation of composite sorbent have been determined. Both, the selected composite sorbents fractions and additives were subsequently subjected to textural studies (determination of the specific surface area and porosity and sorption capacity performance. In addition, for the better interpretation of the results, thermogravimetric studies were carried out both for the additives and composite sorbents, as well as the grain size distribution of the additives. The results of the physicochemical tests of the obtained composite sorbents were compared with analogic results from the study on fine-grained hydroxide sorbent without additives and carbonate sorbent. The presented results showed that in a two-step granulation process it is possible to obtain the granular Ca(OH2 sorbent, as well as composite sorbents possessing better SO2 sorption capacity in comparison to the powder Ca(OH2 and/or to the calcium carbonate sorbent. This can be attributed to the combination of capability of the sorbent to appropriate thermal decomposition and the formation of a group of pores in the range of 0.07-0.3 microns.

  5. Behavior of hydroxide at the water/vapor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Bernd; Faubel, Manfred; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2009-06-01

    Hydroxide and hydronium, which represent the ionic products of water autolysis, exhibit a peculiar surface behavior. While consensus has been established that the concentration of hydronium cations is enhanced at the surface with respect to the bulk, the affinity of hydroxide anions for the water/vapor interface has been a subject of an ongoing controversy. On the one hand, electrophoretic and titration measurements of air bubbles or oil droplets in water have been interpreted in terms of a dramatic interfacial accumulation of OH -. On the other hand, surface-selective non-linear spectroscopies, surface tension measurements, and molecular simulations show no or at most a weak surface affinity of hydroxide ions. Here, we summarize the current situation and provide new evidence for the lack of appreciable surface enhancement of OH -, based on photoelectron spectroscopy from a liquid jet and on molecular dynamics simulations with polarizable potentials at varying hydroxide concentrations.

  6. Synthesis of beta alumina from aluminum hydroxide and oxyhydroxide precursors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, A

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Two aluminium oxyhydroxides, boehmite and pseudoboehmite, and two aluminium hydroxides, bayerite and gibbsite, have been investigated as precursors for the synthesis of the solid electrolyte, beta alumina. Reaction pathways and products have been...

  7. Electronic spectra of anions intercalated in layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    groups of the layers and interlayer water through the termi- nal atom symmetry ... results in a reaction with the metal hydroxide layers lead- ing to the ..... List of band positions observed for potassium salts of anion and LDH samples. Salts.

  8. Ammonia induced precipitation of cobalt hydroxide: observation of turbostratic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, T. N.; Rajamathi, Michael; Kamath, P. Vishnu

    2003-05-01

    Cobalt hydroxide freshly precipitated from aqueous solutions of Co salts using ammonia, is a layered phase having a 9.17 Å interlayer spacing. DIFFaX simulations of the PXRD pattern reveal that it is turbostratically disordered.

  9. NO and SCN -intercalated layered double hydroxides: structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... Keywords. Nitrite ion; thiocyanate ion; layered double hydroxide; structure refinement. 1. Introduction .... applications of LDHs is sorption/uptake of toxic anions ... by ion chromatography using a Metrohm Model 861 Advanced.

  10. Antimony removal from aqueous solutions using Zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, D.; Velciu, L.; Bucur, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper it is presented an experimental test for non-radioactive antimony removal from aqueous solutions using zirconium hydroxide powder. Also, it was studied how the temperature and pH influences antimony adsorption onto zirconium hydroxide surface. After the adsorption, solutions were filtered on Cellulose Mixed Ester Membrane with 0.2 μm pore size to remove the zirconium powder and then the aqueous solutions were sent to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for quantitative analysis of Sb. Zirconium hydroxide powders were examined by optical microscopy. For the solutions that were tested at pH 4.5 and 10.2 the antimony concentration dropped below the detection limit of ICP-OES device, proof of antimony adsorption on zirconium hydroxide. Also, for the other tested solutions which had pH=12 the antimony concentration reduced with 77% and 80%. The temperature had no influence upon adsorption mechanism. (authors)

  11. Aluminium hydroxide-the carrier for catalysts coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normatov, I.Sh.; Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2003-01-01

    At present time several methods of receiving aluminium hydroxide are exist. But all they differ by much staging of process connected with preliminary receiving of intermediate compounds, with application of expensive metallic aluminium

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activities of Cobalt(II)-Titanium dioxide nanorods, and electrophoretic deposition of Titanium dioxide nanoparticle/nanorod composite films for self-cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonjun

    This dissertation consists of two projects. The first project is synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activities of Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods. We modified brookite TiO2 nanorods with cobalt(II) ions to design new photocatalysts with visible light absorption. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data indicated that the local structure of Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods was shown as tetrahedral and octahedral Co(II) sites at TiO2 nanorod surface. Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) has been used to remove surface Co(II) from Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods to determine single-site Co(II) ions selectively attached to the TiO 2 nanorod surface. We proposed a mechanism that the Co-Co bond of the precursor Co2(CO)8 undergoes heterolysis followed by disproportionation of Co(I) to produce Co(II) and Co(0) precipitate. Finally, the Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods showed greater activity than TiO 2 nanorods in the degradation of 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DHNQ) dye under visible light irradiation. The second project is electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films for self-cleaning applications. We developed novel electrolyte system for EPD of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composites for self-cleaning coatings. A mixture of TiO2 powder and TiO2 nanorods was used as EPD suspension in a mixture of THF and acetone. TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films were fabricated on aluminium substrates via the EPD method, and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images showed that TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films had a uniform pore structure. The hydrophobic properties of surfaces in TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films were evaluated by water contact angle measurements. It was found that the surfaces of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films were hydrophobic with contact angle of 103°. These hydrophobic surfaces are expected to have potential applications for self-cleaning.

  13. Comparative evaluation of different forms of calcium hydroxide in apexification

    OpenAIRE

    Subhankar Ghosh; Dibyendu Mazumdar; Pradip Kumar Ray; Bhaswar Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    Background: One out of every two children sustains a dental injury most often between 8 and 10 years of age. Majority of these teeth subsequently become non-vital and most often with immature apex. Management of these teeth is an enormous challenge for lack of apical stop. Calcium hydroxide in various formulations has maximum literature support in favor of "successful apexification or induced apical closure." Aim: The aim of the following study is to determine the efficacy of calcium hydroxid...

  14. Deactivation of nickel hydroxide-gold modified electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Caram, Bruno; Tucceri, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the charge-transport process of a nickel hydroxide film electrochemically synthesized on a gold substrate is modified when the electrode is stored for a long time. It was found that nickel hydroxide films are deactivated under storage, that is, films became less conductive than films immediately prepared (nondeactivated). This study was carried out in the context of the rotating disc electrode voltammetry when the modified electrode contacts an ele...

  15. Acetone gas-sensing properties of multiple-networked Pd-decorated Bi_2O_3 nanorod sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Soo Hyun; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Chong Mu

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the sensing properties of Bi_2O_3 nanorods decorated with Pd nanoparticles. Pd-decorated β-Bi_2O_3 nanorods were prepared by immersing the Bi_2O_3 nanorods in ethanol/(50 mM)PdCl_2 solution followed by UV irradiation and annealing. The Bi_2O_3 nanorods decorated with Pd nanoparticles showed faster and stronger response to acetone gas than the pristine Bi_2O_3 nanorods. Interestingly, the difference in response time between the Pd-decorated Bi_2O_3 nanorod sensor and pristine Bi_2O_3 nanorod sensor increased with increasing the acetone gas concentration. In contrast, the difference in recovery time between the two nanorod sensors decreased with increasing the acetone gas concentration. This difference can be explained using the chemical mechanism. The underlying mechanism for the enhanced response of the Bi_2O_3 nanorods decorated with Pd nanoparticles to acetone gas is also discussed

  16. Electrical anisotropy properties of ZnO nanorods analyzed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yunfeng; Yu Naisen; Liu Dongping; He Yangyang; Liu Yuanda; Liang Hongwei; Du Guotong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electrical properties of one individual lying ZnO nanorod were performed by C-AFM measurement. ► Inhomogeneous spatial current distribution was detected. ► Current was detected along the side facets while no current was detected in the top plane for ZnO nanorod. ► The side facets were more conductive than the top facets of ZnO nanorods. - Abstract: In this study, we have prepared ZnO nanorods on cracked GaN substrates using aqueous solution method. Unique electrical characterization of one individual lying ZnO nanorod is analyzed by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). Effect of anisotropy properties on the conductivity of a single nanorod has been investigated. The current maps of ZnO nanorods have been simultaneously recorded with the topography which is gained by AFM-contact mode. The C-AFM measurement present local current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the side facets of one individual lying nanorod, however, no current is detected on the top facets of ZnO nanorods. Measurement results indicate that the side facets are more electrically active than the top facets of ZnO nanorods due to lower Schottky barrier height of the side facets.

  17. Synthesis of non-aggregated nicotinic acid coated magnetite nanorods via hydrothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attallah, Olivia A., E-mail: olivia.adly@hu.edu.eg [Center of Nanotechnology, Nile University, 12677 Giza (Egypt); Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Heliopolis University, 11777 El Salam, Cairo (Egypt); Girgis, E. [Solid State Physics Department, National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lab, CEAS, National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed M.S.A. [Center of Nanotechnology, Nile University, 12677 Giza (Egypt)

    2016-02-01

    Non-aggregated magnetite nanorods with average diameters of 20–30 nm and lengths of up to 350 nm were synthesized via in situ, template free hydrothermal technique. These nanorods capped with different concentrations (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g) of nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); possessed good magnetic properties and easy dispersion in aqueous solutions. Our new synthesis technique maintained the uniform shape of the nanorods even with increasing the coating material concentration. The effect of nicotinic acid on the shape, particle size, chemical structure and magnetic properties of the prepared nanorods was evaluated using different characterization methods. The length of nanorods increased from 270 nm to 350 nm in nicotinic acid coated nanorods. Goethite and magnetite phases with different ratios were the dominant phases in the coated samples while a pure magnetite phase was observed in the uncoated one. Nicotinic acid coated magnetic nanorods showed a significant decrease in saturation magnetization than uncoated samples (55 emu/g) reaching 4 emu/g in 2.5 g nicotinic acid coated sample. The novel synthesis technique proved its potentiality to prepare coated metal oxides with one dimensional nanostructure which can function effectively in different biological applications. - Highlights: • We synthesize nicotinic acid coated magnetite nanorods via hydrothermal technique • Effect of nicotinic acid concentration on the nanorods properties was significant • Nanorods maintained uniform shape with increased concentration of nicotinic acid • Alterations occurred in particle size, mineral phases and magnetics of coated samples.

  18. Pre-fabricated nanorods in RE–Ba–Cu–O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatri, N D; Majkic, G; Shi, T; Selvamanickam, V; Chen, Y

    2013-01-01

    Pre-fabrication of metallic nanorods on biaxially textured templates has been explored in this study to introduce flux pinning centers in RE–Ba–Cu–O (REBCO, RE =rare earth) based superconductors. Pt nanorods were deposited by an electron beam assisted deposition method on LaMnO 3 -capped biaxially textured IBAD-(ion beam assisted deposition) substrates. Well-controlled nanorods with varying diameter (50–120 nm), length (up to 1 μm), orientation and unit cell size were grown over an area of 120–150 μm 2 . The nanorod-decorated samples were then deposited with Gd–Y–Ba–Cu–O ((Gd, Y)BCO) by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The Pt nanorods remain in their positions during MOCVD and become embedded in the (Gd, Y)BCO matrix, although they suffer creep-induced shape deformation due to exposure to elevated temperature. Higher unit cell size, longer nanorods, and nanorods oriented at an angle to the substrate normal adversely affect the epitaxy of the (Gd, Y)BCO film due to formation of a-axis grains. The observed current-carrying capacity of the Pt nanorod sample is lower than its corresponding reference sample without any nanorods and processed under identical conditions, but it decreases at a slower rate with increasing magnetic field. Potential routes to improve the performance while retaining the desirable characteristics of controlled nanorod direction and density are discussed. (paper)

  19. Synthesis and characterizations of Pt nanorods on electrospun polyamide-6 nanofibers templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmala, R.; Navamathavan, R.; Won, Jeong Jin; Jeon, Kyung Soo; Yousef, Ayman; Kim, Hak Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrospun polyamide-6 nanofibers were used as the templates for synthesis Pt nanorods. ► Polyamide-6 nanofibers surfaces were plasma treated to coat Pt. ► High quality Pt nanorods were obtained by calcinations process. ► Pt nanorods with a diameter of few hundred nanometers were obtained. ► Polyamide-6 nanofibers template based Pt nanorods synthesis are a feasible method. - Abstract: We report on the synthesis of platinum (Pt) nanorods by using ultrafine polyamide-6 nanofibers templates produced via electrospinning technique. These ultrafine polyamide-6 nanofibers can be utilized as the templates for growing Pt nanorods after modifying them optimally by plasma passivations. The morphological, structural, optical and electrical properties of the template assisted Pt nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and current–voltage (I–V) characteristics. The ability to fabricate the ultrafine size controlled Pt nanorods on polyamide-6 templates with optimized growth parameters in real time can be utilized for the variety of technological applications. Therefore, it is possible to obtain high quality with size control Pt nanorods. Once obtaining the high quality metal nanorods on polymer templates, the same can be adapted for the electronic device fabrication.

  20. Synthesis of non-aggregated nicotinic acid coated magnetite nanorods via hydrothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attallah, Olivia A.; Girgis, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-aggregated magnetite nanorods with average diameters of 20–30 nm and lengths of up to 350 nm were synthesized via in situ, template free hydrothermal technique. These nanorods capped with different concentrations (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g) of nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); possessed good magnetic properties and easy dispersion in aqueous solutions. Our new synthesis technique maintained the uniform shape of the nanorods even with increasing the coating material concentration. The effect of nicotinic acid on the shape, particle size, chemical structure and magnetic properties of the prepared nanorods was evaluated using different characterization methods. The length of nanorods increased from 270 nm to 350 nm in nicotinic acid coated nanorods. Goethite and magnetite phases with different ratios were the dominant phases in the coated samples while a pure magnetite phase was observed in the uncoated one. Nicotinic acid coated magnetic nanorods showed a significant decrease in saturation magnetization than uncoated samples (55 emu/g) reaching 4 emu/g in 2.5 g nicotinic acid coated sample. The novel synthesis technique proved its potentiality to prepare coated metal oxides with one dimensional nanostructure which can function effectively in different biological applications. - Highlights: • We synthesize nicotinic acid coated magnetite nanorods via hydrothermal technique • Effect of nicotinic acid concentration on the nanorods properties was significant • Nanorods maintained uniform shape with increased concentration of nicotinic acid • Alterations occurred in particle size, mineral phases and magnetics of coated samples.

  1. Calcium hydroxide suppresses Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide-induced bone destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Yang, D; Okamura, H; Teramachi, J; Ochiai, K; Qiu, L; Haneji, T

    2014-05-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis and its main virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are associated with the development of periapical diseases and alveolar bone loss. Calcium hydroxide is commonly used for endodontic therapy. However, the effects of calcium hydroxide on the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS and the mechanism of P. endodontalis LPS-induced bone destruction are not clear. Calcium hydroxide rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-suppressed viability of MC3T3-E1 cells and activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in these cells, resulting in the reduced expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, calcium hydroxide inhibited P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the activities of NF-κB, p38, and ERK1/2 and the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 in RAW264.7 cells. Calcium hydroxide also rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in mouse calvaria. Taken together, our present results indicate that calcium hydroxide suppressed bone destruction by attenuating the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS on bone cells.

  2. WO{sub 3} nanorods prepared by low-temperature seeded growth hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Chai Yan [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak, E-mail: khairunisak@eng.usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); NanoBiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lockman, Zainovia, E-mail: zainovia@eng.usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3} nanorods with 5–10 nm diameter were grown directly on seeded tungsten foil. • WO{sub 3} nanorods were successfully grown at low temperature of 80 °C. • WO{sub 3} nanorods were grown on the entire surface of the seed layer after 24 h. • Annealed nanorods showed better electrochromic properties than as-made nanorods. -- Abstract: This work describes the first tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanorods hydrothermally grown on W foil. WO{sub 3} nanorods were successfully grown at low hydrothermal temperature of 80 °C by seeded growth hydrothermal reaction. The seed layer was prepared by thermally oxidized the W foil at 400 °C for 0.5 h. This work discusses the effect of hydrothermal reaction and annealing period on the morphological, structural, and electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} nanorods. Various hydrothermal reaction periods (8–24 h) were studied. Monoclinic WO{sub 3} nanorods with 5–10 nm diameter were obtained after hydrothermal reaction for 24 h. These 24 h WO{sub 3} nanorods were also annealed at 400 °C with varying dwelling periods (0.5–4 h). Electrochromic properties of WO{sub 3} nanorods in an acidic electrolyte were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and UV–vis spectrophotometry. WO{sub 3} nanorods annealed at 400 °C for 1 h showed the highest charge capacity and the largest optical contrast among the 24 h WO{sub 3} films. The sample also showed good cycling stability without significant degradation. Based on the results, the reaction mechanism of WO{sub 3} nanorod formation on W foil was proposed.

  3. Plasmonic-cavity model for radiating nano-rod antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the analytical solution of nano-rod antennas utilizing a cylindrical harmonics expansion. By treating the metallic nano-rods as plasmonic cavities, we derive closed-form expressions for both the internal and the radiated fields, as well as the resonant condition and the ......In this paper, we propose the analytical solution of nano-rod antennas utilizing a cylindrical harmonics expansion. By treating the metallic nano-rods as plasmonic cavities, we derive closed-form expressions for both the internal and the radiated fields, as well as the resonant condition...... and the radiation efficiency. With our theoretical model, we show that besides the plasmonic resonances, efficient radiation takes advantage of (a) rendering a large value of the rods' radius and (b) a central-fed profile, through which the radiation efficiency can reach up to 70% and even higher in a wide...... frequency band. Our theoretical expressions and conclusions are general and pave the way for engineering and further optimization of optical antenna systems and their radiation patterns....

  4. Luminescence properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Grym, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, 1November (2016), s. 214-220 ISSN 0749-6036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14111; GA ČR GA15-17044S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Photoluminescence * Annealing * ZnO nanorods Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.123, year: 2016

  5. Sodium titanate nanorods: Preparation, microstructure characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Večerníková, Eva; Szatmáry, Lórant; Klementová, Mariana; Balek, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 63, 1-2 (2006), s. 20-30 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : sodium titanate * nanorods * ethylene glycol Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.942, year: 2006

  6. Co-catalyst free Titanate Nanorods for improved Hydrogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Herein, we report a simplified method for the preparation of photo-active titanate nanorods catalyst .... The TEM images were taken with Philips Technai G2 FEI F12 trans- mission electron microscope operating at 80-100 kV. Optical properties were measured in DRS ..... Chen X, Shen S, Guo L and Mao S S 2010 Chem. Rev ...

  7. Detecting Casimir torque with an optically levitated nanorod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhujing; Li, Tongcang

    2017-09-01

    The linear momentum and angular momentum of virtual photons of quantum vacuum fluctuations can induce the Casimir force and the Casimir torque, respectively. While the Casimir force has been measured extensively, the Casimir torque has not been observed experimentally though it was predicted over 40 years ago. Here we propose to detect the Casimir torque with an optically levitated nanorod near a birefringent plate in vacuum. The axis of the nanorod tends to align with the polarization direction of the linearly polarized optical tweezer. When its axis is not parallel or perpendicular to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal, it will experience a Casimir torque that shifts its orientation slightly. We calculate the Casimir torque and Casimir force acting on a levitated nanorod near a birefringent crystal. We also investigate the effects of thermal noise and photon recoils on the torque and force detection. We prove that a levitated nanorod in vacuum will be capable of detecting the Casimir torque under realistic conditions, and will be an important tool in precision measurements.

  8. Ionic liquid intercalated V2O5 nanorods: synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    materials for lithium ion battery, catalyst for photocata- lytic degradation ... ties.5,6 This compound is widely studied and is a promising material, both in the pure .... Figure 3 shows the Raman spectra of IL-V2O5 nanorods and calcined V2O5 ...

  9. Graphite/ZnO nanorods junction for ultraviolet photodetectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Grym, Jan; Verde, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 105, March 2015 (2015), s. 70-73 ISSN 0038-1101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14111 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : ZnO nanorods * Graphite based junction * UV photodetector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015

  10. Synthesis and super-paramagnetic properties of neodymium ferrites nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El moussaoui, H. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the High Energies, URAC 12, Departement of Physique, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V- Agdal University, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Mounkachi, O., E-mail: o.mounkachi@mascir.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Route Sidi Bouzid, BP 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Hamedoun, M., E-mail: hamedoun@hotmail.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the High Energies, URAC 12, Departement of Physique, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V- Agdal University, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Magnetic properties of Neodymium nanorods depend on calcination temperature. •The as-synthesized Nd ferrite nanorods are superparamagnetic at room temperature. •The blocking temperature is higher than room temperature. -- Abstract: In this work we report the microstructural characterization and the magnetic properties of neodymium ferrites (NdFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanorods prepared by well controlled co-precipitation method. The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of NdFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been investigated. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the as-prepared nanoparticles have rods-like shape with the average diameter ranging from 5 to 14 nm and uniform length. The magnetic measurements show that the as-synthesized nanorods have a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, with a blocking temperature of 360 K and magnetic anisotropy constant of 2.8 × 10{sup 5} ergs/cm{sup 3}. The magnetization and coercitivity at room temperature are increased from 26 to 34 emu/g and from 151 to 171 Oe with increasing annealing temperature from 400 to 600 °C, respectively.

  11. Attachment of Quantum Dots on Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Jared; Liang, Huan; Harikumar, Parameswar

    2011-03-01

    ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal technique are of great interest for potential applications in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. In this study we investigate the optimization of the optical absorption properties by a low temperature, chemical bath deposition technique. Our group fabricated nanorods on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate with precursor solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetramine (1:1 molar ratio) at 95C for 9 hours. In order to optimize the light absorption characteristics of ZnO nanorods, CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of various diameters were attached to the surface of ZnO nanostructures grown on ITO and gold-coated silicon substrates. Density of quantum dots was varied by controlling the number drops on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. For a 0.1 M concentration of QDs of 10 nm diameter, the PL intensity at 385 nm increased as the density of the quantum dots on ZnO nanostructures was increased. For quantum dots at 1 M concentration, the PL intensity at 385 nm increased at the beginning and then decreased at higher density. We will discuss the observed changes in PL intensity with QD concentration with ZnO-QD band structure and recombination-diffusion processes taking place at the interface.

  12. Electrorheological properties of suspensions of polypyrrole coated titanate nanorods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlík, M.; Pavlínek, V.; Saha, P.; Quadrat, Otakar

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2011), 52365_1-52365_7 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polypyrrole * nanorods * electrorheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  13. Antimicrobial potentials of silver colloidal (nanorods) on clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries has long been an issue of major concern. Nanotechnology has become an eye opener for the intervention on multiple drug resistance organisms. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial potentials of Silver Nitrate (nanorods) solution used in managing infectious ...

  14. Use of ionic liquids in synthesis of nanocrystals, nanorods and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    chalcogen powder (Se and Te) and NaBH4 in imidazolium[BMIM]-based ionic liquids as solvents at 180–200°C. Nanorods and nanowires of Se and Te ... such as elemental chalcogens and metal chalcogenides. Nanoparticles of Rh and Ir have been ... Single crystalline Te nanotubes have been synthesized by the polyol ...

  15. All-silicon nanorod-based Dammann gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zile; Zheng, Guoxing; He, Ping'An; Li, Song; Deng, Qiling; Zhao, Jiangnan; Ai, Yong

    2015-09-15

    Established diffractive optical elements (DOEs), such as Dammann gratings, whose phase profile is controlled by etching different depths into a transparent dielectric substrate, suffer from a contradiction between the complexity of fabrication procedures and the performance of such gratings. In this Letter, we combine the concept of geometric phase and phase modulation in depth, and prove by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation that nanorod arrays etched on a silicon substrate have a characteristic of strong polarization conversion between two circularly polarized states and can act as a highly efficient half-wave plate. More importantly, only by changing the orientation angles of each nanorod can the arrays control the phase of a circularly polarized light, cell by cell. With the above principle, we report the realization of nanorod-based Dammann gratings reaching diffraction efficiencies of 50%-52% in the C-band fiber telecommunications window (1530-1565 nm). In this design, uniform 4×4 spot arrays with an extending angle of 59°×59° can be obtained in the far field. Because of these advantages of the single-step fabrication procedure, accurate phase controlling, and strong polarization conversion, nanorod-based Dammann gratings could be utilized for various practical applications in a range of fields.

  16. Layered zinc hydroxide salts: Delamination, preferred orientation of hydroxide lamellae, and formation of ZnO nanodiscs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Pleštil, Josef; Bezdička, Petr; Janda, Pavel; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 2 (2011), s. 532-539 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09058; GA ČR GAP207/10/1447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : layered zinc hydroxide * delamination * exfoliation * hydroxide layer * ZnO Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2011

  17. ZnO-nanorods: A possible white LED phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Sachindra Nath; T., Arun; Ray, Dinseh K.; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Nozaki, Shinji; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Uchida, Kazuo

    2017-05-01

    The white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn much attention to replace conventional lighting sources because of low energy consumption, high light efficiency and long lifetime. Although the most common approach to produce white light is to combine a blue LED chip and a yellow phosphor, such a white LED cannot be used for a general lighting application, which requires a broad luminescence spectrum in the visible wavelength range. We have successfully chemically synthesized the ZnO nanorods showing intense broad luminescence in the visible wavelength range and made a white LED using the ZnO nanorods as phosphor excited with a blue LED. Their lengths and diameters were 2 - 10 μm and 200 - 800 nm, respectively. The wurtzite structure was confirmed by the x-ray diffraction measurement. The PL spectrum obtained by exciting the ZnO nanorods with the He-Cd laser has two peaks, one associated with the near band-edge recombination and the other with recombination via defects. The peak intensity of the near band-edge luminescence at 388 nm is much weaker than that of the defect-related luminescence. The latter luminescence peak ranges from 450 to 850 nm and broad enough to be used as a phosphor for a white LED. A white LED has been fabricated using a blue LED with 450 nm emission and ZnO nanorod powders. The LED performances show a white light emission and the electroluminescence measurement shows a stiff increase in white light intensity with increasing blue LED current. The Commission International de1'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity colour coordinates of 450 nm LED pumped white emission shows a coordinate of (0.31, 0.32) for white LED at 350 mA. These results indicate that ZnO nanorods provides an alternate and effective approach to achieve high-performance white LEDs and also other optoelectronic devices.

  18. The Effects of Aluminium Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide on the Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkin Akdoğan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic polyurethane materials are widely used in automotive, clothing, electrical and electronics, medical, construction, machine industry due to excellent physical and chemical properties. Thermoplastic polyurethane materials combustion and resistance to high temperature characteristics are poor. Additives and fillers are added into the polyurethane matrix to improve those properties. Particularly adding these agents as a flame retardant are affect mechanical properties of polyurethane materials. Therefore, it is important to determinate the mechanical properties of these materials. In this study, 5% by weight of the thermoplastic polyurethane material, aluminium tri hydroxide (ATH, (Al2O3 3H2O and magnesium hydroxide (MgOH, (Mg(OH2 were added. Ammonium polyphosphate (APP as an intumescent flame retardant with inorganic flame retardants were added to increase the flame resistance of produced composite structure. Tensile test, tear test, hardness and Izod impact tests were made and compared of those produced composites. As a result of experiments the addition of ATH has lowered the tensile strength and tear strength contrast to this the addition of MgOH has improved those properties. Hardness and Izod impact test results were showed that both of the additives have no negative effect.

  19. Synthesis Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Cellulose Acetate- Mg(OH2-MWCNT Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbanali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mg(OH2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a rapid microwave reaction. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS as anionic surfactant and cetyl tri-methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as cationic surfactant on the morphology of magnesium hydroxide nanostructures was investigated. Multi wall carbon nano tubes was organo-modified for better dispersion in cellulose acetate matrix. The influence of Mg(OH2 nanoparticles and modified multi wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNT on the thermal stability of the cellulose acetate (CA matrix was studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Thermal decomposition of the nanocomposites shift towards higher temperature in the presence of Mg(OH2 nanostructures. The enhancement of thermal stability of nanocomposites is due to the endothermic decomposition of Mg(OH2 and release of water which dilutes combustible gases.

  20. Nanorod diameter modulated osteogenic activity of hierarchical micropore/nanorod-patterned coatings via a Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhong; Zhao, Lingzhou; Li, Bo; Han, Yong

    2018-04-14

    Hierarchical micropore/nanorod-patterned strontium doped hydroxyapatite (Ca 9 Sr 1 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , Sr 1 -HA) structures (MNRs) with different nanorod diameters of about 30, 70 and 150 nm were coated on titanium, to investigate the effect of nanorod diameter on osteogenesis and the involved mechanism. Compared to micropore/nanogranule-patterned Sr 1 -HA coating (MNG), MNRs gave rise to dramatically enhanced in vitro mesenchymal stem cell functions including osteogenic differentiation in the absence of osteogenic supplements and in vivo osseointegration related to the nanorod diameter with about 70 nm displaying the best effects. MNRs activated the cellular Wnt/β-catenin pathway by increasing the expression of Wnt3a and LRP6 and decreasing the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonists (sFRP1, sFRP2, Dkk1 and Dkk2). The exogenous Wnt3a significantly enhanced the β-catenin signaling activation and cell differentiation on MNG, and the exogenous Dkk1 attenuated the enhancing effect of MNRs on them. The data demonstrate that MNRs favor osseointegration via a Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The importance of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning demonstrated using layered single and double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    The importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies is demonstrated through the consideration of layered single and double hydroxides. New yet fundamental information is provided and it is evident that the crystal chemistry of the double hydroxide phases is much more straightforward than is apparent from the literature. Atomistic modelling techniques and Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data are widely used but often result in crystal structures that are not realistic, presumably because the authors neglect to check the crystal-chemical plausibility of their structure. The purpose of this paper is to reinforce the importance and utility of proper crystal-chemical and geometrical reasoning in structural studies. It is achieved by using such reasoning to generate new yet fundamental information about layered double hydroxides (LDH), a large, much-studied family of compounds. LDH phases are derived from layered single hydroxides by the substitution of a fraction (x) of the divalent cations by trivalent. Equations are derived that enable calculation of x from the a parameter of the unit cell and vice versa, which can be expected to be of widespread utility as a sanity test for extant and future structure determinations and computer simulation studies. The phase at x = 0 is shown to be an α form of divalent metal hydroxide rather than the β polymorph. Crystal-chemically sensible model structures are provided for β-Zn(OH) 2 and Ni- and Mg-based carbonate LDH phases that have any trivalent cation and any value of x, including x = 0 [i.e. for α-M(OH) 2 ·mH 2 O phases

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal magnesium hydroxide nanoflakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Chunhong; Guo, Ming; Sun, Lingna; Hu, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of PEG-20,000. Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflake yielded different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes is discussed. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of hexagonal nanostructure. • Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes show different crystalline structures at different positions. • The probable formation mechanism of hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes was reported. - Abstract: Hexagonal magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG-20,000). Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The composition, morphologies and structure of the Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflake show different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes is discussed. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were performed to investigate the porous structure and surface area of the as-obtained nanoflakes

  3. Imidazolium ionic liquid induced one-step synthesis of -Fe2O3 nanorods and nanorod assemblies for lithium-ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuting Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available α-Fe2O3 nanorods and nanorod assemblies are prepared via a facile one-step method with the assistance of imidazolium-based ionic liquid. The aspect ratio of synthesized nanorods is determined by the alkyl chain length of [Cnmim]+. The inter-molecular π−π interaction and intra-molecular dipole-dipole interaction among imidazole rings of [C4mim]+[PhCOO]− play critical roles in both nucleation and assembly processes of α-Fe2O3 nanorods. The α-Fe2O3 nanorod assemblies show an excellent performance in lithium-ion batteries with a reversible capacity of 1007.3 mA h g−1 at the rate of 500 mA g−1 after 150 cycles.

  4. In situ fabrication of Ni-Co (oxy)hydroxide nanowire-supported nanoflake arrays and their application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Quan, Honglin; Li, Xiaoxin; He, Hai; Ye, Qinglan; Xu, Xuetang; Wang, Fan

    2016-09-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) hybrid nanostructured arrays grown on a flexible substrate have recently attracted great attention owing to their potential application as supercapacitor electrodes in portable and wearable electronic devices. Here, we report an in situ conversion of Ni-Co active electrode materials for the fabrication of high-performance electrodes. Ni-Co carbonate hydroxide nanowire arrays on carbon cloth were initially synthesized via a hydrothermal method, and they were gradually converted to Ni-Co (oxy)hydroxide nanowire-supported nanoflake arrays after soaking in an alkaline solution. The evolution of the supercapacitor performance of the soaked electrode was investigated in detail. The areal capacitance increases from 281 mF cm -2 at 1 mA cm -2 to 3710 and 3900 mF cm -2 after soaking for 36 h and 48 h, respectively. More interestingly, the electrode also shows an increased capacitance with charge/discharge cycles due to the long-time soaking in KOH solution, suggesting novel cycling durability. The enhancement in capacitive performance should be related to the formation of a unique nanowire-supported nanoflake array architecture, which controls the agglomeration of nanoflakes, making them fully activated. As a result, the facile in situ fabrication of the hybrid architectural design in this study provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance Ni/Co based hydroxide nanostructure arrays for next-generation energy storage devices.

  5. Surface passivation function of indium-tin-oxide-based nanorod structural sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tzu-Shun; Lee, Ching-Ting; Lee, Hisn-Ying; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2012-01-01

    Employing self-shadowing traits of an oblique-angle electron-beam deposition system, various indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorod arrays were deposited on a silicon substrate and used as extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET) pH sensors. The length and morphology of the deposited ITO nanorod arrays could be changed and controlled under different deposition conditions. The ITO nanorod structural EGFET pH sensors exhibited high sensing performances owing to the larger sensing surface area. The sensitivity of the pH sensors with 150-nm-length ITO nanorod arrays was 53.96 mV/pH. By using the photoelectrochemical treatment of the ITO nanorod arrays, the sensitivity of the pH sensors with 150-nm-length passivated ITO nanorod arrays was improved to 57.21 mV/pH.

  6. Simple and polarization-independent Dammann grating based on all-dielectric nanorod array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chuang; Liu, Tongming; Da, Haixia; Feng, Rui; Tang, Donghua; Sun, Fangkui; Ding, Weiqiang

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we comprehensively investigate a Dammann grating (DG) that can generate a 5 × 5 diffraction spot array with an extending angle of 18^\\circ × 18^\\circ around the fiber communication wavelength of 1550 {nm}. The DG is a simple metasurface structure composed of a silicon cuboid nanorod array on a silica substrate, and only two different sizes of nanorods with square cross-sections and uniform spatial orientations are used. These simple units and this configuration are favorable in practice, and the C4 symmetry cross section of the nanorods ensures the polarization-independent operation of the DG. The phase modulation of the nanorods is achieved by the guiding mode propagating in them rather than electric or magnetic Mie-type resonance, which makes the design of the cuboid nanorods easy and robust. More importantly, the two-dimensional nanorod array is generated from a one-dimensional array, which further decreases the design and fabrication complexity.

  7. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn–Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei, E-mail: kwgao@yahoo.com

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate. • The superhydrophobic surface has good long-term stability under atmospheric environment. • The superhydrophobic surface can provide a stable corrosion protection for the Mg alloys. - Abstract: A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc–aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn–Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn–Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  8. Insitu grown superhydrophobic Zn–Al layered double hydroxides films on magnesium alloy to improve corrosion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Meng; Pang, Xiaolu; Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hierarchical superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate. • The superhydrophobic surface has good long-term stability under atmospheric environment. • The superhydrophobic surface can provide a stable corrosion protection for the Mg alloys. - Abstract: A hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc–aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn–Al LDHs) film has been fabricated on a magnesium alloy substrate via a facile hydrothermal crystallization method following chemical modification. The characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the micro/nanoscale hierarchical LDHs film surfaces composed of ZnO nanorods and Zn–Al LDHs nanowalls structures. The static contact angle (CA) for the prepared surfaces was observed at around 165.6°. The corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic films was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiondynamic polarization measurement. EIS and polarization measurements revealed that the superhydrophobic Zn–Al LDHs coated magnesium alloy had better corrosion resistance in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

  9. An approach to fabricating chemical sensors based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Young; Song, Dong Eon; Kim, Sang Sub

    2008-01-01

    Vertically and laterally aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized on Pt-coated Si substrates by catalyst-free metal organic chemical vapor deposition. An approach to fabricating chemical sensors based on the nanorod arrays using a coating-and-etching process with a photo-resist is reported. Tests of the devices as oxygen gas sensors have been performed. Our results demonstrate that the approach holds promise for the realization of sensitive and reliable nanorod array chemical sensors

  10. Synthesis and Properties of Layered-Structured Mn5O8 Nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tao; Norby, Poul; Krumeich, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Mn5O8 nanorods were prepared by a topotactic conversion of γ-MnOOH nanorod precursors in nitrogen at 400 °C. The as-prepared Mn5O8 nanorods crystallized in a monoclinic structure (space group C2/m) with unit cell dimensions a = 10.3784(2) Å, b = 5.7337(7) Å, c = 4.8668(6) Å, and β = 109.491(6)°, ...

  11. UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by the arc discharge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, F; Futter, J; Markwitz, A; Kennedy, J

    2009-01-01

    The UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by arc discharge have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy were carried out to analyze the morphology and optical properties of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods. Proton induced x-ray emission was used to probe the impurities in the ZnO nanorods. A large quantity of high purity ZnO nanorod structures were obtained with lengths of 0.5-1 μm. The diameters of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods were found to be between 40 and 400 nm. The nanorods interlace with each other, forming 3D networks which make them suitable for sensing application. The addition of a polymeric film-forming agent (BASF LUVISKOL VA 64) improved the conductivity, as it facilitates the construction of conducting networks. Ultrasonication helped to separate the ZnO nanorods and disperse them evenly through the polymeric agent. Improved photoconductivity was measured for a ZnO nanorod sensor annealed in air at 200 deg. C for 30 min. The ZnO nanorod sensors showed a UV-sensitive photoconduction, where the photocurrent increased by nearly four orders of magnitude from 2.7 x 10 -10 to 1.0 x 10 -6 A at 18 V under 340 nm UV illumination. High humidity sensitivity and good stability were also measured. The resistance of the ZnO nanorod sensor decreased almost linearly with increasing relative humidity (RH). The resistance of the ZnO nanorods changed by approximately five orders of magnitude from 4.35 x 10 11 Ω in dry air (7% RH) to about 4.95 x 10 6 Ω in 95% RH air. It is experimentally demonstrated that ZnO nanorods obtained by the arc discharge method show excellent performance and promise for applications in both UV and humidity sensors.

  12. Incorporation of rare-earth ions in Mg-Al layered double hydroxides: intercalation with an [Eu(EDTA)] - chelate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cang; Wang, Ge; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-12-01

    Reaction of an aqueous slurry of an Mg 2Al-NO 3 layered double hydroxide with a four-fold excess of Na[Eu(EDTA)] gives a material which analyses for Mg 0.68Al 0.32(OH) 2[Eu(EDTA)] 0.10(CO 3) 0.11·0.66H 2O. The interlayer spacing of the material is 13.8 Å, corresponding to a gallery height of 9.0 Å, which accords with the maximal dimensions (9-10 Å) of the anion in metal-EDTA complex salts as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Geometrical considerations show that the charge density on the layered double hydroxide layers is too high to be balanced by intercalation of [Eu(EDTA)] - alone, necessitating the co-intercalation of carbonate ions which have a much higher charge density.

  13. Fabrication and field emission study of novel rod-shaped diamond-like carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Deepak; Makarov, Vladimir I; Saxena, Puja; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo; Gonzalez-BerrIos, Adolfo; Scott, James F

    2010-01-01

    Novel sp 3 rich diamond-like carbon nanorod films were fabricated by a hot filament chemical vapour deposition technique. The results are indicative of a bottom-up synthesis process, which results in a hierarchical structure that consists of microscale papillae comprising numerous nanorods. The papillae have diameters ranging from 2 to 4 μm and the nanorods have diameters in the 35-45 nm range. A growth mechanism based on the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism is proposed that accounts for the morphological aspects at the microscale and nanoscale. Investigation of field emission properties of fabricated nanorods reveals a low turn-on field of about 4.9 V μm -1 at 1 nA and a high field-enhancement factor.

  14. Investigation of thermal transformation of lanthanum and neodymium hydroxides by IK-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, A.A.; Davydov, A.A.; Shchekochikhin, Yu.M.

    1976-01-01

    The spectral polymorphic transformations of lanthanum and neodymium oxides at the thermal decomposition of the hydroxides and carbonates of these elements are studied. The thermal decomposition was observed during 3-5 hours. The i.r. spectra of the decomposition products were measured for temperatures of 100-1000 0 C. The i.r. spectra of C-Nd 2 O 3 , of A-Nd 2 O 3 , of C-La 2 O 3 and of A-La 2 O 3 were obtained in the range of 250-4000cm -1 . The spectral consequences of the C→A-Nd 2 O 3 polymorphic transformation were also studied for the decomposition of the neodymium carbonate. The spectra of the calcination products of the hydroxides (400-700 0 C) are similar to characteristic spectra of cubic rare earth oxides in the spectral range of 250-700cm -1 . An increase of the calcination temperature (800-1000 0 C) leads to changes in the oxide spectrum. New maxima appear at 260, 360 and 450cm -1 . The absorption bands characteristic for cubic oxide lattices disappear. From spectral data it can be concluded that neodymium carbonate begins to decompose at 450 0 C if it is heated in vacuum. The decomposition products are oxycarbonate and oxide. The maximum at 520cm -1 confirms the crystallization of the oxide in the cubic C-form. At 800 0 C the polymorphic transformation C→A-Nd 2 O 3 sets in. In the oxide spectra traces of the carbonate can still be detected up to the polymorphic transformation temperature. From a comparison of X-ray and spectral data it is followed that the i.r. spectra of the decomposition product of the lanthanum hydroxide at 500 0 C are essentially the spectra of C-La 2 O 3 which are characterized by the absorption bands at 320, 340, 380 and 495cm -1 . The absorption band of A-La 2 O 3 , which is present in the sample, is not observed. I.r. spectra of C-La 2 O 3 are very similar to the spectra of the cubic form of rare earth oxides in the range of 250-600cm -1 . Changes in the spectrum at 600 0 C can be explained by the polymorphic transformation

  15. CH3SH adsorption properties and mechanism of deodorant filter made of iron hydroxide on porous iron frame; Tetsu takotaisei dasshu filter no methyl mercaptan jokyo seino to jokyo kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-10

    It is suggested that methyl mercaptan is decomposed to methyl sulfide and hydrogen by reaction with the a-iron hydroxide, and then the methyl sulfide combines with sulfur crystal and the hydrogen changes into water by the chemical reaction with the {alpha}-iron hydroxide. A deodorant filter was made by treating porous metallic iron with an aqueous solution of L-ascorbic acid, iron (II) sulfate and calcium hydroxide aqueous solution to deposit the iron ascorbate and the {alpha}-iron hydroxide on it. Then the deodorant filter was exposed to the hydrogen sulfide to yield the sulfur crystals on the surface of the deodorant filter. The methyl mercaptan removal capacity of the deodorant filter was studied with repetition of removal tests. Results show that the methyl mercaptan removal capacity of the deodorant filter is a little smaller than that of conventional granular activated carbon. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Thermal Reshaping of Gold Nanorods in Micellar Solution of Water/Glycerol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sayed A. Al-Sherbini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (Nds with aspect ratios of 4, 3.5, and 2.8 were prepared by the electrochemical method. The nanorods were thermally studied in binary solvents of aqueous glycerol at different ratios (25%–75%. The results illustrated that the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPL is strongly dependent on the dielectric constant. The maximum absorption is red shifted with increasing the glycerol/water ratio. This was attributed to the decreasing value of the dielectric constant of the binary solvents. Moreover, by increasing the temperatures, the results showed relative instability of the gold nanorods. This attributed to the relative instability of the micelle capping the nanorods.

  17. Growth and investigation of antifungal properties of ZnO nanorod arrays on the glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskandari, M.; Haghighi, N.; Ahmadi, V.; Haghighi, F.; Mohammadi, SH.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the antifungal activity of ZnO nanorods prepared by the chemical solution method against Candida albicans. In the study, Zinc oxide nanorods have been deposited on glass substrates using the chemical solution method. The as-grown samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed zinc oxide nanorods grown in (0 0 2) orientation. The antifungal results indicated that ZnO nanorod arrays exhibit stable properties after two months and play an important role in the growth inhibitory of Candida albicans.

  18. Controllable growth and magnetic properties of nickel nanoclusters electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorod template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying; Wang Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    The ZnO nanorods were used as a template to fabricate nickel nanoclusters by electrodeposition. The ZnO nanorod arrays act as a nano-semiconductor electrode for depositing metallic and magnetic nickel nanoclusters. The growth sites of Ni nanoclusters could be controlled by adjusting the applied potential. Under -1.15 V the Ni nanoclusters could be grown on the tips of ZnO nanorods. On increasing the potential to be more negative the ZnO nanorods were covered by Ni nanoclusters. The magnetic properties of the electrodeposited Ni nanoclusters also evolved with the applied potentials.

  19. Catalyst growth of single crystal aligned ZnO nanorods on ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Andreazza, Caroline; Andreazza, Pascal [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2005-02-01

    One dimensional ZnO nanorods were successfully fabricated on Si substrates via a simple physical vapor-phase transport method at 950 C. A ZnO shell covered Au/Zn alloy is assumed as the nucleation site, then ZnO nanorods grow following a vapor-solid (VS) process. In order to guide the nanorod growth a c-axis oriented ZnO thin film and Au catalyst were first deposited on Si (100) surface. SEM images show nanorods grown on this substrate are vertical to the substrate surface. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Controllable growth and magnetic properties of nickel nanoclusters electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorod template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang Xiaohua, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.c [National Key Laboratory of High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 WeiXing Road, ChangChun 130022 (China)

    2009-12-09

    The ZnO nanorods were used as a template to fabricate nickel nanoclusters by electrodeposition. The ZnO nanorod arrays act as a nano-semiconductor electrode for depositing metallic and magnetic nickel nanoclusters. The growth sites of Ni nanoclusters could be controlled by adjusting the applied potential. Under -1.15 V the Ni nanoclusters could be grown on the tips of ZnO nanorods. On increasing the potential to be more negative the ZnO nanorods were covered by Ni nanoclusters. The magnetic properties of the electrodeposited Ni nanoclusters also evolved with the applied potentials.

  1. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10(-8) refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.

  2. Exciton emission from bare and hybrid plasmonic GaN nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Fatemesadat; Kunert, Gerd; Hommel, Detlef; Ge, Jingxuan; Duscher, Gerd; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Wagner, Hans Peter

    We study the exciton emission of hybrid gold nanoparticle/Alq3 (aluminiumquinoline)/wurtzite GaN nanorods. GaN nanorods of 1.5 μm length and 250 nm diameter were grown by plasma assisted MBE. Hybrid GaN nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. Temperature and power dependent time integrated (TI) and time resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on bare and hybrid structures. Bare nanorods show donor (D0,X) and acceptor bound (A0,X) exciton emission at 3.473 eV and at 3.463 eV, respectively. TR-PL trace modeling reveal lifetimes of 240 ps and 1.4 ns for the (D0,X) and (A0,X) transition. 10 nm gold coated GaN nanorods show a significant PL quenching and (D0,X) lifetime shortening which is tentatively attributed to impact ionization of (D0,X) due to hot electron injection from the gold nanoparticles. This is supported by electron energy loss spectroscopy that shows a redshift of a midgap state transition indicating a reduction of a preexisting band-bending at the nanorod surface due to positive charging of the gold nanoparticles. Inserting a nominally 5 nm thick Alq3 spacer between the nanorod and the gold reduces the PL quenching and lifetime shortening. Plasmonic nanorods with a 30 nm thick Alq3 spacer reveal lifetimes which are nearly identical to uncoated GaN nanorods.

  3. Diameter Effect of Silver Nanorod Arrays to Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Geun Hoi; Kim, Min Young; Yoon, Hyeok Jin; Suh, Jung Sang

    2014-01-01

    The effect the diameter of silver nanorod arrays whose distance between the nanorods was uniform at 65 nm have on Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been studied by varying the diameter from 28 to 51 nm. Nanorod length was fixed at approximately 62 nm, which is the optimum length for SERS by excitation with a 632.8 nm laser line. The transverse and longitudinal modes of the surface plasmon of these silver nanorods were near 400 and 630 nm, respectively. The extinction of the longitudinal mode increased with increasing nanorod diameter, while the transverse mode did not change significantly. High-quality SERS spectra of p-aminothiophenol and benzenethiol adsorbed on the tips of the silver nanorods were observed by excitation with a 632.8 nm laser line. The SERS enhancement increased with increasing nanorod diameter. We concluded that the SERS enhancement increases when the diameter of silver nanorods is increased mainly by increasing the excitation efficiency of the longitudinal mode. The enhancement factor for the silver nanorods with a 51 nm diameter was approximately 2 Χ 10 7

  4. FDTD simulated observation of a gold nanorod by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Keiji; Maruoka, Teruto; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tamura, Yuichi; Imura, Kohei; Saiki, Toshiharu; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    The optical properties of a gold nanorod were investigated by Imura et. al. using an apertured-type scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The observed transmission image showed an oscillating pattern along the long axis of the nanorod. We obtain the image using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Our model includes a nanorod on a glass substrate, a SNOM, and current as a light source. We develop a simple method for including the Drude-Lorentz dispersion relation of Vial et. al. for gold in the FDTD. The oscillating pattern is explained by the total current in the nanorod, tip of the SNOM, and light source. (author)

  5. Theoretical analysis of bimetallic nanorod dimer biosensors for label-free molecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Avijit; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we theoretically analyze a gold (Au) core within silver (Ag) shell (Au@Ag) nanorod dimer biosensor for label-free molecule detection. The incident light on an Au@Ag nanorod strongly couples to localized surface plasmon modes, especially around the tip region. The field enhancement around the tip of a nanorod or between the tips of two longitudinally aligned nanorods as in a dimer can be exploited for sensitive detection of biomolecules. We derive analytical expressions for the interactions of an Au@Ag nanorod dimer with the incident light. We also study the detail dynamics of an Au@Ag nanorod dimer with the incident light computationally using finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique when core-shell ratio, relative position of the nanorods, and angle of incidence of light change. We find that the results obtained using the developed analytical model match well with that obtained using FDTD simulations. Additionally, we investigate the sensitivity of the Au@Ag nanorod dimer, i.e., shift in the resonance wavelength, when a target biomolecule such as lysozyme (Lys), human serum albumin (HSA), anti-biotin (Abn), human catalase (CAT), and human fibrinogen (Fb) protein molecules are attached to the tips of the nanorods.

  6. Plasmon-resonant nanorods as multimodal agents for two-photon luminescent imaging and photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Terry B.; Hansen, Matthew N.; Tong, Ling; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Haifeng; Zweifel, Daniel A.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Wei, Alexander

    2007-02-01

    Plasmon-resonant gold nanorods have outstanding potential as multifunctional agents for image-guided therapies. Nanorods have large absorption cross sections at near-infrared (NIR) frequencies, and produce two-photon luminescence (TPL) when excited by fs-pulsed laser irradiation. The TPL signals can be detected with single-particle sensitivity, enabling nanorods to be imaged in vivo while passing through blood vessels at subpicomolar concentrations. Furthermore, cells labeled with nanorods become highly susceptible to photothermal damage when irradiated at plasmon resonance, often resulting in a dramatic blebbing of the cell membrane. However, the straightforward application of gold nanorods for cell-specific labeling is obstructed by the presence of CTAB, a cationic surfactant carried over from nanorod synthesis which also promotes their nonspecific uptake into cells. Careful exchange and replacement of CTAB can be achieved by introducing oligoethyleneglycol (OEG) units capable of chemisorption onto nanorod surfaces by in situ dithiocarbamate formation, a novel method of surface functionalization. Nanorods with a dense coating of methyl-terminated OEG chains are shielded from nonspecific cell uptake, whereas nanorods functionalized with folate-terminated OEG chains accumulate on the surface of tumor cells overexpressing their cognate receptor, with subsequent delivery of photoinduced cell damage at low laser fluence.

  7. An Au/Si hetero-nanorod-based biosensor for Salmonella detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Junxue; Zhao Yiping [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Park, Bosoon; Siragusa, Greg [USDA, ARS, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Jones, Les; Tripp, Ralph [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Cho, Yong-Jin [Korea Food Research Institute, Songnam (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: zhaoy@physast.uga.edu

    2008-04-16

    We present a novel and effective food-borne bacteria detection method. A hetero-structured silicon/gold nanorod array fabricated by the glancing angle deposition method is functionalized with anti-Salmonella antibodies and organic dye molecules. Due to the high aspect ratio nature of the Si nanorods, dye molecules attached to the Si nanorods produce an enhanced fluorescence upon capture and detection of Salmonella. This bio-functional hetero-nanorod detection method has great potential in the food safety industry as well as in biomedical diagnostics.

  8. Structural interpretation of chemically synthesized ZnO nanorod and its application in lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Samapti; Sain, Sumanta; Yoshio, Masaki; Kar, Tanusree; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Pradhan, Swapan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route. • Growth direction of ZnO nanorods has been determined along 〈0 0 2〉. • ZnO nanorods constructed anode shows a high discharge capacity in first cycle. • It retains good reversible capacity compared to other ZnO morphologies. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route without using any template or capping agent and its importance is evaluated as a suitable candidate for anode material in lithium ion battery. Structural and microstructure characterizations of these nanorods are made by analyzing the X-ray diffraction data employing the Rietveld method of powder structure refinement. It reveals that the ZnO nanorods are grown up with a preferred orientation and elongated along 〈0 0 2〉. FESEM images reveal that these uniform cylindrical shaped nanorods are of different lengths and diameters. These synthesized ZnO nanorods are tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The nano grain size of the ZnO rods results in less volume expansion and/or contraction during the alloying/de-alloying process and causes in good cyclability. In addition, synthesized ZnO nanorods deliver high charge/discharge capacities compared to other reported ZnO materials

  9. Structural interpretation of chemically synthesized ZnO nanorod and its application in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Samapti; Sain, Sumanta [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research and Education Centre, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Kar, Tanusree [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Gunawardhana, Nanda, E-mail: nandagunawardhana@pdn.ac.lk [International Research Centre, Senate Building, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Pradhan, Swapan Kumar, E-mail: skpradhan@phys.buruniv.ac.in [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route. • Growth direction of ZnO nanorods has been determined along 〈0 0 2〉. • ZnO nanorods constructed anode shows a high discharge capacity in first cycle. • It retains good reversible capacity compared to other ZnO morphologies. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route without using any template or capping agent and its importance is evaluated as a suitable candidate for anode material in lithium ion battery. Structural and microstructure characterizations of these nanorods are made by analyzing the X-ray diffraction data employing the Rietveld method of powder structure refinement. It reveals that the ZnO nanorods are grown up with a preferred orientation and elongated along 〈0 0 2〉. FESEM images reveal that these uniform cylindrical shaped nanorods are of different lengths and diameters. These synthesized ZnO nanorods are tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The nano grain size of the ZnO rods results in less volume expansion and/or contraction during the alloying/de-alloying process and causes in good cyclability. In addition, synthesized ZnO nanorods deliver high charge/discharge capacities compared to other reported ZnO materials.

  10. Morphology development and oriented growth of single crystalline ZnO nanorod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lili; Wu Youshi; Lue Wei; Wei Huiying; Shi Yuanchang

    2005-01-01

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods were achieved by the assembly of nanocrystallines in tens of nanometer under hydrothermal conditions with the assistance of surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The obtained nanorod has rough surface as a result of oriented attachment growth. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed the morphology evolution of the nanorod at different reaction time. Defects were observed and porous structure was left after the assembly of hundreds of nanocrystalline building blocks. Effect of pH condition on the morphology of the nanorod was also investigated

  11. Characterization of crystalline silica nanorods synthesized via a solvothermal route using polyvinylbutyral as a template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin-Jer; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Chuang, Yu-Ju; Fu, Yaw-Shyan

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of crystalline silica nanorods is presented. Crystalline silica nanorods were synthesized via a simple solvothermal route using polyvinylbutyral (PVB) as a template in an autoclave with ethylenediamine as a solvent at 180 °C for 25 h. Silica nanorods with diameters in the range of 50–80 nm were obtained. The solvothermal route with a PVB template played affected the crystallization process and the growth of the silica nanorods. The as-synthesized products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Thermal behaviour of hydroxides, hydroxysalts and hydrotalcites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In many systems one or more of these steps ... decomposition of carbonate containing Mg–Al hydro- talcite is .... 1998, 1999) indicate that these decompose in a single step. ... Oswald H R and Asper R 1977 in Preparation and crystal growth of ...

  13. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  14. Plutonium oxides and uranium and plutonium mixed oxides. Carbon determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of carbon in plutonium oxides and uranium plutonium mixed oxides, suitable for a carbon content between 20 to 3000 ppm. The sample is roasted in oxygen at 1200 0 C, the carbon dioxide produced by combustion is neutralized by barium hydroxide generated automatically by coulometry [fr

  15. EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT ENDODONTIC IRRIGATION PROTOCOLS IN CALCIUM HYDROXIDE REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka N. Radeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used in the field of endodontics as a temporary root canal filling. This medicament significantly increases pH and optimizes the treatment outcome. Its total removal before final obturation is very important. Otherwise it could affect the hermetic filling and respectively the endodontic success. Aim: To evaluate the most effective irrigation protocol of calcium hydroxide removal from root canals. Materials and methods: In this study 36 single root canal teeth were observed. They were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each group according to the technique applied for calcium hydroxide removal - manual irrigation, irrigation and Revo-S rotary instrumentation; and passive ultrasonic irrigation, and a control group (n=6 – irrigation with distilled water only. After calcium hydroxide removals following the procedures above, teeth were separated longitudinally in a buccal-lingual direction and remnants of medicaments were observed in the apical, middle and coronal part of each tooth. Then all of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by a specified scale. The results have undergone statistical analysis. Results: In the case of calcium hydroxide in the apex and in the middle with highest average is Revo-S, followed by Ultrasonic and irrigation. In the coronal part the highest average belongs to Revo-S, irrigation and Ultrasonic. In all groups the highest average is represented by control group. Conclusion: There is not a universal technique for removal of intracanal medicaments and applying more than one protocol is required.

  16. The citotoxicity of calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing by MTT assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Zubaidah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide had been used as the intracanal dressing in endodontic treatment due to its high alkaline and high antimicrobial capacity. It also be able to dissolve the necrotic tissue, prevent the root resorbtion and regenerate a new hard tissue. The aim of this study is to identify the concentration of calcium hydroxide that has the lowest citotoxicity. There are 5 groups, each group had 8 samples with different concentration of calcium hydroxide. Group I: 50%, Group II: 55%, Group III: 60%, Group IV: 65% and Group V: 70%. The citotoxicity test by using enzymatic assay of MTT [3-(4.5- dimethylthiazol-2yl ]-2.5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, against fibroblast cell (BHK-21. The result of susceptibility test was showed by the citotoxicity detection of the survive cell of fibroblast that was measured spectrophotometrically using 595 nm beam. The data was analyzed using One-Way ANOVA test with significant difference α = 0.05 and subsequently LSD test. The result showed that in concentration 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, and 70% calcium hydroxide had low toxicity, but calcium hydroxide 60%, had the lowest toxicity.

  17. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.R.; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R.; McNeill, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated

  18. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: mralam@royalten.net.bd; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)

    2005-08-19

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated

  19. Carbon nanostructures and graphite-coated metal nanostructures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Under certain conditions, pyrolysis of ruthenocene gives rise to graphite coated ruthenium nanoparticles as well as worm-like carbon structures. Pyrolysis of mixtures of ruthenocene and ferrocene gives rise to nanoparticles or nanorods of FeRu alloys, the composition depending upon the composition of the original mixture.

  20. Manipulation and Biological Applications of Gold Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostro-Kohanloo, Betty Catalina

    This thesis compared anionic polyelectrolyte wrapping stabilization with poly(sodium 4-stryene-sulfonate), (PSS), polyelectrolyte and methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-thiol (mPEG(5000)-SH) strategies. From this data the critical gold nanorod (GNR) and cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) concentration ratio needed for GNR stabilization was determined using optical and chemical extraction methods. This was followed by functionalization with a heterobifunctional Polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker, such as a-thio-w-carboxy poly(ethylene glycol) termed t-PEG-c and carbodiimide chemistries for antibody linkage with Immunoglobulin G (IgG), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) based Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (Her2), and Cetuximab (C225) antibodies, for in vitro cancer cell targeting. Confocal, two-photon luminescence (TPL), and dark scattering microscopy, and fluorescence, zeta potential, and Nanoparticle Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to monitor changes to the GNR surface. An untreatable form of bladder cancer was then studied using the t-GNR-PEG-c-Ab bioconjugates with C225 antibody, which housed a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH), Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled siRNA, termed GAPDH-siRNA-FITC, which was included within a Luciferase based plasmid. A salt based electrostatic heating method was used to trap the GAPDH-siRNA-FITC from the PEG layer by activating the PEG polymer pour point, while a laser based heating system was used for in vitro release inside cancer cells. The down regulation of the GAPDH gene was targeted by the siRNA. as GAPDH has been shown to be up-regulated in many cancers and down-regulated by chemotherapeutic drugs. Cell culture, and subsequent imaging by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TPL and confocal microscopy were used to view the internalized conjugates, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determine if the release of the GAPDH-siRNA caused a

  1. Interaction of natural borates with potassium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarova, L.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.; Kudinov, I.B.; Panasyuk, G.P.; Danilov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction of natural borates - inyoite, ulexite and hydroboracite MgCa[B 3 O 4 (OH) 3 ] 2 ·3H 2 O with KOH solution is studied at 50 Deg C by the methods of chemical, x- ray phase, differential thermal analyses and IR spectroscopy. IR spectra points out on island character of forming borates and confirms the data of x-ray phase and chemical analyses about presence of asharite and calcium hydrous borate in resulting products. Hydroboracite (chain structure) under the action of potassium hydroxide passes into borates of magnesium and calcium with island structure and in this case boron transforms partially into liquid phase. When potassium hydroxide interacts with inyoite and ulexite calcium hydroxide and roentgenoamorphous boron-containing product precipitate [ru

  2. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  3. Functionalization of lanthanum hydroxide nanowires by atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mi; Yuan Jinying; Yuan Weizhong; Yin Yingwu; Hong Xiaoyin

    2007-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been used to prepare a core-shell hybrid nanostructure successfully: a hard core of single-crystalline lanthanum hydroxide nanowires and a soft shell of polystyrene (PS) brushes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicated that the resulting products presented special structures and different thicknesses of polymer layers. The chemical components and grafted PS quantities of the samples were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The polymers showed narrow polydispersity, which proved that the lanthanum hydroxide nanowires initiated the 'living'/controlled polymerization of styrene. With the modifiability of lanthanum hydroxide nanowires, the solubility increased, which affords a new way to functionalize nanowires

  4. "One-for-All" Strategy in Fast Energy Storage: Production of Pillared MOF Nanorod-Templated Positive/Negative Electrodes for the Application of High-Performance Hybrid Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chong; Liang, Zibin; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Bote; Zhu, Bingjun; Dang, Dai; Dai, Shuge; Chen, Yu; Zou, Ruqiang; Liu, Meilin

    2018-05-02

    Currently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are intensively studied as active materials for electrochemical energy storage applications due to their tunable structure and exceptional porosities. Among them, water stable pillared MOFs with dual ligands have been reported to exhibit high supercapacitor (SC) performance. Herein, the "One-for-All" strategy is applied to synthesize both positive and negative electrodes of a hybrid SC (HSC) from a single pillared MOF. Specifically, Ni-DMOF-TM ([Ni(TMBDC)(DABCO) 0.5 ], TMBDC: 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, DABCO: 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]-octane) nanorods are directly grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) (denoted as CFP@TM-nanorods) with the help of triethylamine and function as the positive electrode of HSC under alkaline electrolyte. Meanwhile, calcinated N-doped hierarchical porous carbon nanorods (CFP@TM-NPCs) are produced and utilized as the negative counter-electrode from a one-step heat treatment of CFP@TM-nanorods. After assembling these two electrodes together to make a hybrid device, the TM-nanorods//TM-NPCs exhibit a wide voltage window of 1.5 V with a high sloping discharge plateau between 1-1.2 V, indicating its great potential for practical applications. This as-described "One-for-All" strategy is widely applicable and highly reproducible in producing MOF-based electrode materials for HSC applications, which shortens the gap between experimental synthesis and practical application of MOFs in fast energy storage. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Laser-induced extreme magnetic field in nanorod targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécz, Zsolt; Andreev, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The application of nano-structured target surfaces in laser-solid interaction has attracted significant attention in the last few years. Their ability to absorb significantly more laser energy promises a possible route for advancing the currently established laser ion acceleration concepts. However, it is crucial to have a better understanding of field evolution and electron dynamics during laser-matter interactions before the employment of such exotic targets. This paper focuses on the magnetic field generation in nano-forest targets consisting of parallel nanorods grown on plane surfaces. A general scaling law for the self-generated quasi-static magnetic field amplitude is given and it is shown that amplitudes up to 1 MT field are achievable with current technology. Analytical results are supported by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Non-parallel arrangements of nanorods has also been considered which result in the generation of donut-shaped azimuthal magnetic fields in a larger volume.

  6. Reactive tunnel junctions in electrically driven plasmonic nanorod metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Nasir, Mazhar E.; Dickson, Wayne; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2018-02-01

    Non-equilibrium hot carriers formed near the interfaces of semiconductors or metals play a crucial role in chemical catalysis and optoelectronic processes. In addition to optical illumination, an efficient way to generate hot carriers is by excitation with tunnelling electrons. Here, we show that the generation of hot electrons makes the nanoscale tunnel junctions highly reactive and facilitates strongly confined chemical reactions that can, in turn, modulate the tunnelling processes. We designed a device containing an array of electrically driven plasmonic nanorods with up to 1011 tunnel junctions per square centimetre, which demonstrates hot-electron activation of oxidation and reduction reactions in the junctions, induced by the presence of O2 and H2 molecules, respectively. The kinetics of the reactions can be monitored in situ following the radiative decay of tunnelling-induced surface plasmons. This electrically driven plasmonic nanorod metamaterial platform can be useful for the development of nanoscale chemical and optoelectronic devices based on electron tunnelling.

  7. Towards measuring quantum electrodynamic torque with a levitated nanorod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhujing; Bang, Jaehoon; Ahn, Jonghoon; Hoang, Thai M.; Li, Tongcang

    2017-04-01

    According to quantum electrodynamics, quantum fluctuations of electromagnetic fields give rise to a zero-point energy that never vanishes, even in the absence of electromagnetic sources. The interaction energy will not only lead to the well-known Casimir force but will also contribute to the Casimir torque for anisotropic materials. We propose to use an optically levitated nanorod in vacuum and a birefringent substrate to experimentally investigate the QED torque. We have previously observed the libration of an optically levitated non-spherical nanoparticle in vacuum and found it to be an ultrasensitive torque sensor. A nanorod with a long axis of 300nm and a diameter of 60nm levitated in vacuum at 10 (- 8) torr will have a remarkable torque detection sensitivity on the order of 10 (- 28) Nm/ √Hz, which will be sufficient to detect the Casimir torque. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.1555035-PHY.

  8. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-04-21

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  9. Comparative evaluation of different forms of calcium hydroxide in apexification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One out of every two children sustains a dental injury most often between 8 and 10 years of age. Majority of these teeth subsequently become non-vital and most often with immature apex. Management of these teeth is an enormous challenge for lack of apical stop. Calcium hydroxide in various formulations has maximum literature support in favor of "successful apexification or induced apical closure." Aim: The aim of the following study is to determine the efficacy of calcium hydroxide in a different formulation to induce apexification. Materials and Methods: The present study was undertaken on 51 children of 8-10 years of age (both sexes at Dr. R Ahmed Dental College and Hospital from April 2006 to March 2007. All children had one or two maxillary permanent central incisor (s, non-vital and apices open. In all the cases, apexification was attempted with either calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile distilled water, or calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in methyl cellulose base, or calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in polysilicone oil base. The success of apexification was determined on the basis of clinical and radiographic criteria. Results: In the pre-operative asymptomatic cases (72.55%, failure occurred in only 5.45% cases and pre-operative symptomatic cases failure rate was as high as 35.71%. Success rate was 94.6% in cases with narrow open apices, whereas 64.28% in wide open apices. In cases with pre-existing apical radiolucencies, successful apexification occurred in 63.63% and success rate was 92.5% in the cases without pre-existing apical radiolucencies. Average time consumed for apexification was minimum with calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in polysilicone oil base. Conclusion: The overall success rate observed to be 86.27%, which is in close proximity to the findings of most of the previous studies across the globe.

  10. Comparative evaluation of different forms of calcium hydroxide in apexification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhankar; Mazumdar, Dibyendu; Ray, Pradip Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaswar

    2014-01-01

    One out of every two children sustains a dental injury most often between 8 and 10 years of age. Majority of these teeth subsequently become non-vital and most often with immature apex. Management of these teeth is an enormous challenge for lack of apical stop. Calcium hydroxide in various formulations has maximum literature support in favor of successful apexification or induced apical closure. The aim of the following study is to determine the efficacy of calcium hydroxide in a different formulation to induce apexification. The present study was undertaken on 51 children of 8-10 years of age (both sexes) at Dr. R Ahmed Dental College and Hospital from April 2006 to March 2007. All children had one or two maxillary permanent central incisor (s), non-vital and apices open. In all the cases, apexification was attempted with either calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile distilled water, or calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in methyl cellulose base, or calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in polysilicone oil base. The success of apexification was determined on the basis of clinical and radiographic criteria. In the pre-operative asymptomatic cases (72.55%), failure occurred in only 5.45% cases and pre-operative symptomatic cases failure rate was as high as 35.71%. Success rate was 94.6% in cases with narrow open apices, whereas 64.28% in wide open apices. In cases with pre-existing apical radiolucencies, successful apexification occurred in 63.63% and success rate was 92.5% in the cases without pre-existing apical radiolucencies. Average time consumed for apexification was minimum with calcium hydroxide plus iodoform in polysilicone oil base. The overall success rate observed to be 86.27%, which is in close proximity to the findings of most of the previous studies across the globe.

  11. Films of brookite TiO2 nanorods/nanoparticles deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation as NO2 gas-sensing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, A. P.; Buonsanti, R.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P. D.; Luches, A.; Manera, M. G.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.

    2011-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods in the brookite phase, with average dimensions of 3-4 nm × 20-50 nm, were synthesized by a wet-chemical aminolysis route and used as precursors for thin films that were deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A nanorod solution in toluene (0.016 wt% TiO2) was frozen at the liquid-nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a KrF excimer laser at a fluence of 350 mJ/cm2 and repetition rate of 10 Hz. Single-crystal Si wafers, silica slides, carbon-coated Cu grids and alumina interdigitated slabs were used as substrates to allow performing different characterizations. Films fabricated with 6000 laser pulses had an average thickness of ˜150 nm, and a complete coverage of the selected substrate as achieved. High-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations evidenced the formation of quite rough films incorporating individually distinguishable TiO2 nanorods and crystalline spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of ˜13 nm. Spectrophotometric analysis showed high transparency through the UV-Vis spectral range. Promising resistive sensing responses to 1 ppm of NO2 mixed in dry air were obtained.

  12. Films of brookite TiO{sub 2} nanorods/nanoparticles deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation as NO{sub 2} gas-sensing layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P.; Cesaria, M.; Luches, A.; Martino, M. [University of Salento, Department of Physics, Lecce (Italy); Buonsanti, R. [Istituto di Nanoscienze del CNR, National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), Lecce (Italy); Catalano, M.; Manera, M.G.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [IMM-CNR, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Istituto di Nanoscienze del CNR, National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), Lecce (Italy); University of Salento, Department of Innovation Engineering, Lecce (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanorods in the brookite phase, with average dimensions of 3-4 nm x 20-50 nm, were synthesized by a wet-chemical aminolysis route and used as precursors for thin films that were deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A nanorod solution in toluene (0.016 wt% TiO{sub 2}) was frozen at the liquid-nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a KrF excimer laser at a fluence of 350 mJ/cm{sup 2} and repetition rate of 10 Hz. Single-crystal Si wafers, silica slides, carbon-coated Cu grids and alumina interdigitated slabs were used as substrates to allow performing different characterizations. Films fabricated with 6000 laser pulses had an average thickness of {proportional_to}150 nm, and a complete coverage of the selected substrate as achieved. High-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations evidenced the formation of quite rough films incorporating individually distinguishable TiO{sub 2} nanorods and crystalline spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of {proportional_to}13 nm. Spectrophotometric analysis showed high transparency through the UV-Vis spectral range. Promising resistive sensing responses to 1 ppm of NO{sub 2} mixed in dry air were obtained. (orig.)

  13. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO.sub.2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blencoe, James G.; Palmer, Donald A.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Beard, James S.

    2017-08-01

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  14. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencoe, James G; Palmer, Donald A; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Beard, James S

    2014-03-18

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  15. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO.sub.2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2012-02-14

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  16. High temperature structural and magnetic properties of cobalt nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Atmane, Kahina [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, 15 rue J.-A. de Baief, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Zighem, Fatih [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA CNRS UMR 12, IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Soumare, Yaghoub [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, 15 rue J.-A. de Baief, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Ibrahim, Mona; Boubekri, Rym [Universite de Toulouse, LPCNO, INSA CNRS UMR 5215, 135 av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Maurer, Thomas [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA CNRS UMR 12, IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Margueritat, Jeremie [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, 15 rue J.-A. de Baief, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Piquemal, Jean-Yves, E-mail: jean-yves.piquemal@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, 15 rue J.-A. de Baief, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Ott, Frederic; Chaboussant, Gregory [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA CNRS UMR 12, IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Schoenstein, Frederic; Jouini, Noureddine [LSPM, CNRS UPR 9001, Universite Paris XIII, Institut Galilee, 99 av. J.-B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Viau, Guillaume, E-mail: gviau@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, LPCNO, INSA CNRS UMR 5215, 135 av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-01-15

    We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanoparticles ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X ray diffraction (XRD) and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. The coercivity can be modelled by {mu}{sub 0}H{sub C}=2(K{sub MC}+K{sub shape})/M{sub S} with K{sub MC} the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, K{sub shape} the shape anisotropy constant and M{sub S} the saturation magnetization. H{sub C} decreases linearly when the temperature is increased due to the loss of the Co magnetocrystalline anisotropy contribution. At 500 K, 50% of the room temperature coercivity is preserved corresponding to the shape anisotropy contribution only. We show that the coercivity drop is reversible in the range 300-500 K in good agreement with the absence of particle alteration. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. - Graphical abstract: We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanorods ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X-ray diffraction and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferromagnetic Co nanorods are prepared using the polyol process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural and texture properties of the Co nanorods are preserved up to 500 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic properties of the Co nanorods are irreversibly altered above 525 K.

  17. Synthesis and magnetic properties of YMnO3 nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhinesh Kumar, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2012-01-01

    YMnO 3 nanorods have been synthesized by hydrothermal process at 200 deg C. The hexagonal phase of as-synthesized sample was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. High resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis have been carried out to study the surface morphology and elements presence in the sample. The magnetic behavior of the sample was studied by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) technique. (author)

  18. Photothermal reshaping of gold nanorods prevents further cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hironobu; Niidome, Takuro; Nariai, Ayuko; Niidome, Yasuro; Yamada, Sunao

    2006-01-01

    The combined use of phosphatidylcholine passivated gold nanorods (PC-NRs) and pulsed near-infrared (near-IR) irradiation resulted in cell death. Pulsed near-IR laser irradiation also induced reshaping of PC-NRs into spherical nanoparticles. Since reshaped particles showed no absorption in the near-IR region, successive laser irradiation did not affect cells. Photo-reshaping of PC-NRs is expected to be advantageous in preventing unwanted cell damage following destruction of target cells

  19. Prominent ethanol sensing with Cr2O3 nanoparticle-decorated ZnS nanorods sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Ko, Tae-Gyung; Lee, Chongmu; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2016-08-01

    ZnS nanorods and Cr2O3 nanoparticle-decorated ZnS nanorods were synthesized by using facile hydrothermal techniques, and their ethanol sensing properties were examined. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed good crystallinity and size uniformity for the ZnS nanorods. The Cr2O3 nanoparticle-decorated ZnS nanorod sensor showed a stronger response to ethanol than the pristine ZnS nanorod sensor. The responses of the pristine and the decorated nanorod sensors to 200 ppm of ethanol at 300 °C were 2.9 and 13.8, respectively. Furthermore, under these conditions, the decorated nanorod sensor showed a longer response time (23 s) and a shorter recovery time (20 s) than the pristine one did (19 and 35 s, respectively). Consequently, the total sensing time of the decorated nanorod sensor (42 s) was shorter than that of the pristine one (55 s). The decorated nanorod sensor showed excellent selectivity to ethanol over other volatile organic compound gases including acetone, methanol, benzene, and toluene whereas the pristine one failed to show selectivity to ethanol over acetone. The improved sensing performance of the decorated nanorod sensor is attributed to a modulation of the width of the conduction channel and the height of the potential barrier at the ZnS-Cr2O3 interface accompanying the adsorption and the desorption of ethanol gas, and the greater surface-to-volume ratio of the decorated nanorods which was greater than that of the pristine one due to the existence of the ZnS-Cr2O3 interface.

  20. Numerical investigation of radiative properties and surface plasmon resonance of silver nanorod dimers on a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, QunZhi

    2014-01-01

    When the distance between two silver nanoparticles is small enough, interparticle surface plasmon coupling has a great impact on their radiative properties. It is becoming a promising technique to use in the sensing and imaging. A model based on finite difference time domain method is developed to investigate the effect of the assembled parameters on the radiative properties and the field-enhancement effect of silver nanorod dimer. The numerical results indicate that the radiative properties of silver nanorod dimer are very sensitive to the assembled angle and the polarization orientation of incident wave. There is great difference on the intensity and location of field-enhancement effect for the cases of different assembled angle and polarization. The most intensive field-enhancement effect occurs in the middle of two nanorods when two nanorods is assembled head to head and the polarization orientation parallels to the length axis of nanorods. Moreover, compared with the single nanorod, the wavelength of extinction peak of dimer has a red-shift, and the intensity of field-enhancement effect on the dimer is more intensive than that of single particle. With the increasing of particle length, extinction cross-section of silver nanorod dimer rises, while extinction efficiency and scattering efficiency firstly increase then drop down gradually. In addition, the extinction peaks of silver nanorod dimer on the substrate are smaller than that without the substrate, and their extinction peaks has a red-shift compared with that without the substrate. -- Highlights: ► Radiative properties of silver nanorod dimer are very sensitive to the assembled angle. ► The projective length of nanorod dimer on the polarization orientation is crucial. ► Compared with single nanorod, wavelength of extinction peak of dimer has a red-shift. ► Extinction peaks of dimer on the substrate are smaller than that without the substrate

  1. Fabrication of graphene/titanium carbide nanorod arrays for chemical sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Chong [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Mingji, E-mail: limingji@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Hongji, E-mail: hongjili@yeah.net [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Vertically stacked graphene nanosheet/titanium carbide nanorod array/titanium (graphene/TiC nanorod array) wires were fabricated using a direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (DC arc plasma jet CVD) method. The graphene/TiC nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube array was reduced to the TiC nanorod array, and using those TiC nanorods as nucleation sites, the vertical graphene layer was formed on the TiC nanorod surface. The multi-target response mechanisms of the graphene/TiC nanorod array were investigated for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The vertically stacked graphene sheets facilitated the electron transfer and reactant transport with a unique porous surface, high surface area, and high electron transport network of CVD graphene sheets. The TiC nanorod array facilitated the electron transfer and firmly held the graphene layer. Thus, the graphene/TiC nanorod arrays could simultaneously respond to trace biomarkers and antihypertensive drugs. - Highlights: • Vertical graphene sheets were prepared with Ti as the catalyst via a CVD method. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were key transition layers in the formation of the TiC nanorods. • Vertical growth mechanism of graphene products was discussed. • Biomolecules were detected to be a chemical sensor. • Response mechanism for analytes at the graphene/TiC nanorod array was discussed.

  2. Synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of mPEG-SH modified gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didychuk, Candice L.; Ephrat, Pinhas; Belton, Michelle; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2008-02-01

    Plasmon-resonant gold nanorods show great potential as an agent for contrast-enhanced biomedical imaging or for phototherapeutics. This is primarily due to the high molar extinction coefficient at the absorption maximum and the dependence of the wavelength of the absorption maximum on the aspect ratio, which is tunable in the near-infrared (NIR) during synthesis. Although gold nanorods can be produced in high-yield through the seed-mediated growth technique, the presence of residual cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), a stabilizing surfactant required for nanorod growth, interferes with cell function and causes cytotoxicity. To overcome this potential obstacle to in vivo use, we synthesized gold nanorods and conjugated them to a methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-thiol (mPEG (5000)-SH). This approach yielded mPEG-SH modified gold nanorods with optical and morphometric properties that were similar to raw (CTAB) nanorods. Both the CTAB and mPEG-SH nanorods were tested for cytotoxicity against the HL-60 human leukemia cell line by trypan blue exclusion, and the mPEG-SH modified gold nanorods were also tested against a rat insulinoma (RIN-38) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII) cell line. Cells incubated for 24 h with the mPEG-SH modified nanorods had little change in cell viability compared to cells incubated with vehicle alone. This was in contrast to cytotoxicity of CTAB nanorods on HL-60 cells. These results suggest that mPEG-SH modified gold nanorods are better suited for cell loading protocols and injection into animals and facilitate their use for imaging and phototherapeutic purposes.

  3. Fabrication of graphene/titanium carbide nanorod arrays for chemical sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Chong; Li, Mingji; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2017-01-01

    Vertically stacked graphene nanosheet/titanium carbide nanorod array/titanium (graphene/TiC nanorod array) wires were fabricated using a direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (DC arc plasma jet CVD) method. The graphene/TiC nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The TiO 2 nanotube array was reduced to the TiC nanorod array, and using those TiC nanorods as nucleation sites, the vertical graphene layer was formed on the TiC nanorod surface. The multi-target response mechanisms of the graphene/TiC nanorod array were investigated for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The vertically stacked graphene sheets facilitated the electron transfer and reactant transport with a unique porous surface, high surface area, and high electron transport network of CVD graphene sheets. The TiC nanorod array facilitated the electron transfer and firmly held the graphene layer. Thus, the graphene/TiC nanorod arrays could simultaneously respond to trace biomarkers and antihypertensive drugs. - Highlights: • Vertical graphene sheets were prepared with Ti as the catalyst via a CVD method. • TiO 2 nanotubes were key transition layers in the formation of the TiC nanorods. • Vertical growth mechanism of graphene products was discussed. • Biomolecules were detected to be a chemical sensor. • Response mechanism for analytes at the graphene/TiC nanorod array was discussed.

  4. Single Nanorod Devices for Battery Diagnostics: A Case Study on LiMn 2 O 4

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2009-12-09

    This paper presents single nanostructure devices as a powerful new diagnostic tool for batteries with LiMn2O4 nanorod materials as an example. LiMn2O4 and Al-doped LiMn2O4 nanorods were synthesized by a two-step method that combines hydrothermal synthesis of β-MnO2 nanorods and a solid state reaction to convert them to LiMn2O4 nanorods. λ-MnO2 nanorods were also prepared by acid treatment of LiMn2O4 nanorods. The effect of electrolyte etching on these LiMn2O 4-related nanorods is investigated by both SEM and single-nanorod transport measurement, and this is the first time that the transport properties of this material have been studied at the level of an individual singlecrystalline particle. Experiments show that Al dopants reduce the dissolution of Mn3+ ions significantly and make the LiAl 0.1Mn1.9O4 nanorods much more stable than LiMn2O4 against electrolyte etching, which is reflected by the magnification of both size shrinkage and conductance decrease. These results correlate well with the better cycling performance of Al-doped LiMn 2O4 in our Li-ion battery tests: LiAl0.1Mn 1.9O4 nanorods achieve 96% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 1C rate at room temperature, and 80% at 60 °C, whereas LiMn 2O4 shows worse retention of 91% at room temperature, and 69% at 60 °C. Moreover, temperature-dependent I - V measurements indicate that the sharp electronic resistance increase due to charge ordering transition at 290 K does not appear in our LiMn2O4 nanorod samples, suggesting good battery performance at low temperature. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Characteristics of Cement Solidification of Metal Hydroxide Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Seo Koo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To perform the permanent disposal of metal hydroxide waste from electro-kinetic decontamination, it is necessary to secure the technology for its solidification. The integrity tests on the fabricated solidification should also meet the criteria of the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency. We carried out the solidification of metal hydroxide waste using cement solidification. The integrity tests such as the compressive strength, immersion, leach, and irradiation tests on the fabricated cement solidifications were performed. It was also confirmed that these requirements of the criteria of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency on these cement solidifications were met. The microstructures of all the cement solidifications were analyzed and discussed.

  6. Characteristics of cement solidification of metal hydroxide waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Sung, Hyun Hee; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Gye Nam; Choi, Jong Won [Dept. of Decontemination Decommission Technology Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    To perform the permanent disposal of metal hydroxide waste from electro-kinetic decontamination, it is necessary to secure the technology for its solidification. The integrity tests on the fabricated solidification should also meet the criteria of the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency. We carried out the solidification of metal hydroxide waste using cement solidification. The integrity tests such as the compressive strength, immersion, leach, and irradiation tests on the fabricated cement solidifications were performed. It was also confirmed that these requirements of the criteria of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency on these cement solidifications were met. The microstructures of all the cement solidifications were analyzed and discussed.

  7. Effect of calcium hydroxide on slip casting behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Şakar‐Deliormanlı, Aylin; Yayla, Zeliha

    2004-01-01

    The effect of calcium hydroxide addition on the casting performance of ceramic slips for sanitary ware was studied. Powder composed of feldspar (24 wt.%), quartz (24 wt.%), kaolin (35 wt.%) and ball clay (17 wt.%) was mixed with water to contain 65 wt.% of solids (specific density 1800 g/l). Either Ca(OH)2 or Na2CO3 was added at concentrations ranging between 0.060 and 0.085 wt.% and the slurries were dispersed by the optimum addition of sodium silicate. Calcium hydroxide in presence of sodiu...

  8. Mechanochemical synthesis of dodecyl sulfate anion (DS-) intercalated Cu-Al layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; He, Xiaoman; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong

    2017-12-01

    Dodecyl sulfate anion (DS-) was successfully intercalated into the gallery space of Cu-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) by a non-heating mechanochemical route, in which basic cupric carbonate (Cu2(OH)2CO3) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) were first dry ground and then agitated in SDS solution under ambient environment. The organics modified Cu-Al LDH showed good adsorption ability toward 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D). The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), CHS elemental analysis and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The LDH precursor prepared by ball-milling could directly react with SDS molecules forming a pure phase of DS- pillared Cu-Al LDH, which was not observed with the LDH product through the ion-exchange of DS- at room temperature. The process introduced here may be applied to manufacture other types of organic modified composites for pollutants removal and other applications.

  9. Interactions between iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex and commonly used medications / laboratory studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Felix; Canclini, Camillo; Geisser, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Simple iron salts, such as iron sulphate, often interact with food and other medications reducing bioavailability and tolerability. Iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC, Maltofer) provides a soluble form of non-ionic iron, making it an ideal form of oral iron supplementation. The physicochemical properties of IPC predict a low potential for interactions. The effects of co-administration with aluminium hydroxide (CAS 21645-51-2), acetylsalicylic acid (CAS 50-78-2), bromazepam (CAS 1812-30-2), calcium acetate (CAS 62-54-4), calcium carbonate (CAS 471-34-1), auranofin (CAS 34031-32-8), magnesium-L-aspartate hydrochloride (CAS 28184-71-6), methyldopa sesquihydrate (CAS 41372-08-1), paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2), penicillamine (CAS 52-67-5), sulfasalazine (CAS 599-79-1), tetracycline hydrochloride (CAS 64-75-5), calcium phosphate (CAS 7757-93-9) in combination with vitamin D3 (CAS 67-97-0), and a multi-vitamin preparation were tested in rats fed an iron-deficient diet. Uptake of iron from radiolabelled IPC with and without concomitant medications was compared. None of the medicines tested had a significant effect on iron uptake. Iron-59 retrieval from blood and major storage organs was 64-76% for IPC alone compared with 59-85% following co-administration with other medications. It is concluded that, under normal clinical conditions, IPC does not interact with these medications.

  10. Cobalt hydroxide nanoflakes and their application as supercapacitors and oxygen evolution catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetta, A. A. S.; Browne, M. P.; Harvey, A.; Godwin, I. J.; Coleman, J. N.; Lyons, M. E. G.

    2017-09-01

    Finding alternative routes to access and store energy has become a major issue recently. Transition metal oxides have shown promising behaviour as catalysts and supercapacitors. Recently, liquid exfoliation of bulk metal oxides appears to be an effective route which provides access to two-dimensional (2D) nano-flakes, the size of which can be easily selected. These 2D materials exhibit excellent electrochemical charge storage and catalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction. In this study, various sized selected cobalt hydroxide nano-flake materials are fabricated by this time efficient and highly reproducible process. Subsquently, the electrochemical properties of the standard size Co(OH)2 nanoflakes were investigated. The oxide modified electrodes were prepared by spraying the metal oxide flake suspension onto a porous conductive support electrode foam, either glassy carbon or nickel. The cobalt hydroxide/nickel foam system was found to have an overpotential value at 10 mA cm-2 in 1 M NaOH as low as 280 mV and an associated redox capacitance exhibiting numerical values up to 1500 F g-1, thereby making it a viable dual use electrode.

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis of Cu-Al and methyl orange intercalated Cu-Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun, E-mail: forsjun@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); He, Xiaoman; Chen, Min; Hu, Huimin [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Zhang, Qiwu, E-mail: zhangqw@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Liu, Xinzhong [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 China (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a mechanochemical route to synthesize a Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) and a methyl orange (MO) intercalated one (MO-LDH) was introduced, in which basic cupric carbonate (Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH){sub 3}) with Cu/Al molar ratio at 2/1 was first dry ground for 2 h and then agitated in water or methyl orange solution for another 4 h to obtain the LDH and MO-LDH products without any heating operation. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products showed high crystallinity phase of Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH with no evident impurities, proving that the craft introduced here was facile and effective. The new idea can be applied in other fields to produce organic-inorganic composites. - Highlights: • A facile mechanochemical route to synthesize Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH. • The products possesses high crystalline of LDH phase with no impure phases. • The dry milling process induces the element substitution between the raw materials. • The agitation operation helps the grain growth of LDH.

  12. Mechanochemical synthesis of Cu-Al and methyl orange intercalated Cu-Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jun; He, Xiaoman; Chen, Min; Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a mechanochemical route to synthesize a Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) and a methyl orange (MO) intercalated one (MO-LDH) was introduced, in which basic cupric carbonate (Cu_2(OH)_2CO_3) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)_3) with Cu/Al molar ratio at 2/1 was first dry ground for 2 h and then agitated in water or methyl orange solution for another 4 h to obtain the LDH and MO-LDH products without any heating operation. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products showed high crystallinity phase of Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH with no evident impurities, proving that the craft introduced here was facile and effective. The new idea can be applied in other fields to produce organic-inorganic composites. - Highlights: • A facile mechanochemical route to synthesize Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH. • The products possesses high crystalline of LDH phase with no impure phases. • The dry milling process induces the element substitution between the raw materials. • The agitation operation helps the grain growth of LDH.

  13. Enhancement of the coercivity in Co-Ni layered double hydroxides by increasing basal spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuijuan; Tsuboi, Tomoya; Namba, Hiroaki; Einaga, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-09-14

    The magnetic properties of layered double hydroxides (LDH) containing transition metal ions can still develop, compared with layered metal hydroxide salts which exhibit structure-dependent magnetism. In this article, we report the preparation of a hybrid magnet composed of Co-Ni LDH and n-alkylsulfonate anions (Co-Ni-CnSO3 LDH). As Co-Ni LDH is anion-exchangeable, we can systematically control the interlayer spacing by intercalating n-alkylsulfonates with different carbon numbers. The magnetic properties were examined with temperature- and field-dependent magnetization measurements. As a result, we have revealed that the coercive field depends on the basal spacing. It is suggested that increasing the basal spacing varies the competition between the in-plane superexchange interactions and long-range out-of-plane dipolar interactions. Moreover, a jump in the coercive field at around 20 Å of the basal spacing is assumed to be the modification of the magnetic ordering in Co-Ni-CnSO3 LDH.

  14. Advanced oxidation of rhodamine B with hydrogen peroxide over ZnCr layered double hydroxide catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tien Thao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zn/Cr layered zinc hydroxide materials with different molar ratios of Cr/Zn have been synthesized through the coprecipitation method at pH of 9.0–9.5. At high Cr/Zn molar ratios of 0.5/1–1/3, the materials possess some layered structure with carbonate anions between the interlayer galleries. The catalysts present uniform particle sizes and quite high surface area. An isomorphous substitution of Zn2+ by Cr3+ in the brucite-like sheets makes the layered Cr-doped zinc hydroxides potential catalysts for efficient oxidation of rhodamine B with H2O2 solution. The experimental results indicated that the intra-lattice Cr3+ ions are more active than Cr2O3 components in the oxidative removal of rhodamine B. The degradation efficiency is dependent on the intra lattice Cr3+ contents and reaction variables. The Cr/Zn LDH gave a high decolorization (99% of rhodamine B at near neutral pH and room temperature.

  15. Targeted destruction of murine macrophage cells with bioconjugated gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pissuwan, Dakrong [University of Technology Sydney, Institute for Nanoscale Technology (Australia); Valenzuela, Stella M. [University of Technology Sydney, Department of Medical and Molecular Biosciences (Australia)], E-mail: stella.valenzuela@uts.edu.au; Killingsworth, Murray C. [Sydney South West Pathology Service (Australia)], E-mail: murray.killingsworth@swsahs.nsw.gov.au; Xu, Xiaoda; Cortie, Michael B. [University of Technology Sydney, Institute for Nanoscale Technology (Australia)], E-mail: michael.cortie@uts.edu.au

    2007-12-15

    Gold nanorods manifest a readily tunable longitudinal plasmon resonance with light and consequently have potential for use in photothermal therapeutics. Recent work by others has shown how gold nanoshells and rods can be used to target cancer cells, which can then be destroyed using relatively high power laser radiation ({approx}1x10{sup 5} to 1x10{sup 10} W/m{sup 2}). Here we extend this concept to demonstrate how gold nanorods can be modified to bind to target macrophage cells, and show that high intensity laser radiation is not necessary, with even 5x10{sup 2} W/m{sup 2} being sufficient, provided that a total fluence of {approx}30 J/cm{sup 2} is delivered. We used the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and the monoclonal antibody CD11b, raised against murine macrophages, as our model system and a 5 mW solid state diode laser as our energy source. Exposure of the cells labeled with gold nanorods to a laser fluence of 30 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in 81% cell death compared to only 0.9% in the control, non-labeled cells.

  16. Targeted destruction of murine macrophage cells with bioconjugated gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissuwan, Dakrong; Valenzuela, Stella M.; Killingsworth, Murray C.; Xu, Xiaoda; Cortie, Michael B.

    2007-12-01

    Gold nanorods manifest a readily tunable longitudinal plasmon resonance with light and consequently have potential for use in photothermal therapeutics. Recent work by others has shown how gold nanoshells and rods can be used to target cancer cells, which can then be destroyed using relatively high power laser radiation (˜1×105 to 1×1010 W/m2). Here we extend this concept to demonstrate how gold nanorods can be modified to bind to target macrophage cells, and show that high intensity laser radiation is not necessary, with even 5×102 W/m2 being sufficient, provided that a total fluence of ˜30 J/cm2 is delivered. We used the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and the monoclonal antibody CD11b, raised against murine macrophages, as our model system and a 5 mW solid state diode laser as our energy source. Exposure of the cells labeled with gold nanorods to a laser fluence of 30 J/cm2 resulted in 81% cell death compared to only 0.9% in the control, non-labeled cells.

  17. Targeted destruction of murine macrophage cells with bioconjugated gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissuwan, Dakrong; Valenzuela, Stella M.; Killingsworth, Murray C.; Xu, Xiaoda; Cortie, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanorods manifest a readily tunable longitudinal plasmon resonance with light and consequently have potential for use in photothermal therapeutics. Recent work by others has shown how gold nanoshells and rods can be used to target cancer cells, which can then be destroyed using relatively high power laser radiation (∼1x10 5 to 1x10 10 W/m 2 ). Here we extend this concept to demonstrate how gold nanorods can be modified to bind to target macrophage cells, and show that high intensity laser radiation is not necessary, with even 5x10 2 W/m 2 being sufficient, provided that a total fluence of ∼30 J/cm 2 is delivered. We used the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and the monoclonal antibody CD11b, raised against murine macrophages, as our model system and a 5 mW solid state diode laser as our energy source. Exposure of the cells labeled with gold nanorods to a laser fluence of 30 J/cm 2 resulted in 81% cell death compared to only 0.9% in the control, non-labeled cells

  18. Voltammetry of Organic Pollutants on FeOOH Nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wan, Qijin; Yang, Nianjun

    2017-01-01

    FeOOH nanorods synthesized using a solvothermal approach have been employed to investigate the electrochemistry of organic pollutions, including ponceau 4R (PR), sunset yellow (SY), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). The as-prepared FeOOH nanorods have been characterized using scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements, and electrochemical techniques. The modified electrode based on FeOOH nanorods exhibits a porous and net-like structure, resulting in a high surface area and many reactive/adsorption sites for soluble compounds. On this modified electrode, fast electron transfer processes of redox probes have been achieved. Electrochemistry of PR, SY, and TBBPA has been studied in detail using voltammetry, impedance, and chronocoulometry. The sensitive monitoring of both individual and total concentrations of three organic pollutions has been realized. The detection limits are 0.2, 1.0, and 0.55 nM for PR, SY, and TBBPA, respectively. Such an electrode is then promising for the electrochemical investigation and analysis of organic pollutions in different environments.

  19. Nanorod mediated collagen scaffolds as extra cellular matrix mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedhanayagam, Mohan; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Mohan, Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Creating collagen scaffolds that mimic extracellular matrices without using toxic exogenous materials remains a big challenge. A new strategy to create scaffolds through end-to-end crosslinking through functionalized nanorods leading to well-designed architecture is presented here. Self-assembled scaffolds with a denaturation temperature of 110 °C, porosity of 70%, pore size of 0.32 μm and Young’s modulus of 231 MPa were developed largely driven by imine bonding between 3-mercapto-1-propanal (MPA) functionalized ZnO nanorods and collagen. The mechanical properties obtained were much higher than that of native collagen, collagen—MPA, collagen—3-mercapto-1-propanol (3MPOH) or collagen- 3-MPOH-ZnO, clearly bringing out the relevance of nanorod mediated assembly of fibrous networks. This new strategy has led to scaffolds with mechanical properties much higher than earlier reports and can provide support for cell growth and facilitation of cell attachment. (paper)

  20. Confinement and Ordering of Au Nanorods in Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Michael J. A.; Mills, Eric; Liu, Yu; Composto, Russell J.

    2009-03-01

    Ordered arrays of gold nanorods (Au NRs) possess interesting optical properties that might be utilized in future devices. Au NRs functionalized with a poly(ethylene glycol)-thiol brush are incorporated into homopolymer or block copolymer (BCP) films. NR distribution and orientational correlations are studied as a function of nanorod concentration and spacial confinement via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. In particular, differences in the degree of nanorod ordering are presented for PMMA homopolymer films (d ˜ 45 nm) versus PS-b-PMMA BCP films (L/2 ˜ 40 nm), where higher ordering is seen in the case of BCP films. At moderate volume fractions of NRs, φ = 1% to 10%, the degree of ordering is moderate, and increases with increasing φ . However, coexistence between regions of higher ordering and isotropic orientations is observed. In addition to the planar confinement considered above, orientation of Au NRs confined to cylindrical P2VP domains is studied in PS-b-P2VP BCP films.