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Sample records for hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase

  1. Role of Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs in the Treatment of Solid Malignancies

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    Marinella Zilli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs, such as vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, have been previously shown to have a wide range of activity in hematologic malignancies such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Recent data show that they synergize with a variety of cytotoxic and molecular targeted agents in many different solid tumors, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung and ovarian cancer. Hb-HDACIs have a quite good toxicity profile and are now being tested in phase I and II clinical trials in solid tumors with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as hepatocarcinoma. This review will focus on their clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced solid neoplasms.

  2. Role of Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs) in the Treatment of Solid Malignancies

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    Grassadonia, Antonino [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ’G. d’Annunzio’, I-66013 Chieti (Italy); Cioffi, Pasquale; Simiele, Felice [Hospital Pharmacy, “SS. Annunziata” Hospital, I-66013 Chieti (Italy); Iezzi, Laura; Zilli, Marinella [Oncology Department, “SS. Annunziata” Hospital, I-66013 Chieti (Italy); Natoli, Clara, E-mail: natoli@unich.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ’G. d’Annunzio’, I-66013 Chieti (Italy)

    2013-07-25

    Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs), such as vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, have been previously shown to have a wide range of activity in hematologic malignancies such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Recent data show that they synergize with a variety of cytotoxic and molecular targeted agents in many different solid tumors, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung and ovarian cancer. Hb-HDACIs have a quite good toxicity profile and are now being tested in phase I and II clinical trials in solid tumors with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as hepatocarcinoma. This review will focus on their clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced solid neoplasms.

  3. Subchronic Toxicities of HZ1006, a Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Beagle Dogs and Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Xiaofang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs, such as vorinostat and panobinostat, have been shown to have active effects on many hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Hydroxamate-based (Hb HDACIs have very good toxicity profiles and are currently being tested in phases I and II clinical trials with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as bladder carcinoma. One of the Hb-HDACIs, HZ1006, has been demonstrated to be a promising drug for clinical use. The aim of our study was to determine the possible target of toxicity and to identify a non-toxic dose of HZ1006 for clinical use. In our studies, the repeated dosage toxicity of HZ1006 in Beagle dogs and Sprague Dawley (SD rats was identified. Dogs and rats received HZ1006 orally (0–80 and 0–120 mg/kg/day, respectively on a continuous daily dosing agenda for 28 days following a 14-day dosage-free period. HZ1006’s NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level by daily oral administration for dogs and rats was 5 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg, respectively, and the minimum toxic dose was 20 and 120 mg/kg, respectively. All the side effects indicated that the digestive tract, the male reproductive tract, the respiratory tract and the hematological systems might be HZ1006 toxic targets in humans. HZ1006 could be a good candidate or a safe succedaneum to other existing HDACIs for the treatment of some solid tumor and hematologic malignancies.

  4. Histone deacetylases and atherosclerosis.

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    Zheng, Xia-xia; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Xin-An; Tong, Xiao-hong; Ding, Jia-wang

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases, a disease of large- and medium-sized arteries that is characterized by a formation of atherosclerotic plaques consisting of necrotic cores, calcified regions, accumulated modified lipids, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells, leukocytes, and foam cells. Recently, the question about how to suppress the occurrence of atherosclerosis and alleviate the progress of cardiovascular disease becomes the hot topic. Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylases(HDACs) play crucial roles in arteriosclerosis. This review summarizes the effect of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors(HDACi) on the progress of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Function of histone deacetylase inhibitors in inflammation

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    Grabiec, Aleksander M.; Tak, Paul P.; Reedquist, Kris A.

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) display multi-faceted roles in coordinating the interaction of intracellular signaling pathways with chromatin remodeling and transcription factor function to finely specify gene alterations and maintenance of gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation,

  6. Histone deacetylases (HDACs and brain function

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    Claude-Henry Volmar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of gene expression is a constant and necessary event for mammalian brain function. An important way of regulating gene expression is through the remodeling of chromatin, the complex of DNA, and histone proteins around which DNA wraps. The “histone code hypothesis” places histone post-translational modifications as a significant part of chromatin remodeling to regulate transcriptional activity. Acetylation of histones by histone acetyl transferases and deacetylation by histone deacetylases (HDACs at lysine residues are the most studied histone post-translational modifications in cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we review the literature regarding the role of HDACs in brain function. Among the roles of HDACs in the brain, studies show that they participate in glial lineage development, learning and memory, neuropsychiatric diseases, and even rare neurologic diseases. Most HDACs can be targeted with small molecules. However, additional brain-penetrant specific inhibitors with high central nervous system exposure are needed to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between individual HDACs and brain-associated diseases.

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer therapy.

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    Lane, Andrew A; Chabner, Bruce A

    2009-11-10

    Epigenetic processes are implicated in cancer causation and progression. The acetylation status of histones regulates access of transcription factors to DNA and influences levels of gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity diminishes acetylation of histones, causing compaction of the DNA/histone complex. This compaction blocks gene transcription and inhibits differentiation, providing a rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors. In this review, we explore the biology of the HDAC enzymes, summarize the pharmacologic properties of HDAC inhibitors, and examine results of selected clinical trials. We consider the potential of these inhibitors in combination therapy with targeted drugs and with cytotoxic chemotherapy. HDAC inhibitors promote growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of tumor cells, with minimal effects on normal tissue. In addition to decompaction of the histone/DNA complex, HDAC inhibition also affects acetylation status and function of nonhistone proteins. HDAC inhibitors have demonstrated antitumor activity in clinical trials, and one drug of this class, vorinostat, is US Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Other inhibitors in advanced stages of clinical development, including depsipeptide and MGCD0103, differ from vorinostat in structure and isoenzyme specificity, and have shown activity against lymphoma, leukemia, and solid tumors. Promising preclinical activity in combination with cytotoxics, inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, and inhibitors of proteasome function have led to combination therapy trials. HDAC inhibitors are an important emerging therapy with single-agent activity against multiple cancers, and have significant potential in combination use.

  8. Histone Deacetylase: Therapeutic Targets in Retinal Degeneration.

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    Daly, Conor; Yin, Jun; Kennedy, Breandán N

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) valproic acid (VPA) present with improved visual fields and delayed vision loss. However, other studies report poor efficacy and safety of HDACi in other cohorts of retinal degeneration patients. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms by which HDACi can improve visual function is unknown, albeit HDACi can attenuate pro-apoptotic stimuli and induce expression of neuroprotective factors. Thus, further analysis of HDACi is warranted in pre-clinical models of retinal degeneration including zebrafish. Analysis of HDAC expression in developing zebrafish reveals diverse temporal expression patterns during development and maturation of visual function.

  9. Histone deacetylases in memory and cognition.

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    Penney, Jay; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2014-12-09

    Over the past 30 years, lysine acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins has become established as a key modulator of gene expression regulating numerous aspects of cell biology. Neuronal growth and plasticity are no exception; roles for lysine acetylation and deacetylation in brain function and dysfunction continue to be uncovered. Transcriptional programs coupling synaptic activity to changes in gene expression are critical to the plasticity mechanisms underlying higher brain functions. These transcriptional programs can be modulated by changes in histone acetylation, and in many cases, transcription factors and histone-modifying enzymes are recruited together to plasticity-associated genes. Lysine acetylation, catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), generally promotes cognitive performance, whereas the opposing process, catalyzed by histone lysine deacetylases (HDACs), appears to negatively regulate cognition in multiple brain regions. Consistently, mutation or deregulation of different KATs or HDACs contributes to neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration. HDAC inhibitors have shown promise as a treatment to combat the cognitive decline associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease, as well as to ameliorate the symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, among others. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the roles of HDACs in cognitive function as well as in neurological disorders and disease. In particular, we focus on HDAC2, which plays a central role in coupling lysine acetylation to synaptic plasticity and mediates many of the effects of HDAC inhibition in cognition and disease. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs

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    Tomas Eckschlager

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC and histone acetyltransferases (HAT. HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  11. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs.

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    Eckschlager, Tomas; Plch, Johana; Stiborova, Marie; Hrabeta, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT). HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  12. Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress Regulated by Histone Deacetylases

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    Ming Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetylation levels are modulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Recent studies indicate that HDACs play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant response to environmental stress. In this review, we discussed the recent advance regarding the plant HDACs and their functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses. The role of HDACs in autophagy was also discussed.

  13. Histone deacetylase 8 in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.

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    Oehme, Ina; Deubzer, Hedwig E; Wegener, Dennis; Pickert, Diana; Linke, Jan-Peter; Hero, Barbara; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Westermann, Frank; Ulrich, Scott M; von Deimling, Andreas; Fischer, Matthias; Witt, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on cancer cells have shown that HDACs are involved in fundamental tumor biological processes such as cell cycle control, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, because of the unselective nature of these compounds, little is known about the contribution of individual HDAC family members to tumorigenesis and progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of individual HDACs in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. We have investigated the mRNA expression of all HDAC1-11 family members in a large cohort of primary neuroblastoma samples covering the full spectrum of the disease. HDACs associated with disease stage and survival were subsequently functionally evaluated in cell culture models. Only HDAC8 expression was significantly correlated with advanced disease and metastasis and down-regulated in stage 4S neuroblastoma associated with spontaneous regression. High HDAC8 expression was associated with poor prognostic markers and poor overall and event-free survival. The knockdown of HDAC8 resulted in the inhibition of proliferation, reduced clonogenic growth, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation in cultured neuroblastoma cells. The treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines as well as short-term-culture neuroblastoma cells with an HDAC8-selective small-molecule inhibitor inhibited cell proliferation and clone formation, induced differentiation, and thus reproduced the HDAC8 knockdown phenotype. Global histone 4 acetylation was not affected by HDAC8 knockdown or by selective inhibitor treatment. Our data point toward an important role of HDAC8 in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and identify this HDAC family member as a specific drug target for the differentiation therapy of neuroblastoma.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors repress chondrosarcoma cell proliferation.

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    Zhu, Jiaxue; Gu, Jianhua; Ma, Jie; Xu, Zhixing; Tao, Hairong

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high resistance to conventional therapy, there is still no convincingly effective treatment for chondrosarcoma. As a promising new treatment strategy, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have been reported to induce cell arrest, apoptosis and differentiation in some kinds of malignancies, but how HDACi exert their effects on chondrosarcoma is not well understood yet. We investigated the effects of HDACIs trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium valproate (VPA) on chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The cell proliferation and cell cycle were examined in two chondrosarcoma cell lines, SW1353 and JJ012, by MTS and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The in vivo effects of HDACIs were investigated by assessing the chondrosarcoma growth in a mouse xenograft model. Our results showed that TSA and VPA significantly repressed the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry indicated that TSA arrested the cell cycle in G2/M phase and VPA arrested the cell cycle in G1 phase. The tumor growth was markedly suppressed in mice treated with TSA and VPA. HDACIs significantly repress the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Our findings imply that HDACIs may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of chondrosarcoma.

  15. The histone acetyltransferase p300 inhibitor C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression and inhibits histone deacetylases

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    van den Bosch, Thea; Boichenko, Alexander; Leus, Niek G J; Ourailidou, Maria Eleni; Wapenaar, Hannah; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Imhof, Axel; Bischoff, Rainer; Haisma, Hidde J; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylations are reversible posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins that play important regulatory roles in signal transduction cascades and gene expression. Lysine acetylations are regulated by histone acetyltransferases as writers and histone deacetylases as

  16. Epigenetic regulation of motivated behaviors by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

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    Elvir, Lindsay; Duclot, Florian; Wang, Zuoxin; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-10-08

    Growing evidence has begun to elucidate the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in the modulation and maintenance of gene expression and behavior. Histone acetylation is one such epigenetic mechanism, which has been shown to profoundly alter gene expression and behaviors. In this review, we begin with an overview of the major epigenetic mechanisms including histones acetylation. We next focus on recent evidence about the influence of environmental stimuli on various motivated behaviors through histone acetylation and highlight how histone deacetylase inhibitors can correct some of the pathologies linked to motivated behaviors including substance abuse, feeding and social attachments. Particularly, we emphasize that the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on motivated behaviors are time and context-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative gene expression profiling of P. falciparum malaria parasites exposed to three different histone deacetylase inhibitors.

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    Katherine T Andrews

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are being intensively pursued as potential new drugs for a range of diseases, including malaria. HDAC inhibitors are also important tools for the study of epigenetic mechanisms, transcriptional control, and other important cellular processes. In this study the effects of three structurally related antimalarial HDAC inhibitors on P. falciparum malaria parasite gene expression were compared. The three hydroxamate-based compounds, trichostatin A (TSA, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat® and a 2-aminosuberic acid derivative (2-ASA-9, all caused profound transcriptional effects, with ~2-21% of genes having >2-fold altered expression following 2 h exposure to the compounds. Only two genes, alpha tubulin II and a hydrolase, were up-regulated by all three compounds after 2 h exposure in all biological replicates examined. The transcriptional changes observed after 2 h exposure to HDAC inhibitors were found to be largely transitory, with only 1-5% of genes being regulated after removing the compounds and culturing for a further 2 h. Despite some structural similarity, the three inhibitors caused quite diverse transcriptional effects, possibly reflecting subtle differences in mode of action or cellular distribution. This dataset represents an important contribution to our understanding of how HDAC inhibitors act on malaria parasites and identifies alpha tubulin II as a potential transcriptional marker of HDAC inhibition in malaria parasites that may be able to be exploited for future development of HDAC inhibitors as new antimalarial agents.

  18. Epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylase: therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease?

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    Harrison, Ian F; Dexter, David T

    2013-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder affecting more than 4million people worldwide. The primary motor symptoms of the disease are due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Dopamine replacement therapies have therefore revolutionised disease management by partially controlling these symptoms. However these drugs can produce debilitating side effects when used long term and do not protect degenerating neurons against death. Recent evidence has highlighted a pathological imbalance in PD between the acetylation and deacetylation of the histone proteins around which deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is coiled, in favour of excessive histone deacetylation. This mechanism of adding/removing acetyl groups to histone lysine residues is one of many epigenetic regulatory processes which control the expression of genes, many of which will be essential for neuronal survival. Hence, such epigenetic modifications may have a pathogenic role in PD. It has therefore been hypothesised that if this pathological imbalance can be corrected with the use of histone deacetylase inhibiting agents then neurodegeneration observed in PD can be ameliorated. This article will review the current literature with regard to epigenetic changes in PD and the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) in PD: examining the evidence of the neuroprotective effects of numerous HDACIs in cellular and animal models of Parkinsonian cell death. Ultimately answering the question: does epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylases hold therapeutic potential in PD? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural and Synthetic Macrocyclic Inhibitors of the Histone Deacetylase Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex; Kristensen, Helle; Leman, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes has emerged as a target for development of cancer chemotherapy. Four compounds have gained approval for clinical use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, and several are currently in clinical trials. However, none of these compounds...

  20. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, on cartilage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A (TCA), on cartilage regeneration in a rabbit perichondrial graft model. Methods: Perichondrial grafts (20 × 20 mm2) were derived from the ears of New Zealand rabbits and transplanted onto the paravertebral muscle of the face of each ...

  1. Innovative Strategies for Selective Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex Ramalak; Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Olsen, Christian Adam

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a family of closely related enzymes involved in epigenetic and posttranscriptional regulation of numerous genes and proteins. Their deregulation is associated with a number of diseases, and a handful of HDAC inhibitors have been approved for cancer treatment. None ...

  2. Structure of Prokaryotic Polyamine Deacetylase Reveals Evolutionary Functional Relationships with Eukaryotic Histone Deacetylases

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    P Lombardi; H Angell; D Whittington; E Flynn; K Rajashankar; D Christianson

    2011-12-31

    Polyamines are a ubiquitous class of polycationic small molecules that can influence gene expression by binding to nucleic acids. Reversible polyamine acetylation regulates nucleic acid binding and is required for normal cell cycle progression and proliferation. Here, we report the structures of Mycoplana ramosa acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase (APAH) complexed with a transition state analogue and a hydroxamate inhibitor and an inactive mutant complexed with two acetylpolyamine substrates. The structure of APAH is the first of a histone deacetylase-like oligomer and reveals that an 18-residue insert in the L2 loop promotes dimerization and the formation of an 18 {angstrom} long 'L'-shaped active site tunnel at the dimer interface, accessible only to narrow and flexible substrates. The importance of dimerization for polyamine deacetylase function leads to the suggestion that a comparable dimeric or double-domain histone deacetylase could catalyze polyamine deacetylation reactions in eukaryotes.

  3. Epigenetic therapy of cancer with histone deacetylase inhibitors

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    K C Lakshmaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics is the study of heritable alterations in gene expression that are not accompanied by the corresponding change in DNA sequence. Three interlinked epigenetic processes regulate gene expression at the level of chromatin, namely DNA methylation, nucleosomal remodeling and histone covalent modifications. Post-translational modifications that occur on certain amino acid residues of the tails of histone proteins modify chromatin structure and form the basis for "histone code". The enzymes Histone Acetyl Transferase (HAT and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC control the level of acetylation of histones and thereby alter gene expression. In many cancers, the balance between HAT and HDAC is altered. HDAC enzymes are grouped into four different classes namely Class I (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC8, Class II (HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC6, HDAC7, HDAC9, and HDAC10, Class III HDAC and Class IV (HDAC11. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACI exert anticancer activity by promoting acetylation of histones as well as by promoting acetylation of non-histone protein substrates. The effects of HDACI on gene transcription are complex. They cause cell cycle arrest, inhibit DNA repair, induce apoptosis and acetylate non histone proteins causing downstream alterations in gene expression. HDACI are a diverse group of compounds, which vary in structure, biological activity, and specificity. In general, HDACIs contain a zinc-binding domain, a capping group, and a straight chain linker connecting the two. They are classified into four classes namely short chain fatty acids, hydroxamic acids, cyclic peptides and synthetic benzamides. This review describes the clinical utility of HDACI as monotherapy as well as combination therapy with other treatment modalities such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Adverse effects and shortcomings of treatment with HDACI are also discussed in detail.

  4. Distinct site specificity of two pea histone deacetylase complexes.

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    Clemente, S; Franco, L; López-Rodas, G

    2001-09-04

    We report on the site specificity of two intact pea histone deacetylase complexes. HD1 deacetylates lysines 5 and 16 of H4 in the order K16 > K5, while in the case of H3 the preferred order is K4 > K18 approximately K9. The specificity of the HD2 complex is markedly different. The preferred residues in H4 are K8 approximately K5 > K16, while in H3 deacetylation, the complex HD2 prefers sites 4 and 18. To obtain these results, we have used a novel procedure based on the SPOT technique, a method to synthesize peptides on membrane supports. Different sets of membranes with sequentially overlapping histone peptides containing acetylated lysines in the sites corresponding to all in vivo acetylatable residues were incubated with the complexes. The acetyl groups removed by the deacetylase activity were then replaced by radioactive acetate by treating the membranes with labeled acetic anhydride. The subsequent counting of the membranes allows the quantification of the acetate removal in the histone deacetylase reaction in a way that circumvents some of the inconveniences of other available procedures.

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induced differentiation and accelerated mineralization of pulp-derived cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, Henry F

    2012-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) alter the homeostatic balance between 2 groups of cellular enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs), increasing transcription and influencing cell behavior. This study investigated the potential of 2 HDACis, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), to promote reparative processes in pulp cells as assayed by viability, cell cycle, and mineralization analyses.

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote the tumoricidal effect of HAMLET.

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    Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Mattias; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Gustafsson, Lotta; Duringer, Caroline; Hamiche, Ali; Svanborg, Catharina

    2007-12-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) and HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interact with histones, modify the structure of chromatin, and trigger tumor cell death. This study investigated how the combination of HDIs and HAMLET influences cell viability, histone acetylation, and DNA integrity. The pretreatment of tumor cells with HDIs was shown to enhance the lethal effect of HAMLET and the histone hyperacetylation response to HDIs increased even further after HAMLET treatment. HDIs and HAMLET were shown to target different histone domains as HAMLET bound tailless core histones, whereas HDIs modify the acetylation of the histone tail. DNA damage in response to HAMLET was increased by HDIs. The DNA repair response (p21WAFI expression) was induced by both agonists but abolished when the two agonists were combined. The results suggest that the synergy of HDIs and HAMLET is based on different but converging death pathways, both involving chromatin alterations. We speculate that HAMLET and HDIs might be combined to promote tumor cell death in vivo.

  7. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Yonggang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs and deacetylases (HDACs are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibition as an alternative strategy against invasive aspergillosis

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    Frederic eLamoth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a life-threatening infection due to Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. Drugs targeting the fungal cell membrane (triazoles, amphotericin B or cell wall (echinocandins are currently the sole therapeutic options against IA. Their limited efficacy and the emergence of resistance warrant the identification of new antifungal targets. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes responsible of the deacetylation of lysine residues of core histones, thus controlling chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. HDACs also control the acetylation and activation status of multiple non-histone proteins, including the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, an essential molecular chaperone for fungal virulence and antifungal resistance. This review provides an overview of the different HDACs in Aspergillus spp. as well as their respective contribution to total HDAC activity, fungal growth, stress responses, and virulence. The potential of HDAC inhibitors, currently under development for cancer therapy, as novel alternative antifungal agents against IA is discussed.

  9. In vitro targeting reveals intrinsic histone tail specificity of the Sin3/histone deacetylase and N-CoR/SMRT corepressor complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Carrozza, MJ; Lasonder, E.; Workman, JL; Logie, C.; Stunnenberg, H.G.

    2004-01-01

    The histone code is among others established via differential acetylation catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). To unambiguously determine the histone tail specificity of HDAC-containing complexes, we have established an in vitro system consisting of

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of lymphoma.

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    Lemoine, Manuela; Younes, Anas

    2010-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. In addition to histones, HDACs can modulate the function of many other proteins involved in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immunity. Deregulated HDACs have been shown to be commonly associated with many types of cancer, and are considered promising targets for cancer therapy. Several HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer agents, but only two such inhibitors -- vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) and romidepsin (depsipeptide) -- have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating relapsed cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Other HDAC inhibitors, such as belinostat (PXD101), mocetinostat (MGCD0103), entinostat (SNDX-275), and panobinostat (LBH589), are currently in clinical development. This review focuses on the use of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of relapsed lymphoma.

  11. Histone deacetylase 2 is required for chromatin condensation and subsequent enucleation of cultured mouse fetal erythroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Yeh, Victor; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Murata-Hori, Maki; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-12-01

    During the final stages of differentiation of mammalian erythroid cells, the chromatin is condensed and enucleated. We previously reported that Rac GTPases and their downstream target, mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous 2 (mDia2), are required for enucleation of in vitro cultured mouse fetal liver erythroblasts. However, it is not clear how chromatin condensation is achieved and whether it is required for enucleation. Mouse fetal liver erythroblasts were purified from embryonic day 14.5 pregnant mice and cultured in erythropoietin-containing medium. Enucleation was determined by flow-cytometry based analysis after treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors or infection with lentiviral short hairpin RNA. We showed that histone deacetylases play critical roles in chromatin condensation and enucleation in cultured mouse fetal liver erythroblasts. Enzymatic inhibition of histone deacetylases by trichostatin A or valproic acid prior to the start of enucleation blocked chromatin condensation, contractile actin ring formation and enucleation. We further demonstrated that histone deacetylases 1, 2, 3 and 5 are highly expressed in mouse fetal erythroblasts. Short hairpin RNA down-regulation of histone deacetylase 2, but not of the other histone deacetylases, phenotypically mimicked the effect of trichostatin A or valproic acid treatment, causing significant inhibition of chromatin condensation and enucleation. Importantly, knock-down of histone deacetylase 2 did not affect erythroblast proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. These results identify histone deacetylase 2 as an important regulator, mediating chromatin condensation and enucleation in the final stages of mammalian erythropoiesis.

  12. Histone deacetylase 10 structure and molecular function as a polyamine deacetylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Yang; Shinsky, Stephen A.; Porter, Nicholas J.; Christianson, David W.

    2017-05-01

    Cationic polyamines such as spermidine and spermine are critical in all forms of life, as they regulate the function of biological macromolecules. Intracellular polyamine metabolism is regulated by reversible acetylation and dysregulated polyamine metabolism is associated with neoplastic diseases such as colon cancer, prostate cancer and neuroblastoma. Here we report that histone deacetylase 10 (HDAC10) is a robust polyamine deacetylase, using recombinant enzymes from Homo sapiens (human) and Danio rerio (zebrafish). The 2.85 Å-resolution crystal structure of zebrafish HDAC10 complexed with a transition-state analogue inhibitor reveals that a glutamate gatekeeper and a sterically constricted active site confer specificity for N8-acetylspermidine hydrolysis and disfavour acetyllysine hydrolysis. Both HDAC10 and spermidine are known to promote cellular survival through autophagy. Accordingly, this work sets a foundation for studying the chemical biology of autophagy through the structure-based design of inhibitors that may also serve as new leads for cancer chemotherapy.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Histone Deacetylases in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linmao eZhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs, respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, ten members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1 and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29, two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development,indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development.

  14. The histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 has both deacetylase and microtubule inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Keeming; Beamish, Heather; Jafferi, Kaneez; Gabrielli, Brian

    2010-09-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are currently in trial or are in clinical use for the treatment of a number of tumor types. The clinical efficacy of HDACis can be partly attributed to the modulation of the cell cycle by the HDACis. Here, we have examined the effects of N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-((4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-ylamino)methyl)benzamide (MGCD0103), a class I-selective histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the cell cycle and cell killing. Surprisingly, MGCD0103 treatment failed to initiate a G(1)-phase arrest but caused marked accumulation of cells in G(2)/M at 6 and 12 h after treatment and was cytotoxic 24 h after treatment. These cell cycle effects were considerably distinct from the effects of suberic bishydroxamic acid, a representative of the pan-isoform HDACi used in this study. MGCD0103 shared the ability of the pan-isoform HDACi to trigger defective mitosis and promote mitotic slippage. Likewise, it also specifically targeted tumor cells and was nontoxic to normal nontransformed cells. However, MGDC0103 also seemed to disrupt normal microtubule spindle formation, whereas HDACis generally have only a minor effect on spindle formation. The effect of MGCD0103 on spindle formation was shown to be a consequence of microtubule destabilization. This is the first example of an HDACi with microtubule destabilizing activity, and the combined effects of this drug have advantages for its therapeutic use.

  15. Hypothalamic leptin action is mediated by histone deacetylase 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabra, Dhiraj G; Pfuhlmann, Katrin; García-Cáceres, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic leptin signalling has a key role in food intake and energy-balance control and is often impaired in obese individuals. Here we identify histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) as a regulator of leptin signalling and organismal energy balance. Global HDAC5 KO mice have increased food intake...... and greater diet-induced obesity when fed high-fat diet. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of HDAC5 activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus increases food intake and modulates pathways implicated in leptin signalling. We show HDAC5 directly regulates STAT3 localization and transcriptional activity via...... reciprocal STAT3 deacetylation at Lys685 and phosphorylation at Tyr705. In vivo, leptin sensitivity is substantially impaired in HDAC5 loss-of-function mice. Hypothalamic HDAC5 overexpression improves leptin action and partially protects against HFD-induced leptin resistance and obesity. Overall, our data...

  16. Inhibition of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin derivatives towards histone deacetylase and molecular docking studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakit Kumboonma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural products, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, were modified at double-bond and phenolic moieties to provide twelve capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin derivatives. The natural products and synthesized compounds were evaluated as histone deacetylase inhibitors via in vitro fluorometric assay at 500 mM concentrations. The results revealed that a methyl ester derivative and a silyl-protected dihydrocapsaicin were the best histone deacetylase inhibitors among the tested compounds with 87% and 85% inhibitions, respectively. Molecular docking experiments were conducted on the obtained compounds with the human HDAC8 enzyme. These data show a new method for providing putative histone deacetylase inhibitors from common natural products.

  17. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC 3) as emerging drug target in NF-kappa B-mediated inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leus, Niek G. J.; Zwinderman, Martijn R. H.; Dekker, Frank J.

    Activation of inflammatory gene expression is regulated, among other factors, by post-translational modifications of histone proteins. The most investigated type of histone modifications is lysine acetylations. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetylations from lysines, thereby influencing

  18. Macrocyclic Peptoid–Peptide Hybrids as Inhibitors of Class I Histone Deacetylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Montero, Ana; Leman, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of the first macrocyclic peptoid-containing histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. The compounds selectively inhibit human class I HDAC isoforms in vitro, with no inhibition of the tubulin deacetylase activity associated with class IIb HDAC...

  19. Post-translational Modifications Regulate Class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Function in Health and Disease*

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias, Rommel A.; Amanda J Guise; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2015-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs4, -5, -7, and -9) modulate the physiology of the human cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous, and immune systems. The regulatory capacity of this family of enzymes stems from their ability to shuttle between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in response to signal-driven post-translational modification. Here, we review the current knowledge of modifications that control spatial and temporal histone deacetylase functions by regulating subcellular loca...

  20. Developing selective histone deacetylases (HDACs inhibitors through ebselen and analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yuren Wang,1 Jason Wallach,2 Stephanie Duane,1 Yuan Wang,1 Jianghong Wu,1 Jeffrey Wang,1 Adeboye Adejare,2 Haiching Ma1 1Reaction Biology Corp., Malvern, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, University of the Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Histone deacetylases (HDACs are key regulators of gene expression in cells and have been investigated as important therapeutic targets for cancer and other diseases. Different subtypes of HDACs appear to play disparate roles in the cells and are associated with specific diseases. Therefore, substantial effort has been made to develop subtype-selective HDAC inhibitors. In an effort to discover existing scaffolds with HDAC inhibitory activity, we screened a drug library approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and a National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection compound library in HDAC enzymatic assays. Ebselen, a clinical safe compound, was identified as a weak inhibitor of several HDACs, including HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC6, HDAC7, HDAC8, and HDAC9 with half maximal inhibitory concentrations approximately single digit of µM. Two ebselen analogs, ebselen oxide and ebsulfur (a diselenide analog of ebselen, also inhibited these HDACs, however with improved potencies on HDAC8. Benzisothiazol, the core structure of ebsulfur, specifically inhibited HDAC6 at a single digit of µM but had no inhibition on other HDACs. Further efforts on structure–activity relationship based on the core structure of ebsulfur led to the discovery of a novel class of potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitors with RBC-2008 as the lead compound with single-digit nM potency. This class of histone deacetylase inhibitor features a novel pharmacophore with an ebsulfur scaffold selectively targeting HDAC6. Consistent with its inhibition on HDAC6, RBC-2008 significantly increased the acetylation levels of α-tubulin in PC-3 cells. Furthermore, treatment with these compounds led to

  1. Histone deacetylase as a new target for cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Furumai, R; Nishiyama, M; Komatsu, Y; Nishino, N; Horinouchi, S

    2001-08-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) and trapoxin (TPX), inhibitors of the eukaryotic cell cycle and inducers of morphological reversion of transformed cells, inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) at nanomolar concentrations. Recently, FK228 (also known as FR901228 and depsipeptide) and MS-275. antitumor agents structurally unrelated to TSA, have been shown to be potent HDAC inhibitors. These inhibitors activate the expression of p21Waf1 in a p53-independent manner. Changes in the expression of regulators of the cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis with increased histone acetylation may be responsible for the cell cycle arrest and antitumor activity of HDAC inhibitors. TSA has been suggested to block the catalytic reaction by chelating a zinc ion in the active site pocket through its hydroxamic acid group. On the other hand, an epoxyketone has been suggested to be the functional group of TPX capable of alkylating the enzyme. We synthesized a novel TPX analogue containing a hydroxamic acid instead of the epoxyketone. The hybrid compound, called cyclic hydroxamic-acid-containing peptide 1 (CHAP1) inhibited HDAC at low nanomolar concentrations. The HDAC1 inhibition by CHAPI was reversible, as is that by TSA, in contrast to irreversible inhibition by TPX. Interestingly, HDAC6, but not HDAC1 or HDAC4, was resistant to TPX and CHAP1, while TSA inhibited these HDACs to a similar degree. CHAP31, the strongest HDAC inhibitor obtained from a variety of CHAP derivatives, exhibited antitumor activity in BDF1 mice bearing B16/BL6 tumor cells. These results suggest that CHAP31 is promising as a novel therapeutic agent for cancer treatment, and that CHAP may serve as a basis for new HDAC inhibitors and be useful for combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening.

  2. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by valproic acid blocks adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace, Diane C; Nachtigal, Mark W

    2004-04-30

    Adipogenesis is dependent on the sequential activation of transcription factors including the CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), and steroid regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). We show that the mood stabilizing drug valproic acid (VPA; 0.5-2 mm) inhibits mouse 3T3 L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation, likely through its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory properties. The HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) also inhibited adipogenesis, whereas the VPA analog valpromide, which does not possess HDAC inhibitory effects, did not prevent adipogenesis. Acute or chronic VPA treatment inhibited differentiation yet did not affect mitotic clonal expansion. VPA (1 mm) inhibited PPARgamma induced differentiation but does not activate a PPARgamma reporter gene, suggesting that it is not a PPARgamma ligand. VPA or TSA treatment reduced mRNA and protein levels of PPARgamma and SREBP1a. TSA reduced C/EBPalpha mRNA and protein levels, whereas VPA only produced a decrease in C/EBPalpha protein expression. Overall our results highlight a role for HDAC activity in adipogenesis that can be blocked by treatment with VPA.

  3. Histone deacetylase 3 promotes RCAN1 stability and nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Ah; Kang, Hye Seon; Lee, Jee Won; Yoo, Lang; Im, Eunju; Hong, Ahyoung; Lee, Yun Ju; Shin, Woo Hyun; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1; also referred as DSCR1 or MCIP1) is located in close proximity to a Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21. Although RCAN1 is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling that controls lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, heart development, skeletal muscle differentiation, and cardiac function, it is not yet clear whether RCAN1 might be involved in other cellular activities. In this study, we explored the extra-functional roles of RCAN1 by searching for novel RCAN1-binding partners. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that RCAN1 (RCAN1-1S) interacts with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in mammalian cells. We also demonstrate that HDAC3 deacetylates RCAN1. In addition, HDAC3 increases RCAN1 protein stability by inhibiting its poly-ubiquitination. Furthermore, HDAC3 promotes RCAN1 nuclear translocation. These data suggest that HDAC3, a new binding regulator of RCAN1, affects the protein stability and intracellular localization of RCAN1.

  4. Histone deacetylase 3 promotes RCAN1 stability and nuclear translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ah Han

    Full Text Available Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1; also referred as DSCR1 or MCIP1 is located in close proximity to a Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21. Although RCAN1 is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling that controls lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, heart development, skeletal muscle differentiation, and cardiac function, it is not yet clear whether RCAN1 might be involved in other cellular activities. In this study, we explored the extra-functional roles of RCAN1 by searching for novel RCAN1-binding partners. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that RCAN1 (RCAN1-1S interacts with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 in mammalian cells. We also demonstrate that HDAC3 deacetylates RCAN1. In addition, HDAC3 increases RCAN1 protein stability by inhibiting its poly-ubiquitination. Furthermore, HDAC3 promotes RCAN1 nuclear translocation. These data suggest that HDAC3, a new binding regulator of RCAN1, affects the protein stability and intracellular localization of RCAN1.

  5. Autophagy induction by histone deacetylase inhibitors inhibits HIV type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Grant R; Bruckman, Rachel S; Chu, Yen-Lin; Spector, Stephen A

    2015-02-20

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being evaluated in a "shock-and-kill" therapeutic approach to reverse human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) latency from CD4(+) T cells. Using this approach, HDACi have induced HIV RNA synthesis in latently infected cells from some patients. The hope is that the increase in viral production will lead to killing of the infected cell either by the virus itself or by the patient's immune system, a "sterilizing cure." Although administered within the context of combination antiretroviral therapy, the infection of bystander cells remains a concern. In this study, we investigated the effect of HDACi (belinostat, givinostat, panobinostat, romidepsin, and vorinostat) on the productive infection of macrophages. We demonstrate that the HDACi tested do not alter the initial susceptibility of macrophages to HIV infection. However, we demonstrate that HDACi decrease HIV release from macrophages in a dose-dependent manner (belinostat the canonical autophagy pathway. This mechanism involves unc-51-like autophagy-activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin and requires the formation of autophagosomes and their maturation into autolysosomes in the absence of increased cell death. These data provide further evidence in support of a role for autophagy in the control of HIV infection and suggest that careful consideration of off-target effects will be essential if HDACi are to be a component of a multipronged approach to eliminate latently infected cells. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Desjardins

    Full Text Available In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE. Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, increased histone deacetylase (HDAC activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA, suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro and fluid transport (in vivo. Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina.

  7. Light-Controlled Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors: Towards Photopharmacological Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Wiktor; Ourailidou, Maria E; Velema, Willem A; Dekker, Frank J; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-09

    Cancer treatment suffers from limitations that have a major impact on the patient's quality of life and survival. In the case of chemotherapy, the systemic distribution of cytotoxic drugs reduces their efficacy and causes severe side effects due to nonselective toxicity. Photopharmacology allows a novel approach to address these problems because it employs external, local activation of chemotherapeutic agents by using light. The development of photoswitchable histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as potential antitumor agents is reported herein. Analogues of the clinically used chemotherapeutic agents vorinostat, panobinostat, and belinostat were designed with a photoswitchable azobenzene moiety incorporated into their structure. The most promising compound exhibits high inhibitory potency in the thermodynamically less stable cis form and a significantly lower activity for the trans form, both in terms of HDAC activity and proliferation of HeLa cells. This approach offers a clear prospect towards local photoactivation of HDAC inhibition to avoid severe side effects in chemotherapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Radiosensitization by histone deacetylase inhibition in an osteosarcoma mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattmann, C. [Olgahospital, Stuttgart (Germany). Paediatrie 5; University Children' s Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology; Thiemann, M. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy, Molecular- and Translational Radiation Oncology; Stenzinger, A. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Pathology; and others

    2013-11-15

    Background: Osteosarcomas (OS) are highly malignant and radioresistant tumors. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) constitute a novel class of anticancer agents. We sought to investigate the effect of combined treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and radiotherapy in OS in vivo. Methods: Clonogenic survival of human OS cell lines as well as tumor growth delay of OS xenografts were tested after treatment with either vehicle, radiotherapy (XRT), SAHA, or XRT and SAHA. Tumor proliferation, necrosis, microvascular density, apoptosis, and p53/p21 were monitored by immunohistochemistry. The CD95 pathway was performed by flow cytometry, caspase (3/7/8) activity measurements, and functional inhibition of CD95 death signaling. Results: Combined treatment with SAHA and XRT markedly reduced the surviving fraction of OS cells as compared to XRT alone. Likewise, dual therapy significantly inhibited OS tumor growth in vivo as compared to XRT alone, reflected by reduced tumor proliferation, impaired angiogenesis, and increased apoptosis. Addition of HDACi to XRT led to elevated p53, p21, CD95, and CD95L expression. Inhibition of CD95 signaling reduced HDACi- and XRT-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Our data show that HDACi increases the radiosensitivity of osteosarcoma cells at least in part via ligand-induced apoptosis. HDACi thus emerge as potentially useful treatment components of OS. (orig.)

  9. Neuroprotective Functions for the Histone Deacetylase SIRT6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Kaluski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The histone deacetylase SIRT6 promotes DNA repair, but its activity declines with age with a concomitant accumulation of DNA damage. Furthermore, SIRT6 knockout mice exhibit an accelerated aging phenotype and die prematurely. Here, we report that brain-specific SIRT6-deficient mice survive but present behavioral defects with major learning impairments by 4 months of age. Moreover, the brains of these mice show increased signs of DNA damage, cell death, and hyperphosphorylated Tau—a critical mark in several neurodegenerative diseases. Mechanistically, SIRT6 regulates Tau protein stability and phosphorylation through increased activation of the kinase GSK3α/β. Finally, SIRT6 mRNA and protein levels are reduced in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Taken together, our results suggest that SIRT6 is critical to maintain genomic stability in the brain and that its loss leads to toxic Tau stability and phosphorylation. Therefore, SIRT6 and its downstream signaling could be targeted in Alzheimer’s disease and age-related neurodegeneration.

  10. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  11. A Role for Histone Deacetylases in the Cellular and Behavioral Mechanisms Underlying Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Melissa; Monteggia, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of chromatin remodeling enzymes that restrict access of transcription factors to the DNA, thereby repressing gene expression. In contrast, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) relax the chromatin structure allowing for an active chromatin state and promoting gene transcription. Accumulating data have…

  12. Lysine acetylome profiling uncovers novel histone deacetylase substrate proteins in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Markus; Füßl, Magdalena; Boersema, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    91 new acetylated candidate proteins other than histones, which are potential substrates of the RPD3/HDA1-like histone deacetylases in Arabidopsis, of which at least 30 of these proteins function in nucleic acid binding. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that histone deacetylase 14 (HDA14......) is the first organellar-localized RPD3/HDA1 class protein found to reside in the chloroplasts and that the majority of its protein targets have functions in photosynthesis. Finally, the analysis of HDA14 loss-of-function mutants revealed that the activation state of RuBisCO is controlled by lysine acetylation...

  13. NOVEL HYDROXAMIC ACIDS HAVING HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITING ACTIVITY AND ANTI-CANCER COMPOSITION COMPRISING THE SAME AS AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for anticancer including novel hydroxamic acid with histone deacetylase inhibiting activity as an active ingredient. Hydroxamic acid compound of the present invention has inhibitory activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and shows cyto...... cytotoxicity to a variety of cancer cells, being useful in strong anti-cancer drug.......The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for anticancer including novel hydroxamic acid with histone deacetylase inhibiting activity as an active ingredient. Hydroxamic acid compound of the present invention has inhibitory activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and shows...

  14. Activation and inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 by monovalent cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Stephanie L; Joseph, Caleb G; Fierke, Carol A

    2010-02-26

    The metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze hydrolysis of acetyl groups from acetyllysine side chains and are targets of cancer therapeutics. Two bound monovalent cations (MVCs) of unknown function have been previously observed in crystal structures of HDAC8; site 1 is near the active site, whereas site 2 is located > 20 A from the catalytic metal ion. Here we demonstrate that one bound MVC activates catalytic activity (K(1/2) = 3.4 mM for K(+)), whereas the second, weaker-binding MVC (K(1/2) = 26 mM for K(+)) decreases catalytic activity by 11-fold. The weaker binding MVC also enhances the affinity of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid by 5-fold. The site 1 MVC is coordinated by the side chain of Asp-176 that also forms a hydrogen bond with His-142, one of two histidines important for catalytic activity. The D176A and H142A mutants each increase the K(1/2) for potassium inhibition by > or = 40-fold, demonstrating that the inhibitory cation binds to site 1. Furthermore, the MVC inhibition is mediated by His-142, suggesting that this residue is protonated for maximal HDAC8 activity. Therefore, His-142 functions either as an electrostatic catalyst or a general acid. The activating MVC binds in the distal site and causes a time-dependent increase in activity, suggesting that the site 2 MVC stabilizes an active conformation of the enzyme. Sodium binds more weakly to both sites and activates HDAC8 to a lesser extent than potassium. Therefore, it is likely that potassium is the predominant MVC bound to HDAC8 in vivo.

  15. Role of histone deacetylase activity in the developing lateral line neuromast of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingzi; Mei, Honglin; Yu, Huiqian; Sun, Shan; Ni, Wenli; Li, Huawei

    2014-05-09

    Histone deacetylases are involved in many biological processes and have roles in regulating cell behaviors such as cell cycle entry, cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the effect of histone deacetylases on the development of hair cells (HCs) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the influence of histone deacetylases on the early development of neuromasts in the lateral line of zebrafish. Hair cell development was evaluated by fluorescent immunostaining in the absence or presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors. Our results suggested that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases with inhibitors, including trichostatin A, valproic acid and MS-275, reduced the numbers of both HCs and supporting cells in neuromasts. We also found that the treatment of zebrafish larvae with inhibitors caused accumulation of histone acetylation and suppressed proliferation of neuromast cells. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of both p21 and p27 mRNA was increased following trichostatin A treatment and the increase in p53 mRNA was modest under the same conditions. However, the expression of p53 mRNA was significantly increased by treatment with a high concentration of trichostatin A. A high concentration of trichostatin A also led to increased cell death in neuromasts as detected in a TUNEL assay. Moreover, the nuclei of most of these pyknotic cells were immunohistochemically positive for cleaved caspase-3. These results suggest that histone deacetylase activity is involved in lateral line development in the zebrafish and might have a role in neuromast formation by altering cell proliferation through the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins.

  16. NOVEL HYDROXAMIC ACIDS HAVING HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITING ACTIVITY AND ANTI-CANCER COMPOSITION COMPRISING THE SAME AS AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for anticancer including novel hydroxamic acid with histone deacetylase inhibiting activity as an active ingredient. Hydroxamic acid compound of the present invention has inhibitory activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and shows...... cytotoxicity to a variety of cancer cells, being useful in strong anti-cancer drug....

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 synergizes with gemcitabine in human pancreatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Victoria; Richard, Normand; Brady, Helen; Maier, Armin; Kelter, Gerhard; Heise, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a group of recently developed compounds that modulate cell growth and survival. We evaluated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 on growth of pancreatic carcinoma models following single agent treatment and in combination with gemcitabine. MGCD0103 inhibited tumor cell growth and acted synergistically with gemcitabine to enhance its cytotoxic effects. Gene expression analysis identified the cell cycle pathway as one of the most highly modulated gene groups. Our data suggest that MGCD0103 + gemcitabine might be an effective treatment for gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. Conformationally rigid histone deacetylase inhibitors correct DF508-CFTR protein function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickers, Chris J.; Olsen, Christian Adam; Hutt, Darren M.

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have shown partial efficacy toward correcting cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein function in ΔF508- CFTR models. While current treatment options for CF generally concentrate on disease symptoms such as management of inflammation...

  19. The Effect of Various Zinc Binding Groups on Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 1–11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Kristensen, Helle M. E.; Lanz, Gyrithe

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have the ability to cleave the acetyl groups of ε‐N‐acetylated lysine residues in a variety of proteins. Given that human cells contain thousands of different acetylated lysine residues, HDACS may regulate a wide variety of processes including some implicated...

  20. Histone deacetylase 3 regulates the inflammatory gene expression programme of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angiolilli, Chiara; Kabala, Pawel A.; Grabiec, Aleksander M.; van Baarsen, Iris M.; Ferguson, Bradley S.; García, Samuel; Malvar Fernandez, Beatriz; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Tak, Paul P.; Fossati, Gianluca; Mascagni, Paolo; Baeten, Dominique L.; Reedquist, Kris A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in both in vitro and in vivo models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we investigated the potential contribution of specific class I and class IIb HDACs to inflammatory gene expression in RA

  1. The histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat lowers biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and inflammation in HIV patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjaer, A.S. Hogh Kolbaek; Brinkmann, C.R.; Dinarello, C.A.; Olesen, R.; Ostergaard, L.; Sogaard, O.S.; Tolstrup, M.; Rasmussen, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat on HIV-associated inflammation. DESIGN: Sub-study of a single-arm, phase I/II clinical trial. METHODS: HIV-infected adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy received oral panobinostat 20 mg three times per

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors for treating a spectrum of diseases not related to cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinarello, C.A.; Fossati, G.; Mascagni, P.

    2011-01-01

    This issue of Molecular Medicine contains 14 original research reports and state-of-the-art reviews on histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's), which are being studied in models of a broad range of diseases not related to the proapoptotic properties used to treat cancer. The spectrum of these

  3. Class IIa histone deacetylases are hormone-activated regulators of FOXO and mammalian glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihaylova, Maria M; Vasquez, Debbie S; Ravnskjær, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are signal-dependent modulators of transcription with established roles in muscle differentiation and neuronal survival. We show here that in liver, class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, and 7) are phosphorylated and excluded from the nucleus by AMPK family kinases. In...

  4. Prostate Cancer Prevention by Sulforaphane, a Novel Dietary Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    prostate cancer, Histone deacetylases 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...via epigenetic modulation of HDACs. Other dietary agents such as butyrate, biotin, lipoic acid, garlic organosulfur compounds, and metabolites of

  5. Post-training intrahippocampal inhibition of class I histone deacetylases enhances long-term object-location memory

    OpenAIRE

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cédrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance long-term memory have focused on the fear-conditioning task using broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitors. We have found that post-training intrahippocampal a...

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Globally Enhance H3/H4 Tail Acetylation Without Affecting H3 Lysine 56 Acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Drogaris, Paul; Villeneuve, Val?rie; Pomi?s, Christelle; Lee, Eun-Hye; Bourdeau, V?ronique; Bonneil, ?ric; Ferbeyre, Gerardo; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) represent a promising avenue for cancer therapy. We applied mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the impact of clinically relevant HDACi on global levels of histone acetylation. Intact histone profiling revealed that the HDACi SAHA and MS-275 globally increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation in both normal diploid fibroblasts and transformed human cells. Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) recently elicited much interest and controversy due to its p...

  7. Quantitative analysis of histone modifications: formaldehyde is a source of pathological n(6-formyllysine that is refractory to histone deacetylases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Edrissi

    Full Text Available Aberrant protein modifications play an important role in the pathophysiology of many human diseases, in terms of both dysfunction of physiological modifications and the formation of pathological modifications by reaction of proteins with endogenous electrophiles. Recent studies have identified a chemical homolog of lysine acetylation, N(6-formyllysine, as an abundant modification of histone and chromatin proteins, one possible source of which is the reaction of lysine with 3'-formylphosphate residues from DNA oxidation. Using a new liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify all N(6-methyl-, -acetyl- and -formyl-lysine modifications, we now report that endogenous formaldehyde is a major source of N(6-formyllysine and that this adduct is widespread among cellular proteins in all compartments. N(6-formyllysine was evenly distributed among different classes of histone proteins from human TK6 cells at 1-4 modifications per 10(4 lysines, which contrasted strongly with lysine acetylation and mono-, di-, and tri-methylation levels of 1.5-380, 5-870, 0-1400, and 0-390 per 10(4 lysines, respectively. While isotope labeling studies revealed that lysine demethylation is not a source of N(6-formyllysine in histones, formaldehyde exposure was observed to cause a dose-dependent increase in N(6-formyllysine, with use of [(13C,(2H2]-formaldehyde revealing unchanged levels of adducts derived from endogenous sources. Inhibitors of class I and class II histone deacetylases did not affect the levels of N(6-formyllysine in TK6 cells, and the class III histone deacetylase, SIRT1, had minimal activity (<10% with a peptide substrate containing the formyl adduct. These data suggest that N(6-formyllysine is refractory to removal by histone deacetylases, which supports the idea that this abundant protein modification could interfere with normal regulation of gene expression if it arises at conserved sites of physiological protein secondary

  8. A truncating mutation of HDAC2 in human cancers confers resistance to histone deacetylase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropero, S; Fraga, MF; Ballestar, E

    2006-01-01

    Disruption of histone acetylation patterns is a common feature of cancer cells, but very little is known about its genetic basis. We have identified truncating mutations in one of the primary human histone deacetylases, HDAC2, in sporadic carcinomas with microsatellite instability and in tumors...... arising in individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. The presence of the HDAC2 frameshift mutation causes a loss of HDAC2 protein expression and enzymatic activity and renders these cells more resistant to the usual antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of histone...

  9. Aberrant expression of histone deacetylases 4 in cognitive disorders: molecular mechanisms and a potential target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation is a major mechanism of chromatin remodeling, contributing to epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are involved in both physiological and pathological conditions by regulating the status of histone acetylation. Although histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4, a member of the HDAC family, may lack histone deacetylase activity, it is actively involved in regulating the transcription of genes involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival and neurodevelopment by interacting with transcription factors, signal transduction molecules and HDAC3, another member of the HDAC family. HDAC4 is highly expressed in brain and its homeostasis is crucial for the maintenance of cognitive function. Accumulated evidence shows that HDAC4 expression is dysregulated in several brain disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and mental disorders. Moreover, cognitive impairment is a characteristic feature of these diseases. It indicates that aberrant HDAC4 expression plays a pivotal role in cognitive impairment of these disorders. This review aims to describe the current understanding of HDAC4’s role in the maintenance of cognitive function and its dysregulation in neurodegenerative diseases and mental disorders, discuss underlying molecular mechanisms, and provide an outlook into targeting HDAC4 as a potential therapeutic approach to rescue cognitive impairment in these diseases.

  10. Groucho-mediated repression may result from a histone deacetylase-dependent increase in nucleosome density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint J Winkler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Groucho (Gro is a Drosophila melanogaster transcriptional corepressor that directly interacts with the histone deacetylase Rpd3. Although previous studies suggest that this interaction is required for repression of Gro-responsive reporters in cultured cells, the in vivo significance of this interaction and the mechanism by which it leads to repression remain largely unexplored. In this study, we show that Gro is partially dependent on Rpd3 for repression, supporting the idea that Rpd3-mediated repression is one mode of Gro-mediated repression. We demonstrate that Gro colocalizes with Rpd3 to the chromatin of a target gene and that this is accompanied by the deacetylation of specific lysines within the N-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4. Gro overexpression leads to wing patterning defects and ectopic repression in the wing disc of transcription directed by the vestigial quadrant enhancer. These effects are reversed by the histone deacetylase inhibitors TSA and HC-Toxin and by the reduction of Rpd3 gene dosage. Furthermore, repression of the vestigial quadrant enhancer is accompanied by a Gro-mediated increase in nucleosome density, an effect that is reversed by histone deacetylase inhibitors. We propose a model in which Gro-mediated histone deacetylation results in increased nucleosome density leading to transcriptional repression.

  11. Groucho-mediated repression may result from a histone deacetylase-dependent increase in nucleosome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Clint J; Ponce, Alberto; Courey, Albert J

    2010-04-13

    Groucho (Gro) is a Drosophila melanogaster transcriptional corepressor that directly interacts with the histone deacetylase Rpd3. Although previous studies suggest that this interaction is required for repression of Gro-responsive reporters in cultured cells, the in vivo significance of this interaction and the mechanism by which it leads to repression remain largely unexplored. In this study, we show that Gro is partially dependent on Rpd3 for repression, supporting the idea that Rpd3-mediated repression is one mode of Gro-mediated repression. We demonstrate that Gro colocalizes with Rpd3 to the chromatin of a target gene and that this is accompanied by the deacetylation of specific lysines within the N-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4. Gro overexpression leads to wing patterning defects and ectopic repression in the wing disc of transcription directed by the vestigial quadrant enhancer. These effects are reversed by the histone deacetylase inhibitors TSA and HC-Toxin and by the reduction of Rpd3 gene dosage. Furthermore, repression of the vestigial quadrant enhancer is accompanied by a Gro-mediated increase in nucleosome density, an effect that is reversed by histone deacetylase inhibitors. We propose a model in which Gro-mediated histone deacetylation results in increased nucleosome density leading to transcriptional repression.

  12. MAPK-triggered chromatin reprogramming by histone deacetylase in plant innate immunity

    KAUST Repository

    Latrasse, David

    2017-07-06

    Microbial-associated molecular patterns activate several MAP kinases, which are major regulators of the innate immune response in Arabidopsis thaliana that induce large-scale changes in gene expression. Here, we determine whether microbial-associated molecular pattern-triggered gene expression involves modifications at the chromatin level.Histone acetylation and deacetylation are major regulators of microbial-associated molecular pattern-triggered gene expression and implicate the histone deacetylase HD2B in the reprogramming of defence gene expression and innate immunity. The MAP kinase MPK3 directly interacts with and phosphorylates HD2B, thereby regulating the intra-nuclear compartmentalization and function of the histone deacetylase.By studying a number of gene loci that undergo microbial-associated molecular pattern-dependent activation or repression, our data reveal a mechanistic model for how protein kinase signaling directly impacts chromatin reprogramming in plant defense.

  13. Hypoacetylation, hypomethylation, and dephosphorylation of H2B histones and excessive histone deacetylase activity in DU-145 prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Shundong; Xu, Xiaobin; Ma, Yuehua; Liu, Delong; Chiao, J W

    2016-01-12

    Hypoacetylation on histone H3 of human prostate cancer cells has been described. Little is known about the modifications of other histones from prostate cancer cells. Histones were isolated from the prostate cancer cell line DU-145 and the non-malignant prostatic cell line RC170N/h. Post-translational modifications of histone H2B were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. The histone H2B of the prostate cancer cell line DU-145 was found to have hypoacetylation, hypomethylation, and dephosphorylation as compared to the non-malignant prostatic cell line RC170N/h. H2B regained acetylation on multiple lysine residues, phosphorylation on Thr19, and methylation on Lys23 and Lys43 in the DU-145 cells after sodium butyrate treatment. The histone H2B of DU-145 prostate cancer cells are hypoacetylated, hypomethylated, and dephosphorylated. Histone deacetylase inhibitor reversed this phenotype. Epigenetic agent may therefore be useful for prostate cancer therapy and worth further investigation.

  14. Hypoacetylation, hypomethylation, and dephosphorylation of H2B histones and excessive histone deacetylase activity in DU-145 prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shundong Cang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoacetylation on histone H3 of human prostate cancer cells has been described. Little is known about the modifications of other histones from prostate cancer cells. Methods Histones were isolated from the prostate cancer cell line DU-145 and the non-malignant prostatic cell line RC170N/h. Post-translational modifications of histone H2B were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results The histone H2B of the prostate cancer cell line DU-145 was found to have hypoacetylation, hypomethylation, and dephosphorylation as compared to the non-malignant prostatic cell line RC170N/h. H2B regained acetylation on multiple lysine residues, phosphorylation on Thr19, and methylation on Lys23 and Lys43 in the DU-145 cells after sodium butyrate treatment. Conclusions The histone H2B of DU-145 prostate cancer cells are hypoacetylated, hypomethylated, and dephosphorylated. Histone deacetylase inhibitor reversed this phenotype. Epigenetic agent may therefore be useful for prostate cancer therapy and worth further investigation.

  15. Lysine acetylome profiling uncovers novel histone deacetylase substrate proteins in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Markus; Füßl, Magdalena; Boersema, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    the proteome-wide signatures of the RPD3/HDA1 class of histone deacetylases in Arabidopsis Relative quantification of the changes in the lysine acetylation levels was determined on a proteome-wide scale after treatment of Arabidopsis leaves with deacetylase inhibitors apicidin and trichostatin A. We identified......) is the first organellar-localized RPD3/HDA1 class protein found to reside in the chloroplasts and that the majority of its protein targets have functions in photosynthesis. Finally, the analysis of HDA14 loss-of-function mutants revealed that the activation state of RuBisCO is controlled by lysine acetylation...

  16. Methyl Effect in Azumamides Provides Insight Into Histone Deacetylase Inhibition by Macrocycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex; Villadsen, Jesper; Christensen, Niels Johan

    2014-01-01

    Natural, nonribosomal cyclotetrapeptides have traditionally been a rich source of inspiration for design of potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. We recently disclosed the total synthesis and full HDAC pro fi ling of the naturally occurring azumamides ( J. Med. Chem. 2013 , 56 , 6512...... with molecular modeling, we pinpoint crucial enzyme − ligand interactions required for potent inhibition of HDAC3. Docking of additional natural products con fi rmed these features to be generally important. Combined with the structural conservation across HDACs 1 − 3, this suggests that while cyclotetrapeptides...... have provided potent and class-selective HDAC inhibitors, it will be challenging to distinguish between the three major class I deacetylases using these chemotypes....

  17. Deacetylase activity of histone deacetylase 3 is required for productiveVDJrecombination and B-cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Kristy R; Barnett, Kelly R; Wang, Jing; Liu, Qi; Hodges, Emily; Hiebert, Scott W; Bhaskara, Srividya

    2017-08-08

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is the catalytic component of NCoR/SMRT corepressor complexes that mediate the actions of transcription factors implicated in the regulation of B-cell development and function. We crossed Hdac3 conditional knockout mice with Mb1-Cre knockin animals to delete Hdac3 in early progenitor B cells. The spleens of Hdac3 F/- Mb1-Cre +/- mice were virtually devoid of mature B cells, and B220 + CD43 + B-cell progenitors accumulated within the bone marrow. Quantitative deep sequencing of the Ig heavy chain locus from B220 + CD43 + populations identified a defect in V H DJ H recombination with a severe reduction in productive rearrangements, which directly corresponded to the loss of pre-B cells from Hdac3 Δ /- bone marrow. For Hdac3 Δ /- B cells that did show productive VDJ rearrangement, there was significant skewing toward the incorporation of proximal V H gene segments and a corresponding reduction in distal V H gene segment use. Although transcriptional effects within these loci were modest, Hdac3 Δ /- progenitor cells displayed global changes in chromatin structure that likely hindered effective distal V-DJ recombination. Reintroduction of wild-type Hdac3 restored normal B-cell development, whereas an Hdac3 point mutant lacking deacetylase activity failed to complement this defect. Thus, the deacetylase activity of Hdac3 is required for the generation of mature B cells.

  18. Deacetylase activity of histone deacetylase 3 is required for productive VDJ recombination and B-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Kristy R.; Barnett, Kelly R.; Wang, Jing; Liu, Qi; Hodges, Emily; Hiebert, Scott W.; Bhaskara, Srividya

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is the catalytic component of NCoR/SMRT corepressor complexes that mediate the actions of transcription factors implicated in the regulation of B-cell development and function. We crossed Hdac3 conditional knockout mice with Mb1-Cre knockin animals to delete Hdac3 in early progenitor B cells. The spleens of Hdac3F/−Mb1-Cre+/− mice were virtually devoid of mature B cells, and B220+CD43+ B-cell progenitors accumulated within the bone marrow. Quantitative deep sequencing of the Ig heavy chain locus from B220+CD43+ populations identified a defect in VHDJH recombination with a severe reduction in productive rearrangements, which directly corresponded to the loss of pre-B cells from Hdac3Δ/− bone marrow. For Hdac3Δ/− B cells that did show productive VDJ rearrangement, there was significant skewing toward the incorporation of proximal VH gene segments and a corresponding reduction in distal VH gene segment use. Although transcriptional effects within these loci were modest, Hdac3Δ/− progenitor cells displayed global changes in chromatin structure that likely hindered effective distal V-DJ recombination. Reintroduction of wild-type Hdac3 restored normal B-cell development, whereas an Hdac3 point mutant lacking deacetylase activity failed to complement this defect. Thus, the deacetylase activity of Hdac3 is required for the generation of mature B cells. PMID:28739911

  19. An epigenetic approach to pancreatic cancer treatment: the prospective role of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinari, Nicola; De Tursi, Michele; Grassadonia, Antonino; Zilli, Marinella; Stuppia, Liborio; Iacobelli, Stefano; Natoli, Clara

    2012-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is quite resistant to conventional treatments, and gemcitabine, the standard chemotherapeutic agent, offers only a small benefit. Development and progression of PDAC are complex processes involving dysregulation of multiple signal transduction pathways arising from not only genetic but also epigenetic alterations. This makes the epigenetic approach to the treatment of PDAC of great interest. Histone deacetylases, a family of enzymes that, by removal of acetyl groups from a variety of histone and nonhistone proteins, play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, are frequently dysregulated in PDAC. In particular, overexpression of class I histone deacetylases has been related to higher tumor grade, poor prognosis and development of chemoresistance. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), a novel class of agents endowed with pleiotropic antitumor effects, appear promising either for their preferential toxicity towards transformed as compared to normal cells and their ability to synergistically enhance the anticancer activity of radiotherapy and many chemotherapeutic agents. Many HDACIs have been shown to increase the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil and bortezomib, a new proteasome inhibitor, in vitro and in vivo PDAC xenograft models. MGCD0103, romidepsin, panobinostat, vorinostat and valproic acid, are currently being tested in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy (gemcitabine, fluoropyrimidines, proteasome inhibitors) in phase I-II clinical trials in patients with locally advanced or metastatic PDAC.

  20. Comparative effects of histone deacetylases inhibitors and resveratrol on Trypanosoma cruzi replication, differentiation, infectivity and gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina A. Campo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone post-translational modification, mediated by histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, is one of the most studied factors affecting gene expression. Recent data showing differential histone acetylation states during the Trypanosoma cruzi cell cycle suggest a role for epigenetics in the control of this process. As a starting point to study the role of histone deacetylases in the control of gene expression and the consequences of their inhibition and activation in the biology of T. cruzi, two inhibitors for different histone deacetylases: trichostatin A for class I/II and sirtinol for class III and the activator resveratrol for class III, were tested on proliferative and infective forms of this parasite. The two inhibitors tested caused histone hyperacetylation whereas resveratrol showed the opposite effect on both parasite forms, indicating that a biologically active in vivo level of these compounds was achieved. Histone deacetylase inhibitors caused life stage-specific effects, increasing trypomastigotes infectivity and blocking metacyclogenesis. Moreover, these inhibitors affected specific transcript levels, with sirtinol causing the most pronounced change. On the other hand, resveratrol showed strong anti-parasitic effects. This compound diminished epimastigotes growth, promoted metacyclogenesis, reduced in vitro infection and blocked differentiation and/or replication of intracellular amastigotes. In conclusion, the data presented here supports the notion that these compounds can modulate T. cruzi gene expression, differentiation, infection and histones deacetylase activity. Furthermore, among the compounds tested in this study, the results point to Resveratrol as promising trypanocidal drug candidate.

  1. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors - emerging roles in neuronal memory, learning, synaptic plasticity and neural regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, Shabir Ahmad; Ramadoss, Mahalakshmi; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of neuronal signalling through histone acetylation dictates transcription programs that govern neuronal memory, plasticity and learning paradigms. Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are antagonistic enzymes that regulate gene expression through acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins around which DNA is wrapped inside a eukaryotic cell nucleus. The epigenetic control of HDACs and the cellular imbalance between HATs and HDACs dictate disease states and have been implicated in muscular dystrophy, loss of memory, neurodegeneration and autistic disorders. Altering gene expression profiles through inhibition of HDACs is now emerging as a powerful technique in therapy. This review presents evolving applications of HDAC inhibitors as potential drugs in neurological research and therapy. Mechanisms that govern their expression profiles in neuronal signalling, plasticity and learning will be covered. Promising and exciting possibilities of HDAC inhibitors in memory formation, fear conditioning, ischemic stroke and neural regeneration have been detailed.

  2. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A modulates CD4+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso; Scheipers, Peter; Sørensen, Poul

    2003-01-01

    though several genes modulated by HDAC inhibition have been identified, those genes clearly responsible for the biological effects of these drugs have remained elusive. We investigated the pharmacological effect of the HDACI and potential anti-cancer agent Trichostatin A (TSA) on primary T cells.......Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) induce hyperacetylation of core histones modulating chromatin structure and affecting gene expression. These compounds are also able to induce growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptotic cell death of tumor cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Even...

  3. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Alleviates Salinity Stress in Cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Patanun, Onsaya; Ueda, Minoru; Itouga, Misao; Kato, Yukari; Utsumi, Yoshinori; Matsui, Akihiro; Tanaka, Maho; Utsumi, Chikako; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Minoru; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Seki, Motoaki

    2017-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) demand has been rising because of its various applications. High salinity stress is a major environmental factor that interferes with normal plant growth and limits crop productivity. As well as genetic engineering to enhance stress tolerance, the use of small molecules is considered as an alternative methodology to modify plants with desired traits. The effectiveness of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for increasing tolerance to salinity stress has re...

  4. Basic nuclear processes affected by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legartová, Soňa; Stixová, Lenka; Strnad, Hynek; Kozubek, Stanislav; Martinet, Nadine; Dekker, Frank J; Franek, Michal; Bártová, Eva

    AIM: The optimal balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation is important for proper gene function. Therefore, we addressed how inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes can modulate nuclear events, including replication, transcription, splicing and DNA repair. MATERIALS & METHODS: Changes

  5. Histone deacetylase 1, 2, 6 and acetylated histone H4 in B- and T-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, L.; Poulsen, C.B.; Gjerdrum, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel therapeutics in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), where, for unknown reasons, T-cell malignancies appear to be more sensitive than B-cell malignancies. The aim was to det......AIMS: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel therapeutics in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), where, for unknown reasons, T-cell malignancies appear to be more sensitive than B-cell malignancies. The aim...... was to determine HDAC expression in DLBCL and PTCL which has not previously been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC6 and acetylated histone H4 was examined immunohistochemically in 31 DLBCL and 45 PTCL. All four markers showed high expression in both DLBCL and PTCL compared...... with normal lymphoid tissue. HDAC1 was more abundantly expressed in PTCL than in DLBCL (P = 0.0046), whereas acetylated H4 was more frequent in DLBCL (P

  6. The Role of Dietary Histone Deacetylases (HDACs Inhibitors in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalome A. Bassett

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modification of the histone proteins associated with DNA is an important process in the epigenetic regulation of DNA structure and function. There are several known modifications to histones, including methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, and a range of factors influence each of these. Histone deacetylases (HDACs remove the acetyl group from lysine residues within a range of proteins, including transcription factors and histones. Whilst this means that their influence on cellular processes is more complex and far-reaching than histone modifications alone, their predominant function appears to relate to histones; through deacetylation of lysine residues they can influence expression of genes encoded by DNA linked to the histone molecule. HDAC inhibitors in turn regulate the activity of HDACs, and have been widely used as therapeutics in psychiatry and neurology, in which a number of adverse outcomes are associated with aberrant HDAC function. More recently, dietary HDAC inhibitors have been shown to have a regulatory effect similar to that of pharmacological HDAC inhibitors without the possible side-effects. Here, we discuss a number of dietary HDAC inhibitors, and how they may have therapeutic potential in the context of a whole food.

  7. The histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate protects against noise-induced hearing loss in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Hua; Xie, Jing; Liu, Ke; Peng, Zhe; Guo, Jing-Ying; Yu, Shu-Kui; Wang, Guo-Peng; Gong, Shu-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) severely impacts the quality of life of affected individuals. Oxidative stress resulting from noise exposure is a significant cause of NIHL. Although histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were shown to protect against NIHL, the underlying mechanism remains unclear, and it is not known how they act on noise-induced oxidative stress. In the current study, we investigated the expression levels of acetyl-histone H3 (Lys9) (H3-AcK9), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), an oxidative stress marker, in a guinea pig model of NIHL using immunohistology and Western blotting. We then assessed the effects of systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate (SB), on noise-induced permanent threshold shifts (PTS), hair cell (HC) loss, and changes in the above mentioned markers. The results showed that SB attenuated noise-induced PTS and outer hair cell loss. SB treatment promoted H3-AcK9 expression and repressed HDAC1 expression in the nuclei of HCs and Hensen's cells after noise exposure. Furthermore, SB attenuated the noise-induced increase of 3-NT expression in HCs and Hensen's cells. These findings suggest that SB protects against NIHL by reversing the noise-induced histone acetylation imbalance and inhibiting oxidative stress in cochlear HCs and Hensen's cells. SB treatment may represent a potential strategy to prevent and treat NIHL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Promising antitumor activity with MGCD0103, a novel isotype-selective histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Siu, Lillian L

    2008-08-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs), which target histones as well as non-histone proteins as substrates, have the potential to regulate aberrant gene expression and restore normal growth control in malignancies. This review provides an updated summary of preclinical and clinical experience with the oral isotype-selective HDAC inhibitor MGCD0103 in cancer. Data presented in abstract form from international conferences or journal articles found within a PubMed search of article up to May 2008 are described in this review. MGCD0103 appears tolerable and exhibits favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles with evidence of target inhibition in surrogate tissues. Clinical and pharmacodynamic data support a three-times-weekly administration at a 90-mg fixed dose. MGCD0103 displays promising antitumor activity in hematological and lymphoproliferative diseases.

  9. A circadian rhythm orchestrated by histone deacetylase 3 controls hepatic lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Dan; Liu, Tao; Sun, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian clock exacerbates metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. We show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) recruitment to the genome displays a circadian rhythm in mouse liver. Histone acetylation is inversely related to HDAC3 binding, and this rhythm is lost when...... HDAC3 is absent. Although amounts of HDAC3 are constant, its genomic recruitment in liver corresponds to the expression pattern of the circadian nuclear receptor Rev-erbα. Rev-erbα colocalizes with HDAC3 near genes regulating lipid metabolism, and deletion of HDAC3 or Rev-erbα in mouse liver causes...... hepatic steatosis. Thus, genomic recruitment of HDAC3 by Rev-erbα directs a circadian rhythm of histone acetylation and gene expression required for normal hepatic lipid homeostasis....

  10. Phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization, and expression patterns of RPD3/HDA1 family histone deacetylases in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chun-Wei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although histone deacetylases from model organisms have been previously identified, there is no clear basis for the classification of histone deacetylases under the RPD3/HDA1 superfamily, particularly on plants. Thus, this study aims to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree to determine evolutionary relationships between RPD3/HDA1 histone deacetylases from six different plants representing dicots with Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Pinus taeda, monocots with Oryza sativa and Zea mays, and the lower plants with Physcomitrella patens. Results Sixty two histone deacetylases of RPD3/HDA1 family from the six plant species were phylogenetically analyzed to determine corresponding orthologues. Three clusters were formed separating Class I, Class II, and Class IV. We have confirmed lower and higher plant orthologues for AtHDA8 and AtHDA14, classifying both genes as Class II histone deacetylases in addition to AtHDA5, AtHDA15, and AtHDA18. Since Class II histone deacetylases in other eukaryotes have been known to undergo nucleocytoplasmic transport, it remains unknown whether such functional regulation also happens in plants. Thus, bioinformatics studies using different programs and databases were conducted to predict their corresponding localization sites, nuclear export signal, nuclear localization signal, as well as expression patterns. We also found new conserved domains in most of the RPD3/HDA1 histone deacetylases which were similarly conserved in its corresponding orthologues. Assessing gene expression patterns using Genevestigator, it appears that RPD3/HDA1 histone deacetylases are expressed all throughout the plant parts and developmental stages of the plant. Conclusion The RPD3/HDA1 histone deacetylase family in plants is divided into three distinct groups namely, Class I, Class II, and Class IV suggesting functional diversification. Class II comprises not only AtHDA5, AtHDA15, and AtHDA18 but also includes AtHDA8

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and sodium butyrate block G1-to-S cell cycle progression in neurosphere formation by adult subventricular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughty Martin L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes that modulate gene expression and cellular processes by deacetylating histones and non-histone proteins. While small molecule inhibitors of HDAC activity (HDACi are used clinically in the treatment of cancer, pre-clinical treatment models suggest they also exert neuroprotective effects and stimulate neurogenesis in neuropathological conditions. However, the direct effects of HDACi on cell cycle progression and proliferation, two properties required for continued neurogenesis, have not been fully characterized in adult neural stem cells (NSCs. In this study, we examined the effects of two broad class I and class II HDACi on adult mouse NSCs, the hydroxamate-based HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, SAHA and the short chain fatty acid HDACi sodium butyrate. Results We show that both HDACi suppress the formation of neurospheres by adult mouse NSCs grown in proliferation culture conditions in vitro. DNA synthesis is significantly inhibited in adult mouse NSCs exposed to either SAHA or sodium butyrate and inhibition is associated with an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. HDACi exposure also resulted in transcriptional changes in adult mouse NSCs. Cdk inhibitor genes p21 and p27 transcript levels are increased and associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27. mRNA levels for notch effector Hes genes and Spry-box stem cell transcription factors are downregulated, whereas pro-neural transcription factors Neurog1 and Neurod1 are upregulated. Lastly, we show HDAC inhibition under proliferation culture conditions leads to long-term changes in cell fate in adult mouse NSCs induced to differentiate in vitro. Conclusion SAHA and sodium butyrate directly regulate cdk inhibitor transcription to control cell cycle progression in adult mouse NSCs. HDAC inhibition results in G1 arrest in adult mouse NSCs and transcriptional changes

  12. Activation of histone deacetylase-6 induces contractile dysfunction through derailment of α-tubulin proteostasis in experimental and human atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Deli; Wu, Chia-Tung; Qi, XiaoYan; Meijering, Roelien A. M.; Hoogstra-Berends, Femke; Tadevosyan, Artavazd; Deniz, Gunseli Cubukcuoglu; Durdu, Serkan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Nattel, Stanley; Henning, Robert H.; Brundel, Bianca J. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by structural remodeling, contractile dysfunction, and AF progression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) influence acetylation of both histones and cytosolic proteins, thereby mediating epigenetic regulation and influencing cell proteostasis. Because

  13. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase by Butyrate Protects Rat Liver from Ischemic Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We showed previously that pretreatment of butyrate, which is an endogenous histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor normally fermented from undigested fiber by intestinal microflora, seriously alleviated ischemia reperfusion (I/R-induced liver injury by inhibiting the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB pathway. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of butyrate administrated at the onset of ischemia for HDAC inhibition in hepatic I/R injury. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to warm ischemia for 60 min followed by 6 and 24 h of reperfusion. Butyrate was administrated at the onset of ischemia. Liver injury was evaluated by serum levels of aminotransferase, inflammatory factors, and histopathology. The levels of acetylated histone H3 and expression of heat shock protein (Hsp 70 were measured by Western blot. After reperfusion, the levels of acetylated histone H3 significantly decreased. Butyrate treatment markedly prevented the reduction of acetylated histone H3 and upregulated the expression of Hsp70, thereby reducing liver injury. Our study demonstrated that I/R resulted in marked reduction of histone acetylation; butyrate exerted a great hepatoprotective effect through HDAC inhibition and Hsp70 induction.

  14. Histone deacetylases regulate multicellular development in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawarkar, Ritwick; Visweswariah, Sandhya S; Nellen, Wolfgang; Nanjundiah, Vidyanand

    2009-09-04

    Epigenetic modifications of histones regulate gene expression and lead to the establishment and maintenance of cellular phenotypes during development. Histone acetylation depends on a balance between the activities of histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) and influences transcriptional regulation. In this study, we analyse the roles of HDACs during growth and development of one of the cellular slime moulds, the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. The inhibition of HDAC activity by trichostatin A results in histone hyperacetylation and a delay in cell aggregation and differentiation. Cyclic AMP oscillations are normal in starved amoebae treated with trichostatin A but the expression of a subset of cAMP-regulated genes is delayed. Bioinformatic analysis indicates that there are four genes encoding putative HDACs in D. discoideum. Using biochemical, genetic and developmental approaches, we demonstrate that one of these four genes, hdaB, is dispensable for growth and development under laboratory conditions. A knockout of the hdaB gene results in a social context-dependent phenotype: hdaB(-) cells develop normally but sporulate less efficiently than the wild type in chimeras. We infer that HDAC activity is important for regulating the timing of gene expression during the development of D. discoideum and for defining aspects of the phenotype that mediate social behaviour in genetically heterogeneous groups.

  15. Novel Polyamine–Naphthalene Diimide Conjugates Targeting Histone Deacetylases and DNA for Cancer Phenotype Reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A series of hybrid compounds was designed to target histone deacetylases and ds-/G-quadruplex DNAs by merging structural features deriving from Scriptaid and compound 1. Compound 6 binds different DNA arrangements, inhibits HDACs both in vitro and in cells, and is able to induce a reduction of cell proliferation. Moreover, compound 6 displays cell phenotype-reprogramming properties since it prevents the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in cancer cells, inducing a less aggressive and migratory phenotype, which is one of the goals of present innovative strategies in cancer therapies. PMID:29259737

  16. Current trends in the development of histone deacetylase inhibitors: a review of recent patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Florian

    2012-03-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have become an important target for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Currently, more than ten HDAC inhibitors have entered clinical studies and two of them have already reached the market. The hydroxamic acid derivative SAHA (also known as vorinostat or Zolinza®) and the cyclic depsipeptide FK228 (romidepsin or Istodax®) have gained approval from the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Nevertheless, there has been a continuous effort aimed at discovering a new generation of clinical candidates with improved pharmaceutical properties. This review provides a summary of the most recent patents published from mid-2009 to mid-2011.

  17. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition as a novel treatment for diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan P; Dahllöf, Mattias Salling; Lundh, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Both common forms of diabetes have an inflammatory pathogenesis in which immune and metabolic factors converge on interleukin-1ß as a key mediator of insulin resistance and ß-cell failure. In addition to improving insulin resistance and preventing ß-cell inflammatory damage, there is evidence...... of genetic association between diabetes and histone deacetylases (HDACs); and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) promote ß-cell development, proliferation, differentiation and function and positively affect late diabetic microvascular complications. Here we review this evidence and propose that there is a strong...

  18. Novel amide derivatives as inhibitors of histone deacetylase: design, synthesis and SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrianov, V.; Gailite, V.; Lola, D.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is emerging as an innovative and effective approach for the treatment of cancer. A series of novel amide derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit human HDACs. Multiple compounds were identified as potent...... HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), with IC(50) values in the low nanomolar (nM) range against enzyme activity in HeLa cell extracts and sub-microM for their in vitro anti-proliferative effect on cell lines. The introduction of an unsaturated linking group between the terminal aryl ring and the amide moiety...

  19. Comparative effects of histone deacetylases inhibitors and resveratrol on Trypanosoma cruzi replication, differentiation, infectivity and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Vanina A

    2017-04-01

    Histone post-translational modification, mediated by histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, is one of the most studied factors affecting gene expression. Recent data showing differential histone acetylation states during the Trypanosoma cruzi cell cycle suggest a role for epigenetics in the control of this process. As a starting point to study the role of histone deacetylases in the control of gene expression and the consequences of their inhibition and activation in the biology of T. cruzi, two inhibitors for different histone deacetylases: trichostatin A for class I/II and sirtinol for class III and the activator resveratrol for class III, were tested on proliferative and infective forms of this parasite. The two inhibitors tested caused histone hyperacetylation whereas resveratrol showed the opposite effect on both parasite forms, indicating that a biologically active in vivo level of these compounds was achieved. Histone deacetylase inhibitors caused life stage-specific effects, increasing trypomastigotes infectivity and blocking metacyclogenesis. Moreover, these inhibitors affected specific transcript levels, with sirtinol causing the most pronounced change. On the other hand, resveratrol showed strong anti-parasitic effects. This compound diminished epimastigotes growth, promoted metacyclogenesis, reduced in vitro infection and blocked differentiation and/or replication of intracellular amastigotes. In conclusion, the data presented here supports the notion that these compounds can modulate T. cruzi gene expression, differentiation, infection and histones deacetylase activity. Furthermore, among the compounds tested in this study, the results point to Resveratrol as promising trypanocidal drug candidate. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic Strategies to Enhance the Anticancer Efficacy of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation is a posttranslational modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression. More recently, other nonhistone proteins have been identified to be acetylated which can regulate their function, stability, localization, or interaction with other molecules. Modulating acetylation with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi has been validated to have anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical cancer models. This has led to development and approval of the first HDACi, vorinostat, for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. However, to date, targeting acetylation with HDACi as a monotherapy has shown modest activity against other cancers. To improve their efficacy, HDACi have been paired with other antitumor agents. Here, we discuss several combination therapies, highlighting various epigenetic drugs, ROS-generating agents, proteasome inhibitors, and DNA-damaging compounds that together may provide a therapeutic advantage over single-agent strategies.

  1. Histone deacetylases 2 and 9 are coexpressed and nuclear localized in human molar odontoblasts in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, Franz J; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Bloch, Wilhelm; Raab, Wolfgang H M; Addicks, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are components of nuclear multiprotein complexes that deacetylate histones and perform important roles in repression of transcription.Using specific rabbit mAbs, we analyzed by immune histochemistry and confocal immunofluorescence analysis the expression and subcellular localization of HDAC1–4 and HDAC9 in sections of adult human third molars. HDAC2 and HDAC9 were expressed in some pulpal cells and strongly expressed in the majority of mature odontoblasts.In contrast, only weak expression of HDAC1, HDAC3 and HDAC4 was observed. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis together with the DNA stain DRAQ5 revealed that HDAC2 and HDAC9 were coexpressed within the odontoblast nucleus, but localized to distinct subnuclear structures.In contrast to the current point of view, HDAC2 is strongly expressed in a terminally differentiated cell type.Our results imply that class I and II HDACs are involved in the transcriptional regulation of human odontoblasts in vivo.

  2. A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Chidamide induces apoptosis of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lin [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Baoan, E-mail: wenyu811@126.com [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China); Qin, Shukui [Chinese PLA Cancer Center, The 81st PLA Hospital, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu (China); Li, Suyi; He, Xiangming [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China); Qiu, Shaomin; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Hong [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanjing Municipal Cancer Hospital, Nanjing 210003, Jiangsu (China)

    2010-02-05

    Many studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce various tumor cells to undergo apoptosis, and such inhibitors have been used in different clinical trials against different human cancers. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel HDAC inhibitor, Chidamide. We showed that Chidamide was able to increase the acetylation levels of histone H3 and to inhibit the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Ras signaling pathways, which resulted in arresting colon cancer cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and promoting apoptosis. As a result, the proliferation of colon cancer cells was suppressed in vitro. Our data support the potential application of Chidamide as an anticancer agent in treating colon cancer. Future studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy.

  3. The Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 in Huntington's Disease Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqun Jia

    Full Text Available An important epigenetic modification in Huntington's disease (HD research is histone acetylation, which is regulated by histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes. HDAC inhibitors have proven effective in HD model systems, and recent work is now focused on functional dissection of the individual HDAC enzymes in these effects. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3, a member of the class I subfamily of HDACs, has previously been implicated in neuronal toxicity and huntingtin-induced cell death. Hence, we tested the effects of RGFP966 ((E-N-(2-amino-4-fluorophenyl-3-(1-cinnamyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylacrylamide, a benzamide-type HDAC inhibitor that selectively targets HDAC3, in the N171-82Q transgenic mouse model of HD. We found that RGFP966 at doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg improves motor deficits on rotarod and in open field exploration, accompanied by neuroprotective effects on striatal volume. In light of previous studies implicating HDAC3 in immune function, we measured gene expression changes for 84 immune-related genes elicited by RGFP966 using quantitative PCR arrays. RGFP966 treatment did not cause widespread changes in cytokine/chemokine gene expression patterns, but did significantly alter the striatal expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif, a hormone immune modulator associated with glial cell activation, in N171-82Q transgenic mice, but not WT mice. Accordingly, RGFP966-treated mice showed decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunoreactivity, a marker of astrocyte activation, in the striatum of N171-82Q transgenic mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. These findings suggest that the beneficial actions of HDAC3 inhibition could be related, in part, with lowered Mif levels and its associated downstream effects.

  4. The Role of Histone Deacetylases in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Small-Molecule Inhibitors as a Potential Therapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürli, Roland W.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Beaumont, Vahri

    Neurodegenerative disorders are devastating for patients and their social environment. Their etiology is poorly understood and complex. As a result, there is clearly an urgent need for therapeutic agents that slow down disease progress and alleviate symptoms. In this respect, interference with expression and function of multiple gene products at the epigenetic level has offered much promise, and histone deacetylases play a crucial role in these processes. This review presents an overview of the biological pathways in which these enzymes are involved and illustrates the complex network of proteins that governs their activity. An overview of small molecules that interfere with histone deacetylase function is provided.

  5. Murine hematopoietic stem cell dormancy controlled by induction of a novel short form of PSF1 by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yinglu; Gong, Zhi-Yuan [Department of Signal Transduction, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takakura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ntakaku@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Signal Transduction, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science Technology Agency, CREST, K' s Gobancho, 7, Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-06-10

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can survive long-term in a state of dormancy. Little is known about how histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect HSC kinetics. Here, we use trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to enforce histone acetylation and show that this suppresses cell cycle entry by dormant HSCs. Previously, we found that haploinsufficiency of PSF1, a DNA replication factor, led to attenuation of the bone marrow (BM) HSC pool size and lack of acute proliferation after 5-FU ablation. Because PSF1 protein is present in CD34{sup +} transiently amplifying HSCs but not in CD34{sup −} long-term reconstituting-HSCs which are resting in a dormant state, we analyzed the relationship between dormancy and PSF1 expression, and how a histone deacetylase inhibitor affects this. We found that CD34{sup +} HSCs produce long functional PSF1 (PSF1a) but CD34{sup −} HSCs produce a shorter possibly non-functional PSF1 (PSF1b, c, dominantly PSF1c). Using PSF1a-overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells in which the endogenous PSF1 promoter is suppressed, we found that TSA treatment promotes production of the shorter form of PSF1 possibly by inducing recruitment of E2F family factors upstream of the PSF1 transcription start site. Our data document one mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors affect the dormancy of HSCs by regulating the DNA replication factor PSF1. - Highlights: • Hematopoetic stem cell dormancy is controlled by histone deacetylation inhibitors. • Dormancy of HSCs is associated with a shorter form of non-functional PSF1. • Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress PSF1 promoter activity.

  6. Complex structure of a bacterial class 2 histone deacetylase homologue with a trifluoromethylketone inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Tine Kragh [Abteilung für Molekulare Strukturbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik and GZMB, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Hildmann, Christian; Riester, Daniel; Wegener, Dennis; Schwienhorst, Andreas [Abteilung für Molekulare Genetik und Präparative Molekularbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Grisebachstrasse 8, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ficner, Ralf, E-mail: rficner@gwdg.de [Abteilung für Molekulare Strukturbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik and GZMB, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structure of HDAH FB188 in complex with a trifluoromethylketone at 2.2 Å resolution is reported and compared to a previously determined inhibitor complex. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as attractive targets in anticancer drug development. To date, a number of HDAC inhibitors have been developed and most of them are hydroxamic acid derivatives, typified by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Not surprisingly, structural information that can greatly enhance the design of novel HDAC inhibitors is so far only available for hydroxamic acids in complex with HDAC or HDAC-like enzymes. Here, the first structure of an enzyme complex with a nonhydroxamate HDAC inhibitor is presented. The structure of the trifluoromethyl ketone inhibitor 9,9,9-trifluoro-8-oxo-N-phenylnonanamide in complex with bacterial FB188 HDAH (histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase from Bordetella/Alcaligenes strain FB188) has been determined. HDAH reveals high sequential and functional homology to human class 2 HDACs and a high structural homology to human class 1 HDACs. Comparison with the structure of HDAH in complex with SAHA reveals that the two inhibitors superimpose well. However, significant differences in binding to the active site of HDAH were observed. In the presented structure the O atom of the trifluoromethyl ketone moiety is within binding distance of the Zn atom of the enzyme and the F atoms participate in interactions with the enzyme, thereby involving more amino acids in enzyme–inhibitor binding.

  7. Histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A modulates the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sunga; Lee, Yu Ran; Park, Myoung Soo; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyo Shin; Kim, Cuk Seong; Park, Jin Bong [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Irani, Kaikobad [Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Jeon, Byeong Hwa, E-mail: bhjeon@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Trichostatin A (TSA) increased APE1/Ref-1 secretion in HEK293 cells. •Lysine-mutated APE1/Ref-1 (K6R/K7R) was not secreted by TSA. •TSA induced cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. •APE1/Ref-1 is a protein whose secretion is governed by lysine acetylation. -- Abstract: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) can be acetylated via post-translational modification. We investigated the effect of an inhibitor of histone deacetylases on the extracellular release of APE1/Ref-1 in HEK293 cells. Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, induced APE1/Ref-1 secretion without changing cell viability. In a fluorescence quantitative assay, the secreted APE1/Ref-1 was estimated to be about 10 ng/mL in response to TSA (1 μM). However, TSA did not induce the secretion of lysine-mutated APE1/Ref-1 (K6R/K7R). TSA also caused nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of APE1/Ref-1. Taken together, these findings suggest that APE1/Ref-1 is a protein whose secretion is governed by lysine acetylation.

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulates histone deacetylase 8 expression to repress tumor suppressive activity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hsi, Edward; Wang, Shen-Nien; Huang, Shau-Ku; Hsu, Shih-Hsien

    2017-01-31

    Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), a unique member of class I histone deacetylases, shows remarkable correlation with advanced disease stage and multiple malignant tumors However, little is known about the contribution of HDAC8 to the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study investigated the expression of HDAC8 regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in HCC cell lines and tissues, and the roles of HDAC8 overexpression in cell proliferation, including potentially underlying mechanisms. We assessed the correlation between the clinic-pathological parameters and the expression of AHR and HDAC8. Further, we analyzed the AHR siRNA transfection and HDAC8 inhibitors to explore the functions of HDAC8 in HCC progression in vitro and in vivo. In a panel of 289 HCC patients, HDAC8 was shown to be highly correlated with AHR expression at both mRNA and protein levels. HCC patients with high AHR expression showed a shorter survival time than that with low AHR expression. We then found that the expression of both AHR and HDAC8 was significantly upregulated in both HCC cell lines and tumor tissues compared to human normal hepatocytes and matched non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, HDAC8 inhibition remarkably inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation and transformation activity via upregulation of RB1 in vitro and in vivo. Our data revealed an important role of the AHR-HDAC8 axis in promoting HCC tumorigenesis, thus identifying HDAC8 as a potential therapeutic target for HCC treatment.

  9. Prediction of pH-dependent aqueous solubility of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Hansen, Niclas Tue; Bjorkling, F.

    2008-01-01

    Recently we developed a model for prediction of pH-dependent aqueous solubility of drugs and drug like molecules. In the present work, the model was applied on a series of novel Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors discovered at TopoTarget. The applicability of our model was evaluated on the se......Recently we developed a model for prediction of pH-dependent aqueous solubility of drugs and drug like molecules. In the present work, the model was applied on a series of novel Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors discovered at TopoTarget. The applicability of our model was evaluated...... in the training data set of the ANN. The performance of the original and the two modified versions of the model were evaluated against the commercial software from Simulations-plus and pH-dependent solubility measurements for representative compounds of the series. The results of the evaluation indicate that one...... can develop models that are more accurate in predicting differences in the solubility of structurally very similar compounds than models that have been trained on structurally unbiased, diverse data sets. Such 'tailor-made' models have the potential to become trustworthy enough to replace time...

  10. Comparative Modeling and Benchmarking Data Sets for Human Histone Deacetylases and Sirtuin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Kebede, Eyob Hailu; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are an important class of drug targets for the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and other types of diseases. Virtual screening (VS) has become fairly effective approaches for drug discovery of novel and highly selective Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors (HDACIs). To facilitate the process, we constructed the Maximal Unbiased Benchmarking Data Sets for HDACs (MUBD-HDACs) using our recently published methods that were originally developed for building unbiased benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). The MUBD-HDACs covers all 4 Classes including Class III (Sirtuins family) and 14 HDACs isoforms, composed of 631 inhibitors and 24,609 unbiased decoys. Its ligand sets have been validated extensively as chemically diverse, while the decoy sets were shown to be property-matching with ligands and maximal unbiased in terms of “artificial enrichment” and “analogue bias”. We also conducted comparative studies with DUD-E and DEKOIS 2.0 sets against HDAC2 and HDAC8 targets, and demonstrate that our MUBD-HDACs is unique in that it can be applied unbiasedly to both LBVS and SBVS approaches. In addition, we defined a novel metric, i.e. NLBScore, to detect the “2D bias” and “LBVS favorable” effect within the benchmarking sets. In summary, MUBD-HDACs is the only comprehensive and maximal-unbiased benchmark data sets for HDACs (including Sirtuins) that is available so far. MUBD-HDACs is freely available at http://www.xswlab.org/. PMID:25633490

  11. A Histone Deacetylase Complex Mediates Biofilm Dispersal and Drug Resistance in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily P.; Hartooni, Nairi; Mitchell, Kaitlin F.; Hnisz, Denes; Andes, David R.; Kuchler, Karl; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biofilms are resilient, surface-associated communities of cells with specialized properties (e.g., resistance to drugs and mechanical forces) that are distinct from those of suspension (planktonic) cultures. Biofilm formation by the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is medically relevant because C. albicans infections are highly correlated with implanted medical devices, which provide efficient substrates for biofilm formation; moreover, biofilms are inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Biofilms are also important for C. albicans to colonize diverse niches of the human host. Here, we describe four core members of a conserved histone deacetylase complex in C. albicans (Set3, Hos2, Snt1, and Sif2) and explore the effects of their mutation on biofilm formation. We find that these histone deacetylase complex members are needed for proper biofilm formation, including dispersal of cells from biofilms and multifactorial drug resistance. Our results underscore the importance of the physical properties of biofilms in contributing to drug resistance and dispersal and lay a foundation for new strategies to target biofilm dispersal as a potential antifungal intervention. PMID:24917598

  12. Reassessing the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on hippocampal memory and cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, James F; Fletcher, Bonnie R; Patzke, Holger; Long, Jeffrey M; Sewal, Angila; Kim, David H; Kelley-Bell, Bennett; Rapp, Peter R

    2014-08-01

    Converging results link histone acetylation dynamics to hippocampus-dependent memory, including evidence that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) administration enhances long-term memory. Previously, we demonstrated that aging disrupts the coordinated epigenetic response to recent experience observed in the young adult hippocampus. Here, we extended that work to test the cognitive effects of a novel, brain-penetrant HDACi (EVX001688; EVX) that we confirmed yields robust, relatively long lasting dose-dependent increases in histone acetylation in the hippocampus. In young rats, acute systemic EVX administration, scheduled to yield elevated histone acetylation levels during training in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) task, had no effect on memory retention at 24 h at any dose examined (10, 30, or 60 mg/kg). Pretraining injection of another HDACi, sodium butyrate, also failed to affect fear memory, and CFC training itself had no influence on hippocampal histone acetylation at 1 hour in mice or two strains of rats. EVX administration before water maze training in young rats yielded a modest effect such that the middle dose produced marginally better 24-h retention than either the low or high dose, but only a small numerical benefit relative to vehicle. Guided by those findings, a final experiment tested the influence of pretraining EVX treatment on age-related spatial memory impairment. The results, revealing no effect on performance, are consistent with the idea that effective procognitive HDACi treatments in aging may require intervention aimed at restoring coordinated epigenetic regulation rather than bulk increases in hippocampal histone acetylation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase AtDNMT2 associates with histone deacetylase AtHD2s activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada); Wu, Keqiang [Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada); An, Lizhe, E-mail: lizhean@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Tian, Lining, E-mail: tianl@agr.gc.ca [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada)

    2010-05-28

    DNA methyltransferase2 (DNMT2) is always deemed to be enigmatic, because it contains highly conserved DNA methyltransferase motifs but lacks the DNA methylation catalytic capability. Here we show that Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase2 (AtDNMT2) is localized in nucleus and associates with histone deacetylation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and pull-down assays show AtDNMT2 interacts with type-2 histone deacetylases (AtHD2s), a unique type of histone deacetylase family in plants. Through analyzing the expression of AtDNMT2: ss-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein, we demonstrate that AtDNMT2 has the ability to repress gene expression at transcription level. Meanwhile, the expression of AtDNMT2 gene is altered in athd2c mutant plants. We propose that AtDNMT2 possibly involves in the activity of histone deacetylation and plant epigenetic regulatory network.

  14. Class I and class II histone deacetylases are potential therapeutic targets for treating pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; He, Jing; Zhao, Jianyun; Yun, Wenting; Xie, Chengzhi; Taub, Jeffrey W; Azmi, Asfar; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Dong, Yan; Kong, Wei; Guo, Yingjie; Ge, Yubin

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have shown promising antitumor activities against preclinical models of pancreatic cancer, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we sought to identify clinically relevant histone deacetylases (HDACs) to guide the selection of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) tailored to the treatment of pancreatic cancer. HDAC expression in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines and normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells was determined by Western blotting. Antitumor interactions between class I- and class II-selective HDACIs were determined by MTT assays and standard isobologram/CompuSyn software analyses. The effects of HDACIs on cell death, apoptosis and cell cycle progression, and histone H4, alpha-tubulin, p21, and γH2AX levels were determined by colony formation assays, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blotting, respectively. The majority of classes I and II HDACs were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines, albeit at variable levels. Treatments with MGCD0103 (a class I-selective HDACI) resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, accompanied by induction of p21 and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In contrast, MC1568 (a class IIa-selective HDACI) or Tubastatin A (a HDAC6-selective inhibitor) showed minimal effects. When combined simultaneously, MC1568 significantly enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest, while Tubastatin A only synergistically enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest. Although MC1568 or Tubastatin A alone had no obvious effects on DNA DSBs and p21 expression, their combination with MGCD0103 resulted in cooperative induction of p21 in the cells. Our results suggest that classes I and II HDACs are potential therapeutic targets for treating pancreatic cancer. Accordingly, treating pancreatic

  15. Marine Actinomycetes as potential source for histone deacetylase inhibitors and epigenetic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, T A; Jayasri, M A; Suthindhiran, K

    2015-07-01

    In the light of important detrimental role of aberrant histone deacetylases (HDAC) production during various clinical complications, development of therapeutically effective and specific inhibitors of HDAC is critically important. This study deals with the screening for HDAC inhibitors from marine Actinomycetes. The isolation of Actinomycetes from 22 sediment samples along the Southern Coast of India yielded 186 strains including Streptomyces, Nocardipsis, evaluated for HDAC inhibition using HeLa cells. Among the 186 isolates, 10 strains have shown moderate to strong inhibition. The maximum inhibition (61%) was seen with strain VITKSM06 and least inhibition (31%) was seen with strain VITSJT03. The MTT cell proliferation assay using HeLa cell line showed significant cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 5·9 μg ml(-1) by VITKSM06-derived metabolite and 26·2 μg ml(-1) by VITSJT03. The compound treated HeLa cells displayed an altered morphology and condensed chromatin which may be due to HDAC inhibition. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the potential strains were identified as Nocardiopsis sp VITKSM06, Streptomyces sp VITAKS1 and Streptomyces sp VITRSM02. This study reveals the importance of screening marine Actinomycetes for the discovery of potential novel HDAC inhibitors of therapeutic importance. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are epigenetic enzymes that regulate the deacetylation in lysine group on a histone, and thus regulate the gene expression. The HDAC inhibitors are reported to promote apoptosis on tumour cells, thus become clinically important drug target. Several studies have addressed the identification of putative HDAC inhibitors as therapeutic agents for cancer and until now those cleared phase III human trials are very limited. This study attempts to investigate the chemical diversity found in marine Actinomycetes towards negative HDAC modulation, which could be used individually or in combination as anti-cancerous and other therapeutic measure. © 2015 The

  16. Targeting Histone Deacetylases in Malignant Melanoma: A Future Therapeutic Agent or Just Great Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmpis, Nikolaos; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpi, Anna; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Margonis, Georgios-Antonios; Schizas, Dimitrios; Deskou, Irini; Doula, Chrysoula; Magkouti, Eleni; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Efstathios A; Nonni, Afroditi; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Mantas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with increasing frequency and mortality. Melanoma is characterized by rapid proliferation and metastases. Malignant transformation of normal melanocytes is associated with imbalance between oncogenes' action and tumor suppressor genes. Mutations or inactivation of these genes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. Many target-specific agents improved progression-free survival but unfortunately metastatic melanoma remains incurable, so new therapeutic strategies are needed. The balance of histones' acetylation affects cell cycle progression, differentiation and apoptosis. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are associated with different types of cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) are enzymes that inhibit the action of HDAC, resulting in block of tumor cell proliferation. A small number of these enzymes has been studied regarding their anticancer effects in melanoma. The purpose of this article was to review the therapeutic effect of HDACI against malignant melanoma, enlightening the molecular mechanisms of their action. The MEDLINE database was used. The keywords/ phrases were; HDACI, melanoma, targeted therapies for melanoma. Our final conclusions were based on studies that didn't refer solely to melanoma due to their wider experimental data. Thirty-two articles were selected from the total number of the search's results. Only English articles published until March 2017 were used. Molecules, such as valproid acid (VPA), LBH589, LAQ824 (dacinostat), vorinostat, tubacin, sirtinol and tx-527, suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA), depsipeptide and Trichostatin A (TSA) have shown promising antineoplastic effects against melanoma. HDACI represent a promising agent for targeted therapy. More trials are required. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. An Isochemogenic Set of Inhibitors To Define the Therapeutic Potential of Histone Deacetylases in β-Cell Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florence F; Lundh, Morten; Kaya, Taner

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been implicated as a potential therapeutic strategy for multiple diseases. However, it has been difficult to dissect the role of individual HDACs due to a lack of selective small-molecule inhibitors. Here, we report the synthesis of a series o...

  18. Valproic Acid as a Potential Inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum Histone Deacetylase 1 (PfHDAC1: An in Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abdallah Elbadawi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase1 (PfHDAC1 homology model was built based on the highest sequence identity available template human histone deacetylase 2 structure. The generated model was carefully evaluated for stereochemical accuracy, folding correctness and overall structure quality. All evaluations were acceptable and consistent. Docking a group of hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors and valproic acid has shown binding poses that agree well with inhibitor-bound histone deacetylase-solved structural interactions. Docking affinity dG scores were in agreement with available experimental binding affinities. Further, enzyme-ligand complex stability and reliability were investigated by running 5-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough analysis of the simulation trajectories has shown that enzyme-ligand complexes were stable during the simulation period. Interestingly, the calculated theoretical binding energies of the docked hydroxamic acid inhibitors have shown that the model can discriminate between strong and weaker inhibitors and agrees well with the experimental affinities reported in the literature. The model and the docking methodology can be used in screening virtual libraries for PfHDAC1 inhibitors, since the docking scores have ranked ligands in accordance with experimental binding affinities. Valproic acid calculated theoretical binding energy suggests that it may inhibit PfHDAC1.

  19. Preclinical Metabolism and Disposition of SB939 (Pracinostat), an Orally Active Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, and Prediction of Human Pharmacokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayaraman, Ramesh; Reddy, Venkatesh Pilla; Pasha, Mohammed Khalid; Wang, Haishan; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Yeo, Pauline; Hu, Chang Yong; Wu, Xiaofeng; Xin, Liu; Goh, Evelyn; New, Lee Sun; Ethirajulu, Kantharaj

    2011-01-01

    The preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of Pracinostat [(2E)-3-[2-butyl-1-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl]-N-hydroxyarylamide hydrochloride; SB939], an orally active histone deacetylase inhibitor, were characterized and its human

  20. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Induces Odor Preference Memory Extension and Maintains Enhanced AMPA Receptor Expression in the Rat Pup Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sriya; Mukherjee, Bandhan; Doré, Jules J. E.; Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) plays a role in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. We hypothesized that trichostatin-A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, would promote long-term odor preference memory and maintain enhanced GluA1 receptor levels that have been hypothesized to support memory. We used an early odor preference learning model in…

  1. Inhibition and reversal of nickel-induced transformation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunwei; Salnikow, Konstantin; Kluz, Thomas; Chen, Lung Chi; Su, Wei Cheng; Costa, Max

    2003-11-01

    The carcinogenic process initiated by nongenotoxic carcinogens involves modulation of gene expression. Nickel compounds have low mutagenic activity, but are highly carcinogenic. In vitro both mouse and human cells can be efficiently transformed by soluble and insoluble nickel compounds to anchorage-independent growth. Because previous studies have shown that carcinogenic nickel compounds silence genes by inhibiting histone acetylation and enhancing DNA methylation, we investigated the effect of enhancing histone acetylation on cell transformation. The exposure of nickel-transformed cells to the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) resulted in the appearance of significant number of revertants measured by their inability to grow in soft agar. Using the Affymetrix GeneChip we found that the level of expression of a significant number of genes was changed (suppressed or upregulated) in nickel-transformed clones but returned to a normal level in revertants obtained following TSA treatment. Moreover, we found that treatment of cells with TSA inhibited the ability of nickel to transform mouse PW cells to anchorage-independent growth. Treatment with TSA also inhibited the ability of nickel to transform human HOS cells, although to a lesser extent. In contrast, treatment with TSA was not able to revert established cancer cell lines as readily as the nickel-transformed cells. These data indicated that modulation of gene expression is important for nickel-induced transformation.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate astrocyte GDNF and BDNF gene transcription and protect dopaminergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefei; Chen, Po See; Dallas, Shannon; Wilson, Belinda; Block, Michelle L.; Wang, Chao-Chuan; Kinyamu, Harriet; Lu, Nick; Gao, Xi; Leng, Yan; Chuang, De-Maw; Zhang, Wanqin; Lu, Ru Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra. Currently, available treatment is unable to alter PD progression. Previously, we demonstrated that valproic acid (VPA), a mood stabilizer, anticonvulsant and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in astrocytes to protect DA neurons in midbrain neuron-glia cultures. The present study investigated whether these effects are due to HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation. Here, we show that two additional HDAC inhibitors, sodium butyrate (SB) and trichostatin A (TSA), mimic the survival-promoting and protective effects of VPA on DA neurons in neuron-glia cultures. Similar to VPA, both SB and TSA increased GDNF and BDNF transcripts in astrocytes in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, marked increases in GDNF promoter activity and promoter-associated histone H3 acetylation were noted in astrocytes treated with all three compounds, where the time-course for acetylation was similar to that for gene transcription. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC inhibitors up-regulate GDNF and BDNF expression in astrocytes and protect DA neurons, at least in part, through HDAC inhibition. This study indicates that astrocytes may be a critical neuroprotective mechanism of HDAC inhibitors, revealing a novel target for the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18611290

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibition rescues structural and functional brain deficits in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Hans T.; Benjamin, Joel S.; Zhang, Li; Weissman, Jacqueline; Gerber, Elizabeth E.; Chen, Yi-Chun; Vaurio, Rebecca G.; Potter, Michelle C.; Hansen, Kasper D.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2015-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome is caused by haploinsufficiency for either of two genes that promote the opening of chromatin. If an imbalance between open and closed chromatin is central to the pathogenesis of Kabuki syndrome, agents that promote chromatin opening might have therapeutic potential. We have characterized a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome with a heterozygous deletion in the gene encoding the lysine-specific methyltransferase 2D (Kmt2d), leading to impairment of methyltransferase function. In vitro reporter alleles demonstrated a reduction in histone 4 acetylation and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) activity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Kmt2d+/βGeo mice. These activities were normalized in response to AR-42, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. In vivo, deficiency of H3K4me3 in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of Kmt2d+/βGeo mice correlated with reduced neurogenesis and hippocampal memory defects. These abnormalities improved upon postnatal treatment with AR-42. Our work suggests that a reversible deficiency in postnatal neurogenesis underlies intellectual disability in Kabuki syndrome. PMID:25273096

  5. Fasting and high-fat diet alter histone deacetylase expression in the medial hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Funato

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is now being given to the epigenetic regulation of animal and human behaviors including the stress response and drug addiction. Epigenetic factors also influence feeding behavior and metabolic phenotypes, such as obesity and insulin sensitivity. In response to fasting and high-fat diets, the medial hypothalamus changes the expression of neuropeptides regulating feeding, metabolism, and reproductive behaviors. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are involved in the epigenetic control of gene expression and alter behavior in response to a variety of environmental factors. Here, we examined the expression of HDAC family members in the medial hypothalamus of mice in response to either fasting or a high-fat diet. In response to fasting, HDAC3 and -4 expression levels increased while HDAC10 and -11 levels decreased. Four weeks on a high-fat diet resulted in the increased expression of HDAC5 and -8. Moreover, fasting decreased the number of acetylated histone H3- and acetylated histone H4-positive cells in the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus. Therefore, HDACs may be implicated in altered gene expression profiles in the medial hypothalamus under different metabolic states.

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and aspirin interact synergistically to induce cell death in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Jürgen; Hüls, Isabel; Sigler, Michael; Palani, Chithra D; Hong, Le Thi Thu; Völker, Uwe; Kroemer, Heyo K; Beck, James F

    2008-07-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin show promise as antineoplastic agents. The treatment with both HDIs and aspirin can result in hyperacetylation of proteins. In this study, we investigated whether HDIs and aspirin interacted in inducing anticancer activity and histone acetylation. We found that the HDIs, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and sodium butyrate, and aspirin cooperated to induce cell death in the ovarian cancer cell line, A2780. The effect was synergistic, as evidenced by CI-isobologram analysis. However, aspirin had no effect on histone acetylation, neither in the absence nor presence of HDIs. To gain insight into the mechanism underlying the synergistic action of HDIs and aspirin, we employed the deacetylated metabolite of aspirin, salicylic acid, and the cyclooxygenase-1- and -2-selective inhibitors, SC-560 and NS-398, respectively. We found that HDIs and salicylic acid interacted synergistically, albeit less efficiently than HDIs and aspirin, to induce cancer cell death, suggesting that the acetyl and the salicyl moiety contributed to the cooperative interaction of aspirin with HDIs. SC-560 and NS-398 had little effect both when applied alone or in conjunction with HDIs, indicating that the combinatorial effect of HDIs and aspirin was not the result of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that HDIs and aspirin synergize to induce cancer cell death and, thus, provides a rationale for a more in-depth exploration into the potential of combining HDIs and aspirin as a strategy for anticancer therapy.

  7. Histone Deacetylase Is Required for GA-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Maize Aleurone Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haoli; Zheng, Xueke; Zhang, Hao; Yue, Mengxia; Hu, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Qing; Xie, Chengshen; Wang, Pu; Li, Lijia

    2017-11-01

    Recent discoveries have shown that epigenetic regulation is an integral part of phytohormone-mediated processes. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) triggers a series of events in cereal aleurone cells that lead to programmed cell death (PCD), but the signaling cascade mediating GA-induced PCD in cereal aleurone layers remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity gradually increased relative to histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, leading to a global decrease in histone H3 and H4 acetylation levels during PCD of maize (Zea mays) embryoless aleurone layers after 3 d of treatment with GA. HDAC inhibition prevented GA-induced PCD in embryoless aleurone cells, whereas HAT inhibition resulted in PCD even in the absence of GA. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations increased in GA- or HAT inhibitor-treated aleurone cells due to reduced levels of reactive oxygen species scavengers. Hydrogen peroxide-treated aleurone cells showed no changes in the activity or expression of HATs and HDACs. We show that it is possible to predict whether epigenetic modification enzymes serve as a regulator of the GA-triggered PCD signaling pathway in maize aleurone layers. Taken together, these findings reveal that HDAC activity is required for GA-induced PCD in maize aleurone layers and regulates PCD via the reactive oxygen species-mediated signal transduction pathway. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. New benzothiazole/thiazole-containing hydroxamic acids as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors and antitumor agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanh Tung, Truong; Oanh, Dao Thi Kim; Dung, Phan Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Results from clinical studies have demonstrated that inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes possess promise for the treatment of several types of cancer. Zolinza(®) (widely known as SAHA) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma. As a continuity of our ongoing...... effects. Docking revealed that both two compounds 3a, 3b showed higher affinities towards HDAC(8) compared to SAHA. In vitro, compound 3a exhibited cytotoxicity equipotent to SAHA against five human cancer cell lines. In term of in vivo activity, compound 3a demonstrated equivalent efficacy to SAHA...... research to find novel small molecules to target these important enzymes, we synthesized a series of benzothiazole-containing analogues of SAHA and found several compounds with very potent anticancer cytotoxicity. In this study, three more compounds of this type, including N(1)-(6-chlorobenzo[d]thiazol-2...

  9. The retinoblastoma-histone deacetylase 3 complex inhibits PPARgamma and adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajas, Lluis; Egler, Viviane; Reiter, Raphael

    2002-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has previously been shown to facilitate adipocyte differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and enhancing the transactivation by the adipogenic CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP). We show here that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma...... (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor pivotal for adipogenesis, promotes adipocyte differentiation more efficiently in the absence of RB. PPARgamma and RB were shown to coimmunoprecipitate, and this PPARgamma-RB complex also contains the histone deacetylase HDAC3, thereby attenuating PPARgamma's capacity to drive...... gene expression and adipocyte differentiation. Dissociation of the PPARgamma-RB-HDAC3 complex by RB phosphorylation or by inhibition of HDAC activity stimulates adipocyte differentiation. These observations underscore an important function of both RB and HDAC3 in fine-tuning PPARgamma activity...

  10. Histone deacetylase 3 inhibition improves glycaemia and insulin secretion in obese diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Morten; Galbo, Thomas; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2015-01-01

    cells against inflammatory and metabolic insults in vitro. Here we tested the ability of a selective HDAC3 inhibitor, BRD3308, to reduce hyperglycemia and increase insulin secretion in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. At diabetes onset, an ambulatory hyperglycemic clamp was performed. HDAC3...... inhibition improved hyperglycemia over the study period without affecting weight gain. At the end of the hyperglycemic clamp, circulating insulin levels were significantly higher in BRD3308-treated animals. Pancreatic insulin staining and contents were also significantly higher. These findings highlight HDAC......Failure of pancreatic β cells to compensate for insulin resistance is a prerequisite for the development of type 2 diabetes. Sustained elevated circulating levels of free fatty acids and glucose contribute to β-cell failure. Selective inhibition of Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-3 protects pancreatic β...

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment attenuates coagulation imbalance in a lethal murine model of sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ting; Li, Yongqing; Liu, Baoling

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sepsis has a profound impact on the inflammatory and hemostatic systems. In addition to systemic inflammation, it can produce disseminated intravascular coagulation, microvascular thrombosis, consumptive coagulopathy, and multiple organ failure. We have shown that treatment with suber......BACKGROUND: Sepsis has a profound impact on the inflammatory and hemostatic systems. In addition to systemic inflammation, it can produce disseminated intravascular coagulation, microvascular thrombosis, consumptive coagulopathy, and multiple organ failure. We have shown that treatment...... with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), improves survival in a lethal model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice, but its effect on coagulation remains unknown. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of SAHA treatment on coagulopathy in sepsis. METHODS...

  12. Search for novel histone deacetylase inhibitors. Part II: design and synthesis of novel isoferulic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Previously, we described the discovery of potent ferulic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with halogeno-acetanilide as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). In order to improve the affinity and activity of these HDACIs, twenty seven isoferulic acid derivatives were described herein. The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, IF5 and IF6 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.73 ± 0.08 and 0.57 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. Especially, IF6 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate with IC50 value of 3.91 ± 0.97 μM against HeLa cells. The results indicated that these isoferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of novel hydroxamate and non-hydroxamate histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Michael L

    2004-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) alter the acetylation status of chromatin and thereby effect gene expression. The inappropriate recruitment of HDACs may be one mechanism by which oncogenes can alter gene expression in favor of excessive cell proliferation, making inhibition of HDACs a potential target for the development of small-molecule anticancer agents. As a consequence there are several HDAC inhibitors currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of solid and non-solid tumors. This review examines recent synthetic methods used to prepare the diverse family of HDAC inhibitors, and includes syntheses of several of the current clinical candidates. The review is divided into the structural classes of known HDAC inhibitors, including non-peptidic hydroxamic acids, non-hydroxamate analogs and cyclic peptides.

  14. Single-Molecule Electronic Measurements of the Dynamic Flexibility of Histone Deacetylases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froberg, James; You, Seungyong; Yu, Junru; Haldar, Manas; Sedigh, Abbas; Mallik, Sanku; Srivastava, D. K.; Choi, Yongki

    Due to their involvement in epigenetic regulation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) have gained considerable interest in designing drugs for treatment of a variety of human diseases including cancers. Recently, we applied a label-free, electronic single-molecule nano-circuit technique to gain insight into the contribution of the dynamic flexibility in HDACs structure during the course of substrates/ ligands binding and catalysis. We observed that HDAC8 has two major (dynamically interconvertible) conformational states, ``ground (catalytically unfavorable)'' and ``transition (catalytically favorable)''. In addition, we found that its cognate substrates/ligands reciprocally catalyze the transition of the ground to the transition state conformation of HDAC8. Thus, we propose that both enzymes and their substrates/ligands serve as ``catalysts'' in facilitating the structural changes of each other and promoting the overall chemical transformation reaction. Such new information provides the potential for designing a new class of mechanism-based inhibitors and activators of HDAC8 for treating human diseases.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. The Role of Histone Deacetylase 6 in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Perry

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs have been extensively studied as drug targets in neurodegenerative diseases, but less is known about their role in healthy neurons. We tested zinc-dependent HDACs using RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster and found memory deficits with RPD3 and HDAC6. We demonstrate that HDAC6 is required in both the larval and adult stages for normal olfactory memory retention. Neuronal expression of HDAC6 rescued memory deficits, and we demonstrate that the N-terminal deacetylase (DAC domain is required for this ability. This suggests that deacetylation of synaptic targets associated with the first DAC domain, such as the active-zone scaffold Bruchpilot, is required for memory retention. Finally, electrophysiological experiments at the neuromuscular junction reveal that HDAC6 mutants exhibit a partial block of homeostatic plasticity, suggesting that HDAC6 may be required for the stabilization of synaptic strength. The learning deficit we observe in HDAC6 mutants could be a behavioral consequence of these synaptic defects.

  17. Formation of AR-SMRT binding in prostate cancer cells treated with natural histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtková, Kateřina; Pašková, Lenka; Matiješčuková, Natálie; Kolář, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Signaling through the androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression. The AR is a classical nuclear receptor (NR) providing a link between signaling molecule and transcription response. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on prostate cancer cells and their implication in silence AR signaling may have potential therapeutic use. We aimed to study the inhibitory effects of the corepressor SMRT (Silencing Mediator for Retinoid and Thyroid hormone receptors) which forms a complex together with nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) and with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) on AR activity. The androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell line C4-2 both AR-positive, and androgen-insensitive DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines were treated with two HDACIs, sodium butyrate (NaB) and/or trichostatin A (TSA). We amplified immunoprecipitated DNA by conventional PCR and in the following step we used the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis coupled with quantitative PCR for monitoring NaB induced formation of AR-SMRT/N-CoR complex binding on the PSA promoter. The co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed increase in AR-SMRT formation in NaB treated cells. Simultaneously, the Western blot analysis showed a significant decrease in AR protein expression. Furthermore, we estimated the reduced presence of HDAC2 and HDAC3 proteins by NaB and TSA treatment in AR-negative DU145 cell line. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of NaB on AR gene expression seems to be specific and unique for prostate cancer AR-positive cell lines and corresponds with its ability to stimulate AR-SMRT complex formation. We suggest that AR and SMRT/N-CoR corepressors may form a stable complex in vitro and NaB may facilitate the interaction between AR nuclear steroid receptor and SMRT corepressor protein.

  18. Histone deacetylase-related protein inhibits AES-mediated neuronal cell death by direct interaction.

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    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hsin-Mei; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Wang, Lulu; D'Mello, Santosh R

    2008-08-15

    Histone deacetylase-related protein (HDRP), an alternatively spliced and truncated form of histone deacetylase-9 that lacks a C-terminal catalytic domain, protects neurons from death. In an effort to understand the mechanism by which HDRP mediates its neuroprotective effect, we screened for proteins in the brain that interact with HDRP by using a yeast two-hybrid assay. One of the HDRP-interacting proteins identified in this screen was amino enhancer of split (AES), a 197-amino acid protein belonging to the Groucho family. Interaction between HDRP and AES was verified by in vitro binding assays, coimmunoprecipitation, and colocalization studies. To investigate the significance of the HDRP-AES association to the regulation of neuronal survival, we used cultured cerebellar granule neurons, which undergo apoptosis when treated with low potassium (LK) medium. We found that in contrast to HDRP, whose expression is markedly reduced by LK treatment, AES expression was not appreciably altered. Forced expression of AES in healthy neurons results in cell death, an action that is blocked by the coexpression of HDRP. AES is a truncated version of larger Groucho-related proteins, one of which is transducin-like enhancer of split (TLE)-1. We found that the expression of TLE1 is reduced in LK-treated neurons and the forced expression of TLE1 blocks LK-induced neuronal death as well as death induced by AES. Our results show that AES has apoptotic activity in neurons and suggest that neuroprotection by HDRP is mediated by the inhibition of this activity through direct interaction.

  19. Sodium valproate-induced congenital cardiac abnormalities in mice are associated with the inhibition of histone deacetylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Valproic acid, a widely used anticonvulsant drug, is a potent teratogen resulting in various congenital abnormalities. However, the mechanisms underlying valproic acid induced teratogenesis are nor clear. Recent studies indicate that histone deacetylase is a direct target of valproic acid. Methods In the present study, we have used histological analysis and RT-PCR assays to examine the cardiac abnormalities in mice treated with sodium valproate (NaVP) and determined the effects of NaVP on histone deacetylase activity and the expression of heart development-related genes in mouse myocardial cells. Results The experimental data show that NaVP can induce cardiac abnormalities in fetal mice in a dose-dependent manner. NaVP causes a dose-dependent inhibition of hitone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in mouse myocardial cells. However, the expression levels of HDAC (both HDAC1 and HDAC2) are not significantly changed in fetal mouse hearts after administration of NaVP in pregnant mice. The transcriptional levels of other heart development-related genes, such as CHF1, Tbx5 and MEF2, are significantly increased in fetal mouse hearts treated with NaVP. Conclusions The study indicates that administration of NaVP in pregnant mice can result in various cardiac abnormalities in fetal hearts, which is associated with an inhibition of histone deacetylase without altering the transcription of this enzyme. PMID:20219112

  20. Sodium valproate-induced congenital cardiac abnormalities in mice are associated with the inhibition of histone deacetylase

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    Rollo Johnathon C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valproic acid, a widely used anticonvulsant drug, is a potent teratogen resulting in various congenital abnormalities. However, the mechanisms underlying valproic acid induced teratogenesis are nor clear. Recent studies indicate that histone deacetylase is a direct target of valproic acid. Methods In the present study, we have used histological analysis and RT-PCR assays to examine the cardiac abnormalities in mice treated with sodium valproate (NaVP and determined the effects of NaVP on histone deacetylase activity and the expression of heart development-related genes in mouse myocardial cells. Results The experimental data show that NaVP can induce cardiac abnormalities in fetal mice in a dose-dependent manner. NaVP causes a dose-dependent inhibition of hitone deacetylase (HDAC activity in mouse myocardial cells. However, the expression levels of HDAC (both HDAC1 and HDAC2 are not significantly changed in fetal mouse hearts after administration of NaVP in pregnant mice. The transcriptional levels of other heart development-related genes, such as CHF1, Tbx5 and MEF2, are significantly increased in fetal mouse hearts treated with NaVP. Conclusions The study indicates that administration of NaVP in pregnant mice can result in various cardiac abnormalities in fetal hearts, which is associated with an inhibition of histone deacetylase without altering the transcription of this enzyme.

  1. Subcellular Localization of Class I Histone Deacetylases in the Developing Xenopus tectum.

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    Guo, Xia; Ruan, Hangze; Li, Xia; Qin, Liming; Tao, Yi; Qi, Xianjie; Gao, Juanmei; Gan, Lin; Duan, Shumin; Shen, Wanhua

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are thought to localize in the nucleus to regulate gene transcription and play pivotal roles in neurogenesis, apoptosis, and plasticity. However, the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the developing brain remains unclear. Here, we show that HDAC1 and HDAC2 are located in both the mitochondria and the nucleus in the Xenopus laevis stage 34 tectum and are mainly restricted to the nucleus following further brain development. HDAC3 is widely present in the mitochondria, nucleus, and cytoplasm during early tectal development and is mainly distributed in the nucleus in stage 45 tectum. In contrast, HDAC8 is broadly located in the mitochondria, nucleus, and cytoplasm during tectal development. These data demonstrate that HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 are transiently localized in the mitochondria and that the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the Xenopus tectum is heterogeneous. Furthermore, we observed that spherical mitochondria accumulate in the cytoplasm at earlier stages, whereas elongated mitochondria are evenly distributed in the tectum at later stages. The activity of histone acetylation (H4K12) remains low in mitochondria during tectal development. Pharmacological blockades of HDACs using a broad spectrum HDAC inhibitor of Trichostatin A (TSA) or specific class I HDAC inhibitors of MS-275 and MGCD0103 decrease the number of mitochondria in the tectum at stage 34. These findings highlight a link between the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs and mitochondrial dynamics in the developing optic tectum of Xenopus laevis.

  2. Phase 1 study of the oral isotype specific histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 in leukemia.

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    Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Assouline, Sarit; Cortes, Jorge; Estrov, Zeev; Kantarjian, Hagop; Yang, Hui; Newsome, Willie M; Miller, Wilson H; Rousseau, Caroline; Kalita, Ann; Bonfils, Claire; Dubay, Marja; Patterson, Tracy-Ann; Li, Zuomei; Besterman, Jeffrey M; Reid, Gregory; Laille, Eric; Martell, Robert E; Minden, Mark

    2008-08-15

    MGCD0103 is an isotype-selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) targeted to isoforms 1, 2, 3, and 11. In a phase 1 study in patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), MGCD0103 was administered orally 3 times weekly without interruption. Twenty-nine patients with a median age of 62 years (range, 32-84 years) were enrolled at planned dose levels (20, 40, and 80 mg/m(2)). The majority of patients (76%) had acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In all, 24 (83%) of 29 patients had received 1 or more prior chemotherapies (range, 0-5), and 18 (62%) of 29 patients had abnormal cytogenetics. The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 60 mg/m(2), with dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea observed at higher doses. Three patients achieved a complete bone marrow response (blasts MGCD0103 within 1 hour and an elimination half-life in plasma of 9 (+/- 2) hours. Exposure to MGCD0103 was proportional to dose up to 60 mg/m(2). Analysis of peripheral white cells demonstrated induction of histone acetylation and dose-dependent inhibition of HDAC enzyme activity. In summary, MGCD0103 was safe and had antileukemia activity that was mechanism based in patients with advanced leukemia.

  3. Contrasting roles for DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases in single-item and associative recognition memory

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    Hannah Scott

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognition memory enables us to judge whether we have encountered a stimulus before and to recall associated information, including where the stimulus was encountered. The perirhinal cortex (PRh is required for judgment of stimulus familiarity, while hippocampus (HPC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are additionally involved when spatial information associated with a stimulus needs to be remembered. While gene expression is known to be essential for the consolidation of long-term recognition memory, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we investigated the roles of two epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, in recognition memory. Infusion of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors into PRh impaired performance in novel object recognition and object-in-place tasks while infusions into HPC or mPFC impaired object-in-place performance only. In contrast, inhibition of histone deacetylases in PRh, but not mPFC, enhanced recognition memory. These results support the emerging role of epigenetic processes in learning and memory.

  4. Disposition, Metabolism and Histone Deacetylase and Acetyltransferase Inhibition Activity of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Other Curcuminoids

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    Júlia T. Novaes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC, curcumin and calebin-A are curcuminoids found in turmeric (Curcuma longa. Curcuminoids have been established to have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used as natural health supplements. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolism, excretion, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of these curcuminoids and to determine disposition of THC in rats after oral administration. We developed a UHPLC–MS/MS assay for THC in rat serum and urine. THC shows multiple redistribution phases with corresponding increases in urinary excretion rate. In-vitro antioxidant activity, histone deacetylase (HDAC activity, histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity and anti-inflammatory inhibitory activity were examined using commercial assay kits. Anticancer activity was determined in Sup-T1 lymphoma cells. Our results indicate THC was poorly absorbed after oral administration and primarily excreted via non-renal routes. All curcuminoids exhibited multiple pharmacological effects in vitro, including potent antioxidant activity as well as inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and lipoxygenase activity without affecting the release of TNF-α. Unlike curcumin and calebin-A, THC did not inhibit HDAC1 and PCAF and displayed a weaker growth inhibition activity against Sup-T1 cells. We show evidence for the first time that curcumin and calebin-A inhibit HAT and PCAF, possibly through a Michael-addition mechanism.

  5. Acetanilide and bromoacetyl-lysine derivatives as activators for human histone deacetylase 8.

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    Mukhtar, Yusif M; Huang, Yajun; Liu, Jiajia; Chen, Di; Zheng, Weiping

    2017-06-01

    In the current study, seven compounds (i.e. 1-7) were found to be novel activators for the N(ε)-acetyl-lysine deacetylation reaction catalyzed by human histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). When assessed with the commercially available HDAC8 peptide substrate Fluor-de-Lys®-HDAC8 that harbors the unnatural 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC) residue immediately C-terminal to the N(ε)-acetyl-lysine residue to be deacetylated, our compounds exhibited comparable activation potency to that of TM-2-51, the strongest HDAC8 activator reported in the current literature. However, when assessed with an AMC-less peptide substrate derived from the native HDAC8 non-histone substrate protein Zinc finger protein ZNF318, while our compounds were all found to be able to activate HDAC8 deacetylation reaction, TM-2-51 was found not to be able to. Our compounds also seemed to be largely selective for HDAC8 over other classical HDACs. Moreover, treatment with the strongest activator among our compounds (i.e. 7) was found to decrease the KM of the above AMC-less HDAC8 substrate, while nearly maintaining the kcat of the HDAC8-catalyzed deacetylation on this substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Subcellular localization of class I histone deacetylases in the developing Xenopus tectum

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    Xia eGuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs are thought to localize in the nucleus to regulate gene transcription and play pivotal roles in neurogenesis, apoptosis and plasticity. However, the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the developing brain remains unclear. Here, we show that HDAC1 and HDAC2 are located in both the mitochondria and the nucleus in the Xenopus laevis stage 34 tectum and are mainly restricted to the nucleus following further brain development. HDAC3 is widely present in the mitochondria, nucleus and cytoplasm during early tectal development and is mainly distributed in the nucleus in stage 45 tectum. In contrast, HDAC8 is broadly located in the mitochondria, nucleus and cytoplasm during tectal development. These data demonstrate that HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 are transiently localized in the mitochondria and that the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the Xenopus tectum is heterogeneous. Furthermore, we observed that spherical mitochondria accumulate in the cytoplasm at earlier stages, whereas elongated mitochondria are evenly distributed in the tectum at later stages. The activity of histone acetylation (H4K12 remains low in mitochondria during tectal development. Pharmacological blockades of HDACs using a broad spectrum HDAC inhibitor of Trichostatin A (TSA or specific class I HDAC inhibitors of MS-275 and MGCD0103 decrease the number of mitochondria in the tectum at stage 34. These findings highlight a link between the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs and mitochondrial dynamics in the developing optic tectum of Xenopus laevis.

  7. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Downregulates Collagen 3A1 in Fibrotic Lung Fibroblasts

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    Victor J. Thannickal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a deadly disease characterized by chronic inflammation and excessive collagen accumulation in the lung. Myofibroblasts are the primary collagen-producing cells in pulmonary fibrosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi can affect gene expression, and some, such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, are US FDA approved for cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated SAHA’s effects on the expression of collagen III alpha 1 (COL3A1 in primary human IPF fibroblasts and in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis. We observed that increased COL3A1 expression in IPF fibroblasts can be substantially reduced by SAHA treatment at the level of transcription as detected by RT-PCR; collagen III protein level was also reduced, as detected by Western blots and immunofluorescence. The deacetylation inhibitor effect of SAHA was verified by observing higher acetylation levels of both histone H3 and H4 in treated IPF cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments demonstrated that the reduced expression of COL3A1 by SAHA is with increased association of the repressive chromatin marker, H3K27Me3, and decreased association of the active chromatin marker, H3K9Ac. In our murine model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, the SAHA treated group demonstrated significantly less collagen III, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Our data indicate that the HDACi SAHA alters the chromatin associated with COL3A1, resulting in its decreased expression.

  8. Advances in the Development of PET Ligands Targeting Histone Deacetylases for the Assessment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

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    Tetsuro Tago

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic alterations of gene expression have emerged as a key factor in several neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, inhibitors targeting histone deacetylases (HDACs, which are enzymes responsible for deacetylation of histones and other proteins, show therapeutic effects in animal neurodegenerative disease models. However, the details of the interaction between changes in HDAC levels in the brain and disease progression remain unknown. In this review, we focus on recent advances in development of radioligands for HDAC imaging in the brain with positron emission tomography (PET. We summarize the results of radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of the HDAC ligands to identify their successful results and challenges. Since 2006, several small molecules that are radiolabeled with a radioisotope such as carbon-11 or fluorine-18 have been developed and evaluated using various assays including in vitro HDAC binding assays and PET imaging in rodents and non-human primates. Although most compounds do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, adamantane-conjugated radioligands tend to show good brain uptake. Until now, only one HDAC radioligand has been tested clinically in a brain PET study. Further PET imaging studies to clarify age-related and disease-related changes in HDACs in disease models and humans will increase our understanding of the roles of HDACs in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Dietary Regulation of Histone Acetylases and Deacetylases for the Prevention of Metabolic Diseases

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    Jiyoung Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer involve epigenetic modifications, where accumulation of minute changes in the epigenome over time leads to disease manifestation. Epigenetic changes are influenced by life style and diets. This represents an avenue whereby dietary components could accelerate or prevent age-related diseases through their effects on epigenetic modifications. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that is regulated through the opposing action of histone acetylases (HATs and deacetylases (HDACs. These two families of enzymes play critical roles in metabolic processes and their dysregulation is associated with pathogenesis of several diseases. Dietary components, such as butyrate, sulforaphane, and curcumin, have been shown to affect HAT and HDAC activity, and their health benefits are attributed, at least in part, to epigenetic modifications. Given the decades that it takes to accumulate epigenetic changes, it is unlikely that pharmaceuticals could undo epigenetic changes without side effects. Therefore, long term consumption of dietary components that can alter the epigenome could be an attractive means of disease prevention. The goal of this review is to highlight the roles of diets and food components in epigenetic modifications through the regulation of HATs and HDACs for disease prevention.

  10. Class I and class II histone deacetylases are potential therapeutic targets for treating pancreatic cancer.

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    Guan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs have shown promising antitumor activities against preclinical models of pancreatic cancer, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we sought to identify clinically relevant histone deacetylases (HDACs to guide the selection of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs tailored to the treatment of pancreatic cancer. METHODOLOGY: HDAC expression in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines and normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells was determined by Western blotting. Antitumor interactions between class I- and class II-selective HDACIs were determined by MTT assays and standard isobologram/CompuSyn software analyses. The effects of HDACIs on cell death, apoptosis and cell cycle progression, and histone H4, alpha-tubulin, p21, and γH2AX levels were determined by colony formation assays, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: The majority of classes I and II HDACs were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines, albeit at variable levels. Treatments with MGCD0103 (a class I-selective HDACI resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, accompanied by induction of p21 and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. In contrast, MC1568 (a class IIa-selective HDACI or Tubastatin A (a HDAC6-selective inhibitor showed minimal effects. When combined simultaneously, MC1568 significantly enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest, while Tubastatin A only synergistically enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest. Although MC1568 or Tubastatin A alone had no obvious effects on DNA DSBs and p21 expression, their combination with MGCD0103 resulted in cooperative induction of p21 in the cells. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that classes I and II HDACs are potential therapeutic targets for

  11. Overlapping and Divergent Actions of Structurally Distinct Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Cardiac Fibroblasts.

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    Schuetze, Katherine B; Stratton, Matthew S; Blakeslee, Weston W; Wempe, Michael F; Wagner, Florence F; Holson, Edward B; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Andrews, Andrew J; Gilbert, Tonya M; Hooker, Jacob M; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2017-04-01

    Inhibitors of zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) profoundly affect cellular function by altering gene expression via changes in nucleosomal histone tail acetylation. Historically, investigators have employed pan-HDAC inhibitors, such as the hydroxamate trichostatin A (TSA), which simultaneously targets members of each of the three zinc-dependent HDAC classes (classes I, II, and IV). More recently, class- and isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors have been developed, providing invaluable chemical biology probes for dissecting the roles of distinct HDACs in the control of various physiologic and pathophysiological processes. For example, the benzamide class I HDAC-selective inhibitor, MGCD0103 [N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[[(4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-yl)amino]methyl] benzamide], was shown to block cardiac fibrosis, a process involving excess extracellular matrix deposition, which often results in heart dysfunction. Here, we compare the mechanisms of action of structurally distinct HDAC inhibitors in isolated primary cardiac fibroblasts, which are the major extracellular matrix-producing cells of the heart. TSA, MGCD0103, and the cyclic peptide class I HDAC inhibitor, apicidin, exhibited a common ability to enhance histone acetylation, and all potently blocked cardiac fibroblast cell cycle progression. In contrast, MGCD0103, but not TSA or apicidin, paradoxically increased expression of a subset of fibrosis-associated genes. Using the cellular thermal shift assay, we provide evidence that the divergent effects of HDAC inhibitors on cardiac fibroblast gene expression relate to differential engagement of HDAC1- and HDAC2-containing complexes. These findings illustrate the importance of employing multiple compounds when pharmacologically assessing HDAC function in a cellular context and during HDAC inhibitor drug development. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Chemical Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Induces Fetal Hemoglobin through Activation of GATA2.

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    Shearstone, Jeffrey R; Golonzhka, Olga; Chonkar, Apurva; Tamang, David; van Duzer, John H; Jones, Simon S; Jarpe, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention aimed at reactivation of fetal hemoglobin protein (HbF) is a promising approach for ameliorating sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia. Previous studies showed genetic knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 or 2 is sufficient to induce HbF. Here we show that ACY-957, a selective chemical inhibitor of HDAC1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), elicits a dose and time dependent induction of γ-globin mRNA (HBG) and HbF in cultured primary cells derived from healthy individuals and sickle cell patients. Gene expression profiling of erythroid progenitors treated with ACY-957 identified global changes in gene expression that were significantly enriched in genes previously shown to be affected by HDAC1 or 2 knockdown. These genes included GATA2, which was induced greater than 3-fold. Lentiviral overexpression of GATA2 in primary erythroid progenitors increased HBG, and reduced adult β-globin mRNA (HBB). Furthermore, knockdown of GATA2 attenuated HBG induction by ACY-957. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of primary erythroid progenitors demonstrated that HDAC1 and 2 occupancy was highly correlated throughout the GATA2 locus and that HDAC1/2 inhibition led to elevated histone acetylation at well-known GATA2 autoregulatory regions. The GATA2 protein itself also showed increased binding at these regions in response to ACY-957 treatment. These data show that chemical inhibition of HDAC1/2 induces HBG and suggest that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by histone acetylation-induced activation of the GATA2 gene.

  13. Histone deacetylases exert class specific roles in conditioning the brain and heart against acute ischemic injury.

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    Sverre Erik Aune

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury comprises a significant portion of morbidity and mortality from heart and brain diseases worldwide. This enduring clinical problem has inspired myriad reports in the scientific literature of experimental interventions seeking to elucidate the pathology of IR injury. Elective cardiac surgery presents perhaps the most viable scenario for protecting the heart and brain from IR injury, due to the opportunity to condition the organs prior to insult. The physiological parameters for the preconditioning of vital organs prior to insult through mechanical and pharmacologic maneuvers have been heavily examined. These investigations have revealed new insights into how preconditioning alters cellular responses to IR injury. However, the promise of preconditioning remains unfulfilled at the clinical level, and research seeking to implicate cell signals essential to this protection continues. Recent discoveries in molecular biology have revealed that gene expression can be controlled through posttranslational modifications, without altering the chemical structure of the genetic code. In this scenario, gene expression is repressed by enzymes that cause chromatin compaction through catalytic removal of acetyl moieties from lysine residues on histones. These enzymes, called histone deacetylases (HDACs, can be inhibited pharmacologically, leading to the de-repression of protective genes. The discovery that HDACs can also alter the function of non-histone proteins through posttranslational deacetylation has expanded the potential impact of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of human disease. HDAC inhibitors have been applied in a very small number of experimental models of IR. However, the scientific literature contains an increasing number of reports demonstrating that HDACs converge on preconditioning signals in the cell. This review will describe the influence of HDACs on major preconditioning signaling pathways in the heart and

  14. Contrasting Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Reward and Aversive Olfactory Memories in the Honey Bee

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    Gabrielle A Lockett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of what we have learnt from rodent models about the essential role of epigenetic processes in brain plasticity has made use of aversive learning, yet the role of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, a popular invertebrate model for both memory and epigenetics, was previously unknown. We examined the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition on both aversive and reward olfactory associative learning in a discrimination proboscis extension reflex (PER assay. We report that treatment with the HDAC inhibitors APHA compound 8 (C8, phenylbutyrate (PB or sodium butyrate (NaB impaired discrimination memory due to impairment of aversive memory in a dose-dependent manner, while simultaneously having no effect on reward memory. Treatment with C8 1 h before training, 1 h after training or 1 h before testing, impaired aversive but not reward memory at test. C8 treatment 1 h before training also improved aversive but not reward learning during training. PB treatment only impaired aversive memory at test when administered 1 h after training, suggesting an effect on memory consolidation specifically. Specific impairment of aversive memory (but not reward memory by HDAC inhibiting compounds was robust, reproducible, occurred following treatment with three drugs targeting the same mechanism, and is likely to be genuinely due to alterations to memory as sucrose sensitivity and locomotion were unaffected by HDAC inhibitor treatment. This pharmacological dissection of memory highlights the involvement of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, and expands our knowledge of epigenetic control of neural plasticity in invertebrates.

  15. Chemical Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Induces Fetal Hemoglobin through Activation of GATA2.

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    Jeffrey R Shearstone

    Full Text Available Therapeutic intervention aimed at reactivation of fetal hemoglobin protein (HbF is a promising approach for ameliorating sickle cell disease (SCD and β-thalassemia. Previous studies showed genetic knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC 1 or 2 is sufficient to induce HbF. Here we show that ACY-957, a selective chemical inhibitor of HDAC1 and 2 (HDAC1/2, elicits a dose and time dependent induction of γ-globin mRNA (HBG and HbF in cultured primary cells derived from healthy individuals and sickle cell patients. Gene expression profiling of erythroid progenitors treated with ACY-957 identified global changes in gene expression that were significantly enriched in genes previously shown to be affected by HDAC1 or 2 knockdown. These genes included GATA2, which was induced greater than 3-fold. Lentiviral overexpression of GATA2 in primary erythroid progenitors increased HBG, and reduced adult β-globin mRNA (HBB. Furthermore, knockdown of GATA2 attenuated HBG induction by ACY-957. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-Seq of primary erythroid progenitors demonstrated that HDAC1 and 2 occupancy was highly correlated throughout the GATA2 locus and that HDAC1/2 inhibition led to elevated histone acetylation at well-known GATA2 autoregulatory regions. The GATA2 protein itself also showed increased binding at these regions in response to ACY-957 treatment. These data show that chemical inhibition of HDAC1/2 induces HBG and suggest that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by histone acetylation-induced activation of the GATA2 gene.

  16. Valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induces apoptosis in breast cancer stem cells.

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    Aztopal, Nazlıhan; Erkisa, Merve; Erturk, Elif; Ulukaya, Engin; Tokullugil, Asuman Hatice; Ari, Ferda

    2018-01-25

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a cell subpopulation that can reinitiate tumors, resist chemotherapy, give rise to metastases and lead to disease relapse because of an acquired resistance to apoptosis. Especially, epigenetic alterations play a crucial role in the regulation of stemness and also have been implicated in the development of drug resistance. Hence, in the present study, we examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of valproic acid (VPA) as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) against breast CSCs (BCSCs). Increased expression of stemness markers were determined by western blotting in mammospheres (MCF-7s, a cancer stem cell-enriched population) propagated from parental MCF-7 cells. Anti-growth activity of VPA was determined via ATP viability assay. The sphere formation assay (SFA) was performed to assess the inhibitory effect of VPA on the self-renewal capacity of MCF-7s cells. Acetylation of histon H3 was detected with ELISA assay. Cell death mode was performed by Hoechst dye 33342 and propidium iodide-based flouresent stainings (for pyknosis and membrane integrity), by M30 and M65 ELISA assays (for apoptosis and primary or secondary necrosis) as well as cytofluorimetric analysis (caspase 3/7 activity and annexin-V-FITC staining for early and late stage apoptosis). VPA exhibited anti-growth effect against both MCF-7 and MCF-7s cells in a dose (0.6-20 mM) and time (24, 48, 72 h) dependent manner. As expected, MCF-7s cells were found more resistant to VPA than MCF-7 cells. It was observed that VPA prevented mammosphere formation at relatively lower doses (2.5 and 5 mM) while the acetylation of histon H3 was increased. At the same doses, VPA increased the M30 levels, annexin-V-FITC positivity and caspase 3/7 activation, implying the induction of apoptosis. The secondary necrosis (late stage of apoptosis) was also evidenced by nuclear pyknosis with propidium iodide staining positivity. Taken together, inhibition of HDACs is cytotoxic to

  17. Gene profile analysis of osteoblast genes differentially regulated by histone deacetylase inhibitors

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    Lamblin Anne-Francoise

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoblast differentiation requires the coordinated stepwise expression of multiple genes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs accelerate the osteoblast differentiation process by blocking the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs, which alter gene expression by modifying chromatin structure. We previously demonstrated that HDIs and HDAC3 shRNAs accelerate matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblast maturation genes (e.g. alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin. Identifying other genes that are differentially regulated by HDIs might identify new pathways that contribute to osteoblast differentiation. Results To identify other osteoblast genes that are altered early by HDIs, we incubated MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts with HDIs (trichostatin A, MS-275, or valproic acid for 18 hours in osteogenic conditions. The promotion of osteoblast differentiation by HDIs in this experiment was confirmed by osteogenic assays. Gene expression profiles relative to vehicle-treated cells were assessed by microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip 430 2.0 arrays. The regulation of several genes by HDIs in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Nine genes were differentially regulated by at least two-fold after exposure to each of the three HDIs and six were verified by PCR in osteoblasts. Four of the verified genes (solute carrier family 9 isoform 3 regulator 1 (Slc9a3r1, sorbitol dehydrogenase 1, a kinase anchor protein, and glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 were induced. Two genes (proteasome subunit, beta type 10 and adaptor-related protein complex AP-4 sigma 1 were suppressed. We also identified eight growth factors and growth factor receptor genes that are significantly altered by each of the HDIs, including Frizzled related proteins 1 and 4, which modulate the Wnt signaling pathway. Conclusion This study identifies osteoblast genes that are regulated early by HDIs and indicates pathways that

  18. Small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylases and acetyltransferases as potential therapeutics in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Thea; Leus, Niek; Timmerman, Tirza; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in cancer are, among others, regulated by post-translational modifications of histone proteins. The most investigated type of histone modification is lysine acetylation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), acetylate histone lysine residues,

  19. Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases Are Weak Activators of the FMR1 Gene in Fragile X Syndrome Cell Lines

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    Alexander A. Dolskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in humans. It is a result of CGG repeat expansion in the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR of the FMR1 gene. This gene encodes the FMRP protein that is involved in neuronal development. Repeat expansion leads to heterochromatinization of the promoter, gene silencing, and the subsequent absence of FMRP. To date, there is no specific therapy for the syndrome. All treatments in clinic practice provide symptomatic therapy. The development of drug therapy for Fragile X syndrome treatment is connected with the search for inhibitors of enzymes that are responsible for heterochromatinization. Here, we report a weak transcriptional activity of the FMR1 gene and the absence of FMRP protein after Fragile X syndrome cell lines treatment with two FDA approved inhibitors of histone deacetylases, romidepsin and vorinostat. We demonstrate that romidepsin, an inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases, does not activate FMR1 expression in patient cell cultures, whereas vorinostat, an inhibitor of classes I and II histone deacetylases, activates a low level of FMR1 expression in some patient cell lines.

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid promotes the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells.

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    Yuki Kondo

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects and mechanism of action of valproic acid on hepatic differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells. Human induced pluripotent stem cells were differentiated into endodermal cells in the presence of activin A and then into hepatic progenitor cells using dimethyl sulfoxide. Hepatic progenitor cells were matured in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and dexamethasone with valproic acid that was added during the maturation process. After 25 days of differentiation, cells expressed hepatic marker genes and drug-metabolizing enzymes and exhibited drug-metabolizing enzyme activities. These expression levels and activities were increased by treatment with valproic acid, the timing and duration of which were important parameters to promote differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells into hepatocytes. Valproic acid inhibited histone deacetylase activity during differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells, and other histone deacetylase inhibitors also enhanced differentiation into hepatocytes. In conclusion, histone deacetylase inhibitors such as valproic acid can be used to promote hepatic differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells.

  1. Determination of the class and isoform selectivity of small-molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nagma; Jeffers, Michael; Kumar, Sampath; Hackett, Craig; Boldog, Ferenc; Khramtsov, Nicholai; Qian, Xiaozhong; Mills, Evan; Berghs, Stanny C; Carey, Nessa; Finn, Paul W; Collins, Laura S; Tumber, Anthony; Ritchie, James W; Jensen, Peter Buhl; Lichenstein, Henri S; Sehested, Maxwell

    2008-01-15

    The human HDAC (histone deacetylase) family, a well-validated anticancer target, plays a key role in the control of gene expression through regulation of transcription. While HDACs can be subdivided into three main classes, the class I, class II and class III HDACs (sirtuins), it is presently unclear whether inhibiting multiple HDACs using pan-HDAC inhibitors, or targeting specific isoforms that show aberrant levels in tumours, will prove more effective as an anticancer strategy in the clinic. To address the above issues, we have tested a number of clinically relevant HDACis (HDAC inhibitors) against a panel of rhHDAC (recombinant human HDAC) isoforms. Eight rhHDACs were expressed using a baculoviral system, and a Fluor de Lystrade mark (Biomol International) HDAC assay was optimized for each purified isoform. The potency and selectivity of ten HDACs on class I isoforms (rhHDAC1, rhHDAC2, rhHDAC3 and rhHDAC8) and class II HDAC isoforms (rhHDAC4, rhHDAC6, rhHDAC7 and rhHDAC9) was determined. MS-275 was HDAC1-selective, MGCD0103 was HDAC1- and HDAC2-selective, apicidin was HDAC2- and HDAC3-selective and valproic acid was a specific inhibitor of class I HDACs. The hydroxamic acid-derived compounds (trichostatin A, NVP-LAQ824, panobinostat, ITF2357, vorinostat and belinostat) were potent pan-HDAC inhibitors. The growth-inhibitory effect of the HDACis on HeLa cells showed that both pan-HDAC and class-I-specific inhibitors inhibited cell growth. The results also showed that both pan-HDAC and class-I-specific inhibitor treatment resulted in increased acetylation of histones, but only pan-HDAC inhibitor treatment resulted in increased tubulin acetylation, which is in agreement with their activity towards the HDAC6 isoform.

  2. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Alleviates Salinity Stress in Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanun, Onsaya; Ueda, Minoru; Itouga, Misao; Kato, Yukari; Utsumi, Yoshinori; Matsui, Akihiro; Tanaka, Maho; Utsumi, Chikako; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Minoru; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) demand has been rising because of its various applications. High salinity stress is a major environmental factor that interferes with normal plant growth and limits crop productivity. As well as genetic engineering to enhance stress tolerance, the use of small molecules is considered as an alternative methodology to modify plants with desired traits. The effectiveness of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for increasing tolerance to salinity stress has recently been reported. Here we use the HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), to enhance tolerance to high salinity in cassava. Immunoblotting analysis reveals that SAHA treatment induces strong hyper-acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in roots, suggesting that SAHA functions as the HDAC inhibitor in cassava. Consistent with increased tolerance to salt stress under SAHA treatment, reduced Na+ content and increased K+/Na+ ratio were detected in SAHA-treated plants. Transcriptome analysis to discover mechanisms underlying salinity stress tolerance mediated through SAHA treatment reveals that SAHA enhances the expression of 421 genes in roots under normal condition, and 745 genes at 2 h and 268 genes at 24 h under both SAHA and NaCl treatment. The mRNA expression of genes, involved in phytohormone [abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene, and gibberellin] biosynthesis pathways, is up-regulated after high salinity treatment in SAHA-pretreated roots. Among them, an allene oxide cyclase (MeAOC4) involved in a crucial step of JA biosynthesis is strongly up-regulated by SAHA treatment under salinity stress conditions, implying that JA pathway might contribute to increasing salinity tolerance by SAHA treatment. Our results suggest that epigenetic manipulation might enhance tolerance to high salinity stress in cassava.

  3. Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling.

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    Maya Shakèd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical

  4. Histone deacetylases: revealing the molecular base of dimorphism in pathogenic fungi

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    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungi, as every living organism, interact with the external world and have to adapt to its fluctuations. For pathogenic fungi, such interaction involves adapting to the hostile environment of their host. Survival depends on the capacity of fungi to detect and respond to external stimuli, which is achieved through a tight and efficient genetic control. Chromatin modifications represent a well-known layer of regulation that controls gene expression in response to environmental signals. However, less is known about the chromatin modifications that are involved in fungal virulence and the specific cues and signalling pathways that target chromatin modifications to specific genes. In a recently published study, our research group identified one such regulatory pathway. We demonstrated that the histone deacetylase (HDAC Hos2 is involved in yeast-to-hyphal transition (dimorphism and it is associated with the virulence of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of smut disease in corn. Hos2 activates mating-type genes by directly binding to their gene bodies. Furthermore, Hos2 acts downstream of the nutrient-sensing cyclic AMP-Protein Kinase A pathway. We also found that another HDAC, Clr3, contributes to this regulation, possibly in cooperation with Hos2. As a whole, our data suggest that there is a direct link between changes in the environment and acetylation of nucleosomes within certain genes. We propose that histone acetylation is critical to the proper timing and induction of transcription of the genes encoding factors that coordinate changes in morphology with pathogenesis.

  5. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A modulates CD4+ T cell responses

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    Moreira José

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs induce hyperacetylation of core histones modulating chromatin structure and affecting gene expression. These compounds are also able to induce growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptotic cell death of tumor cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Even though several genes modulated by HDAC inhibition have been identified, those genes clearly responsible for the biological effects of these drugs have remained elusive. We investigated the pharmacological effect of the HDACI and potential anti-cancer agent Trichostatin A (TSA on primary T cells. Methods To ascertain the effect of TSA on resting and activated T cells we used a model system where an enriched cell population consisting of primary T-cells was stimulated in vitro with immobilized anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies whilst exposed to pharmacological concentrations of Trichostatin A. Results We found that this drug causes a rapid decline in cytokine expression, accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and induces apoptotic cell death. The mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC plays a critical role in the apoptotic response to TSA, as dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers block TSA-induced T-cell death. Treatment of T cells with TSA results in the altered expression of a subset of genes involved in T cell responses, as assessed by microarray gene expression profiling. We also observed up- as well as down-regulation of various costimulatory/adhesion molecules, such as CD28 and CD154, important for T-cell function. Conclusions Taken together, our findings indicate that HDAC inhibitors have an immunomodulatory potential that may contribute to the potency and specificity of these antineoplastic compounds and might be useful in the treatment of autoimmune disorders.

  6. Monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons have distinct expression profiles of histone deacetylases.

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    Kenkichi Takase

    Full Text Available Monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons regulate a wide variety of behaviors, such as feeding, sleep/wakefulness behavior, stress response, addiction, and social behavior. These neurons form neural circuits to integrate different modalities of behavioral and environmental factors, such as stress, maternal care, and feeding conditions. One possible mechanism for integrating environmental factors through the monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons is through the epigenetic regulation of gene expression via altered acetylation of histones. Histone deacetylases (HDACs play an important role in altering behavior in response to environmental factors. Despite increasing attention and the versatile roles of HDACs in a variety of brain functions and disorders, no reports have detailed the localization of the HDACs in the monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons. Here, we examined the expression profile of the HDAC protein family from HDAC1 to HDAC11 in corticotropin-releasing hormone, oxytocin, vasopressin, agouti-related peptide (AgRP, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, orexin, histamine, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline neurons. Immunoreactivities for HDAC1,-2,-3,-5,-6,-7,-9, and -11 were very similar among the monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons, while the HDAC4, -8, and -10 immunoreactivities were clearly different among neuronal groups. HDAC10 expression was found in AgRP neurons, POMC neurons, dopamine neurons and noradrenaline neurons but not in other neuronal groups. HDAC8 immunoreactivity was detected in the cytoplasm of almost all histamine neurons with a pericellular pattern but not in other neuropeptidergic and monoaminergic neurons. Thus, the differential expression of HDACs in monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons may be crucial for the maintenance of biological characteristics and may be altered in response to environmental factors.

  7. Adipocyte Liver Kinase b1 Suppresses Beige Adipocyte Renaissance Through Class IIa Histone Deacetylase 4.

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    Wang, Yangmeng; Paulo, Esther; Wu, Dongmei; Wu, Yixuan; Huang, Wendong; Chawla, Ajay; Wang, Biao

    2017-12-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 + beige adipocytes are dynamically regulated by environment in rodents and humans; cold induces formation of beige adipocytes, whereas warm temperature and nutrient excess lead to their disappearance. Beige adipocytes can form through de novo adipogenesis; however, how "beiging" characteristics are maintained afterward is largely unknown. In this study, we show that beige adipocytes formed postnatally in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue lost thermogenic gene expression and multilocular morphology at the adult stage, but cold restored their beiging characteristics, a phenomenon termed beige adipocyte renaissance. Ablation of these postnatal beige adipocytes inhibited cold-induced beige adipocyte formation in adult mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that beige adipocyte renaissance was governed by liver kinase b1 and histone deacetylase 4 in white adipocytes. Although neither presence nor thermogenic function of uncoupling protein 1 + beige adipocytes contributed to metabolic fitness in adipocyte liver kinase b1-deficient mice, our results reveal an unexpected role of white adipocytes in maintaining properties of preexisting beige adipocytes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Expression of histone deacetylases in lymphoma: implication for the development of selective inhibitors.

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    Gloghini, Annunziata; Buglio, Daniela; Khaskhely, Noor M; Georgakis, Georgios; Orlowski, Robert Z; Neelapu, Sattva S; Carbone, Antonino; Younes, Anas

    2009-11-01

    Unselective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a promising novel therapy for lymphoid malignancies. However, these treatments remain empiric as the pattern of HDAC enzymes in different types of cancer, including lymphoid malignancies, remains unknown. We examined the expression of class I and class II HDACs in a panel of cell lines and tissue sections from primary lymphoid tumours. Class I enzymes were highly expressed in all cell lines and primary tumours studied, including the non-malignant reactive cells in the Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) microenvironment. The most frequently altered HDAC expression was HDAC6, as it was either weakly expressed or undetected in 9/14 (64%) of lymphoid cell lines and in 83/89 (93%) of primary lymphoma tissue specimens, including 50/52 (96%) cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and 18/22 (82%) cases of classical HL. Cell lines that had low expression level of HDAC6 demonstrated aberrant expression of hyper-acetylated tubulin, and were found to be more sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of the class I HDAC inhibitor MGCD0103. Collectively, our data demonstrate that HDAC6 is rarely expressed in primary lymphoma cases, suggesting that it may not be an important therapeutic target in these lymphoid malignancies.

  9. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitors in clinical trials as anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiahuai; Cang, Shundong; Ma, Yuehua; Petrillo, Richard L; Liu, Delong

    2010-02-04

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) can regulate expression of tumor suppressor genes and activities of transcriptional factors involved in both cancer initiation and progression through alteration of either DNA or the structural components of chromatin. Recently, the role of gene repression through modulation such as acetylation in cancer patients has been clinically validated with several inhibitors of HDACs. One of the HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat, has been approved by FDA for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) for patients with progressive, persistent, or recurrent disease on or following two systemic therapies. Other inhibitors, for example, FK228, PXD101, PCI-24781, ITF2357, MGCD0103, MS-275, valproic acid and LBH589 have also demonstrated therapeutic potential as monotherapy or combination with other anti-tumor drugs in CTCL and other malignancies. At least 80 clinical trials are underway, testing more than eleven different HDAC inhibitory agents including both hematological and solid malignancies. This review focuses on recent development in clinical trials testing HDAC inhibitors as anti-tumor agents.

  10. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitors in clinical trials as anti-cancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrillo Richard L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histone deacetylases (HDACs can regulate expression of tumor suppressor genes and activities of transcriptional factors involved in both cancer initiation and progression through alteration of either DNA or the structural components of chromatin. Recently, the role of gene repression through modulation such as acetylation in cancer patients has been clinically validated with several inhibitors of HDACs. One of the HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat, has been approved by FDA for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL for patients with progressive, persistent, or recurrent disease on or following two systemic therapies. Other inhibitors, for example, FK228, PXD101, PCI-24781, ITF2357, MGCD0103, MS-275, valproic acid and LBH589 have also demonstrated therapeutic potential as monotherapy or combination with other anti-tumor drugs in CTCL and other malignancies. At least 80 clinical trials are underway, testing more than eleven different HDAC inhibitory agents including both hematological and solid malignancies. This review focuses on recent development in clinical trials testing HDAC inhibitors as anti-tumor agents.

  11. A Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase regulates antigenic variation and gametocyte conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bradley I; Skillman, Kristen M; Jiang, Rays H Y; Childs, Lauren M; Altenhofen, Lindsey M; Ganter, Markus; Leung, Yvette; Goldowitz, Ilana; Kafsack, Björn F C; Marti, Matthias; Llinás, Manuel; Buckee, Caroline O; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2014-08-13

    The asexual forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are adapted for chronic persistence in human red blood cells, continuously evading host immunity using epigenetically regulated antigenic variation of virulence-associated genes. Parasite survival on a population level also requires differentiation into sexual forms, an obligatory step for further human transmission. We reveal that the essential nuclear gene, P. falciparum histone deacetylase 2 (PfHda2), is a global silencer of virulence gene expression and controls the frequency of switching from the asexual cycle to sexual development. PfHda2 depletion leads to dysregulated expression of both virulence-associated var genes and PfAP2-g, a transcription factor controlling sexual conversion, and is accompanied by increases in gametocytogenesis. Mathematical modeling further indicates that PfHda2 has likely evolved to optimize the parasite's infectious period by achieving low frequencies of virulence gene expression switching and sexual conversion. This common regulation of cellular transcriptional programs mechanistically links parasite transmissibility and virulence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reolysin and Histone Deacetylase Inhibition in the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Ramirez, Alena C; Yu, Jun-Ge; Caserta, Enrico; Yoo, Ji Young; Zhang, Jianying; Lee, Tae Jin; Hofmeister, Craig; Lee, John H; Kumar, Bhavna; Pan, Quintin; Kumar, Pawan; Baiocchi, Robert; Teknos, Theodoros; Pichiorri, Flavia; Kaur, Balveen; Old, Matthew

    2017-06-16

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are emerging as powerful anti-cancer agents and are currently being tested for their safety and efficacy in patients. Reovirus (Reolysin), a naturally occurring non-pathogenic, double-stranded RNA virus, has natural oncolytic activity and is being tested in phase I-III clinical trials in a variety of tumor types. With its recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) orphan drug designation for several tumor types, Reolysin is a potential therapeutic agent for various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), which have a 5-year survival of ∼55%. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) comprise a structurally diverse class of compounds with targeted anti-cancer effects. The first FDA-approved HDACi, vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA]), is currently being tested in patients with head and neck cancer. Recent findings indicate that HDAC inhibition in myeloma cells results in the upregulation of the Reolysin entry receptor, junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM-1), facilitating reovirus infection and tumor cell killing both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested the anti-tumor efficacy of HDAC inhibitors AR-42 or SAHA in conjunction with Reolysin in HNSCCs. While HDAC inhibition increased JAM-1 and reovirus entry, the impact of this combination therapy was tested on the development of anti-tumor immune responses.

  13. Reolysin and Histone Deacetylase Inhibition in the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Alena C. Jaime-Ramirez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OVs are emerging as powerful anti-cancer agents and are currently being tested for their safety and efficacy in patients. Reovirus (Reolysin, a naturally occurring non-pathogenic, double-stranded RNA virus, has natural oncolytic activity and is being tested in phase I–III clinical trials in a variety of tumor types. With its recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA orphan drug designation for several tumor types, Reolysin is a potential therapeutic agent for various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs, which have a 5-year survival of ∼55%. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis comprise a structurally diverse class of compounds with targeted anti-cancer effects. The first FDA-approved HDACi, vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA], is currently being tested in patients with head and neck cancer. Recent findings indicate that HDAC inhibition in myeloma cells results in the upregulation of the Reolysin entry receptor, junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM-1, facilitating reovirus infection and tumor cell killing both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested the anti-tumor efficacy of HDAC inhibitors AR-42 or SAHA in conjunction with Reolysin in HNSCCs. While HDAC inhibition increased JAM-1 and reovirus entry, the impact of this combination therapy was tested on the development of anti-tumor immune responses.

  14. Arabidopsis WRKY38 and WRKY62 transcription factors interact with histone deacetylase 19 in basal defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Chang; Lai, Zhibing; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2008-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY38 and WRKY62, encoding two structurally similar type III WRKY transcription factors, are induced in a Nonexpressor of PR Gene1 (NPR1)-dependent manner by salicylic acid (SA) or by virulent Pseudomonas syringae. Disease resistance and SA-regulated Pathogenesis-Related1 (PR1) gene expression are enhanced in the wrky38 and wrky62 single mutants and, to a greater extent, in the double mutants. Overexpression of WRKY38 or WRKY62 reduces disease resistance and PR1 expression. Thus, WRKY38 and WRKY62 function additively as negative regulators of plant basal defense. WRKY38 and WRKY62 interact with Histone Deacetylase 19 (HDA19). Expression of HDA19 is also induced by P. syringae, and the stability of its induced transcripts depends on SA and NPR1 in infected plants. Disruption of HDA19 leads to compromised resistance, whereas its overexpression results in enhanced resistance to P. syringae. Thus, HDA19 has a role opposite from those of WRKY38 and WRKY62 in basal resistance to the bacterial pathogen. Both WRKY38 and WRKY62 are transcriptional activators in plant cells, but their activation activities are abolished by overexpressed HDA19. Interaction of WRKY38 and WRKY62 with HDA19 may act to fine-tune plant basal defense responses.

  15. The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid attenuates human astrocyte neurotoxicity induced by interferon-γ

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    Hashioka Sadayuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Increasing evidence shows that the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. It is tempting to evaluate the potential of SAHA as a therapeutic agent in various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Methods We examined the effects of SAHA on interferon (IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes and on IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 in human astrocytes. We also studied the effects of SAHA on the astrocytic production of two representative IFN-γ-inducible inflammatory molecules, namely IFN-γ-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Results SAHA significantly attenuated the toxicity of astrocytes activated by IFN-γ towards SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells. In the IFN-γ-activated astrocytes, SAHA reduced the STAT3 phosphorylation. SAHA also inhibited the IFN-γ-induced astrocytic production of I-TAC, but not ICAM-1. These results indicate that SAHA suppresses IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Conclusion Due to its anti-neurotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties, SAHA appears to have the therapeutic or preventive potential for a wide range of neuroinflammatory disorders associated with activated astrocytes.

  16. Suppression of p53 activity through the cooperative action of Ski and histone deacetylase SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasumichi; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Miyazawa, Keiji; Imamura, Takeshi

    2011-02-25

    Ski was originally identified as an oncogene based on the fact that Ski overexpression transformed chicken and quail embryo fibroblasts. Consistent with these proposed oncogenic roles, Ski is overexpressed in various human tumors. However, whether and how Ski functions in mammalian tumorigenesis has not been fully investigated. Here, we show that Ski interacts with p53 and attenuates the biological functions of p53. Ski overexpression attenuated p53-dependent transactivation, whereas Ski knockdown enhanced the transcriptional activity of p53. Interestingly, Ski bound to the histone deacetylase SIRT1 and stabilized p53-SIRT1 interaction to promote p53 deacetylation, which subsequently decreased the DNA binding activity of p53. Consistent with the ability of Ski to inactivate p53, overexpressing Ski desensitized cells to genotoxic drugs and Nutlin-3, a small-molecule antagonist of Mdm2 that stabilizes p53 and activates the p53 pathway, whereas knocking down Ski increased the cellular sensitivity to these agents. These results indicate that Ski negatively regulates p53 and suggest that the p53-Ski-SIRT1 axis is an attractive target for cancer therapy.

  17. Inhibition of SRC-3 enhances sensitivity of human cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors

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    Zou, Zhengzhi, E-mail: zouzhengzhi@m.scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Luo, Xiaoyong [Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Luoyang Central Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Luoyang 471000 (China); Nie, Peipei [KingMed Diagnostics and KingMed School of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wu, Baoyan; Zhang, Tao; Wei, Yanchun [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, Wenyi [Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000 (China); Geng, Guojun; Jiang, Jie [Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000 (China); Mi, Yanjun, E-mail: myjgj_77@163.com [Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000 (China)

    2016-09-09

    SRC-3 is widely expressed in multiple tumor types and involved in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising antitumor drugs. However, the poor efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in solid tumors has restricted its further clinical application. Here, we reported the novel finding that depletion of SRC-3 enhanced sensitivity of breast and lung cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors (SAHA and romidepsin). In contrast, overexpression of SRC-3 decreased SAHA-induced cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that SRC-3 inhibitor bufalin increased cancer cell apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors. The combination of bufalin and SAHA was particular efficient in attenuating AKT activation and reducing Bcl-2 levels. Taken together, these accumulating data might guide development of new breast and lung cancer therapies. - Highlights: • Depletion of SRC-3 enhanced sensitivity of breast and lung cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors. • Overexpression of SRC-3 enhanced cancer cell resistance to HDAC inhibitors. • SRC-3 inhibitor bufalin increased cancer cell apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors. • Bufalin synergized with HDAC inhibitor attenuated AKT activation and reduced Bcl-2 levels in human cancer cell.

  18. Ketamine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression via phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 5 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Min Hyeop; Kim, Yong-Seok; Son, Hyeon

    2017-08-05

    Ketamine shows promise as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of depression. The increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine, but the mechanism of BDNF induction is not well understood. In the current study, we demonstrate that the treatment of rats with ketamine results in the dose-dependent rapid upregulation of Bdnf promoter IV activity and expression of Bdnf exon IV mRNAs in rat hippocampal neurons. Transfection of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) into rat hippocampal neurons similarly induces Bdnf mRNA expression in response to ketamine, whereas transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259 and Ser498 replaced by Ala259 and Ala498), results in the suppression of ketamine-mediated BDNF promoter IV transcriptional activity. Viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 induces Bdnf mRNA and protein expression, and blocks the enhancing effects of ketamine on BDNF expression in both unstressed and stressed rats, and thereby providing evidence for the role of HDAC5 in the regulation of Bdnf expression. Taken together, our findings implicate HDAC5 in the ketamine-induced transcriptional regulation of Bdnf, and suggest that the phosphorylation of HDAC5 regulates the therapeutic actions of ketamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Erythropoietin and carbamylated erythropoietin promote histone deacetylase 5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons

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    Jo, Hye-Ryeong [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Seok [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyeon, E-mail: hyeonson@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-29

    Erythropoietin (EPO) produces neurotrophic effects in animal model of neurodegeneration. However, clinical use of EPO is limited due to thrombotic risk. Carbamylated EPO (cEPO), devoid of thrombotic risk, has been proposed as a novel neuroprotective and neurotrophic agent although the molecular mechanisms of cEPO remain incomplete. Here, we show a previously unidentified role of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in the actions of EPO and cEPO. EPO and cEPO regulate the HDAC5 phosphorylation at two critical sites, Ser259 and Ser498 through a protein kinase D (PKD) dependent pathway. In addition, EPO and cEPO rapidly stimulates nuclear export of HDAC5 in rat hippocampal neurons which expressing HDAC5-GFP. Consequently, EPO and cEPO enhanced the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) target gene expression. Taken together, our results reveal that EPO and cEPO mediate MEF2 target gene expression via the regulation of HDAC5 phosphorylation at Ser259/498, and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of EPO and cEPO.

  20. Synthesis, evaluation and molecular modeling of cyclic tetrapeptide histone deacetylase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dawei; Li, Xiaohui; Sun, Lei; Xiu, Zhilong; Nishino, Norikazu

    2012-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are a promising class of anticancer agents. To examine whether a slight change in the recognition domain could alter their inhibitory activity, we synthesized a series of cyclo(-L-Am7(S2Py)-Aib-L-Phe(n-Me)-D-Pro)derivatives and evaluated their HDAC inhibitory and anticancer activities. The peptides exhibited potent HDAC inhibitory activity and inhibited three human cancer cell lines with IC₅₀ in the micromolar range. Docking and molecular dynamics simulation were conducted to explore the interaction mechanisms of class I and II HDACs with these inhibitors. It revealed that the zinc ion in the active site coordinated five atoms of HDACs and the sulfur atom of the inhibitor. The metal binding domains of these compounds interacted with HDAC2, and the surface recognition domains of these compounds interacted with HDAC4 through hydrogen bonding. The hydrophobic interactions also provided favorable contributions to stabilize the complexes. The results obtained from this study would be helpful for us to design some novel cyclic tetrapeptides that may act as potent HDACIs. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Differential histone deacetylase mRNA expression patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Claas; Schmalbach, Sonja; Boeselt, Sebastian; Sarlette, Alexander; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important regulators of gene expression and cell differentiation. The HDAC inhibitors have recently been considered as potential novel neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A major limitation, however, lies in the broad spectrum of action of currently available HDAC inhibitors that may cause a variety of toxic side effects. The mRNA expression levels of the HDAC isoforms HDACs 1 to 11 have previously been characterized in rat brain but have not been studied in human tissue. Using in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry we assessed the distribution and expression levels of HDACs 1to 11 in postmortem ALS and control brain and spinal cord specimens (n = 6 cases each) to determine alterations in the mRNA expression pattern that could provide a basis for disease-specific therapies. We found a reduction of HDAC 11 mRNA and increased HDAC 2 levels in ALS brain and spinal cord compared with controls. A more precise knowledge of the disease-related expression pattern could lead to the development of more specific pharmacotherapeutic approaches.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibition reduces hypothyroidism-induced neurodevelopmental defects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mohan, Vishwa; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Chagtoo, Megha; Godbole, Madan M

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) through its receptor (TRα/β) influences spatio-temporal regulation of its target gene repertoire during brain development. Though hypothyroidism in WT rodent models of perinatal hypothyroidism severely impairs neurodevelopment, its effect on TRα/β knockout mice is less severe. An explanation to this paradox is attributed to a possible repressive action of unliganded TRs during development. Since unliganded TRs suppress gene expression through the recruitment of histone deacetylase (HDACs) via co-repressor complexes, we tested whether pharmacological inhibition of HDACs may prevent the effects of hypothyroidism on brain development. Using valproate, an HDAC inhibitor, we show that HDAC inhibition significantly blocks the deleterious effects of hypothyroidism on rat cerebellum, evident by recovery of TH target genes like Bdnf, Pcp2 and Mbp as well as improved dendritic structure of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Together with this, HDAC inhibition also rescues hypothyroidism-induced motor and cognitive defects. This study therefore provides an insight into the role of HDACs in TH insufficiency during neurodevelopment and their inhibition as a possible therapeutics for treatment. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Histone deacetylase 8 is required for centrosome cohesion and influenza A virus entry.

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    Yohei Yamauchi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV enters host cells by endocytosis followed by acid-activated penetration from late endosomes (LEs. Using siRNA silencing, we found that histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8, a cytoplasmic enzyme, efficiently promoted productive entry of IAV into tissue culture cells, whereas HDAC1 suppressed it. HDAC8 enhanced endocytosis, acidification, and penetration of the incoming virus. In contrast, HDAC1 inhibited acidification and penetration. The effects were connected with dramatic alterations in the organization of the microtubule system, and, as a consequence, a change in the behavior of LEs and lysosomes (LYs. Depletion of HDAC8 caused loss of centrosome-associated microtubules and loss of directed centripetal movement of LEs, dispersing LE/LYs to the cell periphery. For HDAC1, the picture was the opposite. To explain these changes, centrosome cohesion emerged as the critical factor. Depletion of HDAC8 caused centrosome splitting, which could also be induced by depleting a centriole-linker protein, rootletin. In both cases, IAV infection was inhibited. HDAC1 depletion reduced the splitting of centrosomes, and enhanced infection. The longer the distance between centrosomes, the lower the level of infection. HDAC8 depletion was also found to inhibit infection of Uukuniemi virus (a bunyavirus suggesting common requirements among late penetrating enveloped viruses. The results established class I HDACs as powerful regulators of microtubule organization, centrosome function, endosome maturation, and infection by IAV and other late penetrating viruses.

  4. Tetraspanin CD9 modulates human lymphoma cellular proliferation via histone deacetylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Michael J. [Vascular Biology Center of Excellence, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Department of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Department of Molecular Sciences, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Longhurst, Celia M.; Baker, Benjamin [Vascular Biology Center of Excellence, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Homayouni, Ramin [Department of Biology, Bioinformatics Program, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Speich, Henry E.; Kotha, Jayaprakash [Vascular Biology Center of Excellence, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Jennings, Lisa K., E-mail: ljennings@uthsc.edu [Vascular Biology Center of Excellence, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Department of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Department of Molecular Sciences, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Department of Biology, Bioinformatics Program, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • CD9 is differentially expressed in human Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. • We found that CD9 expression promotes these cells proliferation. • CD9 expression also increases HDAC activity. • HDAC inhibition decreased both cell proliferation and importantly CD9 expression. • CD9 may dictate HDAC efficacy and play a role in HDAC regulation. - Abstract: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is a type of hematological malignancy that affects two percent of the overall population in the United States. Tetraspanin CD9 is a cell surface protein that has been thoroughly demonstrated to be a molecular facilitator of cellular phenotype. CD9 expression varies in two human lymphoma cell lines, Raji and BJAB. In this report, we investigated the functional relationship between CD9 and cell proliferation regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in these two cell lines. Introduction of CD9 expression in Raji cells resulted in significantly increased cell proliferation and HDAC activity compared to Mock transfected Raji cells. The increase in CD9–Raji cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment. Pretreatment of BJAB cells with HDAC inhibitors resulted in a significant decrease in endogenous CD9 mRNA and cell surface expression. BJAB cells also displayed decreased cell proliferation after HDACi treatment. These results suggest a significant relationship between CD9 expression and cell proliferation in human lymphoma cells that may be modulated by HDAC activity.

  5. Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Is Dictated by Distinct Actions of Nuclear Receptor Corepressors and Histone Deacetylases

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    Gonçalo Castelo-Branco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Signaling factors including retinoic acid (RA and thyroid hormone (T3 promote neuronal, oligodendrocyte, and astrocyte differentiation of cortical neural stem cells (NSCs. However, the functional specificity of transcriptional repressor checkpoints controlling these differentiation programs remains unclear. Here, we show by genome-wide analysis that histone deacetylase (HDAC2 and HDAC3 show overlapping and distinct promoter occupancy at neuronal and oligodendrocyte-related genes in NSCs. The absence of HDAC3, but not HDAC2, initiated a neuronal differentiation pathway in NSCs. The ablation of the corepressor NCOR or HDAC2, in conjunction with T3 treatment, resulted in increased expression of oligodendrocyte genes, revealing a direct HDAC2-mediated repression of Sox8 and Sox10 expression. Interestingly, Sox10 was required also for maintaining the more differentiated state by repression of stem cell programming factors such as Sox2 and Sox9. Distinct and nonredundant actions of NCORs and HDACs are thus critical for control of lineage progression and differentiation programs in neural progenitors.

  6. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

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    Yaning Cui

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA and sodium butyrate (NaB to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components.

  7. Sonic Hedgehog-Induced Histone Deacetylase Activation Is Required for Cerebellar Granule Precursor Hyperplasia in Medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Joon; Lindsey, Stephan; Graves, Bruce; Yoo, Soonmoon; Olson, James M.; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2013-01-01

    Medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain tumor, is thought to arise from deregulated proliferation of cerebellar granule precursor (CGP) cells. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is the primary mitogen that regulates proliferation of CGP cells during the early stages of postnatal cerebellum development. Aberrant activation of Shh signaling during this time has been associated with hyperplasia of CGP cells and eventually may lead to the development of medulloblastoma. The molecular targets of Shh signaling involved in medulloblastoma formation are still not well-understood. Here, we show that Shh regulates sustained activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and that this activity is required for continued proliferation of CGP cells. Suppression of HDAC activity not only blocked the Shh-induced CGP proliferation in primary cell cultures, but also ameliorated aberrant CGP proliferation at the external germinal layer (EGL) in a medulloblastoma mouse model. Increased levels of mRNA and protein of several HDAC family members were found in medulloblastoma compared to wild type cerebellum suggesting that HDAC activity is required for the survival/progression of tumor cells. The identification of a role of HDACs in the early steps of medulloblastoma formation suggests there may be a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors in this disease. PMID:23951168

  8. The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.

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    Helen L Fitzsimons

    Full Text Available A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation.

  9. Histone deacetylase 3 depletion in osteo/chondroprogenitor cells decreases bone density and increases marrow fat.

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    David F Razidlo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (Hdac3 is a nuclear enzyme that contributes to epigenetic programming and is required for embryonic development. To determine the role of Hdac3 in bone formation, we crossed mice harboring loxP sites around exon 7 of Hdac3 with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the osterix promoter. The resulting Hdac3 conditional knockout (CKO mice were runted and had severe deficits in intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. Calvarial bones were significantly thinner and trabecular bone volume in the distal femur was decreased 75% in the Hdac3 CKO mice due to a substantial reduction in trabecular number. Hdac3-CKO mice had fewer osteoblasts and more bone marrow adipocytes as a proportion of tissue area than their wildtype or heterozygous littermates. Bone formation rates were depressed in both the cortical and trabecular regions of Hdac3 CKO femurs. Microarray analyses revealed that numerous developmental signaling pathways were affected by Hdac3-deficiency. Thus, Hdac3 depletion in osterix-expressing progenitor cells interferes with bone formation and promotes bone marrow adipocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that Hdac3 inhibition is detrimental to skeletal health.

  10. Molecular modeling study on tunnel behavior in different histone deacetylase isoforms.

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    Sundarapandian Thangapandian

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs have emerged as effective therapeutic targets in the treatment of various diseases including cancers as these enzymes directly involved in the epigenetic regulation of genes. However the development of isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors has been a challenge till date since all HDAC enzymes possess conserved tunnel-like active site. In this study, using molecular dynamics simulation we have analyzed the behavior of tunnels present in HDAC8, 10, and 11 enzymes of class I, II, and IV, respectively. We have identified the equivalent tunnel forming amino acids in these three isoforms and found that they are very much conserved with subtle differences to be utilized in selective inhibitor development. One amino acid, methionine of HDAC8, among six tunnel forming residues is different in isoforms of other classes (glutamic acid (E in HDAC10 and leucine (L in HDAC 11 based on which mutations were introduced in HDAC11, the less studied HDAC isoform, to observe the effects of this change. The HDAC8-like (L268M mutation in the tunnel forming residues has almost maintained the deep and narrow tunnel as present in HDAC8 whereas HDAC10-like (L268E mutation has changed the tunnel wider and shallow as observed in HDAC10. These results explained the importance of the single change in the tunnel formation in different isoforms. The observations from this study can be utilized in the development of isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors.

  11. Complex molecular mechanisms cooperate to mediate histone deacetylase inhibitors anti-tumour activity in neuroblastoma cells

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    Nardou Katya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi are a new class of promising anti-tumour agent inhibiting cell proliferation and survival in tumour cells with very low toxicity toward normal cells. Neuroblastoma (NB is the second most common solid tumour in children still associated with poor outcome in higher stages and, thus NB strongly requires novel treatment modalities. Results We show here that the HDACi Sodium Butyrate (NaB, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA and Trichostatin A (TSA strongly reduce NB cells viability. The anti-tumour activity of these HDACi involved the induction of cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, followed by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, via the activation of the caspases cascade. Moreover, HDACi mediated the activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and BimEL and the inactivation of the anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, Bcl-xL, RIP and survivin, that further enhanced the apoptotic signal. Interestingly, the activity of these apoptosis regulators was modulated by several different mechanisms, either by caspases dependent proteolytic cleavage or by degradation via the proteasome pathway. In addition, HDACi strongly impaired the hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF by NB cells. Conclusion HDACi are therefore interesting new anti-tumour agents for targeting highly malignant tumours such as NB, as these agents display a strong toxicity toward aggressive NB cells and they may possibly reduce angiogenesis by decreasing VEGF production by NB cells.

  12. Sonic hedgehog-induced histone deacetylase activation is required for cerebellar granule precursor hyperplasia in medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Joon Lee

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain tumor, is thought to arise from deregulated proliferation of cerebellar granule precursor (CGP cells. Sonic hedgehog (Shh is the primary mitogen that regulates proliferation of CGP cells during the early stages of postnatal cerebellum development. Aberrant activation of Shh signaling during this time has been associated with hyperplasia of CGP cells and eventually may lead to the development of medulloblastoma. The molecular targets of Shh signaling involved in medulloblastoma formation are still not well-understood. Here, we show that Shh regulates sustained activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs and that this activity is required for continued proliferation of CGP cells. Suppression of HDAC activity not only blocked the Shh-induced CGP proliferation in primary cell cultures, but also ameliorated aberrant CGP proliferation at the external germinal layer (EGL in a medulloblastoma mouse model. Increased levels of mRNA and protein of several HDAC family members were found in medulloblastoma compared to wild type cerebellum suggesting that HDAC activity is required for the survival/progression of tumor cells. The identification of a role of HDACs in the early steps of medulloblastoma formation suggests there may be a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors in this disease.

  13. Early transcriptional alteration of histone deacetylases in a murine model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

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    Izabela Piotrowska

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent that is widely-used to treat a variety of cancers but causes acute and chronic cardiac injury, severely limiting its use. Clinically, the acute side effects of doxorubicin are mostly manageable, whereas the delayed consequences can lead to life-threatening heart failure, even decades after cancer treatment. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is subject to a critical cumulative dose and so dosage limitation is considered to be the best way to reduce these effects. Hence, a number of studies have defined a "safe dose" of the drug, both in animal models and clinical settings, with the aim of avoiding long-term cardiac effects. Here we show that a dose generally considered as safe in a mouse model can induce harmful changes in the myocardium, as early as 2 weeks after infusion. The adverse changes include the development of fibrotic lesions, disarray of cardiomyocytes and a major transcription dysregulation. Importantly, low-dose doxorubicin caused specific changes in the transcriptional profile of several histone deacetylases (HDACs which are epigenetic regulators of cardiac remodelling. This suggests that cardioprotective therapies, aimed at modulating HDACs during doxorubicin treatment, deserve further exploration.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors improve the replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus in breast cancer cells.

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    James J Cody

    Full Text Available New therapies are needed for metastatic breast cancer patients. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV is an exciting therapy being developed for use against aggressive tumors and established metastases. Although oHSV have been demonstrated safe in clinical trials, a lack of sufficient potency has slowed the clinical application of this approach. We utilized histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, which have been noted to impair the innate antiviral response and improve gene transcription from viral vectors, to enhance the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. A panel of chemically diverse HDAC inhibitors were tested at three different doses (LD50 for their ability to modulate the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. Several of the tested HDAC inhibitors enhanced oHSV replication at low multiplicity of infection (MOI following pre-treatment of the metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the oHSV-resistant cell line 4T1, but not in the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Inhibitors of class I HDACs, including pan-selective compounds, were more effective for increasing oHSV replication compared to inhibitors that selectively target class II HDACs. These studies demonstrate that select HDAC inhibitors increase oHSV replication in breast cancer cells and provides support for pre-clinical evaluation of this combination strategy.

  15. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Bean Histone Deacetylase 6 during Development and Cold Stress Response

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    Rita Kusi-Appiah Hayford

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs are important regulators of gene transcription thus controlling multiple cellular processes. Despite its essential role in plants, HDA6 is yet to be validated in common bean. In this study, we show that HDA6 is involved in plant development and stress response. Differential expression of HDA6 was determined in various tissues and the expression was seen to be upregulated with plant age (seedling < flowering < maturity. Higher expression was observed in flowers and pods than in stem, leaf, and root. Upregulation of HDA6 gene during cold stress implies its prominent role in abiotic stress. Furthermore, the HDA6 gene was isolated from three common bean genotypes and sequence analyses revealed homology with functionally characterized homologs in model species. The 53 kDa translated product was detected using an HDA6 specific antibody and recombinant protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli showed HDAC activity in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the agriculturally important crop common bean describing the functional characterization and biological role of HDA6.

  16. Quantification and Gene Expression Analysis of Histone Deacetylases in Common Bean during Rust Fungal Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melmaiee, Kalpalatha; Kalavacharla, Venu Kal; Brown, Adrianne; Todd, Antonette; Thurston, Yaqoob; Elavarthi, Sathya

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in plant growth, development, and defense processes and are one of the primary causes of epigenetic modifications in a genome. There was only one study reported on epigenetic modifications of the important legume crop, common bean, and its interaction with the fungal rust pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus prior to this project. We measured the total active HDACs levels in leaf tissues and observed expression patterns for the selected HDAC genes at 0, 12, and 84 hours after inoculation in mock inoculated and inoculated plants. Colorimetric analysis showed that the total amount of HDACs present in the leaf tissue decreased at 12 hours in inoculated plants compared to mock inoculated control plants. Gene expression analyses indicated that the expression pattern of gene PvSRT1 is similar to the trend of total active HDACs in this time course experiment. Gene PvHDA6 showed increased expression in the inoculated plants during the time points measured. This is one of the first attempts to study expression levels of HDACs in economically important legumes in the context of plant pathogen interactions. Findings from our study will be helpful to understand trends of total active HDACs and expression patterns of these genes under study during biotic stress.

  17. Quantification and Gene Expression Analysis of Histone Deacetylases in Common Bean during Rust Fungal Inoculation

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    Kalpalatha Melmaiee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs play an important role in plant growth, development, and defense processes and are one of the primary causes of epigenetic modifications in a genome. There was only one study reported on epigenetic modifications of the important legume crop, common bean, and its interaction with the fungal rust pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus prior to this project. We measured the total active HDACs levels in leaf tissues and observed expression patterns for the selected HDAC genes at 0, 12, and 84 hours after inoculation in mock inoculated and inoculated plants. Colorimetric analysis showed that the total amount of HDACs present in the leaf tissue decreased at 12 hours in inoculated plants compared to mock inoculated control plants. Gene expression analyses indicated that the expression pattern of gene PvSRT1 is similar to the trend of total active HDACs in this time course experiment. Gene PvHDA6 showed increased expression in the inoculated plants during the time points measured. This is one of the first attempts to study expression levels of HDACs in economically important legumes in the context of plant pathogen interactions. Findings from our study will be helpful to understand trends of total active HDACs and expression patterns of these genes under study during biotic stress.

  18. A feed-forward repression mechanism anchors the Sin3/histone deacetylase and N-CoR/SMRT corepressors on chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Walter, W.; Guezennec, X.S. le; Kim, J.; Edayathumangalam, R.S.; Lasonder, E.; Luger, K.; Roeder, R.G.; Logie, C.; Berger, S.L.; Stunnenberg, H.G.

    2006-01-01

    Transcription in eukaryotes is governed in part by histone acetyltransferase (HAT)- and histone deacetylase (HDAC)-containing complexes that are recruited via activators and repressors, respectively. Here, we show that the Sin3/HDAC and N-CoR/SMRT corepressor complexes repress transcription from

  19. [Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate on the physical and behavioral development of 129SV mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenkova, O V; Aleksandrova, E A; Zarayskaya, I Yu

    2015-01-01

    Sodium valproate is a widely used antiepileptic drug at high dosage levels, but it has been shown to produce a variety of toxic side-effects when used during perinatal period. These effects include increased risk of congenital anomalies and autism. For this reason, valproate is commonly employed in animal model of autism. Sodium valproate has multiple molecular targets including histone deacetylases. Therefore valproate can be utilized as a tool for the modulation of epigenetic modifications of the genome via inhibition of histone deacetylases. It is known that administration of sodium valproate at a dose of 50 mg/kg during early postnatal period leads to increase of the histone H3 acetylation level in the brain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of multiple valproate injections from 3rd to 6th postnatal day (50 mg/kg s.c.) on physical and sensorimotor development of 129Sv mice. The standard battery of tests was used. Our results show that valproate have no negative effect on physical development, sensorimotor function, and social behavior. The obtained results support the applicability of sodium valproate in our dosing schedule for further experimental modulation of histone acetulation level in the developing brain.

  20. Histone Deacetylase HDA-2 Regulates Trichoderma atroviride Growth, Conidiation, Blue Light Perception, and Oxidative Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Concepción, Macario; Cristóbal-Mondragón, Gema Rosa; Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Casas-Flores, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Fungal blue-light photoreceptors have been proposed as integrators of light and oxidative stress. However, additional elements participating in the integrative pathway remain to be identified. In Trichoderma atroviride, the blue-light regulator (BLR) proteins BLR-1 and -2 are known to regulate gene transcription, mycelial growth, and asexual development upon illumination, and recent global transcriptional analysis revealed that the histone deacetylase-encoding gene hda-2 is induced by light. Here, by assessing responses to stimuli in wild-type and Δhda-2 backgrounds, we evaluate the role of HDA-2 in the regulation of genes responsive to light and oxidative stress. Δhda-2 strains present reduced growth, misregulation of the con-1 gene, and absence of conidia in response to light and mechanical injury. We found that the expression of hda-2 is BLR-1 dependent and HDA-2 in turn is essential for the transcription of early and late light-responsive genes that include blr-1, indicating a regulatory feedback loop. When subjected to reactive oxygen species (ROS), Δhda-2 mutants display high sensitivity whereas Δblr strains exhibit the opposite phenotype. Consistently, in the presence of ROS, ROS-related genes show high transcription levels in wild-type and Δblr strains but misregulation in Δhda-2 mutants. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitations of histone H3 acetylated at Lys9/Lys14 on cat-3 and gst-1 promoters display low accumulation of H3K9K14ac in Δblr and Δhda-2 strains, suggesting indirect regulation of ROS-related genes by HDA-2. Our results point to a mutual dependence between HDA-2 and BLR proteins and reveal the role of these proteins in an intricate gene regulation landscape in response to blue light and ROS. Trichoderma atroviride is a free-living fungus commonly found in soil or colonizing plant roots and is widely used as an agent in biocontrol as it parasitizes other fungi, stimulates plant growth, and induces the plant defense system. To survive in

  1. Histone acetylation and histone deacetylase activity of magnesium valproate in tumor and peripheral blood of patients with cervical cancer. A phase I study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Gustavo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of cancer has been associated with epigenetic alterations such as aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC activity. It was recently reported that valproic acid is an effective inhibitor of histone deacetylases and as such induces tumor cell differentiation, apoptosis, or growth arrest. Methods Twelve newly diagnosed patients with cervical cancer were treated with magnesium valproate after a baseline tumor biopsy and blood sampling at the following dose levels (four patients each: 20 mg/kg; 30 mg/kg, or 40 mg/kg for 5 days via oral route. At day 6, tumor and blood sampling were repeated and the study protocol ended. Tumor acetylation of H3 and H4 histones and HDAC activity were evaluated by Western blot and colorimetric HDAC assay respectively. Blood levels of valproic acid were determined at day 6 once the steady-state was reached. Toxicity of treatment was evaluated at the end of study period. Results All patients completed the study medication. Mean daily dose for all patients was 1,890 mg. Corresponding means for the doses 20-, 30-, and 40-mg/kg were 1245, 2000, and 2425 mg, respectively. Depressed level of consciousness grade 2 was registered in nine patients. Ten patients were evaluated for H3 and H4 acetylation and HDAC activity. After treatment, we observed hyperacetylation of H3 and H4 in the tumors of nine and seven patients, respectively, whereas six patients demonstrated hyperacetylation of both histones. Serum levels of valproic acid ranged from 73.6–170.49 μg/mL. Tumor deacetylase activity decreased in eight patients (80%, whereas two had either no change or a mild increase. There was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-treatment values of HDAC activity (mean, 0.36 vs. 0.21, two-tailed t test p Conclusion Magnesium valproate at a dose between 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibits deacetylase activity and hyperacetylates histones in tumor tissues.

  2. Activation of p53 transcriptional activity by SMRT: a histone deacetylase 3-independent function of a transcriptional corepressor.

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    Adikesavan, Anbu Karani; Karmakar, Sudipan; Pardo, Patricia; Wang, Liguo; Liu, Shuang; Li, Wei; Smith, Carolyn L

    2014-04-01

    The silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) is an established histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent transcriptional corepressor. Microarray analyses of MCF-7 cells transfected with control or SMRT small interfering RNA revealed SMRT regulation of genes involved in DNA damage responses, and the levels of the DNA damage marker γH2AX as well as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage were elevated in SMRT-depleted cells treated with doxorubicin. A number of these genes are established p53 targets. SMRT knockdown decreased the activity of two p53-dependent reporter genes as well as the expression of p53 target genes, such as CDKN1A (which encodes p21). SMRT bound directly to p53 and was recruited to p53 binding sites within the p21 promoter. Depletion of GPS2 and TBL1, components of the SMRT corepressor complex, but not histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) decreased p21-luciferase activity. p53 bound to the SMRT deacetylase activation domain (DAD), which mediates HDAC3 binding and activation, and HDAC3 could attenuate p53 binding to the DAD region of SMRT. Moreover, an HDAC3 binding-deficient SMRT DAD mutant coactivated p53 transcriptional activity. Collectively, these data highlight a biological role for SMRT in mediating DNA damage responses and suggest a model where p53 binding to the DAD limits HDAC3 interaction with this coregulator, thereby facilitating SMRT coactivation of p53-dependent gene expression.

  3. A Rationally Designed Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor with Distinct Antitumor Activity against Ovarian Cancer

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    Ya-Ting Yang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs are a class of antineoplastic agents previously demonstrating preclinical chemosensitizing activity against drug-resistant cancer cells and mouse xenografts. However, whereas clinical studies have shown efficacy against human hematologic malignancies, solid tumor trials have proved disappointing. We previously developed a novel HDACI, “OSU-HDAC42,” and herein examine its activity against ovarian cancer cell lines and xenografts. OSU-HDAC42, (i unlike most HDACIs, elicited a more than five-fold increase in G2-phase cells, at 2.5 µM, with G2 arrest followed by apoptosis; (ii at 1.0 µM, completely repressed messenger RNA expression of the cell cycle progression gene cdc2; (iii at low doses (0.25–1.0 µM for 24 hours, induced tumor cell epithelial differentiation, as evidenced by morphology changes and a more than five-fold up-regulation of epithelium-specific cytokeratins; (iv potently abrogated the growth of numerous ovarian cancer cells, with IC50 values of 0.5 to 1.0 µM, whereas also remaining eight-fold less toxic (IC50 of 8.6 µM to normal ovarian surface epithelial cells; and (v chemosensitizated platinum-resistant mouse xenografts to cisplatin. Compared with the clinically approved HDACI suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, 1.0 µM OSU-HDAC42 was more biochemically potent (i.e., enzyme-inhibitory, as suggested by greater gene up-regulation and acetylation of both histone and nonhistone proteins. In p53-dysfunctional cells, however, OSU-HDAC42 was two- to eight-fold less inductive of p53-regulated genes, whereas also having a two-fold higher IC50 than p53-functional cells, demonstrating some interaction with p53 tumor-suppressive cascades. These findings establish OSU-HDAC42 as a promising therapeutic agent for drug-resistant ovarian cancer and justify its further investigation.

  4. Regulation of bronchial epithelial barrier integrity by type 2 cytokines and histone deacetylases in asthmatic patients.

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    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Wanke, Kerstin; Sokolowska, Milena; Bendelja, Kreso; Rückert, Beate; Globinska, Anna; Jakiela, Bogdan; Kast, Jeannette I; Idzko, Marco; Akdis, Mübeccel; Sanak, Marek; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2017-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) form a barrier on the apical side of neighboring epithelial cells in the bronchial mucosa. Changes in their integrity might play a role in asthma pathogenesis by enabling the paracellular influx of allergens, toxins, and microbes to the submucosal tissue. The regulation of bronchial epithelial TJs by TH2 cells and their cytokines and their involvement in epigenetic regulation of barrier function were investigated. The expression, regulation, and function of TJs were determined in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of control and asthmatic primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) by means of analysis of transepithelial electrical resistance, paracellular flux, mRNA expression, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. HBECs from asthmatic patients showed a significantly low TJ integrity in ALI cultures compared with HBECs from healthy subjects. TH2 cell numbers and levels of their cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, decreased barrier integrity in ALI cultures of HBECs from control subjects but not in HBECs from asthmatic patients. They induced a physical separation of the TJs of adjacent cells in immunofluorescence staining of the TJ molecules occludin and zonula occludens-1. We observed that expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 9, and Silent information regulator genes (sirtuins [SIRTs]) 6 and 7 were significantly high in HBECs from asthmatic patients. IL-4 and IL-13 significantly increased the expression of HDACs and SIRTs. The role of HDAC activation on epithelial barrier leakiness was confirmed by HDAC inhibition, which improved barrier integrity through increased synthesis of TJ molecules in epithelium from asthmatic patients to the level seen in HBECs from control subjects. Our data demonstrate that barrier leakiness in asthmatic patients is induced by TH2 cells, IL-4, and IL-13 and HDAC activity. The inhibition of endogenous HDAC activity reconstitutes defective barrier by increasing TJ expression. Copyright © 2016

  5. Selective class I histone deacetylase inhibition suppresses hypoxia-induced cardiopulmonary remodeling through an antiproliferative mechanism.

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    Cavasin, Maria A; Demos-Davies, Kim; Horn, Todd R; Walker, Lori A; Lemon, Douglas D; Birdsey, Nicholas; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Harral, Julie; Irwin, David C; Anwar, Adil; Yeager, Michael E; Li, Min; Watson, Peter A; Nemenoff, Raphael A; Buttrick, Peter M; Stenmark, Kurt R; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2012-03-02

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are efficacious in models of hypertension-induced left ventricular heart failure. The consequences of HDAC inhibition in the context of pulmonary hypertension with associated right ventricular cardiac remodeling are poorly understood. This study was performed to assess the utility of selective small-molecule inhibitors of class I HDACs in a preclinical model of pulmonary hypertension. Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 3 weeks in the absence or presence of a benzamide HDAC inhibitor, MGCD0103, which selectively inhibits class I HDACs 1, 2, and 3. The compound reduced pulmonary arterial pressure more dramatically than tadalafil, a standard-of-care therapy for human pulmonary hypertension that functions as a vasodilator. MGCD0103 improved pulmonary artery acceleration time and reduced systolic notching of the pulmonary artery flow envelope, which suggests a positive impact of the HDAC inhibitor on pulmonary vascular remodeling and stiffening. Similar results were obtained with an independent class I HDAC-selective inhibitor, MS-275. Reduced pulmonary arterial pressure in MGCD0103-treated animals was associated with blunted pulmonary arterial wall thickening because of suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Right ventricular function was maintained in MGCD0103-treated animals. Although the class I HDAC inhibitor only modestly reduced right ventricular hypertrophy, it had multiple beneficial effects on the right ventricle, which included suppression of pathological gene expression, inhibition of proapoptotic caspase activity, and repression of proinflammatory protein expression. By targeting distinct pathogenic mechanisms, isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors have potential as novel therapeutics for pulmonary hypertension that will complement vasodilator standards of care.

  6. Drosophila histone deacetylase-3 controls imaginal disc size through suppression of apoptosis.

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    Changqi C Zhu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs execute biological regulation through post-translational modification of chromatin and other cellular substrates. In humans, there are eleven HDACs, organized into three distinct subfamilies. This large number of HDACs raises questions about functional overlap and division of labor among paralogs. In vivo roles are simpler to address in Drosophila, where there are only five HDAC family members and only two are implicated in transcriptional control. Of these two, HDAC1 has been characterized genetically, but its most closely related paralog, HDAC3, has not. Here we describe the isolation and phenotypic characterization of hdac3 mutations. We find that both hdac3 and hdac1 mutations are dominant suppressors of position effect variegation, suggesting functional overlap in heterochromatin regulation. However, all five hdac3 loss-of-function alleles are recessive lethal during larval/pupal stages, indicating that HDAC3 is essential on its own for Drosophila development. The mutant larvae display small imaginal discs, which result from abnormally elevated levels of apoptosis. This cell death occurs as a cell-autonomous response to HDAC3 loss and is accompanied by increased expression of the pro-apoptotic gene, hid. In contrast, although HDAC1 mutants also display small imaginal discs, this appears to result from reduced proliferation rather than from elevated apoptosis. The connection between HDAC loss and apoptosis is important since HDAC inhibitors show anticancer activities in animal models through mechanisms involving apoptotic induction. However, the specific HDACs implicated in tumor cell killing have not been identified. Our results indicate that protein deacetylation by HDAC3 plays a key role in suppression of apoptosis in Drosophila imaginal tissue.

  7. Intrinsic Dynamics of the Binding Rail and Its Allosteric Effect in the Class I Histone Deacetylases.

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    Zhou, Jingwei; Huang, Yue; Cheng, Chunyan; Wang, Kai; Wu, Ruibo

    2017-09-25

    The development of novel isoform/class-selective inhibitors is still of great biological and medical significance to conquer the continuously reported side effects for the histone deacetylase (HDAC) drugs. The first potent HDAC allosteric inhibitor was discovered last year, and this allosteric inhibitor design is thought to be a promising strategy to overcome the current challenges in HDAC inhibitor design. However, the detailed allosteric mechanism and its remote regulatory effects on the catalytic/inhibitor activity of HDAC are still unclear. In this work, on the basis of microsecond-time-scale all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and picosecond-time-scale density functional theory/molecular mechanics MD simulations on HDAC8, we propose that the allostery is achieved by the intrinsic conformational flexibility of the binding rail (constituted by a highly conserved X-D residue dyad), which steers the loop-loop motion and creates the diverse shapes of the allosteric sites in different HDAC isoforms. Additionally, the rotatability of the binding rail is an inherent structural feature that regulates the hydrophobicity of the linker binding channel and thus further affects the HDAC enzyme inhibitory/catalytic activity by utilizing the promiscuity of X-D dyad. Since the plastic X residue is different among class I HDACs, these new findings provide a deeper understanding of the allostery, which is guidable for the design of new allosteric inhibitors toward the allosteric site and structure modifications on the conventional inhibitors binding into the active pocket by exploiting the intrinsic dynamic features of the conserved X-D dyad.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment attenuates coagulation imbalance in a lethal murine model of sepsis.

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    Zhao, Ting; Li, Yongqing; Liu, Baoling; Wu, Erxi; Sillesen, Martin; Velmahos, George C; Halaweish, Ihab; Alam, Hasan B

    2014-08-01

    Sepsis has a profound impact on the inflammatory and hemostatic systems. In addition to systemic inflammation, it can produce disseminated intravascular coagulation, microvascular thrombosis, consumptive coagulopathy, and multiple organ failure. We have shown that treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), improves survival in a lethal model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice, but its effect on coagulation remains unknown. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of SAHA treatment on coagulopathy in sepsis. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to CLP, and 1 hour later given intraperitoneally either SAHA dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or DMSO only. Sham-operated animals were handled in similar manner without CLP. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and evaluated using the TEG 5000 Thrombelastograph Hemostasis Analyzer System. Compared with the sham group, all animals in DMSO vehicle group died within 72 hours, and developed coagulopathy that manifested as prolonged initial fibrin formation and fibrin cross-linkage time, and decreased clot formation speed, platelet function, and clot rigidity. SAHA treatment significantly improved survival and was associated with improvement in fibrin cross-linkage and clot formation, as well as platelet function and clot rigidity, without a significant impact on the clot initiation parameters. SAHA treatment enhances survival and attenuates sepsis-associated coagulopathy by improving fibrin cross-linkage, rate of clot formation, platelet function, and clot strength. HDACI may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for correcting sepsis-associated coagulopathy. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiosensitizing Effect of a Phenylbutyrate-Derived Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Lu, Yen-Shen [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Hung [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tzen, Kai-Yuan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Gao, Ming [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institutes of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kulp, Samuel K. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien, E-mail: jasoncheng@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institutes of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is integrated into the multimodal treatment of localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) refractory to conventional treatment. Tumor control remains unsatisfactory and the sublethal effect associates with secondary spread. The use of an effective molecularly targeted agent in combination with radiotherapy is a potential therapeutic approach. Our aim was to assess the effect of combining a phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, AR-42, with radiotherapy in in vitro and in vivo models of human HCC. Methods and Materials: Human HCC cell lines (Huh-7 and PLC-5) were used to evaluate the in vitro synergism of combining AR-42 with irradiation. Flow cytometry analyzed the cell cycle changes, whereas Western blot investigated the protein expressions after the combined treatment. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice bearing ectopic and orthotopic HCC xenografts were treated with AR-42 and/or radiotherapy for the in vivo response. Results: AR-42 significantly enhanced radiation-induced cell death by the inhibition of the DNA end-binding activity of Ku70, a highly versatile regulatory protein for DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and apoptosis. In ectopic xenografts of Huh-7 and PLC-5, pretreatment with AR-42 significantly enhanced the tumor-suppressive effect of radiotherapy by 48% and 66%, respectively. A similar combinatorial effect of AR-42 (10 and 25 mg/kg) and radiotherapy was observed in Huh-7 orthotopic model of tumor growth by 52% and 82%, respectively. This tumor suppression was associated with inhibition of intratumoral Ku70 activity as well as reductions in markers of HDAC activity and proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Conclusion: AR-42 is a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of HDAC with therapeutic value as a radiosensitizer of HCC.

  10. Insecticidal activities of histone deacetylase inhibitors against a dipteran parasite of sheep, Lucilia cuprina

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    Neil H. Bagnall

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi are being investigated for the control of various human parasites. Here we investigate their potential as insecticides for the control of a major ecto-parasite of sheep, the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. We assessed the ability of HDACi from various chemical classes to inhibit the development of blowfly larvae in vitro, and to inhibit HDAC activity in nuclear protein extracts prepared from blowfly eggs. The HDACi prodrug romidepsin, a cyclic depsipeptide that forms a thiolate, was the most potent inhibitor of larval growth, with equivalent or greater potency than three commercial blowfly insecticides. Other HDACi with potent activity were hydroxamic acids (trichostatin, CUDC-907, AR-42, a thioester (KD5170, a disulphide (Psammaplin A, and a cyclic tetrapeptide bearing a ketone (apicidin. On the other hand, no insecticidal activity was observed for certain other hydroxamic acids, fatty acids, and the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide. The structural diversity of the 31 hydroxamic acids examined here revealed some structural requirements for insecticidal activity; for example, among compounds with flexible linear zinc-binding extensions, greater potency was observed in the presence of branched capping groups that likely make multiple interactions with the blowfly HDAC enzymes. The insecticidal activity correlated with inhibition of HDAC activity in blowfly nuclear protein extracts, indicating that the toxicity was most likely due to inhibition of HDAC enzymes in the blowfly larvae. The inhibitor potencies against blowfly larvae are different from inhibition of human HDACs, suggesting some selectivity for human over blowfly HDACs, and a potential for developing compounds with the inverse selectivity. In summary, these novel findings support blowfly HDAC enzymes as new targets for blowfly control, and point to development of HDAC inhibitors as a promising new class of insecticides.

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors epigenetically promote reparative events in primary dental pulp cells

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    Duncan, Henry F., E-mail: Hal.Duncan@dental.tcd.ie [Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fleming, Garry J.P. [Material Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Cooper, Paul R. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-10

    Application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to cells epigenetically alters their chromatin structure and induces transcriptional and cellular reparative events. This study investigated the application of two HDACi, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the induction of repair-associated responses in primary dental pulp cell (DPC) cultures. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TSA (100 nM, 400 nM) significantly increased cell viability. Neither HDACi was cytotoxic, although cell growth analysis revealed significant anti-proliferative effects at higher concentrations for VPA (>0.5 mM) and TSA (>50 nM). While high-content-analysis demonstrated that HDACi did not significantly induce caspase-3 or p21 activity, p53-expression was increased by VPA (3 mM, 5 mM) at 48 h. HDACi-exposure induced mineralization per cell dose-dependently to a plateau level (VPA-0.125 mM and TSA-25 nM) with accompanying increases in mineralization/dentinogenic-associated gene expression at 5 days (DMP-1, BMP-2/-4, Nestin) and 10 days (DSPP, BMP-2/-4). Both HDACis, at a range of concentrations, significantly stimulated osteopontin and BMP-2 protein expression at 10 and 14 days further supporting the ability of HDACi to promote differentiation. HDACi exert different effects on primary compared with transformed DPCs and promote mineralization and differentiation events without cytotoxic effects. These novel data now highlight the potential in restorative dentistry for applying low concentrations of HDACi in vital pulp treatment. -- Highlights: • Valproic acid and trichostatin A promoted mineralization in primary pulp cells. • Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, p21 unaltered; p53 increased by valproic acid. • Trichostatin A increased cell viability at 24 h at selected concentrations. • Altered cell toxicity and differentiation between primary and transformed cells. • HDACi-induced the differentiation marker proteins osteopontin and BMP-2.

  12. Histone Deacetylase 2 Is a Component of Influenza A Virus-Induced Host Antiviral Response

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    Prashanth T. Nagesh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Host cells produce variety of antiviral factors that create an antiviral state and target various stages of influenza A virus (IAV life cycle to inhibit infection. However, IAV has evolved various strategies to antagonize those antiviral factors. Recently, we reported that a member of class I host histone deacetylases (HDACs, HDAC1 possesses an anti-IAV function. Herein, we provide evidence that HDAC2, another class I member and closely related to HDAC1 in structure and function, also possesses anti-IAV properties. In turn, IAV, like HDAC1, dysregulates HDAC2, mainly at the polypeptide level through proteasomal degradation to potentially minimize its antiviral effect. We found that IAV downregulated the HDAC2 polypeptide level in A549 cells in an H1N1 strain-independent manner by up to 47%, which was recovered to almost 100% level in the presence of proteasome-inhibitor MG132. A further knockdown in HDAC2 expression by up to 90% via RNA interference augmented the growth kinetics of IAV in A549 cells by more than four-fold after 24 h of infection. Furthermore, the knockdown of HDAC2 expression decreased the IAV-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription I (STAT1 and the expression of interferon-stimulated gene, viperin in infected cells by 41 and 53%, respectively. The role of HDAC2 in viperin expression was analogous to that of HDAC1, but it was not in the phosphorylation of STAT1. This indicated that, like HDAC1, HDAC2 is a component of IAV-induced host innate antiviral response and performs both redundant and non-redundant functions vis-a-vis HDAC1; however, IAV dysregulates them both in a redundant manner.

  13. Selective Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Synergize with Azacitidine in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

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    Min, Chengyin; Moore, Nathan; Shearstone, Jeffrey R; Quayle, Steven N; Huang, Pengyu; van Duzer, John H; Jarpe, Matthew B; Jones, Simon S; Yang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by defects in myeloid differentiation and increased proliferation of neoplastic hematopoietic precursor cells. Outcomes for patients with AML remain poor, highlighting the need for novel treatment options. Aberrant epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AML, and inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase or histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have exhibited activity in preclinical AML models. Combination studies with HDAC inhibitors plus DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have potential beneficial clinical activity in AML, however the toxicity profiles of non-selective HDAC inhibitors in the combination setting limit their clinical utility. In this work, we describe the preclinical development of selective inhibitors of HDAC1 and HDAC2, which are hypothesized to have improved safety profiles, for combination therapy in AML. We demonstrate that selective inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 is sufficient to achieve efficacy both as a single agent and in combination with azacitidine in preclinical models of AML, including established AML cell lines, primary leukemia cells from AML patient bone marrow samples and in vivo xenograft models of human AML. Gene expression profiling of AML cells treated with either an HDAC1/2 inhibitor, azacitidine, or the combination of both have identified a list of genes involved in transcription and cell cycle regulation as potential mediators of the combinatorial effects of HDAC1/2 inhibition with azacitidine. Together, these findings support the clinical evaluation of selective HDAC1/2 inhibitors in combination with azacitidine in AML patients.

  14. Treatment with a selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor decreases lupus nephritis in NZB/W mice.

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    Vieson, Miranda D; Gojmerac, Alexander M; Khan, Deena; Dai, Rujuan; van Duzer, John H; Mazitschek, Ralph; Caudell, David L; Liao, Xiaofeng; Luo, Xin M; Reilly, Christopher M

    2017-12-01

    To date, there are 18 histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, divided into four classes, which alter protein function by removing acetyl groups from lysine residues. Prior studies report that non-selective HDAC inhibitors decrease disease in lupus mouse models. Concern for adverse side effects of non-selective HDAC inhibition supports investigation of selective-HDAC inhibition. We hypothesized that a selective HDAC-6 inhibitor (HDAC6i) will alleviate disease in a mouse model of lupus by increasing acetylation of alpha-tubulin. Intraperitoneal injections of the selective HDAC6i ACY-1083 (0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, or 3 mg/kg), vehicle control, or dexamethasone were administered to 21-week-old, female NZB/W mice, 5 days a week, for 13 weeks. Disease progression was evaluated by proteinuria, serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibody, cytokines and immunoglobulins, and post mortem evaluation of nephritis and T cell populations in the spleen. HDAC6i treatment decreased proteinuria, glomerular histopathology, IgG, and C3 scores when compared to vehicle-treated mice. Within glomeruli of HDAC6i-treated mice, there was increased acetylation of alpha-tubulin and decreased NF-κB. Additionally, HDAC6i decreased serum IL-12/IL-23 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Taken together, these results suggest HDAC-6 inhibition may decrease lupus nephritis in NZB/W mice via mechanisms involving acetylation of alpha-tubulin and decreased NF-κB in glomeruli as well as inhibition of Th17 cells.

  15. Selective Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Synergize with Azacitidine in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

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    Chengyin Min

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by defects in myeloid differentiation and increased proliferation of neoplastic hematopoietic precursor cells. Outcomes for patients with AML remain poor, highlighting the need for novel treatment options. Aberrant epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AML, and inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase or histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes have exhibited activity in preclinical AML models. Combination studies with HDAC inhibitors plus DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have potential beneficial clinical activity in AML, however the toxicity profiles of non-selective HDAC inhibitors in the combination setting limit their clinical utility. In this work, we describe the preclinical development of selective inhibitors of HDAC1 and HDAC2, which are hypothesized to have improved safety profiles, for combination therapy in AML. We demonstrate that selective inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 is sufficient to achieve efficacy both as a single agent and in combination with azacitidine in preclinical models of AML, including established AML cell lines, primary leukemia cells from AML patient bone marrow samples and in vivo xenograft models of human AML. Gene expression profiling of AML cells treated with either an HDAC1/2 inhibitor, azacitidine, or the combination of both have identified a list of genes involved in transcription and cell cycle regulation as potential mediators of the combinatorial effects of HDAC1/2 inhibition with azacitidine. Together, these findings support the clinical evaluation of selective HDAC1/2 inhibitors in combination with azacitidine in AML patients.

  16. Cyclic Equibiaxial Tensile Strain Alters Gene Expression of Chondrocytes via Histone Deacetylase 4 Shuttling.

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    Chongwei Chen

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate whether equibiaxial tensile strain alters chondrocyte gene expression via controlling subcellular localization of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4.Murine chondrocytes transfected with GFP-HDAC4 were subjected to 3 h cyclic equibiaxial tensile strain (CTS, 6% strain at 0.25 Hz by a Flexcell® FX-5000™ Tension System. Fluorescence microscope and western blot were used to observe subcellular location of HDAC4. The gene expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The concentration of Glycosaminoglycans in culture medium was quantified by bimethylmethylene blue dye; Collagen II protein was evaluated by western blot. Cells phenotype was identified by immunohistochemistry. Cell viability was evaluated by live-dead cell detect kit. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of HDAC4 nuclear relocation, was used to further validate whether HDAC4 nuclear relocation plays a role in gene expression in response to tension stimulation.87.5% of HDAC4 was located in the cytoplasm in chondrocytes under no loading condition, but it was relocated to the nucleus after CTS. RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of mRNA for aggrecan, collagen II, LK1 and SOX9 were all increased in chondrocytes subjected to CTS as compared to no loading control chondrocytes; in contrast, the levels of type X collagen, MMP-13, IHH and Runx2 gene expression were decreased in the chondrocytes subjected to CTS as compared to control chondrocytes. Meanwhile, CTS contributed to elevation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen II protein, but did not change collagen I production. When Okadaic acid blocked HDAC4 relocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus, the changes of the chondrocytes induced by CTS were abrogated. There was no chondrocyte dead detected in this study in response to CTS.CTS is able to induce HDAC4 relocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. Thus, CTS alters chondrocytes gene expression in association with the relocation of HDAC4 induced by CTS.

  17. Histone Deacetylase Gene Expression Following Binge Alcohol Consumption in Rats and Humans.

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    López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Marcos, Miguel; Calleja-Conde, Javier; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Bühler, Kora M; Costa-Alba, Pilar; Bernardo, Edgar; Laso, Francisco-Javier; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Nadal, Roser; Viveros, Maria Paz; Maldonado, Rafael; Giné, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol binge drinking is one of the most common patterns of excessive alcohol use and recent data would suggest that histone deacetylases (HDACs) gene expression profiling could be useful as a biomarker for psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to characterize the gene expression patterns of Hdac 1-11 in samples of rat peripheral blood, liver, heart, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala following repeated binge alcohol consumption and to determine the parallelism of Hdac gene expression between rats and humans in peripheral blood. To accomplish this goal, we examined Hdac gene expression following 1, 4, or 8 alcohol binges (3 g/kg, orally) in the rat, in patients who were admitted to the hospital emergency department for acute alcohol intoxication, and in rats trained in daily operant alcohol self-administration. We primarily found that acute alcohol binging reduced gene expression (Hdac1-10) in the peripheral blood of alcohol-naïve rats and that this effect was attenuated following repeated alcohol binges. There was also a reduction of Hdac gene expression in the liver (Hdac2,4,5), whereas there was increased expression in the heart (Hdac1,7,8) and amygdala (Hdac1,2,5). Additionally, increased blood alcohol concentrations were measured in rat blood at 1 to 4 hours following repeated alcohol binging, and the only group that developed hepatic steotosis (fatty liver) were those animals exposed to 8 alcohol binge events. Finally, both binge consumption of alcohol in humans and daily operant alcohol self-administration in rats increased Hdac gene expression in peripheral blood. Our results suggest that increases in HDAC gene expression within the peripheral blood are associated with chronic alcohol consumption, whereas HDAC gene expression is reduced following initial exposure to alcohol. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Targeting Histone deacetylase 4/Ubc9 impairs DNA repair for radiosensitization of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Liu, Wei-Lin; Hsu, Feng-Ming; Yang, Po-Sheng; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Chen, Pei-Jer; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2017-06-23

    Several strategies to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been investigated. One approach was to develop radiosensitizing compounds. Because histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is highly expressed in liver cancer and known to regulate oncogenesis through chromatin structure remodeling and controlling protein access to DNA, we postulated that HDAC4 inhibition might enhance radiation's effect on HCC cells. HCC cell lines (Huh7 and PLC5) and an ectopic xenograft were pretreated with HDAC inhibitor or shRNA to knock down expression of HDAC4, and then irradiated (2.5-10 Gy). We evaluated cell survival by a clonogenic assay; apoptosis by annexin-V immunofluorescence; γH2AX, Rad51, and HDAC4 by immunofluorescence staining; HDAC4, Rad51, and Ubc9 in HCC cell nuclei by cell fractionation and confocal microscopy; physical interaction between HDAC4/Rad51/Ubc9 by immunoprecipitation; the downstream targets of HDAC4 knockdown by immunoblotting. Both HDAC4 knockdown and HDAC inhibitor enhanced radiation-induced cell death, and reduced homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks and Akt activation, leading to increased apoptosis. HDAC4 knockdown with or without an HDAC inhibitor significantly delayed tumor growth in a radiation-treated xenograft model. Radiation stimulated nuclear translocation of Rad51 in an HDAC4-dependent manner and the binding of Ubc9 directly to HDAC4, which led to Ubc9 acetylation. Moreover, these effects were accompanied by HDAC4/Ubc9/Rad51 complex dissociation through inhibiting nuclear translocation. HDAC4 signaling blockade enhances radiation-induced lethality in HCC cells and xenografts. These findings raise the possibility that HDAC4/Ubc9/Rad51 complex in DNA repair may be a target for radiosensitization of HCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 2 as a Functional Gene for Skeletal Muscle Development in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahjahan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS exposed histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 as a possible candidate gene for breast muscle weight in chickens. The present research has examined the possible role of HDAC2 in skeletal muscle development in chickens. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in breast and thigh muscles during both embryonic (four ages and post-hatch (five ages development and in cultures of primary myoblasts during both proliferation and differentiation. The expression of HDAC2 increased significantly across embryonic days (ED in breast (ED 14, 16, 18, and 21 and thigh (ED 14 and 18, and ED 14 and 21 muscles suggesting that it possibly plays a role in myoblast hyperplasia in both breast and thigh muscles. Transcript abundance of HDAC2 identified significantly higher in fast growing muscle than slow growing in chickens at d 90 of age. Expression of HDAC2 during myoblast proliferation in vitro declined between 24 h and 48 h when expression of the marker gene paired box 7 (PAX7 increased and cell numbers increased throughout 72 h of culture. During induced differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, the abundance of HDAC2 and the marker gene myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1, both increased significantly. Taken together, it is suggested that HDAC2 is most likely involved in a suppressive fashion in myoblast proliferation and may play a positive role in myoblast differentiation. The present results confirm the suggestion that HDAC2 is a functional gene for pre-hatch and post-hatch (fast growing muscle development of chicken skeletal muscle.

  20. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorated Endotoxin-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction

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    Chung-Hsi Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA, an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3 mg/kg. One hour later, they were injected (i.p. with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression.

  1. Synergistic anticancer effects of cisplatin and histone deacetylase inhibitors (SAHA and TSA) on cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgar, Md Ali; Senawong, Gulsiri; Sripa, Banchob; Senawong, Thanaset

    2016-01-01

    Clinical application of cisplatin against cholangiocarcinoma is often associated with resistance and toxicity posing urgent demand for combination therapy. In this study, we evaluated the combined anticancer effect of cisplatin and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin A (TSA), on the cholangiocarcinoma KKU-100 and KKU-M214 cell lines. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated using MTT assay. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell cycle and apoptosis regulating proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis. MTT assay showed that cisplatin, SAHA and TSA dose-dependently reduced the viability of KKU-100 and KKU-M214 cells. The combination of cisplatin and HDACIs exerted significantly more cytotoxicity than the single drugs. Combination indices below 1.0 reflect synergism between cisplatin and HDACIs, leading to positive dose reductions of cisplatin and HDACIs. Cisplatin and HDACIs alone induced G0/G1 phase arrest in KKU-100 cells, but the drug combinations increased sub-G1 percent more than either drug. However, cisplatin and HDACIs alone or in combination increased only the sub-G1 percent in KKU-M214 cells. Annexin V-FITC staining revealed that cisplatin and HDACIs combinations induced more apoptotic cell death of both KKU-100 and KKU-M214 cells than the single drug. In KKU-100 cells, growth inhibition was accompanied by upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of CDK4 and Bcl-2 due to exposure to cisplatin, SAHA and TSA alone or in combination. Moreover, combination of agents exerted higher impacts on protein expression. Single agents or combination did not affect p53 expression, however, combination of cisplatin and HDACIs increased the expression of p21 in KKU-M214 cells. Taken together, cisplatin and HDACIs combination may improve the therapeutic outcome in cholangiocarcinoma patients.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors VPA and TSA induce apoptosis and autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini Montani, Maria Saveria; Granato, Marisa; Santoni, Claudio; Del Porto, Paola; Merendino, Nicolò; D'Orazi, Gabriella; Faggioni, Alberto; Cirone, Mara

    2017-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are anti-neoplastic agents that are known to affect the growth of different cancer types, but their underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Here, we compared the effects of two HDACi, i.e., Trichostatin A (TSA) and Valproic Acid (VPA), on the induction of cell death and autophagy in pancreatic cancer-derived cells that exhibit a high metastatic capacity and carry KRAS/p53 double mutations. Cell viability and proliferation tests were carried out using Trypan blue dye exclusion, MTT and BrdU assays. FACS analyses were carried out to assess cell cycle progression, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial depolarization, while Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses were employed to detect proteins involved in apoptosis and autophagy. We found that both VPA and TSA can induce apoptosis in Panc1 and PaCa44 pancreatic cancer-derived cells by triggering mitochondrial membrane depolarization, Cytochrome c release and Caspase 3 activation, although VPA was more effective than TSA, especially in Panc1 cells. As underlying molecular events, we found that ERK1/2 was de-phosphorylated and that the c-Myc and mutant p53 protein levels were reduced after VPA and, to a lesser extent, after TSA treatment. Up-regulation of p21 and Puma was also observed, concomitantly with mutant p53 degradation. In addition, we found that in both cell lines VPA increased the pro-apoptotic Bim level, reduced the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 level and increased ROS production and autophagy, while TSA was able to induce these effects only in PaCA44 cells. From our results we conclude that both VPA and TSA can induce pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy. VPA appears have a stronger and broader cytotoxic effect than TSA and, thus, may represent a better choice for anti-pancreatic cancer therapy.

  3. Clinical use and applications of histone deacetylase inhibitors in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon N

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nidhi Tandon, Vijay Ramakrishnan, Shaji K Kumar Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: The incorporation of various novel therapies has resulted in a significant survival benefit in newly diagnosed and relapsed patients with multiple myeloma (MM over the past decade. Despite these advances, resistance to therapy leads to eventual relapse and fatal outcomes in the vast majority of patients. Hence, there is an unmet need for new safe and efficacious therapies for continued improvement in outcomes. Given the role of epigenetic aberrations in the pathogenesis and progression of MM and the success of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi in other malignancies, many HDACi have been tried in MM. Various preclinical studies helped us to understand the antimyeloma activity of different HDACi in MM as a single agent or in combination with conventional, novel, and immune therapies. The early clinical trials of HDACi depicted only modest single-agent activity, but recent studies have revealed encouraging clinical response rates in combination with other antimyeloma agents, especially proteasome inhibitors. This led to the approval of the combination of panobinostat and bortezomib for the treatment of relapsed/refractory MM patients with two prior lines of treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration. However, it remains yet to be defined how we can incorporate HDACi in the current therapeutic paradigms for MM that will help to achieve longer disease control and significant survival benefits. In addition, isoform-selective and/or class-selective HDAC inhibition to reduce unfavorable side effects needs further evaluation. Keywords: HDAC inhibitors, Panobinostat, epigenetics, myeloma, relapse

  4. The role of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis in liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oiso, Hiroshi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Furukawa, Noboru, E-mail: n-furu@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Suefuji, Mihoshi; Shimoda, Seiya [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Ito, Akihiro; Furumai, Ryohei [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Nakagawa, Junichi [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Bio-Industry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Hokkaido (Japan); Yoshida, Minoru [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Nishino, Norikazu [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Araki, Eiichi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel class I HDAC inhibitor decreased hepatic PEPCK mRNA and gluconeogenesis. {yields} Inhibition of HDAC decreased PEPCK by reducing HNF4{alpha} expression and FoxO1 activity. {yields} siRNA knockdown of HDAC1 in HepG2 cells reduced the expression of PEPCK and HNF4{alpha}. {yields} Inhibition of class I HDAC improves glucose homeostasis in HFD mice. -- Abstract: Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial for glucose homeostasis. Although sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, the effects of other histone deacetylases (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the role of class I HDACs in hepatic gluconeogenesis. In HepG2 cells and the liver of mice, the expressions of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) were significantly decreased by treatment with a newly designed class I HDAC inhibitor, Ky-2. SiRNA knockdown of HDAC1 expression, but not of HDAC2 or HDAC3, in HepG2 cells decreased PEPCK and HNF4{alpha} expression. In HepG2 cells, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) was increased by Ky-2. Pyruvate tolerance tests in Ky-2-treated high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice showed a marked reduction in blood glucose compared with vehicle-treated HFD mice. These data suggest that class I HDACs increase HNF4{alpha} protein expression and the transcriptional activity of FoxO1, followed by the induction of PEPCK mRNA expression and gluconeogenesis in liver.

  5. Induction of histone deacetylases (HDACs in human abdominal aortic aneurysm: therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors

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    María Galán

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is currently limited to elective surgical repair because an effective pharmacotherapy is still awaited. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC activity could be a promising therapeutic option in cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to characterise HDAC expression in human AAA and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of class I and IIa HDAC inhibitors in the AAA model of angiotensin II (Ang II-infused apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE−/− mice. Real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry evidenced an increased expression of HDACs 1, 2 (both class I, 4 and 7 (both class IIa in abdominal aorta samples from patients undergoing AAA open repair (n=22 compared with those from donors (n=14. Aortic aneurysms from Ang-II-infused ApoE−/− mice exhibited a similar HDAC expression profile. In these animals, treatment with a class I HDAC inhibitor (MS-275 or a class IIa inhibitor (MC-1568 improved survival, reduced the incidence and severity of AAA and limited aneurysmal expansion evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. These beneficial effects were more potent in MC-1568-treated mice. The disorganisation of elastin and collagen fibres and lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration were effectively reduced by both inhibitors. Additionally, HDAC inhibition attenuated the exacerbated expression of pro-inflammatory markers and the increase in metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity induced by Ang II in this model. Therefore, our data evidence that HDAC expression is deregulated in human AAA and that class-selective HDAC inhibitors limit aneurysm expansion in an AAA mouse model. New-generation HDAC inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic approach to overcome human aneurysm progression.

  6. Decreased histone deacetylase 2 impairs Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Nicolas [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom); Thimmulappa, Rajesh [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomas, Catherine M.R.; Fenwick, Peter S.; Chana, Kirandeep K.; Donnelly, Louise E. [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom); Biswal, Shyam [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ito, Kazuhiro [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom); Barnes, Peter J., E-mail: p.j.barnes@imperial.ac.uk [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Nrf2 anti-oxidant function is impaired when HDAC activity is inhibited. {yields} HDAC inhibition decreases Nrf2 protein stability. {yields} HDAC2 is involved in reduced Nrf2 stability and both correlate in COPD samples. {yields} HDAC inhibition increases Nrf2 acetylation. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of multiple anti-oxidant genes. However, where high levels of oxidative stress are observed, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Nrf2 activity is reduced, although the molecular mechanism for this defect is uncertain. Here, we show that down-regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 causes Nrf2 instability, resulting in reduced anti-oxidant gene expression and increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. Although Nrf2 protein was clearly stabilized after hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) stimulation in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B), Nrf2 stability was decreased and Nrf2 acetylation increased in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also reduced Nrf2-regulated heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in these cells, and this was confirmed in acute cigarette-smoke exposed mice in vivo. HDAC2 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Nrf2 protein stability and activity in BEAS2B cells, whereas HDAC1 knockdown had no effect. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers (non-smokers and smokers) and COPD patients showed a significant correlation between HDAC2 expression and Nrf2 expression (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). Thus, reduced HDAC2 activity in COPD may account for increased Nrf2 acetylation, reduced Nrf2 stability and impaired anti oxidant defences.

  7. Biomarkers of histone deacetylase inhibitor activity in a phase 1 combined-modality study with radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hansen Ree

    Full Text Available Following the demonstration that histone deacetylase inhibitors enhanced experimental radiation-induced clonogenic suppression, the Pelvic Radiation and Vorinostat (PRAVO phase 1 study, combining fractionated radiotherapy with daily vorinostat for pelvic carcinoma, was designed to evaluate both clinical and novel biomarker endpoints, the latter relating to pharmacodynamic indicators of vorinostat action in clinical radiotherapy.Potential biomarkers of vorinostat radiosensitizing action, not simultaneously manifesting molecular perturbations elicited by the radiation itself, were explored by gene expression array analysis of study patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, sampled at baseline (T0 and on-treatment two and 24 hours (T2 and T24 after the patients had received vorinostat.This strategy revealed 1,600 array probes that were common for the comparisons T2 versus T0 and T24 versus T2 across all of the patients, and furthermore, that no significantly differential expression was observed between the T0 and T24 groups. Functional annotation analysis of the array data showed that a significant number of identified genes were implicated in gene regulation, the cell cycle, and chromatin biology. Gene expression was validated both in patients' PBMC and in vorinostat-treated human carcinoma xenograft models, and transient repression of MYC was consistently observed.Within the design of the PRAVO study, all of the identified genes showed rapid and transient induction or repression and therefore, in principle, fulfilled the requirement of being pharmacodynamic biomarkers of vorinostat action in fractionated radiotherapy, possibly underscoring the role of MYC in this therapeutic setting.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors impair the elimination of HIV-infected cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

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    Richard Brad Jones

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting memory CD4+ T-cells harboring latent HIV proviruses represent a critical barrier to viral eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis, such as suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA, romidepsin, and panobinostat have been shown to induce HIV expression in these resting cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the low levels of viral gene expression induced by a candidate HDACi may be insufficient to cause the death of infected cells by viral cytopathic effects, necessitating their elimination by immune effectors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL. Here, we study the impact of three HDACis in clinical development on T-cell effector functions. We report two modes of HDACi-induced functional impairment: i the rapid suppression of cytokine production from viable T-cells induced by all three HDACis ii the selective death of activated T-cells occurring at later time-points following transient exposures to romidepsin or, to a lesser extent, panobinostat. As a net result of these factors, HDACis impaired CTL-mediated IFN-γ production, as well as the elimination of HIV-infected or peptide-pulsed target cells, both in liquid culture and in collagen matrices. Romidepsin exerted greater inhibition of antiviral function than SAHA or panobinostat over the dose ranges tested. These data suggest that treatment with HDACis to mobilize the latent reservoir could have unintended negative impacts on the effector functions of CTL. This could influence the effectiveness of HDACi-based eradication strategies, by impairing elimination of infected cells, and is a critical consideration for trials where therapeutic interruptions are being contemplated, given the importance of CTL in containing rebound viremia.

  9. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity in human endometrial stromal cells promotes extracellular matrix remodelling and limits embryo invasion.

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    Carlos Estella

    Full Text Available Invasion of the trophoblast into the maternal decidua is regulated by both the trophoectoderm and the endometrial stroma, and entails the action of tissue remodeling enzymes. Trophoblast invasion requires the action of metalloproteinases (MMPs to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM proteins and in turn, decidual cells express tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs. The balance between these promoting and restraining factors is a key event for the successful outcome of pregnancy. Gene expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs that unpacks condensed chromatin activating gene expression. In this study we analyze the effect of histone acetylation on the expression of tissue remodeling enzymes and activity of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs related to trophoblast invasion control. Treatment of hESCs with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA increased the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 while decreased MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA and have an inhibitory effect on trophoblast invasion. Moreover, histone acetylation is detected at the promoters of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 genes in TSA-treated. In addition, in an in vitro decidualized hESCs model, the increase of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression is associated with histone acetylation at the promoters of these genes. Our results demonstrate that histone acetylation disrupt the balance of ECM modulators provoking a restrain of trophoblast invasion. These findings are important as an epigenetic mechanism that can be used to control trophoblast invasion.

  10. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Activity in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Promotes Extracellular Matrix Remodelling and Limits Embryo Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Stuart P.; Quiñonero, Alicia; Martínez, Sebastián; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of the trophoblast into the maternal decidua is regulated by both the trophoectoderm and the endometrial stroma, and entails the action of tissue remodeling enzymes. Trophoblast invasion requires the action of metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and in turn, decidual cells express tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The balance between these promoting and restraining factors is a key event for the successful outcome of pregnancy. Gene expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) that unpacks condensed chromatin activating gene expression. In this study we analyze the effect of histone acetylation on the expression of tissue remodeling enzymes and activity of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) related to trophoblast invasion control. Treatment of hESCs with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) increased the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 while decreased MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA and have an inhibitory effect on trophoblast invasion. Moreover, histone acetylation is detected at the promoters of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 genes in TSA-treated. In addition, in an in vitro decidualized hESCs model, the increase of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression is associated with histone acetylation at the promoters of these genes. Our results demonstrate that histone acetylation disrupt the balance of ECM modulators provoking a restrain of trophoblast invasion. These findings are important as an epigenetic mechanism that can be used to control trophoblast invasion. PMID:22291969

  11. Epigenetic Metabolite Acetate Inhibits Class I/II Histone Deacetylases, Promotes Histone Acetylation, and Increases HIV-1 Integration in CD4+T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Jean-François; Hany, Laurent; Barat, Corinne; Ouellet, Michel; Tremblay, Michel J

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4 + T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4 + T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration into the genome of CD4 + T cells. Thus, we propose that upon antigen presentation, acetate influences class I/II HDAC activity that transforms condensed chromatin into a more relaxed structure. This event leads to a higher level of viral integration and enhanced HIV-1 production. In line with previous studies showing reactivation of latent HIV-1 by SCFAs, we provide evidence that acetate can also increase the susceptibility of primary human CD4 + T cells to productive HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Alterations in the fecal microbiota and intestinal epithelial damage involved in the gastrointestinal disorder associated with HIV-1 infection result in microbial translocation that leads to disease progression and virus-related comorbidities. Indeed, notably via production of short-chain fatty acids, bacteria migrating from the lumen to the intestinal mucosa could influence HIV-1 replication by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as histone acetylation. We demonstrate that acetate enhances virus production in primary human CD4 + T cells. Moreover, we report that acetate impairs class I/II histone deacetylase activity and increases integration of HIV-1 DNA into the host genome. Therefore, it can be postulated that bacterial metabolites such as acetate modulate HIV-1-mediated disease progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Synthesis and Activity of Tumor-Homing Peptide iRGD and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Conjugate

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Zheng-Hong; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we present a concise strategy to prepare a conjugate of the tumor homing peptide iRGD and histone deacetylase inhibitor Valproic acid, VPA-GFLG-iRGD. The conjugate VPA-GFLG-iRGD and a mixture of VPA and GFLG-iRGD have shown similar cytotoxicity against DU-145 prostate cancer cells. However, the treatment of DU-145 cells with conjugate VPA-GFLG-iRGD resulted in a decreased percentage of cells in the G2 phase, whereas the exposure of a mixture of VPA and GFLG-iRGD led to an incr...

  13. Zyflamend, a polyherbal mixture, down regulates class I and class II histone deacetylases and increases p21 levels in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, E-Chu; Zhao, Yi; Chen, Guoxun; Baek, Seung Joon; McEntee, Michael F; Minkin, Steven; Biggerstaff, John P; Whelan, Jay

    2014-02-21

    Zyflamend, a mixture containing extracts of ten herbs, has shown promise in a variety of preclinical cancer models, including prostate cancer. The current experiments were designed to investigate the effects of Zyflamend on the expression of class I and II histone deacetylases, a family of enzymes known to be over expressed in a variety of cancers. CWR22Rv1 cells, a castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell line, were treated with Zyflamend and the expression of class I and II histone deacetylases, along with their downstream target the tumor suppressor gene p21, was investigated. Involvement of p21 was confirmed with siRNA knockdown and over expression experiments. Zyflamend down-regulated the expression of all class I and II histone deacetylases where Chinese goldthread and baikal skullcap (two of its components) appear to be primarily responsible for these results. In addition, Zyflamend up regulated the histone acetyl transferase complex CBP/p300, potentially contributing to the increase in histone 3 acetylation. Expression of the tumor suppressor gene p21, a known downstream target of histone deacetylases and CBP/p300, was increased by Zyflamend treatment and the effect on p21 was, in part, mediated through Erk1/2. Knockdown of p21 with siRNA technology attenuated Zyflamend-induced growth inhibition. Over expression of p21 inhibited cell growth and concomitant treatment with Zyflamend enhanced this effect. Our results suggest that the extracts of this polyherbal combination increase histone 3 acetylation, inhibit the expression of class I and class II histone deacetylases, increase the activation of CBP/p300 and inhibit cell proliferation, in part, by up regulating p21 expression.

  14. High glucose-induced oxidative stress represses sirtuin deacetylase expression and increases histone acetylation leading to neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingwen; Wu, Yanqing; Yang, Peixin

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetic modifications are implicated in maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs). Because cellular stress plays a causal role in diabetic embryopathy, we investigated the possible role of the stress-resistant sirtuin (SIRT) family histone deacetylases. Among the seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), pre-gestational maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro significantly reduced the expression of SIRT 2 and SIRT6 in the embryo or neural stem cells, respectively. The down-regulation of SIRT2 and SIRT6 was reversed by superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) over-expression in the in vivo mouse model of diabetic embryopathy and the SOD mimetic, tempol and cell permeable SOD, PEGSOD in neural stem cell cultures. 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ), a superoxide generating agent, mimicked high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression. The acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 56 (H3K56), H3K14, H3K9, and H3K27, putative substrates of SIRT2 and SIRT6, was increased by maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro, and these increases were blocked by SOD1 over-expression or tempol treatment. SIRT2 or SIRT6 over-expression abrogated high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 or SIRT6 expression, and prevented the increase in acetylation of their histone substrates. The potent sirtuin activator (SRT1720) blocked high glucose-increased histone acetylation and NTD formation, whereas the combination of a pharmacological SIRT2 inhibitor and a pan SIRT inhibitor mimicked the effect of high glucose on increased histone acetylation and NTD induction. Thus, diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro suppresses SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression through oxidative stress, and sirtuin down-regulation-induced histone acetylation may be involved in diabetes-induced NTDs. The mechanism underlying pre-gestational diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs) is still elusive. Our study unravels a new epigenetic mechanism in which maternal diabetes-induced oxidative stress represses

  15. General Base-General Acid Catalysis in Human Histone Deacetylase 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Sister M Lucy; Decroos, Christophe; Lee, Matthew S; Gullett, Laura E; Bowman, Christine M; Christianson, David W; Fierke, Carol A

    2016-02-09

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate cellular processes such as differentiation and apoptosis and are targeted by anticancer therapeutics in development and in the clinic. HDAC8 is a metal-dependent class I HDAC and is proposed to use a general acid-base catalytic pair in the mechanism of amide bond hydrolysis. Here, we report site-directed mutagenesis and enzymological measurements to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of HDAC8. Specifically, we focus on the catalytic function of Y306 and the histidine-aspartate dyads H142-D176 and H143-D183. Additionally, we report X-ray crystal structures of four representative HDAC8 mutants: D176N, D176N/Y306F, D176A/Y306F, and H142A/Y306F. These structures provide a useful framework for understanding enzymological measurements. The pH dependence of kcat/KM for wild-type Co(II)-HDAC8 is bell-shaped with two pKa values of 7.4 and 10.0. The upper pKa reflects the ionization of the metal-bound water molecule and shifts to 9.1 in Zn(II)-HDAC8. The H142A mutant has activity 230-fold lower than that of wild-type HDAC8, but the pKa1 value is not altered. Y306F HDAC8 is 150-fold less active than the wild-type enzyme; crystal structures show that Y306 hydrogen bonds with the zinc-bound substrate carbonyl, poised for transition state stabilization. The H143A and H142A/H143A mutants exhibit activity that is >80000-fold lower than that of wild-type HDAC8; the buried D176N and D176A mutants have significant catalytic effects, with more subtle effects caused by D183N and D183A. These enzymological and structural studies strongly suggest that H143 functions as a single general base-general acid catalyst, while H142 remains positively charged and serves as an electrostatic catalyst for transition state stabilization.

  16. Identification of the ankyrin repeat proteins ANKRA and RFXANK as novel partners of class IIa histone deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Audrey H; Grégoire, Serge; Zika, Eleni; Xiao, Lin; Li, Cathy S; Li, Hongwei; Wright, Kenneth L; Ting, Jenny P; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2005-08-12

    Eighteen human histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been identified, and according to their sequence similarity to yeast homologs, these enzymes are grouped into distinct classes. Within class II, HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7, and HDAC9 share similar domain organization both within the N-terminal extension and the C-terminal catalytic domain, thus forming a subclass known as class IIa. These HDACs function as signal-responsive transcriptional corepressors. To gain further insight into their function and regulation, we utilized an N-terminal fragment of HDAC4 as bait in yeast two-hybrid screens, which uncovered myocyte enhancer factor 2C, 14-3-3zeta, and ankyrin repeat family A protein (ANKRA). ANKRA is a poorly characterized protein with an ankyrin repeat domain similar to RFXANK, a subunit of the trimeric transcription factor RFX. Mutations on genes of the RFX subunits and the coactivator CIITA are responsible for the bare lymphocyte syndrome, an immunodeficiency disorder attributed to the lack of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) antigens. Through its ankyrin repeat domain, RFXANK interacted with HDAC4. Two RFXANK-binding sites were found on HDAC4 with one located within residues 118-279 and another within residues 448-666. Interestingly, this deacetylase also interacted with CIITA. Consistent with the physical interaction with RFXANK and CIITA, HDAC4 and homologs repressed MHCII expression. These results identify ANKRA, RFXANK, and CIITA as novel targets of class IIa HDACs and suggest that these deacetylases play a role in regulating MHCII expression.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid promotes the induction of pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts by suppressing reprogramming-induced senescence stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yingying; Chen, Xi; Yu, Dehai [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Tao [Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Guanjun [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Hu, Ji-Fan, E-mail: jifan@stanford.edu [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Wei, E-mail: jdyylw@163.com [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used to increase the reprogramming efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) from somatic cells, yet the specific molecular mechanisms underlying this effect is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that reprogramming with lentiviruses carrying the iPSC-inducing factors (Oct4-Sox2-Klf4-cMyc, OSKM) caused senescence in mouse fibroblasts, establishing a stress barrier for cell reprogramming. Administration of VPA protected cells from reprogramming-induced senescent stress. Using an in vitro pre-mature senescence model, we found that VPA treatment increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis through the suppression of the p16/p21 pathway. In addition, VPA also inhibited the G2/M phase blockage derived from the senescence stress. These findings highlight the role of VPA in breaking the cell senescence barrier required for the induction of pluripotency. - Highlights: • Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances iPSC induction. • Valproic acid suppresses reprogramming-induced senescence stress. • Valproic acid downregulates the p16/p21 pathway in reprogramming. • This study demonstrates a new mechanistic role of valproic acid in enhancing reprogramming.

  18. Recruitment of Cln3 cyclin to promoters controls cell cycle entry via histone deacetylase and other targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyin Wang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In yeast, the G1 cyclin Cln3 promotes cell cycle entry by activating the transcription factor SBF. In mammals, there is a parallel system for cell cycle entry in which cyclin dependent kinase (CDK activates transcription factor E2F/Dp. Here we show that Cln3 regulates SBF by at least two different pathways, one involving the repressive protein Whi5, and the second involving Stb1. The Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex is also involved. Cln3 binds to SBF at the CLN2 promoter, and removes previously bound Whi5 and histone deacetylase. Adding extra copies of the SBF binding site to the cell delays Start, possibly by titrating Cln3. Since Rpd3 is the yeast ortholog of mammalian HDAC1, there is now a virtually complete analogy between the proteins regulating cell cycle entry in yeast (SBF, Cln3, Whi5 and Stb1, Rpd3 and mammals (E2F, Cyclin D, Rb, HDAC1. The cell may titrate Cln3 molecules against the number of SBF binding sites, and this could be the underlying basis of the size-control mechanism for Start.

  19. Different effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors nicotinamide and trichostatin A (TSA) in C17.2 neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Cheng, Hua; Wang, Kai; Wen, Tieqiao

    2012-11-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors are involved in proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, mRNA transcription, and protein expression in various cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying such functions is still not fully clear. In this study, we used C17.2 neural stem cell (NSC) line as a model to evaluate the effects of nicotinamide and trichostatin A (TSA) on cell characteristics. Results show that nicotinamide and TSA greatly inhibit cell growth, lead to cell morphology changes, and effectively induce cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analyses confirmed that nicotinamide significantly decreases the expression of bcl-2 and p38. Further insight into the molecular mechanisms shows the suppression of phosphorylation in eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) by nicotinamide, whereas, an increased expression of bcl-2 and p38 and phosphorylation of 4EBP1 by TSA. However, both nicotinamide and TSA significantly increase the expression of cytochrome c (cyt c). These results strongly suggest that bcl-2, p38, cyt c, and p-4EBP1 could suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis of C17.2 NSCs mediated by histone deacetylase inhibitors, nicotinamide and TSA, involving different molecular mechanisms.

  20. Histone deacetylase-4 is required during early cranial neural crest development for generation of the zebrafish palatal skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeLaurier April

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase-4 (Hdac4 is a class II histone deacetylase that inhibits the activity of transcription factors. In humans, HDAC4 deficiency is associated with non-syndromic oral clefts and brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR with craniofacial abnormalities. Results We identify hdac4 in zebrafish and characterize its function in craniofacial morphogenesis. The gene is present as a single copy, and the deduced Hdac4 protein sequence shares all known functional domains with human HDAC4. The zebrafish hdac4 transcript is widely present in migratory cranial neural crest (CNC cells of the embryo, including populations migrating around the eye, which previously have been shown to contribute to the formation of the palatal skeleton of the early larva. Embryos injected with hdac4 morpholinos (MO have reduced or absent CNC populations that normally migrate medial to the eye. CNC-derived palatal precursor cells do not recover at the post-migratory stage, and subsequently we found that defects in the developing cartilaginous palatal skeleton correlate with reduction or absence of early CNC cells. Palatal skeletal defects prominently include a shortened, clefted, or missing ethmoid plate, and are associated with a shortening of the face of young larvae. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Hdac4 is a regulator of CNC-derived palatal skeletal precursors during early embryogenesis. Cleft palate resulting from HDAC4 mutations in human patients may result from defects in a homologous CNC progenitor cell population.

  1. The histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat (PXD101 suppresses bladder cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

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    Liebes Leonard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment options for patients with recurrent superficial bladder cancer are limited, necessitating aggressive exploration of new treatment strategies that effectively prevent recurrence and progression to invasive disease. We assessed the effects of belinostat (previously PXD101, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, on a panel of human bladder cancer cell lines representing superficial and invasive disease, and on a transgenic mouse model of superficial bladder cancer. Methods Growth inhibition and cell cycle distribution effect of belinostat on 5637, T24, J82, and RT4 urothelial lines were assessed. Ha-ras transgenic mice with established superficial bladder cancer were randomized to receive either belinostat or vehicle alone, and assessed for bladder weight, hematuria, gene expression profiling, and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Results Belinostat had a significant linear dose-dependent growth inhibition on all cell lines (IC50 range of 1.0–10.0 μM. The 5637 cell line, which was derived from a superficial papillary tumor, was the most sensitive to treatment. Belinostat (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, 5 days each week for 3 weeks treated mice had less bladder weight (p WAF1 in the belinostat-treated mice. Gene expression profile analysis revealed 56 genes significantly different in the treated group; these included the upregulation of p21WAF1, induction of core histone deacetylase (HDAC, and cell communication genes. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that belinostat inhibits bladder cancer and supports the clinical evaluation of belinostat for the treatment of patients with superficial bladder cancer.

  2. A role for the histone deacetylase HDAC4 in the life-cycle of HIV-1-based vectors

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    Kao Gary D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 integration is mediated by the HIV-1 integrase protein, which joins 3'-ends of viral DNA to host cell DNA. To complete the integration process, HIV-1 DNA has to be joined to host cell DNA also at the 5'-ends. This process is called post-integration repair (PIR. Integration and PIR involve a number of cellular co-factors. These proteins exhibit different degrees of involvement in integration and/or PIR. Some are required for efficient integration or PIR. On the other hand, some reduce the efficiency of integration. Finally, some are involved in integration site selection. We have studied the role of the histone deacetylase HDAC4 in these processes. HDAC4 was demonstrated to play a role in both cellular double-strand DNA break repair and transcriptional regulation. We observed that HDAC4 associates with viral DNA in an integrase-dependent manner. Moreover, infection with HIV-1-based vectors induces foci of the HDAC4 protein. The related histone deacetylases, HDAC2 and HDAC6, failed to associate with viral DNA after infection. These data suggest that HDAC4 accumulates at integration sites. Finally, overexpression studies with HDAC4 mutants suggest that HDAC4 may be required for efficient transduction by HIV-1-based vectors in cells that are deficient in other DNA repair proteins. We conclude that HDAC4 is likely involved in PIR.

  3. Effect of histone acetylation modification with MGCD0103, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on nuclear reprogramming and the developmental competence of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Cui, Cheng-Du; Li, Wen-Xue; Cui, Zheng-Yun; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Cloning remains as an important technique to enhance the reconstitution and distribution of animal population with high-genetic merit. One of the major detrimental factors of this technique is the abnormal epigenetic modifications. MGCD0103 is known as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the effect of MGCD0103 on the in vitro blastocyst formation rate in porcine somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos and expression in acetylation of the histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H4 lysine 12. We compared the in vitro embryonic development of SCNT embryos treated with different concentrations of MGCD0103 for 24 hours. Our results reported that treating with 0.2-μM MGCD0103 for 24 hours effectively improved the development of SCNT embryos, in comparison to the control group (blastocyst formation rate, 25.5 vs. 10.7%, P MGCD0103 for various intervals after activation. Treatment for 6 hours significantly improved the development of pig SCNT embryos, compared with the control group (blastocyst formation rate, 21.2 vs. 10.5%, P MGCD0103 supplementation significantly (P MGCD0103-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and three fetuses developed. These results suggest that MGCD0103 can enhance the nuclear reprogramming and improve in vitro developmental potential of porcine SCNT embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Two Histone Deacetylases, FfHda1 and FfHda2, Are Important for Fusarium fujikuroi Secondary Metabolism and Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Studt, L.; Schmidt, F. J.; Jahn, L.; Sieber, C. M. K.; Connolly, L. R.; Niehaus, E.-M.; Freitag, M.; Humpf, H.-U.; Tudzynski, B.

    2013-01-01

    Histone modifications are crucial for the regulation of secondary metabolism in various filamentous fungi. Here we studied the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in secondary metabolism in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi, a known producer of several secondary metabolites, including phytohormones, pigments, and mycotoxins. Deletion of three Zn2+-dependent HDAC-encoding genes, ffhda1, ffhda2, and ffhda4, indicated that FfHda1 and FfHda2 regulate secondary metabolism, wher...

  5. Mechanisms of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myeloma cells induced by hybrid-compound histone deacetylase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Seiko [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori; Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu; Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Nishino, Norikazu [Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Ky-2, remarkably inhibits myeloma cell growth. •Ky-2 demonstrates no cytotoxicity against normal lymphocytic cells. •Ky-2 induces cell cycle arrest through the cell cycle-associated proteins. •Ky-2 induces Bcl-2-inhibitable apoptosis through a caspase-dependent cascade. -- Abstract: Objectives: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are new therapeutic agents, used to treat various types of malignant cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Ky-2, a hybrid-compound HDAC inhibitor, on the growth of mouse myeloma cells. Materials and methods: Myeloma cells, HS-72, P3U1, and mouse normal cells were used in this study. Effect of HDAC inhibitors on cell viability was determined by WST-assay and trypan blue assay. Cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometer. The expression of cell cycle regulatory and the apoptosis associated proteins were examined by Western blot analysis. Hoechst’s staining was used to detect apoptotic cells. Results: Our findings showed that Ky-2 decreased the levels of HDACs, while it enhanced acetylation of histone H3. Myeloma cell proliferation was inhibited by Ky-2 treatment. Interestingly, Ky-2 had no cytotoxic effects on mouse normal cells. Ky-2 treatment induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and accumulation of a sub-G1 phase population, while Western blotting analysis revealed that expressions of the cell cycle-associated proteins were up-regulated. Also, Ky-2 enhanced the cleavage of caspase-9 and -3 in myeloma cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In addition, Ky-2 was not found to induce apoptosis in bcl-2 overexpressing myeloma cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Ky-2 induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent cascade and Bcl-2-inhibitable mechanism in myeloma cells.

  6. Functional characterization of Candida albicans Hos2 histone deacetylase [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3xh

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    G Karthikeyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a mucosal commensal organism capable of causing superficial (oral and vaginal thrush infections in immune normal hosts, but is a major pathogen causing systemic and mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Azoles have been very effective anti-fungal agents and the mainstay in treating opportunistic mold and yeast infections. Azole resistant strains have emerged compromising the utility of this class of drugs. It has been shown that azole resistance can be reversed by the co-administration of a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, suggesting that resistance is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms possibly involving Hos2, a fungal deacetylase. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of HOS2 (HighOsmolarity Sensitive, a gene coding for fungal histone deacetylase from C. albicans. Inhibition studies showed that Hos2 is susceptible to pan inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, but is not inhibited by class I inhibitors such as MS-275. This in vitro enzymatic assay, which is amenable to high throughput could be used for screening potent fungal Hos2 inhibitors that could be a potential anti-fungal adjuvant. Purified Hos2 protein consistently deacetylated tubulins, rather than histones from TSA-treated cells. Hos2 has been reported to be a putative NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase, a feature of sirtuins. We assayed for sirtuin activation with resveratrol and purified Hos2 protein and did not find any sirtuin activity.

  7. The effect of sulforaphane on histone deacetylase activity in keratinocytes: Differences between in vitro and in vivo analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Sally E; Rusche, Jadrian J; Bec, Sergiu L; Horn, David J; Janda, Jaroslav; Rim, So Hyun; Smith, Catharine L; Bowden, G Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Sulforaphane is a natural product found in broccoli, which is known to exert many different molecular effects in the cell, including inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Here, we examine for the first time the potential for sulforaphane to inhibit HDACs in HaCaT keratinocytes and compare our results with those found using HCT116 colon cancer cells. Significant inhibition of HDAC activity in HCT116 nuclear extracts required prolonged exposure to sulforaphane in the presence of serum. Under the same conditions HaCaT nuclear extracts did not exhibit reduced HDAC activity with sulforaphane treatment. Both cell types displayed down-regulation of HDAC protein levels by sulforaphane treatment. Despite these reductions in HDAC family member protein levels, acetylation of marker proteins (acetylated Histone H3, H4, and tubulin) was decreased by sulforaphane treatment. Time-course analysis revealed that HDAC6, HDAC3, and acetylated histone H3 protein levels are significantly inhibited as early as 6 h into sulforaphane treatment. Transcript levels of HDAC6 are also suppressed after 48 h of treatment. These results suggest that HDAC activity noted in nuclear extracts is not always translated as expected to target protein acetylation patterns, despite dramatic inhibition of some HDAC protein levels. In addition, our data suggest that keratinocytes are at least partially resistant to the nuclear HDAC inhibitory effects of sulforaphane, which is exhibited in HCT116 and other cells. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. MGCD0103, a novel isotype-selective histone deacetylase inhibitor, has broad spectrum antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Marielle; Bonfils, Claire; Hou, Yu; Yan, Pu Theresa; Trachy-Bourget, Marie-Claude; Kalita, Ann; Liu, Jianhong; Lu, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Nancy Z; Robert, Marie-France; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Wang, James J; Ste-Croix, Hélène; Rahil, Jubrail; Lefebvre, Sylvain; Moradei, Oscar; Delorme, Daniel; Macleod, A Robert; Besterman, Jeffrey M; Li, Zuomei

    2008-04-01

    Nonselective inhibitors of human histone deacetylases (HDAC) are known to have antitumor activity in mice in vivo, and several of them are under clinical investigation. The first of these, Vorinostat (SAHA), has been approved for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Questions remain concerning which HDAC isotype(s) are the best to target for anticancer activity and whether increased efficacy and safety will result with an isotype-selective HDAC inhibitor. We have developed an isotype-selective HDAC inhibitor, MGCD0103, which potently targets human HDAC1 but also has inhibitory activity against HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC11 in vitro. In intact cells, MGCD0103 inhibited only a fraction of the total HDAC activity and showed long-lasting inhibitory activity even upon drug removal. MGCD0103 induced hyperacetylation of histones, selectively induced apoptosis, and caused cell cycle blockade in various human cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. MGCD0103 exhibited potent and selective antiproliferative activities against a broad spectrum of human cancer cell lines in vitro, and HDAC inhibitory activity was required for these effects. In vivo, MGCD0103 significantly inhibited growth of human tumor xenografts in nude mice in a dose-dependent manner and the antitumor activity correlated with induction of histone acetylation in tumors. Our findings suggest that the isotype-selective HDAC inhibition by MGCD0103 is sufficient for antitumor activity in vivo and that further clinical investigation is warranted.

  9. Retinoic acids and trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induce human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Sook; Huang, Boli; Ho Jeoung, Nam; Wu, Pengfei; Steussy, Calvin N; Harris, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) conserves glucose and substrates for gluconeogenesis and thereby helps regulate blood glucose levels during starvation. We report here that retinoic acids (RA) as well as Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), regulate PDK4 gene expression. Two retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) to which retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) bind and activate transcription are present in the human PDK4 (hPDK4) proximal promoter. Sp1 and CCAAT box binding factor (CBF) bind to the region between two RAREs. Mutation of either the Sp1 or the CBF site significantly decreases basal expression, transactivation by RXRalpha/RARalpha/RA, and the ability of TSA to stimulate hPDK4 gene transcription. By the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, RA and TSA increase acetylation of histones bound to the proximal promoter as well as occupancy of CBP and Sp1. Interaction of p300/CBP with E1A completely prevented hPDK4 gene activation by RXRalpha/RARalpha/RA and TSA. The p300/CBP may enhance acetylation of histones bound to the hPDK4 promoter and cooperate with Sp1 and CBF to stimulate transcription of the hPDK4 gene in response to RA and TSA.

  10. The tomato histone deacetylase SlHDA1 contributes to the repression of fruit ripening and carotenoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-E; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Mingku; Li, Fenfen; Zhu, Zhiguo; Lu, Yu; Chen, Guoping

    2017-08-11

    Histone deacetylation is one of the well characterized post-translational modifications related to transcriptional repression in eukaryotes. The process of histone deacetylation is achieved by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Over the last decade, substantial advances in our understanding of the mechanism of fruit ripening have been achieved, but the role of HDACs in this process has not been elucidated. In our study, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlHDA1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter fruit ripening time and decreased storability were observed in SlHDA1 RNAi lines. The accumulation of carotenoid was increased through an alteration of the carotenoid pathway flux. Ethylene content, ethylene biosynthesis genes (ACS2, ACS4 and ACO1, ACO3) and ripening-associated genes (RIN, E4, E8, Cnr, TAGL1, PG, Pti4 and LOXB) were significantly up-regulated in SlHDA1 RNAi lines. In addition, the expression of fruit cell wall metabolism genes (HEX, MAN, TBG4, XTH5 and XYL) was enhanced compared with wild type. Furthermore, SlHDA1 RNAi seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) than the wild type. The results of our study indicate that SlHDA1 functions as a negative regulator of fruit ripening by affecting ethylene synthesis and carotenoid accumulation.

  11. Chemical Editing of Macrocyclic Natural Products and Kinetic Profiling Reveal Slow, Tight-Binding Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Picomolar Affinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitir, Betül; Maolanon, Alex R.; Ohm, Ragnhild G.

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are validated targets for treatment of certain cancer types and play numerous regulatory roles in biology, ranging from epigenetics to metabolism. Small molecules are highly important as tool compounds for probing these mechanisms as well as for the development of new...... medicines. Therefore, detailed mechanistic information and precise characterization of the chemical probes used to investigate the effects of HDAC enzymes are vital. We interrogated Nature's arsenal of macrocyclic nonribosomal peptide HDAC inhibitors by chemical synthesis and evaluation of more than 30...... natural products and analogues. This furnished surprising trends in binding affinities for the various macrocycles, which were then exploited for the design of highly potent class I and IIb HDAC inhibitors. Furthermore, thorough kinetic investigation revealed unexpected inhibitory mechanisms of important...

  12. CD4+ T cell lineage integrity is controlled by the histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeschl, Lisa; Moser, Mirjam A.; Lagger, Sabine; Sakaguchi, Shinya; Winter, Mircea; Lenz, Florian; Vitko, Dijana; Breitwieser, Florian P.; Müller, Lena; Hassan, Hammad; Bennett, Keiryn L.; Colinge, Jacques; Schreiner, Wolfgang; Egawa, Takeshi; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Matthias, Patrick; Seiser, Christian; Ellmeier, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms that maintain lineage integrity of helper T cells are largely unknown. Here we show histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1 and 2 as crucial regulators of this process. Loss of HDAC1 and HDAC2 during late T cell development led to the appearance of MHC class II-selected CD4+ helper T cells (TH) that expressed CD8 lineage genes such as Cd8a and Cd8b1. HDAC1-HDAC2-deficient TH0 and TH1 cells further up-regulated Cd8 lineage genes and acquired a CD8 effector program in a manner dependent on Runx-CBFβ complexes, while TH2 cells repressed CD8 lineage features independently of HDAC1 and HDAC2. These results demonstrate that HDAC1-HDAC2 maintain CD4 lineage integrity by repressing Runx-CBFβ complexes that otherwise induce a CD8-like effector program in CD4+ T cells. PMID:24681565

  13. Synergistic efficacy in human ovarian cancer cells by histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA and proteasome inhibitor PS-341.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Hu, Yi; Wu, Peng; Wang, Beibei; Tian, Yuan; Xia, Xi; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Tong; Jiang, Xuefeng; Ma, Quanfu; Xu, Gang; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Meng, Li

    2011-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors and proteasome inhibitor are all emerging as new classes of anticancer agents. We chose TSA and PS-341 to identify whether they have a synergistic efficacy on human ovarian cancer cells. After incubated with 500 nM TSA or/and 40 nM PS-341, we found that combined groups resulted in a striking increase of apoptosis and G2/M blocking rates, no matter in A2780, cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cell line OV2008 or its resistant variant C13*. This demonstrated that TSA interacted synergistically with PS-341, which raised the possibility that combined the two drugs may represent a novel strategy in ovarian cancer.

  14. A phase I clinical trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat in patients with advanced hematological neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Peter; Hansen, Mads; Knudsen, Lene M

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the safety, dose-limiting toxicity and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the novel hydroxamate histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat (PXD101) in patients with advanced hematological neoplasms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sequential dose-escalating cohorts of three to six patients...... with hematological malignancies received belinostat administered as a 30-min i.v. infusion on days 1-5 of a 21-d cycle. Experience from a parallel dose-finding study in patients with solid tumors influenced the selection of the final dose. RESULTS: Sixteen patients received belinostat at one of three dose levels......%), vomiting (31%), fatigue (31%) and flushing (31%). No grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicity compared with baseline occurred except one case of grade 3 lymphopenia. There were two related grade 4 adverse events of renal failure observed. Both events occurred in patients with multiple myeloma and had similar...

  15. Pitx2-dependent occupancy by histone deacetylases is associated with T-box gene regulation in mammalian abdominal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Traci; Gross, Michael K; Kioussi, Chrissa

    2010-04-09

    The homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2 and the T-box transcription factors are essential for organogenesis. Pitx2 and T-box genes are induced by growth factors and function as transcriptional activators or repressors. Gene expression analyses on abdominal tissue were used to identify seven of the T-box genes of the genome as Pitx2 target genes in the abdomen at embryonic day.10.5. Pitx2 activated Tbx4, Tbx15, and Mga and repressed Tbx1, Tbx2, Tbx5, and Tbx6 expression. As expected, activated genes showed reduced expression patterns, and repressed T-box genes showed increased expression patterns in the abdomen of Pitx2 mutants. Pitx2 occupied chromatin sites near all of these T-box genes. Co-occupancy by coactivators, corepressors, and histone acetylation at these sites was frequently Pitx2-dependent. Genes repressed by Pitx2 generally showed increased histone acetylation and decreased histone deacetylase (HDAC)/corepressor occupancy in Pitx2 mutants. The lower N-CoR, HDAC1, and HDAC3 occupancy observed at multiple sites along Tbx1 chromatin in mutants is consistent with the model that increased histone acetylation and gene expression of Tbx1 may result from a loss of recruitment of corepressors by Pitx2. Genes activated by Pitx2 showed less consistent patterns in chromatin analyses. Reduced H4 acetylation and increased HDAC1/nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) occupancy at some Tbx4 sites were accompanied by increased H3 acetylation and reduced HDAC3 occupancy at the same or other more distal chromatin sites in mutants. Pitx2-dependent occupancy by corepressors resulted in alteration of the acetylation levels of several T-box genes, whereas Pitx2-dependent occupancy by coactivators was more site-localized. These studies will provide the basic scientific underpinning to understand abdominal wall syndromes.

  16. Histone deacetylases suppress CGG repeat-induced neurodegeneration via transcriptional silencing in models of fragile X tremor ataxia syndrome.

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    Peter K Todd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS is a common inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of a CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5'UTR of the fragile X syndrome (FXS gene, FMR1. The expanded CGG repeat is thought to induce toxicity as RNA, and in FXTAS patients mRNA levels for FMR1 are markedly increased. Despite the critical role of FMR1 mRNA in disease pathogenesis, the basis for the increase in FMR1 mRNA expression is unknown. Here we show that overexpressing any of three histone deacetylases (HDACs 3, 6, or 11 suppresses CGG repeat-induced neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of FXTAS. This suppression results from selective transcriptional repression of the CGG repeat-containing transgene. These findings led us to evaluate the acetylation state of histones at the human FMR1 locus. In patient-derived lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, we determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation that there is increased acetylation of histones at the FMR1 locus in pre-mutation carriers compared to control or FXS derived cell lines. These epigenetic changes correlate with elevated FMR1 mRNA expression in pre-mutation cell lines. Consistent with this finding, histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitors repress FMR1 mRNA expression to control levels in pre-mutation carrier cell lines and extend lifespan in CGG repeat-expressing Drosophila. These findings support a disease model whereby the CGG repeat expansion in FXTAS promotes chromatin remodeling in cis, which in turn increases expression of the toxic FMR1 mRNA. Moreover, these results provide proof of principle that HAT inhibitors or HDAC activators might be used to selectively repress transcription at the FMR1 locus.

  17. Experimental study on inhibitory effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 and TSA on bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Kang, Yin-Dong; Zhou, Mei-Sheng; Fu, Li-Li; Hua, Zhen-Hao; Wang, Li-Ming

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (MS-275 and TSA) on T24 human bladder cancer cells in vitro, and explore the possible mechanism. The MTT assay was employed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of MS-275 and TSA on T24 cell growth. FCM was used to analyze the variation of T24 cell cycle distribution and the apoptotic ratio after T24 cells were treated with MS-275 and TSA. Histone acetylation level was detected by Western blot. mRNA expression of p21 WAF1/CIP1, cyclin A, and cyclin E was measured by FQ-PCR. Dynamic changes of Bcl-2 and bax expression were detected by FCM. MS-275 and TSA inhibited T24 cell growth in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Treatment with 4 μmol/l MS-275 or 0.4 μmol/l TSA blocked cell cycling in the G0/G1 phase and induced a significant increase in cell apoptosis. MS-275 and TSA significantly increased the level of histone acetylation, induced p21CIP1WAF1 mRNA expression, and inhibited cyclin A mRNA expression, though no significant effect was observed on cyclin E. Bcl-2 expression was down-regulated, while bax expression was up-regulated. HDAC inhibitors can block bladder cancer cell cycle in vitro and induce apoptosis. The molecular mechanism may be associated with increased level of histone acetylation, down-regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression, up-regulation of cyclin A expression, and dynamic change of bcl-2 and bax expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibition activates transgene expression from integration-defective lentiviral vectors in dividing and non-dividing cells.

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    Pelascini, Laetitia P L; Janssen, Josephine M; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2013-01-01

    Integration-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) are being increasingly deployed in both basic and preclinical gene transfer settings. Often, however, the IDLV transgene expression profile is muted when compared to that of their integration-proficient counterparts. We hypothesized that the episomal nature of IDLVs turns them into preferential targets for epigenetic silencing involving chromatin-remodeling histone deacetylation. Therefore, vectors carrying an array of cis-acting elements and transcriptional unit components were assembled with the aid of packaging constructs encoding either the wild-type or the class I mutant D116N integrase moieties. The transduction levels and transgene-product yields provided by each vector class were assessed in the presence and absence of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors sodium butyrate and trichostatin A. To investigate the role of the target cell replication status, we performed experiments in growth-arrested human mesenchymal stem cells and in post-mitotic syncytial myotubes. We found that IDLVs are acutely affected by HDACs regardless of their genetic makeup or target cell replication rate. Interestingly, the magnitude of IDLV transgene expression rescue due to HDAC inhibition varied in a vector backbone- and cell type-dependent manner. Finally, investigation of histone modifications by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) revealed a paucity of euchromatin marks distributed along IDLV genomes when compared to those measured on isogenic integration-competent vector templates. These findings support the view that IDLVs constitute preferential targets for epigenetic silencing involving histone deacetylation, which contributes to dampening their full transcriptional potential. Our data provide leads on how to most optimally titrate and deploy these promising episomal gene delivery vehicles.

  19. Cytotoxic effects of peanut phenolics possessing histone deacetylase inhibitory activity in breast and cervical cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenglee, Somprasong; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran; Leid, Mark; Senawong, Thanaset

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic histone modifications are considered as a promising avenue for cancer preventive and therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory activity of selected peanut phenolics, including p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapinic acid and resveratrol, in MCF-7 and HeLa cells. The cytotoxic and HDAC inhibitory activities were assessed by MTT assays, flow cytometric analyses of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, and western blotting. The results showed that all four phenolics inhibited proliferation of both MCF-7 and HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among the phenolics tested, resveratrol was the most effective in inhibiting growth of cancer cells. Treatment with all phenolics resulted in histone H3 hyperacetylation in both cell lines, indicating potential for HDAC inhibition. These phenolics induced apoptosis in both MCF-7 and HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, all phenolics induced G0/G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle in MCF-7 cells while p-coumaric and ferulic acids caused S-phase arrest in HeLa cells. Exposure to p-coumaric acid increased p53 and p21 expression but decreased CDK4 levels in both cell types, which could result in the observed G0/G1 arrest. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by ferulic acid and resveratrol contributed to cell growth inhibition. Peanut phenolics appear to influence the extent of histone acetylation in MCF-7 and HeLa cells, and this activity modulates multiple pathways that are implicated in cancer prevention. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate on heroin seeking behavior in the nucleus accumbens in rats.

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    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Jin; Zhu, Hua-Qiang; Gao, Lei; Lai, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Liu, Hui-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Histone acetylation and other modifications of the chromatin are important regulators of gene expression and may contribute to drug-induced behaviors and neuroplasticity. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) activity results in the change of some drug-induced behaviors,however, relatively little is known about the effects of HDAC inhibitors on heroin-seeking behavior. In the present study, male rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, followed by 14 daily 2h extinction session in the operant chamber. After training, the heroin priming (250μg/kg) was introduced for the reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior. Pretreatment with sodium butyrate (NaB) (200 or 400mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of HDAC, failed to affect heroin self-administration. Additionally,systemic administration of NaB (400mg/kg, i.p.)increased significantly the reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by heroin priming when NaB administered 12h, but not 6h before the reinstatement test. The same effect was observed after the intracerebroventricular injection of NaB (5μL, 100μg/μL). Moreover, the levels of histone H3 acetylation at lysine 18(H3K18)and H4 acetylation at lysine 5 or lysine 8(H4K5 or H4K8)in the accumbens nucleus core and shell were remarkably increased during the reinstatement and were further strengthened after intracerebroventricular injection of NaB. These results demonstrated that activation of histone acetylation may be involved in the heroin-seeking behavior, and identifying these epigenetic changes will be critical in proposing a novel pharmacological strategy for treating heroin addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Targeting of histone deacetylases to reactivate tumour suppressor genes and its therapeutic potential in a human cervical cancer xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingqing Feng

    Full Text Available Aberrant histone acetylation plays an essential role in the neoplastic process via the epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs; therefore, the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC has become a promising target in cancer therapeutics. To investigate the correlation of histone acetylation with clinicopathological features and TSG expression, we examined the expression of acetylated H3 (AcH3, RARβ2, E-cadherin, and β-catenin by immunohistochemistry in 65 cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. The results revealed that the absence of AcH3 was directly associated with poor histological differentiation and nodal metastasis as well as reduced/negative expression of RARβ2, E-cadherin, and β-catenin in clinical tumour samples. We further demonstrated that the clinically available HDAC inhibitors valproic acid (VPA and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, can overcome the epigenetic barriers to transcription of RARβ2 in human cervical cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the combination treatment increased the enrichment of acetylated histone in the RARβ2-RARE promoter region. In view of these findings, we evaluated the antitumor effects induced by combined VPA and ATRA treatment in a xenograft model implanted with poorly differentiated human squamous cell carcinoma. Notably, VPA restored RARβ2 expression via epigenetic modulation. Additive antitumour effects were produced in tumour xenografts by combining VPA with ATRA treatment. Mechanistically, the combination treatment reactivated the expression of TSGs RARβ2, E-cadherin, P21 (CIP1 , and P53 and reduced the level of p-Stat3. Sequentially, upregulation of involucrin and loricrin, which indicate terminal differentiation, strongly contributed to tumour growth inhibition along with partial apoptosis. In conclusion, targeted therapy with HDAC inhibitors and RARβ2 agonists may represent a novel

  2. Insights into the Recruitment of Class IIa Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) to the SMRT/NCoR Transcriptional Repression Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Gregg M; Watson, Peter J; Fairall, Louise; Jamieson, Andrew G; Schwabe, John W R

    2015-07-17

    Class IIa histone deacetylases repress transcription of target genes. However, their mechanism of action is poorly understood because they exhibit very low levels of deacetylase activity. The class IIa HDACs are associated with the SMRT/NCoR repression complexes and this may, at least in part, account for their repressive activity. However, the molecular mechanism of recruitment to co-repressor proteins has yet to be established. Here we show that a repeated peptide motif present in both SMRT and NCoR is sufficient to mediate specific interaction, with micromolar affinity, with all the class IIa HDACs (HDACs 4, 5, 7, and 9). Mutations in the consensus motif abrogate binding. Mutational analysis of HDAC4 suggests that the peptide interacts in the vicinity of the active site of the enzyme and requires the "closed" conformation of the zinc-binding loop on the surface of the enzyme. Together these findings represent the first insights into the molecular mechanism of recruitment of class IIa HDACs to the SMRT/NCoR repression complexes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Equine herpesvirus type 1 replication is delayed in CD172a+ monocytic cells and controlled by histone deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Kathlyn; Favoreel, Herman W; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) replicates in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and disseminates through the body via a cell-associated viraemia in monocytic cells, despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies. However, the mechanism by which EHV-1 hijacks immune cells and uses them as 'Trojan horses' in order to disseminate inside its host is still unclear. Here, we hypothesize that EHV-1 delays its replication in monocytic cells in order to avoid recognition by the immune system. We compared replication kinetics in vitro of EHV-1 in RK-13, a cell line fully susceptible to EHV-1 infection, and primary horse cells from the myeloid lineage (CD172a(+)). We found that EHV-1 replication was restricted to 4 % of CD172a(+) cells compared with 100 % in RK-13 cells. In susceptible CD172a(+) cells, the expression of immediate-early (IEP) and early (EICP22) proteins was delayed in the cell nuclei by 2-3 h post-infection (p.i.) compared with RK-13, and the formation of replicative compartments by 15 h p.i. Virus production in CD172a(+) cells was significantly lower (from 10(1.7) to 10(3.1) TCID50 per 10(5) inoculated cells) than in RK-13 (from 10(5) to 10(5.7) TCID50 per 10(5) inoculated cells). Less than 0.02 % of inoculated CD172a(+) cells produced and transmitted infectious virus to neighbouring cells. Pre-treatment of CD172a(+) cells with inhibitors of histone deacetylase activity increased and accelerated viral protein expression at very early times of infection and induced productive infection in CD172a(+) cells. Our results demonstrated that the restriction and delay of EHV-1 replication in CD172a(+) cells are part of an immune evasive strategy and involve silencing of EHV-1 gene expression associated with histone deacetylases. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Design, synthesis, 3D pharmacophore, QSAR, and docking studies of carboxylic acid derivatives as Histone Deacetylase inhibitors and cytotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Atty, Mona M; Farag, Nahla A; Kassab, Shaymaa E; Serya, Rabah A T; Abouzid, Khaled A M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, five series of (E)-6-(4-substituted phenyl)-4-oxohex-5-enoic acids IIb-f (E), (E)-3-(4-(substituted)-phenyl)acrylic acids IIIa-g (E), 4-(4-(substituted)phenylamino)-4-oxobutanoic acids VIa,b,e, 5-(4-(substituted)phenylamino)-5-oxopentanoic acids VIIa,f and 2-[(4-(substituted)phenyl) carbamoyl]benzoic acids VIIIa,e were designed and synthesized. Selected compounds were screened in vitro for their cytotoxic effect on 60 human NCI tumor cell lines. Compound IIf (E) displayed significant inhibitory activity against NCI Non-Small Cell Lung A549/ATCC Cancer cell line (68% inhibition) and NCI-H460 Cancer cell line (66% inhibition). Moreover, the final compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity on HepG2 Cancer cell line in which histone deacetylase (HDAC) is overexpressed. Compounds IIc (E), IIf (E), IIIb (E), and IIIg (E) exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity against HepG2 human cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 2.27 to 10.71μM. In addition, selected compounds were tested on histone deacetylase isoforms (HDAC1-11). Molecular docking simulation was also carried out for HDLP enzyme to investigate their HDAC binding affinity. In addition, generation of 3D-pharmacophore model and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were combined to explore the structural requirements controlling the observed cytotoxic properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibition modulates histone acetylation at gene promoter regions and affects genome-wide gene transcription in Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Letícia Anderson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Treatment depends on a single drug, praziquantel, which kills the Schistosoma spp. parasite only at the adult stage. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi such as Trichostatin A (TSA induce parasite mortality in vitro (schistosomula and adult worms, however the downstream effects of histone hyperacetylation on the parasite are not known.TSA treatment of adult worms in vitro increased histone acetylation at H3K9ac and H3K14ac, which are transcription activation marks, not affecting the unrelated transcription repression mark H3K27me3. We investigated the effect of TSA HDACi on schistosomula gene expression at three different time points, finding a marked genome-wide change in the transcriptome profile. Gene transcription activity was correlated with changes on the chromatin acetylation mark at gene promoter regions. Moreover, combining expression data with ChIP-Seq public data for schistosomula, we found that differentially expressed genes having the H3K4me3 mark at their promoter region in general showed transcription activation upon HDACi treatment, compared with those without the mark, which showed transcription down-regulation. Affected genes are enriched for DNA replication processes, most of them being up-regulated. Twenty out of 22 genes encoding proteins involved in reducing reactive oxygen species accumulation were down-regulated. Dozens of genes encoding proteins with histone reader motifs were changed, including SmEED from the PRC2 complex. We targeted SmEZH2 methyltransferase PRC2 component with a new EZH2 inhibitor (GSK343 and showed a synergistic effect with TSA, significantly increasing schistosomula mortality.Genome-wide gene expression analyses have identified important pathways and cellular functions that were affected and may explain the schistosomicidal effect of TSA HDACi. The change in expression of dozens of histone reader genes involved in

  6. Structural Characterization of the SMRT Corepressor Interacting with Histone Deacetylase 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desravines, Danielle C; Serna Martin, Itziar; Schneider, Robert; Mas, Philippe J; Aleksandrova, Nataliia; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Hart, Darren J

    2017-06-16

    The 2525 amino acid SMRT corepressor is an intrinsically disordered hub protein responsible for binding and coordinating the activities of multiple transcription factors and chromatin modifying enzymes. Here we have studied its interaction with HDAC7, a class IIa deacetylase that interacts with the corepressor complex together with the highly active class I deacetylase HDAC3. The binding site of class IIa deacetylases was previously mapped to an approximate 500 amino acid region of SMRT, with recent implication of short glycine-serine-isoleucine (GSI) containing motifs. In order to characterize the interaction in detail, we applied a random library screening approach within this region and obtained a range of stable, soluble SMRT fragments. In agreement with an absence of predicted structural domains, these were characterized as intrinsically disordered by NMR spectroscopy. We identified one of them, comprising residues 1255-1452, as interacting with HDAC7 with micromolar affinity. The binding site was mapped in detail by NMR and confirmed by truncation and alanine mutagenesis. Complementing this with mutational analysis of HDAC7, we show that HDAC7, via its surface zinc ion binding site, binds to a 28 residue stretch in SMRT comprising a GSI motif followed by an alpha helix.

  7. Phase II Study of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor MGCD0103 in Patients with Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kristie A.; Advani, Anjani; Fernandez, Louis; Van Der Jagt, Richard; Brandwein, Joseph; Kambhampati, Suman; Kassis, Jeannine; Davis, Melanie; Bonfils, Claire; Dubay, Marja; Dumouchel, Julie; Drouin, Michel; Lucas, David M.; Martell, Robert E.; Byrd, John C.

    2009-01-01

    MGCD0103, an orally available class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, was examined for pre-clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). A phase II clinical trial was performed, starting at a dose of 85 mg/day, three times per week. Dose escalation to 110 mg or the addition of rituximab was permitted in patients without a response after 2 or more cycles. MGCD0103 demonstrated pre-clinical activity against CLL cells with a LC50 (concentration lethal to 50%) of 0.23 μM and increased acetylation of the HDAC class I specific target histone H3. Twenty-one patients received a median of 2 cycles of MGCD0103 (range, 0–12). All patients had previously received fludarabine, 33% were fludarabine refractory, and 71% had del(11q22.3) or del(17p13.1). No responses according to the National Cancer Institutes 1996 criteria were observed. Three patients received 110 mg and 4 patients received concomitant rituximab, with no improvement in response. Grade 3–4 toxicity consisted of infections, thrombocytopenia, anemia, diarrhea, and fatigue. HDAC inhibition was observed in 6 out of 9 patients on day 8. Limited activity was observed with single agent MGCD0103 in high risk patients with CLL. Future investigations in CLL should focus on broad HDAC inhibition, combination strategies, and approaches to diminish constitutional symptoms associated with this class of drugs. PMID:19747365

  8. Inhibition of histone deacetylases induces formation of multipolar spindles and subsequent p53-dependent apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Min; Qian, Yuan-Min; Yue, Cai-Feng; Wang, Zi-Feng; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Fei-Meng; Liu, Quentin

    2016-07-12

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles in the initiation and progression of cancer, offering a promising target for cancer therapy. HDACs inhibitor MGCD0103 (MGCD) exhibits effective anti-tumor activity by blocking proliferation and inducing cell death in malignant cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of HDACs inhibition induces cell death have not been well elucidated. In this study, we showed that MGCD effectively restored histone acetylation, suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultured CNE1 and CNE2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. Importantly, MGCD arrested cell cycle at mitosis (M) phase with formation of multipolar spindles, which was associated with activated p53-mediated postmitotic checkpoint pathway to induce apoptotic cell death. Moreover, MGCD-induced apoptosis was decreased by inhibition of p53 using short interfering RNA (siRNA), suggesting that p53 was required for MGCD-induced cell apoptosis. Consistently, MGCD in combination with Nutlin-3, a MDM2 inhibitor showed synergistic effect on inducing apoptosis in 2D and 3D cultured CNE2 cells. Collectively, our data revealed that MGCD induced p53-dependent cell apoptosis following formation of multipolar spindles in NPC cells, suggesting the therapeutic potential of combinations of HDACs and MDM2 inhibitors for NPC treatment.

  9. Phase II study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kristie A; Advani, Anjani; Fernandez, Louis; Van Der Jagt, Richard; Brandwein, Joseph; Kambhampati, Suman; Kassis, Jeannine; Davis, Melanie; Bonfils, Claire; Dubay, Marja; Dumouchel, Julie; Drouin, Michel; Lucas, David M; Martell, Robert E; Byrd, John C

    2009-11-01

    MGCD0103, an orally available class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, was examined for pre-clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). A phase II clinical trial was performed, starting at a dose of 85 mg/d, three times per week. Dose escalation to 110 mg or the addition of rituximab was permitted in patients without a response after two or more cycles. MGCD0103 demonstrated pre-clinical activity against CLL cells with a LC(50) (concentration lethal to 50%) of 0.23 micromol/l and increased acetylation of the HDAC class I specific target histone H3. Twenty-one patients received a median of two cycles of MGCD0103 (range, 0-12). All patients had previously received fludarabine, 33% were fludarabine refractory, and 71% had del(11q22.3) or del(17p13.1). No responses according to the National Cancer Institutes 1996 criteria were observed. Three patients received 110 mg and four patients received concomitant rituximab, with no improvement in response. Grade 3-4 toxicity consisted of infections, thrombocytopenia, anaemia, diarrhoea, and fatigue. HDAC inhibition was observed in six out of nine patients on day 8. Limited activity was observed with single agent MGCD0103 in high risk patients with CLL. Future investigations in CLL should focus on broad HDAC inhibition, combination strategies, and approaches to diminish constitutional symptoms associated with this class of drugs.

  10. Application of p21 and klf2 reporter gene assays to identify selective histone deacetylase inhibitors for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason C; Guo, Lei; Peng, Zhenghong; Zhang, Weixing; Zhang, Nan; Lai, Wayne; Zhang, Zhenshan; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Xiongwen; Song, Shan; Pan, Desi; Xie, Chuanming; Li, Jia; Ning, Zhiqing; Lu, Xianping; He, Yun; Chen, Li

    2011-01-01

    Novel 2-aminoanilide histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were designed to increase their contact with surface residues surrounding the HDAC active site compared to the contacts made by existing clinical 2-aminoanilides such as SNDX-275, MGCD0103, and Chidamide. Their HDAC selectivity was assessed using p21 and klf2 reporter gene assays in HeLa and A204 cells, respectively, which provide a cell-based readout for the inhibition of HDACs associated either with the p21 or klf2 promoter. A subset of the designed compounds selectively induced p21 over klf2 relative to the clinical reference compound SNDX-275. A representative lead compound from this subset had antiproliferative effects in cancer cells associated with induction of acetylated histone H4, endogenous p21, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. The p21- versus klf2-selective compounds described herein may provide a chemical starting point for developing clinically-differentiated HDAC inhibitors for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC Inhibitors Down-Regulate Endothelial Lineage Commitment of Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Horia Maniu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To test the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs activity in endothelial lineage progression, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB. Adherent EPCs, that expressed the endothelial marker proteins (PCAM-1, CD105, CD133, and VEGFR2 revealed by flow cytometry were treated with three HDAC inhibitors: Butyrate (BuA, Trichostatin A (TSA, and Valproic acid (VPA. RT-PCR assay showed that HDAC inhibitors down-regulated the expression of endothelial genes such as VE-cadherin, CD133, CXCR4 and Tie-2. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis illustrated that HDAC inhibitors selectively reduce the expression of VEGFR2, CD117, VE-cadherin, and ICAM-1, whereas the expression of CD34 and CD45 remained unchanged, demonstrating that HDAC is involved in endothelial differentiation of progenitor cells. Real-Time PCR demonstrated that TSA down-regulated telomerase activity probably via suppression of hTERT expression, suggesting that HDAC inhibitor decreased cell proliferation. Cell motility was also decreased after treatment with HDAC inhibitors as shown by wound-healing assay. The balance of acethylation/deacethylation kept in control by the activity of HAT (histone acetyltransferases/HDAC enzymes play an important role in differentiation of stem cells by regulating proliferation and endothelial lineage commitment.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibition induces long-lasting changes in maternal behavior and gene expression in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S; Stevens, Jacqueline S; Rissman, Emilie F

    2014-09-01

    In many species, including mice, maternal responsiveness is experience-dependent and permanent, lasting for long periods (months to years). We have shown that after brief exposures to pups, virgin female mice continue to respond maternally toward pups for at least one month. Administration of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) reduces the amount of maternal experience required to affect maternal behavior and gene expression. In this set of studies, we examined the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie these motivated behaviors. We assessed whether the effects of HDACi persisted 1 month after the initial experience (in the absence of continued pup experience or HDACi treatment) and whether the maintenance of maternal memory was associated with stable changes in gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we examined whether Esr2 and Oxt gene expression might be mediated by recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase cAMP response element binding protein (CBP) to their promoter regions after maternal memory consolidation. We report that HDACi treatment induced long-lasting changes in maternal responsiveness. Maternal learning was associated with increased recruitment of CBP to the Esr2 and Oxt gene promoters during the consolidation of maternal memory as well as a persistent increase in estrogen receptor-β (Esr2) mRNA and decreased expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a within the medial preoptic area. The consolidation of the maternal experience may involve the CBP recruitment and stable changes in gene expression, which maintain increased maternal responsiveness for long periods of time.

  13. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Channing J; Wissing, Michel D; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Eugene; Kim, Hea-Soo; Kortenhorst, Madeleine S Q; Gerber, Stephanie; Rosen, Marc; Shaikh, Faraz; Zahurak, Marianna L; Rudek, Michelle A; Hammers, Hans; Rudin, Charles M; Carducci, Michael A; Kachhap, Sushant K

    2014-10-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Basolateral amygdala activity is required for enhancement of memory consolidation produced by histone deacetylase inhibition in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martina; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Werenicz, Aline; Velho, Luciana A; Pinto, Diana F; Fedi, Ana Cláudia; Schröder, Nadja; Roesler, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Histone acetylation, a type of chromatin modification that allows increased gene transcription and can be pharmacologically promoted by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis), has been consistently associated with promoting memory formation in the hippocampus. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is a brain area crucially involved in enabling hormones and drugs to influence memory formation. Here, we show that BLA activity is required for memory enhancement by intrahippocampal administration of an HDACi. Two different HDACis, sodium butyrate (NaB) and trichostatin A (TSA), differentially enhanced the retention of memory for inhibitory avoidance (IA) when administered to the dorsal hippocampus after training. TSA showed a biphasic pattern of response during consolidation, in which infusions given immediately or 3h after training produced memory enhancement, whereas no effect was observed when it was infused 1.5 or 6h posttraining. Muscimol (MUS)-induced unilateral functional inactivation of the BLA prevented the enhancement of memory retention produced by posttraining infusion of TSA into the ipsilateral hippocampus. TSA did not affect IA extinction or reconsolidation. These results indicate that HDACis can increase IA memory retention when given into the hippocampus, and, most importantly, BLA activity is necessary for enabling HDACi-induced influences on memory formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. AP-1 mediated transcriptional repression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 in response to interferon β.

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    Megan L Mittelstadt

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is a 92 kDa zinc-dependant endopeptidase that degrades components of the extracellular matrix. Increased expression of MMP-9 is implicated in many pathological conditions including metastatic cancer, multiple sclerosis, and atherosclerosis. Although it has been widely noted that interferon-β (IFNβ downregulates both the basal and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA-induced MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level, the molecular mechanism of this repression is poorly understood. In the present study we identify a novel mechanism for repression of MMP-9 transcription by IFNβ in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Using reporter assays with promoter deletion constructs we show that IFNβ's inhibitory effects require a region of the promoter between -154 and -72, which contains an AP-1 binding site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP studies indicate that IFNβ increases histone deacetylase (HDAC-1 recruitment to the MMP-9 promoter and reduces histone H3 acetylation, in addition to reduced NF-κB recruitment. ChIP analysis shows that IFNβ induced HDAC1 recruitment to the MMP-9 promoter and IFNβ mediated transcriptional repression is lost when the AP-1 binding site is inactivated by a point mutation. Altogether, our results establish that the repression of MMP-9 transcription in response to IFNβ occurs by the recruitment of HDAC1 via the proximal AP-1 binding site.

  16. Expression pattern of class I histone deacetylases in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and vulvar cancer: a tissue microarray study

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    Samartzis Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation is an important mechanism leading to cancer initiation and promotion. Histone acetylation by histone deacetylases (HDACs represents an important part of it. The development of HDAC inhibitors has identified the utility of HDACs as a therapeutic target. Little is known about the epigenetic regulation of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and vulvar squamous cell cancer (VSCC. In this study, the expression of class I HDACs (HDAC 1, 2 and 3 was compared in a series of VIN and VSCC tissues. Methods A tissue micro array (TMA with specimens from 106 patients with high-grade VIN and 59 patients with vulvar cancer was constructed. The expression of HDACs 1, 2 and 3 were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC. The nuclear expression pattern was evaluated in terms of intensity and percentage of stained nuclei and was compared between vulvar preinvasive lesions and vulvar cancer. Results HDAC 2 expression was significantly higher in VIN than in VSCC (p Conclusions These results suggest that epigenetic regulation plays a considerable role in the transformation of VIN to invasive vulvar neoplasia.

  17. Mitochondrial apoptosis and FAK signaling disruption by a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, HTPB, in antitumor and antimetastatic mouse models.

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    Jiunn-Min Shieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compound targeting histone deacetylase (HDAC represents a new era in molecular cancer therapeutics. However, effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors remain to be developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we propose a novel HDAC inhibitor, N-Hydroxy-4-(4-phenylbutyryl-amino benzamide (HTPB, as a potential chemotherapeutic drug for solid tumors. The HDAC inhibition of HTPB was confirmed using HDAC activity assay. The antiproliferative and anti-migratory mechanisms of HTPB were investigated by cell proliferation, flow cytometry, DNA ladder, caspase activity, Rho activity, F-actin polymerization, and gelatin-zymography for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Mice with tumor xenograft and experimental metastasis model were used to evaluate effects on tumor growth and metastasis. Our results indicated that HTPB was a pan-HDAC inhibitor in suppressing cell viability specifically of lung cancer cells but not of the normal lung cells. Upon HTPB treatment, cell cycle arrest was induced and subsequently led to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. HTPB disrupted F-actin dynamics via downregulating RhoA activity. Moreover, HTPB inhibited activity of MMP2 and MMP9, reduced integrin-β1/focal adhesion complex formation and decreased pericellular poly-fibronectin assemblies. Finally, intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of HTPB efficiently inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth in vivo without side effects. HTPB delayed lung metastasis of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells. Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, induction of apoptotic-related proteins and de-phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase were confirmed in treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggested that intrinsic apoptotic pathway may involve in anti-tumor growth effects of HTPB in lung cancer cells. HTPB significantly suppresses tumor metastasis partly through inhibition of integrin-β1/FAK/MMP/RhoA/F-actin pathways. We have

  18. Cells adapt to the epigenomic disruption caused by histone deacetylase inhibitors through a coordinated, chromatin-mediated transcriptional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsall, John A; Turan, Nil; Wiersma, Maaike; Turner, Bryan M

    2015-01-01

    The genome-wide hyperacetylation of chromatin caused by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is surprisingly well tolerated by most eukaryotic cells. The homeostatic mechanisms that underlie this tolerance are unknown. Here we identify the transcriptional and epigenomic changes that constitute the earliest response of human lymphoblastoid cells to two HDACi, valproic acid and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat), both in widespread clinical use. Dynamic changes in transcript levels over the first 2 h of exposure to HDACi were assayed on High Density microarrays. There was a consistent response to the two different inhibitors at several concentrations. Strikingly, components of all known lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) complexes were down-regulated, as were genes required for growth and maintenance of the lymphoid phenotype. Up-regulated gene clusters were enriched in regulators of transcription, development and phenotypic change. In untreated cells, HDACi-responsive genes, whether up- or down-regulated, were packaged in highly acetylated chromatin. This was essentially unaffected by HDACi. In contrast, HDACi induced a strong increase in H3K27me3 at transcription start sites, irrespective of their transcriptional response. Inhibition of the H3K27 methylating enzymes, EZH1/2, altered the transcriptional response to HDACi, confirming the functional significance of H3K27 methylation for specific genes. We propose that the observed transcriptional changes constitute an inbuilt adaptive response to HDACi that promotes cell survival by minimising protein hyperacetylation, slowing growth and re-balancing patterns of gene expression. The transcriptional response to HDACi is mediated by a precisely timed increase in H3K27me3 at transcription start sites. In contrast, histone acetylation, at least at the three lysine residues tested, seems to play no direct role. Instead, it may provide a stable chromatin environment that allows transcriptional change to be induced

  19. Ron knockdown and Ron monoclonal antibody IMC-RON8 sensitize pancreatic cancer to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Howell, Gillian M; Humphrey, Lisa E; Wang, Jing; Brattain, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Recepteur d'origine nantais (Ron) is overexpressed in a panel of pancreatic cancer cells and tissue samples from pancreatic cancer patients. Ron can be activated by its ligand macrophage stimulating protein (MSP), thereby activating oncogenic signaling pathways. Crosstalk between Ron and EGFR, c-Met, or IGF-1R may provide a mechanism underlying drug resistance. Thus, targeting Ron may represent a novel therapeutic strategy. IMC-RON8 is the first Ron monoclonal antibody (mAb) entering clinical trial for targeting Ron overexpression. Our studies show IMC-RON8 downmodulated Ron expression in pancreatic cancer cells and significantly blocked MSP-stimulated Ron activation, downstream Akt and ERK phosphorylation, and survivin mRNA expression. IMC-RON8 hindered MSP-induced cell migration and reduced cell transformation. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are reported to target expression of various genes through modification of nucleosome histones and non-histone proteins. Our work shows HDACi TSA and Panobinostat (PS) decreased Ron mRNA and protein expression in pancreatic cancer cells. PS also reduced downstream signaling of pAkt, survivin, and XIAP, as well as enhanced cell apoptosis. Interestingly, PS reduced colony formation in Ron knockdown cells to a greater extent than Ron scramble control cells in colony formation and soft agarose assays. IMC-RON8 could also sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to PS, as reflected by reduced colony numbers and size in combination treatment with IMC-RON8 and PS compared to single treatment alone. The co-treatment further reduced Ron expression and pAkt, and increased PARP cleavage compared to either treatment alone. This study suggests the potential for a novel combination approach which may ultimately be of value in treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors for purging HIV-1 from the latent reservoir.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matalon, S.; Rasmussen, T.A.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    A reservoir of latently infected memory CD4(+) T cells is believed to be the source of HIV-1 reemergence after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 eradication may depend on depletion of this reservoir. Integrated HIV-1 is inaccessible for expression, in part because of histone

  1. Discovery of N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[(4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-ylamino)methyl]benzamide (MGCD0103), an orally active histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nancy; Moradei, Oscar; Raeppel, Stephane; Leit, Silvana; Frechette, Sylvie; Gaudette, Frederic; Paquin, Isabelle; Bernstein, Naomy; Bouchain, Giliane; Vaisburg, Arkadii; Jin, Zhiyun; Gillespie, Jeff; Wang, James; Fournel, Marielle; Yan, Pu T; Trachy-Bourget, Marie-Claude; Kalita, Ann; Lu, Aihua; Rahil, Jubrail; MacLeod, A Robert; Li, Zuomei; Besterman, Jeffrey M; Delorme, Daniel

    2008-07-24

    The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[(4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-ylamino)methyl]benzamide 8 (MGCD0103) is described. Compound 8 is an isotype-selective small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that selectively inhibits HDACs 1-3 and 11 at submicromolar concentrations in vitro. 8 blocks cancer cell proliferation and induces histone acetylation, p21 (cip/waf1) protein expression, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis. 8 is orally bioavailable, has significant antitumor activity in vivo, has entered clinical trials, and shows promise as an anticancer drug.

  2. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A reduces nickel-induced gene silencing in yeast and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, J E; Peng, W; Zhang, Q; Costa, M

    2001-08-08

    We have previously reported that nickel (Ni)-silenced expression of the URA3 gene in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and gpt transgene in G12 Chinese hamster cells. In both cases, close proximity to a heterochromatic region was required for gene silencing. Yeast exposed to Ni exhibited reduced acetylation of the lysine residues in the N-terminal tail of histone H4. Ni-induced silencing of the gpt gene in mammalian cells involved hypermethylation of promoter region DNA. Yeast do not employ DNA methylation to silence gene expression. To determine if histone deacetylation participates in Ni-induced silencing of the URA3 and gpt genes, we exposed yeast and G12 hamster cells to the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) prior to and concurrently with Ni. Treatment of yeast cells with 0.2-0.6mM NiCl(2) resulted in reduced expression of the URA3 gene as assessed by increased resistance to 1g/l 5-fluorotic acid (5-FOA). This effect was lessened when yeast were pre-treated with 50 microg TSA/ml. Similarly, treatment of G12 cells with 5 ng/ml TSA during and after exposure to 0.3 microg Ni(3)S(2)/cm(2) reduced silencing of the gpt gene as gauged by resistance to 10 microg/ml 6-thioguanine (6-TG). The ability of TSA alone and in combination with the DNA-demethylating agent (5-AzaC) to reactivate the gpt gene in Ni-silenced variants was also assessed. Although treatment with 100 ng/ml TSA for 48 h was partially effective in reactivating the gpt gene, treatment with 5 microM 5-AzaC was more efficacious. The greatest gpt gene reversion frequencies were observed following a sequential 5-AzaC/TSA treatment. Taken all together, our data from mammalian cells suggests that both DNA methylation and histone deacetylation participate in Ni-induced silencing of the gpt gene with DNA hypermethylation playing the more dominant role in maintaining the silenced state.

  3. Molecular Mechanism of the Cell Death Induced by the Histone Deacetylase Pan Inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat in Wilms Tumor Cells.

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    Tao Yan-Fang

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor (WT is an embryonic kidney cancer, for which histone acetylation might be a therapeutic target. LBH589, a novel targeted agent, suppresses histone deacetylases in many tumors. This study investigated the antitumor activity of LBH589 in SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells.SK-NEP-1 and G401 cell growth was assessed by CCK-8 and in nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry detected apoptosis in cell culture. Gene expressions of LBH589-treated tumor cells were analyzed using an Arraystar Human LncRNA Array. The Multi Experiment View cluster software analyzed the expression data. Differentially expressed genes from the cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool.LBH589 inhibited cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V, TUNEL and Hochest 33342 staining analysis showed that LBH589-treated cells showed more apoptotic features compared with the control. LBH589 treatment inhibited the growth of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Arraystar Human LncRNA Array analysis of genes and lncRNAs regulated by LBH589 identified 6653 mRNAs and 8135 lncRNAs in LBH589-treated SK-NEP-1 cells. The most enriched gene ontology terms were those involved in nucleosome assembly. KEGG pathway analysis identified cell cycle proteins, including CCNA2, CCNB2, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, CDKN1B and HDAC2, etc. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified important upstream molecules: HIST2H3C, HIST1H4A, HIST1A, HIST1C, HIST1D, histone H1, histone H3, RPRM, HSP70 and MYC.LBH589 treatment caused apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1and G401 cells. LBH589 had a significant effect and few side effects on SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Expression profiling, and GO, KEGG and IPA analyses identified new targets and a new "network" of genes responding to LBH589 treatment in SK-NEP-1 cells. RPRM, HSP70 and MYC may be important regulators during LBH589 treatment. Our

  4. Inhibition of histone deacetylases prevents cytokine-induced toxicity in beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L; Tonnesen, M; Ronn, S G

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The immune-mediated elimination of pancreatic beta cells in type 1 diabetes involves release of cytotoxic cytokines such as IL-1beta and IFNgamma, which induce beta cell death in vitro by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide (NO). Nuclear factor kappa...... deacetylases (HDAC), and positive effects of HDAC inhibition have been obtained in several inflammatory diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HDAC inhibition protects beta cells against cytokine-induced toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The beta cell line, INS-1, or intact rat islets...... were precultured with HDAC inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or trichostatin A in the absence or presence of IL-1beta and IFNgamma. Effects on insulin secretion and NO formation were measured by ELISA and Griess reagent, respectively. iNOS levels and NFkappaB activity were measured...

  5. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Entinostat (MS-275) Restores Anesthesia-induced Alteration of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Developing Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Srdjan M; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Oklopcic, Azra; Beenhakker, Mark P; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Todorovic, Slobodan M

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence strongly supports the idea that common general anesthetics (GAs) such as isoflurane (Iso) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O; laughing gas), as well as sedative drugs such as midazolam are neurotoxic for the developing mammalian brain having deleterious effects on neural circuits involved in cognition, learning and memory. However, to date, very little is known about epigenetic mechanisms involved in GA-induced plasticity of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, the main memory-processing region in the brain. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) from hippocampal neurons in slice cultures exposed to the clinically relevant GA combination. We found that in vitro exposure to a combination of midazolam, 0.75% Iso, and 70% N 2 O for 6 h leads to lasting increase in frequency of mIPSCs, while amplitudes and kinetics of the events were spared. Importantly, co-application of entinostat (MS-275), a selective inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDAC), completely reversed GA-induced synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, when given in vivo to P7 pups exposed to GA with midazolam, Iso and N 2 O for 6 h, MS-275 reversed GA-induced histone-3 hypoacetylation as shown by an increase in Ac-H3 protein expression in the hippocampus. We conclude that exposure to a combination of Iso with N 2 O and midazolam causes plasticity of mIPSCs in hippocampal neurons by epigenetic mechanisms that target presynaptic sites. We hypothesize that GA-induced epigenetic alterations in inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus may contribute to altered neuronal excitability and consequently abnormal learning and memory later in life.

  6. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

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    Yingzi eHe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, nonmammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA or valproic acid (VPA increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line.

  7. The combination of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat and synthetic triterpenoids reduces tumorigenesis in mouse models of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liby, Karen T.

    2013-01-01

    Novel drugs and drug combinations are needed for the chemoprevention and treatment of cancer. We show that the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat [suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)] and the methyl ester or ethyl amide derivatives of the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me and CDDO-Ea, respectively) cooperated to inhibit the de novo synthesis of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells and in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages. Additionally, SAHA enhanced the ability of synthetic triterpenoids to delay formation of estrogen receptor-negative mammary tumors in MMTV-polyoma middle T (PyMT) mice. CDDO-Me (50mg/kg diet) and SAHA (250mg/kg diet) each significantly delayed the initial development of tumors by 4 (P 400mg/kg diet), as a single agent, did not delay tumor development. The combination of either triterpenoid with SAHA was significantly more potent than the individual drugs for delaying tumor development, with a 7 week (P < 0.001) delay before 50% tumor incidence was reached. SAHA, alone and in combination with CDDO-Me, also significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages into the mammary glands of PyMT mice and levels of the chemokine macrophage colony-stimulating factor in primary PyMT tumor cells. In addition, SAHA and the synthetic triterpenoids cooperated to suppress secreted levels of the pro-angiogenic factor matrix metalloproteinase-9. Similar results were observed in mouse models of pancreatic and lung cancer. At concentrations that were anti-inflammatory, SAHA had no effect on histone acetylation. These studies suggest that both SAHA and triterpenoids effectively delay tumorigenesis, thereby demonstrating a promising, novel drug combination for chemoprevention. PMID:23042302

  8. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol-conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Al Maamari, Alyazia; Bahi, Amine

    2014-10-02

    Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin modification (specifically histone acetylation) may play a crucial role in the development of addictive behavior. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in the rewarding properties of ethanol. In the current study, we studied the effects of systemic injection of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) on ethanol consumption and ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP). The effect of VPA (300 mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol intake and preference was assessed using continuous two-bottle choice procedure with escalating concentrations of alcohol (2.5-20% v/v escalating over 4 weeks). Taste sensitivity was studies using saccharin (sweet; 0.03% and 0.06%) and quinine (bitter; 20 µM and 40 µM) tastants solutions. Ethanol conditioned reward was investigated using an unbiased CPP model. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Compared to vehicle, VPA-injected rats displayed significantly lower preference and consumption of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm, with no significant difference observed with saccharin and quinine. More importantly, 0.5 g/kg ethanol-induced-CPP acquisition was blocked following VPA administration. Finally, vehicle- and VPA-treated mice had similar BECs. Taken together, our results implicated HDAC inhibition in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of alcohol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target HDAC could potentially help to tackle alcoholism in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition improves memory and reduces total tau levels in a mouse model of tau deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenica, Maj-Linda; Benner, Leif; Housley, Steven B; Manchec, Barbara; Lee, Daniel C; Nash, Kevin R; Kalin, Jay; Bergman, Joel A; Kozikowski, Alan; Gordon, Marcia N; Morgan, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Tau pathology is associated with a number of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Few treatments have been demonstrated to diminish the impact of tau pathology in mouse models and none are yet effective in humans. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an enzyme that removes acetyl groups from cytoplasmic proteins, rather than nuclear histones. Its substrates include tubulin, heat shock protein 90 and cortactin. Tubastatin A is a selective inhibitor of HDAC6. Modification of tau pathology by specific inhibition of HDAC6 presents a potential therapeutic approach in tauopathy. We treated rTg4510 mouse models of tau deposition and non-transgenic mice with tubastatin (25 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) from 5 to 7 months of age. Cognitive behavior analysis, histology and biochemical analysis were applied to access the effect of tubastatin on memory, tau pathology and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume). We present data showing that tubastatin restored memory function in rTg4510 mice and reversed a hyperactivity phenotype. We further found that tubastatin reduced the levels of total tau, both histologically and by western analysis. Reduction in total tau levels was positively correlated with memory improvement in these mice. However, there was no impact on phosphorylated forms of tau, either by histology or western analysis, nor was there an impact on silver positive inclusions histologically. Potential mechanisms by which HDAC6 inhibitors might benefit the rTg4510 mouse include stabilization of microtubules secondary to increased tubulin acetylation, increased degradation of tau secondary to increased acetylation of HSP90 or both. These data support the use of HDAC6 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents against tau pathology.

  10. Ketogenic Metabolism Inhibits Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) and Reduces Oxidative Stress After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Wu, Xiaoliang; Liu, Qi; Kong, Ganggang; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Jie; Wu, Xiuhua; Huang, Zhiping; Su, Wanhan; Zhu, Qingan

    2017-12-16

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ketogenic metabolism, induced by different diet interventions, on histone acetylation and its potential antioxidant capacity to injured spinal cord tissue in rats. 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, fed with ketogenic diet (KD), every other day fasting (EODF), every other day ketogenic diet (EODKD) and standard diet (SD) respectively for 2 weeks. β-Hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) concentration was measured both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). C5 spinal cord tissue was harvested before, at 3 h and 24 h after injury for analysis of HDAC activity, histone acetylation and oxidative makers. All three dietary interventions resulted in a significant increase of βOHB level in both serum and CSF, and inhibited HDAC activity by 31-43% in spinal cord. Moreover, the expressions of acetylated histone AcH3K9 and AcH3K14 were significantly increased. Anti-oxidative stress genes Foxo3a and Mt2 and related proteins, such as mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD), FOXO3a, catalase were increased in dietary intervention groups. After SCI, high ketogenic metabolism demonstrated significant reduction of the expression of lipid peroxidation factors malondialdehyde (MDA), and this might contribute to the reported neuroprotection of the spinal cord from oxidative damage possibly mediated by increasing SOD. The result of this study suggested that by inhibiting HDAC activity and modifying related gene transcription, ketogenic metabolism, induced by KD, EODF or EODKD, might reduce oxidative damage in the spinal cord tissue after acute injury. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors correct the cholesterol storage defect in most Niemann-Pick C1 mutant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipalia, Nina H; Subramanian, Kanagaraj; Mao, Shu; Ralph, Harold; Hutt, Darren M; Scott, Samantha M; Balch, William E; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to excessive storage of cholesterol and other lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes. The large majority of NPC disease is caused by mutations in NPC1, a large polytopic membrane protein that functions in late endosomes. There are many disease-associated mutations in NPC1, and most patients are compound heterozygotes. The most common mutation, NPC1I1061T, has been shown to cause endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the NPC1 protein. Treatment of patient-derived NPC1I1061T fibroblasts with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) vorinostat or panobinostat increases expression of the mutant NPC1 protein and leads to correction of the cholesterol storage. Here, we show that several other human NPC1 mutant fibroblast cell lines can also be corrected by vorinostat or panobinostat and that treatment with vorinostat extends the lifetime of the NPC1I1061T protein. To test effects of HDACi on a large number of NPC1 mutants, we engineered a U2OS cell line to suppress NPC1 expression by shRNA and then transiently transfected these cells with 60 different NPC1 mutant constructs. The mutant NPC1 did not significantly reduce cholesterol accumulation, but approximately 85% of the mutants showed reduced cholesterol accumulation when treated with vorinostat or panobinostat. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of a Highly Improved Anticancer Prodrug Activated by Histone Deacetylases and Cathepsin L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Nobuhide; Wang, Wei; Swenson, Cooper; McNaughton, Caroline; Sampson, Nicole S; Hayman, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Lack of absolute selectivity against cancer cells is a major limitation for current cancer therapies. In the previous study, we developed a prodrug strategy for selective cancer therapy using a masked cytotoxic agent puromycin [Boc-Lys(Ac)-Puromycin], which can be sequentially activated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) and cathepsin L (CTSL) to kill cancer cells expressing high levels of both enzymes. Despite the promise as a selective cancer therapy, its requirement of relatively high dosage could be a potential issue in the clinical setting. To address this issue, we aimed to further improve the overall efficacy of our prodrug strategy. Since the proteolytic cleavage by CTSL is the rate-limiting step for the drug activation, we sought to improve the substrate structure for CTSL activity by modifying the α-amino protecting group of lysine. Here we show that protection with Fmoc [Fmoc-Lys(Ac)-Puromycin] exhibits a marked improvement in overall anticancer efficacy compared to the original Boc-Lys(Ac)-Puromycin and this is mainly due to the highly efficient cellular uptake besides its improved substrate structure. Furthermore, to address a concern that the improved drug efficacy might direct high toxicity to the normal cells, we confirmed that Fmoc-Lys(Ac)-Puromycin still retains excellent cancer selectivity in vitro and no obvious systemic off-target toxicity in vivo. Thus our preclinical evaluation data presented here demonstrate that the Fmoc-Lys(Ac)-Puromycin exhibits substantially improved anticancer efficacy, further supporting our approach for the selective cancer therapy.

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitor AR42 regulates telomerase activity in human glioma cells via an Akt-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Luen; Huang, Po-Hsien; Chiu, Hao-Chieh; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Chen, Huan-Da; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2013-05-24

    Epigenetic regulation via abnormal activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is a mechanism that leads to cancer initiation and promotion. Activation of HDACs results in transcriptional upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and increases telomerase activity during cellular immortalization and tumorigenesis. However, the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the transcription of hTERT vary in different cancer cells. Here, we studied the effects of a novel HDAC inhibitor, AR42, on telomerase activity in a PTEN-null U87MG glioma cell line. AR42 increased hTERT mRNA in U87MG glioma cells, but suppressed total telomerase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Further analyses suggested that AR42 decreases the phosphorylation of hTERT via an Akt-dependent mechanism. Suppression of Akt phosphorylation and telomerase activity was also observed with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 further supporting the hypothesis that Akt signaling is involved in suppression of AR42-induced inhibition of telomerase activity. Finally, ectopic expression of a constitutive active form of Akt restored telomerase activity in AR42-treated cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the novel HDAC inhibitor AR42 can suppress telomerase activity by inhibiting Akt-mediated hTERT phosphorylation, indicating that the PI3K/Akt pathway plays an important role in the regulation of telomerase activity in response to this HDAC inhibitor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Induced Radiation Sensitization Effects on Human Cancer Cells after Photon and Hadron Radiation Exposure

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    Ariungerel Gerelchuluun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, which has been widely utilized throughout the cancer research field. SAHA-induced radiosensitization in normal human fibroblasts AG1522 and lung carcinoma cells A549 were evaluated with a combination of γ-rays, proton, and carbon ion exposure. Growth delay was observed in both cell lines during SAHA treatment; 2 μM SAHA treatment decreased clonogenicity and induced cell cycle block in G1 phase but 0.2 μM SAHA treatment did not show either of them. Low LET (Linear Energy Transfer irradiated A549 cells showed radiosensitization effects on cell killing in cycling and G1 phase with 0.2 or 2 μM SAHA pretreatment. In contrast, minimal sensitization was observed in normal human cells after low and high LET radiation exposure. The potentially lethal damage repair was not affected by SAHA treatment. SAHA treatment reduced the rate of γ-H2AX foci disappearance and suppressed RAD51 and RPA (Replication Protein A focus formation. Suppression of DNA double strand break repair by SAHA did not result in the differences of SAHA-induced radiosensitization between human cancer cells and normal cells. In conclusion, our results suggest SAHA treatment will sensitize cancer cells to low and high LET radiation with minimum effects to normal cells.

  15. Ketamine produces antidepressant-like effects through phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Wang, Sung Eun; Ko, Seung Yeon; Song, Mihee; Choi, June-Seek; Duman, Ronald S.; Son, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in animal assays for depression, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral actions remain incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that ketamine rapidly stimulates histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons through calcium/calmodulin kinase II- and protein kinase D-dependent pathways. Consequently, ketamine enhanced the transcriptional activity of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which leads to regulation of MEF2 target genes. Transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259/Ser498 replaced by Ala259/Ala498, HDAC5-S/A), resulted in resistance to ketamine-induced nuclear export, suppression of ketamine-mediated MEF2 transcriptional activity, and decreased expression of MEF2 target genes. Behaviorally, viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 blocked or occluded the antidepressant effects of ketamine both in unstressed and stressed animals. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role of HDAC5 in the actions of ketamine and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of ketamine. PMID:26647181

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibition enhances self renewal and cardioprotection by human cord blood-derived CD34 cells.

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    Ilaria Burba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of peripheral blood- or bone marrow-derived progenitors for ischemic heart repair is a feasible option to induce neo-vascularization in ischemic tissues. These cells, named Endothelial Progenitors Cells (EPCs, have been extensively characterized phenotypically and functionally. The clinical efficacy of cardiac repair by EPCs cells remains, however, limited, due to cell autonomous defects as a consequence of risk factors. The devise of "enhancement" strategies has been therefore sought to improve repair ability of these cells and increase the clinical benefit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs is known to enhance hematopoietic stem cells engraftment by improvement of self renewal and inhibition of differentiation in the presence of mitogenic stimuli in vitro. In the present study cord blood-derived CD34(+ were pre-conditioned with the HDAC inhibitor Valproic Acid. This treatment affected stem cell growth and gene expression, and improved ischemic myocardium protection in an immunodeficient mouse model of myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HDAC blockade leads to phenotype changes in CD34(+ cells with enhanced self renewal and cardioprotection.

  17. Antitumour activity of AMG 900 alone or in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitor SaHa on medulloblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Lenisa; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Andrade, Augusto Faria; Suazo, Veridiana Kill; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga

    2015-08-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant childhood brain tumour. Aurora kinases are essential for cell division and are primarily active during mitosis. Recently, the combination of aurora kinases inhibitors (iAURK) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (iHDAC) has shown potential antitumour effects and had significant biological effects in preclinical cancer models. In this study, we analysed the effects of the pan-aurora kinases inhibitor AMG 900 alone or in combination with the iHDAC SaHa (Vorinostat) on paediatric MB cell lines (UW402, UW473 and ONS-76). Cell proliferation was measured by XTT assay, apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and clonogenic capacity was studied. qRT-PCR assays were used to determine the mRNA expression in MB cell lines after treatment. Drug combination analyses were made based on Chou-Talalay method. AMG 900 caused the inhibition of cell proliferation, diminution of clonogenic capacity and increased the apoptosis rate in cell lines (P AMG900-SaHa combination was evidenced on the inhibition of cell proliferation in all cell lines, especially in sequential drug treatment. Moreover, the combination of these drugs reached 100% of the inhibition in colony formation (synergistic effect). The treatment with AMG 900 increased the p21 and GDF15 expression, but did not alter the TP53 in one of the cell lines. These results indicate that AMG 900 may be a promising drug for the adjuvant treatment of MB, mainly when combined with iHDAC.

  18. The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes.

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    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological changes are critical for host colonisation in plant pathogenic fungi. These changes occur at specific stages of their pathogenic cycle in response to environmental signals and are mediated by transcription factors, which act as master regulators. Histone deacetylases (HDACs play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, for example by locally modulating the accessibility of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. It has been reported that HDACs play important roles in the virulence of plant fungi. However, the specific environment-sensing pathways that control fungal virulence via HDACs remain poorly characterised. Here we address this question using the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. We find that the HDAC Hos2 is required for the dimorphic switch and pathogenic development in U. maydis. The deletion of hos2 abolishes the cAMP-dependent expression of mating type genes. Moreover, ChIP experiments detect Hos2 binding to the gene bodies of mating-type genes, which increases in proportion to their expression level following cAMP addition. These observations suggest that Hos2 acts as a downstream component of the cAMP-PKA pathway to control the expression of mating-type genes. Interestingly, we found that Clr3, another HDAC present in U. maydis, also contributes to the cAMP-dependent regulation of mating-type gene expression, demonstrating that Hos2 is not the only HDAC involved in this control system. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of HDACs in fungal phytopathogenesis.

  19. Acetylation of FoxO1 Activates Bim Expression to Induce Apoptosis in Response to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Depsipeptide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor induced apoptosis are incompletely understood. In this study, depsipeptide, a novel HDAC inhibitor, was shown to be able to induce significant apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer cells. Further study showed that Bim, a BH3-only proapoptotic protein, was significantly upregulated by depsipeptide in cancer cells, and Bim's function in depsipeptide-induced apoptosis was confirmed by knockdown of Bim with RNAi. In addition, we found that depsipeptide-induced expression of Bim was directly dependent on acetylation of forkhead box class O1 (FoxO1 that is catalyzed by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein, and indirectly induced by a decreased four-and-a-half LIM-domain protein 2. Moreover, our results demonstrated that FoxO1 acetylation is required for the depsipeptide-induced activation of Bim and apoptosis, using transfection with a plasmid containing FoxO1 mutated at lysine sites and a luciferase reporter assay. These data show for the first time that an HDAC inhibitor induces apoptosis through the FoxO1 acetylation-Bim pathway.

  20. Inhibition of histone deacetylase 1 or 2 reduces induced cytokine expression in microglia through a protein synthesis independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Benjamin S; Grigg, Ronald; Wood, Ian C

    2017-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors prevent neural cell death in in vivo models of cerebral ischaemia, brain injury and neurodegenerative disease. One mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors may do this is by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response of chronically activated microglia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory effect and the specific HDAC responsible are not fully understood. Recent data from in vivo rodent studies have shown that inhibition of class I HDACs suppresses neuroinflammation and is neuroprotective. In our study, we have identified that selective HDAC inhibition with inhibitors apicidin, MS-275 or MI-192, or specific knockdown of HDAC1 or 2 using siRNA, suppresses the expression of cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in BV-2 murine microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we found that in the absence of HDAC1, HDAC2 is up-regulated and these increased levels are compensatory, suggesting that these two HDACs have redundancy in regulating the inflammatory response of microglia. Investigating the possible underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms suggests an increase in protein expression is not important. Taken together, this study supports the idea that inhibitors selective towards HDAC1 or HDAC2, may be therapeutically useful for targeting neuroinflammation in brain injuries and neurodegenerative disease. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Villalobos, Alberto; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Moreno-Sánchez, Ismael; Helmlinger, Dominique; Ibeas, José I

    2015-08-01

    Morphological changes are critical for host colonisation in plant pathogenic fungi. These changes occur at specific stages of their pathogenic cycle in response to environmental signals and are mediated by transcription factors, which act as master regulators. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, for example by locally modulating the accessibility of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. It has been reported that HDACs play important roles in the virulence of plant fungi. However, the specific environment-sensing pathways that control fungal virulence via HDACs remain poorly characterised. Here we address this question using the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. We find that the HDAC Hos2 is required for the dimorphic switch and pathogenic development in U. maydis. The deletion of hos2 abolishes the cAMP-dependent expression of mating type genes. Moreover, ChIP experiments detect Hos2 binding to the gene bodies of mating-type genes, which increases in proportion to their expression level following cAMP addition. These observations suggest that Hos2 acts as a downstream component of the cAMP-PKA pathway to control the expression of mating-type genes. Interestingly, we found that Clr3, another HDAC present in U. maydis, also contributes to the cAMP-dependent regulation of mating-type gene expression, demonstrating that Hos2 is not the only HDAC involved in this control system. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of HDACs in fungal phytopathogenesis.

  2. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Increase p27Kip1 by Affecting Its Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation through Skp2 Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Borriello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs represent an intriguing class of pharmacologically active compounds. Currently, some HDACIs are FDA approved for cancer therapy and many others are in clinical trials, showing important clinical activities at well tolerated doses. HDACIs also interfere with the aging process and are involved in the control of inflammation and oxidative stress. In vitro, HDACIs induce different cellular responses including growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we evaluated the effects of HDACIs on p27Kip1, a key cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI. We observed that HDACI-dependent antiproliferative activity is associated with p27Kip1 accumulation due to a reduced protein degradation. p27Kip1 removal requires a preliminary ubiquitination step due to the Skp2-SCF E3 ligase complex. We demonstrated that HDACIs increase p27Kip1 stability through downregulation of Skp2 protein levels. Skp2 decline is only partially due to a reduced Skp2 gene expression. Conversely, the protein decrease is more profound and enduring compared to the changes of Skp2 transcript. This argues for HDACIs effects on Skp2 protein posttranslational modifications and/or on its removal. In summary, we demonstrate that HDACIs increase p27Kip1 by hampering its nuclear ubiquitination/degradation. The findings might be of relevance in the phenotypic effects of these compounds, including their anticancer and aging-modulating activities.

  3. Pluripotency maintenance in mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos and its improvement by treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Tang; Hao, Jie; Wang, Liu; Jouneau, Alice; Zhou, Qi

    2011-02-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency can be achieved by nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes (SCNT). A key event of this process is the demethylation of the Oct4 gene and its temporally and spatially regulated expression. Different studies have shown that it occurs abnormally in some SCNT embryos. TSA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor known to increase the efficiency of development to term of SCNT embryos, but its impact on the developmental features of SCNT embryos is poorly understood. Here, we have followed the fate of the pluripotent cells within SCNT embryos, from the late blastocyst to the early epiblast prior to gastrulation. Our data show a delay in development correlated with a defect in forming and maintaining a correct number of Oct4 expressing ICM and epiblast cells in SCNT embryos. As a consequence, during the outgrowth phase of embryonic stem cell derivation as well as during diapause in vivo, part of the SCNT blastocysts completely lose their ICM cells. Meanwhile, the others display a correctly reprogrammed ICM compatible with the derivation of ES cells and development of the epiblast. Our data also indicate that TSA favors the establishment of pluripotency in SCNT embryos.

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

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    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  5. Transcription factor Sox4 is required for PUMA-mediated apoptosis induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor, TSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sang-Min; Kang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Woong; Kim, Chul-Hong; An, Joo-Hee; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2013-08-23

    PUMA is a crucial regulator of apoptotic cell death mediated by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. In many cancer cells, PUMA expression is induced in response to DNA-damaging reagent in a p53-dependent manner. However, few studies have investigated transcription factors that lead to the induction of PUMA expression via p53-independent apoptotic signaling. In this study, we found that the transcription factor Sox4 increased PUMA expression in response to trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor in the p53-null human lung cancer cell line H1299. Ectopic expression of Sox4 led to the induction of PUMA expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and TSA-mediated up-regulation of PUMA transcription was repressed by the knockdown of Sox4. Using luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we also determined that Sox4 recruits p300 on the PUMA promoter region and increases PUMA gene expression in response to TSA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Sox4 is required for p53-independent apoptotic cell death mediated by PUMA induction via TSA treatment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The histone deacetylases sir2 and rpd3 act on ribosomal DNA to control the replication program in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazumasa; Bacal, Julien; Desmarais, Damien; Padioleau, Ismaël; Tsaponina, Olga; Chabes, Andrei; Pantesco, Véronique; Dubois, Emeric; Parrinello, Hugues; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Lengronne, Armelle; Pasero, Philippe

    2014-05-22

    In S. cerevisiae, replication timing is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms restricting the accessibility of origins to limiting initiation factors. About 30% of these origins are located within repetitive DNA sequences such as the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, but their regulation is poorly understood. Here, we have investigated how histone deacetylases (HDACs) control the replication program in budding yeast. This analysis revealed that two HDACs, Rpd3 and Sir2, control replication timing in an opposite manner. Whereas Rpd3 delays initiation at late origins, Sir2 is required for the timely activation of early origins. Moreover, Sir2 represses initiation at rDNA origins, whereas Rpd3 counteracts this effect. Remarkably, deletion of SIR2 restored normal replication in rpd3Δ cells by reactivating rDNA origins. Together, these data indicate that HDACs control the replication timing program in budding yeast by modulating the ability of repeated origins to compete with single-copy origins for limiting initiation factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Histone deacetylase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in a pharmacological model of mania

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    Laura Stertz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li, 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT, 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB, or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity.

  8. Transcription factor 19 interacts with histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation and controls gluconeogenesis via the nucleosome-remodeling-deacetylase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sabyasachi; Sanyal, Sulagna; Srivastava, Dushyant Kumar; Dasgupta, Dipak; Roy, Siddhartha; Das, Chandrima

    2017-12-15

    Transcription factor 19 (TCF19) has been reported as a type 1 diabetes-associated locus involved in maintenance of pancreatic β cells through a fine-tuned regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. TCF19 also exhibits genomic association with type 2 diabetes, although the precise molecular mechanism remains unknown. It harbors both a plant homeodomain and a forkhead-associated domain implicated in epigenetic recognition and gene regulation, a phenomenon that has remained unexplored. Here, we show that TCF19 selectively interacts with histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation through its plant homeodomain finger. Knocking down TCF19 under high-glucose conditions affected many metabolic processes, including gluconeogenesis. We found that TCF19 overexpression represses de novo glucose production in HepG2 cells. The transcriptional repression of key genes, induced by TCF19, coincided with NuRD (nucleosome-remodeling-deacetylase) complex recruitment to the promoters of these genes. TCF19 interacted with CHD4 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4), which is a part of the NuRD complex, in a glucose concentration-independent manner. In summary, our results show that TCF19 interacts with an active transcription mark and recruits a co-repressor complex to regulate gluconeogenic gene expression in HepG2 cells. Our study offers critical insights into the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of gluconeogenesis and into the roles of chromatin readers in metabolic homeostasis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Exploration of Novel Inhibitors for Class I Histone Deacetylase Isoforms by QSAR Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Assays.

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    Zainab Noor

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDAC are metal-dependent enzymes and considered as important targets for cell functioning. Particularly, higher expression of class I HDACs is common in the onset of multiple malignancies which results in deregulation of many target genes involved in cell growth, differentiation and survival. Although substantial attempts have been made to control the irregular functioning of HDACs by employing various inhibitors with high sensitivity towards transformed cells, limited success has been achieved in epigenetic cancer therapy. Here in this study, we used ligand-based pharmacophore and 2-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR modeling approaches for targeting class I HDAC isoforms. Pharmacophore models were generated by taking into account the known IC50 values and experimental energy scores with extensive validations. The QSAR model having an external R2 value of 0.93 was employed for virtual screening of compound libraries. 10 potential lead compounds (C1-C10 were short-listed having strong binding affinities for HDACs, out of which 2 compounds (C8 and C9 were able to interact with all members of class I HDACs. The potential binding modes of HDAC2 and HDAC8 to C8 were explored through molecular dynamics simulations. Overall, bioactivity and ligand efficiency (binding energy/non-hydrogen atoms profiles suggested that proposed hits may be more effective inhibitors for cancer therapy.

  10. Plant-specific Histone Deacetylases HDT½ Regulate GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 Expression to Control Arabidopsis Root Meristem Cell Number

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huchen

    2017-08-31

    Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells. Knockdown of HDT½ (hdt1,2i) results in an earlier switch and causes a reduced RM cell number. Our data show that HDT½ negatively regulate the acetylation level of the C19-GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 (GA2ox2) locus and repress the expression of GA2ox2 in the RM and elongation zone. Overexpression of GA2ox2 in the RM phenocopies the hdt1,2i phenotype. Conversely, knockout of GA2ox2 partially rescues the root growth defect of hdt1,2i. These results suggest that by repressing the expression of GA2ox2, HDT½ likely fine-tune gibberellin metabolism and they are crucial for regulating the switch from cell division to expansion to determine RM cell number. We propose that HDT½ function as part of a mechanism that modulates root growth in response to environmental factors.

  11. Role of chromatin structure modulation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A on the radio-sensitivity of ataxia telangiectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meschini, Roberta, E-mail: meschini@unitus.it; Morucci, Elisa; Berni, Andrea; Lopez-Martinez, Wilner; Palitti, Fabrizio

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Role of chromatin compaction on chromosomal instability. • Reduced radiation-induced clastogenicity in Ataxia telangiectasia cell lines. • Histone tails hyperacetylation reduces heterochromatin content favouring DSBs repair. - Abstract: At present, a lot is known about biochemical aspects of double strand breaks (DBS) repair but how chromatin structure affects this process and the sensitivity of DNA to DSB induction is still an unresolved question. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients are characterised by very high sensitivity to DSB-inducing agents such as ionising radiation. This radiosensitivity is revealed with an enhancement of chromosomal instability as a consequence of defective DNA repair for a small fraction of breaks located in the heterochromatin, where they are less accessible. Besides, recently it has been reported that Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) mediated signalling modifies chromatin structure. In order to study the impact of chromatin compaction on the chromosomal instability of A-T cells, the response to trichostatin-A, an histone deacetylase inhibitor, in normal and A-T lymphoblastoid cell lines was investigated testing its effect on chromosomal aberrations, cell cycle progression, DNA damage and repair after exposure to X-rays. The results suggest that the response to both trichostatin-A pre- and continuous treatments is independent of the presence of either functional or mutated ATM protein, as the reduction of chromosomal damage was found also in the wild-type cell line. The presence of trichostatin-A before exposure to X-rays could give rise to prompt DNA repair functioning on chromatin structure already in an open conformation. Differently, trichostatin-A post-treatment causing hyperacetylation of histone tails and reducing the heterochromatic DNA content might diminish the requirement for ATM and favour DSBs repair reducing chromosomal damage only in A-T cells. This fact could suggest that trichostatin-A post

  12. [Inhibition of histone deacetylases in the chick brain modulates expression of c-Fos and ZENK transcription factors and facilitates establishment of long-term memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, K A; Anokhin, K V; Tiunova, A A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the role of histone acetylation in memory consolidation in newborn chicks. We studied the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on a "weak" memory for passive avoidance and on expression of two transcription factors c-Fos and ZENK known to play a role in neuronal plasticity in the chick brain. Intraventricular administration of trichostatin A prior to training produced a dose-dependent enhancement of memory when tested 24 hours after the training. It also increased neuronal expression of c-Fos and ZENK proteins: the density of ZENK immunopositive cells increased in the hippocampus and intermediate medial mesopallium and the density of c-Fos immunopositive cells increased in intermediate arcopallium and dorsocaudal nidopallium. Weak passive avoidance training did not produce further enhancement of c-Fos and ZENK expression in any of these brain areas. These data demonstrate possibility of facilitating long-term memory in day-old chicks by a histone deacetylases inhibitor, thus supporting the hypothesis on the role of histone acetylation in long-term memory formation. They also suggest that these effects might be mediated through modulation of transcriptional response in brain areas involved in consolidation of this form of memory.

  13. IMPACT OF CLASSICAL AND NAD+-DEPENDENT (I.E. SIRTUINS) HISTONE DEACETYLASES (HDACS) ON INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSES: LESSONS FROM THE USAGE OF HDAC INHIBITORS AND SIRTUIN KNOCKOUT MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarlo, E.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against microbial infections. Innate immune responses have to be tightly regulated to eradicate or contain invasive pathogens without causing collateral damages to the host. In mammals, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are split into 2 main subfamilies: Zn- dependent HDACs (HDAC1-11) and NAD+-dependent sirtuins (SIRT1-7). HDACs regulate gene expression by deacetylating histone and non-histone proteins and impact on numerous biological...

  14. Mocetinostat (MGCD0103): a review of an isotype-specific histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumber, Yanis; Younes, Anas; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2011-06-01

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) have the potential to restore gene expression and display antitumor effects in vitro. As single agents, HDACIs have clinical activity in lymphoma. In myeloid leukemias, combinations of DNA methylation inhibitors and HDACIs are promising. Other combinations are being studied in solid tumors. This article covers basic information and an update on preclinical and clinical experience with the oral isotype-selective HDACI MGCD0103 (mocetinostat) in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. It also examines data concerning MGCD0103 from recent conferences and articles through to November 2010, including new data regarding responses in lymphoma and toxicities. MGCD0103 is well-tolerated and exhibits favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, demonstrating target inhibition and clinical responses. It induces cell death and autophagy, synergizes with proteasomal inhibitors and affects non-histone targets, such as microtubules. In 2008, new patient enrollment in trials was temporarily suspended due to potential cardiac complications. This restriction was lifted in 2009 as no correlation between MGCD0103 exposure and pericardial effusions was found. New patient enrollment in MGCD0103 clinical trials requires the exclusion of patients diagnosed with significant cardiac abnormalities prior to enrollment. Clinical and pharmacodynamic data support a three-times-weekly administration at a 90 mg fixed dose. MGCD0103 displays promising antitumor activity in several hematological diseases.

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Modulate the Transcriptional Regulation of Guanylyl Cyclase/Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prerna; Tripathi, Satyabha; Pandey, Kailash N.

    2014-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binds guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) and produces the intracellular second messenger, cGMP, which regulates cardiovascular homeostasis. We sought to determine the function of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in regulating Npr1 (coding for GC-A/NPRA) gene transcription, using primary mouse mesangial cells treated with class-specific HDAC inhibitors (HDACi). Trichostatin A, a pan inhibitor, and mocetinostat (MGCD0103), a class I HDAC inhibitor, significantly enhanced Npr1 promoter activity (by 8- and 10-fold, respectively), mRNA levels (4- and 5.3-fold, respectively), and NPRA protein (2.7- and 3.5-fold, respectively). However, MC1568 (class II HDAC inhibitor) had no discernible effect. Overexpression of HDAC1 and HDAC2 significantly attenuated Npr1 promoter activity, whereas HDAC3 and HDAC8 had no effect. HDACi-treated cultured cells in vitro and intact animals in vivo showed significantly reduced binding of HDAC1 and -2 and increased accumulation of acetylated H3-K9/14 and H4-K12 at the Npr1 promoter. Deletional analyses of the Npr1 promoter along with ectopic overexpression and inhibition of Sp1 confirmed that HDACi-induced Npr1 gene transcription is accomplished by Sp1 activation. Furthermore, HDACi attenuated the interaction of Sp1 with HDAC1/2 and promoted Sp1 association with p300 and p300/cAMP-binding protein-associated factor; it also promoted the recruitment of p300 and p300/cAMP-binding protein-associated factor to the Npr1 promoter. Our results demonstrate that trichostatin A and MGCD0103 enhanced Npr1 gene expression through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and increased both acetylation of histones (H3-K9/14, H4-K12) and Sp1 by p300, and their recruitment to Npr1 promoter. Our findings define a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism that governs Npr1 gene transcription. PMID:24451378

  16. MSH3 mismatch repair protein regulates sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs and a histone deacetylase inhibitor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Myung Park

    Full Text Available MSH3 is a DNA mismatch repair (MMR gene that undergoes frequent somatic mutation in colorectal cancers (CRCs with MMR deficiency. MSH3, together with MSH2, forms the MutSβ heteroduplex that interacts with interstrand cross-links induced by drugs such as cisplatin. To date, the impact of MSH3 on chemosensitivity is unknown.We utilized isogenic HCT116 (MLH1-/MSH3- cells where MLH1 is restored by transfer of chromosome 3 (HCT116+ch3 and also MSH3 by chromosome 5 (HCT116+3+5. We generated HCT116+3+5, SW480 (MLH1+/MSH3+ and SW48 (MLH1-/MSH3+ cells with shRNA knockdown of MSH3. Cells were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, SN-38, oxaliplatin, or the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor PCI-24781 and cell viability, clonogenic survival, DNA damage and apoptosis were analyzed.MSH3-deficient vs proficient CRC cells showed increased sensitivity to the irinotecan metabolite SN-38 and to oxaliplatin, but not 5-FU, as shown in assays for apoptosis and clonogenic survival. In contrast, suppression of MLH1 attenuated the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, but did not alter sensitivity to SN-38 or oxaliplatin. The impact of MSH3 knockdown on chemosensitivity to SN-38 and oxaliplatin was maintained independent of MLH1 status. In MSH3-deficient vs proficient cells, SN-38 and oxaliplatin induced higher levels of phosphorylated histone H2AX and Chk2, and similar results were found in MLH1-proficient SW480 cells. MSH3-deficient vs proficient cells showed increased 53BP1 nuclear foci after irradiation, suggesting that MSH3 can regulate DNA double strand break (DSB repair. We then utilized PCI-24781 that interferes with homologous recombination (HR indicated by a reduction in Rad51 expression. The addition of PCI-24781 to oxaliplatin enhanced cytotoxicity to a greater extent compared to either drug alone.MSH3 status can regulate the DNA damage response and extent of apoptosis induced by chemotherapy. The ability of MSH3 to regulate chemosensitivity was independent of MLH1

  17. Effects of a selection of histone deacetylase inhibitors on mast cell activation and airway and colonic smooth muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assem, El-Sayed K; Peh, Kheng H; Wan, Beatrice Y C; Middleton, Brian J; Dines, Jon; Marson, Charles M

    2008-12-20

    Studies of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, novel anticancer drugs, in models of autoimmune diseases, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease suggest that HDAC inhibitors may also have useful anti-inflammatory effects. Accordingly, in vitro studies relevant to asthma and inflammatory bowel disease were conducted using a selection of HDAC inhibitors: suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat), and a related branched hydroxamic acid, diamide (1), MGCD0103 and two short chain fatty acid derivatives: sodium butyrate (of use in inflammatory bowel disease) and sodium valproate. The ability of those HDAC inhibitors to modulate antigen- or agonist-induced contraction of isolated guinea pig tracheal rings and colon, agonist-induced contraction of rat colon, and histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells was examined. Pre-incubation (up to 6 h) with 10-40 microM of SAHA, diamide (1), or MGCD0103 caused significant inhibition of the antigen-induced contraction of sensitised guinea pig tracheal rings as well as inhibition of the contraction induced by histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and carbachol (G-protein coupled receptor agonists), while sodium butyrate (1 mM) and sodium valproate (100 microM) were weak inhibitors. Contraction of tracheal rings by sodium fluoride (NaF, a non-selective G-protein activator), KCl and a peroxyl radical generator was blocked by MGCD0103. Additionally, MGCD0103 significantly inhibited antigen-induced histamine release from IgE antibody-sensitised rat peritoneal mast cells, and NaF-induced histamine release, as well as inhibiting NaF-induced colon contraction. Those various effects appear to involve modulation of cell signaling, probably involving G-protein coupled pathways, and further support the development of HDAC inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents.

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitor upregulates peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibits apoptotic cell death in abcd1-deficient glial cells.

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    Jaspreet Singh

    Full Text Available In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1 and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD. The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Abcd1-knockdown and the subsequent alteration in VLCFA metabolism in human U87 astrocytes and rat B12 oligodendrocytes. Loss of Abcd1 inhibited peroxisomal β-oxidation activity and increased expression of VLCFA synthesizing enzymes, elongase of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs (1 and 3 in both cell types. However, higher induction of ELOVL's in Abcd1-deficient B12 oligodendrocytes than astrocytes suggests that ELOVL pathway may play a prominent role in oligodendrocytes in X-ALD. While astrocytes are able to maintain the cellular homeostasis of anti-apoptotic proteins, Abcd1-deletion in B12 oligodendrocytes downregulated the anti-apototic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and cell survival (phospho-Erk1/2 proteins, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bim, Bax and Bid leading to cell loss. These observations provide insights into different cellular signaling mechanisms in response to Abcd1-deletion in two different cell types of CNS. The apoptotic responses were accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-9-dependent mechanism in Abcd1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA corrected the VLCFA derangement both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the oligodendrocytes loss. These observations provide a proof-of principle that HDAC inhibitor SAHA may have a therapeutic potential for X-ALD.

  19. Sodium valproate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, with praziquantel ameliorates Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsakkar, Mohamed G; Eissa, Maha M; Hewedy, Wafaa A; Nassra, Rasha M; Elatrebi, Soha F

    2016-10-01

    This study explores the potential antifibrotic effect of sodium valproate (SV), an inhibitor of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, and/or praziquantel (PZQ) on Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into nine groups: group I- normal control (NC); group II- uninfected gum mucilage (GM) treated; group III- uninfected PZQ- treated; group IV- uninfected SV-treated; group V- control S. mansoni infected mice; group VI- infected GM-treated; group VII- infected PZQ-treated; group VIII- infected SV-treated; group IX- infected PZQ+SV treated. All SV administrations were 300mg/kg/day orally and administered for five weeks beginning on the 5th week post infection (WPI). All PZQ administrations were 500mg/kg/day orally and administered for 2 consecutive days beginning on the 7th WPI. Serum transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, and liver function tests (AST and ALT) were determined. Specimens of the hepatic tissues were examined histologically. Treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with SV significantly decreased the serum levels of ALT, TGF-β1 and TNF-α, and the liver tissue hydroxyproline content compared with the S. mansoni infected untreated groups. Histologically, treatment with SV revealed regression of the granulomatous inflammatory reaction. Combined treatment with PZQ and SV produces more favorable biochemical results, and aborted granulomatous reaction compared with either drug alone. Sodium valproate is a promising anti-fibrotic agent. It demonstrated an anti-fibrotic effect in early stages of S. mansoni infection through downregulation of profibrogenic cytokines, and collagen deposition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Optimized logic rules reveal interferon-γ-induced modes regulated by histone deacetylases and protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Twisk, Daniel; Murphy, Shawn P; Thakar, Juilee

    2017-05-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is critical for activating innate and adaptive immunity against tumours and intracellular pathogens. Interferon-γ is secreted at the fetal-maternal interface in pregnant women and mice. The outer layer of the placenta in contact with maternal blood is composed of semi-allogeneic trophoblast cells, which constitute the fetal component of the fetal-maternal interface. The simultaneous presence of pro-inflammatory IFN-γ and trophoblast cells at the fetal-maternal interface appears to represent an immunological paradox, for trophoblastic responses to IFN-γ could potentially lead to activation of maternal immunity and subsequent attack of the placenta. However, our previous studies demonstrate that IFN-γ responsive gene (IRG) expression is negatively regulated in human and mouse trophoblast cells. In human cytotrophoblast and trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma cells, janus kinase signalling is blocked by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), whereas in mouse trophoblast, histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibit IRG expression. Here, we used genome-wide transcriptional profiling to investigate the collective roles of PTPs and HDACs on regulation of IRG expression in human choriocarcinoma cells. Logic-rules were optimized to derive regulatory modes governing gene expression patterns observed upon different combinations of treatment with PTP and HDAC inhibitors. The results demonstrate that IRGs can be divided into several categories in human choriocarcinoma cells, each of which is subject to distinct mechanisms of repression. Hence, the regulatory modes identified in this study suggest that human trophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells may evade the potentially deleterious consequences of exposure to IFN-γ by using several overlapping mechanisms to block IRG expression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

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    Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential

  2. Deep brain stimulation, histone deacetylase inhibitors and glutamatergic drugs rescue resistance to fear extinction in a genetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Nigel; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Gunduz Cinar, Ozge; Hauschild, Markus; Ferraguti, Francesco; Holmes, Andrew; Singewald, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are characterized by persistent, excessive fear. Therapeutic interventions that reverse deficits in fear extinction represent a tractable approach to treating these disorders. We previously reported that 129S1/SvImJ (S1) mice show no extinction learning following normal fear conditioning. We now demonstrate that weak fear conditioning does permit fear reduction during massed extinction training in S1 mice, but reveals specific deficiency in extinction memory consolidation/retrieval. Rescue of this impaired extinction consolidation/retrieval was achieved with d-cycloserine (N-methly-d-aspartate partial agonist) or MS-275 (histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor), applied after extinction training. We next examined the ability of different drugs and non-pharmacological manipulations to rescue the extreme fear extinction deficit in S1 following normal fear conditioning with the ultimate aim to produce low fear levels in extinction retrieval tests. Results showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS) by applying high frequency stimulation to the nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum) during extinction training, indeed significantly reduced fear during extinction retrieval compared to sham stimulation controls. Rescue of both impaired extinction acquisition and deficient extinction consolidation/retrieval was achieved with prior extinction training administration of valproic acid (a GABAergic enhancer and HDAC inhibitor) or AMN082 [metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7) agonist], while MS-275 or PEPA (AMPA receptor potentiator) failed to affect extinction acquisition in S1 mice. Collectively, these data identify potential beneficial effects of DBS and various drug treatments, including those with HDAC inhibiting or mGlu7 agonism properties, as adjuncts to overcome treatment resistance in exposure-based therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Class I histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat suppresses regulatory T cells and enhances immunotherapies in renal and prostate cancer models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive factors such as regulatory T cells (Tregs limit the efficacy of immunotherapies. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been reported to have antitumor activity in different malignancies and immunomodulatory effects. Herein, we report the Tregs-targeting and immune-promoting effect of a class I specific HDAC inhibitor, entinostat, in combination with either IL-2 in a murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA model or a survivin-based vaccine therapy (SurVaxM in a castration resistant prostate cancer (CR Myc-CaP model.RENCA or CR Myc-CaP tumors were implanted orthotopically or subcutaneously, respectively. Inoculated mice were randomized into four treatment groups: vehicle, entinostat, cytokine or vaccine, and combination. Tregs in the blood were assessed by FACS analysis. Real time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis of isolated T cell subpopulations from spleen were performed to determine Foxp3 gene and protein expression. The suppressive function of Tregs was tested by T cell proliferation assay. Low dose (5 mg/kg entinostat reduced Foxp3 levels in Tregs and this was associated with enhanced tumor growth inhibition in combination with either IL-2 or a SurVaxM vaccine. Entinostat down-regulated Foxp3 expression transcriptionally and blocked Tregs suppressive function without affecting T effector cells (Teffs. In vitro low dose entinostat (0.5 µM induced STAT3 acetylation and a specific inhibitor of STAT3 partially rescued entinostat-induced down-regulation of Foxp3, suggesting that STAT3 signaling is involved in Foxp3 down-regulation by entinostat.These results demonstrate a novel immunomodulatory effect of class I HDAC inhibition and provide a rationale for the clinical testing of entinostat to enhance cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Class I histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat suppresses regulatory T cells and enhances immunotherapies in renal and prostate cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Ciesielski, Michael; Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Miles, Kiersten M; Ellis, Leigh; Sotomayor, Paula; Shrikant, Protul; Fenstermaker, Robert; Pili, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppressive factors such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) limit the efficacy of immunotherapies. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to have antitumor activity in different malignancies and immunomodulatory effects. Herein, we report the Tregs-targeting and immune-promoting effect of a class I specific HDAC inhibitor, entinostat, in combination with either IL-2 in a murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) model or a survivin-based vaccine therapy (SurVaxM) in a castration resistant prostate cancer (CR Myc-CaP) model. RENCA or CR Myc-CaP tumors were implanted orthotopically or subcutaneously, respectively. Inoculated mice were randomized into four treatment groups: vehicle, entinostat, cytokine or vaccine, and combination. Tregs in the blood were assessed by FACS analysis. Real time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis of isolated T cell subpopulations from spleen were performed to determine Foxp3 gene and protein expression. The suppressive function of Tregs was tested by T cell proliferation assay. Low dose (5 mg/kg) entinostat reduced Foxp3 levels in Tregs and this was associated with enhanced tumor growth inhibition in combination with either IL-2 or a SurVaxM vaccine. Entinostat down-regulated Foxp3 expression transcriptionally and blocked Tregs suppressive function without affecting T effector cells (Teffs). In vitro low dose entinostat (0.5 µM) induced STAT3 acetylation and a specific inhibitor of STAT3 partially rescued entinostat-induced down-regulation of Foxp3, suggesting that STAT3 signaling is involved in Foxp3 down-regulation by entinostat. These results demonstrate a novel immunomodulatory effect of class I HDAC inhibition and provide a rationale for the clinical testing of entinostat to enhance cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Inhibition of histone deacetylases 1 and 6 enhances cytarabine-induced apoptosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia cells.

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    Xuelian Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML remains a challenging disease to treat even with intensified cytarabine-based chemotherapy. Histone deacetylases (HDACs have been reported to be promising therapeutic targets for treating AML. However, HDAC family members that are involved in chemotherapy sensitivities remain unknown. In this study, we sought to identify members of the HDAC family that are involved in cytarabine sensitivities, and to select the optimal HDACI that is most efficacious when combined with cytarabine for treating children with AML. METHODOLOGY: Expression profiles of classes I, II, and IV HDACs in 4 pediatric AML cell lines were determined by Western blotting. Inhibition of class I HDACs by different HDACIs was measured post immnunoprecipitation. Individual down-regulation of HDACs in pediatric AML cells was performed with lentiviral shRNA. The effects of cytarabine and HDACIs on apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS: Treatments with structurally diverse HDACIs and HDAC shRNA knockdown experiments revealed that down-regulation of both HDACs 1 and 6 is critical in enhancing cytarabine-induced apoptosis in pediatric AML, at least partly mediated by Bim. However, down-regulation of HDAC2 may negatively impact cytarabine sensitivities in the disease. At clinically achievable concentrations, HDACIs that simultaneously inhibited both HDACs 1 and 6 showed the best anti-leukemic activities and significantly enhanced cytarabine-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our results further confirm that HDACs are bona fide therapeutic targets for treating pediatric AML and suggest that pan-HDACIs may be more beneficial than isoform-specific drugs.

  6. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane, but not indole-3-carbinol, inhibits histone deacetylase activity in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, Laura M., E-mail: beaverl@onid.orst.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Yu, Tian-Wei, E-mail: david.yu@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sokolowski, Elizabeth I., E-mail: sokolowe@onid.orst.edu [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H., E-mail: rod.dashwood@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Ho, Emily, E-mail: Emily.Ho@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables that have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is an emerging target for cancer prevention and therapy. We sought to examine the effects of I3C and DIM on HDACs in human prostate cancer cell lines: androgen insensitive PC-3 cells and androgen sensitive LNCaP cells. I3C modestly inhibited HDAC activity in LNCaP cells by 25% but no inhibition of HDAC activity was detected in PC-3 cells. In contrast, DIM significantly inhibited HDAC activity in both cell lines by as much as 66%. Decreases in HDAC activity correlated with increased expression of p21, a known target of HDAC inhibitors. DIM treatment caused a significant decrease in the expression of HDAC2 protein in both cancer cell lines but no significant change in the protein levels of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6 or HDAC8 was detected. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM may contribute to the phytochemicals' anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. The ability of DIM to target aberrant epigenetic patterns, in addition to its effects on detoxification of carcinogens, may make it an effective chemopreventive agent by targeting multiple stages of prostate carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► DIM inhibits HDAC activity and decreases HDAC2 expression in prostate cancer cells. ► DIM is significantly more effective than I3C at inhibiting HDAC activity. ► I3C has no effect on HDAC protein expression. ► Inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM is associated with increased p21 expression. ► HDAC inhibition may be a novel epigenetic mechanism for cancer prevention with DIM.

  7. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Computer-Aided Drug Designing of New Derivatives of Hyperactive Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Huang, Weibin; Li, Xiaonan; Yang, Zhicheng; Feng, Binghong

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of compounds based on suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) had been designed as potential histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis). Molecular docking studies indicated that our derivatives had better fitting in the binding sites of HDAC8 than SAHA. Compounds 1-5 were synthesized through the synthetic routes. In biological test, compounds also showed good inhibitory activity in HDAC enzyme assay and more potent growth inhibition in human glioma cell lines (MGR2, U251, and U373). A representative compound, N3F, exhibited better inhibitory effect (HDAC, IC50  = 0.1187 μm; U251, IC50  = 0.8949 μm) and lower toxicity for human normal cells (LO2, IC50  = 172.5 μm and MRC5, IC50  = 213.6 μm) compared with SAHA (HDAC, IC50  = 0.8717 μm; U251, IC50  = 8.938 μm; LO2, IC50  = 86.52 μm and MRC5, IC50  = 81.02 μm). In addition, N3F obviously increased Beclin-1 and Caspase-3 and 9 as well as inhibited Bcl-2 in U251 cells. All of our results indicated that these SAHA cap derivatives could serve as potential lead compounds for further optimization. In addition, N3F and N2E both displayed promising profile as antitumor candidates for the treatment of human glioma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Dual regulation by pairs of cyclin-dependent protein kinases and histone deacetylases controls G1 transcription in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Huang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available START-dependent transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by two transcription factors SBF and MBF, whose activity is controlled by the binding of the repressor Whi5. Phosphorylation and removal of Whi5 by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK Cln3-Cdc28 alleviates the Whi5-dependent repression on SBF and MBF, initiating entry into a new cell cycle. This Whi5-SBF/MBF transcriptional circuit is analogous to the regulatory pathway in mammalian cells that features the E2F family of G1 transcription factors and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb. Here we describe genetic and biochemical evidence for the involvement of another CDK, Pcl-Pho85, in regulating G1 transcription, via phosphorylation and inhibition of Whi5. We show that a strain deleted for both PHO85 and CLN3 has a slow growth phenotype, a G1 delay, and is severely compromised for SBF-dependent reporter gene expression, yet all of these defects are alleviated by deletion of WHI5. Our biochemical and genetic tests suggest Whi5 mediates repression in part through interaction with two histone deacetylases (HDACs, Hos3 and Rpd3. In a manner analogous to cyclin D/CDK4/6, which phosphorylates Rb in mammalian cells disrupting its association with HDACs, phosphorylation by the early G1 CDKs Cln3-Cdc28 and Pcl9-Pho85 inhibits association of Whi5 with the HDACs. Contributions from multiple CDKs may provide the precision and accuracy necessary to activate G1 transcription when both internal and external cues are optimal.

  9. Diallyl trisulfides, a natural histone deacetylase inhibitor, attenuate HIF-1α synthesis, and decreases breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhonghong; Shan, Yunlong; Tao, Li; Liu, Yuping; Zhu, Zhijie; Liu, Zhaoguo; Wu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Wenxing; Wang, Aiyun; Lu, Yin

    2017-10-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia promotes the distant metastasis of cancer subclones. The clinical expression level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) reflects the prognosis of a variety of cancers, especially breast cancer. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can target HIF-1α protein due to von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein-dependent degradation. Dietary organosulfur compounds, such as those in garlic, have been reported as HDAC inhibitors. The effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on the ratio of firefly/Renilla luciferase activity in hypoxic MDA-MB-231 cells were determined. The mRNA expressions of HIF-1α target genes ANGPTL4, LOXL4, and LOX in hypoxic MDA-MB-231 cells were significantly down-regulated by DATS. DATS attenuated the metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 cells in hypoxia-induced embryonic zebrafish, xenograft, and orthotopic tumors. Endothelial cell-cancer cell adhesion, wound healing, transwell, and tube formation assays showed that DATS dose-dependently inhibited the migration and angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. The expressions of L1CAM, VEGF-A, and EMT-related proteins (Slug, Snail, MMP-2) were inhibited by DATS. DATS dose-dependently inhibited HIF-1α transcriptional activity and hypoxia-induced hematogenous metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. It reduced the protein expression of HIF-1α, which did not involve inhibition of HIF-1α mRNA expression or ubiquitin proteasome degradation. Efficient inhibition of HIF-1α expression was required for DATS to resist breast cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of alcohol on histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and the neuroprotective role of trichostatin A (TSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Marisela; Gandhi, Nimisha; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Pichili, Vijaya; Thangavel, Samikkannu; Khatavkar, Pradnya; Yndart-Arias, Adriana; Nair, Madhavan

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have implicated histone deacetylases (HDACs) and HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) such as trichostatin A (TSA) in the regulation of gene expression during drug addiction. Furthermore, an increase in HDAC activity has been linked to neurodegeneration. Alcohol has also been shown to promote abundant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress. TSA inhibits HDACs and has been shown to be neuroprotective in other neurodegenerative disease models. Although HDACs and HDIs have been associated with drug addiction, there is no evidence of the neurodegenerative role of HDAC2 and neuroprotective role of TSA in alcohol addiction. Therefore, we hypothesize that alcohol modulates HDAC2 through mechanisms involving oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis, the human neuronal cell line, SK-N-MC, was treated with different concentrations of ethanol (EtOH); HDAC2 gene and protein expression were assessed at different time points. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC2 with TSA was evaluated at the gene level using qRT-PCR and at the protein level using Western blot and flow cytometry. ROS production was measured with a fluorescence microplate reader and fluorescence microscopy. Our results showed a dose-dependent increase in HDAC2 expression with EtOH treatment. Additionally, alcohol significantly induced ROS, and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC2 with TSA was shown to be neuroprotective by significantly inhibiting HDAC2 and ROS. These results suggest that EtOH can upregulate HDAC2 through mechanisms involving oxidative stress and HDACs may play an important role in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Moreover, the use of HDIs may be of therapeutic significance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including AUDs. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Targeting MTA1/HIF-1α signaling by pterostilbene in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitor attenuates prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Nasir A; Kumar, Avinash; Dhar, Swati; Rimando, Agnes M; Akhtar, Israh; Hancock, John C; Lage, Janice M; Pound, Charles R; Lewin, Jack R; Gomez, Christian R; Levenson, Anait S

    2017-10-10

    The metastasis-associated protein 1(MTA1)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) unit is a cancer progression-related epigenetic regulator, which is overexpressed in hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). In our previous studies, we found a significantly increased MTA1 expression in a prostate-specific Pten-null mouse model. We also demonstrated that stilbenes, namely resveratrol and pterostilbene (Pter), affect MTA1/HDAC signaling, including deacetylation of tumor suppressors p53 and PTEN. In this study, we examined whether inhibition of MTA1/HDAC using combination of Pter and a clinically approved HDAC inhibitor, SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, vorinostat), which also downregulates MTA1, could block prostate tumor progression in vivo. We generated and utilized a luciferase reporter in a prostate-specific Pten-null mouse model (Pb-Cre(+) ; Pten(f/f) ; Rosa26(Luc/+) ) to evaluate the anticancer efficacy of Pter/SAHA combinatorial approach. Our data showed that Pter sensitized tumor cells to SAHA treatment resulting in inhibiting tumor growth and additional decline of tumor progression. These effects were dependent on the reduction of MTA1-associated proangiogenic factors HIF-1α, VEGF, and IL-1β leading to decreased angiogenesis. In addition, treatment of PCa cell lines in vitro with combined Pter and low dose SAHA resulted in more potent inhibition of MTA1/HIF-1α than by high dose SAHA alone. Our study provides preclinical evidence that Pter/SAHA combination treatment inhibits MTA1/HIF-1α tumor-promoting signaling in PCa. The beneficial outcome of combinatorial strategy using a natural agent and an approved drug for higher efficacy and less toxicity supports further development of MTA1-targeted therapies in PCa. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A induces ubiquitin-dependent cyclin D1 degradation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

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    Charles Coombes R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclin D1 is an important regulator of G1-S phase cell cycle transition and has been shown to be important for breast cancer development. GSK3β phosphorylates cyclin D1 on Thr-286, resulting in enhanced ubiquitylation, nuclear export and degradation of the cyclin in the cytoplasm. Recent findings suggest that the development of small-molecule cyclin D1 ablative agents is of clinical relevance. We have previously shown that the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA induces the rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells prior to repression of cyclin D1 gene (CCND1 transcription. TSA treatment also resulted in accumulation of polyubiquitylated GFP-cyclin D1 species and reduced levels of the recombinant protein within the nucleus. Results Here we provide further evidence for TSA-induced ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 and demonstrate that GSK3β-mediated nuclear export facilitates this activity. Our observations suggest that TSA treatment results in enhanced cyclin D1 degradation via the GSK3β/CRM1-dependent nuclear export/26S proteasomal degradation pathway in MCF-7 cells. Conclusion We have demonstrated that rapid TSA-induced cyclin D1 degradation in MCF-7 cells requires GSK3β-mediated Thr-286 phosphorylation and the ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasome pathway. Drug induced cyclin D1 repression contributes to the inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation and can sensitize cells to CDK and Akt inhibitors. In addition, anti-cyclin D1 therapy may be highly specific for treating human breast cancer. The development of potent and effective cyclin D1 ablative agents is therefore of clinical relevance. Our findings suggest that HDAC inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as small-molecule cyclin D1 ablative agents.

  13. [Therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor givinostat on air inflammation and high airway resistance in a murine asthma model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X M; Ren, Y; Kong, L F; Kang, J

    2017-02-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of givinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), on the development of chronic asthma with airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Methods: BALB/C mice were randomly divided into control group, asthma group, dexamethasone group and givinostat group (n=12 per group). AHR was assessed. Total cell numbers and differential counts, interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-5(IL-5) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured in the above 4 groups. The pathology of lung tissue was evaluated. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot were used to detect α smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1(TGFβ1). Results: Compared with the asthma only group, givinostat treatment relieved airway resistance (2.96±1.01 vs 6.50±0.79, P0.05] was enhanced in BALF. Inflammatory cell infiltration around the airway was reduced, with decreased inflammatory cell score[(1.60±0.69)points vs (3.40±0.68) points, P<0.01] and inflammatory cell number (111.65±31.41 vs 601.25±186.85, P<0.01). The goblet cell metaplasia [(26.36±2.33)% vs (57.21±11.56)%] and collagen deposition area [(52.77±7.58)μm(2)/μm vs (111.81±12.40)μm(2)/μm] were obviously reduced (P<0.01). The expressions of α-SMA and TGFβ1 in the lung tissue were both significantly decreased (P<0.01). Conclusion: Givinostat treatment can reduce airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness in chronic asthma. Its effect is comparable to that of glucocorticoid hormone treatment.

  14. The expression of spinal methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases is modulated in persistent pain states

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    Tochiki Keri K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA CpG methylation is carried out by DNA methyltransferases and induces chromatin remodeling and gene silencing through a transcription repressor complex comprising the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2 and a subset of histone deacetylases. Recently, we have found that MeCP2 activity had a crucial role in the pattern of gene expression seen in the superficial dorsal horn rapidly after injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA in the rat ankle joint. The aim of the present study was to analyse the changes in expression of MeCP2, DNA methyltransferases and a subset of histone deacetylases in the superficial dorsal horn during the maintenance phase of persistent pain states. In this process, the cell specific expression of MeCP2 was also investigated. Results Using immunohistochemistry, we found that neurones, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes expressed MeCP2. Microglia, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and Schwann cells never showed any positive stain for MeCP2. Quantitative analyses showed that MeCP2 expression was increased in the superficial dorsal horn 7 days following CFA injection in the ankle joint but decreased 7 days following spared nerve injury. Overall, the expression of DNA methyltransferases and a subset of histone deacetylases followed the same pattern of expression. However, there were no significant changes in the expression of the MeCP2 targets that we had previously shown are regulated in the early time points following CFA injection in the ankle joint. Finally, the expression of MeCP2 was also down regulated in damaged dorsal root ganglion neurones following spared nerve injury. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that changes in chromatin compaction, regulated by the binding of MeCP2 complexes to methylated DNA, are involved in the modulation of gene expression in the superficial dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia during the maintenance of persistent pain states.

  15. Histone deacetylase activity and reactive oxygen species content in the tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana under normal conditions and development of acute osmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Jadko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of histone deacetylase (HDAC in regulation of ROS content in the tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana under normal conditions and under development of acute osmotic stress was studied by using inhibition assay with application of trichostatin A (TSA. It was found that in the tissue culture grown under normal conditions a decrease in HDAC activity by means of TSA led to increase of the ROS content. Similar but more pronounced alterations occurred under stress. At the same time an increase in histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity was also observed. The possible mechanisms of HDAC and HAT participation in regulation of ROS content by changes in expression of genes that are responsible for ROS production and antioxidant activity are discussed.

  16. A Phase 2 Study of Concurrent Radiation Therapy, Temozolomide, and the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid for Patients With Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, Andra V. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Myrehaug, Sten D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lakeridge Health Durham Regional Cancer Centre, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Chang, Michael G.; Holdford, Diane J. [Massey Cancer Center Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Smith, Sharon; Shih, Joanna; Tofilon, Philip J. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Fine, Howard A. [New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Camphausen, Kevin, E-mail: camphauk@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic agent with histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) activity shown to sensitize glioblastoma (GBM) cells to radiation in preclinical models. We evaluated the addition of VPA to standard radiation therapy (RT) plus temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled between July 2006 and April 2013. Patients received VPA, 25 mg/kg orally, divided into 2 daily doses concurrent with RT and TMZ. The first dose of VPA was given 1 week before the first day of RT at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day and subsequently increased up to 25 mg/kg/day over the week prior to radiation. VPA- and TMZ-related acute toxicities were evaluated using Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0 (National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program) and Cancer Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme for toxicity and adverse event reporting (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment). Results: A total of 81% of patients took VPA according to protocol. Median overall survival (OS) was 29.6 months (range: 21-63.8 months), and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.5 months (range: 6.8-51.2 months). OS at 6, 12, and 24 months was 97%, 86%, and 56%, respectively. PFS at 6, 12, and 24 months was 70%, 43%, and 38% respectively. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities of VPA in conjunction with RT/TMZ therapy were blood and bone marrow toxicity (32%), neurological toxicity (11%), and metabolic and laboratory toxicity (8%). Younger age and class V recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) results were significant for both OS and PFS. VPA levels were not correlated with grade 3 or 4 toxicity levels. Conclusions: Addition of VPA to concurrent RT/TMZ in patients with newly diagnosed GBM was well tolerated. Additionally, VPA may result in improved outcomes compared to historical data and merits further study.

  17. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin a decreases lymphangiogenesis by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via p21-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgovic, Igor; Doll, Monika; Kleemann, Johannes; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Zoeller, Nadja; Pinter, Andreas; Kippenberger, Stefan; Kaufmann, Roland; Meissner, Markus

    2016-09-30

    The formation of new lymphatic vessels provides an additional route for tumour cells to metastasize. Therefore, inhibiting lymphangiogenesis represents an interesting target in cancer therapy. First evidence suggests that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may mediate part of their antitumor effects by interfering with lymphangiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms of HDACi induced anti-lymphangiogenic properties are not fully investigated so far and in part remain unknown. Human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) were cultured in vitro and treated with or without HDACi. Effects of HDACi on proliferation and cell cycle progress were analysed by BrdU assay and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was measured by quantifying mono- and oligonucleosomes in the cytoplasmic fraction of cell lysates. In vitro lymphangiogenesis was investigated using the Matrigel short term lymphangiogenesis assay. The effects of TSA on cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins were examined by western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Protein- and mRNA half-life of p21 were analysed by western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR. The activity of the p21 promoter was determined using a dual luciferase assay and DNA-binding activity of Sp1/3 was investigated using EMSA. Furthermore, siRNA assays were performed to analyse the role of p21 and p53 on TSA-mediated anti-lymphangiogenic effects. We found that HDACi inhibited cell proliferation and that the pan-HDACi TSA induced G0/G1 arrest in LEC. Cell cycle arrest was accompanied by up-regulation of p21, p27 and p53. Additionally, we observed that p21 protein accumulated in cellular nuclei after treatment with TSA. Moreover, we found that p21 mRNA was significantly up-regulated by TSA, while the protein and mRNA half-life remained largely unaffected. The promoter activity of p21 was enhanced by TSA indicating a transcriptional mechanism. Subsequent EMSA analyses showed increased constitutive Sp1

  18. A Decrease of Histone Deacetylase 6 Expression Caused by Helicobacter Pylori Infection is Associated with Oncogenic Transformation in Gastric Cancer

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    Qing He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 plays a role in the progression of many tumors. However, the relationship between the level of HDAC6 expression and gastric tumorigenesis is still unclear. Here, we illustrate the potential correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP infection and the variation of HDAC6 expression in different gastric lesions, as well as the clinical significance of HDAC6 expression in gastric cancer (GC patients. Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2016, 364 patients with different types of gastric lesions were enrolled in Baotou City Central Hospital. Immunostaining of HDAC6 expression and HP infection were performed in the following cohort including 21 normal tissues (Normal; 40 samples with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG; 106 with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG; 94 with intestinal metaplasia (IM; 64 with dysplasia (DYS and 39 with gastric cancer (GC. Survival analysis was performed in another 80 GC patients using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analyses. The level of HDAC6 expression was determined by Real-time PCR, Western blotting and IHC staining in gastric cell lines and tissues. Furthermore, the correlation between HDAC6 expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed in the GC cohort. HP strains were lavaged into Kunming mice to investigate the effects of HP infection on the expression of different HDAC members in this mouse model. Results: Higher levels of HDAC6 expression were detected in normal and premalignant lesions than in the GC tissues (p<0.01, and decreased HDAC6 expression was associated with HP infection and TNM stage (p<0.01 and p=0.048, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that HDAC6 expression was an independent predictor of the outcome of GC patients (p=0.04. HP mediated HDAC6 expression in the cell lines and KM mice. HP infection could promote HDAC1 and HDAC4 expression as determined by Western blotting. Conclusions: HDAC6 is a

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote the expression of ATP2A3 gene in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Leal, Erika; Hernández-Oliveras, Andrés; Flores-Peredo, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Santiago-García, Juan

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that expression of Sarco(endo)plasmic Reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase 2 (SERCA2) is decreased in oral cancer; whereas expression of SERCA3 is considerably decreased or absent in human colon, gastric, breast, and lung cancers. The ATP2A2 and ATP2A3 genes encode SERCA2 and SERCA3 isoforms, respectively. Promoter methylation on CpG islands was responsible for the repression of ATP2A2 gene in human oral cancer samples. On the other hand, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) up-regulate ATP2A3 expression in gastric, colon, and lung cancer cells in culture, however, the molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, we investigate whether HDACi and DNA methylation regulate ATP2A2 and ATP2A3 expression in human breast cancer cell lines. Results show a marked induction of SERCA3a and pan-SERCA3 mRNA expression in human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells treated with sodium butyrate (NaB) or trichostatin A (TSA); whereas SERCA2b mRNA expression did not change significantly. ChIP assays show that NaB or TSA treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells increases H3K9 acetylation on ATP2A3 promoter. NaB also decreases H3K9 trimethylation; suggesting that these modifications stimulate ATP2A3 gene expression, through a chromatin remodeling mechanism. In contrast, NaB or TSA do not increase H3K9-acetylation of ATP2A2 proximal promoter. In addition, treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine did not affect SERCA2b and SERCA3a expression, suggesting that promoter methylation status does not alter their expression in these cell lines. We propose that alteration of SERCA2b/SERCA3a isoform expression ratio could affect calcium management within the cell, and thus, the cellular pathways regulated by calcium could be compromised, such as cellular proliferation or apoptosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of 6-([{sup 18}F]fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide for PET imaging of histone deacetylase in the baboon brain

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    Reid, Alicia E. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: areid@bnl.gov; Hooker, Jacob; Shumay, Elena; Logan, Jean; Shea, Colleen; Kim, Sung Won [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Collins, Shanika [School of Science, Health and Technology Medgar Evers College, Brooklyn, NY 11225 (United States); Xu Youwen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Volkow, Nora [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Introduction: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes involved in epigenetic modifications that shift the balance toward chromatin condensation and silencing of gene expression. Here, we evaluate the utility of 6-([{sup 18}F]fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([{sup 18}F]FAHA) for positron emission tomography imaging of HDAC activity in the baboon brain. For this purpose, we assessed its in vivo biodistribution, sensitivity to HDAC inhibition, metabolic stability and the distribution of the putative metabolite [{sup 18}F]fluoroacetate ([{sup 18}F]FAC). Methods: [{sup 18}F]FAHA and its metabolite [{sup 18}F]FAC were prepared, and their in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics were determined in baboons. [{sup 18}F]FAHA metabolism and its sensitivity to HDAC inhibition using suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) were assessed in arterial plasma and by in vitro incubation studies. The chemical form of F-18 in rodent brain was assessed by ex vivo studies. Distribution volumes for [{sup 18}F]FAHA in the brain were derived. Results: [{sup 18}F]FAHA was rapidly metabolized to [{sup 18}F]FAC, and both labeled compounds entered the brain. [{sup 18}F]FAHA exhibited regional differences in brain uptake and kinetics. In contrast, [{sup 18}F]FAC showed little variation in regional brain uptake and kinetics. A kinetic analysis that takes into account the uptake of peripherally produced [{sup 18}F]FAC indicated that SAHA inhibited binding of [{sup 18}F]FAHA in the baboon brain dose-dependently. In vitro studies demonstrated SAHA-sensitive metabolism of [{sup 18}F]FAHA to [{sup 18}F]FAC within the cell and diffusion of [{sup 18}F]FAC out of the cell. All radioactivity in brain homogenate from rodents was [{sup 18}F]FAC at 7 min postinjection of [{sup 18}F]FAHA. Conclusion: The rapid metabolism of [{sup 18}F]FAHA to [{sup 18}F]FAC in the periphery complicates the quantitative analysis of HDAC in the brain. However, dose-dependent blocking studies with SAHA and kinetic modeling

  1. The conserved histone deacetylase Rpd3 and the DNA binding regulator Ume6 repress BOI1's meiotic transcript isoform during vegetative growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuchen; Stuparevic, Igor; Xie, Bingning; Becker, Emmanuelle; Law, Michael J; Primig, Michael

    2015-05-01

    BOI1 and BOI2 are paralogs important for the actin cytoskeleton and polar growth. BOI1 encodes a meiotic transcript isoform with an extended 5'-untranslated region predicted to impair protein translation. It is, however, unknown how the isoform is repressed during mitosis, and if Boi1 is present during sporulation. By interpreting microarray data from MATa cells, MATa/α cells, a starving MATα/α control, and a meiosis-impaired rrp6 mutant, we classified BOI1's extended isoform as early meiosis-specific. These results were confirmed by RNA-Sequencing, and extended by a 5'-RACE assay and Northern blotting, showing that meiotic cells induce the long isoform while the mitotic isoform remains detectable during meiosis. We provide evidence via motif predictions, an in vivo binding assay and genetic experiments that the Rpd3/Sin3/Ume6 histone deacetylase complex, which represses meiotic genes during mitosis, also prevents the induction of BOI1's 5'-extended isoform in mitosis by direct binding of Ume6 to its URS1 target. Finally, we find that Boi1 protein levels decline when cells switch from fermentation to respiration and sporulation. The histone deacetylase Rpd3 is conserved, and eukaryotic genes frequently encode transcripts with variable 5'-UTRs. Our findings are therefore relevant for regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of transcript isoforms in multi-cellular organisms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    ; neurological disorder; a memory or cognitive function disorder/impairment; an extinction learning disorder; fungal disease or infection; viral disease or infection such as HIV; hematological disease; liver disease; lysosomal storage disease; or neoplastic disease in humans or animals....

  3. Increased metabolite production by deletion of an HDA1-type histone deacetylase in the phytopathogenic fungi, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae) and Fusarium asiaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Izawa, M; Nakajima, Y; Jin, Q; Hirose, T; Nakamura, T; Koshino, H; Kanamaru, K; Ohsato, S; Kamakura, T; Kobayashi, T; Yoshida, M; Kimura, M

    2017-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. We found that dark pigmentation of Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae) ΔMohda1, a mutant strain in which an orthologue of the yeast HDA1 was disrupted by double cross-over homologous recombination, was significantly stimulated in liquid culture. Analysis of metabolites in a ΔMohda1 mutant culture revealed that the accumulation of shunt products of the 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin and ergosterol pathways were significantly enhanced compared to the wild-type strain. Northern blot analysis of the ΔMohda1 mutant revealed transcriptional activation of three melanin genes that are dispersed throughout the genome of M. oryzae. The effect of deletion of the yeast HDA1 orthologue was also observed in Fusarium asiaticum from the Fusarium graminearum species complex; the HDF2 deletion mutant produced increased levels of nivalenol-type trichothecenes. These results suggest that histone modification via HDA1-type HDAC regulates the production of natural products in filamentous fungi. Natural products of fungi have significant impacts on human welfare, in both detrimental and beneficial ways. Although HDA1-type histone deacetylase is not essential for vegetative growth, deletion of the gene affects the expression of clustered secondary metabolite genes in some fungi. Here, we report that such phenomena are also observed in physically unlinked genes required for melanin biosynthesis in the rice blast fungus. In addition, production of Fusarium trichothecenes, previously reported to be unaffected by HDA1 deletion, was significantly upregulated in another Fusarium species. Thus, the HDA1-inactivation strategy may be regarded as a general approach for overproduction and/or discovery of fungal metabolites. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Total Synthesis and Full Histone Deacetylase Inhibitory Profiling of Azumamides A–E as Well as β2- epi-Azumamide E and β3-epi-Azumamide E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jesper; Stephansen, Helle Marie; Maolanon, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic tetrapeptide and depsipeptide natural products have proven useful as biological probes and drug candidates due to their potent activities as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Here, we present the syntheses of a class of cyclic tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors, the azumamides, by a concise...

  5. Cancer cells become susceptible to natural killer cell killing after exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors due to glycogen synthase kinase-3-dependent expression of MHC class I-related chain A and B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Søren; Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup; Andresen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    We show that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors lead to functional expression of MHC class I-related chain A and B (MICA/B) on cancer cells, making them potent targets for natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing through a NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) restricted mechanism. Blocking either...

  6. A systematic assessment of radiation dose enhancement by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitors in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Harlinde; Kimpe, Marlies; Isebaert, Sofie; Nuyts, Sandra

    2009-03-01

    Investigations of epigenetic drugs have shown that radiotherapy can be successfully combined with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-Is) for the treatment of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Whether the reversal of epigenetic silencing by demethylating agents with or without HDAC-Is can also act as radiosensitizing remains unclear. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) alone or in combination with the HDAC-Is trichostatin A, LBH589, or MGCD0103 could radiosensitize HNSCC tumor cell lines. Histone acetylation status and expression of epigenetically silenced genes at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels were assessed as measures of drug effectiveness in six HNSCC cell lines. Based on their colony-forming capacity, colony assays were performed in four of six cell lines to evaluate the radiosensitizing potential of DAC with or without HDAC-Is. Additional assays of cell survival, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and DNA damage were performed. Radiosensitization was observed in two HNSCC cell lines treated with noncytotoxic doses of DAC with or without HDAC-Is before irradiation. The radiosensitizing doses induced histone hyperacetylation and reversal of gene silencing to variable extents and increased radiation-induced cell-cycle arrest. A role for low-dose DAC with or without HDAC-Is as radiosensitizers in HNSCC seems promising and is supportive of future clinical use, especially for combinations of DAC with LBH589 or MGCD0103, although the mechanisms by which they work will require further study.

  7. Pentyl-4-yn-VPA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, ameliorates deficits in social behavior and cognition in a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Andrew G; Cassidy, Andrew W; Regan, Ciaran M

    2014-03-15

    In utero exposure of rodents to valproic acid (VPA) has been proposed to induce an adult phenotype with behavioural characteristics reminiscent of those observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our previous studies have demonstrated the social cognition deficits observed in this model, a major core symptom of ASD, to be ameliorated following chronic administration of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Using this model, we now demonstrate pentyl-4-yn-VPA, an analogue of valproate and HDAC inhibitor, to significantly ameliorate deficits in social cognition as measured using the social approach avoidance paradigm as an indicator of social reciprocity and spatial learning to interrogate dorsal stream cognitive processing. The effects obtained with pentyl-4-yn-VPA were found to be similar to those obtained with SAHA, a pan-specific HDAC inhibitor. Histones isolated from the cerebellar cortex and immunoblotted with antibodies recognising lysine-specific modification revealed SAHA and pentyl-4-yn-VPA to enhance the acetylation status of H4K8. Additionally, the action of pentyl-4-yn-VPA, could be differentiated from that of SAHA by its ability to decrease H3K9 acetylation and enhance H3K14 acetylation. The histone modifications mediated by pentyl-4-yn-VPA are suggested to act cooperatively through differential acetylation of the promoter and transcription regions of active genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate the transcriptional regulation of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-a gene: interactive roles of modified histones, histone acetyltransferase, p300, AND Sp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prerna; Tripathi, Satyabha; Pandey, Kailash N

    2014-03-07

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binds guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) and produces the intracellular second messenger, cGMP, which regulates cardiovascular homeostasis. We sought to determine the function of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in regulating Npr1 (coding for GC-A/NPRA) gene transcription, using primary mouse mesangial cells treated with class-specific HDAC inhibitors (HDACi). Trichostatin A, a pan inhibitor, and mocetinostat (MGCD0103), a class I HDAC inhibitor, significantly enhanced Npr1 promoter activity (by 8- and 10-fold, respectively), mRNA levels (4- and 5.3-fold, respectively), and NPRA protein (2.7- and 3.5-fold, respectively). However, MC1568 (class II HDAC inhibitor) had no discernible effect. Overexpression of HDAC1 and HDAC2 significantly attenuated Npr1 promoter activity, whereas HDAC3 and HDAC8 had no effect. HDACi-treated cultured cells in vitro and intact animals in vivo showed significantly reduced binding of HDAC1 and -2 and increased accumulation of acetylated H3-K9/14 and H4-K12 at the Npr1 promoter. Deletional analyses of the Npr1 promoter along with ectopic overexpression and inhibition of Sp1 confirmed that HDACi-induced Npr1 gene transcription is accomplished by Sp1 activation. Furthermore, HDACi attenuated the interaction of Sp1 with HDAC1/2 and promoted Sp1 association with p300 and p300/cAMP-binding protein-associated factor; it also promoted the recruitment of p300 and p300/cAMP-binding protein-associated factor to the Npr1 promoter. Our results demonstrate that trichostatin A and MGCD0103 enhanced Npr1 gene expression through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and increased both acetylation of histones (H3-K9/14, H4-K12) and Sp1 by p300, and their recruitment to Npr1 promoter. Our findings define a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism that governs Npr1 gene transcription.

  9. H3K9me-independent gene silencing in fission yeast heterochromatin by Clr5 and histone deacetylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs R; Hazan, Idit; Shanker, Sreenath

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosomes in heterochromatic regions bear histone modifications that distinguish them from euchromatic nucleosomes. Among those, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and hypoacetylation have been evolutionarily conserved and are found in both multicellular eukaryotes and single-cell model o...

  10. The combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor with the BH3-mimetic GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity by activating both apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue; Kadia, Tapan; Tong, Weigang; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Yu; Yang, Hui; Hu, Yumin; Viallet, Jean; O'Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed the cellular and molecular effects of two different histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), MGCD0103 and vorinostat, in combination with GX15-070, a BH3-mimetic, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and primary AML cells, and demonstrated that the combination has a synergistic antileukemia effect. We observed that in addition to apoptosis, autophagy also accounts for the observed nonapoptotic decrease of cell viability. Mechanistically, we established a role for calpain activity and ER-located caspase signaling in the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis following this combination of drugs. These findings reveal that for this specific combination, autophagy plays a positive role in inducing cytotoxicity, and that the involved ER signaling networks, as well as their clinical relevance, should be further studied in both preclinical and clinical trials of leukemia and other malignancies.

  11. Development of a UV-Cleavable Protecting Group for Hydroxylamines, Synthesis of a StructurallyWide Variety of Hydroxamic Acids, and Identification of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kim Thollund

    moiety. We demonstrate the application of the protected hydroxylamine derivative for the synthesis of N-alkylated hydroxamic acids. We have shown that the construct is stable toward a diverse set of reaction conditions, as well as orthogonal with conventional protection groups. The O......Photo-cleavable protecting groups are highly applicable for the synthesis of structural complex and sensitive compounds, including biological important molecules. Herein, we present the development of a novel O-hydroxylamine photo-cleavable protecting group, based on the methyl-6-nitroveratryl......-protected hydroxylamine derivative was applied to synthesize a small collection of N-alkylated hydroxamic acids as inhibitors of the histone deacetylase enzymes, an important class of enzymes for the treatment of a range of diseases, most importantly cancer. During my external stay at Nanyang Technological University...

  12. The Teratogenic Potencies of Valproic Acid Derivatives and Their Effects on Biological End-points are Related to Changes in Histone Deacetylase and Erk1/2 Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfryd, Kamil; Hansen, Maria; Kawa, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a known teratogen. In the present study, the effects of VPA and seven VPA derivatives with different teratogenic potencies (isobutyl-, 5-methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, pentyl- and hexyl-4-yn-VPA) were investigated in L929 cells in vitro. Evaluated end-points included...... associated with the teratogenic potencies of the VPA derivatives. However, in contrast to changes in Erk1/2 phosphorylation and H3 acetylation, significant changes in GSK-3ß phosphorylation could only be obtained in response to prolonged incubation at high drug concentration. There was an association between...... changes in H3 acetylation and GSK-3ß-Tyr216 phosphorylation, whereas none of these end-points were associated with changes in Erk1/2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that the teratogenic potencies of VPA and VPA derivatives are related to effects on both Erk1/2 and histone deacetylase activities...

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors interfere with angiogenesis by decreasing endothelial VEGFR-2 protein half-life in part via a VE-cadherin-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgovic, Igor; Doll, Monika; Pinter, Andreas; Kaufmann, Roland; Kippenberger, Stefan; Meissner, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may mediate part of their antitumor effects by interfering with tumor angiogenesis. As signalling via the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) pathway is critical for angiogenic responses during tumor progression, we explored whether established antitumor effects of HDACi are partly mediated through diminished endothelial VEGFR-2 expression. We therefore examined the potential impact of three different HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), sodium butyrate (But) and valproic acid (VPA), on VEGFR-2 protein expression. TSA, VPA and But significantly inhibit VEGFR-2 protein expression in endothelial cells. Pertinent to these data, VEGFR-2 protein half-life is shown to be decreased in response to HDACi. Recently, it could be demonstrated that expression of VE-cadherin influences VEGFR-2 protein half-life. In our experiments, VEGFR-2 downregulation was accompanied by HDACi-induced VE-cadherin suppression. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of VE-cadherin led to a pronounced loss of VEGFR-2 expression on the protein as well as on the mRNA level, implicating that VE-cadherin not only influences VEGFR-2 protein half-life but also the transcriptional level. To further distinguish which of the eight different histone deacetylases are responsible for the regulation of VEGFR-2 expression, specific HDAC genes were silenced by transfecting respective siRNAs. These studies revealed that HDACs 1, 4, 5 and 6 are preferentially involved in VEGFR-2 expression. Therefore, these results provide an explanation for the anti-angiogenic action of HDAC inhibitors via a VE-cadherin, HDAC 1 and HDACs 4-6-mediated suppression of VEGFR-2 expression and might be of importance in the development of new anti-angiogenic drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor ACY-1215 protects against experimental acute liver failure by regulating the TLR4-MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Hai-Yue; Jiao, Fang-Zhou; Wang, Lu-Wen; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Zuo-Jiong

    2018-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is considered a new target for anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and neurodegenerative treatment. ACY-1215 is a selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor, and it has been recognized as a potential anticancer and anti-inflammation drug. The aim of our study was to investigate whether ACY-1215 has protective effects on acute liver failure (ALF) in mice and explore its potential mechanism. Male C57/BL6 mice were divided into normal, model, and ACY-1215 groups. ACY-1215 (25mg/kg) and same amounts of saline were given to mice. After 2h, the ALF models were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100μg/kg) combined with D-galactosamine (D-gal, 400mg/kg). All animals were killed after 24h. The expressions of HDAC6 were determined by western blotting and RT-PCR assay. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA and RT-PCR. The protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) species were determined by western blot. The mortality of mice with ALF induced by LPS and D-gal was significantly decreased by ACY-1215 pretreatment. Procedures to manage ALF caused adversely affected liver histology and function; this damage was repaired by pretreatment of ACY-1215. ACY-1215 treatment also attenuated the serum and messenger RNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines. Pretreatment of ACY-1215 significantly decreased the protein expression of TLR4 and the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways. ACY-1215 has potential therapeutic value in mice with ALF by directly inhibiting inflammatory response via regulation of the TLR4-MAPK/NF-kB pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Combinations of DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors induce DNA damage in small cell lung cancer cells: correlation of resistance with IFN-stimulated gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczek, Wioleta; Cheriyath, Venugopalan; Mekhail, Tarek M; Borden, Ernest C

    2010-08-01

    Because epigenetic inhibitors can reduce cancer cell proliferation, we tested the hypothesis that concurrent inhibition of histone acetylation and DNA methylation could synergistically reduce the viability of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Sub-IC(50) concentrations of the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor decitabine (5-AZA-dC) and the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (LBH589 or MGCD0103) synergistically reduced the proliferation of five of nine SCLC cell lines. Loss of viability of sensitive SCLC cells did not correlate with the inhibition of either DNMT1 or HDACs, suggesting nonepigenetic mechanisms for synergy between these two classes of epigenetic modulators. Because combinations of 5-AZA-dC and HDAC inhibitors had marginal effects on the apoptosis index, Comet assay was undertaken to assess DNA damage. MGCD0103 and 5AZA-dC cotreatment augmented DNA damage in SCLC cells, resulting in increased tail length and moment in Comet assays by 24 hours in sensitive cell lines (P < 0.01). Consistent with augmented DNA damage, combination of a DNMT and HDAC inhibitor markedly increased the levels of phospho-H2A.X in sensitive cells but not in resistant ones. Comparison of basal gene expression between resistant and sensitive cells identified markedly higher basal expression of IFN-stimulated genes in the resistant cell lines, suggesting that IFN-stimulated gene expression may determine SCLC cell sensitivity to epigenetic modulators or other DNA damaging agents. (c) 2010 AACR.

  16. Selective class I histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress persistent spontaneous nociception and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of bee venom-induced inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Yan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Fei; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Li, Zhen; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-25

    To confirm whether class I histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are effective in relief of peripheral inflammatory pain, the effects of two selective inhibitors, MS-275 and MGCD0103, were studied in rats inflamed by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of bee venom (BV). The BV test is characterized by displaying both persistent spontaneous nociception (PSN) and primary hypersensitivity. Intrathecal (i.t.) pre-treatment of either MS-275 or MGCD0103 with a single dose of 60 nmol/20 μL resulted in profound suppression of both PSN and primary thermal hypersensitivity but without significant influence upon the primary mechanical hypersensitivity and mirror-image thermal hypersensitivity. Moreover, the up-regulation of both HDAC1 and HDAC2 induced by s.c. BV injection was completely suppressed by i.t. pre-treatment of MS-275. The present results provide with another new line of evidence showing involvement of epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure by HDAC1/2-mediated histone hypoacetylation in the BV-induced PSN and thermal hypersensitivity and demonstrate the beneficial effects of class I HDACIs in prevention of peripheral inflammatory pain from occurring.

  17. Efficacy of the dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate alone or in combination with vitamin A against proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, F.O. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nagamine, M.K. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Conti, A. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chaible, L.M. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fontelles, C.C. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jordão Junior, A.A.; Vannucchi, H. [Divisão de Nutrição, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Dagli, M.L.Z. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bassoli, B.K.; Moreno, F.S.; Ong, T.P. [Laboratório de Dieta, Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-22

    The combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and retinoids has been suggested as a potential epigenetic strategy for the control of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treatment with butyrate, a dietary HDACi, combined with vitamin A on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the crystal violet staining method. MCF-7 cells were plated at 5 x 10{sup 4} cells/mL and treated with butyrate (1 mM) alone or combined with vitamin A (10 µM) for 24 to 120 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was 34, 10 and 46% following treatment with butyrate, vitamin A and their combination, respectively, suggesting that vitamin A potentiated the inhibitory activities of butyrate. Furthermore, exposure to this short-chain fatty acid increased the level of histone H3K9 acetylation by 9.5-fold (Western blot), but not of H4K16, and increased the expression levels of p21{sup WAF1} by 2.7-fold (Western blot) and of RARβ by 2.0-fold (quantitative real-time PCR). Our data show that RARβ may represent a molecular target for butyrate in breast cancer cells. Due to its effectiveness as a dietary HDACi, butyrate should be considered for use in combinatorial strategies with more active retinoids, especially in breast cancers in which RARβ is epigenetically altered.

  18. Rice NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase OsSRT1 represses glycolysis and regulates the moonlighting function of GAPDH as a transcriptional activator of glycolytic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2017-09-13

    Sirtuins, a family of proteins with homology to the yeast silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), are NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases and play crucial roles in energy sensing and regulation in yeast and animal cells. Plants are autotrophic organisms and display distinct features of carbon and energy metabolism. It remains largely unexplored whether and how plant cells sense energy/redox status to control carbon metabolic flux under various growth conditions. In this work, we show that the rice nuclear sirtuin OsSRT1 not only functions as an epigenetic regulator to repress glycolytic genes expression and glycolysis in seedlings, but also inhibits transcriptional activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphatedehydrogenase (GAPDH) that is enriched on glycolytic genes promoters and stimulates their expression. We show that OsSRT1 reduces GAPDH lysine acetylation and nuclear accumulation that are enhanced by oxidative stress. Mass spectrometry identified six acetylated lysines regulated by OsSRT1. OsSRT1-dependent lysine deacetylation of OsGAPDH1 represses transcriptional activity of the protein. The results indicate that OsSRT1 represses glycolysis by both regulating epigenetic modification of histone and inhibiting the moonlighting function of GAPDH as a transcriptional activator of glycolytic genes in rice. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor MS-275 Exhibits Poor Brain Penetration: Pharmacokinetic Studies of [11C]MS-275 using Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.M.; Hooker, J.M.; Kim, S.W.; Alexoff, D.; Xu, Y.; Shea, C.; Reid, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.

    2009-10-01

    MS-275 (entinostat) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor currently in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of cancer. Recent reports have noted that MS-275 can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause region-specific changes in rodent brain histone acetylation. To characterize the pharmacokinetics and distribution of MS-275 in the brain using positron emission tomography (PET), we labeled the carbamate carbon of MS-275 with carbon-11. Using PET, we determined that [{sup 11}C]MS-275 has low uptake in brain tissue when administered intravenously to nonhuman primates. In rodent studies, we observed that pharmacokinetics and brain accumulation of [{sup 11}C]MS-275 were not changed by the coadministration of large doses of unlabeled MS-275. These results, which both highlight the poor brain penetration of MS-275, clearly suggest its limitation as a therapeutic agent for the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, our study demonstrates the effectiveness of PET at providing brain pharmacokinetic data for HDAC inhibitors. These data are important not only for the development of new compounds for peripheral cancer treatment (where CNS exclusion is often advantageous) but also for the treatment of neurological disorders (where CNS penetration is critical).

  20. Hyaluronate synthase-2 overexpression alters estrogen dependence and induces histone deacetylase inhibitor-like effects on ER-driven genes in MCF7 breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Marion; Hanoux, Vincent; Bouakka, Mohammed; Bonnamy, Pierre-Jacques

    2017-03-15

    In breast carcinoma cells, high levels of hyaluronan (HA) and its CD44 receptor are frequently associated with alteration in estrogen signaling. We demonstrate that stable hyaluronate synthase 2 (HAS2) overexpression in estrogen receptor α (ERα) -positive MCF7 cells oppositely altered estrogen dependence of cell growth and its sensitivity towards antiestrogens. Albeit without effect on ERα expression and estradiol binding properties, HAS2 overexpression increased ERα Ser118 phosphorylation as well as transcriptional activity of estrogen in an ERE-luciferase reporter gene assay. However, HAS2 overexpression induced partial silencing of E2 driven-genes without affecting the magnitude of regulation by estradiol. This effect was associated with half-reduction in the activity of nuclear histone deacetylases (HDACs) through a post-translational mechanism likely consecutive to the enhanced expression of the histone acetyl-transferase EP300. In conclusion, increase in HA/CD44 interactions may contribute, through an HDAC inhibitor-like and ER-independent mechanism, to the silencing of estrogen-driven genes in breast carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by the previous administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, M; Rodríguez, C; Carpano, M; Thomasz, L; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Thorp, S; Curotto, P; Pozzi, E; Kahl, S; Pisarev, M; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa, A

    2013-08-01

    We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) like sodium butyrate (NaB) cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and show capacity to increase the gamma irradiation effect. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the use of the NaB as a radiosensitizer of the BNCT for PDTC. Follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO) and rat thyroid epithelial cells (FRTL-5) were incubated with 1 mM NaB and then treated with boronophenylalanine ¹⁰BPA (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with 2, 4-bis (α,β-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ¹⁰BOPP (10 μg ¹⁰B ml⁻¹) + neutrons, or with a neutron beam alone. The cells were irradiated in the thermal column facility of the RA-3 reactor (flux = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10¹⁰ n cm⁻² s⁻¹). Cell survival decreased as a function of the physical absorbed dose in both cell lines. Moreover, the addition of NaB decreased cell survival (p BNCT groups (p BNCT.

  2. Opposing Effects of Valproic Acid Treatment Mediated by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Activity in Four Transgenic X. laevis Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vent-Schmidt, Ruanne Y J; Wen, Runxia H; Zong, Zusheng; Chiu, Colette N; Tam, Beatrice M; May, Christopher G; Moritz, Orson L

    2017-01-25

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal degeneration (RD) that leads to blindness for which no treatment is available. RP is frequently caused by mutations in Rhodopsin; in some animal models, RD is exacerbated by light. Valproic acid (VPA) is a proposed treatment for RP and other neurodegenerative disorders, with a phase II trial for RP under way. However, the therapeutic mechanism is unclear, with minimal research supporting its use in RP. We investigated the effects of VPA on Xenopus laevis models of RP expressing human P23H, T17M, T4K, and Q344ter rhodopsins, which are associated with RP in humans. VPA ameliorated RD associated with P23H rhodopsin and promoted clearing of mutant rhodopsin from photoreceptors. The effect was equal to that of dark rearing, with no additive effect observed. Rescue of visual function was confirmed by electroretinography. In contrast, VPA exacerbated RD caused by T17M rhodopsin in light, but had no effect in darkness. Effects in T4K and Q344ter rhodopsin models were also negative. These effects of VPA were paralleled by treatment with three additional histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, but not other antipsychotics, chemical chaperones, or VPA structural analogues. In WT retinas, VPA treatment increased histone H3 acetylation. In addition, electron microscopy showed increased autophagosomes in rod inner segments with HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment, potentially linking the therapeutic effects in P23H rhodopsin animals and negative effects in other models with autophagy. Our results suggest that the success or failure of VPA treatment is dependent on genotype and that HDACi treatment is contraindicated for some RP cases.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited, degenerative retinal disease that leads to blindness for which no therapy is available. We determined that valproic acid (VPA), currently undergoing a phase II trial for RP, has both beneficial and detrimental effects in animal models of

  3. Functional and Transcriptional Characterization of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor-Mediated Cardiac Adverse Effects in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopljar, Ivan; Gallacher, David J; De Bondt, An; Cougnaud, Laure; Vlaminckx, Eddy; Van den Wyngaert, Ilse; Lu, Hua Rong

    2016-05-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors possess therapeutic potential to reverse aberrant epigenetic changes associated with cancers, neurological diseases, and immune disorders. Unfortunately, clinical studies with some HDAC inhibitors displayed delayed cardiac adverse effects, such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of HDAC inhibitor-mediated cardiotoxicity remains poorly understood and is difficult to detect in the early stages of preclinical drug development because of a delayed onset of effects. In the present study, we show for the first time in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) that HDAC inhibitors (dacinostat, panobinostat, vorinostat, entinostat, and tubastatin-a) induce delayed dose-related cardiac dysfunction at therapeutic concentrations associated with cardiac adverse effects in humans. HDAC inhibitor-mediated delayed effects on the beating properties of hiPS-CMs developed after 12 hours by decreasing the beat rate, shortening the field potential duration, and inducing arrhythmic behavior under form of sustained contractions and fibrillation-like patterns. Transcriptional changes that are common between the cardiotoxic HDAC inhibitors but different from noncardiotoxic treatments identified cardiac-specific genes and pathways related to structural and functional changes in cardiomyocytes. Combining the functional data with epigenetic changes in hiPS-CMs allowed us to identify molecular targets that might explain HDAC inhibitor-mediated cardiac adverse effects in humans. Therefore, hiPS-CMs represent a valuable translational model to assess HDAC inhibitor-mediated cardiotoxicity and support identification of better HDAC inhibitors with an improved benefit-risk profile. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a promising class of drugs to treat certain cancers, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, treated patients can experience various

  4. Differential effect of treadmill exercise on histone deacetylase activity in rat striatum at different stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Basso, Carla; Bertoldi, Karine; de Meireles, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2017-05-01

    The study described herein aimed to evaluate the impact of exercise on histone acetylation markers in striatum from Wistar rats at different stages of development. Male Wistar rats were submitted to two different exercise protocols: a single session of treadmill (running 20 min) or a moderate daily exercise protocol (running 20 min for 2 weeks). Striata of rats aged 39 days postnatal (adolescents), 3 months (young adults), and 20 months (aged) were used. The single exercise session induced persistent effects on global HDAC activity only in the adolescent group, given that exercised rats showed decreased HDAC activity 1 and 18 h after training, without effect on histone H4 acetylation levels. However, the moderate daily exercise did not alter any histone acetylation marker in adolescent and mature groups in any time point evaluated after training. In sum, our data suggest that exercise impacts striatal HDAC activity in an age- and protocol-dependent manner. Specifically, this response seems to be more evident during the adolescent period and might suffer a molecular adaptation in response to chronic training.

  5. Comparing histone deacetylase inhibitor responses in genetically engineered mouse lung cancer models and a window of opportunity trial in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian; Galimberti, Fabrizio; Erkmen, Cherie P; Memoli, Vincent; Chinyengetere, Fadzai; Sempere, Lorenzo; Beumer, Jan H; Anyang, Bean N; Nugent, William; Johnstone, David; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Kurie, Jonathan M; Li, Hua; Direnzo, James; Guo, Yongli; Freemantle, Sarah J; Dragnev, Konstantin H; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2013-08-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi; vorinostat) responses were studied in murine and human lung cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse lung cancer models. Findings were compared with a window of opportunity trial in aerodigestive tract cancers. In human (HOP62, H522, and H23) and murine transgenic (ED-1, ED-2, LKR-13, and 393P, driven, respectively, by cyclin E, degradation-resistant cyclin E, KRAS, or KRAS/p53) lung cancer cell lines, vorinostat reduced growth, cyclin D1, and cyclin E levels, but induced p27, histone acetylation, and apoptosis. Other biomarkers also changed. Findings from transgenic murine lung cancer models were integrated with those from a window of opportunity trial that measured vorinostat pharmacodynamic responses in pre- versus posttreatment tumor biopsies. Vorinostat repressed cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression in murine transgenic lung cancers and significantly reduced lung cancers in syngeneic mice. Vorinostat also reduced cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression, but increased p27 levels in post- versus pretreatment human lung cancer biopsies. Notably, necrotic and inflammatory responses appeared in posttreatment biopsies. These depended on intratumoral HDACi levels. Therefore, HDACi treatments of murine genetically engineered lung cancer models exert similar responses (growth inhibition and changes in gene expression) as observed in lung cancer cell lines. Moreover, enhanced pharmacodynamic responses occurred in the window of opportunity trial, providing additional markers of response that can be evaluated in subsequent HDACi trials. Thus, combining murine and human HDACi trials is a strategy to translate preclinical HDACi treatment outcomes into the clinic. This study uncovered clinically tractable mechanisms to engage in future HDACi trials.

  6. Comparing Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Responses in Genetically Engineered Mouse Lung Cancer Models and a Window of Opportunity Trial in Lung Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian; Galimberti, Fabrizio; Erkmen, Cherie P.; Memoli, Vincent; Chinyengetere, Fadzai; Sempere, Lorenzo; Beumer, Jan H.; Anyang, Bean N.; Nugent, William; Johnstone, David; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Li, Hua; DiRenzo, James; Guo, Yongli; Freemantle, Sarah J.; Dragnev, Konstantin H.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi, vorinostat) responses were studied in murine and human lung cancer cell lines and genetically-engineered mouse lung cancer models. Findings were compared with a window of opportunity trial in aerodigestive tract cancers. In human (HOP62, H522 and H23) and murine transgenic (ED-1, ED-2, LKR-13, and 393P, driven respectively by cyclin E, degradation-resistant cyclin E, KRAS, or KRAS/p53) lung cancer cell lines vorinostat reduced growth, cyclin D1 and cyclin E levels, but induced p27, histone acetylation and apoptosis. Other biomarkers also changed. Findings from transgenic murine lung cancer models were integrated with those from a window of opportunity trial that measured vorinostat pharmacodynamic responses in pre- versus post-treatment tumor biopsies. Vorinostat repressed cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression in murine transgenic lung cancers and significantly reduced lung cancers in syngeneic mice. Vorinostat also reduced cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression, but increased p27 levels in post- versus pre-treatment human lung cancer biopsies. Notably, necrotic and inflammatory responses appeared in post-treatment biopsies. These depended on intratumoral HDACi levels. Therefore, HDACi treatments of murine genetically-engineered lung cancer models exert similar responses (growth inhibition and changes in gene expression) as observed in lung cancer cell lines. Moreover, enhanced pharmacodynamic responses occurred in the window of opportunity trial, providing additional markers of response that can be evaluated in subsequent HDACi trials. Thus, combining murine and human HDACi trials is a strategy to translate preclinical HDACi treatment outcomes into the clinic. This study uncovered clinically-tractable mechanisms to engage in future HDACi trials. PMID:23686769

  7. Histone deacetylase 1/mSin3A disrupts gamma interferon-induced CIITA function and major histocompatibility complex class II enhanceosome formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika, Eleni; Greer, Susanna F; Zhu, Xin-Sheng; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2003-05-01

    The class II transactivator (CIITA) is a master transcriptional regulator of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) promoters. CIITA does not bind DNA, but it interacts with the transcription factors RFX5, NF-Y, and CREB and associated chromatin-modifying enzymes to form an enhanceosome. This report examines the effects of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/HDAC2) on MHC-II gene induction by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and CIITA. The results show that an inhibitor of HDACs, trichostatin A, enhances IFN-gamma-induced MHC-II expression, while HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibits IFN-gamma- and CIITA-induced MHC-II gene expression. mSin3A, a corepressor of HDAC1/HDAC2, is important for this inhibition, while NcoR, a corepressor of HDAC3, is not. The effect of this inhibition is directed at CIITA, since HDAC1/HDAC2 reduces transactivation by a GAL4-CIITA fusion protein. CIITA binds to overexpressed and endogenous HDAC1, suggesting that HDAC and CIITA may affect each other by direct or indirect association. Inhibition of HDAC activity dramatically increases the association of NF-YB and RFX5 with CIITA, the assembly of CIITA, NF-YB, and RFX5 enhanceosome, and the extent of H3 acetylation at the MHC-II promoter. These results suggest a model where HDAC1/HDAC2 affect the function of CIITA through a disruption of MHC-II enhanceosome and relevant coactivator-transcription factor association and provide evidence that CIITA may act as a molecular switch to modulate MHC-II transcription by coordinating the functions of both histone acetylases and HDACs.

  8. First-in-human, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic phase I study of Resminostat, an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, André T; Ang, Joo Ern; Lal, Rohit; Olmos, David; Molife, L Rhoda; Kristeleit, Rebecca; Parker, Ann; Casamayor, Isabel; Olaleye, Muyibat; Mais, Anna; Hauns, Bernhard; Strobel, Vera; Hentsch, Bernd; de Bono, Johann S

    2013-10-01

    This first-in-human dose-escalating trial investigated the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor resminostat in patients with advanced solid tumors. Resminostat was administered orally once-daily on days 1 to 5 every 14 days at 5 dose levels between 100 and 800 mg. Safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics including histone acetylation and HDAC enzyme activity, and antitumor efficacy were assessed. Nineteen patients (median age 58 years, range 39-70) were treated. At 800 mg, 1 patient experienced grade 3 nausea and vomiting, grade 2 liver enzyme elevation, and grade 1 hypokalemia and thrombocytopenia; these were declared as a combined DLT. No other DLT was observed. Although an MTD was not reached and patients were safely dosed up to 800 mg, 3 of 7 patients treated with 800 mg underwent dose reductions after the DLT-defining period due to cumulative gastrointestinal toxicities and fatigue. All toxicities resolved following drug cessation. No grade 4 treatment-related adverse event was observed. The pharmacokinetic profile was dose-proportional with low inter-patient variability. Pharmacodynamic inhibition of HDAC enzyme was dose-dependent and reached 100% at doses ≥400 mg. Eleven heavily pretreated patients had stable disease and 1 patient with metastatic thymoma had a 27% reduction in target lesion dimensions. Resminostat was safely administered with a dose-proportional pharmacokinetic profile, optimal on-target pharmacodynamic activity at dose levels ≥400 mg and signs of antitumor efficacy. The recommended phase II dose is 600 mg once-daily on days 1 to 5 every 14 days.

  9. Functional analysis of histone deacetylase and its role in stress response, drug resistance and solid-state cultivation in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2014-08-01

    In the eukaryotic cell, histone deacetylases (HDACs) play key roles in the regulation of fundamental cellular process such as development regulation, stress response, secondary metabolism and genome integrity. Here, we provide a comprehensive phenotypic analysis using HDAC disruptants in Aspergillus oryzae. Our study revealed that four HDACs, hdaA/Aohda1, hdaB/Aorpd3, hdaD/Aohos2 and hst4/AohstD were involved in stress response, cell wall synthesis and chromatin integrity in A. oryzae. Osmotic stress sensitivity of HDAC disruptants differed between plate cultures and liquid cultures, suggesting that HDACs adapt to the difference environmental conditions. Using a common A. oryzae fermentation medium, rice-koji, we also characterized HDACs related to growth and enzyme production to investigate which HDACs will be required for adaptation to environmental conditions and stress resistances. Because HDACs are widely conserved, our study has broad applications and may inform work with filamentous fungi and other eukaryote. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 induces apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through a mitochondria-mediated caspase activation cascade.

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    El-Khoury, Victoria; Moussay, Etienne; Janji, Bassam; Palissot, Valérie; Aouali, Nasséra; Brons, Nicolaas H C; Van Moer, Kris; Pierson, Sandrine; Van Dyck, Eric; Berchem, Guy

    2010-05-01

    Clinical trials have shown activity of the isotype-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor MGCD0103 in different hematologic malignancies. There are data to support the use of HDAC inhibitors in association with other cancer therapies. To propose a rational combination therapy, it is necessary to depict the molecular basis behind the cytotoxic effect of MGCD0103. In this study, we found that MGCD0103 was substantially more toxic in neoplastic B cells relative to normal cells, and we described the death pathways activated by MGCD0103 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells from 32 patients. MGCD0103 decreased the expression of Mcl-1 and induced translocation of Bax to the mitochondria, mitochondrial depolarization, and release of cytochrome c in the cytosol. Caspase processing in the presence of the caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh and time course experiments showed that caspase-9 was the apical caspase. Thus, MGCD0103 induced the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in CLL cells. Moreover, MGCD0103 treatment resulted in the activation of a caspase cascade downstream of caspase-9, caspase-dependent amplification of mitochondrial depolarization, activation of calpain, and Bax cleavage. We propose a model whereby the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis triggered by MGCD0103 in CLL is associated with a mitochondrial death amplification loop.

  11. Disruption of autophagy by the histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 and its therapeutic implication in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

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    El-Khoury, V; Pierson, S; Szwarcbart, E; Brons, N H C; Roland, O; Cherrier-De Wilde, S; Plawny, L; Van Dyck, E; Berchem, G

    2014-08-01

    Evading apoptosis is a hallmark of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and an obstacle to current chemotherapeutic approaches. Inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) has emerged as a promising strategy to induce cell death in malignant cells. We have previously reported that the HDAC inhibitor MGCD0103 induces CLL cell death by activating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Here, we show that MGCD0103 decreases the autophagic flux in primary CLL cells. Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, together with the activation of caspases, and to a minor extent CAPN1, resulting in cleavage of autophagy components, were involved in MGCD0103-mediated inhibition of autophagy. In addition, MGCD0103 directly modulated the expression of critical autophagy genes at the transcriptional level that may contribute to autophagy impairment. Besides, we demonstrate that autophagy is a pro-survival mechanism in CLL whose disruption potentiates cell death induced by anticancer molecules including HDAC and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. In particular, our data highlight the therapeutic potential of MGCD0103 as not only an inducer of apoptosis but also an autophagy suppressor in both combination regimens with molecules like flavopiridol, known to induce protective autophagy in CLL cells, or as an alternative to circumvent undesired immunomodulatory effects seen in the clinic with conventional autophagy inhibitors.

  12. THE COMBINATION OF A HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITOR WITH THE BH3-MIMETIC GX15-070 HAS SYNERGISTIC ANTILEUKEMIA ACTIVITY BY ACTIVATING BOTH APOPTOTSIS AND AUTOPHAGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue; Kadia, Tapan; Tong, Weigang; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Yu; Yang, Hui; Hu, Yumin; Viallet, Jean; O’Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Single agent histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have limited clinical activity in human leukemia. Although the way HDACi exert their antileukemia effect is not fully understood, it is accepted that induction of apoptosis is important. We hypothesized therefore that combination of an HDACi with a pro-apoptotic agent, such as the BH3 domain mimetic GX15-070, could result in enhanced antileukemia activity. Experimental Design We analyzed the cellular and molecular effects of two different HDACi (MGCD0103 and vorinostat) in combination with GX15-070 in leukemia cell lines and primary AML cells. Results We demonstrated that the combination had synergistic antileukemia effect both in cell lines and primary AML cells. Using molecular markers and electron microscopy, we observed that in addition to apoptosis, autophagy accounts for the non-apoptotic decrease of cell viability, an effect that could be inhibited by chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy. Finally, we established a role for calpain activity in the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis of this combination. Conclusions The combination of and HDACi and GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity and effect is mediated both by induction of apoptosis and autophagy. The combination should be studied in clinical trials of leukemia and the role of autophagy in leukemia therapy needs to be better understood. PMID:20538760

  13. Induction of differentiation and apoptosis in leukaemic cell lines by the novel benzamide family histone deacetylase 2 and 3 inhibitor MI-192.

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    Boissinot, Marjorie; Inman, Martyn; Hempshall, Aiden; James, Sally R; Gill, Jason H; Selby, Peter; Bowen, David T; Grigg, Ronald; Cockerill, Peter N

    2012-10-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are in advanced clinical development as cancer therapeutic agents. However, first generation HDACIs such as butyrate and valproate are simple short chain aliphatic compounds with moieties resembling acetyl groups, and have a broad spectrum of activity against HDACs. More complex second generation HDACIs undergoing clinical trials, such as the benzamide group compounds MS-275 and MGCD0103, are specific primarily for HDAC1 and HDAC2. To expand the repertoire of available HDACIs and HDAC specificities we created a novel benzamide-based compound named MI-192. When tested against purified recombinant HDACs, MI-192 had marked selectivity for the class I enzymes, HDAC2 and HDAC3. Screening in the NCI60 screen demonstrated that MI-192 had greatly enhanced efficacy against cells of leukaemic origin. When tested in culture against the acute myeloid leukaemic cell lines U937, HL60 and Kasumi-1, MI-192 induced differentiation and was cytotoxic through promotion of apoptosis. MI-192 therefore justifies further investigation and development as a potential therapeutic agent for use in leukaemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental stimulation rescues maternal high fructose intake-impaired learning and memory in female offspring: Its correlation with redistribution of histone deacetylase 4.

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    Wu, Kay L H; Wu, Chih-Wei; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung; Chao, Yung-Mei; Hung, Chun-Ying; Wu, Jin-Cheng; Chen, Siang-Ru; Tsai, Pei-Chia; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-04-01

    Impairment of learning and memory has been documented in the later life of offspring to maternal consumption with high energy diet. Environmental stimulation enhances the ability of learning and memory. However, potential effects of environmental stimulation on the programming-associated deficit of learning and memory have not been addressed. Here, we examined the effects of enriched-housing on hippocampal learning and memory in adult female offspring rats from mother fed with 60% high fructose diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation. Impairment of spatial learning and memory performance in HFD group was observed in offspring at 3-month-old. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was decreased in the offspring. Moreover, the HFD group showed an up-regulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in the nuclear fractions of hippocampal neurons. Stimulation to the offspring for 4weeks after winning with an enriched-housing environment effectively rescued the decrease in cognitive function and hippocampal BDNF level; alongside a reversal of the increased distribution of nuclear HDAC4. Together these results suggest that later life environmental stimulation effectively rescues the impairment of hippocampal learning and memory in female offspring to maternal HFD intake through redistributing nuclear HDAC4 to increase BDNF expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Combination of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor resminostat with oncolytic measles vaccine virus as a new option for epi-virotherapeutic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Benjamin Ruf

    Full Text Available Epigenetic therapies such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi not only have the capability to decrease tumor cell proliferation and to induce tumor cell death but also to silence antiviral response genes. Here, we investigated whether the combination of an oncolytic measles vaccine virus (MeV with the novel oral HDACi resminostat (Res, being in clinical testing in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, results in an enhanced efficacy of this epi-virotherapeutic approach compared to any of the two corresponding monotherapies. When testing a panel of human hepatoma cell lines, we found (i a significantly improved rate of primary infections when using oncolytic MeV under concurrent treatment with resminostat, (ii a boosted cytotoxic effect of the epi-virotherapeutic combination (Res + MeV with enhanced induction of apoptosis, and, quite importantly, (iii an absence of any resminostat-induced impairment of MeV replication and spread. Beyond that, we could also show that (iv resminostat, after hepatoma cell stimulation with exogenous human interferon (IFN-β, is able to prevent the induction of IFN-stimulated genes, such as IFIT-1. This finding outlines the possible impact of resminostat on cellular innate immunity, being instrumental in overcoming resistances to MeV-mediated viral oncolysis. Thus, our results support the onset of epi-virotherapeutic clinical trials in patients exhibiting advanced stages of HCC.

  16. In Silico Investigation of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compounds to Inhibit Human Histone Deacetylase 2 for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Tzu-Chieh Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 has been identified as being associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a neuropathic degenerative disease. In this study, we screen the world’s largest Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM database for natural compounds that may be useful as lead compounds in the search for inhibitors of HDAC2 function. The technique of molecular docking was employed to select the ten top TCM candidates. We used three prediction models, multiple linear regression (MLR, support vector machine (SVM, and the Bayes network toolbox (BNT, to predict the bioactivity of the TCM candidates. Molecular dynamics simulation provides the protein-ligand interactions of compounds. The bioactivity predictions of pIC50 values suggest that the TCM candidatesm, (−-Bontl ferulate, monomethylcurcumin, and ningposides C, have a greater effect on HDAC2 inhibition. The structure variation caused by the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between protein-ligand interactions indicates that these compounds have an inhibitory effect on the protein.

  17. Paradoxical regulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α by histone deacetylase inhibitor in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

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    Savita Bhalla

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF is important in cancer, as it regulates various oncogenic genes as well as genes involved in cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Elevated HIF-1 protein promotes a more aggressive tumor phenotype, and greater HIF-1 expression has been demonstrated to correlate with poorer prognosis, increased risk of metastasis and increased mortality. Recent reports suggest that HIF-1 activates autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway which may promote tumor cell survival. We show here that HIF-1α expression is constitutively active in multiple diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL cell lines under normoxia and it is regulated by the PI3K/AKT pathway. PCI-24781, a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI, enhanced accumulation of HIF-1α and induced autophagy initially, while extended incubation with the drug resulted in inhibition of HIF-1α. We tested the hypothesis that PCI-24781- induced autophagy is mediated by HIF-1α and that inhibition of HIF-1α in these cells results in attenuation of autophagy and decreased survival. We also provide evidence that autophagy serves as a survival pathway in DLBCL cells treated with PCI-24781 which suggests that the use of autophagy inhibitors such as chloroquine or 3-methyl adenine in combination with PCI-24781 may enhance apoptosis in lymphoma cells.

  18. Identification and Characterization of KCASH2 and KCASH3, 2 Novel Cullin3 Adaptors Suppressing Histone Deacetylase and Hedgehog Activity in Medulloblastoma

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    Enrico De Smaele

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor, arising from aberrant cerebellar precursors' development, a process mainly controlled by Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway. Histone deacetylase HDAC1 has been recently shown to modulate Hh signaling, deacetylating its effectors Gli1/2 and enhancing their transcriptional activity. Therefore, HDAC may represent a potential therapeutic target for Hh-dependent tumors, but still little information is available on the physiological mechanisms of HDAC regulation. The putative tumor suppressor RENKCTD11 acts through ubiquitination-dependent degradation of HDAC1, thereby affecting Hh activity and medulloblastoma growth. We identify and characterize here two RENKCTD11 homologues, defining a new family of proteins named KCASH, as “KCTD containing, Cullin3 adaptor, suppressor of Hedgehog.” Indeed, the novel genes (KCASH2KCTD21 and KCASH3KCTD6 share with RENKCTD11 a number of features, such as a BTB domain required for the formation of a Cullin3 ubiquitin ligase complex and HDAC1 ubiquitination and degradation capability, suppressing the acetylation-dependent Hh/Gli signaling. Expression of KCASH2 and -3 is observed in cerebellum, whereas epigenetic silencing and allelic deletion are observed in human medulloblastoma. Rescuing KCASHs expression reduces the Hedgehog-dependent medulloblastoma growth, suggesting that loss of members of this novel family of native HDAC inhibitors is crucial in sustaining Hh pathway-mediated tumorigenesis. Accordingly, they might represent a promising class of endogenous “agents” through which this pathway may be targeted.

  19. Small RNA profiling of influenza A virus-infected cells identifies miR-449b as a regulator of histone deacetylase 1 and interferon beta.

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    William A Buggele

    Full Text Available The mammalian antiviral response relies on the alteration of cellular gene expression, to induce the production of antiviral effectors and regulate their activities. Recent research has indicated that virus infections can induce the accumulation of cellular microRNA (miRNA species that influence the stability of host mRNAs and their protein products. To determine the potential for miRNA regulation of cellular responses to influenza A virus infection, small RNA profiling was carried out using next generation sequencing. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles in uninfected human A549 cells to cells infected with influenza A virus strains A/Udorn/72 and A/WSN/33, revealed virus-induced changes in miRNA abundance. Gene expression analysis identified mRNA targets for a cohort of highly inducible miRNAs linked to diverse cellular functions. Experiments demonstrate that the histone deacetylase, HDAC1, can be regulated by influenza-inducible miR-449b, resulting in altered mRNA and protein levels. Expression of miR-449b enhances virus and poly(I:C activation of the IFNβ promoter, a process known to be negatively regulated by HDAC1. These findings demonstrate miRNA induction by influenza A virus infection and elucidate an example of miRNA control of antiviral gene expression in human cells, defining a role for miR-449b in regulation of HDAC1 and antiviral cytokine signaling.

  20. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

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    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Petrini, Stefania [Research Laboratories, Confocal Microscopy Core Facility, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Bertini, Enrico [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Zanni, Ginevra, E-mail: ginevra.zanni@opbg.net [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-03

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify a new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1.

  1. Valproic Acid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Combination with Paclitaxel for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Phase II/III Trial

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    Maria Graziella Catalano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC has a median survival less than 5 months and, to date, no effective therapy exists. Taxanes have recently been stated as the main drug treatment for ATC, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid efficiently potentiates the effects of paclitaxel in vitro. Based on these data, this trial assessed the efficacy and safety of the combination of paclitaxel and valproic acid for the treatment of ATC. This was a randomized, controlled phase II/III trial, performed on 25 ATC patients across 5 centers in northwest Italy. The experimental arm received the combination of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2/weekly and valproic acid (1,000 mg/day; the control arm received paclitaxel alone. Overall survival and disease progression, evaluated in terms of progression-free survival, were the primary outcomes. The secondary outcome was the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. The coadministration of valproic acid did not influence the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. Neither median survival nor median time to progression was statistically different in the two arms. Median survival of operated-on patients was significantly better than that of patients who were not operated on. The present trial demonstrates that the addition of valproic acid to paclitaxel has no effect on overall survival and disease progression of ATC patients. This trial is registered with EudraCT 2008-005221-11.

  2. Long-Term Memory in Drosophila Is Influenced by Histone Deacetylase HDAC4 Interacting with SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme Ubc9.

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    Schwartz, Silvia; Truglio, Mauro; Scott, Maxwell J; Fitzsimons, Helen L

    2016-07-01

    HDAC4 is a potent memory repressor with overexpression of wild type or a nuclear-restricted mutant resulting in memory deficits. Interestingly, reduction of HDAC4 also impairs memory via an as yet unknown mechanism. Although histone deacetylase family members are important mediators of epigenetic mechanisms in neurons, HDAC4 is predominantly cytoplasmic in the brain and there is increasing evidence for interactions with nonhistone proteins, suggesting HDAC4 has roles beyond transcriptional regulation. To that end, we performed a genetic interaction screen in Drosophila and identified 26 genes that interacted with HDAC4, including Ubc9, the sole SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme. RNA interference-induced reduction of Ubc9 in the adult brain impaired long-term memory in the courtship suppression assay, a Drosophila model of associative memory. We also demonstrate that HDAC4 and Ubc9 interact genetically during memory formation, opening new avenues for investigating the mechanisms through which HDAC4 regulates memory formation and other neurological processes. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. A selective histone deacetylase-6 inhibitor improves BDNF trafficking in hippocampal neurons from Mecp2 knockout mice:implications for Rett syndrome

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    Xin eXu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. One of the most prominent gene targets of MeCP2 is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, a potent modulator of activity-dependent synaptic development, function and plasticity. Dysfunctional BDNF signaling has been demonstrated in several pathophysiological mechanisms of RTT disease progression. To evaluate whether the dynamics of BDNF trafficking is affected by Mecp2 deletion, we analyzed movements of BDNF tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP in cultured hippocampal neurons by time-lapse fluorescence imaging. We found that both anterograde and retrograde vesicular trafficking of BDNF-YFP are significantly impaired in Mecp2 knockout hippocampal neurons. Selective inhibitors of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 show neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and stimulate microtubule-dependent vesicular trafficking of BDNF-containing dense core vesicles. Here, we show that the selective HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin-A increased the velocity of BDNF-YFP vesicles in Mecp2 knockout neurons in both directions by increasing αtubulin acetylation. Tubastatin-A also restored activity-dependent BDNF release from Mecp2 knockout neurons to levels comparable to those shown by wildtype neurons. These findings demonstrate that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor is a potential pharmacological strategy to reverse cellular and synaptic impairments in RTT resulting from impaired BDNF signaling.

  4. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens

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    Ridla Bakri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔGbinding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA. That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6, which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Knockdown of selenocysteine-specific elongation factor in Amblyomma maculatum alters the pathogen burden of Rickettsia parkeri with epigenetic control by the Sin3 histone deacetylase corepressor complex.

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    Steven W Adamson

    Full Text Available Selenocysteine is the 21st naturally-occurring amino acid. Selenoproteins have diverse functions and many remain uncharacterized, but they are typically associated with antioxidant activity. The incorporation of selenocysteine into the nascent polypeptide chain recodes the TGA stop codon and this process depends upon a number of essential factors including the selenocysteine elongation factor (SEF. The transcriptional expression of SEF did not change significantly in tick midguts throughout the blood meal, but decreased in salivary glands to 20% at the end of the fast feeding phase. Since selenoprotein translation requires this specialized elongation factor, we targeted this gene for knockdown by RNAi to gain a global view of the role selenoproteins play in tick physiology. We found no significant differences in tick engorgement and embryogenesis but detected no antioxidant capacity in tick saliva. The transcriptional profile of selenoproteins in R. parkeri-infected Amblyomma maculatum revealed declined activity of selenoprotein M and catalase and increased activity of selenoprotein O, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T. Furthermore, the pathogen burden was significantly altered in SEF-knockdowns. We then determined the global impact of SEF-knockdown by RNA-seq, and mapped huge shifts in secretory gene expression that could be the result of downregulation of the Sin3 histone deacetylase corepressor complex.

  6. Damaged DNA-binding protein down-regulates epigenetic mark H3K56Ac through histone deacetylase 1 and 2

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    Zhu, Qianzheng; Battu, Aruna; Ray, Alo; Wani, Gulzar; Qian, Jiang; He, Jinshan; Wang, Qi-en [Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wani, Altaf A., E-mail: wani.2@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • HDAC1 and HDAC2 co-localize with UV radiation-induced DNA damage sites. • HDAC1 translocation to chromatin is dependent on DDB2 function. • HDAC1 and HDAC2 are involved in H3K56Ac deacetylation. • H3K56Ac deacetylation requires DDB1 and DDB2 but not XPA or XPC functions. • HDAC1/2 depletion decreases XPC ubiquitination and local γH2AX accumulation. - Abstract: Acetylated histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56Ac) is one of the reversible histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) responsive to DNA damage. We previously described a biphasic decrease and increase of epigenetic mark H3K56Ac in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage. Here, we report a new function of UV damaged DNA-binding protein (DDB) in deacetylation of H3K56Ac through specific histone deacetylases (HDACs). We show that simultaneous depletion of HDAC1/2 compromises the deacetylation of H3K56Ac, while depletion of HDAC1 or HDAC2 alone has no effect on H3K56Ac. The H3K56Ac deacetylation does not require functional nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors XPA and XPC, but depends on the function of upstream factors DDB1 and DDB2. UVR enhances the association of DDB2 with HDAC1 and, enforced DDB2 expression leads to translocation of HDAC1 to UVR-damaged chromatin. HDAC1 and HDAC2 are recruited to UVR-induced DNA damage spots, which are visualized by anti-XPC immunofluorescence. Dual HDAC1/2 depletion decreases XPC ubiquitination, but does not affect the recruitment of DDB2 to DNA damage. By contrast, the local accumulation of γH2AX at UVR-induced DNA damage spots was compromised upon HDAC1 as well as dual HDAC1/2 depletions. Additionally, UVR-induced ATM activation decreased in H12899 cells expressing H3K56Ac-mimicing H3K56Q. These results revealed a novel role of DDB in H3K56Ac deacetylation during early step of NER and the existence of active functional cross-talk between DDB-mediated damage recognition and H3K56Ac deacetylation.

  7. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, promotes cell cycle arrest and re-sensitizes rituximab- and chemo-resistant lymphoma cells to chemotherapy agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Gu, Juan J; Zhang, Qunling; Mavis, Cory; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J; Czuczman, Myron S; Guo, Ye

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical models of chemotherapy resistance and clinical observations derived from the prospective multicenter phase III collaborative trial in relapsed aggressive lymphoma (CORAL) study demonstrated that primary refractory/relapsed B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma has a poor clinical outcome with current available second-line treatments. Preclinically, we found that rituximab resistance is associated with a deregulation on the mitochondrial potential rendering lymphoma cells resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptotic stimuli. There is a dire need to develop agents capable to execute alternative pathways of cell death in an attempt to overcome chemotherapy resistance. Posttranscriptional histone modification plays an important role in regulating gene transcription and is altered by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDACs regulate several key cellular functions, including cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration, antigen presentation, and/or immune regulation. Given their influence in multiple regulatory pathways, HDAC inhibition is an attractive strategy to evaluate its anti-proliferation activity in cancer cells. To this end, we studied the anti-proliferation activity and mechanisms of action of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat) in rituximab-chemotherapy-resistant preclinical models. A panel of rituximab-chemotherapy-sensitive (RSCL) and rituximab-chemotherapy-resistant cell lines (RRCL) and primary tumor cells isolated from relapsed/refractory B cell lymphoma patients were exposed to escalating doses of vorinostat. Changes in mitochondrial potential, ATP synthesis, and cell cycle distribution were determined by Alamar blue reduction, Titer-Glo luminescent assays, and flow cytometric, respectively. Protein lysates were isolated from vorinostat-exposed cells, and changes in members of Bcl-2 family, cell cycle regulatory proteins, and the acetylation status of histone H3 were

  8. Functional link between DNA damage responses and transcriptional regulation by ATM in response to a histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA.

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    Lee, Jong-Soo

    2007-09-01

    Mutations in the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene, which encodes a 370 kd protein with a kinase catalytic domain, predisposes people to cancers, and these mutations are also linked to ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). The histone acetylaion/deacetylation- dependent chromatin remodeling can activate the ATM kinase-mediated DNA damage signal pathway (in an accompanying work, Lee, 2007). This has led us to study whether this modification can impinge on the ATM-mediated DNA damage response via transcriptional modulation in order to understand the function of ATM in the regulation of gene transcription. To identify the genes whose expression is regulated by ATM in response to histone deaceylase (HDAC) inhibition, we performed an analysis of oligonucleotide microarrays with using the appropriate cell lines, isogenic A-T (ATM(-)) and control (ATM(+)) cells, following treatment with a HDAC inhibitor TSA. Treatment with TSA reprograms the differential gene expression profile in response to HDAC inhibition in ATM(-) cells and ATM(+) cells. We analyzed the genes that are regulated by TSA in the ATM-dependent manner, and we classified these genes into different functional categories, including those involved in cell cycle/DNA replication, DNA repair, apoptosis, growth/differentiation, cell- cell adhesion, signal transduction, metabolism and transcription. We found that while some genes are regulated by TSA without regard to ATM, the patterns of gene regulation are differentially regulated in an ATM-dependent manner. Taken together, these finding indicate that ATM can regulate the transcription of genes that play critical roles in the molecular response to DNA damage, and this response is modulated through an altered HDAC inhibition-mediated gene expression.

  9. Improved Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Therapeutics for the Neurodegenerative Disease Friedreich’s Ataxia: A New Synthetic Route

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    Joel M. Gottesfeld

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA is caused by transcriptional repression of the nuclear FXN gene encoding the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Based on the hypothesis that the acetylation state of the histone proteins is responsible for gene silencing in FRDA, previous work in our lab identified a first generation of HDAC inhibitors (pimelic o-aminobenzamides, which increase FXN mRNA in lymphocytes from FRDA patients. Importantly, these compounds also function in a FRDA mouse model to increase FXN mRNA levels in the brain and heart. While the first generation of HDAC inhibitors hold promise as potential therapeutics for FRDA, they have two potential problems: less than optimal brain penetration and metabolic instability in acidic conditions. Extensive optimization focusing on modifying the left benzene ring, linker and the right benzene ring lead to a novel class of HDAC inhibitors that have optimized pharmacological properties (increased brain penetration and acid stability compared to the previous HDAC inhibitors. This article will describe the chemical synthesis and pharmacological properties of these new HDAC inhibitors.

  10. The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor tributyrin in colon carcinogenesis involves the induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage

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    Heidor, Renato [Laboratory of Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Advanced Research Center in Food Science and Nutrition (NAPAN) and Food Research Center (FoRC), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Furtado, Kelly Silva; Ortega, Juliana Festa [Laboratory of Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, Tiago Franco de [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Tavares, Paulo Eduardo Latorre Martins; Vieira, Alessandra; Miranda, Mayara Lilian Paulino [Laboratory of Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Purgatto, Eduardo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Advanced Research Center in Food Science and Nutrition (NAPAN) and Food Research Center (FoRC), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Moreno, Fernando Salvador, E-mail: rmoreno@usp.br [Laboratory of Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Advanced Research Center in Food Science and Nutrition (NAPAN) and Food Research Center (FoRC), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) tributyrin (TB), a prodrug of butyric acid (BA), was evaluated in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The animals were treated with TB (TB group: 200 mg/100 g of body weight, b.w.) or maltodextrin (MD isocaloric control group: 300 mg/100 g b.w.) daily for 9 consecutive weeks. In the 3rd and 4th weeks of treatment, the rats in the TB and MD groups were given DMH (40 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week. After 9 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the distal colon was examined. Compared with the control group (MD group), TB treatment reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF; p < 0.05) as well as the ACF with ≥ 4 crypts (p < 0.05), which are considered more aggressive, but not inhibited the formation of DMH-induced O6-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts. The TB group also showed a higher apoptotic index (p < 0.05) and reduced DNA damage (p < 0.05) compared with MD group. TB acted as a HDACi, as rats treated with the prodrug of BA had higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation compared with the MD group (p < 0.05). TB administration resulted in increased colonic tissue concentrations of BA (p < 0.05) compared with the control animals. These results suggest that TB can be considered a promising chemopreventive agent for colon carcinogenesis because it reduced the number of ACF, including those that were more aggressive. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage are cellular mechanisms that appear to be involved in the chemopreventive activity of TB. - Highlights: • Tributyrin is a chemopreventive agent for rat colon aberrant crypt foci. • Tributyrin increased apoptosis in an experimental rat colon carcinogenesis model. • Tributyrin treatment in a rat colon carcinogenesis model decreased DNA damage. • Tributyrin treatment induced H3K9 acetylation in a rat colon carcinogenesis model.

  11. A phase 1 dose-escalation study of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in advanced solid tumors

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    Deutsch, Eric; Moyal, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan; Gregorc, Vanesa; Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Menard, Jean; Soria, Jean-Charles; Kloos, Ioana; Hsu, Jeff; Luan, Ying; Liu, Emily; Vezan, Remus; Graef, Thorsten; Rivera, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Current treatments for advanced solid tumors tend to be only palliative. Although radiotherapy is administered with a curative intent, radioresistance and dose-limiting toxicities pose limitations to treatment. Abexinostat, an oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to radiation in various solid tumor cell lines. We conducted an exploratory, phase 1, dose-escalation study of abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a palliative setting. Among 58 treated patients, the median age was 61.5 years (range, 20-82); 47% of the patients had M1 stage disease, and 95% had received previous chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy in combination with surgery and/or radiotherapy. The recommended phase 2 dose was determined to be 90 mg/m2 (140 mg). Of the 51 patients evaluable for response, best overall response was 8% (1 complete response [CR], 3 partial responses [PRs]), and best loco-regional response was 12% (1 CR and 5 PRs) at a median follow-up of 16 weeks. Of note, patients with target or non-target brain lesions showed encouraging responses, with 1 patient achieving a best loco-regional response of CR. Treatment-emergent grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) were few, with most common being thrombocytopenia (17%), lymphopenia (12%), and hypokalemia (7%). Six patients (10%) discontinued treatment due to AEs. No grade ≥3 prolongation of the QTc interval was observed, with no treatment discontinuations due to this AE. Oral abexinostat combined with radiotherapy was well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors. The combination may have potential for treatment of patients with brain lesions. PMID:28915584

  12. The anti-leukemic effect and molecular mechanisms of novel hydroxamate and benzamide histone deacetylase inhibitors with 5-aza-cytidine.

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    Liu, H B; Mayes, P A; Perlmutter, P; McKendrick, J J; Dear, A E

    2011-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) demonstrate considerable in vitro and in vivo activity and clinical efficacy in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Pre-clinical and early phase clinical trials identify therapeutic activity using a combination of HDACi and demethylating agents which may be more efficacious than single agent treatment. Our studies aimed to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms of action of novel hydroxamate (MCT-3) and benzamide [MGCD0103 (MG)] HDACi's in the HL-60 cell line alone and in combination with the demethylating agent 5-aza-cytidine (AZA). MG, MCT-3 and AZA treatment significantly inhibited HL-60 cell growth in vitro with MG being the most potent agent. MG in combination with AZA demonstrated no significant increase in inhibition of cell growth over MG treatment alone whilst MCT-3 in combination with AZA demonstrated increased inhibition of cell growth over either agent alone although no more significant than MG alone. MG alone or MCT-3 in combination with AZA significantly increased p15 and caspase-3 expression. MG and MCT-3 significantly attenuated AZA-induced MMP-9 mRNA expression and proteolytic activity. Interestingly, MCT-3, MG and AZA alone and in combination increased expression of the novel tumour suppressor gene Nur77, important in leukemogenesis, with MG a more potent inducer as a single agent. These observations suggest the enhanced anti-leukemia activity of the combination of AZA and HDACi may only reside with certain HDACi classes and may be in-part explained by regulation of genes associated with cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and tumour suppression.

  13. Histone deacetylase 1/Sp1/microRNA-200b signaling accounts for maintenance of cancer stem-like cells in human lung adenocarcinoma.

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    Dong-Qin Chen

    Full Text Available The presence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs is one of the mechanisms responsible for chemoresistance that has been a major hindrance towards lung adenocarcinoma (LAD treatment. Recently, we have identified microRNA (miR-200b as a key regulator of chemoresistance in human docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. However, whether miR-200b has effects on regulating CSCs remains largely unclear and needs to be further elucidated. Here, we showed that miR-200b was significantly downregulated in CD133+/CD326+ cells that exhibited properties of CSCs derived from docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. Also, restoration of miR-200b could inhibit maintenance and reverse chemoresistance of CSCs. Furthermore, suppressor of zeste-12 (Suz-12 was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-200b, and silencing of Suz-12 phenocopied the effects of miR-200b on CSCs. Additionally, overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC 1 was identified as a pivotal mechanism responsible for miR-200b repression in CSCs through a specificity protein (Sp 1-dependent mechanism, and restoration of miR-200b by HDAC1 repression significantly suppressed CSCs formation and reversed chemoresistance of CSCs by regulating Suz-12-E-cadherin signaling. Also, downregulation of HDAC1 or upregulation of miR-200b reduced the in vivo tumorigenicity of CSCs. Finally, Suz-12 was inversely correlated with miR-200b, positively correlated with HDAC1 and up-regulated in docetaxel-resistant LAD tissues compared with docetaxel-sensitive tissues. Taken together, the HDAC1/miR-200b/Suz-12-E-cadherin signaling might account for maintenance of CSCs and formation of chemoresistant phenotype in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells.

  14. Activating Transcription Factor 3 regulates in part the enhanced tumour cell cytotoxicity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor M344 and cisplatin in combination

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    St Germain Carly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activating Transcription Factor (ATF 3 is a key regulator of the cellular integrated stress response whose expression has also been correlated with pro-apoptotic activities in tumour cell models. Combination treatments with chemotherapeutic drugs, such as cisplatin, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been demonstrated to enhance tumour cell cytotoxicity. We recently demonstrated a role for ATF3 in regulating cisplatin-induced apoptosis and others have shown that HDAC inhibition can also induce cellular stress. In this study, we evaluated the role of ATF3 in regulating the co-operative cytotoxicity of cisplatin in combination with an HDAC inhibitor. Results The HDAC inhibitor M344 induced ATF3 expression at the protein and mRNA level in a panel of human derived cancer cell lines as determined by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Combination treatment with M344 and cisplatin lead to increased induction of ATF3 compared with cisplatin alone. Utilizing the MTT cell viability assay, M344 treatments also enhanced the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin in these cancer cell lines. The mechanism of ATF3 induction by M344 was found to be independent of MAPKinase pathways and dependent on ATF4, a known regulator of ATF3 expression. ATF4 heterozygote (+/- and knock out (-/- mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were utilized in determining the mechanistic induction of ATF3 by M344. We also demonstrated that ATF3 regulates the enhanced cytotoxicity of M344 in combination with cisplatin as evidenced by attenuation of cytotoxicity in shRNAs targeting ATF3 expressing cells. Conclusion This study identifies the pro-apoptotic factor, ATF3 as a novel target of M344, as well as a mediator of the co-operative effects of cisplatin and M344 induced tumour cell cytotoxicity.

  15. Silibinin negatively contributes to primary cilia length via autophagy regulated by histone deacetylase 6 in confluent mouse embryo fibroblast 3T3-L1 cells.

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    Xu, Qian; Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Hongju; Yao, Guodong; Zang, Linghe; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Primary cilium is a cellular antenna, signalling as a sensory organelle. Numerous pathological manifestation is associated with change of its length. Although the interaction between autophagy and primary cilia has been suggested, the role of autophagy in primary cilia length is largely unknown. In this study the primary cilia were immunostained and observed by using confocal fluorescence microscopy, and we found that silibinin, a natural flavonoid, shortened the length of primary cilia, meanwhile it also induced autophagy in 3T3-L1 cells. This study was designed to investigate the significance of silibinin-induced autophagy in primary ciliary structure in confluent mouse embryo fibroblast 3T3-L1 cells. Either blocking the autophagic flux with pre-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), or transfection of siRNA targeting LC3 inhibited the reduction of cilia length caused by silibinin exposure. Autophagy induced by silibinin decreased expressions of the cilia-associated proteins, such as IFT88, KIF3a and Ac-tubulin, while 3-MA restored it, indicating that autophagy induced by silibinin led to a reduction of primary cilia length. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which was suggested as a mediator of autophagy, was up-regulated by silibinin in a time-dependent manner. In addition, 3T3-L1 cells treated with siRNA against HDAC6 had a reduced autophagic level and were protected from silibinin-induced cilia shortening. Taken together, we conclude that the HDAC6-mediated autophagy negatively regulates primary cilia length during silibinin treatment and has the potential to serve as a therapeutic target for primary cilia-associated ciliopathies. These findings thus provide new information about the potential link between autophagy and primary cilia.

  16. Anti-leukemia activity of MS-275 histone deacetylase inhibitor implicates 4-1BBL/4-1BB immunomodulatory functions.

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    Bérengère Vire

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi have demonstrated promising therapeutic potential in clinical trials for hematological malignancies. HDACi, such as SAHA/Vorinostat, Trichostatin A, and MS-275 were found to induce apoptosis of leukemic blasts through activation of the death receptor pathway and transcriptional induction of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-related pro-apoptotic family members, TRAIL and FasL. The impact of HDACi on TNF-related costimulatory molecules such as 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/TNFSF9 is however not known. Following exposure to SAHA/Vorinostat, Trichostatin A, and MS-275, transcript levels were determined by real time PCR in Jurkat, Raji and U937 cells. Treatment with HDACi up-regulated TNFSF9 gene expression in the three leukemia cell lines, yet to different extend and with distinct kinetics, which did not require de novo protein synthesis and was not associated with DNAse I hypersensitive chromatin remodeling. Transcriptional activity of TNFSF9 promoter-luciferase constructs was induced up to 12 fold by HDACi, and implication of Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors binding to functional GC-box elements was evidenced by reporter gene assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Functionality of modulated target genes was assessed in allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction experiments. MS-275- and to a lesser extent Trichostatin A- and SAHA-treated Raji cells significantly up regulated T lymphocytes proliferation which was reduced by about 50% by a 4-1BB blocking recombinant protein, while MS-275- but neither Trichostatin A- nor SAHA-treated cells up-regulated IFNgamma secretion by T lymphocytes. Our results identify 4-1BBL/4-1BB as a downstream target of HDACi, especially of MS-275 anti-leukemia action in vitro. Thus, HDACi such as MS-275 displaying dual TNF-dependent proapoptotic and costimulatory activities might be favored for inclusion in HDACi-based anti-cancer therapeutic strategies.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 augments expression of a subset of IFN-γ-regulated genes in Toxoplasma gondii-infected macrophages but does not improve parasite control.

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    Sumpf, Kristina; Nast, Roswitha; Downie, Bryan; Salinas, Gabriela; Lüder, Carsten G K

    2017-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of mammals and birds and an important pathogen of humans. IFN-γ is the major mediator of host resistance against T. gondii but intriguingly, parasite-infected host cells including macrophages are severely impaired to respond to IFN-γ due to defective transcriptional activation of target genes. Here, we tested the possibility that the impaired responsiveness of T. gondii-infected macrophages to IFN-γ can be restored by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) using the class I-specific inhibitor MS-275. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with MS-275 indeed increased MHC class II surface expression in infected and non-infected cells and largely abolished the inhibition of IFN-γ-regulated MHC class II expression exerted by T. gondii. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed that MS-275 increased mean mRNA levels of IFN-γ-regulated genes particularly in non-infected macrophages. Transcript levels of 33% of IFN-γ secondary response genes but only those of a few primary response genes were also increased by MS-275 in T. gondii-infected cells. Importantly, the unresponsiveness of parasite-infected cells to IFN-γ was however not abolished by MS-275. Furthermore, MS-275 also up-regulated several anti-inflammatory cytokines or signaling molecules in T. gondii-infected macrophages. It additionally regulated expression of more than 2500 genes in non-infected macrophages expression of which was surprisingly counteracted by prior infection with T. gondii. FACS analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MS-275 did not considerably diminish the number of parasite-positive cells or the intracellular replication in macrophages stimulated or not with IFN-γ. Thus, a supportive therapy using MS-275 appears inappropriate for treatment of toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Runx1 Phosphorylation by Src Increases Trans-activation via Augmented Stability, Reduced Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Binding, and Increased DNA Affinity, and Activated Runx1 Favors Granulopoiesis.

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    Leong, Wan Yee; Guo, Hong; Ma, Ou; Huang, Hui; Cantor, Alan B; Friedman, Alan D

    2016-01-08

    Src phosphorylates Runx1 on one central and four C-terminal tyrosines. We find that activated Src synergizes with Runx1 to activate a Runx1 luciferase reporter. Mutation of the four Runx1 C-terminal tyrosines to aspartate or glutamate to mimic phosphorylation increases trans-activation of the reporter in 293T cells and allows induction of Cebpa or Pu.1 mRNAs in 32Dcl3 myeloid cells, whereas mutation of these residues to phenylalanine to prevent phosphorylation obviates these effects. Three mechanisms contribute to increased Runx1 activity upon tyrosine modification as follows: increased stability, reduced histone deacetylase (HDAC) interaction, and increased DNA binding. Mutation of the five modified Runx1 tyrosines to aspartate markedly reduced co-immunoprecipitation with HDAC1 and HDAC3, markedly increased stability in cycloheximide or in the presence of co-expressed Cdh1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase coactivator, with reduced ubiquitination, and allowed DNA-binding in gel shift assay similar to wild-type Runx1. In contrast, mutation of these residues to phenylalanine modestly increased HDAC interaction, modestly reduced stability, and markedly reduced DNA binding in gel shift assays and as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with the -14-kb Pu.1 or +37-kb Cebpa enhancers after stable expression in 32Dcl3 cells. Affinity for CBFβ, the Runx1 DNA-binding partner, was not affected by these tyrosine modifications, and in vitro translated CBFβ markedly increased DNA affinity of both the translated phenylalanine and aspartate Runx1 variants. Finally, further supporting a positive role for Runx1 tyrosine phosphorylation during granulopoiesis, mutation of the five Src-modified residues to aspartate but not phenylalanine allows Runx1 to increase Cebpa and granulocyte colony formation by Runx1-deleted murine marrow. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Combined treatment of adenosine nucleoside inhibitor NITD008 and histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat represents an immunotherapy strategy to ameliorate West Nile virus infection.

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    Nelson, Jacob; Roe, Kelsey; Orillo, Beverly; Shi, Pei-Yong; Verma, Saguna

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in the United States. Despite efforts to control the spread of WNV, there has been an increase in the number of outbreaks and clinical cases with neurological problems. There are no antiviral compounds currently in trials for WNV. NITD008 is an adenosine analogue inhibitor that interrupts the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of flaviviruses. Previous studies demonstrated NITD008 as a potent antiviral for dengue virus, however this drug was associated with preclinical toxicity. The ability of NITD008 to block WNV replication is only shown in Vero cells. Neuroinflammation is also a major cause of the WNV-associated pathology, therefore we evaluated the effect of NITD008 and a newly characterized anti-inflammatory drug vorinostat (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on WNV replication and disease progression in a mouse model. When administered at 10 and 25mg/kg at days 1-6 after WNV infection in C57BL/6 mice, NITD008 conferred complete protection from clinical symptoms and death, which correlated with reduced viral load in the serum and restriction of virus-CNS entry. Delay of NITD008 treatment to days 3-6 and days 5-9 after infection, when WNV replication was high in the periphery and brain, resulted in the gradual loss of protection against WNV infection. However, co-treatment with SAHA and NITD008 during the CNS phase of disease improved disease outcome significantly by reducing inflammation and neuronal death. Our results support potential synergistic effect of combination therapy of NITD008 with SAHA for the treatment of WNV encephalitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The possible prognostic role of histone deacetylase and transforming growth factor β/Smad signaling in high grade gliomas treated by radio-chemotherapy: a preliminary immunohistochemical study

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    Roberta Sferra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and aggressive tumor of the central nervous system. Unfortunately, patients affected by this disease have a very poor prognosis, due to high level of invasiveness and resistance to standard therapies. Although the molecular profile of GBM has been extensively investigated, the events responsible for its pathogenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Histone Deacetylases (HDAC dependent epigenetic modifications and transforming growth factor (TGF-β/Smad pathway seem to play an important role in GBM tumorigenesis, resistance to common therapies and poor clinical outcome.  The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement and the possible interaction between these two molecular cascades in the pathogenesis and prognosis of GBM. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed on microdissected GBM samples, collected from 14 patients (6 men and 8 women ranging in age from 43 to 74 years. The patients were previously divided, on the basis of their overall survival (OS, into two groups: short and long OS. Patients with poor prognosis showed hyperexpression of HDAC4 and HDAC6, an activation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway, with high levels of IL-13, Smad2, PDGF and MMP3 expression, compared to the long survivors. The short OS group exhibits a decrease in Smad 7 expression and also low levels of p21 immunostaining, which represents a common target of the two pathways. The IHC data was confirmed by quantitative analysis and Immunoblotting. Our preliminary results suggest that both HDAC4 and HDAC6 together with the TGF-β/Smad pathway may be involved in progression of GBM and this cross talking could be a useful prognostic marker in this deadly disease.

  1. The thermodynamic signature of ligand binding to histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolases is most sensitive to the flexibility in the L2-loop lining the active site pocket.

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    Meyners, Christian; Krämer, Andreas; Yildiz, Özkan; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of the thermodynamic driving forces of ligand-protein binding has been suggested to be a key component for the selection and optimization of active compounds into drug candidates. The binding enthalpy as deduced from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is usually interpreted assuming single-step binding of a ligand to one conformation of the target protein. Although successful in many cases, these assumptions are oversimplified approximations of the reality with flexible proteins and complicated binding mechanism in many if not most cases. The relationship between protein flexibility and thermodynamic signature of ligand binding is largely understudied. Directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography, enzyme kinetics and ITC methods were combined to dissect the influence of loop flexibility on the thermodynamics and mechanism of ligand binding to histone deacetylase (HDAC)-like amidohydrolases. The general ligand-protein binding mechanism comprises an energetically demanding gate opening step followed by physical binding. Increased flexibility of the L2-loop in HDAC-like amidohydrolases facilitates access of ligands to the binding pocket resulting in predominantly enthalpy-driven complex formation. The study provides evidence for the great importance of flexibility adjacent to the active site channel for the mechanism and observed thermodynamic driving forces of molecular recognition in HDAC like enzymes. The flexibility or malleability in regions adjacent to binding pockets should be given more attention when designing better drug candidates. The presented case study also suggests that the observed binding enthalpy of protein-ligand systems should be interpreted with caution, since more complicated binding mechanisms may obscure the significance regarding potential drug likeness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nalmefene is effective at reducing alcohol seeking, treating alcohol‐cocaine interactions and reducing alcohol‐induced histone deacetylases gene expression in blood

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    Calleja‐Conde, Javier; Echeverry‐Alzate, Victor; Giné, Elena; Bühler, Kora‐Mareen; Nadal, Roser; Maldonado, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Gual, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose The opioid antagonist nalmefene (selincro®) was approved for alcohol‐related disorders by the European Medicines Agency in 2013. However, there have been no studies regarding the effectiveness of nalmefene when alcohol is used in combination with cocaine. Experimental Approach Using operant alcohol self‐administration in Wistar rats and qRT‐PCR, we evaluated (i) the dose–response curve for s.c. and p.o. nalmefene; (ii) the effects of nalmefene with increasing concentrations of alcohol; (iii) the efficacy of nalmefene on cocaine‐potentiated alcohol responding; and (iv) the gene expression profiles of histone deacetylases (Hdac1–11) in peripheral blood in vivo and in the prefrontal cortex, heart, liver and kidney post mortem. Key Results S.c. (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mg·kg−1) and p.o. (10, 20, 40 mg·kg−1) nalmefene dose‐dependently reduced alcohol‐reinforced responding by up to 50.3%. This effect of nalmefene was not dependent on alcohol concentration (10, 15, 20%). Cocaine potentiated alcohol responding by approximately 40% and nalmefene (0.05 mg·kg−1) reversed this effect of cocaine. Alcohol increased Hdac gene expression in blood and nalmefene prevented the increases in Hdacs 3, 8, 5, 7, 9, 6 and 10. In the other tissues, alcohol and nalmefene either did not alter the gene expression of Hdacs, as in the prefrontal cortex, or a tissue‐Hdac‐specific effect was observed. Conclusions and Implications Nalmefene might be effective as a treatment for alcohol‐dependent patients who also use cocaine. Also, the expression of Hdacs in peripheral blood might be useful as a biomarker of alcohol use and drug response. PMID:27238566

  3. Identification of novel histone deacetylase 1 inhibitors by combined pharmacophore modeling, 3D-QSAR analysis, in silico screening and Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches

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    Choubey, Sanjay K.; Mariadasse, Richard; Rajendran, Santhosh; Jeyaraman, Jeyakanthan

    2016-12-01

    Overexpression of HDAC1, a member of Class I histone deacetylase is reported to be implicated in breast cancer. Epigenetic alteration in carcinogenesis has been the thrust of research for few decades. Increased deacetylation leads to accelerated cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis and invasion. HDAC1 is pronounced as the potential drug target towards the treatment of breast cancer. In this study, the biochemical potential of 6-aminonicotinamide derivatives was rationalized. Five point pharmacophore model with one hydrogen-bond acceptor (A3), two hydrogen-bond donors (D5, D6), one ring (R12) and one hydrophobic group (H8) was developed using 6-aminonicotinamide derivatives. The pharmacophore hypothesis yielded a 3D-QSAR model with correlation-coefficient (r2 = 0.977, q2 = 0.801) and it was externally validated with (r2pred = 0.929, r2cv = 0.850 and r2m = 0.856) which reveals the statistical significance of the model having high predictive power. The model was then employed as 3D search query for virtual screening against compound libraries (Zinc, Maybridge, Enamine, Asinex, Toslab, LifeChem and Specs) in order to identify novel scaffolds which can be experimentally validated to design future drug molecule. Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G* level was employed to explore the electronic features of the ligands involved in charge transfer reaction during receptor ligand interaction. Binding free energy (ΔGbind) calculation was done using MM/GBSA which defines the affinity of ligands towards the receptor.

  4. Low-level laser therapy suppresses the oxidative stress-induced glucocorticoids resistance in U937 cells: relevance to cytokine secretion and histone deacetylase in alveolar macrophages.

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    Souza, N H C; Marcondes, P T; Albertini, R; Mesquita-Ferrari, R A; Fernandes, K P S; Aimbire, F

    2014-01-05

    Oxidative stress is present in severe asthma and contributes to the low response to corticoids through the downregulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and the increase of cytokines. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been proven to be an anti-inflammatory. Thus, we investigated the laser effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine secretion and HDAC activity in U937 cells under oxidative stress. U937 cells activated with oxidative stress were treated with dexamethasone (dexa) or laser. Cytokines and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) were measured by ELISA whilst the HDAC was detected through colorimetric assay. LPS activated- U937 cells cytokines secretion increased with H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) as well as with TSA (trichostatin). The HDAC activity in activated U937 cells was decreased. LLLT and dexa inhibited the LPS-stimulated U937 cells cytokines, but dexa effect disappeared with H2O2. With TSA, the LLLT was less effective on H2O2/LPS stimulated- U937 cells cytokines. Dexa failed on H2O2/LPS- induced HDAC, while LLLT restored the HDAC and the dexa effect. LLLT plus prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and potentiated the laser action on oxidative stress-induced cytokine. LLLT reduced the PI3K and its effects on cytokine and HDAC was suppressed with LY294002. In situations of corticoid resistance, LLLT acts decreasing the cytokines and HDAC through the activation of the protein kinase A via the inhibition of PI3K. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recapitulation of tumor heterogeneity and molecular signatures in a 3D brain cancer model with decreased sensitivity to histone deacetylase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J Smith

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physiologically relevant pre-clinical ex vivo models recapitulating CNS tumor micro-environmental complexity will aid development of biologically-targeted agents. We present comprehensive characterization of tumor aggregates generated using the 3D Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS. METHODS: CNS cancer cell lines were grown in conventional 2D cultures and the RCCS and comparison with a cohort of 53 pediatric high grade gliomas conducted by genome wide gene expression and microRNA arrays, coupled with immunohistochemistry, ex vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy and drug sensitivity evaluation using the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat. RESULTS: Macroscopic RCCS aggregates recapitulated the heterogeneous morphology of brain tumors with a distinct proliferating rim, necrotic core and oxygen tension gradient. Gene expression and microRNA analyses revealed significant differences with 3D expression intermediate to 2D cultures and primary brain tumors. Metabolic profiling revealed differential profiles, with an increase in tumor specific metabolites in 3D. To evaluate the potential of the RCCS as a drug testing tool, we determined the efficacy of Vorinostat against aggregates of U87 and KNS42 glioblastoma cells. Both lines demonstrated markedly reduced sensitivity when assaying in 3D culture conditions compared to classical 2D drug screen approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive characterization demonstrates that 3D RCCS culture of high grade brain tumor cells has profound effects on the genetic, epigenetic and metabolic profiles of cultured cells, with these cells residing as an intermediate phenotype between that of 2D cultures and primary tumors. There is a discrepancy between 2D culture and tumor molecular profiles, and RCCS partially re-capitulates tissue specific features, allowing drug testing in a more relevant ex vivo system.

  6. Associations among dietary non-fiber carbohydrate, ruminal microbiota and epithelium G-protein-coupled receptor, and histone deacetylase regulations in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Lu, Zhongyan; Xu, Zhihui; Chen, Zhan; Shen, Zanming

    2017-09-19

    Diet-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the rumen have broad effects on the health and growth of ruminants. The microbe-G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) and microbe-histone deacetylase (HDAC) axes might be the major pathway mediating these effects. Here, an integrated approach of transcriptome sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the synergetic responses of rumen epithelium and rumen microbiota to the increased intake of dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) from 15 to 30% in the goat model. In addition to the analysis of the microbial composition and identification of the genes and signaling pathways related to the differentially expressed GPRs and HDACs, the combined data including the expression of HDACs and GPRs, the relative abundance of the bacteria, and the molar proportions of the individual SCFAs were used to identify the significant co-variation of the SCFAs, clades, and transcripts. The major bacterial clades promoted by the 30% NFC diet were related to lactate metabolism and cellulose degradation in the rumen. The predominant functions of the GPR and HDAC regulation network, under the 30% NFC diet, were related to the maintenance of epithelium integrity and the promotion of animal growth. In addition, the molar proportion of butyrate was inversely correlated with the expression of HDAC1, and the relative abundance of the bacteria belonging to Clostridum_IV was positively correlated with the expression of GPR1. This study revealed that the effects of rumen microbiota-derived SCFA on epithelium growth and metabolism were mediated by the GPR and HDAC regulation network. An understanding of these mechanisms and their relationships to dietary components provides better insights into the modulation of ruminal fermentation and metabolism in the promotion of livestock production.

  7. Photoperiodic and ovarian steroid regulation of histone deacetylase 1, 2, and 3 in Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) reproductive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Eloise W J; Coyle, Christopher S; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2017-05-15

    Epigenetic modifications in reproductive tissues have predominantly focused on pathological conditions, such as ovarian and uterine cancers. The contribution of DNA methylation and histone acetylation to the timing and control of fertility is not well described. Siberian hamsters provide an important model to investigate the relatively short-term regulation of fertility (e.g. estrous) as well as long-term timing of breeding (e.g. seasonal). Recent work has shown that DNA methyltransferase 3a (dnmt3a) expression is associated with reproductive involution. Here, the objectives were to identify the impact of photoperiod on hdac1-3 expression in hamster testicular, ovarian and uterine tissue. Then, we assessed the effect of E 2 P 4 and estrous cycling on hdac1-3 expression in uterine tissue. Testicular expression of hdac1 was significantly reduced, whereas hdac3 increased in reproductively photoregressed male hamsters; hdac2 expression did not significantly change across photoperiod conditions. There was no significant photoperiodic effect on ovarian expression of hdac1-3. Uterine expression of hdac3 expression was greater in long day hamsters; exposure to short days significantly reduced uterine hdac2 expression. Ovariectomized hamsters administered a single bolus injection of oil were found to have elevated uterine hdac2 compared to E 2 P 4 treated females 12h and 24h post injection. Uterine hdac1-3 expression was relatively constant across the estrous cycle. Altogether these data indicate tissue-dependent photoperiodic regulation of hdac1-3 expression and that E 2 P 4 may inhibit uterine hdac2 over long-term breeding cycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Activated p53 with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Enhances L-Fucose-Mediated Drug Delivery through Induction of Fucosyltransferase 8 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Okagawa

    Full Text Available The prognosis of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is dismal, underscoring the need for novel effective treatments. The α1,6-fucosyltransferase (fucosyltransferase 8, FUT8 has been reported to accelerate malignant potential in HCC. Our study aimed to investigate the regulation of FUT8 expression by p53 and develop a novel therapeutic strategy for targeting HCC cells using L-fucose-mediated drug delivery.Binding sites for p53 were searched for within the FUT8 promoter region. FUT8 expression was assessed by immunoblotting. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were performed to analyze p53 binding to the FUT8 promoter. The delivery of Cy5.5-encapsulated L-fucose-liposomes (Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 to a Lens Culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3-expressing HCC cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The induction of FUT8 by histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi -inducing acetylated -p53 was evaluated by immunoblotting. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to assess whether the activation of p53 by HDACi affected the uptake of Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 by HCC cells. The cytotoxicity of an L-fucose-bound liposome carrying sorafenib (Fuc-Lip-sorafenib with HDACi was assessed in vivo and in vitro.The knock down of p53 with siRNA led to decreased FUT8 expression. ChIP assays revealed p53 binds to the FUT8 promoter region. Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated the specific uptake of Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 into AFP-L3-expressing HCC cells in a p53- and FUT8-dependent manner. HDACi upregulated the uptake of Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 by HCC cells by increasing FUT8 via acetylated -p53. The addition of a HDACi increased apoptosis induced by Fuc-Lip-sorafenib in HCC cells.Our findings reveal that FUT8 is a p53 target gene and suggest that p53 activated by HDACi induces Fuc-Lip-sorafenib uptake by HCC cells, highlighting this pathway as a promising therapeutic intervention for HCC.

  9. Activated p53 with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Enhances L-Fucose-Mediated Drug Delivery through Induction of Fucosyltransferase 8 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Yutaka; Takada, Kohichi; Arihara, Yohei; Kikuchi, Shohei; Osuga, Takahiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Kamihara, Yusuke; Hayasaka, Naotaka; Usami, Makoto; Murase, Kazuyuki; Miyanishi, Koji; Kobune, Masayoshi; Kato, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dismal, underscoring the need for novel effective treatments. The α1,6-fucosyltransferase (fucosyltransferase 8, FUT8) has been reported to accelerate malignant potential in HCC. Our study aimed to investigate the regulation of FUT8 expression by p53 and develop a novel therapeutic strategy for targeting HCC cells using L-fucose-mediated drug delivery. Binding sites for p53 were searched for within the FUT8 promoter region. FUT8 expression was assessed by immunoblotting. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to analyze p53 binding to the FUT8 promoter. The delivery of Cy5.5-encapsulated L-fucose-liposomes (Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5) to a Lens Culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3)-expressing HCC cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The induction of FUT8 by histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) -inducing acetylated -p53 was evaluated by immunoblotting. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to assess whether the activation of p53 by HDACi affected the uptake of Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 by HCC cells. The cytotoxicity of an L-fucose-bound liposome carrying sorafenib (Fuc-Lip-sorafenib) with HDACi was assessed in vivo and in vitro. The knock down of p53 with siRNA led to decreased FUT8 expression. ChIP assays revealed p53 binds to the FUT8 promoter region. Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated the specific uptake of Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 into AFP-L3-expressing HCC cells in a p53- and FUT8-dependent manner. HDACi upregulated the uptake of Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 by HCC cells by increasing FUT8 via acetylated -p53. The addition of a HDACi increased apoptosis induced by Fuc-Lip-sorafenib in HCC cells. Our findings reveal that FUT8 is a p53 target gene and suggest that p53 activated by HDACi induces Fuc-Lip-sorafenib uptake by HCC cells, highlighting this pathway as a promising therapeutic intervention for HCC.

  10. Recruitment by the Repressor Freud-1 of Histone Deacetylase-Brg1 Chromatin Remodeling Complexes to Strengthen HTR1A Gene Repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souslova, Tatiana; Mirédin, Kim; Millar, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Five-prime repressor element under dual repression binding protein-1 (Freud-1)/CC2D1A is genetically linked to intellectual disability and implicated in neuronal development. Freud-1 represses the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor gene HTR1A by histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent or HDAC-independent mechanisms in 5-HT1A-negative (e.g., HEK-293) or 5-HT1A-expressing cells (SK-N-SH), respectively. To identify the underlying mechanisms, Freud-1-associated proteins were affinity-purified from HEK-293 nuclear extracts and members of the Brg1/SMARCCA chromatin remodeling and Sin3A-HDAC corepressor complexes were identified. Pull-down assays using recombinant proteins showed that Freud-1 interacts directly with the Brg1 carboxyl-terminal domain; interaction with Brg1 required the carboxyl-terminal of Freud-1. Freud-1 complexes in HEK-293 and SK-N-SH cells differed, with low levels of BAF170/SMARCC2 and BAF57/SMARCE1 in HEK-293 cells and low-undetectable BAF155/SMARCC1, Sin3A, and HDAC1/2 in SK-N-SH cells. Similarly, by quantitative chromatin immuno-precipitation, Brg1-BAF170/57 and Sin3A-HDAC complexes were observed at the HTR1A promoter in HEK-293 cells, whereas in SK-N-SH cells, Sin3A-HDAC proteins were not detected. Quantifying 5-HT1A receptor mRNA levels in cells treated with siRNA to Freud-1, Brg1, or both RNAs addressed the functional role of the Freud-1-Brg1 complex. In HEK-293 cells, 5-HT1A receptor mRNA levels were increased only when both Freud-1 and Brg1 were depleted, but in SK-N-SH cells, depletion of either protein upregulated 5-HT1A receptor RNA. Thus, recruitment by Freud-1 of Brg1, BAF155, and Sin3A-HDAC complexes appears to strengthen repression of the HTR1A gene to prevent its expression inappropriate cell types, while recruitment of the Brg1-BAF170/57 complex is permissive to 5-HT1A receptor expression. Alterations in Freud-1-Brg1 interactions in mutants associated with intellectual disability could impair gene repression leading to altered neuronal

  11. Valuable insight into the anticancer activity of the platinum-histone deacetylase inhibitor conjugate, cis-[Pt(NH3)2malSAHA-2H)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Viktor; Griffith, Darren M; Kisova, Anna; Kostrhunova, Hana; Zerzankova, Lenka; Marmion, Celine J; Kasparkova, Jana

    2012-07-02

    cis-[Pt(II)(NH3)2(malSAHA-2H)], a cisplatin adduct conjugated to a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), was previously developed as a potential anticancer agent. This Pt-HDACi conjugate was demonstrated to have comparable cytotoxicity to cisplatin against A2780 ovarian cancer cells but significantly reduced cytotoxicity against a representative normal cell line, NHDF. Thus, with a view to (i) understanding more deeply the effects that may play an important role in the biological (pharmacological) properties of this new conjugate against cancer cells and (ii) developing the next generation of Pt-HDACi conjugates, the cytotoxicity, DNA binding, cellular accumulation and HDAC inhibitory activity of cis-[Pt(II)(NH3)2(malSAHA-2H)] were investigated and are reported herein. cis-[Pt(II)(NH3)2(malSAHA-2H)] was found to have marginally lower cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines as compared to cisplatin and SAHA. cis-[Pt(II)(NH3)2(malSAHA-2H)] was also found to accumulate better in cancer cells but bind DNA less readily as compared to cisplatin. DNA binding experiments indicated that cis-[Pt(II)(NH3)2(malSAHA-2H)] bound DNA more effectively in cellulo as compared to in cell-free media. Activation of the Pt-HDACi conjugate was therefore investigated. The binding of cis-[Pt(II)(NH3)2(malSAHA-2H)] to DNA was found to be enhanced by the presence of thiol-containing molecules such as glutathione and thiourea, and activation occurred in cytosolic but not nuclear extract of human cancer cells. The activity of cis-[Pt(NH3)2(malSAHA-2H)] as a HDAC inhibitor was also examined; the conjugate exhibited no inhibition of HDAC activity in CH1 cells. In light of these results, novel Pt-HDACi conjugates are currently being developed, with particular emphasis, through subtle structural modifications, on enhancing the rate of DNA binding and enhancing HDAC inhibitory activity.

  12. Recruitment by the Repressor Freud-1 of Histone Deacetylase-Brg1 Chromatin Remodeling Complexes to Strengthen HTR1A Gene Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souslova, Tatiana; Mirédin, Kim; Millar, Anne M; Albert, Paul R

    2017-12-01

    Five-prime repressor element under dual repression binding protein-1 (Freud-1)/CC2D1A is genetically linked to intellectual disability and implicated in neuronal development. Freud-1 represses the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor gene HTR1A by histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent or HDAC-independent mechanisms in 5-HT1A-negative (e.g., HEK-293) or 5-HT1A-expressing cells (SK-N-SH), respectively. To identify the underlying mechanisms, Freud-1-associated proteins were affinity-purified from HEK-293 nuclear extracts and members of the Brg1/SMARCCA chromatin remodeling and Sin3A-HDAC corepressor complexes were identified. Pull-down assays using recombinant proteins showed that Freud-1 interacts directly with the Brg1 carboxyl-terminal domain; interaction with Brg1 required the carboxyl-terminal of Freud-1. Freud-1 complexes in HEK-293 and SK-N-SH cells differed, with low levels of BAF170/SMARCC2 and BAF57/SMARCE1 in HEK-293 cells and low-undetectable BAF155/SMARCC1, Sin3A, and HDAC1/2 in SK-N-SH cells. Similarly, by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation, Brg1-BAF170/57 and Sin3A-HDAC complexes were observed at the HTR1A promoter in HEK-293 cells, whereas in SK-N-SH cells, Sin3A-HDAC proteins were not detected. Quantifying 5-HT1A receptor mRNA levels in cells treated with siRNA to Freud-1, Brg1, or both RNAs addressed the functional role of the Freud-1-Brg1 complex. In HEK-293 cells, 5-HT1A receptor mRNA levels were increased only when both Freud-1 and Brg1 were depleted, but in SK-N-SH cells, depletion of either protein upregulated 5-HT1A receptor RNA. Thus, recruitment by Freud-1 of Brg1, BAF155, and Sin3A-HDAC complexes appears to strengthen repression of the HTR1A gene to prevent its expression inappropriate cell types, while recruitment of the Brg1-BAF170/57 complex is permissive to 5-HT1A receptor expression. Alterations in Freud-1-Brg1 interactions in mutants associated with intellectual disability could impair gene repression leading to altered neuronal

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors sensitize lung cancer cells to hyperthermia: involvement of Ku70/SirT-1 in thermo-protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K Hassan

    Full Text Available This study describes the sensitization mechanism to thermal stress by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs in lung cancer cells and shows that Ku70, based on its acetylation status, mediates the protection of lung cancer from hyperthermia (42.5°C, 1-6 hrs. Ku70 regulates apoptosis by sequestering pro-apoptotic Bax. However, its role in thermal stress is not fully understood. The findings showed that, pre-treating lung cancer cells with HDACIs, nicotinamide (NM or Trichostatin A (TsA or both significantly enhanced hyperthermia-induced Bax-dependent apoptosis in PC-10 cells. We found that hyperthermia induces SirT-1, Sirtuin, upregulation but not HDAC6 or SirT-3, therefore transfection with dominant negative SirT-1 (Y/H also eliminated the protection and resulted in more cell death by hyperthermia, in H1299 cells through Bax activation. Hyperthermia alone primed lung cancer cells to apoptosis without prominent death. After hyperthermia Bax was upregulated, Bcl-2 was downregulated, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was inversed and Bax/Bcl-2 heterodimer was dissociated. Although hyperthermia did not affect total Ku70 expression level, it stimulated Ku70 deacetylation, which in turn could bind more Bax in the PC-10 cells. These findings suggest an escape mechanism from hyperthermia-induced Bax activation. To verify the role of Ku70 in this protection mechanism, Ku70 was silenced by siRNA. Ku70 silencing significantly sensitized the lung cancer cells to hyperthermia. The Ku70 KD cells underwent cytotoxic G1 arrest and caspase-dependant apoptosis when compared to scrambled transfectants which showed only G2/M cytostatic arrest in the cell lines investigated, suggesting an additional cell cycle-dependent, novel, role of Ku70 in protection from hyperthermia. Taken together, our data show a Ku70-dependent protection mechanism from hyperthermia. Targeting Ku70 and/or its acetylation during hyperthermia may represent a promising therapeutic approach for lung cancer.

  14. Neuroprotection by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A in a model of lipopolysaccharide-sensitised neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleiss Bobbi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal brain injury is complex and often associated with both inflammation and hypoxia-ischaemia (HI. In adult inflammatory brain injury models, therapies to increase acetylation are efficacious in reducing inflammation and cerebral injury. Our aim in the present study was to examine the neuropathological and functional effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi trichostatin A (TSA in a model of neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS-sensitised HI. We hypothesised that, by decreasing inflammation, TSA would improve injury and behavioural outcome. Furthermore, TSA’s effects on oligodendrocyte development, which is acetylation-dependent, were investigated. Methods On postnatal day 8 (P8, male and female mice were exposed to LPS together with or without TSA. On P9 (14 hours after LPS, mice were exposed to HI (50 minutes at 10% O2. Neuropathology was assessed at 24 hours, 5 days and 27 days post-LPS/HI via immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot analysis for markers of grey matter (microtubule-associated protein 2, white matter (myelin basic protein and cell death (activated caspase-3. Effects of TSA on LPS or LPS/HI-induced inflammation (cytokines and microglia number were assessed by Luminex assay and immunohistochemistry. Expression of acetylation-dependent oligodendrocyte maturational corepressors was assessed with quantitative PCR 6 hours after LPS and at 24 hours and 27 days post-LPS/HI. Animal behaviour was monitored with the open-field and trace fear-conditioning paradigms at 25 days post-LPS/HI to identify functional implications of changes in neuropathology associated with TSA treatment. Results TSA induced increased Ac-H4 in females only after LPS exposure. Also only in females, TSA reduced grey matter and white matter injury at 5 days post-LPS/HI. Treatment altered animal behaviour in the open field and improved learning in the fear-conditioning test in females compared with LPS/HI-only females at

  15. Binding of AR to SMRT/N-CoR complex and its co-operation with PSA promoter in prostate cancer cells treated with natural histone deacetylase inhibitor NaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtkova, K; Paskova, L; Matijescukova, N; Strnad, M; Kolar, Z

    2010-01-01

    Signaling through the androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression. The AR is a classical nuclear receptor (NR) providing a link between signaling molecule and transcription response. Histone deacetylase inhibitors- (HDACI) have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on prostate cancer cells and their implication in silence AR signaling may have potential therapeutic use. We aimed to study the inhibitory effects of the corepressor SMRT (Silencing Mediator for Retinoid and Thyroid -hormone receptors) which forms a complex together with nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) and with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) on AR activity.The androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell line C4-2 both AR-positive, and androgen-insensitive DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines were treated with two HDACIs, sodium butyrate (NaB) and/or trichostatin A (TSA). We amplified immunoprecipitated DNA by conventional PCR and in the -following step we used the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis coupled with quantitative PCR for monitoring NaB induced formation of AR-SMRT/N-CoR complex binding on the PSA promoter. The co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed increase in AR-SMRT formation in NaB treated cells. Simultaneously, the Western blot analysis showed a significant decrease in AR protein expression. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of NaB on AR gene expression seems to be specific and unique for prostate cancer AR-positive cell lines and corresponds with its ability to stimulate AR-SMRT complex formation. We suggest that AR and SMRT/N-CoR corepressors may form a stable complex in vitro and NaB may facilitate the interaction between AR nuclear steroid receptor and SMRT corepressor prote.

  16. Efficient organic monoliths prepared by γ-radiation induced polymerization in the evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors by capillary(nano)-high performance liquid chromatography and ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaloni, Elena; Barbarino, Marcella; Cabri, Walter; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Forte, Michela; Gasparrini, Francesco; Giorgi, Fabrizio; Pierini, Marco; Simone, Patrizia; Ursini, Ornella; Villani, Claudio

    2011-06-24

    New monolithic HPLC columns were prepared by γ-radiation-triggered polymerization of hexyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate monomers in the presence of porogenic solvents. Polymerization was carried out directly within capillary (250-200 μm I.D.) and nano (100-75 μm I.D.) fused-silica tubes yielding highly efficient columns for cap(nano)-LC applications. The columns were applied in the complete separation of core (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) and linker (H1) histones under gradient elution with UV and/or electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) detections. Large selectivity towards H1, H2A-1, H2A-2, H2B, H3-1, H3-2 and H4 histones and complete separation were obtained within 8 min time windows, using fast gradients and very high linear flow velocities, up to 11 mm/s for high throughput applications. The method developed was the basis of a simple and efficient protocol for the evaluation of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones from NCI-H460 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and HCT-116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. The study was extended to monitoring the level of histone acetylation after inhibition of Histone DeACetylase (HDAC) enzymes with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the first HDAC inhibitor approved by the FDA for cancer therapy. Attractive features of our cap(nano)-LC/MS approach are the short analysis time, the minute amount of sample required to complete the whole procedure and the stability of the polymethacrylate-based columns. A lab-made software package ClustMass was ad hoc developed and used to elaborate deconvoluted mass spectral data (aligning, averaging, clustering) and calculate the potency of HDAC inhibitors, expressed through a Relative half maximal Inhibitory Concentration parameter, namely R_IC(50) and an averaged acetylation degree. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate LL-37 expression independent of toll-like receptor mediated signalling in airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Quan; Liu, Juan; Roschmann, Kristina Irene Lisolette; van Egmond, Danielle; Golebski, Korneliusz; Fokkens, Wytske Johanna; Wang, Dehui; van Drunen, Cornelis Maria

    2013-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors have been proposed as anticancer agents. However, their roles in innate genes expression remain not well known. Cathelicidin LL-37 is one of the few human bactericidal peptides, but the regulation of histone acetylation on LL-37 expression in airway epithelium remains largely

  18. mRNA levels of related Abcb genes change opposite to each other upon histone deacetylase inhibition in drug-resistant rat hepatoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adám Sike

    Full Text Available The multidrug-resistant phenotype of tumor cells is acquired via an increased capability of drug efflux by ABC transporters and causes serious problems in cancer treatment. With the aim to uncover whether changes induced by epigenetic mechanisms in the expression level of drug transporter genes correlates with changes in the drug resistance phenotypes of resistant cells, we studied the expression of drug transporters in rat hepatoma cell lines. We found that of the three major rat ABC transporter genes Abcb1a, Abcb1b and Abcc1 the activity of only Abcb1b increased significantly in colchicine-selected, drug-resistant cells. Increased transporter expression in drug-resistant cells results primarily from transcriptional activation. A change in histone modification at the regulatory regions of the chromosomally adjacent Abcb1a and Abcb1b genes differentially affects the levels of corresponding mRNAs. Transcriptional up- and down-regulation accompany an increase in acetylation levels of histone H3 lysine 9 at the promoter regions of Abcb1b and Abcb1a, respectively. Drug efflux activity, however, does not follow tightly the transcriptional activity of drug transporter genes in hepatoma cells. Our results point out the need for careful analysis of cause-and-effect relationships between changes in histone modification, drug transporter expression and drug resistance phenotypes.

  19. Inhibition of class I histone deacetylases in non-small cell lung cancer by honokiol leads to suppression of cancer cell growth and induction of cell death in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2013-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 80% of all types of lung cancer. Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia grandiflora, on NSCLC cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of NSCLC cells (A549, H1299, H460 and H226) with honokiol (20, 40 and 60 µM) inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, reduced the levels of class I HDAC proteins and enhanced histone acetyltransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of honokiol were associated with a significant reduction in the viability of NSCLC cells. Concomitant treatment of cells with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, prevented honokiol-induced degradation of class I HDACs, suggesting that honokiol reduced the levels of HDACs in NSCLC cells through proteasomal degradation. Valproic acid, an inhibitor of HDACs, exhibited a similar pattern of reduced viability and induction of death of NSCLC cells. Treatment of A549 and H1299 cells with honokiol resulted in an increase in G 1 phase arrest, and a decrease in the levels of cyclin D1, D2 and cyclin dependent kinases. Further, administration of honokiol by oral gavage significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous A549 and H1299 tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice, which was associated with the induction of apoptotic cell death and marked inhibition of class I HDACs proteins and HDAC activity in the tumor xenograft tissues. Together, our study provides new insights into the role of class I HDACs in the chemotherapeutic effects of honokiol on lung cancer cells.

  20. Lack of somatic mutations in the catalytic domains of CREBBP and EP300 genes implies a role for histone deacetylase inhibition in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.L.; Grønbæk, K.; Hasselbalch, H.

    2012-01-01

    with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) has not previously been performed. DNA was purified from diagnostic samples of 56 MPN patients. We designed a mutation screening assay based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing. Our results suggest that CREBBP and EP300 mutations are not major......Somatic mutations of the two genes coding for the histone acetyltransferase genes, CREEBP and EP300 have been identified as a pathogenetic mechanism shared by common forms of B-cell non-Hodgkinós lymphomas. A screening for somatic mutations in CREEBP and EP300 genes in patients...

  1. The combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor with the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity by activating both apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue; Kadia, Tapan; Tong, Weigang; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Yu; Yang, Hui; Hu, Yumin; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Viallet, Jean; O'Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2010-08-01

    Single-agent histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have limited clinical activity in human leukemia. Although the way HDACi exert their antileukemia effect is not fully understood, it is accepted that induction of apoptosis is important. We hypothesized, therefore, that combination of an HDACi with a proapoptotic agent, such as the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic GX15-070, could result in enhanced antileukemia activity. We analyzed the cellular and molecular effects of two different HDACi (MGCD0103 and vorinostat) in combination with GX15-070 in leukemia cell lines and primary acute myelogenous leukemia cells. We showed that the combination had synergistic antileukemia effect both in leukemia cell lines and in primary acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Using molecular markers and electron microscopy, we observed that in addition to apoptosis, autophagy accounts for the nonapoptotic decrease in cell viability, an effect that could be inhibited by chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy. Finally, we established a role for calpain activity in the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis by this combination. The combination of an HDACi and GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity, and the effect is mediated by induction of apoptosis and autophagy. The combination should be studied in clinical trials of leukemia and the role of autophagy in leukemia therapy needs to be better understood. (c) 2010 AACR.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin induces efficient tumor cell lysis via selective down-regulation of LMP1 and c-myc expression in EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Areumnuri; Kang, Hye Jin; Park, Sunhoo; Kim, Dong Wan; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2015-08-10

    We investigated the role of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, romidepsin, in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with poor clinical outcomes. We used EBV-positive and EBV-negative DLBCL cell lines and generated two EBV-transfected cell lines, LY7/EBV and U2932/EBV. Romidepsin was cytotoxic to cultured EBV-positive cells via the activation of the caspase cascade. Moreover, in vivo mice xenograft models demonstrated the cytotoxicity of romidepsin to EBV-positive DLBCL cells. Romidepsin induced cytotoxicity via the reduction of LMP1 and c-myc expression in EBV-positive cells. Inhibiting either LMP1 or c-myc using small inhibitory RNAs caused partial cytotoxicity in EBV-positive Farage and U2932/EBV lines. The dual inhibition of LMP1 and c-myc showed a synergistic cytotoxic effect in EBV-positive cells similar in magnitude to that of romidepsin alone. In addition, either double blockade of LMP1 and c-myc activity or romidepsin single treatment activated EBV lytic cycle in EBV-positive cells. In conclusion, romidepsin exerts strong anti-tumor activity in EBV-positive DLBCL via the inhibition of both LMP1 and c-myc. Our findings indicate that romidepsin might be a promising treatment for EBV-positive DLBCL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene expression-signature of belinostat in cell lines is specific for histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment, with a corresponding signature in xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monks, A.; Hose, C.D.; Pezzoli, P.

    2009-01-01

    Belinostat is a hydroxamate-type histone deactylase inhibitor (HDACi), which has recently entered phase I and II clinical trials. Microarray-based analysis of belinostat-treated cell lines showed an impact on genes associated with the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and downregulation of the aurora...... kinase pathway. Expression of 25 dysregulated genes was measured in eight differentially sensitive cell lines using a novel high-throughput assay that combines multiplex reverse transcriptase-PCR and fluorescence capillary electrophoresis. Sensitivity to belinostat and the magnitude of changes in overall...... gene modulation were significantly correlated. A belinostat-gene profile was specific for HDACi in three cell lines when compared with equipotent concentrations of four mechanistically different chemotherapeutic agents: 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, paclitaxel, and thiotepa. Belinostat- and trichostatin...

  4. The effect of food on the bioavailability of panobinostat, an orally active pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Frank, Richard; Dandamudi, Uday B; Hengelage, Thomas; Zhao, Lily; Gazi, Lucien; Porro, Maria Grazia; Woo, Margaret M; Lewis, Lionel D

    2012-02-01

    Panobinostat is a novel oral pan-deacetylase inhibitor with promising anti-cancer activity. The study aimed to determine the influence of food on the oral bioavailability of panobinostat. This multicenter study consisted of a randomized, three-way crossover, food-effect study period (cycle 1) followed by single-agent panobinostat continual treatment phase in patients with advanced cancer. Patients received panobinostat 20 mg twice weekly, and panobinostat pharmacokinetics was investigated on days 1, 8, and 15 with a randomly assigned sequence of three prandial states (fasting, high-fat, and normal breakfast). Thirty-six patients were assessed for the food effect on pharmacokinetics and safety in cycle 1, after which 29 patients continued treatment, receiving single-agent panobinostat. Safety and antitumor activity were assessed during the extension period. Panobinostat systemic exposure was marginally reduced (14-16%) following food [geometric mean ratio (GMR) of the AUC(0-∞)/high-fat breakfast/fasting, 0.84 (90% confidence interval {CI}, 0.74-0.96); normal breakfast/fasting, 0.86 (90% CI, 0.75-1.00)], and interpatient variability (coefficient of variation, 59%) remained essentially unchanged with or without food. Panobinostat C (max) was reduced by 44% (high-fat) and 36% (normal) with median T (max) prolonged by 1-1.5 h following food. Panobinostat was well tolerated, with thrombocytopenia, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting as common adverse events, and demonstrated antitumor activity with one patient with a partial response and six patients with stable disease as best response. Food produced minor changes in oral panobinostat exposure; thus, panobinostat can be given without regard to food intake in future clinical studies.

  5. CCLab--a multi-objective genetic algorithm based combinatorial library design software and an application for histone deacetylase inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guanghua; Xue, Mengzhu; Su, Mingbo; Hu, Dingyu; Li, Yanlian; Xiong, Bing; Ma, Lanping; Meng, Tao; Chen, Yuelei; Li, Jingya; Li, Jia; Shen, Jingkang

    2012-07-15

    The introduction of the multi-objective optimization has dramatically changed the virtual combinatorial library design, which can consider many objectives simultaneously, such as synthesis cost and drug-likeness, thus may increase positive rates of biological active compounds. Here we described a software called CCLab (Combinatorial Chemistry Laboratory) for combinatorial library design based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. Tests of the convergence ability and the ratio to re-take the building blocks in the reference library were conducted to assess the software in silico, and then it was applied to a real case of designing a 5×6 HDAC inhibitor library. Sixteen compounds in the resulted library were synthesized, and the histone deactetylase (HDAC) enzymatic assays proved that 14 compounds showed inhibitory ratios more than 50% against tested 3 HDAC enzymes at concentration of 20 μg/mL, with IC(50) values of 3 compounds comparable to SAHA. These results demonstrated that the CCLab software could enhance the hit rates of the designed library and would be beneficial for medicinal chemists to design focused library in drug development (the software can be downloaded at: http://202.127.30.184:8080/drugdesign.html). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Histone deacetylase turnover and recovery in sulforaphane-treated colon cancer cells: competing actions of 14-3-3 and Pin1 in HDAC3/SMRT corepressor complex dissociation/reassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Praveen; Delage, Barbara; Dashwood, W Mohaiza; Yu, Tian-Wei; Wuth, Bradyn; Williams, David E; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2011-05-30

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anti-cancer agents. Dietary constituents share certain properties of HDAC inhibitor drugs, including the ability to induce global histone acetylation, turn-on epigenetically-silenced genes, and trigger cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation in cancer cells. One such example is sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from the glucosinolate precursor glucoraphanin, which is abundant in broccoli. Here, we examined the time-course and reversibility of SFN-induced HDAC changes in human colon cancer cells. Cells underwent progressive G2/M arrest over the period 6-72 h after SFN treatment, during which time HDAC activity increased in the vehicle-treated controls but not in SFN-treated cells. There was a time-dependent loss of class I and selected class II HDAC proteins, with HDAC3 depletion detected ahead of other HDACs. Mechanism studies revealed no apparent effect of calpain, proteasome, protease or caspase inhibitors, but HDAC3 was rescued by cycloheximide or actinomycin D treatment. Among the protein partners implicated in the HDAC3 turnover mechanism, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) was phosphorylated in the nucleus within 6 h of SFN treatment, as was HDAC3 itself. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed SFN-induced dissociation of HDAC3/SMRT complexes coinciding with increased binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase 1 (Pin1). Pin1 knockdown blocked the SFN-induced loss of HDAC3. Finally, SFN treatment for 6 or 24 h followed by SFN removal from the culture media led to complete recovery of HDAC activity and HDAC protein expression, during which time cells were released from G2/M arrest. The current investigation supports a model in which protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SMRT and HDAC3 in the nucleus, resulting in dissociation of the corepressor complex and enhanced binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 or Pin1. In

  7. Histone deacetylase turnover and recovery in sulforaphane-treated colon cancer cells: competing actions of 14-3-3 and Pin1 in HDAC3/SMRT corepressor complex dissociation/reassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams David E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anti-cancer agents. Dietary constituents share certain properties of HDAC inhibitor drugs, including the ability to induce global histone acetylation, turn-on epigenetically-silenced genes, and trigger cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation in cancer cells. One such example is sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from the glucosinolate precursor glucoraphanin, which is abundant in broccoli. Here, we examined the time-course and reversibility of SFN-induced HDAC changes in human colon cancer cells. Results Cells underwent progressive G2/M arrest over the period 6-72 h after SFN treatment, during which time HDAC activity increased in the vehicle-treated controls but not in SFN-treated cells. There was a time-dependent loss of class I and selected class II HDAC proteins, with HDAC3 depletion detected ahead of other HDACs. Mechanism studies revealed no apparent effect of calpain, proteasome, protease or caspase inhibitors, but HDAC3 was rescued by cycloheximide or actinomycin D treatment. Among the protein partners implicated in the HDAC3 turnover mechanism, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT was phosphorylated in the nucleus within 6 h of SFN treatment, as was HDAC3 itself. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed SFN-induced dissociation of HDAC3/SMRT complexes coinciding with increased binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase 1 (Pin1. Pin1 knockdown blocked the SFN-induced loss of HDAC3. Finally, SFN treatment for 6 or 24 h followed by SFN removal from the culture media led to complete recovery of HDAC activity and HDAC protein expression, during which time cells were released from G2/M arrest. Conclusion The current investigation supports a model in which protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SMRT and HDAC3 in the nucleus, resulting in dissociation of the corepressor

  8. Transcriptional repression of Aurora-A gene by wild-type p53 through directly binding to its promoter with histone deacetylase 1 and mSin3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Ying; Teng, Chieh-Lin Jerry; Lin, Tsung-Chieh Chester; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Wu, Chun-Chi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we firstly showed that p53 transcriptionally represses Aurora-A gene expression through directly binding to its promoter. DNA affinity precipitation assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that p53 physically bound to the Aurora-A promoter. Moreover, the in vitro and in vivo assays showed that p53 directly bound to the Aurora-A promoter together with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and mSin3a as corepressors. Furthermore, we identified that the nucleotides -360 to -354 (CCTGCCC), upstream of the Aurora-A transcriptional start site, was responsible for the p53-mediated repression. Mutation within this site disrupted its interaction with p53, mSin3a and HDAC1, as well as attenuated the repressive effect of p53 on Aurora-A promoter activity. Treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a HDAC1 inhibitor, disrupted the interaction of p53-HDAC1-mSin3a complex with the nucleotides -365∼-345 region, and enhanced the Aurora-A promoter activity and gene expression. Additionally, knockdown of p53 or mSin3a also drastically blocked the formation of p53-HDAC1-mSin3a repressive complex onto this promoter region and elevated the Aurora-A promoter activity and gene expression. Moreover, the p53-HDAC1-mSin3a repressive complex also involved in the inhibition of Aurora-A gene expression upon cisplatin treatment. Finally, the clinical investigation showed that Aurora-A and p53 exhibited an inverse correlation in both the expression level and prognostic status, and the low p53/high Aurora-A showed the poorest prognosis of NSCLC patients. Our findings showed novel regulatory mechanisms of p53 in regulating Aurora-A gene expression in NSCLC cells. © 2017 UICC.

  9. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna [Laboratorio di Immunologia, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IEOS-CNR), Napoli (Italy); Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Renzo, Gianfranco [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Canzoniero, Lorella M.T., E-mail: canzon@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy); Formisano, Luigi, E-mail: cformisa@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin.

  10. Histone deacetylases and NF-kB signaling coordinate expression of CX3CL1 in epithelial cells in response to microbial challenge by suppressing miR-424 and miR-503.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhou

    Full Text Available The NF-kB pathway is key to epithelial immune defense and has been implicated in secretion of antimicrobial peptides, release of cytokines/chemokines to mobilize immune effector cells, and activation of adaptive immunity. The expression of many inflammatory genes following infection involves the remodeling of the chromatin structure. We reported here that histone deacetylases (HDACs and NF-kB signaling coordinate expression of CX3CL1 in epithelial cells following Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Upregulation of CX3CL1 was detected in cultured human biliary epithelial cells following infection. Expression of miR-424 and miR-503 was downregulated, and was involved in the induction of CX3CL1 in infected cells. C. parvum infection suppressed transcription of the mir-424-503 gene in a NF-kB- and HDAC-dependent manner. Increased promoter recruitment of NF-kB p50 and HDACs, and decreased promoter H3 acetylation associated with the mir-424-503 gene were observed in infected cells. Upregulation of CX3CL1 in biliary epithelial cells and increased infiltration of CX3CR1(+ cells were detected during C. parvum infection in vivo. Induction of CX3CL1 and downregulation of miR-424 and miR-503 were also detected in epithelial cells in response to LPS stimulation. The above results indicate that HDACs and NF-kB signaling coordinate epithelial expression of CX3CL1 to promote mucosal antimicrobial defense through suppression of the mir-424-503 gene.

  11. Cathepsin H-Mediated Degradation of HDAC4 for Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Hepatic Stellate Cells: Implications of Epigenetic Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Fibrosis through Stabilization of Class IIa Histone Deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zemin; Liu, Yu; Qin, Lan; Wu, Pengfei; Xia, Zanxian; Luo, Mei; Zeng, Yilan; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Ju, Zongyun; Su, Danmei; Kang, Han; Xiao, Zhixiong; Zheng, Sujun; Duan, Zhongping; Hu, Richard; Wang, Qiang; Pandol, Stephen J; Han, Yuan-Ping

    2017-04-01

    In three-dimensional extracellular matrix, mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) gain the ability to express matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on injury signals. In contrast, in myofibroblastic HSCs in fibrotic liver, many MMP genes are silenced into an epigenetically nonpermissive state. The mechanism by which the three-dimensional extracellular matrix confers the MMP genes into an epigenetically permissive state has not been well characterized. In continuation of previous work, we show here that the up-regulation of MMP genes is mediated through degradation of class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) by certain cysteine cathepsins (Cts). In three-dimensional extracellular matrix culture, CtsH, among other cysteine cathepsins, was up-regulated and localized as puncta in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in a complex with HDAC4 for its degradation. Conversely, along with HSC trans-differentiation, CtsH and CtsL were progressively down-regulated, whereas HDAC4 was concurrently stabilized. The inhibition of cysteine cathepsins by specific proteinase inhibitors or chloroquine, which raises cellular pH, restored HDAC4. Recombinant CtsH could break down HDAC4 in the transfected cells and in vitro at acidic pH. In human cirrhotic liver, activated HSCs express high levels of class IIa HDACs but little CtsH. We propose that cysteine cathepsin-mediated degradation of class IIa HDACs plays a key role in the modulation of MMP expression/suppression and HSC functions in tissue injury and fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of treatment with suppressive combination antiretroviral drug therapy and the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; (SAHA on SIV-infected Chinese rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binhua Ling

    Full Text Available Viral reservoirs-persistent residual virus despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART-remain an obstacle to cure of HIV-1 infection. Difficulty studying reservoirs in patients underscores the need for animal models that mimics HIV infected humans on cART. We studied SIV-infected Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Ch-RM treated with intensive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and 3 weeks of treatment with the histone deacetyalse inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA.SIVmac251 infected Ch-RM received reverse transcriptase inhibitors PMPA and FTC and integrase inhibitor L-870812 beginning 7 weeks post infection. Integrase inhibitor L-900564 and boosted protease inhibitor treatment with Darunavir and Ritonavir were added later. cART was continued for 45 weeks, with daily SAHA administered for the last 3 weeks, followed by euthanasia/necropsy. Plasma viral RNA and cell/tissue-associated SIV gag RNA and DNA were quantified by qRT-PCR/qPCR, with flow cytometry monitoring changes in immune cell populations.Upon cART initiation, plasma viremia declined, remaining <30 SIV RNA copy Eq/ml during cART, with occasional blips. Decreased viral replication was associated with decreased immune activation and partial restoration of intestinal CD4+ T cells. SAHA was well tolerated but did not result in demonstrable treatment-associated changes in plasma or cell associated viral parameters.The ability to achieve and sustain virological suppression makes cART-suppressed, SIV-infected Ch-RM a potentially useful model to evaluate interventions targeting residual virus. However, despite intensive cART over one year, persistent viral DNA and RNA remained in tissues of all three animals. While well tolerated, three weeks of SAHA treatment did not demonstrably impact viral RNA levels in plasma or tissues; perhaps reflecting dosing, sampling and assay limitations.

  13. Histone acetylation in astrocytes suppresses GFAP and stimulates a reorganization of the intermediate filament network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanski, Regina; Sneeboer, Marjolein A M; van Bodegraven, Emma J; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Kropff, Wietske; Vermunt, Marit W.; Creyghton, Menno P; De Filippis, Lidia; Vescovi, Angelo; Aronica, Eleonora; van Tijn, P.; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    2014-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main intermediate filament in astrocytes and is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms during development. We demonstrate that histone acetylation also controls GFAP expression in mature astrocytes. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with

  14. HTP Nutraceutical Screening for Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Effects of HDACis on Tumor-suppressing miRNAs by Trichostatin A and Grapeseed (Vitis vinifera) in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2017-01-02

    Aggressive tumor malignancies are a consequence of delayed diagnosis, epigenetic/phenotype changes and chemo-radiation resistance. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a major epigenetic regulator of transcriptional repression, which are highly overexpressed in advanced malignancy. While original chemotherapy drugs were modeled after phytochemicals elucidated by botanical screenings, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) such as apicidin, trichostatin A (TSA) and butyrate were discovered as products of fungus and microbes, in particular, gut microbiota. Therefore, a persistent question remains as to the inherent existence of HDACis in raw undigested dietary plant material. In this study, we conduct a high-throughput (HTP) screening of ~1,600 non-fermented commonly used nutraceuticals (spices, herbs, teas, vegetables, fruits, seeds, rinds etc.) at (screening was then conducted, followed by a study comparing biological effects of HDACis in HeLa cells, including analysis of whole-transcriptome non-coding RNAs using Affymetrix miRNA 4.1-panel arrays. The HTP screening results confirmed 44/1600 as potential HDACis to which 31 were further eliminated as false-positives. Methodological challenges/concerns are addressed regarding plant product false-positives that arise from the signal reduction of commercial lysine development reagents. Only 13 HDACis were found having an IC50 under <200 μg/ml: Grapeseed extract (Vitis vinifera), Great burnet root (Sanguisorba Officinalis), Babul (Acacia arabica), Chinese gallnut (Melaphis chinensis), Konaberry extract (Coffea arabica), Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos uva ursi), Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), Sassafras (Sassafras officinale), Turkey rhubarb (Rheum palmatum), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gossypol and gallic acid. Next, we investigate the biological consequence of HDACi panel drugs in HeLa cells, where the data suggest predominant effects are anti-mitotic rather than cytotoxic. Lastly, differential effects of

  15. Pattern of change in histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation and histone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pattern of change in histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation and histone deacetylases in development of zebrafish embryo. Yanning Li Junxia Wang Ying Xie Shufeng Liu Ye ... Wang1 Ying Xie1 Shufeng Liu1 Ye Tian1. Hebei Key Lab of Laboratory Animal, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, People's Republic of China ...

  16. [Histone variants and histone exchange].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2006-04-01

    Histones, as the basic components of nucleosome, are essential to chromatin structure and function. To adapt to various states of chromatin, corresponding histone variants are incorporated in nucleosome, and certain modifications also occur on the variants' tails. These variants change the conformation and stability of nucleosome to facilitate transcriptional activation or deactivation, DNA repairing, heterochromatin formation, and others. During histone exchange, chromatin remodeling complex facilitates histone variant deposition into nucleosome, and different variants have diverse deposition pathways. Recently, research on histone variants is not only a new hotspot in epigenetics, but also a new annotation of "histone code". In addition, histone exchange reveals new changing mechanism of DNA-histone interaction.

  17. Erasing the methyl mark: histone demethylases at the center of cellular differentiation and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cloos, Paul A C; Christensen, Jesper; Agger, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The enzymes catalyzing lysine and arginine methylation of histones are essential for maintaining transcriptional programs and determining cell fate and identity. Until recently, histone methylation was regarded irreversible. However, within the last few years, several families of histone...... demethylases erasing methyl marks associated with gene repression or activation have been identified, underscoring the plasticity and dynamic nature of histone methylation. Recent discoveries have revealed that histone demethylases take part in large multiprotein complexes synergizing with histone deacetylases......, histone methyltransferases, and nuclear receptors to control developmental and transcriptional programs. Here we review the emerging biochemical and biological functions of the histone demethylases and discuss their potential involvement in human diseases, including cancer....

  18. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  19. SAR and biological evaluation of analogues of a small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitor N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-((4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-ylamino)methyl)benzamide (MGCD0103).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Stéphane; Zhou, Nancy; Gaudette, Frédéric; Leit, Silvana; Paquin, Isabelle; Larouche, Guillaume; Moradei, Oscar; Fréchette, Sylvie; Isakovic, Ljubomir; Delorme, Daniel; Fournel, Marielle; Kalita, Ann; Lu, Aihua; Trachy-Bourget, Marie-Claude; Yan, Pu Theresa; Liu, Jianhong; Rahil, Jubrail; Wang, James; Besterman, Jeffrey M; Murakami, Koji; Li, Zuomei; Vaisburg, Arkadii

    2009-02-01

    Analogues of the clinical compound MGCD0103 (A) were designed and synthesized. These compounds inhibit recombinant human HDAC1 with IC(50) values in the sub-micromolar range. In human cancer cells growing in culture these compounds induce hyperacetylation of histones, cause expression of the tumor suppressor protein p21(WAF1/CIP1), and inhibit cellular proliferation. Lead molecule of the series, compound 25 is metabolically stable, possesses favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics and is orally active in vivo in different mouse tumor xenograft models.

  20. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Zawacki K, Podewils LJ, Cohen G and McCorkle R. Exercise manages fatigue during breast cancer treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Psycho...27249683. 301. Bhargava R, Davidson NE. "Take two"? The role of second opinions for breast biopsy specimens. Bmj . 2016;353:i3256, 2016. PMID: 27339037...deacetylase regulates muscle differentiation. Nature 2000; 408: 106–111. 18 Martin M, Kettmann R, Dequiedt F. Class IIa histone deacetylases: conducting

  1. Deacetylase inhibitors as a novel modality in the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Paul G; Moreau, Philippe; Laubach, Jacob P; Maglio, Michelle E; Lonial, Sagar; San-Miguel, Jesus

    2017-03-01

    Deacetylase enzymes remove acetyl groups from histone and nonhistone proteins. Dysregulation of deacetylase activity is a hallmark of malignancy, including multiple myeloma (MM). Deacetylase inhibitors (DACi) cause epigenetic modification and inhibition of the aggresome pathway, resulting in death of MM cells. Panobinostat, a pan-DACi, has shown significant clinical benefit and is the first DACi approved for the treatment of MM. It is approved for use in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory MM who have received ≥2 prior regimens including bortezomib and an immunomodulatory drug. Ricolinostat and ACY-241, which selectively inhibit HDAC6 and the aggresome pathway, are currently being studied in combination with dexamethasone and bortezomib or an immunomodulatory drug for the treatment of relapsed and refractory MM. In this review, we discuss the data from key clinical trials investigating deacetylase inhibitors as novel treatment options for MM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Acetylation site specificities of lysine deacetylase inhibitors in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schölz, Christian; Weinert, Brian Tate; Wagner, Sebastian A

    2015-01-01

    Lysine deacetylases inhibitors (KDACIs) are used in basic research, and many are being investigated in clinical trials for treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, their specificities in cells are incompletely characterized. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) to obtain...... acetylation signatures for 19 different KDACIs, covering all 18 human lysine deacetylases. Most KDACIs increased acetylation of a small, specific subset of the acetylome, including sites on histones and other chromatin-associated proteins. Inhibitor treatment combined with genetic deletion showed...... that the effects of the pan-sirtuin inhibitor nicotinamide are primarily mediated by SIRT1 inhibition. Furthermore, we confirmed that the effects of tubacin and bufexamac on cytoplasmic proteins result from inhibition of HDAC6. Bufexamac also triggered an HDAC6-independent, hypoxia-like response by stabilizing HIF...

  3. Histone Deacetylase 3 Promotes RCAN1 Stability and Nuclear Translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung Ah Han; Hye Seon Kang; Jee Won Lee; Lang Yoo; Eunju Im; Ahyoung Hong; Yun Ju Lee; Woo Hyun Shin; Kwang Chul Chung

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1; also referred as DSCR1 or MCIP1) is located in close proximity to a Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21. Although RCAN1 is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling that controls lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, heart development, skeletal muscle differentiation, and cardiac function, it is not yet clear whether RCAN1 might be involved in other cellular activities. In this study, we explored the extra-functional roles of RCAN1 by sea...

  4. Functional analyses of plant-specific histone deacetylases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Huchen

    2017-01-01

    Plants have a sessile lifestyle. To ensure survival, they develop a potential to respond to environmental cues to set up an adaptive growth and development. This adaptation involves transcriptional reprogramming of the genome through chromatin-based mechanisms relying on the dynamic interplay of

  5. Inhibition of histone deacetylases sensitizes glioblastoma cells to lomustine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staberg, Mikkel; Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Rasmussen, Rikke Darling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) ranks among the deadliest solid cancers worldwide and its prognosis has remained dismal, despite the use of aggressive chemo-irradiation treatment regimens. Limited drug delivery into the brain parenchyma and frequent resistance to currently available therapies...

  6. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, on cartilage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transplanted onto the paravertebral muscle of the face of each rabbit. The rabbits were separated into three groups: non-treated control ... regeneration and in chondrocyte hypertrophy. [10]. Among the effects of the HDAC inhibitor .... tissue hyaluronan in skin and skeletal muscle. Am J. Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002; 283: ...

  7. Lysine deacetylases are produced in pancreatic beta cells and are differentially regulated by proinflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, M; Christensen, D P; Rasmussen, D N

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine-induced beta cell toxicity is abrogated by non-selective inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). The KDAC family consists of 11 members, namely histone deacetylases HDAC1 to HDAC11, but it is not known which KDAC members play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death. The aim...... of the present study was to examine the KDAC gene expression profile of the beta cell and to investigate whether KDAC expression is regulated by cytokines. In addition, the protective effect of the non-selective KDAC inhibitor ITF2357 and interdependent regulation of four selected KDACs were investigated....

  8. Glucocorticoid receptor mediated suppression of natural killer cell activity: identification of associated deacetylase and corepressor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Kristin A; Krukowski, Karen; Eddy, Justin L; Janusek, Linda Witek; Mathews, Herbert L

    2012-01-01

    Physical and psychological stressors reduce natural killer cell function. This reduction in cellular function results from stress-induced release of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids act upon natural killer cells to deacetylate and transrepress immune response genes through epigenetic processes. However, other than the glucocorticoid receptor, the proteins that participate in this process are not well described in natural killer cells. The purpose of this study was to identify the proteins associated with the glucocorticoid receptor that are likely epigenetic participants in this process. Treatment of natural killer cells with the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, produced a significant time dependent reduction in natural killer cell activity as early as 8h post treatment. This reduction in natural killer cell activity was preceded by nuclear localization of the glucocorticoid receptor with histone deacetylase 1 and the corepressor, SMRT. Other class I histone deacetylases were not associated with the glucocorticoid receptor nor was the corepressor NCoR. These results demonstrate histone deacetylase 1 and SMRT to associate with the ligand activated glucocorticoid receptor within the nuclei of natural killer cells and to be the likely participants in the histone deacetylation and transrepression that accompanies glucocorticoid mediated reductions in natural killer cell function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acetate supplementation modulates brain histone acetylation and decreases interleukin-1β expression in a rat model of neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Mahmoud L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term acetate supplementation reduces neuroglial activation and cholinergic cell loss in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation. Additionally, a single dose of glyceryl triacetate, used to induce acetate supplementation, increases histone H3