Sample records for hydrothermal vent scaleworm

  1. Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.


    Chamberlain, S C


    Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or l...

  2. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun


    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  3. Light at deep sea hydrothermal vents (United States)

    Van Dover, Cindy Lee; Cann, J. R.; Cavanaugh, Colleen; Chamberlain, Steven; Delaney, John R.; Janecky, David; Imhoff, Johannes; Tyson, J. Anthony

    We usually think of the bottom of the sea as a dark environment, lit only by flashes of bioluminescent light. Discovery of light associated with geothermal processes at deep sea hydrothermal vents forces us to qualify our textbook descriptions of the seafloor as a uniformly dark environment. While a very dim glow emitted from high temperature (350°) vents (black smokers) at mid-oceanic ridge spreading centers has been documented [Van Dover et al, 1988], the source of this light and its role, if any, in the evolution and adaptation of photobiochemical processes have yet to be determined. Preliminary studies indicate that thermal radiation alone may account for the “glow” ]Smith and Delaney, 1989] and that a novel photoreceptor in shrimp-colonizing black smoker chimneys may detect this “glow” [Van Dover et al., 1989; Pelli and Chamberlain, 1989]. A more controversial question, posed by C. L. Van Dover, J. R. Cann, and J. R. Delaney at the 1993 LITE Workshop at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, is whether there may be sufficient light of appropriate wavelengths to support geothermally driven photosynthesis by microorganisms.

  4. Water column imaging on hydrothermal vent in Central Indian Ridge (United States)

    Koh, J.; Park, Y.


    Water column imaging with Multibeam echosounder systems (MBES) is recently becoming of increasing interest for oceanographic studies. Especially gas bubbles and hot water exposed from hydrothermal vents make acoustic impedance anomalies in cold seawater, water column imaging is very useful for the researchers who want to detect some kinds of hydrothermal activity. We conducted a hydrothermal exploration program, called "INVENT17", using the MBES system, KONGBERG EM122 (12kHz, 1°×1°), mounted on R/V ISABU and we deployed other equipments including video guided hydraulic grab, tow-yo CTD and general CTD with MAPR (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder) in 2017. First, to evaluate its capabilities of detection of hydrothermal vent, the surveys using the MBES were conducted at the Solitaire Field, previously identified hydrothermal area of the Central Indian Ridge. The bathymetric data obtained from MBES provided information about detailed morphology of seafloor, but we were not able to achieve the information from the water column imaging data. But the clue of existence of active hydrothermal vent was detected through the values of ΔNTU, dEh/dt, and OPR gained from MAPR, the data means that the hydrothermal activity affects 100m from the seafloor. It could be the reason that we can't find the hydrothermal activity because the range resolution of water column imaging is pretty rough so that the size of 100m-scaled activity has low possibility to distinguish from seafloor. The other reason is there are no sufficient objects to cause strong scattering like as CO2 bubbles or droplets unlike in the mid-Okinawa Trough. And this suggests that can be a important standard to identify properties of hydrothermal vent sites depending on the presence of scattering objects in water mass. To justify this, we should perform more chemical analysis of hot water emanating from hydrothermal vent and collected several bottles of water sample to do that.

  5. Bacterial Diets of Primary Consumers at Hydrothermal Vents (United States)

    Govenar, B.; Shank, T. M.


    Chemical energy produced by mixing hydrothermal fluids and seawater supports dense biological communities on mid-ocean ridges. The base of the food web at deep-sea hydrothermal vents is formed by chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that use the energy from the oxidation of reduced chemicals to fix inorganic carbon into simple sugars. With the exception of a few species that have chemolithoautotropic bacterial symbionts, most of the vent-endemic macrofauna are heterotrophs that feed on free-living bacteria, protists, and other invertebrates. The most abundant and diverse group of primary consumers in hydrothermal vent communities belong to the Gastropoda, particularly the patellomorph limpets. Gastropod densities can be as high as 2000 individuals m-2, and there can be as many as 13 species of gastropods in a single aggregation of the siboglinid tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and more than 40 species along the East Pacific Rise. Some gastropods are ubiquitous and others are found in specific microhabitats, stages of succession, or associated with different foundation species. To determine the mechanisms of species coexistence (e.g. resource partitioning or competition) among hydrothermal vent primary consumers and to track the flow of energy in hydrothermal vent communities, we employed molecular genetic techniques to identify the gut contents of four species of co-occurring hydrothermal vent gastropods, Eulepetopsis vitrea, Lepetodrilus elevatus, Lepetodrilus ovalis and Lepetodrilus pustulosus, collected from a single diffuse-flow hydrothermal vent site on the East Pacific Rise. Unique haplotypes of the 16S gene that fell among the epsilon-proteobacteria were found in the guts of every species, and two species had gut contents that were similar only to epsilon-proteobacteria. Two species had gut contents that also included haplotypes that clustered with delta-proteobacteria, and one species had gut contents that clustered with alpha- proteobacteria. Differences in the diets

  6. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses. (United States)

    Petersen, Jillian M; Zielinski, Frank U; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Moraru, Cristina; Amann, Rudolf; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Wankel, Scott D; Barbe, Valerie; Pelletier, Eric; Fink, Dennis; Borowski, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Dubilier, Nicole


    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations and in situ mass spectrometry, we show here that the symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge use hydrogen to power primary production. In addition, we show that the symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Pacific vents have hupL, the key gene for hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, the symbionts of other vent animals such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata also have hupL. We propose that the ability to use hydrogen as an energy source is widespread in hydrothermal vent symbioses, particularly at sites where hydrogen is abundant.

  7. Primary Formation Path of Formaldehyde in Hydrothermal Vents (United States)

    Inaba, Satoshi


    Formaldehyde is abundant in the universe and one of the fundamental molecules for life. Hydrothermal vents produce a substantial amount of hydrogen molecules by serpentinization and promote reductive reactions of single carbon compounds. The abundance of formaldehyde is expected to be low due to the high Gibbs free energy in hydrothermal vents. We consider two competing formation pathways of formaldehyde: (1) the reduction of CO by H2 and (2) the reduction of HCOOH by H2 to form a methanediol, followed by the dehydration of the methanediol. We performed a number of quantum chemical simulations to examine the formation of formaldehyde in the gas phase as well as in aqueous solution. The energy barrier is significantly reduced by the catalytic effect of water molecules in aqueous solution and becomes lowest when a water cluster consisted of 5 water molecules catalyzes the reduction. The energy barrier to form a methanediol by the reduction of HCOOH is lower by 17.5 kcal/mol than that to form a formaldehyde by the reduction of CO. Considering the low energy barrier to dehydrate methanediol, the primary pathway to form formaldehyde in hydrothermal vents is concluded to be the reduction of HCOOH by H2, followed by the dehydration of methanediol.

  8. Respiration of bivalves from three different deep-sea areas: Cold seeps, hydrothermal vents and organic carbon-rich sediments (United States)

    Khripounoff, A.; Caprais, J. C.; Decker, C.; Le Bruchec, J.; Noel, P.; Husson, B.


    We studied bivalves (vesicomyids and mytilids) inhabiting four different areas of high sulfide and methane production: (1) in the Gulf of Guinea, two pockmarks (650 m and 3150 m depth) and one site rich in organic sediments in the deepest zone (4950 m average depth), (2) at the Azores Triple Junction on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, one hydrothermal site (Lucky Strike vent field, 1700 m depth). Two types of Calmar benthic chambers were deployed, either directly set into the sediment (standard Calmar chamber) or fitted with a tank to isolate organisms from the sediment (modified Calmar chamber), to assess gas and solute exchanges in relation to bivalve bed metabolism. Fluxes of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, ammonium and methane were measured. At the site with organic-rich sediments, oxygen consumption by clams measured in situ with the standard benthic chamber was variable (1.3-6.7 mmol m-2 h-1) as was total carbon dioxide production (1-9.6 mmol m-2 h-1). The observed gas and solute fluxes were attributed primarily to bivalve respiration (vesicomyids or mytilids), but microbial and geochemical processes in the sediment may be also responsible for some of variations in the deepest stations. The respiration rate of isolated vesicomyids (16.1-0.25.7 μmol g-1 dry weight h-1) was always lower than that of mytilids (33 μmol g-1 dry weight h-1). This difference was attributed to the presence of a commensal scaleworm in the mytilids. The respiratory coefficient (QR) ≥1 indicated high levels of anaerobic metabolism. The O:N index ranged from 5 to 25, confirming that vesicomyids and mytilids, living in symbiosis with bacteria, have a protein-based food diet.

  9. Hydrothermal Vents and Methane Seeps: Rethinking the Sphere of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ann Levin


    Full Text Available Although initially viewed as oases within a barren deep ocean, hydrothermal vent and methane seep communities are now recognized to interact with surrounding ecosystems on the sea floor and in the water column, and to affect global geochemical cycles. The importance of understanding these interactions is growing as the potential rises for disturbance from oil and gas extraction, seabed mining and bottom trawling. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the nature, extent and time and space scales of vent and seep interactions with background systems. We document an expanded footprint beyond the site of local venting or seepage with respect to elemental cycling and energy flux, habitat use, trophic interactions, and connectivity. Heat and energy are released, global biogeochemical and elemental cycles are modified, and particulates are transported widely in plumes. Hard and biotic substrates produced at vents and seeps are used by benthic background fauna for attachment substrata, shelter, and access to food via grazing or through position in the current, while particulates and fluid fluxes modify planktonic microbial communities. Chemosynthetic production provides nutrition to a host of benthic and planktonic heterotrophic background species through multiple horizontal and vertical transfer pathways assisted by flow, gamete release, animal movements, and succession, but these pathways remain poorly known. Shared species, genera and families indicate that ecological and evolutionary connectivity exists among vents, seeps, organic falls and background communities in the deep sea; the genetic linkages with inactive vents and seeps and background assemblages however, are practically unstudied. The waning of venting or seepage activity generates major transitions in space and time that create links to surrounding ecosystems, often with identifiable ecotones or successional stages. The nature of all these interactions is dependent on water depth, as

  10. Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps: Rethinking the sphere of influence (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Baco, Amy; Bowden, David; Colaco, Ana; Cordes, Erik E.; Cunha, Marina; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Gobin, Judith; Grupe, Ben; Le, Jennifer; Metaxas, Anna; Netburn, Amanda; Rouse, Greg; Thurber, Andrew; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Vanreusel, Ann; Watling, Les


    Although initially viewed as oases within a barren deep ocean, hydrothermal vent and methane seep communities are now recognized to interact with surrounding ecosystems on the sea floor and in the water column, and to affect global geochemical cycles. The importance of understanding these interactions is growing as the potential rises for disturbance from oil and gas extraction, seabed mining and bottom trawling. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the nature, extent and time and space scales of vent and seep interactions with background systems. We document an expanded footprint beyond the site of local venting or seepage with respect to elemental cycling and energy flux, habitat use, trophic interactions, and connectivity. Heat and energy are released, global biogeochemical and elemental cycles are modified, and particulates are transported widely in plumes. Hard and biotic substrates produced at vents and seeps are used by “benthic background” fauna for attachment substrata, shelter, and access to food via grazing or through position in the current, while particulates and fluid fluxes modify planktonic microbial communities. Chemosynthetic production provides nutrition to a host of benthic and planktonic heterotrophic background species through multiple horizontal and vertical transfer pathways assisted by flow, gamete release, animal movements, and succession, but these pathways remain poorly known. Shared species, genera and families indicate that ecological and evolutionary connectivity exists among vents, seeps, organic falls and background communities in the deep sea; the genetic linkages with inactive vents and seeps and background assemblages however, are practically unstudied. The waning of venting or seepage activity generates major transitions in space and time that create links to surrounding ecosystems, often with identifiable ecotones or successional stages. The nature of all these interactions is dependent on water depth, as well as

  11. First Survey For Submarine Hydrothermal Vents In NE Sulawesi, Indonesia (United States)

    McConachy, T.; Binns, R.; Permana, H.


    The IASSHA-2001 cruise (Indonesia-Australia Survey for Submarine Hydrothermal Activity) was successfully conducted from June 1 to June 29 on board Baruna Jaya VIII. Preliminary results are reported of the first expedition to locate and study submarine hydrothermal activity in north east Sulawesi. Leg A focussed on Tomini Bay, a virtually unexplored Neogene sedimentary basin. Its objective was to test whether modern sediment-hosted hydrothermal activity occurred on the sea floor. The results of new bathymetric mapping, sediment coring and CTD/transmissometer hydrocasts negate the likely presence in central Tomini Bay of large-scale modern analogues of hydrothermal massive sulfide environments involving hydrothermal venting of basinal or magma-derived fluids into reduced sediments. It is possible that the "heat engine" required to drive circulation of basinal and hydrothermal fluids is today too weak. Surveys around Colo volcano indicate that it may be in its final stage of evolution. Leg B studied the arc and behind-arc sectors of the Sangihe volcanic island chain extending northwards from Quaternary volcanoes on the northeastern tip of Sulawesi's North Arm, near Manado. West of the main active chain and extending northwards from Manado there is a subparallel ridge surmounted by a number of high (>2000 m) seamounts of uncertain age. Fifteen relatively high-standing submarine edifices were crossed during this leg, of which nine were tested for hydrothermal activity by hydrocast and dredging. Eight sites were known from previous bathymetric surveys, and seven are new discoveries made by narrow-beam or multibeam echo sounding. Two submarine edifices at least 1000 m high were discovered in the strait immediately north of Awu volcano on Sangihe Island. One, with crest at 206 m, is surrounded by a circular platform 300m deep which we infer to be a foundered fringing reef to a formerly emergent island. The other, lacking such a platform, appears relatively young and may be

  12. Hunting for Hydrothermal Vents at the Local-Scale Using AUV's and Machine-Learning Classification in the Earth's Oceans (United States)

    White, S. M.


    New AUV-based mapping technology coupled with machine-learning methods for detecting individual vents and vent fields at the local-scale raise the possibility of understanding the geologic controls on hydrothermal venting.

  13. Chemistry of a serpentinization-controlled hydrothermal system at the Lost City hydrothermal vent field (United States)

    Ludwig, K. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Butterfield, D. A.; Nelson, B. K.; Karson, J. A.


    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF), at 30° N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is an off-axis, low temperature, high-pH, ultramafic-hosted vent system. Within the field, carbonate chimneys tower up to 60 m above the seafloor, making them the tallest vent structures known. The chemistry of the vent structures and fluids at the LCHF is controlled by reactions between seawater and ultramafic rocks beneath the Atlantis massif. Mixing of warm alkaline vent fluids with seawater causes precipitation of calcium carbonate and growth of the edifaces, which range from tall, graceful pinnacles to fragile flanges and colloform deposits. Geochemical and petrological analyses of the carbonate rocks reveal distinct differences between the active and extinct structures. Actively venting chimneys and flanges are extremely porous, friable formations composed predominantly of aragonite and brucite. These structures provide important niches for well-developed microbial communities that thrive on and within the chimney walls. Some of the active chimneys may also contain the mineral ikaite, an unstable, hydrated form of calcium carbonate. TIMS and ICP-MS analyses of the carbonate chimneys show that the most active chimneys have low Sr isotope values and that they are low in trace metals (e.g., Mn, Ti, Pb). Active structures emit high-pH, low-Mg fluids at 40-90° C. The fluids also have low Sr values, indicating circulation of hydrothermal solutions through the serpentinite bedrock beneath the field. In contrast to the active structures, extinct chimneys are less porous, are well lithified, and they are composed predominantly of calcite that yields Sr isotopes near seawater values. Prolonged lower temperature seawater-hydrothermal fluid interaction within the chimneys results in the conversion of aragonite to calcite and in the enrichment of some trace metals (e.g., Mn, Ti, Co, Zn). It also promotes the incorporation of foraminifera within the outer, cemented walls of the carbonate

  14. Heavy metals from Kueishantao shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, offshore northeast Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Gang; Lyu, Shuang-Shuang; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Lebrato, Mario; Li, Xiaohu; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying


    Shallow water hydrothermal vents are a source of heavy metals leading to their accumulation in marine organisms that manage to live under extreme environmental conditions. This is the case at Kueishantao (KST) shallow-sea vents system offshore northeast Taiwan, where the heavy metal distribution in vent fluids and ambient seawater is poorly understood. This shallow vent is an excellent natural laboratory to understand how heavy and volatile metals behave in the nearby water column and ecosystem. Here, we investigated the submarine venting of heavy metals from KST field and its impact on ambient surface seawater. The total heavy metal concentrations in the vent fluids and vertical plumes were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than the overlying seawater values. When compared with deep-sea hydrothermal systems, the estimated KST end-member fluids exhibited much lower concentrations of transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn) but comparable concentrations of toxic metals such as Pb and As. This may be attributed to the lower temperature of the KST reaction zone and transporting fluids. Most of the heavy metals (Fe, Mn, As, Y, and Ba) in the plumes and seawater mainly originated from hydrothermal venting, while Cd and Pb were largely contributed by external sources such as contaminated waters (anthropogenic origin). The spatial distribution of heavy metals in the surface seawater indicated that seafloor venting impacts ambient seawater. The measurable influence of KST hydrothermal activity, however, was quite localized and limited to an area of heavy metals emanating from the yellow KST hydrothermal vent were: 430-2600 kg Fe, 24-145 kg Mn, 5-32 kg Ba, 10-60 kg As, 0.3-1.9 kg Cd, and 2-10 kg Pb. This study provides important data on heavy metals from a shallow-sea hydrothermal field, and it helps to better understand the environmental impact of submarine shallow hydrothermal venting.

  15. Geomicrobiology of Hydrothermal Vents in Yellowstone Lake: Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis suggest Importance of Geochemistry (Invited) (United States)

    Inskeep, W. P.; Macur, R.; Jay, Z.; Clingenpeel, S.; Tenney, A.; Lavalvo, D.; Shanks, W. C.; McDermott, T.; Kan, J.; Gorby, Y.; Morgan, L. A.; Yooseph, S.; Varley, J.; Nealson, K.


    Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) is a large, high-altitude, fresh-water lake that straddles the most recent Yellowstone caldera, and is situated on top of significant hydrothermal activity. An interdisciplinary study is underway to evaluate the geochemical and geomicrobiological characteristics of several hydrothermal vent environments sampled using a remotely operated vehicle, and to determine the degree to which these vents may influence the biology of this young freshwater ecosystem. Approximately six different vent systems (locations) were sampled during 2007 and 2008, and included water obtained directly from the hydrothermal vents as well as biomass and sediment associated with these high-temperature environments. Thorough geochemical analysis of these hydrothermal environments reveals variation in pH, sulfide, hydrogen and other potential electron donors that may drive primary productivity. The concentrations of dissolved hydrogen and sulfide were extremely high in numerous vents sampled, especially the deeper (30-50 m) vents located in the Inflated Plain, West Thumb, and Mary Bay. Significant dilution of hydrothermal fluids occurs due to mixing with surrounding lake water. Despite this, the temperatures observed in many of these hydrothermal vents range from 50-90 C, and elevated concentrations of constituents typically associated with geothermal activity in Yellowstone are observed in waters sampled directly from vent discharge. Microorganisms associated with elemental sulfur mats and filamentous ‘streamer’ communities of Inflated Plain and West Thumb (pH range 5-6) were dominated by members of the deeply-rooted bacterial Order Aquificales, but also contain thermophilic members of the domain Archaea. Assembly of metagenome sequence from the Inflated Plain vent biomass and to a lesser extent, West Thumb vent biomass reveal the importance of Sulfurihydrogenibium-like organisms, also important in numerous terrestrial geothermal

  16. Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Quetel, C. R.; Munoz, R.


    Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted...... by the hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary producing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, contained arsenic at 13 mu g g(-1) almost exclusively as arsenobetaine (AsB). Arsenic was present in the soft:issues of the mussel at 40 mu g g(-1) and the major...... of arsenic species found in the shrimp and mussel species in the deep-sea is similar to that found in their counterparts from the ocean surface. It is concluded that the autotrophic bacteria of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem and the symbiotic bacteria harboured in the mussel species are responsible...

  17. Genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.


    Takai, K; Horikoshi, K


    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring archaeal communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments was carried out by PCR-mediated small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing. As determined through partial sequencing of rDNA clones amplified with archaea-specific primers, the archaeal populations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments showed a great genetic diversity, and most members of these populations appeared to be uncultivated and unidentified organisms. In the...

  18. Macrofauna of shallow hydrothermal vents on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at 71N (United States)

    Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.; Pedersen, R. B.


    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna and since their discovery in 1977, more than 400 species of animals have been described. Specialized vent fauna includes various animal phyla, but the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. We have investigated the fauna collected around newly discovered hydrothermal vents on the Mohns Ridge north of Jan Mayen. The venting fields are located at 71°N and the venting takes place within two main areas separated by 5 km. The shallowest vent area is at 500-550 m water depth and is located at the base of a normal fault. This vent field stretches approximately 1 km along the strike of the fault, and it is composed of 10-20 major vent sites each with multiple chimney constructions discharging up to 260°C hot fluids. A large area of diffuse, low- temperature venting occurs in the area surrounding the high-temperature field. Here, partly microbial mediated iron-oxide-hydroxide deposits are abundant. The hydrothermal vent sites do not show any high abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups (i.e. Porifera and Mollusca) have a few representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas (e.g. vestimentifera, Alvinellid worms, mussels, clams, galathaeid and brachyuran crabs) are absent. Up until now slightly more than 200 species have been identified from the vent area. The macrofauna found in the vent area is, with few exceptions, an assortment of bathyal species known in the area. One endemic, yet undescribed, species of mollusc has been found so far, an gastropod related to Alvania incognita Warén, 1996 and A. angularis Warén, 1996 (Rissoidae), two species originally described from pieces of sunken wood north and south of Iceland. It is by far the most numerous mollusc species at the vents and was found on smokers, in the bacterial mats, and on the ferric deposits. A single specimen of an undescribed tanaidacean has also

  19. An abyssal mobilome: viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. (United States)

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire


    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here we focus on the abyssal mobilome by reviewing accumulating data on viruses, plasmids and vesicles associated with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial scaling of bacterial community diversity at shallow hydrothermal vents: a global comparison (United States)

    Pop Ristova, P.; Hassenrueck, C.; Molari, M.; Fink, A.; Bühring, S. I.


    Marine shallow hydrothermal vents are extreme environments, often characterized by discharge of fluids with e.g. high temperatures, low pH, and laden with elements toxic to higher organisms. They occur at continental margins around the world's oceans, but represent fragmented, isolated habitats of locally small areal coverage. Microorganisms contribute the main biomass at shallow hydrothermal vent ecosystems and build the basis of the food chain by autotrophic fixation of carbon both via chemosynthesis and photosynthesis, occurring simultaneously. Despite their importance and unique capacity to adapt to these extreme environments, little is known about the spatial scales on which the alpha- and beta-diversity of microbial communities vary at shallow vents, and how the geochemical habitat heterogeneity influences shallow vent biodiversity. Here for the first time we investigated the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity patterns and their interconnectivity at geochemically diverse shallow vents on a global scale. This study presents data on the comparison of bacterial community structures on large (> 1000 km) and small (0.1 - 100 m) spatial scales as derived from ARISA and Illumina sequencing. Despite the fragmented global distribution of shallow hydrothermal vents, similarity of vent bacterial communities decreased with geographic distance, confirming the ubiquity of distance-decay relationship. Moreover, at all investigated vents, pH was the main factor locally structuring these communities, while temperature influenced both the alpha- and beta-diversity.

  1. Electron microscopy study of microbial mat in the North Fiji basin hydrothermal vent (United States)

    Park, H.; Kim, J. W.; Lee, J. W.


    Hydrothermal vent systems consisting of hydrothermal vent, hydrothermal sediment and microbial mat are widely spread around the ocean, particularly spreading axis, continental margin and back-arc basin. Scientists have perceived that the hydrothermal systems, which reflect the primeval earth environment, are one of the best places to reveal the origin of life and extensive biogeochemical process of microbe-mineral interaction. In the present study multiline of analytical methods (X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)) were utilized to investigate the mineralogy/chemistry of microbe-mineral interaction in hydrothermal microbial mat. Microbial mat samples were recovered by Canadian scientific submersible ROPOS on South Pacific North Fiji basin KIOST hydrothermal vent expedition 1602. XRD analysis showed that red-colored microbial mat contains Fe-oxides and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Various morphologies of minerals in the red-colored microbial mat observed by SEM are mainly showed sheath shaped, resembled with Leptothrix microbial structure, stalks shaped, similar with Marioprofundus microbial structure and globule shaped microbial structures. They are also detected with DNA analysis. The cross sectional observation of microbial structures encrusted with Fe-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide at a nano scale by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique was developed to verify the structural/biogeochemical properties in the microbe-mineral interaction. Systematic nano-scale measurements on the biomineralization in the microbial mat leads the understandings of biogeochemical environments around the hydrothermal vent.

  2. Community Structure Comparisons of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Mats Along the Mariana Arc and Back-arc (United States)

    Hager, K. W.; Fullerton, H.; Moyer, C. L.


    Hydrothermal vents along the Mariana Arc and back-arc represent a hotspot of microbial diversity that has not yet been fully recognized. The Mariana Arc and back-arc contain hydrothermal vents with varied vent effluent chemistry and temperature, which translates to diverse community composition. We have focused on iron-rich sites where the dominant primary producers are iron oxidizing bacteria. Because microbes from these environments have proven elusive in culturing efforts, we performed culture independent analysis among different microbial communities found at these hydrothermal vents. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina sequencing of small subunit ribosomal gene amplicons were used to characterize community members and identify samples for shotgun metagenomics. Used in combination, these methods will better elucidate the composition and characteristics of the bacterial communities at these hydrothermal vent systems. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and compare taxonomic and metabolic diversity among different communities of microbial mats. We compared communities collected on a fine scale to analyze the bacterial community based on gross mat morphology, geography, and nearby vent effluent chemistry. Taxa richness and evenness are compared with rarefaction curves to visualize diversity. As well as providing a survey of diversity this study also presents a juxtaposition of three methods in which ribosomal small subunit diversity is compared with T-RFLP, next generation amplicon sequencing, and metagenomic shotgun sequencing.

  3. Genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. (United States)

    Takai, K; Horikoshi, K


    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring archaeal communities in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments was carried out by PCR-mediated small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing. As determined through partial sequencing of rDNA clones amplified with archaea-specific primers, the archaeal populations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments showed a great genetic diversity, and most members of these populations appeared to be uncultivated and unidentified organisms. In the phylogenetic analysis, a number of rDNA sequences obtained from deep-sea hydrothermal vents were placed in deep lineages of the crenarchaeotic phylum prior to the divergence of cultivated thermophilic members of the crenarchaeota or between thermophilic members of the euryarchaeota and members of the methanogen-halophile clade. Whole cell in situ hybridization analysis suggested that some microorganisms of novel phylotypes predicted by molecular phylogenetic analysis were likely present in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. These findings expand our view of the genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments and of the phylogenetic organization of archaea.

  4. Simulating Electrochemistry of Hydrothermal Vents on Enceladus and Other Ocean Worlds (United States)

    Barge, L. M.; Krause, F. C.; Jones, J. P.; Billings, K.; Sobron, P.


    Gradients generated in hydrothermal systems provide a significant source of free energy for chemosynthetic life, and may play a role in present-day habitability on ocean worlds such as Enceladus that are thought to host hydrothermal activity. Hydrothermal vents are similar in some ways to typical fuel cell devices: redox/pH gradients between seawater and hydrothermal fluid are analogous to the oxidant and fuel reservoirs; conductive natural mineral deposits are analogous to electrodes; and, in hydrothermal chimneys, the porous chimney wall can function as a separator or ion-exchange membrane. Electrochemistry, founded on quantitative study of redox and other chemical disequilibria as well as the chemistry of interfaces, is uniquely suited to studying these systems. We have performed electrochemical studies to better understand the catalytic potential of seafloor minerals and vent chimneys, using samples from a black smoker vent chimney as an initial demonstration. Fuel cell experiments with electrodes made from black smoker chimney material accurately simulated the redox reactions that occur in a geological setting with this particular catalyst. Similar methods with other geo-catalysts (natural or synthetic) could be utilized to test which redox reactions or metabolisms could be driven in other hydrothermal systems, including putative vent systems on other worlds.

  5. On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later (United States)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.


    Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active vent fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these vent fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active vent fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for hydrothermal activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect hydrothermal plumes. A majority of the vents discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 vent fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the vents that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (explored tend to be at high latitudes, such as the ultra-slow to slow spreading Arctic MORs (e.g., Kolbeinsey and Mohns Ridges), the ultra-slow American-Antarctic Ridge, and the intermediate spreading Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Although a greater percentage of the ~11,000 km of BASCs has been surveyed for hydrothermal activity, the discoveries at BASCs in the past decade were mainly at segments with intermediate to fast spreading rates. Using the same equation for F_s vs. u_s, we predicted 71 vent fields remaining to

  6. An abyssal mobilome: Viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents


    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire


    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here...

  7. Microbial Community Structure of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents on the Ultraslow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ding


    Full Text Available Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR is a typical oceanic ultraslow spreading ridge with intensive hydrothermal activities. The microbial communities in hydrothermal fields including primary producers to support the entire ecosystem by utilizing geochemical energy generated from rock-seawater interactions. Here we have examined the microbial community structures on four hydrothermal vents from SWIR, representing distinct characteristics in terms of temperature, pH and metal compositions, by using Illumina sequencing of the 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, to correlate bacterial and archaeal populations with the nature of the vents influenced by ultraslow spreading features. Epsilon-, Gamma-, Alpha-, and Deltaproteobacteria and members of the phylum Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes, as well as Thaumarchaeota, Woesearchaeota, and Euryarchaeota were dominant in all the samples. Both bacterial and archaeal community structures showed distinguished patterns compared to those in the fast-spreading East Pacific Ridge or the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge as previously reported. Furthermore, within SWIR, the microbial communities are highly correlated with the local temperatures. For example, the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were dominant within bacteria from low-temperature vents, but were not represented as the dominating group recovered from high temperature (over 300°C venting chimneys in SWIR. Meanwhile, Thaumarchaeota, the ammonium oxidizing archaea, only showed high relative abundance of amplicons in the vents with high-temperature in SWIR. These findings provide insights on the microbial community in ultraslow spreading hydrothermal fields, and therefore assist us in the understanding of geochemical cycling therein.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Population Genetics at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents Along the East Pacific Rise and Galapagos Rift (United States)


    frequent physical disturbance. Earval dispersal among disjunct vent sites facilitates the persistence of sessile invertebrate species in these...among disjunct vent sites facilitates the persistence of sessile invertebrate species in these geologically and chemically dynamic habitats despite...the reproductive biology of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 52, 89-94. Chevaldonne P, Jollivet D

  9. Vitellibacter nionensis sp. nov., isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C; Yoon, J; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C; Li, W.-J; Colaco, A.

    A novel, Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped yellow pigmented bacterium, designated VBW088T was isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain VBW088...

  10. Experimentally Testing Hydrothermal Vent Origin of Life on Enceladus and Other Icy/Ocean Worlds. (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; White, Lauren M


    We review various laboratory strategies and methods that can be utilized to simulate prebiotic processes and origin of life in hydrothermal vent systems on icy/ocean worlds. Crucial steps that could be simulated in the laboratory include simulations of water-rock chemistry (e.g., serpentinization) to produce hydrothermal fluids, the types of mineral catalysts and energy gradients produced in vent interfaces where hydrothermal fluids interface with the surrounding seawater, and simulations of biologically relevant chemistry in flow-through gradient systems (i.e., far-from-equilibrium experiments). We describe some examples of experimental designs in detail, which are adaptable and could be used to test particular hypotheses about ocean world energetics or mineral/organic chemistry. Enceladus among the ocean worlds provides an ideal test case, since the pressure at the ocean floor is more easily simulated in the lab. Results for Enceladus could be extrapolated with further experiments and modeling to understand other ocean worlds. Key Words: Enceladus-Ocean worlds-Icy worlds-Hydrothermal vent-Iron sulfide-Gradient. Astrobiology 17, 820-833.

  11. Evolutionary strategies of viruses, bacteria and archaea in hydrothermal vent ecosystems revealed through metagenomics. (United States)

    Anderson, Rika E; Sogin, Mitchell L; Baross, John A


    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitat hosts a diverse community of archaea and bacteria that withstand extreme fluctuations in environmental conditions. Abundant viruses in these systems, a high proportion of which are lysogenic, must also withstand these environmental extremes. Here, we explore the evolutionary strategies of both microorganisms and viruses in hydrothermal systems through comparative analysis of a cellular and viral metagenome, collected by size fractionation of high temperature fluids from a diffuse flow hydrothermal vent. We detected a high enrichment of mobile elements and proviruses in the cellular fraction relative to microorganisms in other environments. We observed a relatively high abundance of genes related to energy metabolism as well as cofactors and vitamins in the viral fraction compared to the cellular fraction, which suggest encoding of auxiliary metabolic genes on viral genomes. Moreover, the observation of stronger purifying selection in the viral versus cellular gene pool suggests viral strategies that promote prolonged host integration. Our results demonstrate that there is great potential for hydrothermal vent viruses to integrate into hosts, facilitate horizontal gene transfer, and express or transfer genes that manipulate the hosts' functional capabilities.

  12. Evolutionary strategies of viruses, bacteria and archaea in hydrothermal vent ecosystems revealed through metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika E Anderson

    Full Text Available The deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitat hosts a diverse community of archaea and bacteria that withstand extreme fluctuations in environmental conditions. Abundant viruses in these systems, a high proportion of which are lysogenic, must also withstand these environmental extremes. Here, we explore the evolutionary strategies of both microorganisms and viruses in hydrothermal systems through comparative analysis of a cellular and viral metagenome, collected by size fractionation of high temperature fluids from a diffuse flow hydrothermal vent. We detected a high enrichment of mobile elements and proviruses in the cellular fraction relative to microorganisms in other environments. We observed a relatively high abundance of genes related to energy metabolism as well as cofactors and vitamins in the viral fraction compared to the cellular fraction, which suggest encoding of auxiliary metabolic genes on viral genomes. Moreover, the observation of stronger purifying selection in the viral versus cellular gene pool suggests viral strategies that promote prolonged host integration. Our results demonstrate that there is great potential for hydrothermal vent viruses to integrate into hosts, facilitate horizontal gene transfer, and express or transfer genes that manipulate the hosts' functional capabilities.

  13. Detection of putatively thermophilic anaerobic methanotrophs in diffuse hydrothermal vent fluids. (United States)

    Merkel, Alexander Y; Huber, Julie A; Chernyh, Nikolay A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Lebedinsky, Alexander V


    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is carried out by a globally distributed group of uncultivated Euryarchaeota, the anaerobic methanotrophic arachaea (ANME). In this work, we used G+C analysis of 16S rRNA genes to identify a putatively thermophilic ANME group and applied newly designed primers to study its distribution in low-temperature diffuse vent fluids from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We found that the G+C content of the 16S rRNA genes (P(GC)) is significantly higher in the ANME-1GBa group than in other ANME groups. Based on the positive correlation between the P(GC) and optimal growth temperatures (T(opt)) of archaea, we hypothesize that the ANME-1GBa group is adapted to thrive at high temperatures. We designed specific 16S rRNA gene-targeted primers for the ANME-1 cluster to detect all phylogenetic groups within this cluster, including the deeply branching ANME-1GBa group. The primers were successfully tested both in silico and in experiments with sediment samples where ANME-1 phylotypes had previously been detected. The primers were further used to screen for the ANME-1 microorganisms in diffuse vent fluid samples from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean, and sequences belonging to the ANME-1 cluster were detected in four individual vents. Phylotypes belonging to the ANME-1GBa group dominated in clone libraries from three of these vents. Our findings provide evidence of existence of a putatively extremely thermophilic group of methanotrophic archaea that occur in geographically and geologically distinct marine hydrothermal habitats.

  14. Subseafloor Microbial Life in Venting Fluids from the Mid Cayman Rise Hydrothermal System (United States)

    Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J.; Reddington, E.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Breier, J. A.; German, C. R.; Seewald, J.


    In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from hydrothermal vents are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. The functional consequences of an extensive population of microbes living in the subseafloor remains unknown, as does our understanding of how these organisms interact with one another and influence the biogeochemistry of the oceans. Here we report the abundance, activity, and diversity of microbes in venting fluids collected from two newly discovered deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR). Fluids for geochemical and microbial analysis were collected from the Von Damm and Piccard vent fields, which are located within 20 km of one another, yet have extremely different thermal, geological, and depth regimes. Geochemical data indicates that both fields are highly enriched in volatiles, in particular hydrogen and methane, important energy sources for and by-products of microbial metabolism. At both sites, total microbial cell counts in the fluids ranged in concentration from 5 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 cells ml-1 , with background seawater concentrations of 1-2 x 10 4 cells ml-1 . In addition, distinct cell morphologies and clusters of cells not visible in background seawater were seen, including large filaments and mineral particles colonized by microbial cells. These results indicate local enrichments of microbial communities in the venting fluids, distinct from background populations, and are consistent with previous enumerations of microbial cells in venting fluids. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect utilization of acetate, formate, and dissolve inorganic carbon and generation of methane at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. At Von Damm, a putatively ultra-mafic hosted site located at ~2200 m with a maximum temperature of 226 °C, stable isotope tracing experiments indicate methanogenesis is occurring in most fluid samples. No activity was detected

  15. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Rogers


    Full Text Available Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp., stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae, bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more

  16. Biogeography of Persephonella in deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Western Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka eMino


    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are areas on the seafloor with high biological productivity fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. Members of the Aquificales genus Persephonella are obligately chemosynthetic bacteria, and appear to be key players in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles in high temperature habitats at deep-sea vents. Although this group of bacteria has cosmopolitan distribution in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem around the world, little is known about their population structure such as intraspecific genomic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic diversity. We developed the multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA scheme for their genomic characterization. Sequence variation was determined in five housekeeping genes and one functional gene of 36 P. hydrogeniphila strains originated from the Okinawa Trough and the South Mariana Trough. Although the strains share > 98.7% similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences, MLSA revealed 35 different sequence types, indicating their extensive genomic diversity. A phylogenetic tree inferred from all concatenated gene sequences revealed the clustering of isolates according to the geographic origin. In addition, the phenotypic clustering pattern inferred from whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS analysis can be correlated to their MLSA clustering pattern. This study represents the first MLSA combined with phenotypic analysis indicative of allopatric speciation of deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria.

  17. Population subdivision of hydrothermal vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana across equatorial and Easter Microplate boundaries. (United States)

    Jang, Sook-Jin; Park, Eunji; Lee, Won-Kyung; Johnson, Shannon B; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Won, Yong-Jin


    The Equator and Easter Microplate regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean exhibit geomorphological and hydrological features that create barriers to dispersal for a number of animals associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitats. This study examined effects of these boundaries on geographical subdivision of the vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana. DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and eleven nuclear genes were examined in samples collected from ten vent localities that comprise the species' known range from 23°N latitude on the East Pacific Rise to 38°S latitude on the Pacific Antarctic Ridge. Multi-locus genotypes inferred from these sequences clustered the individual worms into three metapopulation segments - the northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR), southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR), and northeastern Pacific Antarctic Ridge (PAR) - separated by the Equator and Easter Microplate boundaries. Genetic diversity estimators were negatively correlated with tectonic spreading rates. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IMa2) model provided information about divergence times and demographic parameters. The PAR and NEPR metapopulation segments were estimated to have split roughly 4.20 million years ago (Mya) (2.42-33.42 Mya, 95 % highest posterior density, (HPD)), followed by splitting of the SEPR and NEPR segments about 0.79 Mya (0.07-6.67 Mya, 95 % HPD). Estimates of gene flow between the neighboring regions were mostly low (2 Nm  SEPR > PAR. Highly effective dispersal capabilities allow A. pompejana to overcome the temporal instability and intermittent distribution of active hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Consequently, the species exhibits very high levels of genetic diversity compared with many co-distributed vent annelids and mollusks. Nonetheless, its levels of genetic diversity in partially isolated populations are inversely correlated with tectonic spreading rates. As for many other vent taxa, this pioneering colonizer is

  18. Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited) (United States)

    Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.


    The Arctic deep ocean hosts a variety of habitats ranging from fairly uniform sedimentary abyssal plains to highly variable hard bottoms on mid ocean ridges, including biodiversity hotspots like seamounts and hydrothermal vents. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna, and since their discovery in 1977 more than 400 species of animals have been described. This fauna includes various animal groups of which the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. The newly discovered deep sea hydrothermal vents on the Mohns-Knipovich ridge north of Iceland harbour unique biodiversity. The Jan Mayen field consists of two main areas with high-temperature white smoker venting and wide areas with low-temperature seepage, located at 5-700 m, while the deeper Loki Castle vent field at 2400 m depth consists of a large area with high temperature black smokers surrounded by a sedimentary area with more diffuse low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The Jan Mayen sites show low abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups have a few specialized representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas are absent. Slightly more than 200 macrofaunal species have been identified from this vent area, comprising mainly an assortment of bathyal species known from the surrounding area. Analysis of stable isotope data also indicates that the majority of the species present are feeding on phytodetritus and/or phytoplankton. However, the deeper Loki Castle vent field contains a much more diverse vent endemic fauna with high abundances of specialized polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. These specializations also include symbioses with a range of chemosynthetic microorganisms. Our data show that the fauna composition is a result of high degree of local specialization with some similarities to the fauna of cold seeps along the Norwegian margin and wood-falls in the abyssal Norwegian Sea

  19. Variations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the Azores plateau (United States)

    Desbruyères, D.; Biscoito, M.; Caprais, J.-C.; Colaço, A.; Comtet, T.; Crassous, P.; Fouquet, Y.; Khripounoff, A.; Le Bris, N.; Olu, K.; Riso, R.; Sarradin, P.-M.; Segonzac, M.; Vangriesheim, A.


    Near the Azores Triple Junction as the Azores Plateau is approached, the ridge axis becomes shallower; its depth decreases from ca. 2400 m in the R AINBOW vent field (36°13'N) to ca. 850 m in the M ENEZ G WEN vent field (37°35'N). In this area, extensive mussel beds of the mytilid Bathymodiolus azoricus dominate the hydrothermal vent fauna, along with populations of three shrimps ( Rimicaris exoculata, Mirocaris fortunata and Chorocaris chacei). The main physical and chemical characteristics of the vent habitat were studied by discrete sampling, in situ analysis and sediment trap moorings. The vent fauna is distributed along a variable band where the vent fluids and seawater mix, with R. exoculata living in the most concentrated areas and Bathymodiolus azoricus in the most diluted zones. Various non-endemic species live at the border of the vent field. The variations observed in structure and composition of the communities along the depth gradient are most likely due to changes in vent fluid toxicity (metallic and sulphide content) and suspended mineral particles, which render the fluids harsher for species living there. The main faunal differences observed between L UCKY S TRIKE and M ENEZ G WEN hydrothermal fields are due to an impoverishment in the hydrothermal endemic species and to the penetration of bathyal species. The comparison of the three studied vent fields suggests the existence of a succession of several biogeographic islands rather than a single province.

  20. Dispersion of deep-sea hydrothermal vent effluents and larvae by submesoscale and tidal currents (United States)

    Vic, Clément; Gula, Jonathan; Roullet, Guillaume; Pradillon, Florence


    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide sources of geochemical materials that impact the global ocean heat and chemical budgets, and support complex biological communities. Vent effluents and larvae are dispersed and transported long distances by deep ocean currents, but these currents are largely undersampled and little is known about their variability. Submesoscale (0.1-10 km) currents are known to play an important role for the dispersion of biogeochemical materials in the ocean surface layer, but their impact for the dispersion in the deep ocean is unknown. Here, we use a series of nested regional oceanic numerical simulations with increasing resolution (from δx = 6 km to δx = 0.75 km) to investigate the structure and variability of highly-resolved deep currents over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and their role on the dispersion of the Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent effluents and larvae. We shed light on a submesoscale regime of oceanic turbulence over the MAR at 1500 m depth, contrasting with open-ocean - i.e., far from topographic features - regimes of turbulence, dominated by mesoscales. Impacts of submesoscale and tidal currents on larval dispersion and connectivity among vent populations are investigated by releasing neutrally buoyant Lagrangian particles at the Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent. Although the absolute dispersion is overall not sensitive to the model resolution, submesoscale currents are found to significantly increase both the horizontal and vertical relative dispersion of particles at O(1-10) km and O(1-10) days, resulting in an increased mixing of the cloud of particles. A fraction of particles are trapped in submesoscale coherent vortices, which enable transport over long time and distances. Tidal currents and internal tides do not significantly impact the horizontal relative dispersion. However, they roughly double the vertical dispersion. Specifically, particles undergo strong tidally-induced mixing close to rough topographic features

  1. Arsenic speciation in food chains from mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien F.; Jackson, Brian P.; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Navratilova, Jana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Kirshtein, Julie; Voytek, Mary


    Arsenic concentration and speciation were determined in benthic fauna collected from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vents. The shrimp species, Rimicaris exoculata, the vent chimney-dwelling mussel, Bathymodiolus azoricus, Branchipolynoe seepensis, a commensal worm of B. azoricus and the gastropod Peltospira smaragdina showed variations in As concentration and in stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) signature between species, suggesting different sources of As uptake. Arsenic speciation showed arsenobetaine to be the dominant species in R. exoculata, whereas in B. azoricus and B. seepensis arsenosugars were most abundant, although arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate and inorganic arsenic were also observed, along with several unidentified species. Scrape samples from outside the vent chimneys covered with microbial mat, which is a presumed food source for many vent organisms, contained high levels of total As, but organic species were not detectable. The formation of arsenosugars in pelagic environments is typically attributed to marine algae, and the pathway to arsenobetaine is still unknown. The occurrence of arsenosugars and arsenobetaine in these deep sea organisms, where primary production is chemolithoautotrophic and stable isotope analyses indicate food sources are of vent origin, suggests that organic arsenicals can occur in a foodweb without algae or other photosynthetic life.

  2. Arsenic speciation in food chains from mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents. (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien F; Jackson, Brian P; Siegfried, Matthew; Navratilova, Jana; Francesconi, Kevin A; Kirshtein, Julie; Voytek, Mary


    Arsenic concentration and speciation were determined in benthic fauna collected from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vents. The shrimp species, Rimicaris exoculata , the vent chimney-dwelling mussel, Bathymodiolus azoricus , Branchipolynoe seepensis , a commensal worm of B. azoricus , and the gastropod Peltospira smaragdina showed variations in As concentration and in stable isotope (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) signature between species, suggesting different sources of As uptake. Arsenic speciation showed arsenobetaine to be the dominant species in R. exoculata , whereas in B. azoricus and B. seepensis arsenosugars were most abundant, although arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate, and inorganic arsenic were also observed, along with several unidentified species. Scrape samples from outside the vent chimneys, covered with microbial mat, which is a presumed food source for many vent organisms, contained high levels of total As, but organic species were not detectable. The formation of arsenosugars in pelagic environments is typically attributed to marine algae, and the pathway to arsenobetaine is still unknown. The occurrence of arsenosugars and arsenobetaine in these deep sea organisms, where primary production is chemolithoautotrophic and stable isotope analyses indicate food sources are of vent origin, suggests that organic arsenicals can occur in a food web without algae or other photosynthetic life.

  3. Microbial Sulfate Reduction in Deep-Sea Sediments at the Guaymas Basin - Hydrothermal Vent Area - Influence of Temperature and Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    Microbial sulfate reduction was studied by a S-35 tracer technique in sediments from the hydrothermal vent site in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico. In situ temperatures ranged from 2.7-degrees-C in the overlying seawater to > 120-degrees-C at 30 cm depth in the hydrothermal sediment...

  4. Diffuse flow environments within basalt- and sediment-based hydrothermal vent ecosystems harbor specialized microbial communities. (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara J; Polson, Shawn W; Zeigler Allen, Lisa; Williamson, Shannon J; Lee, Charles K; Wommack, K Eric; Cary, S Craig


    Hydrothermal vents differ both in surface input and subsurface geochemistry. The effects of these differences on their microbial communities are not clear. Here, we investigated both alpha and beta diversity of diffuse flow-associated microbial communities emanating from vents at a basalt-based hydrothermal system along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) and a sediment-based hydrothermal system, Guaymas Basin. Both Bacteria and Archaea were targeted using high throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analyses. A unique aspect of this study was the use of a universal set of 16S rRNA gene primers to characterize total and diffuse flow-specific microbial communities from varied deep-sea hydrothermal environments. Both surrounding seawater and diffuse flow water samples contained large numbers of Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaea and Gammaproteobacteria taxa previously observed in deep-sea systems. However, these taxa were geographically distinct and segregated according to type of spreading center. Diffuse flow microbial community profiles were highly differentiated. In particular, EPR dominant diffuse flow taxa were most closely associated with chemolithoautotrophs, and off axis water was dominated by heterotrophic-related taxa, whereas the opposite was true for Guaymas Basin. The diversity and richness of diffuse flow-specific microbial communities were strongly correlated to the relative abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria, proximity to macrofauna, and hydrothermal system type. Archaeal diversity was higher than or equivalent to bacterial diversity in about one third of the samples. Most diffuse flow-specific communities were dominated by OTUs associated with Epsilonproteobacteria, but many of the Guaymas Basin diffuse flow samples were dominated by either OTUs within the Planctomycetes or hyperthermophilic Archaea. This study emphasizes the unique microbial communities associated with geochemically and geographically distinct hydrothermal diffuse flow environments.

  5. Heat Source for Active Venting at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (United States)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.


    Located at the inside corner high of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), 30°N and the Atlantis Transform Fault (ATF), the Atlantis Massif has been uplifted over the past ~2 my. The Southern Ridge of this massif hosts the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF), an off-axis hydrothermal vent field with carbonate chimney ages surpassing 120,000 yrs. The fluids discharging at LCHF carry geochemical signals that show a direct interaction with serpentinites. However, mineralogical evidence suggests that peridotite hydration began early in the formation of oceanic core complexes and previous modeling results indicate that serpentinization is unlikely to generate the heat necessary to maintain current levels of discharge at LCHF. This work develops a model for the LCHF venting based on the evidence of tectonic strain, detachment faulting, serpentinization, and convective fluid flow. We constrain fluid flow at the LCHF by vent geochemistry, vent temperature, seismically inferred faulting, and expected geothermal gradient ≈100°C/km. Present understanding of tectonic processes at the intersection of MAR and ATF suggests that unroofing of the footwall and crustal flexing of the massif induced normal faults, which run parallel to the MAR, throughout the Southern Ridge. In the absence of the evidence of magmatism, we test the feasibility of the geothermal gradient to cause fluid circulation in the high-permeability, sub-vertical fault zone. Fluid circulation in the fault zone is complemented by the bulk porous flow driven through the Southern Ridge by the lateral temperature gradient between the cold water on the steep face along the ATF side and the hot interior of the massif. In this scenario, the high pH hydrothermal fluids pass through the serpentinized zone before discharging as both high-temperature focused flow (40°-91°C) and low-temperature (≈15°C) diffuse flow at the LCHF.

  6. Unveiling the transformation and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter in contrasting hydrothermal vents using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC. (United States)

    Yang, Liyang; Zhuang, Wan-E; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Wang, Bing-Jye; Kuo, Fu-Wen


    The submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments where active cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may occur. However, little is known about the optical properties and bioavailability of hydrothermal DOM, which could provide valuable insights into its transformation processes and biogeochemical reactivity. The quantity, quality, and bioavailability of DOM were investigated for four very different hydrothermal vents east of Taiwan, using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). The DOC and absorption coefficient a 280 were both lower in the two hydrothermal vents off the Orchid Island and on the Green Island than in the surrounding seawater and the two vents off the Kueishantao Island, indicating effective removals of DOM in the former two hydrothermal systems owing to possible adsorption/co-precipitation and thermal degradation respectively. The four hydrothermal DOM showed notable differences in the absorption spectral slope S 275-295 , humification index HIX, biological index BIX, EEM spectra, and the relative distributions of seven PARAFAC components. The results demonstrated a high diversity of chemical composition and transformation history of DOM under contrasting hydrothermal conditions. The little change in the hydrothermal DOC after 28-day microbial incubations indicated a low bioavailability of the bulk DOM, and different PARAFAC components showed contrasting bioavailability. The results have profound implications for understanding the biogeochemical cycling and environmental effects of hydrothermal DOM in the marine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biogeography and ecology of the rare and abundant microbial lineages in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. (United States)

    Anderson, Rika E; Sogin, Mitchell L; Baross, John A


    Environmental gradients generate countless ecological niches in deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems, which foster diverse microbial communities. The majority of distinct microbial lineages in these communities occur in very low abundance. However, the ecological role and distribution of rare and abundant lineages, particularly in deep, hot subsurface environments, remain unclear. Here, we use 16S rRNA tag sequencing to describe biogeographic patterning and microbial community structure of both rare and abundant archaea and bacteria in hydrothermal vent systems. We show that while rare archaeal lineages and almost all bacterial lineages displayed geographically restricted community structuring patterns, the abundant lineages of archaeal communities displayed a much more cosmopolitan distribution. Finally, analysis of one high-volume, high-temperature fluid sample representative of the deep hot biosphere described a unique microbial community that differed from microbial populations in diffuse flow fluid or sulfide samples, yet the rare thermophilic archaeal groups showed similarities to those that occur in sulfides. These results suggest that while most archaeal and bacterial lineages in vents are rare and display a highly regional distribution, a small percentage of lineages, particularly within the archaeal domain, are successful at widespread dispersal and colonization. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. Increased diversity of sessile epibenthos at subtidal hydrothermal vents: seven hypotheses based on observations at Milos Island, Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Nike Bianchi


    Full Text Available Research on subtidal hydrothermal vent ecosystems at Milos, Hellenic Volcanic Arc (Aegean Sea, suggested that vent activity increased the species richness of sessile epibenthic assemblages. Based on 303 species found in 6 sites (3 close to vents, 3 farther away, the present paper uses correspondence analysis and species/samples curves to examine the species composition and richness of these assemblages. Differences due to vent proximity were more important than those due to bottom depth and distance from the shore. Diversity was confirmed to be higher near the vents, although none of the 266 species found at the vent sites can be considered as obligate vent-associated species. Seven different, although not mutually exclusive, hypotheses are discussed to explain the pattern of increased epibenthic species diversity at the vent sites, namely: (i vents represent an intermediate disturbance, inducing mortality by the emission of toxic fluids; (ii higher winter temperature allows for the occurrence of warm-water species, which add to the regional background; (iii venting disrupts the homogeneity of the water bottom layer, increasing bottom roughness and hence habitat heterogeneity; (iv deposition of minerals and enhanced bioconstruction by Ca enrichment increment habitat provision; (v fluid emission induces advective mechanisms that favour recruitment; (vi vents emit CO2, nutrients and trace elements that enhance primary productivity; and (vii bacterial chemosynthesis add to photosynthesis to provide a diversity of food sources for the fauna.

  9. Bacterial and archaeal communities in the deep-sea sediments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge (United States)

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Xu, Jian; Shuai, Yinjie; Zhou, Xiaojian; Yang, Zhihui; Ma, Kesen


    Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents harbor abundant thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms. However, microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents have not been well documented. Here, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in the two deep-sea sediments (named as TVG4 and TVG11) collected from inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq2500 platform. Based on the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, sequence analysis showed that bacterial communities in the two samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Furthermore, archaeal communities in the two samples were dominated by Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Comparative analysis showed that (i) TVG4 displayed the higher bacterial richness and lower archaeal richness than TVG11; (ii) the two samples had more divergence in archaeal communities than bacterial communities. Bacteria and archaea that are potentially associated with nitrogen, sulfur metal and methane cycling were detected in the two samples. Overall, we first provided a comparative picture of bacterial and archaeal communities and revealed their potentially ecological roles in the deep-sea environments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest Indian Ridge, augmenting microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents.

  10. Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Above 100-Degrees-C in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    -reducing bacteria was done in hot deep-sea sediments at the hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin tectonic spreading center in the Gulf of California. Radiotracer studies revealed that sulfate reduction can occur at temperatures up to 110-degrees-C, with an optimum rate at 103-degrees to 106-degrees......-C. This observation expands the upper temperature limit of this process in deep-ocean sediments by 20-degrees-C and indicates the existence of an unknown groUp of hyperthermophilic bacteria with a potential importance for the biogeochemistry of sulfur above 100-degrees-C....

  11. Lipid Biomarkers and Molecular Carbon Isotopes for Elucidating Carbon Cycling Pathways in Hydrothermal Vents (United States)

    Zhang, C. L.; Dai, J.; Campbell, B.; Cary, C.; Sun, M.


    Increasing molecular evidence suggests that hydrothermal vents in mid-ocean ridges harbor large populations of free-living bacteria, particularly the epsilon Proteobacteria. However, pathways for carbon metabolism by these bacteria are poorly known. We are addressing this question by analyzing the lipid biomarkers and their isotope signatures in environments where the epsilon Proteobacteria are likely predominant. Solid materials were collected from hydrothermal vents in the East Pacific Rise and at the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California. Fatty acids extracted from these samples are dominated by 16:0 (27-41%), 18:0 (16-48%), 18:1 (11-42%), 16:1 (7-12%), and 14:0 (5-28%). In addition, 15:0 and anteiso-15:0 are significantly present (2-3%) in samples from the Guaymas Basin. The isotopic compositions of these fatty acids range from -15.0\\permil to -33.1\\permil with the most positive values occurring only in monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1 and 18:1). We are currently unable to assign these biomarkers to any of the epsilon Proteobacteria because biomarkers are poorly known for these organisms isolated from the vents. However, no polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected in these samples, which are consistent with the absence of vent animals at the sampling sites. Signature biomarkers of 20:1 and cy21:0, which are characteristic of the thermophilic chemolithoautotrophs such as Aquificales, are also absent in these samples. These results imply that the deeply branched Aquificales species do not constitute the major microbial community in these vent environments. The large range of molecular isotopic compositions suggests that these lipids are synthesized from various carbon sources with different isotopic compositions or through different biosynthetic pathways, or both. We are currently measuring the isotopic compositions of the total organic carbon in the bulk samples and will determine the fractionations between lipid biomarkers and the total organic carbon

  12. Study of Hydrothermal Particulate Matter from a Shallow Venting System, offshore Nayarit, Mexico (United States)

    Ortega-Osorio, A.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Reyes, A. G.; Rubio-Ramos, M. A.; Torres-Vera, M. A.


    A shallow (30 ft) hydrothermal site named ``Cora'' (after the indigenous people thereby) was surveyed and sampled throughout direct observation with SCUBA diving during November 25 to December 4, 2000. A total of 10 dives were conducted in order to obtain representative samples from an 85oC fluid source of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Inherent difficulties to the sampling, such as poor visibility and strong bottom currents were overcome and samples of hydrothermal fluid, gas, rocks, and particulate matter were collected directly from the vent. Water samples and hydrothermal fluid were taken with a homemade 1 l cylindrical bottles of two lines by flushing in from the bottom for about ten minutes until total displacement of the seawater; similar procedure was carried out for gas samples. Particulate matter was collected with 0.4mm polycarbonate membrane filters and preserved in a desiccators at a fridge temperature until analysis onshore. Preliminary description of the rock samples suggest that pyritization is the main mineralisation process. Filters containing hydrothermal particulate matter were surveyed under the scanning electron microscope in order to identify the nature (inorganic and organic), as well as the chemistry of the particles. SEM examination revealed the presence of particles of different kind that suggests high degree of mixing and re-suspension: Planctonic organisms and organic matter appeared to be abundant; 25 micron particles of different carbonate faces and inorganic particles of silicates were also recognized. Distinctive euhedral colloidal grains were identified as the resulting process of precipitation from the solution. Microanalysis of iron and sulfur content of 10 micron particles indicate a very likely sulphide mineral face (greigite); 8 micron cinnabar particles are consistent with the mineralization conditions, observed as well in the inner walls of the vent. Analyses of dissolved and particulate trace metals are still ongoing at

  13. Bacterial and Archaeal Community Dynamics at CO2-RICH Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Vents (panarea, Italy) (United States)

    Schubotz, F.; Huang, C.; Meyerdierks, A.; Amend, J.; Price, R. E.; Amann, R.; Hinrichs, K.; Summons, R. E.


    Shallow marine hydrothermal vents are highly dynamic systems with unique habitats that can support both chemosynthetic and photosynthetic communities at steep temperature and geochemical gradients. Here, we present a combined organic geochemical and microbiological approach to describe the microbial community composition and their metabolism at the CO2-rich shallow hydrothermal vents off Panarea Island, in Sicily. We investigated two contrasting hydrothermal environments: Hot Lake, a depression filled with hydrothermal fluids diffusing gradually out of the seafloor, with temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C, and Blackpoint, a site with vigorous venting of hydrothermal gasses and fluids with temperatures as high as 135°C. At Hot Lake, Bacteria dominate the microbial community composition in the sediments. 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed Bacteriodetes-, Epsilonproteobacteria- and Deltaproteobacteria-related sequences as the most abundant members. Bacterial intact polar membrane lipids (IPLs) were dominated by the non-phosphorous containing ornithine lipids throughout all depths, indicating an important role of this aminolipid at elevated temperatures and/or low pH. At Hot Lake, archaeal IPLs were comprised mainly of glycosidic tetraethers and increased up to 20% of total IPLs with increasing temperature and depth. At the same site, archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries were mainly comprised of Euryarchaea-affiliated sequences; crenarchaeotal sequences were only found in deeper sediment layers with temperatures of ca. 70°C. In contrast to Hot Lake, Archaea dominated sediments at the much hotter site at Blackpoint. Here, novel methylated H-shaped archaeal tetraethers, with multiple sugars as head groups, were the most abundant membrane lipids. Reports on these lipids in cultures are very limited, but their abundant occurrence at elevated temperatures suggests an important role in membrane homeostastis in thermophilic Archaea. Stable carbon isotope values of -35‰ to

  14. Three-Dimensional Slowness Images of the Upper Crust Beneath the Lucky Strike Hydrothermal Vent Sites (United States)

    Seher, T.; Crawford, W.; Singh, S.; Canales, J. P.; Combier, V.; Cannat, M.; Carton, H.; Dusunur, D.; Escartin, J.; Miranda, M. J.; Pouillet-Erguy, A.


    In June-July 2005 we carried out the SISMOMAR cruise, as part of the MOMAR project (Monitoring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge). Within this cruise, we conducted a 3D seismic reflection survey over an 18 km km x 3.8 km area covering both the Lucky Strike volcano and hydrothermal vents field. In order to have a full coverage inside the 3D box, shots continued for 2.25 km on either side of the box and extended out to the median valley bounding faults. To complement the streamer measurements 25 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) were placed in an 18 km x 18 km area. 11 OBS positions lie inside the 3D box and can be used to determine a very detailed image of the 3D velocity structure beneath the Lucky Strike volcano and hydrothermal vents field. For the 3D box a tuned array of 14 air guns (2600 cubic inches) was fired at an interval of 37.5 m for a total of 39 lines. We will present the first results of the OBS measurements near the Lucky Strike volcano. As a first step towards a joint 3D travel time and slowness (the inverse of velocity at turning depth) tomography, we present the 3D slowness function (latitude, longitude, offset), which can be considered as a 3D brute stack velocity image of the sub-surface (c.f. Barton and Edwards, 1999). The presence of fluid in the upper crust due to hydrothermal circulation should appear as a low velocity anomaly beneath the hydrothermal vents. In the next step the OBS measurements will be used to corroborate the reflection images of layer 2A observed in the streamer data for the 3D box. The OBS inside the 3D box recorded turning ray arrivals from the upper crust at a very fine sampling interval (37.5 m x 100 m) over a large azimuth. This provides the unique opportunity for jointly inverting travel time and slowness. Hence the measurements contain information on local gradients and should provide a very detailed velocity model of the subsurface, including information on hydrothermal systems and a possilbe anisotropy (e.g. Cherret and Singh

  15. Exploring the Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in a Metacommunity Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Mullineaux


    Full Text Available Species inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents are strongly influenced by the geological setting, as it provides the chemical-rich fluids supporting the food web, creates the patchwork of seafloor habitat, and generates catastrophic disturbances that can eradicate entire communities. The patches of vent habitat host a network of communities (a metacommunity connected by dispersal of planktonic larvae. The dynamics of the metacommunity are influenced not only by birth rates, death rates and interactions of populations at the local site, but also by regional influences on dispersal from different sites. The connections to other communities provide a mechanism for dynamics at a local site to affect features of the regional biota. In this paper, we explore the challenges and potential benefits of applying metacommunity theory to vent communities, with a particular focus on effects of disturbance. We synthesize field observations to inform models and identify data gaps that need to be addressed to answer key questions including: (1 what is the influence of the magnitude and rate of disturbance on ecological attributes, such as time to extinction or resilience in a metacommunity; (2 what interactions between local and regional processes control species diversity, and (3 which communities are “hot spots” of key ecological significance. We conclude by assessing our ability to evaluate resilience of vent metacommunities to human disturbance (e.g., deep-sea mining. Although the resilience of a few highly disturbed vent systems in the eastern Pacific has been quantified, these values cannot be generalized to remote locales in the western Pacific or mid Atlantic where disturbance rates are different and information on local controls is missing.

  16. Culturable bacterial phylogeny from a shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca (Faial, Azores) reveals a variety of novel taxa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C.; Colaco, A.; Dastager, S.G.; Santos, R.S.; Meena, R.M.

    by 1% agarose gel elec- trophoresis with TAE buffer. The PCR products were gel- purified using a Gel Extraction Kit or purified with PCR cleanup kit (Sigma) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The purified PCR products were sequenced... productivity at the deep sea hydrothermal vents (> 200 m) is not maintained by photosynthetic products, but by the chemosynthesis of organic matter by vent microbes, using energy from chemical oxidation to produce organic matter from CO2 and mineral...

  17. Food-web complexity across hydrothermal vents on the Azores triple junction (United States)

    Portail, Marie; Brandily, Christophe; Cathalot, Cécile; Colaço, Ana; Gélinas, Yves; Husson, Bérengère; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Sarrazin, Jozée


    The assessment and comparison of food webs across various hydrothermal vent sites can enhance our understanding of ecological processes involved in the structure and function of biodiversity. The Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow vent fields are located on the Azores triple junction of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These fields have distinct depths (from 850 to 2320 m) and geological contexts (basaltic and ultramafic), but share similar faunal assemblages defined by the presence of foundation species that include Bathymodiolus azoricus, alvinocarid shrimp and gastropods. We compared the food webs of 13 faunal assemblages at these three sites using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses (SIA). Results showed that photosynthesis-derived organic matter is a negligible basal source for vent food webs, at all depths. The contribution of methanotrophy versus autotrophy based on Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) or reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles varied between and within vent fields according to the concentrations of reduced compounds (e.g. CH4, H2S). Species that were common to vent fields showed high trophic flexibility, suggesting weak trophic links to the metabolism of chemosynthetic primary producers. At the community level, a comparison of SIA-derived metrics between mussel assemblages from two vent fields (Menez Gwen & Lucky Strike) showed that the functional structure of food webs was highly similar in terms of basal niche diversification, functional specialization and redundancy. Coupling SIA to functional trait approaches included more variability within the analyses, but the functional structures were still highly comparable. These results suggest that despite variable environmental conditions (physico-chemical factors and basal sources) and faunal community structure, functional complexity remained relatively constant among mussel assemblages. This functional similarity may be favoured by the propensity of species to adapt to fluid variations and

  18. The spatial scale of genetic subdivision in populations of Ifremeria nautilei, a hydrothermal-vent gastropod from the southwest Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Andrew D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide patchy, ephemeral habitats for specialized communities of animals that depend on chemoautotrophic primary production. Unlike eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents, where population structure has been studied at large (thousands of kilometres and small (hundreds of meters spatial scales, population structure of western Pacific vents has received limited attention. This study addresses the scale at which genetic differentiation occurs among populations of a western Pacific vent-restricted gastropod, Ifremeria nautilei. Results We used mitochondrial and DNA microsatellite markers to infer patterns of gene flow and population subdivision. A nested sampling strategy was employed to compare genetic diversity in discrete patches of Ifremeria nautilei separated by a few meters within a single vent field to distances as great as several thousand kilometres between back-arc basins that encompass the known range of the species. No genetic subdivisions were detected among patches, mounds, or sites within Manus Basin. Although I. nautilei from Lau and North Fiji Basins (~1000 km apart also exhibited no evidence for genetic subdivision, these populations were genetically distinct from the Manus Basin population. Conclusions An unknown process that restricts contemporary gene flow isolates the Manus Basin population of Ifremeria nautilei from widespread populations that occupy the North Fiji and Lau Basins. A robust understanding of the genetic structure of hydrothermal vent populations at multiple spatial scales defines natural conservation units and can help minimize loss of genetic diversity in situations where human activities are proposed and managed.

  19. Genetic diversity and demographic instability in Riftia pachyptila tubeworms from eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents (United States)

    Coykendall, D.K.; Johnson, S.B.; Karl, S.A.; Lutz, R.A.; Vrijenhoek, R.C.


    Background: Deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals occupy patchy and ephemeral habitats supported by chemosynthetic primary production. Volcanic and tectonic activities controlling the turnover of these habitats contribute to demographic instability that erodes genetic variation within and among colonies of these animals. We examined DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and three nuclear gene loci to assess genetic diversity in the siboglinid tubeworm, Riftia pachyptila, a widely distributed constituent of vents along the East Pacific Rise and Galpagos Rift. Results: Genetic differentiation (FST) among populations increased with geographical distances, as expected under a linear stepping-stone model of dispersal. Low levels of DNA sequence diversity occurred at all four loci, allowing us to exclude the hypothesis that an idiosyncratic selective sweep eliminated mitochondrial diversity alone. Total gene diversity declined with tectonic spreading rates. The southernmost populations, which are subjected to superfast spreading rates and high probabilities of extinction, are relatively homogenous genetically. Conclusions: Compared to other vent species, DNA sequence diversity is extremely low in R. pachyptila. Though its dispersal abilities appear to be effective, the low diversity, particularly in southern hemisphere populations, is consistent with frequent local extinction and (re)colonization events. ?? 2011 Coykendall et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. Microbial communities and chemosynthesis in Yellowstone Lake sublacustrine hydrothermal vent waters

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    Tingting eYang


    Full Text Available Abstract. Five sublacustrine hydrothermal vent locations from 1-109 m water depth in Yellowstone Lake were surveyed by ribosomal RNA sequencing in relation to their chemical composition and dark CO2 fixation rates. They harbor distinct chemosynthetic bacterial communities, depending on temperature (16 - 110ºC and electron donor supply (H2S <1 - >100µM; NH3 <0.5 - >10µM. Members of the Aquificales, most closely affiliated with the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium, are the most frequently recovered bacterial 16S rRNA gene phylotypes in the hottest samples; the detection of these thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing autotrophs coincided with maximal dark CO2 fixation rates reaching near 9 µM C h-1 at temperatures of 50 to 60°C. Vents at lower temperatures yielded mostly phylotypes related to the mesophilic gammaproteobacterial sulfur oxidizer Thiovirga. In contrast, cool vent water with low chemosynthetic activity yielded predominantly phylotypes related to freshwater Actinobacterial clusters with a cosmopolitan distribution.

  1. Testing the benthic foraminiferal B/Ca proxy in a hydrothermal vent environment to determine its validity under extreme conditions (United States)

    Clementi, V.; Haynes, L.; Hoenisch, B.; Costa, K.; McManus, J. F.


    The boron to calcium ratio (B/Ca) and boron isotopic composition of the benthic foraminifer C. wuellerstorfi have become frequently used proxies for reconstructing carbonate chemistry in ocean bottom waters. However, elevated boron isotope data from a site proximal to the Clipperton Fracture Zone on the East Pacific Rise have led to the hypothesis that boron derived from hydrothermal fluids may be incorporated into benthic foraminifer shells (1). To date there is no comparable evidence for B/Ca at sites adjacent to hydrothermal vent systems, but hydrothermal vent fluid at the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeast Pacific Ocean can have boron concentrations nearly twice as high as ambient seawater (2), and other studies have documented increased levels of trace element incorporation in foraminifers living near hydrothermal vents (3). If the same effect holds true for B/Ca, the proxy may be compromised in sediments near hydrothermal vent sites. Here we present C. wuellerstorfi B/Ca data from a sediment core 5 km west of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, North Cleft Segment, to study the influence of vent fluid chemistry and partial shell dissolution on B/Ca and other trace element ratios. Our results do not show a strong hydrothermal signature on B/Ca despite the elevated boron concentrations of modern vent fluids and close proximity to the ridge. However, partial shell dissolution appears to have a significant impact on B/Ca ratios, calling for careful sample selection in future reconstructions from the region. Analysis of B/Ca and other trace element ratios across a ridge transect at a time of documented high hydrothermal activity—as indicated by high sediment hydrothermal Fe fluxes—may determine whether the hydrothermal signal is recorded further downstream from the vent fluid source. (1) Raitzsch, M. and Hönisch, B. (2010). Geology 40(5). (2) Seyfried Jr., W.E. et al. (2003). Journal of Geophys. Res.:Solid Earth 108(B9). (3) Munsel, D. et al. (2010). Biogeosci. 7.7.

  2. Arsenic bioaccumulation and biotransformation in deep-sea hydrothermal vent organisms from the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, Manus Basin, PNG (United States)

    Price, Roy E.; Breuer, Christian; Reeves, Eoghan; Bach, Wolfgang; Pichler, Thomas


    Hydrothermal vents are often enriched in arsenic, and organisms living in these environments may accumulate high concentrations of this and other trace elements. However, very little research to date has focused on understanding arsenic bioaccumulation and biotransformation in marine organisms at deep-sea vent areas; none to date have focused organisms from back-arc spreading centers. We present for the first time concentration and speciation data for As in vent biota from several hydrothermal vent fields in the eastern Manus basin, a back-arc basin vent field located in the Bismark Sea, western Pacific Ocean. The gastropods Alviniconcha hessleri and Ifremeria nautilei, and the mussel Bathymodiolus manusensis were collected from diffuse venting areas where pH was slightly lower (6.2-6.8), and temperature (26.8-10.5 °C) and arsenic concentrations (169.5-44.0 nM) were higher than seawater. In the tissues of these organisms, the highest total measured As concentrations were in the gills of A. hessleri (5580 mg kg-1), with 721 mg kg-1 and 43 mg kg-1 in digestive gland and muscle, respectively. I. nautilei contained 118 mg kg-1 in the gill, 108 mg kg-1 in the digestive gland and 22 mg kg-1 in the muscle. B. manusensis contained 15.7 mg kg-1 in the digestive gland, followed by 9.8 mg kg-1 and 4.5 mg kg-1 in its gill and muscle tissue, respectively. We interpret the decreasing overall total concentrations in each organism as a function of distance from the source of hydrothermally derived As. The high concentration of arsenic in A. hessleri gills may be associated with elemental sulfur known to occur in this organism as a result of symbiotic microorganisms. Arsenic extracted from freeze-dried A. hessleri tissue was dominated by AsIII and AsV in the digestive gland (82% and 16%, respectively) and gills (97% AsIII, 2.3% AsV), with only 1.8% and 0.2% arsenobetaine (As-Bet) in the digestive gland and gills, respectively. However, the muscle contained substantial amounts of

  3. Metagenomic Signatures of Microbial Communities in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sediments of Azores Vent Fields. (United States)

    Cerqueira, Teresa; Barroso, Cristina; Froufe, Hugo; Egas, Conceição; Bettencourt, Raul


    The organisms inhabiting the deep-seafloor are known to play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Chemolithoautotrophic prokaryotes, which produce biomass from single carbon molecules, constitute the primary source of nutrition for the higher organisms, being critical for the sustainability of food webs and overall life in the deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. The present study investigates the metabolic profiles of chemolithoautotrophs inhabiting the sediments of Menez Gwen and Rainbow deep-sea vent fields, in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Differences in the microbial community structure might be reflecting the distinct depth, geology, and distance from vent of the studied sediments. A metagenomic sequencing approach was conducted to characterize the microbiome of the deep-sea hydrothermal sediments and the relevant metabolic pathways used by microbes. Both Menez Gwen and Rainbow metagenomes contained a significant number of genes involved in carbon fixation, revealing the largely autotrophic communities thriving in both sites. Carbon fixation at Menez Gwen site was predicted to occur mainly via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, likely reflecting the dominance of sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria at this site, while different autotrophic pathways were identified at Rainbow site, in particular the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Chemolithotrophy appeared to be primarily driven by the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, whether through the SOX-dependent pathway at Menez Gwen site or through reverse sulfate reduction at Rainbow site. Other energy-yielding processes, such as methane, nitrite, or ammonia oxidation, were also detected but presumably contributing less to chemolithoautotrophy. This work furthers our knowledge of the microbial ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal sediments and represents an important repository of novel genes with potential biotechnological interest.

  4. Hydrothermal vent fields discovered in the southern Gulf of California clarify role of habitat in augmenting regional diversity. (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Caress, David; Clague, David; Escobar, Elva; Lundsten, Lonny; Paduan, Jennifer B; Rouse, Greg; Salcedo, Diana L; Soto, Luis A; Spelz-Madero, Ronald; Zierenberg, Robert; Vrijenhoek, Robert


    Hydrothermal vent communities are distributed along mid-ocean spreading ridges as isolated patches. While distance is a key factor influencing connectivity among sites, habitat characteristics are also critical. The Pescadero Basin (PB) and Alarcón Rise (AR) vent fields, recently discovered in the southern Gulf of California, are bounded by previously known vent localities (e.g. Guaymas Basin and 21° N East Pacific Rise); yet, the newly discovered vents differ markedly in substrata and vent fluid attributes. Out of 116 macrofaunal species observed or collected, only three species are shared among all four vent fields, while 73 occur at only one locality. Foundation species at basalt-hosted sulfide chimneys on the AR differ from the functional equivalents inhabiting sediment-hosted carbonate chimneys in the PB, only 75 km away. The dominant species of symbiont-hosting tubeworms and clams, and peripheral suspension-feeding taxa, differ between the sites. Notably, the PB vents host a limited and specialized fauna in which 17 of 26 species are unknown at other regional vents and many are new species. Rare sightings and captured larvae of the 'missing' species revealed that dispersal limitation is not responsible for differences in community composition at the neighbouring vent localities. Instead, larval recruitment-limiting habitat suitability probably favours species differentially. As scenarios develop to design conservation strategies around mining of seafloor sulfide deposits, these results illustrate that models encompassing habitat characteristics are needed to predict metacommunity structure. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Food-Web Complexity in Guaymas Basin Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Portail

    Full Text Available In the Guaymas Basin, the presence of cold seeps and hydrothermal vents in close proximity, similar sedimentary settings and comparable depths offers a unique opportunity to assess and compare the functioning of these deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems. The food webs of five seep and four vent assemblages were studied using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses. Although the two ecosystems shared similar potential basal sources, their food webs differed: seeps relied predominantly on methanotrophy and thiotrophy via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle and vents on petroleum-derived organic matter and thiotrophy via the CBB and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA cycles. In contrast to symbiotic species, the heterotrophic fauna exhibited high trophic flexibility among assemblages, suggesting weak trophic links to the metabolic diversity of chemosynthetic primary producers. At both ecosystems, food webs did not appear to be organised through predator-prey links but rather through weak trophic relationships among co-occurring species. Examples of trophic or spatial niche differentiation highlighted the importance of species-sorting processes within chemosynthetic ecosystems. Variability in food web structure, addressed through Bayesian metrics, revealed consistent trends across ecosystems. Food-web complexity significantly decreased with increasing methane concentrations, a common proxy for the intensity of seep and vent fluid fluxes. Although high fluid-fluxes have the potential to enhance primary productivity, they generate environmental constraints that may limit microbial diversity, colonisation of consumers and the structuring role of competitive interactions, leading to an overall reduction of food-web complexity and an increase in trophic redundancy. Heterogeneity provided by foundation species was identified as an additional structuring factor. According to their biological activities, foundation species may have the potential to

  6. Immunomodulatory N-acyl Dopamine Glycosides from the Icelandic Marine Sponge Myxilla incrustans Collected at a Hydrothermal Vent Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Eydis; Liu, Hong Bing; Freysdottir, Jona


    A chemical investigation of the sponge (Porifera) Myxilla incrustans collected from the unique submarine hydrothermal vent site Strytan, North of Iceland, revealed a novel family of closely related N-acyl dopamine glycosides. Three new compounds, myxillin A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated...

  7. Citreicella manganoxidans sp. nov., a novel manganese oxidizing bacterium isolated from a shallow water hydrothermal vent in Espalamaca (Azores)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Li, W.-J; Colaco, A.

    A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, aerobic and rod or narrow lemon-shaped bacterial strain, VSW210T, was isolated from surface seawater in a shallow water hydrothermal vent region in Espalamaca (Azores). Strain VSW210...

  8. Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents (United States)

    Prieur, D.

    Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years) of solar nergy was discovered. Besides the spectacular and unexpected communities of invertebrates based on symbiotic associations with chemo-litho-autotrophic bacteria, prokaryotic communities associated with high temperature black smokers fascinated microbiologists of extreme environments. Within mineral structures where temperature gradients may fluctuate from ambient seawater temperatures (2°C) up to 350°C, thermophilic (optimal growth above 60°C) and hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80°C) microorganisms thrived under very severe conditions due to elevated hydrostatic pressure, toxic compounds or strong ionizing radiations. These organisms belong to both domains of Bacteria and Archaea and live aerobically but mostly anaerobically, using a variety of inorganic and organic carbon sources, and a variety of electron donnors and acceptors as well. The most thermophilic organism known on Earth was isolated from a mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrotermal vent: Pyrolobus fumarii grows optimally at 110°c and its upper temperature limit for life is 113°C. Such an organism survived to autoclaving conditions currently used for sterilization procedures. Many other hyperthermophilic organisms were isolated and described, including fermenters, sulphate and sulphur reducers, hydrogen oxidizers, nitrate reducers, methanogens, etc. Although most of anaerobes are killed when exposed to oxygen, several deep-sea hyperthermophiles appeared to survive to both oxygen and starvation exposures, indicating that they probably can colonize rather distant environments Because of elevated hydrostatic pressure that exists at

  9. In situ Raman-based detections of the hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluids (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Du, Zengfeng; Zheng, Ronger; Luan, Zhendong; Qi, Fujun; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Bing; Ye, Wangquan; Liu, Xiaorui; Chen, Changan; Guo, Jinjia; Li, Ying; Yan, Jun


    Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, and their associated biological communities play an important role in global carbon and sulphur biogeochemical cycles. Most of the studies of fluid composition geochemistry are based on recovered samples, both with gas-tight samplers and as open specimens, but the in situ conditions are difficult to maintain in recovered samples. Determination in situ of the chemical signals of the emerging fluids are challenging due to the high pressure, often strongly acidic and temperature in which few sensors can survive. Most of those sensors used so far are based on electrochemistry, and can typically detect only a few chemical species. Here we show that direct measurement of critical chemical species of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps can be made rapidly and in situ by means of a new hybrid version of earlier deep-sea pore water Raman probe carried on the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian. The fluid was drawn through the probe by actuating a hydraulic pump on the ROV, and measured at the probe optical cell through a sapphire window. We have observed the concentrations of H2S, HS-, SO42-, HSO4-, CO2, and H2 in hydrothermal vent fluids from the Pacmanus and Desmos vent systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea. Two black smokers (279° C and 186° C) at the Pacmanus site showed the characteristic loss of SO42-, and the increase of CO2 and well resolved H2S and HS- peaks. At the white smoker of Onsen site the strong HSO4-peak observed at high temperature quickly dropped with strong accompanying increase of SO42-and H2 peaks when the sample contained in the Raman sensing cell was removed from the hot fluid due to rapid thermal deprotonation. We report here also the finding of a new lower temperature (88° C) white smoker "Kexue" field at the Desmos site with strong H2S, HS- and CO2 signals. We also have detected the concentrations of CH4,H2S, HS-, SO42-, and S8 in cold seep fluids and the surrounding sediment pore water from

  10. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika harbor spore-forming thermophiles with extremely rapid growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel


    A thermophilic anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a sublacustrine hydrothermal vent site in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) with recorded fluid temperatures of 66–103 °C and pH values of 7.7–8.9. The bacterium (strain TR10) was rod-shaped, about 1 by 5 μm in size, and readily formed distal...... and peptone. The optimum temperature for growth was 60 °C, while minimum and maximum temperatures were 40 and 75 °C. The pH response was alkalitolerant with optimum pH at 7.4 and 8.5 depending on the growth medium. The distinct feature of rapid proliferation and endospore formation may allow the novel...

  11. A Geographical Information System to Manage the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (United States)

    Douglas, K. L.; Hillier, M. C. J.; Thornborough, K. J.; Jenkyns, R.; Juniper, K.


    The Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (EHVMPA) is located approximately 250 km offshore of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Since its discovery in 1982, there have been hundreds of dives, samples collected, measurements made, and debris left behind at the EHVMPA. In 2003, the Canadian government declared the region as a Marine Protected Area (MPA) under Canada's Oceans Act, to be managed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates a cabled observatory in the EHVMPA, and streams data in near real-time via the Internet to science communities worldwide. ONC's observatory data, combined with observations made during maintenance expeditions provides insight assisting the management and preservation of the MPA. In 2014, DFO partnered with ONC to build a geodatabase to enhance and inform the knowledge base of the EHVMPA Management Plan. The geodatabase, built in ArcGIS, contains data integrated from ONC's Oceans 2.0 database, third parties, and relevant publications. Layers include annual observatory infrastructure deployments, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dive tracks, sampling activity, anthropogenic debris, high-resolution bathymetry, observations of species of interest, and locations of hydrothermal vents. The combined data show both efforts to better understand the environment and the resulting stressors that impact the MPA. The tool also links observed features such as debris and biological observations to the time-correlated ROV dive video using ONC's SeaTube video viewing tool allowing for further analysis. Through 2017, the geodatabase will be maintained by ONC and enriched with expedition data from organizations such as Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, and the University of Washington. The end result is a tool that can integrate many types of data obtained from the MPA, and encourages systematic management of a remote, dynamic and fragile environment.

  12. Estimating the Total Heat Flux from the ASHES Hydrothermal Vent Field Using the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (United States)

    Crone, T. J.; Kinsey, J. C.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.


    Hydrothermal venting at mid-ocean ridges influences ocean chemistry, the thermal and chemical structure of the oceanic crust, and the evolution of unique and diverse autolithotrophically-supported ecosystems. Axially-hosted hydrothermal systems are responsible for 20-25% of the total heat flux out of Earth's interior, and likely play a large role in local as well as global biogeochemical cycles. Despite the importance of these systems, only a few studies have attempted to constrain the volume and heat flux of an entire hydrothermal vent field. In July of 2014 we used the Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to survey the water column over the ASHES hydrothermal vent field which is located within the caldera of Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano located on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. To estimate the total heat and mass flux from this vent field, we equipped Sentry with a Nortek acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV), an inertial measurement unit (IMU), two acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), and two SBE3 temperature probes, allowing us to obtain precise measurements of fluid temperature and water velocity. The survey was designed using a control volume approach in which Sentry was pre-programmed to survey a 150-m-square centered over the vent field flying a grid pattern with 5-m track line spacing followed by a survey of the perimeter. This pattern was repeated multiple times during several 10-h dives at different altitudes, including 10, 20, 40, and 60 m above the seafloor, and during one 40-h survey at an altitude of 10 m. During the 40-h survey, the pattern was repeated nine times allowing us to obtain observations over several tidal cycles. Water velocity data obtained with Sentry were corrected for platform motion and then combined with the temperature measurements to estimate heat flux. The analysis of these data will likely provide the most accurate and highest resolution heat and mass flux estimates at a seafloor hydrothermal field to date.

  13. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts. (United States)

    Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R


    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host-symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry.

  14. Microbial utilization of naturally occurring hydrocarbons at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W.


    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California; depth, 2,000 m) is a site of hydrothermal activity in which petroliferous materials is formed by thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter. We investigated certain components of these naturally occurring hydrocarbons as potential carbon sources for a specific microflora at these deep-sea vent sites. Respiratory conversion of [1- 14 C]hexadecane and [1(4,5,8)- 14 C]naphthalene to 14 CO 2 was observed at 4 degree C and 25 degree C, and some was observed at 55 degree C, but none was observed at 80 degree C. Bacterial isolates were capable of growing on both substrates as the sole carbon source. All isolates were aerobic and mesophilic with respect to growth on hydrocarbons but also grew at low temperatures (4 to 5 degree C). These results correlate well with previous geochemical analyses, indicating microbial hydrocarbon degradation, and show that at least some of the thermally produced hydrocarbons at Guaymas Basin are significant carbon sources to vent microbiota

  15. Imprint of past environmental regimes on structure and succession of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent community. (United States)

    Mullineaux, Lauren S; Micheli, Fiorenza; Peterson, Charles H; Lenihan, Hunter S; Markus, Nilauro


    Dramatic perturbations of ecological communities through rapid shifts in environmental regime do not always result in complete mortality of residents. Instead, legacy individuals may remain and influence the succession and composition of subsequent communities. We used a reciprocal transplant experiment to investigate whether a legacy effect is detectable in communities experiencing an abrupt increase or decrease in hydrothermal fluid flux at deep-sea vents. Vent habitats are characterized by strong gradients in productivity and physico-chemical stressors, both of which tend to increase with increasing vent fluid flux. In our experiments, many species survived transplantation from cool (water temperatures theory developed in the rocky intertidal that predicts the predominance of physical control at the high-stress end of an environmental gradient. Prediction of successional transitions in vents and other habitats experiencing regime shifts in which remnant species may survive must take into account the possible influence of historical effects.

  16. Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Viruses Compensate for Microbial Metabolism in Virus-Host Interactions. (United States)

    He, Tianliang; Li, Hongyun; Zhang, Xiaobo


    Viruses are believed to be responsible for the mortality of host organisms. However, some recent investigations reveal that viruses may be essential for host survival. To date, it remains unclear whether viruses are beneficial or harmful to their hosts. To reveal the roles of viruses in the virus-host interactions, viromes and microbiomes of sediment samples from three deep-sea hydrothermal vents were explored in this study. To exclude the influence of exogenous DNAs on viromes, the virus particles were purified with nuclease (DNase I and RNase A) treatments and cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. The metagenomic analysis of viromes without exogenous DNA contamination and microbiomes of vent samples indicated that viruses had compensation effects on the metabolisms of their host microorganisms. Viral genes not only participated in most of the microbial metabolic pathways but also formed branched pathways in microbial metabolisms, including pyrimidine metabolism; alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; nitrogen metabolism and assimilation pathways of the two-component system; selenocompound metabolism; aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis; and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. As is well known, deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems exist in relatively isolated environments which are barely influenced by other ecosystems. The metabolic compensation of hosts mediated by viruses might represent a very important aspect of virus-host interactions. IMPORTANCE Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans and have very important roles in regulating microbial community structure and biogeochemical cycles. The relationship between virus and host microbes is broadly thought to be that of predator and prey. Viruses can lyse host cells to control microbial population sizes and affect community structures of hosts by killing specific microbes. However, viruses also influence their hosts through manipulation of bacterial metabolism. We found

  17. Gas Chemistry of Submarine Hydrothermal Venting at Maug Caldera, Mariana Arc (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Lupton, J. E.; Butterfield, D. A.; Lilley, M. D.; Evans, L. J.; Olson, E. J.; Resing, J. A.; Buck, N.; Larson, B. I.; Young, C.


    Maug volcano consists of 3 islands that define the perimeter of a submerged caldera that was formed by an explosive eruption. The caldera reaches a depth of ~225 meters, and has a prominent central cone or pinnacle that ascends within 20 meters of the sea surface. Our exploration of Maug began in 2003, when a single hydrocast in the caldera detected a strong suspended particle and helium plume reaching a maximum of δ3He = 250% at ~180 meters depth, clearly indicating hydrothermal activity within the caldera. In 2004 we returned armed with the ROPOS ROV, and two ROPOS dives discovered and sampled low temperature (~4 °C) diffuse venting associated with bacterial mats on the NE flank of the central pinnacle at 145 m depth. Samples collected with titanium gas tight bottles were badly diluted with ambient seawater but allowed an estimate of end-member 3He/4He of 7.3 Ra. Four vertical casts lowered into the caldera in 2004 all had a strong 3He signal (δ3He = 190%) at 150-190 meters depth. A recent expedition in 2014 focused on the shallow (~10 m) gas venting along the caldera interior. Scuba divers were able to collect samples of the gas bubbles using evacuated SS bottles fitted with plastic funnels. The gas samples had a consistent ~170 ppm He, 8 ppmNe, 60% CO2, 40%N2, and 0.8% Ar, and an end-member 3He/4He ratio of 6.9 Ra. This 3He/4He ratio falls within the range for typical arc volcanoes. The rather high atmospheric component (N2, Ar, Ne) in these samples is not contamination but appears to be derived from subsurface exchange between the ascending CO2 bubbles and air saturated seawater. A single vertical cast in 2014 had a maximum δ3He = 55% at 140 m depth, much lower than in 2003 and 2004. This decrease is possibly due to recent flushing of the caldera by a storm event, or may reflect a decrease in the deep hydrothermal activity. This area of shallow CO2 venting in Maug caldera is of particular interest as a natural laboratory for studying the effects of ocean

  18. High-pressure hydrogen respiration in hydrothermal vent samples from the deep biosphere (United States)

    Morgan-Smith, D.; Schrenk, M. O.


    Cultivation of organisms from the deep biosphere has met with many challenges, chief among them the ability to replicate this extreme environment in a laboratory setting. The maintenance of in situ pressure levels, carbon sources, and gas concentrations are important, intertwined factors which may all affect the growth of subsurface microorganisms. Hydrogen in particular is of great importance in hydrothermal systems, but in situ hydrogen concentrations are largely disregarded in attempts to culture from these sites. Using modified Hungate-type culture tubes (Bowles et al. 2011) within pressure-retaining vessels, which allow for the dissolution of higher concentrations of gas than is possible with other culturing methods, we have incubated hydrothermal chimney and hydrothermally-altered rock samples from the Lost City and Mid-Cayman Rise hydrothermal vent fields. Hydrogen concentrations up to 15 mmol/kg have been reported from Lost City (Kelley et al. 2005), but data are not yet available from the recently-discovered Mid-Cayman site, and the elevated concentration of 30 mmol/kg is being used in all incubations. We are using a variety of media types to enrich for various metabolic pathways including iron and sulfur reduction under anoxic or microaerophilic conditions. Incubations are being carried out at atmospheric (0.1 MPa), in situ (9, 23, or 50 MPa, depending on site), and elevated (50 MPa) pressure levels. Microbial cell concentrations, taxonomic diversity, and metabolic activities are being monitored during the course of these experiments. These experiments will provide insight into the relationships between microbial activities, pressure, and gas concentrations typical of deep biosphere environments. Results will inform further culturing studies from both fresh and archived samples. References cited: Bowles, M.W., Samarkin, V.A., Joye, S.B. 2011. Improved measurement of microbial activity in deep-sea sediments at in situ pressure and methane concentration

  19. Linking geology, fluid chemistry, and microbial activity of basalt- and ultramafic-hosted deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. (United States)

    Perner, M; Hansen, M; Seifert, R; Strauss, H; Koschinsky, A; Petersen, S


    Hydrothermal fluids passing through basaltic rocks along mid-ocean ridges are known to be enriched in sulfide, while those circulating through ultramafic mantle rocks are typically elevated in hydrogen. Therefore, it has been estimated that the maximum energy in basalt-hosted systems is available through sulfide oxidation and in ultramafic-hosted systems through hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, thermodynamic models suggest that the greatest biomass potential arises from sulfide oxidation in basalt-hosted and from hydrogen oxidation in ultramafic-hosted systems. We tested these predictions by measuring biological sulfide and hydrogen removal and subsequent autotrophic CO2 fixation in chemically distinct hydrothermal fluids from basalt-hosted and ultramafic-hosted vents. We found a large potential of microbial hydrogen oxidation in naturally hydrogen-rich (ultramafic-hosted) but also in naturally hydrogen-poor (basalt-hosted) hydrothermal fluids. Moreover, hydrogen oxidation-based primary production proved to be highly attractive under our incubation conditions regardless whether hydrothermal fluids from ultramafic-hosted or basalt-hosted sites were used. Site-specific hydrogen and sulfide availability alone did not appear to determine whether hydrogen or sulfide oxidation provides the energy for primary production by the free-living microbes in the tested hydrothermal fluids. This suggests that more complex features (e.g., a combination of oxygen, temperature, biological interactions) may play a role for determining which energy source is preferably used in chemically distinct hydrothermal vent biotopes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Characterization of chemosynthetic microbial mats associated with intertidal hydrothermal sulfur vents in White Point, San Pedro, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla J Miranda


    Full Text Available The shallow-sea hydrothermal vents at White Point (WP in Palos Verdes (PV on the southern California coast support microbial mats and provide easily accessed settings in which to study chemolithoautotrophic sulfur cycling. Previous studies have cultured sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the WP mats; however, almost nothing is known about the in situ diversity and activity of the microorganisms in these habitats. We studied the diversity, micron-scale spatial associations and metabolic activity of the mat community via sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and aprA genes, Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH microscopy and sulfate-reduction rate (SRR measurements. Sequence analysis revealed a diverse group of bacteria, dominated by sulfur cycling gamma-, epsilon- and deltaproteobacterial lineages such as Marithrix, Sulfurovum and Desulfuromusa. FISH microscopy suggests a close physical association between sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing genotypes, while radiotracer studies showed low, but detectable, SRR. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate the WP sulfur vent microbial mat community is similar, but distinct from other hydrothermal vent communities representing a range of biotopes and lithologic settings. These findings suggest a complete biological sulfur cycle is operating in the WP mat ecosystem mediated by diverse bacterial lineages, with some similarity with deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities.

  1. Sulfur Metabolism of Hydrogenovibrio thermophilus Strain S5 and Its Adaptations to Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Jiang


    Full Text Available Hydrogenovibrio bacteria are ubiquitous in global deep-sea hydrothermal vents. However, their adaptations enabling survival in these harsh environments are not well understood. In this study, we characterized the physiology and metabolic mechanisms of Hydrogenovibrio thermophilus strain S5, which was first isolated from an active hydrothermal vent chimney on the Southwest Indian Ridge. Physiological characterizations showed that it is a microaerobic chemolithomixotroph that can utilize sulfide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, tetrathionate, thiocyanate or hydrogen as energy sources and molecular oxygen as the sole electron acceptor. During thiosulfate oxidation, the strain produced extracellular sulfur globules 0.7–6.0 μm in diameter that were mainly composed of elemental sulfur and carbon. Some organic substrates including amino acids, tryptone, yeast extract, casamino acids, casein, acetate, formate, citrate, propionate, tartrate, succinate, glucose and fructose can also serve as carbon sources, but growth is weaker than under CO2 conditions, indicating that strain S5 prefers to be chemolithoautotrophic. None of the tested organic carbons could function as energy sources. Growth tests under various conditions confirmed its adaption to a mesophilic mixing zone of hydrothermal vents in which vent fluid was mixed with cold seawater, preferring moderate temperatures (optimal 37°C, alkaline pH (optimal pH 8.0, microaerobic conditions (optimal 4% O2, and reduced sulfur compounds (e.g., sulfide, optimal 100 μM. Comparative genomics showed that strain S5 possesses more complex sulfur metabolism systems than other members of genus Hydrogenovibrio. The genes encoding the intracellular sulfur oxidation protein (DsrEF and assimilatory sulfate reduction were first reported in the genus Hydrogenovibrio. In summary, the versatility in energy and carbon sources, and unique physiological properties of this bacterium have facilitated its adaptation to deep

  2. Diversity and phylogenetic analyses of bacteria from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in Milos island (Greece). (United States)

    Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Manini, Elena; Yakimov, Michail; Vetriani, Costantino


    Studies of shallow-water hydrothermal vents have been lagging behind their deep-sea counterparts. Hence, the importance of these systems and their contribution to the local and regional diversity and biogeochemistry is unclear. This study analyzes the bacterial community along a transect at the shallow-water hydrothermal vent system of Milos island, Greece. The abundance and biomass of the prokaryotic community is comparable to areas not affected by hydrothermal activity and was, on average, 1.34 × 10(8) cells g(-1). The abundance, biomass and diversity of the prokaryotic community increased with the distance from the center of the vent and appeared to be controlled by the temperature gradient rather than the trophic conditions. The retrieved 16S rRNA gene fragments matched sequences from a variety of geothermal environments, although the average similarity was low (94%), revealing previously undiscovered taxa. Epsilonproteobacteria constituted the majority of the population along the transect, with an average contribution to the total diversity of 60%. The larger cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences was related to chemolithoautotrophic Sulfurovum spp., an Epsilonproteobacterium so far detected only at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The presence of previously unknown lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria could be related to the abundance of organic matter in these systems, which may support alternative metabolic strategies to chemolithoautotrophy. The relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the Milos microbial community increased along the transect as the distance from the center of the vent increased. Further attempts to isolate key species from these ecosystems will be critical to shed light on their evolution and ecology.

  3. Highly sensitive avoidance plays a key role in sensory adaptation to deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ogino

    Full Text Available The environments around deep-sea hydrothermal vents are very harsh conditions for organisms due to the possibility of exposure to highly toxic compounds and extremely hot venting there. Despite such extreme environments, some indigenous species have thrived there. Alvinellid worms (Annelida are among the organisms best adapted to high-temperature and oxidatively stressful venting regions. Although intensive studies of the adaptation of these worms to the environments of hydrothermal vents have been made, little is known about the worms' sensory adaptation to the severe chemical conditions there. To examine the sensitivity of the vent-endemic worm Paralvinella hessleri to low pH and oxidative stress, we determined the concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide that induced avoidance behavior of this worm, and compared these concentrations to those obtained for related species inhabiting intertidal zones, Thelepus sp. The concentrations of the chemicals that induced avoidance behavior of P. hessleri were 10-100 times lower than those for Thelepus sp. To identify the receptors for these chemicals, chemical avoidance tests were performed with the addition of ruthenium red, a blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP channels. This treatment suppressed the chemical avoidance behavior of P. hessleri, which suggests that TRP channels are involved in the chemical avoidance behavior of this species. Our results revealed for the first time hypersensitive detection systems for acid and for oxidative stress in the vent-endemic worm P. hessleri, possibly mediated by TRP channels, suggesting that such sensory systems may have facilitated the adaptation of this organism to harsh vent environments.

  4. Uniformity and diversity in the composition of mineralizing fluids from hydrothermal vents on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. (United States)

    Philpotts, J.A.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Von Damm, Karen L.


    Abundances of Li, Na, K, Rb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Si have been determined in fluid samples from 7 vents located in three areas on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The hydrothermal component estimated from the Mg contents of the samples ranges from 7% to 76%. Concentrations of Fe and Si, among other elements, in acid-stabilized solutions appear to be generally representative of the parental hydrothermal fluids, but some Zn determinations and most Ba values appear to be too low.-from Authors

  5. Lithosphere-biosphere interaction at a shallow-sea hydrothermal vent site; Hot Lake, Panarea, Italy (United States)

    Huang, Chia-I.; Amann, Rudolf; Amend, Jan P.; Bach, Wolfgang; Brunner, Benjamin; Meyerdierks, Anke; Price, Roy E.; Schubotz, Florence; Summons, Roger; Wenzhöfer, Frank


    Deep-Sea hydrothermal systems are unique habitats for microbial life with primary production based on chemosynthesis and are considered to be windows to the subsurface biosphere. It is often overlooked, however, that their far more accessible shallow-sea counterparts are also valuable targets to study the effects of hydrothermal activity on geology, seawater chemistry and finally, on microbial life. Such an area of shallow marine hydrothermal venting is observed approximately 2.5 km east of Panarea Island (Sicily, Italy). This system is characterized by fluid temperatures of up to 135° C, gas emissions dominated by CO2 and precipitation of elemental sulfur on the seafloor. In an interdisciplinary project to investigate the influence of geofuels on marine microbiota, sediment cores and pore fluids were sampled for geological and geochemical analyses. An attempt was made to link these geochemical data with a characterization of the microbial community. One of the investigated sites (Lago Caldo, Hot Lake) is an oval-shaped (~10 by 6 meters) shallow (~2.5 m deep) depression covered by elemental sulfur. The sediments in this depression are strongly affected by hydrothermal activity: the pH of pore fluids is in a range between 5 and 6; the salinity is approximately two times higher than seawater. In situ temperatures of 36° C and 74° C (10 cm sediment depth) at two different locations within Hot Lake indicate variability in hydrothermal flux. The sediment surface layer is anoxic, and with increasing depth from the sediment-water interface, sulfate concentrations decrease from ~30 mM to less than 10 mM, whereas sulfide concentrations increase from less than 50 μm to ~1000 μm at 25 cm sediment depth, thus suggesting a higher potential for energy gain based on sulfur disequilibrium. As indicated by the variability in the sediment temperatures at 10 cm, fluid fluxes and mixing with seawater is not found to be uniform at Hot Lake. This is reflected in variability of the

  6. Biotic and Abiotic Interactions of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent-Endemic Fish on the East Pacific Rise (United States)


    variable oxygen levels in comparison to ambient bottom water. A fragment of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase was successfully amplified from T. hollisi mRNA...Zoarcide des sites hydrothermaux de la dorsale medio -Atlantiqu. Cybium 18(2): 109-115. Geistdoerfer P (1996) L’ichthyofaune des ecosystems associés à...mixed with the hydrothermal fluid, the habitat chemistry is still measurably different from that of ambient temperature, non vent-influenced areas

  7. Challenges of using an AUV to find and map hydrothermal vent sites in deep and rugged terrains


    McPhail, S.D.; Stevenson, P.; Pebody, M.; Furlong, M.; Perrett, J.; LeBas, T.


    In March 2010, the Autosub6000 AUV embarked on a cruise to discover, locate and map hydrothermal vent sites in an active spreading centre, the Cayman trough in the Caribbean sea. The environment provided the challenge of steep and rugged terrain together with deep water (in places greater than 5000 m). Autosub6000 is a flight class, hydrodynamically shaped AUV, with good endurance capability, making it well suited for searching for plume signals and mapping terrain over the required ...

  8. Dietary carbon sources of mussels and tubeworms from Galapagos hydrothermal vents determined from tissue adC activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P M; Smith, K L; Druffel, E M; Linick, T W


    The large quantities of reduced carbon that are required to support the filter-feeding mytilid mussels (Mytilus sp.), vesicomyid clams (Clayptogena sp.) and various other animals in the Galapagos hydrothermal vent systems are thought to be derived from either the in situ synthesis of particulate organic matter by chemoautotrophic, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria or by the advection of sedimentary organic carbon into the vent environment from surrounding areas. In contrast, the dense populations of vestimentiferan tubeworms (Riftia pachyptila), which lack mouth organs and digestive tracts, apparently utilize organic carbon synthesized by symbiotic chemoautotrophs. We present evidence here, based on adC activities and acC/abC ratios, that the principal source of dietary carbon for mussels and tubeworms is derived from the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIOC) in the vent effluent waters.

  9. Absolute Magnetization Distribution on Back-arc Spreading Axis Hosting Hydrothermal Vents; Insight from Shinkai 6500 Magnetic Survey (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Honsho, C.; Mochizuki, N.; Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.


    Near-bottom magnetic profiling using submersible, deep-tow, Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) make possible to conduct high-resolution surveys and depict detailed magnetic features reflecting, for instance, the presence of fresh lavas or hydrothermal alteration, or geomagnetic paleo-intensity variations. We conducted near-bottom three component magnetic measurements onboard submersible Shinkai 6500 in the Southern Mariana Trough, where five active hydrothermal vent fields (Snail, Yamanaka, Archean, Pica, and Urashima sites) have been found in both on- and off-axis areas of the active back-arc spreading center, to detect signals from hydrothermally altered rock and to distinguish old and new submarine lava flows. Fourteen dives were carried out at an altitude of 1-40 m during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-10 and YK10-11 cruises in 2010. We carefully corrected the effect of the induced and permanent magnetizations of the submersible by applying the correction method for the shipboard three-component magnetometer measurement modified for deep-sea measurement, and subtracted the IGRF values from the corrected data to obtain geomagnetic vector anomalies along the dive tracks. We then calculated the synthetic magnetic vector field produced by seafloor, assumed to be uniformly magnetized, using three dimensional forward modeling. Finally, values of the absolute magnetizations were estimated by using a linear transfer function in the Fourier domain from the observed and synthetic magnetic anomalies. The distribution of estimated absolute magnetization generally shows low values around the five hydrothermal vent sites. This result is consistent with the equivalent magnetization distribution obtained from previous AUV survey data. The areas of low magnetization are also consistent with hydrothermal deposits identified in video records. These results suggest that low magnetic signals are due to hydrothermal alteration zones where host rocks are

  10. The Production of Methane, Hydrogen, and Organic Compounds in Ultramafic-Hosted Hydrothermal Vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Charlou, J.L.; Holm, N.G.; Mousis, O.


    Abstract Both hydrogen and methane are consistently discharged in large quantities in hydrothermal fluids issued from ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields discovered along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Considering the vast number of these fields discovered or inferred, hydrothermal fluxes represent a significant input of H2 and CH4 to the ocean. Although there are lines of evidence of their abiogenic formation from stable C and H isotope results, laboratory experiments, and thermodynamic data, neither their origin nor the reaction pathways generating these gases have been fully constrained yet. Organic compounds detected in the fluids may also be derived from abiotic reactions. Although thermodynamics are favorable and extensive experimental work has been done on Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions, for instance, nothing is clear yet about their origin and formation mechanism from actual data. Since chemolithotrophic microbial communities commonly colonize hydrothermal vents, biogenic and thermogenic processes are likely to contribute to the production of H2, CH4, and other organic compounds. There seems to be a consensus toward a mixed origin (both sources and processes) that is consistent with the ambiguous nature of the isotopic data. But the question that remains is, to what proportions? More systematic experiments as well as integrated geochemical approaches are needed to disentangle hydrothermal geochemistry. This understanding is of prime importance considering the implications of hydrothermal H2, CH4, and organic compounds for the ocean global budget, global cycles, and the origin of life. Key Words: Hydrogen—Methane—Organics—MAR—Abiotic synthesis—Serpentinization—Ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal vents. Astrobiology 15, 381–399. PMID:25984920

  11. High potential for temperate viruses to drive carbon cycling in chemoautotrophy-dominated shallow-water hydrothermal vents. (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Tangherlini, Michael; Martorelli, Eleonora; Ingrassia, Michela; Chiocci, Francesco L; Lo Martire, Marco; Danovaro, Roberto


    Viruses are the most abundant life forms in the world's oceans and they are key drivers of biogeochemical cycles, but their impact on the microbial assemblages inhabiting hydrothermal vent ecosystems is still largely unknown. Here, we analysed the viral life strategies and virus-host interactions in the sediments of a newly discovered shallow-water hydrothermal field of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study reveals that temperate viruses, once experimentally induced to replicate, can cause large mortality of vent microbes, significantly reducing the chemoautotrophic carbon production, while enhancing the metabolism of microbial heterotrophs and the re-cycling of the organic matter. These results provide new insights on the factors controlling primary and secondary production processes in hydrothermal vents, suggesting that the inducible provirus-host interactions occurring in these systems can profoundly influence the functioning of the microbial food web and the efficiency in the energy transfer to the higher trophic levels. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Molecular biomineralization: toward an understanding of the biogenic origin of polymetallic nodules, seamount crusts, and hydrothermal vents. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G


    Polymetallic nodules and crusts, hydrothermal vents from the Deep Sea are economically interesting, since they contain alloying components, e.g., manganese or cobalt, that are used in the production of special steels; in addition, they contain rare metals applied for plasma screens, for magnets in hard disks, or in hybrid car motors. While hydrothermal vents can regenerate in weeks, polymetallic nodules and seamount crusts grow slowly. Even though the geochemical basis for the growth of the nodules and crusts has been well studied, the contribution of microorganisms to the formation of these minerals remained obscure. Recent HR-SEM (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy) analyses of nodules and crusts support their biogenic origin. Within the nodules, bacteria with surface S-layers are arranged on biofilm-like structures, around which Mn deposition starts. In crusts, coccoliths represent the dominant biologically formed structures that act as bio-seeds for an initial Mn deposition. In contrast, hydrothermal vents have apparently an abiogenic origin; however, their minerals are biogenically transformed by bacteria. In turn, strategies can now be developed for biotechnological enrichment as well as selective dissolution of metals from such concretions. We are convinced that the recent discoveries will considerably contribute to our understanding of the participation of organic matrices in the enrichment of those metals and will provide the basis for feasibility studies for biotechnological applications.

  13. Metal interactions between the polychaete Branchipolynoe seepensis and the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus from Mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrothermal vent fields. (United States)

    Bebianno, Maria João; Cardoso, Cátia; Gomes, Tânia; Blasco, Julian; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Colaço, Ana


    The vent blood-red commensal polynoid polychaete Branchipolynoe seepensis is commonly found in the pallial cavity of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus, the dominant bivalve species along the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge (MAR) and is known to be kleptoparasitic. Mussels were collected from three hydrothermal vent fields in the MAR: Menez Gwen (850 m depth, MG2, MG3 and MG4), Lucky Strike (1700 m depth, Montségur-MS and Eiffel Tower-ET) and Rainbow (2300 m depth). Polychaetes were absent in all Menez Gwen vent mussels, while the highest percentage was detected in mussels from Lucky Strike, where more than 70% of the mussels had at least one polychaete in their mantle cavity, followed by Rainbow with 33% of mussels with polychaetes. Total metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) were determined in polychaetes whole body and in the mussel tissues (gills, digestive gland and mantle). To understand the possible metal interactions between symbiont and host, the activity of antioxidant defence (catalase (CAT), metallothioneins (MTs)), biotransformation enzymes (glutathione-s-transferases (GST)) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in polychaete whole soft tissues and in mussel tissues (gills, digestive gland and mantle). Metal concentrations in polychaetes and mussels tissues indicated that the accumulation patterns were species specific and also influenced by, and possibly dependent upon, the inter- and intra-variation of vent physico-chemistry between hydrothermal fields. Despite not detecting any strong correlations between metal and enzymes activities in polychaetes and mussels, when in presence of polychaetes, mussels presented less metal concentrations in the gills and digestive gland and lower activity of enzymatic biomarkers. This leads to infer that the polychaete plays a role on the detoxification process, and the interaction between the polychaete mussel association is probably an adaptation to metals concentrations at the

  14. A Simple and Efficient RNA Extraction Method from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimney Structures. (United States)

    Muto, Hisashi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Hirai, Miho; Mino, Sayaka; Sawayama, Shigeki; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi


    RNA-based microbiological analyses, e.g., transcriptome and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, require a relatively large amount of high quality RNA. RNA-based analyses on microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal environments often encounter methodological difficulties with RNA extraction due to the presence of unique minerals in and the low biomass of samples. In the present study, we assessed RNA extraction methods for deep-sea vent chimneys that had complex mineral compositions. Mineral-RNA adsorption experiments were conducted using mock chimney minerals and Escherichia coli total RNA solution, and showed that detectable RNA significantly decreased possibly due to adsorption onto minerals. This decrease in RNA was prevented by the addition of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), salmon sperm DNA, and NaOH. The addition of STPP was also effective for RNA extraction from the mixture of E. coli cells and mock chimney minerals when TRIzol reagent and the RNeasy column were used, but not when the RNeasy PowerSoil total RNA kit was used. A combination of STPP, TRIzol reagent, the RNeasy column, and sonication resulted in the highest RNA yield from a natural chimney. This indirect extraction procedure is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may be used for large-scale RNA extraction.

  15. Iron oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Compère


    Full Text Available The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered as a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemental composition of the mineral concretions associated with these bacteria have been investigated by using LM, ESEM, TEM STEM and EDX microanalyses. The nature of the iron oxides in shrimps obtained from the Rainbow vent field has also been determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This multidisciplinary approach has revealed that the three layers of mineral crust in the Rimicaris exoculata shrimps consist of large concretions formed by aggregated nanoparticles of two-line ferrihydrite and include other minor elements as Si, Ca, Mg, S and P, probably present as silicates cations, sulphates or phosphates respectively that may contribute to stabilise the ferrihydrite form of iron oxides. TEM-observations on the bacteria have revealed their close interactions with these minerals. Abiotic and biotic precipitation could occur within the gill chamber of Rimicaris exoculata, suggesting the biologically-mediated formation of the iron oxide deposits. The difference of the bacterial density in the three-mineral crust layers could be correlated to the importance of the iron oxide concretions and suggest that the first mineral particles precipitates on the lower layer which could be considered as the most likely location of iron-oxidizing bacteria.

  16. The Biological Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent as a Model to Study Carbon Dioxide Capturing Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premila D. Thongbam


    Full Text Available Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO2 from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO2 fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture.

  17. Diversity of bacteria and archaea from two shallow marine hydrothermal vents from Vulcano Island. (United States)

    Antranikian, Garabed; Suleiman, Marcel; Schäfers, Christian; Adams, Michael W W; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Blamey, Jenny M; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta; da Costa, Milton S; Cowan, Don; Danson, Michael; Forterre, Patrick; Kelly, Robert; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Littlechild, Jennifer; Moracci, Marco; Noll, Kenneth; Oshima, Tairo; Robb, Frank; Rossi, Mosè; Santos, Helena; Schönheit, Peter; Sterner, Reinhard; Thauer, Rudolf; Thomm, Michael; Wiegel, Jürgen; Stetter, Karl Otto


    To obtain new insights into community compositions of hyperthermophilic microorganisms, defined as having optimal growth temperatures of 80 °C and above, sediment and water samples were taken from two shallow marine hydrothermal vents (I and II) with temperatures of 100 °C at Vulcano Island, Italy. A combinatorial approach of denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and metagenomic sequencing was used for microbial community analyses of the samples. In addition, enrichment cultures, growing anaerobically on selected polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose, were also analyzed by the combinatorial approach. Our results showed a high abundance of hyperthermophilic archaea, especially in sample II, and a comparable diverse archaeal community composition in both samples. In particular, the strains of the hyperthermophilic anaerobic genera Staphylothermus and Thermococcus, and strains of the aerobic hyperthermophilic genus Aeropyrum, were abundant. Regarding the bacterial community, ε-Proteobacteria, especially the genera Sulfurimonas and Sulfurovum, were highly abundant. The microbial diversity of the enrichment cultures changed significantly by showing a high dominance of archaea, particularly the genera Thermococcus and Palaeococcus, depending on the carbon source and the selected temperature.

  18. Rare-earth elements and uranium in high-temperature solutions from East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vent field (130N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michard, A.; Albarede, F.; Michard, G.; Minster, J.F.; Charlou, J.L.


    The mobility of rare-earth elements (REE) and U during hydrothermal alteration of the basalts at spreading centres has long been a matter of concern because of its bearing on the evolution and recycling of the oceanic crust. Previous approaches to this problem have been indirect, through studies on altered dredged basalts or ophiolites. Sampling of hydrothermal vent waters from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 13 0 N is reported. It provides the first direct evidence of REE-enriched solutions which, however, leave the budget of these elements in the crust and the ocean rather unmodified. In constrast, uranium, like magnesium, is quantitatively taken up from the seawater during the hydrothermal process. (author)

  19. Microbial anaerobic methane cycling in the subseafloor at the Von Damm hydrothermal vent field, Mid-Cayman Rise (United States)

    Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J. C.; Stepanauskas, R.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Seewald, J.


    The Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) is Earth's deepest and slowest spreading mid-ocean ridge located in the western Caribbean. With an axial rift valley floor at a depth of ~4200-6500 m, it represents one of the deepest sections of ridge crest worldwide. In 2009, the world's deepest hydrothermal vents (Piccard at 4960 m) and an ultramafic-influenced system only 20 km away on top of an oceanic core complex (Von Damm at 2350 m) were discovered along the MCR. Each site is hosted in a distinct geologic setting with different thermal and chemical regimes. The Von Damm site is a particularly interesting location to examine chemolithoautotrophic subseafloor microbial communities due to the abundant hydrogen, methane, and organic compounds in the venting fluids. Here, we used a combination of stable isotope tracing, next-generation sequencing, and single cell techniques to determine the identity, activity, and genomic repertoire of subseafloor anaerobic archaea involved in methane cycling in hydrothermal fluids venting at the Von Damm site. Molecular sequencing of phylogenetic marker genes revealed the presence of diverse archaea that both generate and consume methane across a geochemical and thermal spectrum of vents. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect biological utilization of formate and dissolved inorganic carbon, and methane generation at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. Results indicate that methanogenesis with formate as a substrate is occurring at 70 °C at two Von Damm sites, Ginger Castle and the Main Orifice. The results are consistent with thermodynamic predictions for carbon speciation at the temperatures encountered at the ultramafic-hosted Von Damm, where formate is predicted to be thermodynamically stable, and may thus serve as a an important source of carbon. Diverse thermophilic methanogenic archaea belonging to the genera Methanothermococcus were detected at all vent sites with both 16S rRNA tag sequencing and single cell sorting. Other

  20. Identification and activity of acetate-assimilating bacteria in diffuse fluids venting from two deep-sea hydrothermal systems. (United States)

    Winkel, Matthias; Pjevac, Petra; Kleiner, Manuel; Littmann, Sten; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf; Mußmann, Marc


    Diffuse hydrothermal fluids often contain organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, lipids, and organic acids. Microorganisms consuming these compounds at hydrothermal sites are so far only known from cultivation-dependent studies. To identify potential heterotrophs without prior cultivation, we combined microbial community analysis with short-term incubations using (13)C-labeled acetate at two distinct hydrothermal systems. We followed cell growth and assimilation of (13)C into single cells by nanoSIMS combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 55 °C-fluids from the Menez Gwen hydrothermal system/Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a novel epsilonproteobacterial group accounted for nearly all assimilation of acetate, representing the first aerobic acetate-consuming member of the Nautiliales. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria dominated the (13) C-acetate assimilation in incubations of 37 °C-fluids from the back-arc hydrothermal system in the Manus Basin/Papua New Guinea. Here, 16S rRNA gene sequences were mostly related to mesophilic Marinobacter, reflecting the high content of seawater in these fluids. The rapid growth of microorganisms upon acetate addition suggests that acetate consumers in diffuse fluids are copiotrophic opportunists, which quickly exploit their energy sources, whenever available under the spatially and temporally highly fluctuating conditions. Our data provide first insights into the heterotrophic microbial community, catalyzing an under-investigated part of microbial carbon cycling at hydrothermal vents. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The uptake and excretion of partially oxidized sulfur expands the repertoire of energy resources metabolized by hydrothermal vent symbioses. (United States)

    Beinart, R A; Gartman, A; Sanders, J G; Luther, G W; Girguis, P R


    Symbiotic associations between animals and chemoautotrophic bacteria crowd around hydrothermal vents. In these associations, symbiotic bacteria use chemical reductants from venting fluid for the energy to support autotrophy, providing primary nutrition for the host. At vents along the Eastern Lau Spreading Center, the partially oxidized sulfur compounds (POSCs) thiosulfate and polysulfide have been detected in and around animal communities but away from venting fluid. The use of POSCs for autotrophy, as an alternative to the chemical substrates in venting fluid, could mitigate competition in these communities. To determine whether ESLC symbioses could use thiosulfate to support carbon fixation or produce POSCs during sulfide oxidation, we used high-pressure, flow-through incubations to assess the productivity of three symbiotic mollusc genera-the snails Alviniconcha spp. and Ifremeria nautilei, and the mussel Bathymodiolus brevior-when oxidizing sulfide and thiosulfate. Via the incorporation of isotopically labelled inorganic carbon, we found that the symbionts of all three genera supported autotrophy while oxidizing both sulfide and thiosulfate, though at different rates. Additionally, by concurrently measuring their effect on sulfur compounds in the aquaria with voltammetric microelectrodes, we showed that these symbioses excreted POSCs under highly sulfidic conditions, illustrating that these symbioses could represent a source for POSCs in their habitat. Furthermore, we revealed spatial disparity in the rates of carbon fixation among the animals in our incubations, which might have implications for the variability of productivity in situ. Together, these results re-shape our thinking about sulfur cycling and productivity by vent symbioses, demonstrating that thiosulfate may be an ecologically important energy source for vent symbioses and that they also likely impact the local geochemical regime through the excretion of POSCs.

  2. Characterizing the metatranscriptomic profile of archaeal metabolic genes at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Mid-Cayman Rise (United States)

    Galambos, D.; Reveillaud, J. C.; Anderson, R.; Huber, J. A.


    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems host a wide diversity of bacteria, archaea and viruses. Although the geochemical conditions at these vents are well-documented, the relative metabolic activity of microbial lineages, especially among archaea, remains poorly characterized. The deep, slow-spreading Mid-Cayman Rise, which hosts the mafic-influenced Piccard and ultramafic-influenced Von Damm vent fields, allows for the comparison of vent sites with different geochemical characteristics. Previous metagenomic work indicated that despite the distinct geochemistry at Von Damm and Piccard, the functional profile of microbial communities between the two sites was similar. We examined relative metabolic gene activity using a metatranscriptomic analysis and observed functional similarity between Von Damm and Piccard, which is consistent with previous results. Notably, the relative expression of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcr) gene was elevated in both vent fields. Additionally, we analyzed the ratio of RNA expression to DNA abundance of fifteen archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) across the two fields. Previous work showed higher archaeal diversity at Von Damm; our results indicate relatively even expression among archaeal lineages at Von Damm. In contrast, we observed lower archaeal diversity at Piccard, but individual archaeal lineages were very highly expressed; Thermoprotei showed elevated transcriptional activity, which is consistent with higher temperatures and sulfur levels at Piccard. At both Von Damm and Piccard, specific Methanococcus lineages were more highly expressed than others. Future analyses will more closely examine metabolic genes in these Methanococcus MAGs to determine why some lineages are more active at a vent field than others. We will conduct further statistical analyses to determine whether significant differences exist between Von Damm and Piccard and whether there are correlations between geochemical metadata and metabolic gene or

  3. Imaging microbial metal metabolism in situ under conditions of the deep-sea hydrothermal vents (United States)

    Oger, P. M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.


    High-pressure biotopes are the most widely spread biotopes on Earth. They represent one possible location for the origin of life. They also share striking similarities with extraterrestrial biotopes such as those postulated for Europe or Mars. In absence of light, dissimilatory reduction of metals (DMR) is fueling the ecosystem. Monitoring the metabolism of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent microbial fauna under P, T and chemical conditions relevant to their isolation environment can be difficult because of the confinement and because most spectroscopic probes do not sense metallic ions in solution. We demonstrated the possibility to use Xray spectroscopy to monitor the speciation of metallic species in solution. Experiments were performed at The ESRF using Selenium (Se) detoxification by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as an analog of DMR. The reduction of Se from selenite to the metal was monitored by a combiantion of two Xray spectroscopic techniques (XANES and μXRF). Cells were incubated in the low pressure DAC in growth medium supplemented with 5mM Selenite and incubated under pressures up to 60 Mpa at 30°C for 24h. The evolution of the speciation can be easily monitored and the concentration of each Se species determined from the Xray spectra by linear combinations of standard spectra. Selenite is transformed by the bacterium into a mixture of metal Se and methylated Se after 24 hours. Se detoxification is observed in situ up to at least 25 MPa. The technique, developped for Se can be adapted to monitor other elements more relevant to DMR such as As, Fe or S, which should allow to monitor in situ under controlled pressure and temperature the metabolism of vent organisms. It is also amenable to the monitoring of toxic metals. Xray spectroscopy and the lpDAC are compatible with other spectroscopic techniques, such as Raman, UV or IR spectroscopies, allowing to probe other metabolic activities. Hence, enlarging the range of metabolic information that can be obtained in

  4. Expression patterns of mRNAs for methanotrophy and thiotrophy in symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis (United States)

    Wendeberg, Annelie; Zielinski, Frank U; Borowski, Christian; Dubilier, Nicole


    The hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis (Mytilidae) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hosts symbiotic sulfur- and methane-oxidizing bacteria in its gills. In this study, we investigated the activity and distribution of these two symbionts in juvenile mussels from the Logatchev hydrothermal vent field (14°45′N Mid-Atlantic Ridge). Expression patterns of two key genes for chemosynthesis were examined: pmoA (encoding subunit A of the particulate methane monooxygenase) as an indicator for methanotrophy, and aprA (encoding the subunit A of the dissimilatory adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase) as an indicator for thiotrophy. Using simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of rRNA and mRNA we observed highest mRNA FISH signals toward the ciliated epithelium where seawater enters the gills. The levels of mRNA expression differed between individual specimens collected in a single grab from the same sampling site, whereas no obvious differences in symbiont abundance or distribution were observed. We propose that the symbionts respond to the steep temporal and spatial gradients in methane, reduced sulfur compounds and oxygen by modifying gene transcription, whereas changes in symbiont abundance and distribution take much longer than regulation of mRNA expression and may only occur in response to long-term changes in vent fluid geochemistry. PMID:21734728

  5. Biogeographical distribution of Rimicaris exoculata resident gut epibiont communities along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. (United States)

    Durand, Lucile; Roumagnac, Marie; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Jan, Cyrielle; Guri, Mathieu; Tessier, Claire; Haond, Marine; Crassous, Philippe; Zbinden, Magali; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne


    Rimicaris exoculata is a deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp whose enlarged gill chamber houses a complex trophic epibiotic community. Its gut harbours an autochthonous and distinct microbial community. This species dominates hydrothermal ecosystem megafauna along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, regardless of contrasting geochemical conditions prevailing in them. Here, the resident gut epibiont community at four contrasted hydrothermal vent sites (Rainbow, TAG, Logatchev and Ashadze) was analysed and compiled with previous data to evaluate the possible influence of site location, using 16S rRNA surveys and microscopic observations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses). Filamentous epibionts inserted between the epithelial cell microvilli were observed on all examined samples. Results confirmed resident gut community affiliation to Deferribacteres, Mollicutes, Epsilonproteobacteria and to a lesser extent Gammaproteobacteria lineages. Still a single Deferribacteres phylotype was retrieved at all sites. Four Mollicutes-related operational taxonomic units were distinguished, one being only identified on Rainbow specimens. The topology of ribotype median-joining networks illustrated a community diversification possibly following demographic expansions, suggesting a more ancient evolutionary history and/or a larger effective population size at Rainbow. Finally, the gill chamber community distribution was also analysed through ribotype networks based on sequences from R. exoculata collected at the Rainbow, Snake Pit, TAG, Logatchev and Ashadze sites. Results allow the refining of hypotheses on the epibiont role and transmission pathways. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Fossilization of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria at Hydrothermal Vents: a Useful Biosignature on Mars? (United States)

    Leveille, R. J.; Lui, S.


    Iron oxidizing bacteria are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments on Earth, where they often display distinctive cell morphologies and are commonly encrusted by minerals, especially bacteriogenic iron oxides and silica. Putative microfossils of iron oxidizing bacteria have been found in jaspers as old as 490Ma and microbial iron oxidation may be an ancient metabolic pathway. In order to investigate the usefulness of mineralized iron oxidizing bacteria as a biosignature, we have examined mineral samples collected from relict hydrothermal systems along Explorer Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean. In addition, microaerophilic, neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria, isolated from Pacific hydrothermal vents, were grown in a Fe-enriched seawater medium at constant pH (6.5) and oxygen concentration (5 percent) in a controlled bioreactor system. Both natural samples and experimental products were examined with a combination of variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission gun SEM, and in some cases by preparing samples with a focused ion beam (FIB) milling system. Natural seafloor samples display abundant filamentous forms often resembling, in both size and shape, the twisted stalks of Gallionella and the elongated filaments of Leptothrix. Generally, these filamentous features are 1-5 microns in diameter and up to several microns in length. Some samples consist entirely of low- density, porous masses of silica encrusted filamentous forms. Presumably, these masses were formed by a rapid precipitation by the influx of silica-rich fluids into a microbial mat dominated by bacteria with filamentous morphologies. The presence of rare, amorphous (unmineralized) filamentous matter rich in C and Fe suggests that these bacteria were iron oxidizers. There is no evidence that sulfur oxidizers were present. Filamentous features sectioned by FIB milling show internal material within semi-hollow tubular-like features. Silica encrustations also show pseudo

  7. Molecular isotopic evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment in Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Uchida, M.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.


    Large amount of methane in anoxic marine sediments as well as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents is recycled through for an anoxic oxidation of methane processes. Now that combined results of field and laboratory studies revealed that microbiological activity associated with syntrophic consortium of archaea performing reversed methanogenesis and sulfate-reducing bacteria is significant roles in methane recycling, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). In this study, we examined the diversity of archaeal and bacterial assemblages of AOM using compound-specific stable carbon isotopic and phylogenetic analyses. "Iheya North" in Okinawa Trough is sediment-rich, back arc type hydrothermal system (27^o47'N, 126^o53'E). Sediment samples were collected from three sites where are "bubbling sites", yellow-colored microbial mats are formed with continuous bubbling from the seafloor bottom, vent mussel's colonies site together with slowly venting and simmering, and control site off 100 m distance from thermal vent. This subsea floor structure has important effect in the microbial ecosystem and interaction between their activity and geochemical processes in the subseafloor habitats. Culture-independent, molecular biological analysis clearly indicated the presence of thermophilic methanogens in deeper area having higher temperatures and potential activity of AMOs consortium in the shallower area. AMO is composed with sulfate-reducing bacterial components (Desulfosarcina spp.) and anoxic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME-2). These results were consistent with the results of compound-specific carbon analysis of archaeal biomarkers. They showed extremely depleted 13C contents (-80 ppm ˜ -100 ppm), which also appeared to be capable of directly oxidizing methane.

  8. An Unusual Conformational Isomer of Verrucosidin Backbone from a Hydrothermal Vent Fungus, Penicillium sp. Y-50-10. (United States)

    Pan, Chengqian; Shi, Yutong; Auckloo, Bibi Nazia; Chen, Xuegang; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Tao, Xinyi; Wu, Bin


    A new verrucosidin derivative, methyl isoverrucosidinol (1), was isolated from the marine fungus Penicillium sp. Y-50-10, dwelling in sulfur rich sediment in the Kueishantao hydrothermal vents off Taiwan. The structure was established by spectroscopic means including HRMS and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration was defined mainly by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Among hitherto known compounds with a verrucosidine backbone isolated from natural resource, compound 1 represents the first example of a new conformational isomer of its skeleton, exhibiting antibiotic activity against Bacillus subtilis with MIC value 32 μg/mL.

  9. An Unusual Conformational Isomer of Verrucosidin Backbone from a Hydrothermal Vent Fungus, Penicillium sp. Y-50-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqian Pan


    Full Text Available A new verrucosidin derivative, methyl isoverrucosidinol (1, was isolated from the marine fungus Penicillium sp. Y-50-10, dwelling in sulfur rich sediment in the Kueishantao hydrothermal vents off Taiwan. The structure was established by spectroscopic means including HRMS and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration was defined mainly by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Among hitherto known compounds with a verrucosidine backbone isolated from natural resource, compound 1 represents the first example of a new conformational isomer of its skeleton, exhibiting antibiotic activity against Bacillus subtilis with MIC value 32 μg/mL.

  10. Hydrogen limitation and syntrophic growth among natural assemblages of thermophilic methanogens at deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm D. Topçuoğlu


    Full Text Available Thermophilic methanogens are common autotrophs at hydrothermal vents, but their growth constraints and dependence on H2 syntrophy in situ are poorly understood. Between 2012 and 2015, methanogens and H2-producing heterotrophs were detected by growth at 80°C and 55°C at most diffuse (7-40°C hydrothermal vent sites at Axial Seamount. Microcosm incubations of diffuse hydrothermal fluids at 80°C and 55°C demonstrated that growth of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic methanogens is primarily limited by H2 availability. Amendment of microcosms with NH4+ generally had no effect on CH4 production. However, annual variations in abundance and CH4 production were observed in relation to the eruption cycle of the seamount. Microcosm incubations of hydrothermal fluids at 80°C and 55°C supplemented with tryptone and no added H2 showed CH4 production indicating the capacity in situ for methanogenic H2 syntrophy. 16S rRNA genes were found in 80°C microcosms from H2-producing archaea and H2-consuming methanogens, but not for any bacteria. In 55°C microcosms, sequences were found from the H2-producing bacteria and H2-consuming methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A co-culture of representative organisms showed that Thermococcus paralvinellae supported the syntrophic growth of Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens at 82°C and Methanothermococcus sp. strain BW11 at 60°C. The results demonstrate that modeling of subseafloor methanogenesis should focus primarily on H2 availability and temperature, and that thermophilic H2 syntrophy can support methanogenesis within natural microbial assemblages and may be an important energy source for thermophilic autotrophs in marine geothermal environments.

  11. Sonar backscatter differentiation of dominant macrohabitat types in a hydrothermal vent field. (United States)

    Durand, Sébastien; Legendre, Pierre; Juniper, S Kim


    Over the past 20 years, sonar remote sensing has opened ways of acquiring new spatial information on seafloor habitat and ecosystem properties. While some researchers are presently working to improve sonar methods so that broad-scale high-definition surveys can be effectively conducted for management purposes, others are trying to use these surveying techniques in more local areas. Because ecosystem management is scale-dependent, there is a need to acquire spatiotemporal knowledge over various scales to bridge the gap between already-acquired point-source data and information available at broader scales. Using a 675-kHz single-pencil-beam sonar mounted on the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS, 2200 m deep on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, East Pacific Rise, five dominant habitat types located in a hydrothermal vent field were identified and characterized by their sonar signatures. The data, collected at different altitudes from 1 to 10 m above the seafloor, were depth-normalized. We compared three ways of handling the echoes embedded in the backscatters to detect and differentiate the five habitat types; we examined the influence of footprint size on the discrimination capacity of the three methods; and we identified key variables, derived from echoes that characterize each habitat type. The first method used a set of variables describing echo shapes, and the second method used as variables the power intensity values found within the echoes, whereas the last method combined all these variables. Canonical discriminant analysis was used to discriminate among the five habitat types using the three methods. The discriminant models were constructed using 70% of the data while the remaining 30% were used for validation. The results showed that footprints 20-30 cm in diameter included a sufficient amount of spatial variation to make the sonar signatures sensitive to the habitat types, producing on average 82% correct classification. Smaller footprints produced lower percentages of

  12. Copepod colonization of organic and inorganic substrata at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Plum, Christoph; Pradillon, Florence; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sarrazin, Jozée


    The few existing studies on deep-sea hydrothermal vent copepods indicate low connectivity with surrounding environments and reveal high endemism among vents. However, the finding of non-endemic copepod species in association with engineer species at different reduced ecosystems poses questions about the dispersal of copepods and the colonization of hydrothermal vents as well as their ecological connectivity. The objective of this study is to understand copepod colonization patterns at a hydrothermal vent site in response to environmental factors such as temperature and fluid flow as well as the presence of different types of substrata. To address this objective, an in situ experiment was deployed using both organic (woods, pig bones) and inorganic (slates) substrata along a gradient of hydrothermal activity at the Lucky Strike vent field (Eiffel Tower, Mid-Atlantic Ridge). The substrata were deployed in 2011 during the MoMARSAT cruise and were recovered after two years in 2013. Overall, copepod density showed significant differences between substrata types, but was similar among different hydrothermal activity regimes. Highest densities were observed on woods at sites with moderate or low fluid input, whereas bones were the most densely colonized substrata at the 2 sites with higher hydrothermal influence. Although differences in copepod diversity were not significant, the observed trends revealed overall increasing diversity with decreasing temperature and fluid input. Slates showed highest diversity compared to the organic substrata. Temperature and fluid input had a significant influence on copepod community composition, resulting in higher similarity among stations with relatively high and low fluid inputs, respectively. While vent-specialists such as dirivultids and the tegastid Smacigastes micheli dominated substrata at high vent activity, the experiment demonstrated increasing abundance and dominance of non-vent taxa with decreasing temperature and fluid

  13. Long-term hydrothermal temperature and pressure monitoring equipped with a Kuroko cultivation apparatus on the deep-sea artificial hydrothermal vent at the middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Masaki, Y.; Nozaki, T.; Saruhashi, T.; Kyo, M.; Sakurai, N.; Yokoyama, T.; Akiyama, K.; Watanabe, M.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Kinoshita, M.


    The middle Okinawa Trough, located along the Ryukyu- arc on the margin of the East China Sea, has several active hydrothermal fields. From February to March 2016, Cruise CK16-01 by D/V Chikyu targeted the Iheya-North Knoll and southern flank of the Iheya Minor Ridge to comprehend sub-seafloor geological structure and polymetallic sulfide mineralization. In this cruise, we installed two Kuroko cultivation apparatuses equipped with P/T sensors, flowmeter and load cell to monitor pressure, temperature and flow rate of hydrothermal fluid discharged from the artificial hydrothermal vent together with weight of hydrothermal precipitate. During Cruise KR16-17 in January 2017, two cultivation cells with sensor loggers were successfully recovered by ROV Kaiko MK-IV and R/V Kairei. We report these physical sensor data obtained by more than 10 months monitoring at two deep-sea artificial hydrothermal vents through many first and challenging operations.Hole C9017B at southern flank of the Iheya Minor Ridge (water depth of 1,500 mbsl), fluid temperature was constant ca. 75 ºC for 5 months from the beginning of monitoring. Then temperature gradually decrease to be 40 ºC. In November 2016, temperature and pressure suddenly dropped and quickly recovered due to the disturbance of subseafloor hydrology, induced by another drilling operation at Hole C9017A which is 10.8 meters northeastward from Hole C9017B during Cruise CK16-05. Temperature data exhibit conspicuous periodic 12.4hour cycles and this is attributable to oceanic tidal response. The amplitude of temperature variations increased along with decline of the temperature variations increased along with decline of the temperature. The average flow rate was 67 L/min for 9 hours from the onset of monitoring.Hole C9024A at the Iheya-North Knoll (water depth of 1,050 msl), the maximum temperature reached 308 ºC, which is similar to the maximum value of 311 ºC obtained from the ROV thermometer. The average flow rate was 289 L

  14. Geochemistry of seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids at EPR 9°50'N: Time series data from 2004-2016 (United States)

    Scheuermann, P.; Pester, N. J.; Tutolo, B. M.; Simmons, S. F.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.


    Hydrothermal fluids were collected from vent sites along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°50'N in 2004, 2008 and 2016 in isobaric gas-tight titanium samplers. These dates bracket the seafloor eruption that occurred at EPR 9°50'N between 2005 and 2006. The reported data focus on P vent and Bio9, as these vents were active during all three sampling periods. The concentration of aqueous volatiles reached maxima at both vents in 2008. At P vent, CO2, H2, and H2S were 124 mM/kg, 0.55 mM/kg and 12.2 mM/kg, respectively. The concentrations at Bio9 in 2008 were, 106 mM/kg CO2, 1.1 mM/kg H2, and 12.6 mM/kg H2S. Fe and Mn concentrations were the highest at both vent sites in 2004, and then decreased in 2008 and again in 2016. The range at P vent was 1.5-6.3 mM/kg Fe and 315-1212 uM/kg Mn, while at Bio9 the concentrations were 1.6-3.7 mM/kg Fe and 301-650 uM/kg Mn. The trends in CO2, H2, and H2S at P vent (2008 and 2016) and Bio9 (all years) are consistent with changes in subsurface pressure and temperature as a result of the eruption that alter the conditions at which dissolved components partition between vapor and liquid phases in the NaCl-H2O system. The trend in Fe and Mn concentrations is surprising and highlights the complex partitioning behavior of these elements in systems in which the concentrations are controlled by fluid-mineral equilibria as well as phase separation. Between 2004 and 2008, fluids at P vent transitioned from single-phase (535 mM/kg Cl) to a low-density vapor (370 mM/kg). Upon phase separation, the concentrations of H2S and H2 increased, while Fe and Mn concentrations decreased considerably. These changes highlight the importance of phase separation on controlling mass transfer from the crust to overlying ocean. In contrast to the other aqueous volatiles, CH4 concentrations in 2008 (47 µM) were lower or equal to concentrations in 2004 or 2016, 50-100 µM. CH4 is decoupled from the effects of phase separation, and is likely extracted from fluid

  15. Dynamics of cell proliferation and apoptosis reflect different life strategies in hydrothermal vent and cold seep vestimentiferan tubeworms. (United States)

    Pflugfelder, Bettina; Cary, S Craig; Bright, Monika


    Deep-sea vestimentiferan tubeworms, which live in symbiosis with bacteria, exhibit different life strategies according to their habitat. At unstable and relatively short-lived hydrothermal vents, they grow extremely fast, whereas their close relatives at stable and long-persisting cold seeps grow slowly and live up to 300 years. Growth and age differences are thought to occur because of ecological and physiological adaptations. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell proliferation and death, which are closely linked to homeostasis, growth, and longevity, are unknown. Here, we show by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural cell cycle analyses that cell proliferation activities of the two species studied are higher than in any other characterized invertebrate, being only comparable with tumor and wound-healing processes. The slow growth in Lamellibrachia luymesi from cold seeps results from balanced activities of proliferation and apoptosis in the epidermis. In contrast, Riftia pachyptila from hydrothermal vents grows fast because apoptosis is down-regulated in this tissue. The symbiont-housing organ, the trophosome, exhibits a complex cell cycle and terminal differentiation pattern in both species, and growth is regulated by proliferation. These mechanisms have similarities to the up- and down-regulation of proliferation or apoptosis in various types of tumor, although they occur in healthy animals in this study, thus providing significant insights into the underlying mechanisms of growth and longevity.

  16. Influence of Hydrodynamics on the Larval Supply to Hydrothermal Vents on the East Pacific Rise (United States)


    the species inhabiting the vents are endenic, sessile , benthic invertebrates , so recovery from large disturbances occurs primarily through the...Dubilier, N. (2007). Species identifi- cation of marine invertebrate early stages by whole-larvae in situ hybridisation of 18S ribosomal RNA. Marine Ecology...31] Tyler, P. A. & Young, C. M. (1999). Reproduction and dispersal at vents and cold seeps. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the

  17. Biodiversity and trophic ecology of hydrothermal vent fauna associated with tubeworm assemblages on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Lelièvre, Yann; Sarrazin, Jozée; Marticorena, Julien; Schaal, Gauthier; Day, Thomas; Legendre, Pierre; Hourdez, Stéphane; Matabos, Marjolaine


    Hydrothermal vent sites along the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the north-east Pacific host dense populations of Ridgeia piscesae tubeworms that promote habitat heterogeneity and local diversity. A detailed description of the biodiversity and community structure is needed to help understand the ecological processes that underlie the distribution and dynamics of deep-sea vent communities. Here, we assessed the composition, abundance, diversity and trophic structure of six tubeworm samples, corresponding to different successional stages, collected on the Grotto hydrothermal edifice (Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge) at 2196 m depth. Including R. piscesae, a total of 36 macrofaunal taxa were identified to the species level. Although polychaetes made up the most diverse taxon, faunal densities were dominated by gastropods. Most tubeworm aggregations were numerically dominated by the gastropods Lepetodrilus fucensis and Depressigyra globulus and polychaete Amphisamytha carldarei. The highest diversities were found in tubeworm aggregations characterised by the longest tubes (18.5 ± 3.3 cm). The high biomass of grazers and high resource partitioning at a small scale illustrates the importance of the diversity of free-living microbial communities in the maintenance of food webs. Although symbiont-bearing invertebrates R. piscesae represented a large part of the total biomass, the low number of specialised predators on this potential food source suggests that its primary role lies in community structuring. Vent food webs did not appear to be organised through predator-prey relationships. For example, although trophic structure complexity increased with ecological successional stages, showing a higher number of predators in the last stages, the food web structure itself did not change across assemblages. We suggest that environmental gradients provided by the biogenic structure of tubeworm bushes generate a multitude of ecological niches and contribute to the partitioning

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Decapoda, Caridea): Insight into the mitochondrial genetic basis of deep-sea hydrothermal vent adaptation in the shrimp. (United States)

    Sun, Shao'e; Hui, Ming; Wang, Minxiao; Sha, Zhongli


    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most extreme environments on Earth with low oxygen and high levels of toxins. Decapod species from the family Alvinocarididae have colonized and successfully adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Mitochondria plays a vital role in oxygen usage and energy metabolism, thus it may be under selection in the adaptive evolution of the hydrothermal vent shrimps. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000) was determined through Illumina sequencing. The mitogenome of S. leurokolos was 15,903bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. The gene order and orientation were identical to those of sequenced alvinocaridids. It has the longest concatenated sequences of protein-coding genes, tRNAs and shortest pooled rRNAs among the alvinocaridids. The control regions (CRs) of alvinocaridid were significantly longer (penergy metabolism to adapt to the hydrothermal environment. Phylogenetic analysis supported that the deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps may have originated from those living in shallow area. Positive selection analysis reveals the evidence of adaptive change in the mitogenome of Alvinocarididae. Thirty potentially important adaptive residues were identified, which were located in atp6, cox1, cox3, cytb and nad1-5. This study explores the mitochondrial genetic basis of hydrothermal vent adaptation in alvinocaridid for the first time, and provides valuable clues regarding the adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution, activity and function of short-chain alkane degrading phylotypes in hydrothermal vent sediments (United States)

    Adams, M. M.; Joye, S. B.; Hoarfrost, A.; Girguis, P. R.


    Global geochemical analyses suggest that C2-C4 short chain alkanes are a common component of the utilizable carbon pool in deep-sea sediments worldwide and have been found in diverse ecosystems. From a thermodynamic standpoint, the anaerobic microbial oxidation of these aliphatic hydrocarbons is more energetically yielding than the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Therefore, the preferential degradation of these hydrocarbons may compete with AOM for the use of oxidants such as sulfate, or other potential oxidants. Such processes could influence the fate of methane in the deep-sea. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from hydrocarbon seep sediments of the Gulf of Mexico and Guaymas Basin have previously been enriched that anaerobically oxidize short chain alkanes to generate CO2 with the preferential utilization of 12C-enriched alkanes (Kniemeyer et al. 2007). Different temperature regimens along with multiple substrates were tested and a pure culture (deemed BuS5) was isolated from mesophilic enrichments with propane or n-butane as the sole carbon source. Through comparative sequence analysis, strain BuS5 was determined to cluster with the metabolically diverse Desulfosarcina / Desulfococcus cluster, which also contains the SRB found in consortia with anaerobic, methane-oxidizing archaea in seep sediments. Enrichments from a terrestrial, low temperature sulfidic hydrocarbon seep also corroborated that propane degradation occurred with most bacterial phylotypes surveyed belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, particularly Desulfobacteraceae (Savage et al. 2011). To date, no microbes capable of ethane oxidation or anaerobic C2-C4 alkane oxidation at thermophilic temperature have been isolated. The sediment-covered, hydrothermal vent systems found at Middle Valley (Juan de Fuca Ridge, eastern Pacific Ocean) are a prime environment for investigating mesophilic to thermophilic anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved

  20. Modelling hydrothermal venting in volcanic sedimentary basins: Impact on hydrocarbon maturation and paleoclimate (United States)

    Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel W.; Planke, Sverre; Millett, John


    Vent structures are intimately associated with sill intrusions in sedimentary basins globally and are thought to have been formed contemporaneously due to overpressure generated by gas generation during thermogenic breakdown of kerogen or boiling of water. Methane and other gases generated during this process may have driven catastrophic climate change in the geological past. In this study, we present a 2D FEM/FVM model that accounts for 'explosive' vent formation by fracturing of the host rock based on a case study in the Harstad Basin, offshore Norway. Overpressure generated by gas release during kerogen breakdown in the sill thermal aureole causes fracture formation. Fluid focusing and overpressure migration towards the sill tips results in vent formation after only few tens of years. The size of the vent depends on the region of overpressure accessed by the sill tip. Overpressure migration occurs in self-propagating waves before dissipating at the surface. The amount of methane generated in the system depends on TOC content and also on the type of kerogen present in the host rock. Generated methane moves with the fluids and vents at the surface through a single, large vent structure at the main sill tip matching first-order observations. Violent degassing takes place within the first couple of hundred years and occurs in bursts corresponding to the timing of overpressure waves. The amount of methane vented through a single vent is only a fraction (between 5 and 16%) of the methane generated at depth. Upscaling to the Vøring and Møre Basins, which are a part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province, and using realistic host rock carbon content and kerogen values results in a smaller amount of methane vented than previously estimated for the PETM. Our study, therefore, suggests that the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) observed in the fossil record could not have been caused by intrusions within the Vøring and Møre Basins alone and that a contribution

  1. Metal concentration and structural changes in Corallina elongata (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from hydrothermal vents. (United States)

    Couto, Ruben P; Neto, Ana I; Rodrigues, Armindo S


    Shallow-water hydrothermal activity is widely present at Azores archipelago. Organisms in such environments present great potential as sentinels of the effects derived from chronically exposure to increased temperature, metal concentrations and reduced pH. This study aimed to evaluate metal concentration in Corallina elongata collected at locations exposed and not exposed to shallow-water hydrothermal activity and evaluate changes in its calcareous structure. Elemental concentration was determined and morphometric analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Thicker cell walls and a bleached appearance were observed on C. elongata specimens from the hydrothermally active location, as well as increased concentrations of elements associated to volcanic activity. This study reports on metal accumulation and morphometric changes in the calcareous structure of C. elongata from a hydrothermally active location, adding new data for further research on such habitats and communities, providing an insight on how coralline algae might be affected by ocean acidification. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metal concentration and structural changes in Corallina elongata (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Ruben P.; Neto, Ana I.; Rodrigues, Armindo S.


    Shallow-water hydrothermal activity is widely present at Azores archipelago. Organisms in such environments present great potential as sentinels of the effects derived from chronically exposure to increased temperature, metal concentrations and reduced pH. This study aimed to evaluate metal concentration in Corallina elongata collected at locations exposed and not exposed to shallow-water hydrothermal activity and evaluate changes in its calcareous structure. Elemental concentration was determined and morphometric analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Thicker cell walls and a bleached appearance were observed on C. elongata specimens from the hydrothermally active location, as well as increased concentrations of elements associated to volcanic activity. This study reports on metal accumulation and morphometric changes in the calcareous structure of C. elongata from a hydrothermally active location, adding new data for further research on such habitats and communities, providing an insight on how coralline algae might be affected by ocean acidification.

  3. Investigation of extractable organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluids along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; German, Christopher R.


    The possibility that deep-sea hydrothermal vents may contain organic compounds produced by abiotic synthesis or by microbial communities living deep beneath the surface has led to numerous studies of the organic composition of vent fluids. Most of these studies have focused on methane and other light hydrocarbons, while the possible occurrence of more complex organic compounds in the fluids has remained largely unstudied. To address this issue, the presence of higher molecular weight organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids was assessed at three sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that span a range of temperatures (51 to >360 °C), fluid compositions, and host-rock lithologies (mafic to ultramafic). Samples were obtained at several sites within the Lucky Strike, Rainbow, and Lost City hydrothermal fields. Three methods were employed to extract organic compounds for analysis, including liquid:liquid extraction, cold trapping on the walls of a coil of titanium tubing, and pumping fluids through cartridges filled with solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents. The only samples to consistently yield high amounts of extractable organic compounds were the warm (51-91 °C), highly alkaline fluids from Lost City, which contained elevated concentrations of C8, C10, and C12n-alkanoic acids and, in some cases, trithiolane, hexadecanol, squalene, and cholesterol. Collectively, the C8-C12 acids can account for about 15% of the total dissolved organic carbon in the Lost City fluids. The even-carbon-number predominance of the alkanoic acids indicates a biological origin, but it is unclear whether these compounds are derived from microbial activity occurring within the hydrothermal chimney proximal to the site of fluid discharge or are transported from deeper within the system. Hydrothermal fluids from the Lucky Strike and Rainbow fields were characterized by an overall scarcity of extractable dissolved organic compounds. Trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons including

  4. Early cretaceous (Valanginian and Hauterivian) belemnites and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from a marine hydrothermal vent site and adjacent facies of the Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujtor, L.; Janssen, N.M.M.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.


    The first record of belemnites from fossil hydrothermal vent sites in the Mecsek Mountains of Hungary emphasizes the occurrences of belemnites in Mesozoic chemosynthetic-microbial based ecosystems reported only from cold seep carbonates to date. From the outer shelf-upper bathyal (<300 m)

  5. The pH and pCO2 dependence of sulfate reduction in shallow-sea hydrothermal CO2 – venting sediments (Milos Island, Greece) (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Price, Roy E.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Finster, Kai


    Microbial sulfate reduction (SR) is a dominant process of organic matter mineralization in sulfate-rich anoxic environments at neutral pH. Recent studies have demonstrated SR in low pH environments, but investigations on the microbial activity at variable pH and CO2 partial pressure are still lacking. In this study, the effect of pH and pCO2 on microbial activity was investigated by incubation experiments with radioactive 35S targeting SR in sediments from the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system of Milos, Greece, where pH is naturally decreased by CO2 release. Sediments differed in their physicochemical characteristics with distance from the main site of fluid discharge. Adjacent to the vent site (T ~40–75°C, pH ~5), maximal sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were observed between pH 5 and 6. SR in hydrothermally influenced sediments decreased at neutral pH. Sediments unaffected by hydrothermal venting (T ~26°C, pH ~8) expressed the highest SRR between pH 6 and 7. Further experiments investigating the effect of pCO2 on SR revealed a steep decrease in activity when the partial pressure increased from 2 to 3 bar. Findings suggest that sulfate reducing microbial communities associated with hydrothermal vent system are adapted to low pH and high CO2, while communities at control sites required a higher pH for optimal activity. PMID:23658555

  6. The pH and pCO2 dependence of sulfate reduction in shallow-sea hydrothermal CO2 - venting sediments (Milos Island, Greece). (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Price, Roy E; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Finster, Kai


    Microbial sulfate reduction (SR) is a dominant process of organic matter mineralization in sulfate-rich anoxic environments at neutral pH. Recent studies have demonstrated SR in low pH environments, but investigations on the microbial activity at variable pH and CO2 partial pressure are still lacking. In this study, the effect of pH and pCO2 on microbial activity was investigated by incubation experiments with radioactive (35)S targeting SR in sediments from the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent system of Milos, Greece, where pH is naturally decreased by CO2 release. Sediments differed in their physicochemical characteristics with distance from the main site of fluid discharge. Adjacent to the vent site (T ~40-75°C, pH ~5), maximal sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were observed between pH 5 and 6. SR in hydrothermally influenced sediments decreased at neutral pH. Sediments unaffected by hydrothermal venting (T ~26°C, pH ~8) expressed the highest SRR between pH 6 and 7. Further experiments investigating the effect of pCO2 on SR revealed a steep decrease in activity when the partial pressure increased from 2 to 3 bar. Findings suggest that sulfate reducing microbial communities associated with hydrothermal vent system are adapted to low pH and high CO2, while communities at control sites required a higher pH for optimal activity.

  7. Thermoelectricity Generation and Electron-Magnon Scattering in a Natural Chalcopyrite Mineral from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent. (United States)

    Ang, Ran; Khan, Atta Ullah; Tsujii, Naohito; Takai, Ken; Nakamura, Ryuhei; Mori, Takao


    Current high-performance thermoelectric materials require elaborate doping and synthesis procedures, particularly in regard to the artificial structure, and the underlying thermoelectric mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we report that a natural chalcopyrite mineral, Cu1+x Fe1-x S2 , obtained from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent can directly generate thermoelectricity. The resistivity displayed an excellent semiconducting character, and a large thermoelectric power and high power factor were found in the low x region. Notably, electron-magnon scattering and a large effective mass was detected in this region, thus suggesting that the strong coupling of doped carriers and antiferromagnetic spins resulted in the natural enhancement of thermoelectric properties during mineralization reactions. The present findings demonstrate the feasibility of thermoelectric energy generation and electron/hole carrier modulation with natural materials that are abundant in the Earth's crust. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Deposition of talc - kerolite-smectite - smectite at seafloor hydrothermal vent fields: Evidence from mineralogical, geochemical and oxygen isotope studies (United States)

    Dekov, V.M.; Cuadros, J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Koski, R.A.


    controls on the precipitation of this sequence are the silica activity and Mg/Al ratio (i.e. the degree of mixing of seawater with hydrothermal fluid). Higher silica activity favors the formation of talc relative to tri-octahedral smectite. Vent structures and sedimentary cover preclude complete mixing of hydrothermal fluid and ambient seawater, resulting in lower Mg/Al ratios in the interior parts of the chimneys and deeper in the sediment which leads to the precipitation of phyllosilicates with lower Mg contents. Talc and kerolite-smectite have very low trace- and rare earth element contents. Some exhibit a negative or flat Eu anomaly, which suggests Eu depletion in the original hydrothermal fluid. Such Eu depletion could be caused by precipitation of anhydrite or barite (sinks for Eu2+) deeper in the system. REE abundances and distribution patterns indicate that chlorite and chlorite-smectite are hydrothermal alteration products of the background turbiditic sediment. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Presence and diversity of anammox bacteria in cold hydrocarbon-rich seeps and hydrothermal vent sediments of the Guaymas Basin. (United States)

    Russ, Lina; Kartal, Boran; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Sollai, Martina; Le Bruchec, Julie; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Godfroy, Anne; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Jetten, Mike S M


    Hydrothermally active sediments are highly productive, chemosynthetic areas which are characterized by the rapid turnover of particulate organic matter under extreme conditions in which ammonia is liberated. These systems might be suitable habitats for anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria but this has not been investigated in detail. Here we report the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria in sediments that seep cold hydrocarbon-rich fluids and hydrothermal vent areas of the Guaymas Basin in the Cortés Sea using the unique functional anammox marker gene, hydrazine synthase (hzsA). All clones retrieved were closely associated to the "Candidatus Scalindua" genus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of hzsA sequences (Ca. Scalindua hzsA cluster I and II). Comparison of individual sequences from both clusters showed that several of these sequences had a similarity as low as 76% on nucleotide level. Based on the analysis of this phylomarker, a very high interspecies diversity within the marine anammox group is apparent. Absolute numbers of anammox bacteria in the sediments samples were determined by amplification of a 257 bp fragment of the hszA gene in a qPCR assay. The results indicate that numbers of anammox bacteria are generally higher in cold hydrocarbon-rich sediments compared to the vent areas and the reference zone. Ladderanes, lipids unique to anammox bacteria were also detected in several of the sediment samples corroborating the hzsA analysis. Due to the high concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds and its potential impact on the cycling of nitrogen we aimed to get an indication about the key players in the oxidation of sulfide in the Guaymas Basin sediments using the alpha subunit of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (aprA). Amplification of the aprA gene revealed a high number of gammaproteobacterial aprA genes covering the two sulfur-oxidizing bacteria aprA lineages as well as sulfate-reducers.

  10. A molecular gut content study of Themisto abyssorum (Amphipoda) from Arctic hydrothermal vent and cold seep systems. (United States)

    Olsen, Bernt Rydland; Troedsson, Christofer; Hadziavdic, Kenan; Pedersen, Rolf B; Rapp, Hans Tore


    The use of DNA as a marker for prey inside the gut of predators has been instrumental in further understanding of known and unknown interactions. Molecular approaches are in particular useful in unavailable environments like the deep sea. Trophic interactions in the deep sea are difficult to observe in situ, correct deep-sea experimental laboratory conditions are difficult to obtain, animals rarely survive the sampling, or the study organisms feed during the sampling due to long hauls. Preliminary studies of vent and seep systems in the Nordic Seas have identified the temperate-cold-water pelagic amphipod Themisto abyssorum as a potentially important predator in these chemosynthetic habitats. However, the prey of this deep-sea predator is poorly known, and we applied denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) to investigate the predator-prey interactions of T. abyssorum in deep-water vent and seep systems. Two deep-water hydrothermally active localities (The Jan Mayen and Loki's Castle vent fields) and one cold seep locality (The Håkon Mosby mud volcano) in the Nordic Seas were sampled, genomic DNA of the stomachs of T. abyssorum was extracted, and 18S rDNA gene was amplified and used to map the stomach content. We found a wide range of organisms including micro-eukaryotes, metazoans and detritus. Themisto abyssorum specimens from Loki's Castle had the highest diversity of prey. The wide range of prey items found suggests that T. abyssorum might be involved in more than one trophic level and should be regarded as an omnivore and not a strict carnivore as have previously been suggested. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria Found at Slow-Spreading Ridge: a Case Study of Capelinhos Hydrothermal Vent (Lucky Strike, MAR 37°N) (United States)

    Henri, P. A.; Rommevaux, C.; Lesongeur, F.; Emerson, D.; Leleu, T.; Chavagnac, V.


    Iron-oxidizing bacteria becomes increasingly described in different geological settings from volcanically active seamounts, coastal waters, to diffuse hydrothermal vents near seafloor spreading centers [Emerson et al., 2010]. They have been mostly identified and described in Pacific Ocean, and have been only recently found in hydrothermal systems associated to slow spreading center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) [Scott et al., 2015]. During the MoMARSAT'13 cruise at Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (MAR), a new hydrothermal site was discovered at about 1.5 km eastward from the lava lake and from the main hydrothermal vents. This active venting site, named Capelinhos, is therefore the most distant from the volcano, features many chimneys, both focused and diffuses. The hydrothermal end-member fluids from Capelinhos are different from those of the other sites of Lucky Strike, showing the highest content of iron (Fe/Mn≈3.96) and the lowest chlorinity (270 mmol/l) [Leleu et al., 2015]. Most of the chimneys exhibit rust-color surfaces and bacterial mats near diffuse flows. During the MoMARSAT'15 cruise, an active chimney, a small inactive one, and rust-color bacterial mat near diffuse flow were sampled at Capelinhos. Observations by SEM of the hydrothermal samples revealed the presence of iron oxides in an assemblage of tubular "sheaths", assembled "stalks", helical "stalks" and amorphous aggregates. These features are similar to those described from the Loihi iron-mats deposits and argue for the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Cultures under micro-aerobic and neutral pH conditions allowed us to isolate strains from the small inactive chimney. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates and environmental samples will soon be performed, which should confirm the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria and reveal the organization of bacterial communities in this original and newly discovered hydrothermal site of the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Emerson

  12. Modelling of hydrothermal fluid circulation in a heterogeneous medium: Application to the Rainbow Vent site (Mid-Atlantic-Ridge, 36°14N) (United States)

    Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Charlou, J. L.


    Hydrothermal activity at the axis of mid-ocean ridges is a key driver for energy and matter transfer from the interior of the Earth to the ocean floor. At mid-ocean ridges, seawater penetrates through the permeable young crust, warms at depth and exchanges chemicals with the surrounding rocks. This hot fluid focuses and flows upwards, then is expelled from the crust at hydrothermal vent sites in the form of black or white smokers completed by diffusive emissions. We developed a new numerical tool in the Cast3M software framework to model such hydrothermal circulations. Thermodynamic properties of one-phase pure water were calculated from the IAPWS formulation. This new numerical tool was validated on several test cases of convection in closed-top and open-top boxes. Simulations of hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium also gave results in good agreement with already published simulations. We used this new numerical tool to construct a geometric and physical model configuration of the Rainbow Vent site at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In this presentation, several configurations will be discussed, showing that high temperatures and high mass fluxes measured at the Rainbow site cannot be modelled with hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium. We will show that these high values require the presence of a fault or a preferential pathway right below the venting site. We will propose and discuss a 2-D one-path model that allows us to simulate both high temperatures and high mass fluxes. This modelling of the hydrothermal circulation at the Rainbow site constitutes a first but necessary step to understand the origin of high concentrations of hydrogen issued from this ultramafic-hosted vent field.

  13. Coupled RNA-SIP and metatranscriptomics of active chemolithoautotrophic communities at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. (United States)

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Huber, Julie A


    The chemolithoautotrophic microbial community of the rocky subseafloor potentially provides a large amount of organic carbon to the deep ocean, yet our understanding of the activity and metabolic complexity of subseafloor organisms remains poorly described. A combination of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) analyses were used to identify the metabolic potential, expression patterns, and active autotrophic bacteria and archaea and their pathways present in low-temperature hydrothermal fluids from Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic results showed the presence of genes and transcripts for sulfur, hydrogen, and ammonium oxidation, oxygen respiration, denitrification, and methanogenesis, as well as multiple carbon fixation pathways. In RNA-SIP experiments across a range of temperatures under reducing conditions, the enriched (13)C fractions showed differences in taxonomic and functional diversity. At 30 °C and 55 °C, Epsilonproteobacteria were dominant, oxidizing hydrogen and primarily reducing nitrate. Methanogenic archaea were also present at 55 °C, and were the only autotrophs present at 80 °C. Correspondingly, the predominant CO2 fixation pathways changed from the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle to the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway with increasing temperature. By coupling RNA-SIP with meta-omics, this study demonstrates the presence and activity of distinct chemolithoautotrophic communities across a thermal gradient of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

  14. Noble Gas geochemistry of the newly discovered hydrothermal fields in the Gulf of California: preliminary He-isotope ratios from the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero basin vent sites (United States)

    Spelz, R. M.; Lupton, J. E.; Evans, L. J.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Neumann, F.; Paduan, J. B.


    Numerous submarine deep-sea hydrothermal vents related to volcanic activity of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) are situated along the Pacific margins of Mexico. Until recently, active hydrothermal venting was unknown between the Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the EPR. MBARI's recent oceanographic surveys have added 7 new active vent sites. In this study, we aimed to sample the high-temperature hydrothermal fluids emanating from two distinct vent sites, named Meyibo and Auka, located in the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero Basin, respectively. Mantle-derived He have long been identified in hydrothermal fluid releases. The presence of He in aqueous fluids with 3He/4He ratios greater than in-situ production values (~0.05 RA, where RA = air He or 1.4 x 10-6) indicates the presence of mantle-derived melts. Preliminary analyses of He-isotope ratios derived from the newly discovered Meyibo and Auka hydrothermal fields show high 3He/4He ratios (~8RA), typical of MORB's. Auka vent field, characterized by chimneys composed of light carbonate minerals and oil-like hydrocarbons, and temperatures between 250-290oC, show average values of ~7.87RA. In contrast, the black-smokers at the Meyibo field, composed of dark sulfide minerals and temperatures over 350oC, yielded a higher He ratio of ~8.24RA. Recently, it has become clear that regional maximum mantle He values correlate with the velocity structure in the mantle, therefore, He has the potential to map regions of the underlying mantle that are undergoing partial melting. Seismic records could then be compared with the geochemical He ratio signal and supply information regarding tectonics and other processes involved in the generation of these gases. The data presented here will be completing a totally new inventory of He results from hydrothermal vents in the EPR and fault-termination basins distributed along the P-NA plate boundary in the Gulf of California. The results will be further coupled with the analysis of other geochemical

  15. Presence and diversity of anammox bacteria in cold hydrocarbon-rich seeps and hydrothermal vent sediments of the Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eRuss


    Full Text Available Hydrothermally active sediments are highly productive, chemosynthetic areas which are characterized by the rapid turnover of particulate organic matter under extreme conditions in which ammonia is liberated. These systems might be suitable habitats for anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox bacteria but this has not been investigated in detail. Here we report the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria in sediments that seep cold hydrocarbon-rich fluids and hydrothermal vent areas of the Guaymas Basin in the Cortés Sea using the unique functional anammox marker gene, hydrazine synthase (hzsA. All clones retrieved were closely associated to the ‘Candidatus Scalindua’ genus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of hzsA sequences (Ca. Scalindua hzsA cluster I and II. Comparison of individual sequences from both clusters showed that several of these sequences had a similarity as low as 76% on nucleotide level. Based on the analysis of this phylomarker, a very high interspecies diversity within the marine anammox group is apparent. Absolute numbers of anammox bacteria in the sediments samples were determined by amplification of a 257 bp fragment of the hszA gene in a qPCR assay. The results indicate that numbers of anammox bacteria are generally higher in cold hydrocarbon-rich sediments compared to the vent areas and the reference zone. Ladderanes, lipids unique to anammox bacteria were also detected in several of the sediment samples corroborating the hzsA analysis. Due to the high concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds and its potential impact on the cycling of nitrogen we aimed to get an indication about the key players in the oxidation of sulfide in the Guaymas Basin sediments using the alpha subunit of the adenosine-5’-phosphosulfate (APS reductase (aprA. Amplification of the aprA gene revealed a high number of gammaproteobacterial aprA genes covering the two sulfur-oxidizing bacteria aprA lineages as well as

  16. Fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments of a hydrothermal vent system in the Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Gong, Lin-feng; Pang, Ka-Lai; Luo, Zhu-Hua


    Deep-sea hydrothermal sediment is known to support remarkably diverse microbial consortia. In deep sea environments, fungal communities remain less studied despite their known taxonomic and functional diversity. High-throughput sequencing methods have augmented our capacity to assess eukaryotic diversity and their functions in microbial ecology. Here we provide the first description of the fungal community diversity found in deep sea sediments collected at the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) using culture-dependent and high-throughput sequencing approaches. A total of 138 fungal isolates were cultured from seven different sediment samples using various nutrient media, and these isolates were identified to 14 fungal taxa, including 11 Ascomycota taxa (7 genera) and 3 Basidiomycota taxa (2 genera) based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of rDNA. Using illumina HiSeq sequencing, a total of 757,467 fungal ITS2 tags were recovered from the samples and clustered into 723 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to 79 taxa (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota contributed to 99% of all samples) based on 97% sequence similarity. Results from both approaches suggest that there is a high fungal diversity in the deep-sea sediments collected in the SWIR and fungal communities were shown to be slightly different by location, although all were collected from adjacent sites at the SWIR. This study provides baseline data of the fungal diversity and biogeography, and a glimpse to the microbial ecology associated with the deep-sea sediments of the hydrothermal vent system of the Southwest Indian Ridge.

  17. Rhodopsin in the Dark Hot Sea: Molecular Analysis of Rhodopsin in a Snailfish, Careproctus rhodomelas, Living near the Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent.

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    Rie Sakata

    Full Text Available Visual systems in deep-sea fishes have been previously studied from a photobiological aspect; however, those of deep-sea fish inhabiting the hydrothermal vents are far less understood due to sampling difficulties. In this study, we analyzed the visual pigment of a deep-sea snailfish, Careproctus rhodomelas, discovered and collected only near the hydrothermal vents of oceans around Japan. Proteins were solubilized from the C. rhodomelas eyeball and subjected to spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the presence of a pigment characterized by an absorption maximum (λmax at 480 nm. Immunoblot analysis of the ocular protein showed a rhodopsin-like immunoreactivity. We also isolated a retinal cDNA encoding the entire coding sequence of putative C. rhodomelas rhodopsin (CrRh. HEK293EBNA cells were transfected with the CrRh cDNA and the proteins extracted from the cells were subjected to spectroscopic analysis. The recombinant CrRh showed the absorption maximum at 480 nm in the presence of 11-cis retinal. Comparison of the results from the eyeball extract and the recombinant CrRh strongly suggests that CrRh has an A1-based 11-cis-retinal chromophore and works as a photoreceptor in the C. rhodomelas retina, and hence that C. rhodomelas responds to dim blue light much the same as other deep-sea fishes. Because hydrothermal vent is a huge supply of viable food, C. rhodomelas likely do not need to participate diel vertical migration and may recognize the bioluminescence produced by aquatic animals living near the hydrothermal vents.

  18. Population ecology of the tonguefish Symphurus thermophilus (Pisces; Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae) at sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents on volcanoes of the northern Mariana Arc (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena; Tyler, Jennifer; Dower, John F.


    Flatfish are a major component of the hydrothermal vent community on three seamounts of the northern Mariana Volcanic Arc in the northwest Pacific. Nikko, Kasuga-2 and Daikoku seamounts host vent fields between 375 and 480 m depth where high temperature vents release molten sulphur. The small cynoglossid tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus Munroe and Hashimoto, is ubiquitous in all vent habitats observed on these seamounts: among extensive fields of tubeworms and mussels and on solid sulphur surfaces on Nikko; on sulphur-rich sediments and barnacle-covered boulders on Kasuga-2; and on recent sulphur flows and on broad areas of loose and semi-consolidated sediments on Daikoku. We recorded repeated forays by individuals onto flows of molten sulphur as these surfaces cooled. Based on observations using ROVs, the mean density is 90 fish/m2 with maximum counts over 200 fish/m2 on Daikoku sediments. Compared to collected tonguefish from Daikoku and Kasuga-2, those from Nikko have significantly greater lengths and, on average, six times the mass. Otolith data indicate upper ages of 13 years with Nikko tonguefish growing significantly faster. Diets of tonguefish on the three seamounts reflect the different habitats and prey availability; in Daikoku specimens, small crustaceans and polychaetes are most common while on Nikko, gut contents are predominantly larger shrimp. We made the unusual observation of stunned midwater fish falling to the seafloor near the vents where S. thermophilus immediately attacked them. This tonguefish has a wide diet range and foraging behaviour that likely influence the differing growth rates and sizes of fish inhabiting the different vent sites. Limited genetic data suggest that larval exchange probably occurs among sites where the common habitat factor is high levels of elemental sulphur forming hard and partly unconsolidated substrata. Here, in the northern range of the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument, S. thermophilus, despite having an

  19. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are widely distributed among Decapoda and are particularly present in hydrothermal vent organisms

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    Bonnivard Eric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. Considering their mutational abilities, TEs can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are a particular group of retrotransposons according to their mode of transposition that implies a tyrosine recombinase. To date, they have been described in a restricted number of species in comparison with the LTR retrotransposons. In this paper, we determine the distribution of DIRS1-like elements among 25 decapod species, 10 of them living in hydrothermal vents that correspond to particularly unstable environments. Results Using PCR approaches, we have identified 15 new DIRS1-like families in 15 diverse decapod species (shrimps, lobsters, crabs and galatheid crabs. Hydrothermal organisms show a particularly great diversity of DIRS1-like elements with 5 families characterized among Alvinocarididae shrimps and 3 in the galatheid crab Munidopsis recta. Phylogenic analyses show that these elements are divergent toward the DIRS1-like families previously described in other crustaceans and arthropods and form a new clade called AlDIRS1. At larger scale, the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons appears more or less patchy depending on the taxa considered. Indeed, a scattered distribution can be observed in the infraorder Brachyura whereas all the species tested in infraorders Caridea and Astacidea harbor some DIRS1-like elements. Conclusion Our results lead to nearly double both the number of DIRS1-like elements described to date, and the number of species known to harbor these ones. In this study, we provide the first degenerate primers designed to look specifically for DIRS1-like retrotransposons. They

  20. Recent developments in the thermophilic microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents. (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Margarita L; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A


    The diversity of thermophilic prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hot vents was actively studied over the last two decades. The ever growing interest is reflected in the exponentially increasing number of novel thermophilic genera described. The goal of this paper is to survey the progress in this field made in the years 2000-2005. In this period, representatives of several new taxa of hyperthermophilic archaea were obtained from deep-sea environments. Two of these isolates had phenotypic features new for this group of organisms: the presence of an outer cell membrane (the genus Ignicoccus) and the ability to grow anaerobically with acetate and ferric iron (the genus Geoglobus). Also, our knowledge on the diversity of thermophilic bacteria from deep-sea thermal environments extended significantly. The new bacterial isolates represented diverse bacterial divisions: the phylum Aquificae, the subclass Epsilonproteobacteria, the order Thermotogales, the families Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, Deferribacteraceae, and Thermaceae, and a novel bacterial phylum represented by the genus Caldithrix. Most of these isolates are obligate or facultative lithotrophs, oxidizing molecular hydrogen in the course of different types of anaerobic respiration or microaerobic growth. The existence and significant ecological role of some of new bacterial thermophilic isolates was initially established by molecular methods.

  1. Hydrothermal venting on the flanks of Heard and McDonald islands, southern Indian Ocean (United States)

    Lupton, J. E.; Arculus, R. J.; Coffin, M.; Bradney, A.; Baumberger, T.; Wilkinson, C.


    Heard Island and the nearby McDonald Islands are two sites of active volcanism associated with the so-called Kerguelen mantle plume or hot spot. In fact, it has been proposed that the Kerguelen hot spot is currently located beneath Heard Island. During its maiden maximum endurance voyage (IN2016_V01), the recently commissioned Australian R/V Investigator conducted a detailed bathymetric and water column survey of the waters around Heard Island and the McDonald Islands as well as other sites on the Kerguelen Plateau. Some 50 hydrographic profiles were completed using the CTD/rosette system equipped with trace metal sampling and a nephelometer for suspended particle concentrations. In addition to the hydrographic profiles, 244 bubble plumes were detected in the vicinity of the Heard and McDonald Islands using the ship's multibeam system. It is thought that the bubble plumes observed on sea knolls and other seafloor surrounding the McDonald Islands are likely hydrothermal in origin, while plumes northeast of Heard Island may be biogenic methane from cold seeps. At 29 of the hydrographic stations water samples for helium isotope measurements were drawn from the CTD rosette and hermetically sealed into copper tubing for subsequent shorebased mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph analysis. In this paper we report results for 3He/4He ratios and CO2 and CH4 concentrations in water samples collected with the CTD/rosette, and discuss how these results are correlated with suspended particle concentrations and temperature anomalies.

  2. Abundant Hydrothermal Venting in the Southern Ocean Near 62°S/159°E on the Australian-Antarctic Ridge (United States)

    Baker, E. T.; Hahm, D.; Rhee, T. S.; Park, S. H.; Lupton, J. E.; Walker, S. L.; Choi, H.


    Circum-Antarctic Ridges (CARs) comprise almost one-third of the global Mid-Ocean Ridge, yet remain terra incognita for hydrothermal activity and chemosynthetic ecosystems. The InterRidge Vents Database lists only 3 confirmed (visualized) and 35 inferred (plume evidence) active sites along the ~21,000 km of CARs. Here, we report on a multi-year effort to locate and characterize hydrothermal activity on two 1st-order segments of the Australian-Antarctic Ridge that are perhaps more isolated from other known vent fields than any other vent site on the Mid-Ocean Ridge. KR1 is a 300-km-long segment near 62°S/159°E, and KR2 a 90-km-long segment near 60°S/152.5°E. We used profiles collected by Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorders (MAPRs) on rock corers in March and December of 2011 to survey each segment, and an intensive CTD survey in Jan/Feb 2013 to pinpoint sites and sample plumes on KR1. Optical and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, aka Eh) anomalies indicate multiple active sites on both segments. Seven profiles on KR2 found 3 sites, each separated by ~25 km. Forty profiles on KR1 identified 13 sites, some within a few km of each other. The densest site concentration on KR1 occurred along a relatively inflated, 90-km-long section near the segment center. CTD tows covered 20 km of the eastern, most inflated portion of this area, finding two 6-km-long zones centered near 158.6°E and 158.8°E with multiple plume anomalies. Three ORP anomalies within 50 m of the seafloor indicate precise venting locations. We call this area the Mujin "Misty Harbor" vent field. Vent frequency sharply decreases away from Mujin. 3He/heat ratios determined from 20 plume samples in the Mujin field were mostly <0.015 fM/J, indicative of chronic venting, but 3 samples, 0.021-0.034 fM/J, are ratios typical of a recent eruption. The spatial density of hydrothermal activity along KR1 and KR2 is similar to other intermediate-rate spreading ridges. We calculate the plume incidence (ph) along

  3. Thermococcus prieurii sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. (United States)

    Gorlas, Aurore; Alain, Karine; Bienvenu, Nadège; Geslin, Claire


    A novel hyperthermophilic, anaerobic archaeon, strain Bio-pl-0405IT2(T), was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney sample collected from the East Pacific Rise at 2700 m depth in the 'Sarah Spring' area (7° 25' 24" S 107° 47' 66" W). Cells were irregular, motile cocci (0.8-1.5 µm in diameter) and divided by constriction. Growth was observed at temperatures between 60 °C and 95 °C with an optimum at 80 °C. The pH range for growth was between pH 4.0 and pH 8.0 with an optimum around pH 7.0. Strain Bio-pl-0405IT2(T) grew at salt concentrations of 1-5 % (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 2 %. The novel isolate grew by fermentation or sulphur respiration on a variety of organic compounds. It was a chemoorganoheterotrophic archaeon growing preferentially with yeast extract, peptone and tryptone as carbon and energy sources and sulphur and organic compounds as electron acceptors; it also grew on maltose and starch. Sulphur or l-cystine were required for growth and were reduced to hydrogen sulfide. The strain was resistant to rifampicin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and kanamycin (all at 100 µg ml(-1)) but was sensitive to tetracycline. The G+C content of its genomic DNA was 53.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1450 bp) of strain Bio-pl-0405IT2(T) showed that the novel isolate belonged to the genus Thermococcus. DNA-DNA hybridization values with the two closest relatives Thermococcus hydrothermalis AL662(T) and Thermococcus celer JCM 8558(T) were below the threshold value of 70 %. On the basis of the physiological and genotypic distinctness, we propose a novel species, Thermococcus prieurii sp. nov. The type strain is Bio-pl-0405IT2(T) ( = CSUR P577(T)= JCM 16307(T)).

  4. Thermococcus sulfurophilus sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic, Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Whitman, William B.; Marsic, Damien; Garriott, Owen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)


    A new hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P, was isolated from "black smoker" chimney material at the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site in the Atlantic Ocean (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P have irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth occurs within pH range of 5.5-8.2 (optimal at pH 7.0-7.2), salinity range of 1-5% NaCl (optimal concentration 3% NaCl wt/vol), and temperature range of +55 C to +94 C (optimal growth at +83 C to +85 C). Strain OGL-20P is resistant to freezing (at -20 C). New isolate is strictly anaerobic with sulfur-type of respiration. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including peptone, becto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract but does not grow with separate amino acids. Sulfur and Iron can be used as electron acceptors; but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate or nitrate. Strain OGL-20P is resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin. Growth of str. OGL20P is inhibited by tetracyclin but not by Na2MoO4. The G+C content of DNA is 57.2 mol%. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis allows one to classify strain OGL-20P as a representative of a now species of Thermococcus genus. The name Thermococcus sulfurophilus op. nov., was suggested for the new isolate, type strain OGL-20P (sup T) (= ATCC BAA_394 (sup T) = DSM...(supT)).

  5. Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. Nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-reducing Archaeon from a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.


    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P was isolated from black smoker chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N, 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3%), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 52.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, and propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = JCM 12859(sup T) = DSM 14981(sup T)).

  6. Sexually Dimorphic Scale Worms (Annelida: Polynoidae From Hydrothermal Vents in the Okinawa Trough: Two New Species and Two New Sex Morphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Zhang


    Full Text Available Scale worms in the family Polynoidae are common inhabitants of both shallow-water and deep-sea ecosystems, but their diversity in the deep-sea remains poorly known. In the West Pacific, only 10 polynoid species have been described from deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems including hydrothermal vents and methane seeps. Here, we described two new species of polynoids based on specimens collected from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough. Levensteiniella undomarginata sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by having elytra with a wave-shaped edge, and that males possess two pairs of nephridial papillae. Branchinotogluma elytropapillata sp. nov. differs from other congeners by having papillae on the elytral edge, and by having a single pair of nephridial papillae and five pairs of C-shaped lamellae in males. Furthermore, we redescribed Lepidonotopodium okinawae (Sui and Li, 2017 and Branchinotogluma japonicus Miura and Hashimoto, 1991, because the original description of the former species did not cover males and that of the latter did not cover females. Sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in these four species confirmed the sexual dimorphism in vent polynoids for the first time, and provided reliable barcoding sequences for identifying these polychaetes.

  7. Geologic form and setting of a hydrothermal vent field at lat 10°56‧N, East Pacific Rise: A detailed study using Angus and Alvin (United States)

    McConachy, T. F.; Ballard, R. D.; Mottl, M. J.; von Herzen, R. P.


    A hydrothermal vent field, here called the Feather Duster site, occurs on the eastern marginal high near the edge of a narrow (95-m) and shallow (15 20-m) axial graben, within an area dominated by sheet flows and collapse features. The sheet flows are intermediate in relative age between younger fluid-flow lavas on the floor of the axial graben and older pillow (constructional) lavas on the marginal highs. Hydrothermal activity occurs in two zones within a 65 by 45 m area. The main zone is located where a fissure system and sulfide-sulfate chimneys vent warm (9 47 °C) and hot (347 °C) hydrothermal fluids. Here, two mounds of massive sulfide totaling about 200 t are forming. One occurs at the base of a 3-m-high scarp which is the wall of a drained lava lake; the other is perched on top of the scarp. *Present address: Department of Geology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A1

  8. Pathways of carbon and energy metabolism of the epibiotic community associated with the deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata. (United States)

    Hügler, Michael; Petersen, Jillian M; Dubilier, Nicole; Imhoff, Johannes F; Sievert, Stefan M


    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the faunal biomass at many deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In its enlarged gill chamber it harbors a specialized epibiotic bacterial community for which a nutritional role has been proposed. We analyzed specimens from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by complementing a 16S rRNA gene survey with the analysis of genes involved in carbon, sulfur and hydrogen metabolism. In addition to Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria, the epibiotic community unexpectedly also consists of Deltaproteobacteria of a single phylotype, closely related to the genus Desulfocapsa. The association of these phylogenetic groups with the shrimp was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Based on functional gene analyses, we hypothesize that the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria are capable of autotrophic growth by oxidizing reduced sulfur compounds, and that the Deltaproteobacteria are also involved in sulfur metabolism. In addition, the detection of proteobacterial hydrogenases indicates the potential for hydrogen oxidation in these communities. Interestingly, the frequency of these phylotypes in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the mouthparts differ from that of the inner lining of the gill chamber, indicating potential functional compartmentalization. Our data show the specific association of autotrophic bacteria with Rimicaris exoculata from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent field, and suggest that autotrophic carbon fixation is contributing to the productivity of the epibiotic community with the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle as one important carbon fixation pathway. This has not been considered in previous studies of carbon fixation and stable carbon isotope composition of the shrimp and its epibionts. Furthermore, the co-occurrence of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing epibionts raises the possibility that both may be involved in the syntrophic exchange of sulfur compounds

  9. High-throughput sequencing and analysis of the gill tissue transcriptome from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Paula


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bathymodiolus azoricus is a deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel found in association with large faunal communities living in chemosynthetic environments at the bottom of the sea floor near the Azores Islands. Investigation of the exceptional physiological reactions that vent mussels have adopted in their habitat, including responses to environmental microbes, remains a difficult challenge for deep-sea biologists. In an attempt to reveal genes potentially involved in the deep-sea mussel innate immunity we carried out a high-throughput sequence analysis of freshly collected B. azoricus transcriptome using gills tissues as the primary source of immune transcripts given its strategic role in filtering the surrounding waterborne potentially infectious microorganisms. Additionally, a substantial EST data set was produced and from which a comprehensive collection of genes coding for putative proteins was organized in a dedicated database, "DeepSeaVent" the first deep-sea vent animal transcriptome database based on the 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results A normalized cDNA library from gills tissue was sequenced in a full 454 GS-FLX run, producing 778,996 sequencing reads. Assembly of the high quality reads resulted in 75,407 contigs of which 3,071 were singletons. A total of 39,425 transcripts were conceptually translated into amino-sequences of which 22,023 matched known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, 15,839 revealed conserved protein domains through InterPro functional classification and 9,584 were assigned with Gene Ontology terms. Queries conducted within the database enabled the identification of genes putatively involved in immune and inflammatory reactions which had not been previously evidenced in the vent mussel. Their physical counterpart was confirmed by semi-quantitative quantitative Reverse-Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reactions (RT-PCR and their RNA transcription level by quantitative PCR (q

  10. Thermococcus guaymasensis sp. nov. and Thermococcus aggregans sp. nov., two novel thermophilic archaea isolated from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site. (United States)

    Canganella, F; Jones, W J; Gambacorta, A; Antranikian, G


    Thermococcus strains TYST and TYT isolated from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site and previously described were compared by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis with the closest Thermococcus species in terms of physiology and nutritional aspects. On the basis of the new data and taking into consideration the molecular, physiological and morphological traits published previously, it is proposed that strains TYT and TYST should be classified as new species named Thermococcus aggregans sp. nov. and Thermococcus guaymasensis sp. nov., respectively. The type strain of T. aggregans is strain TYT (= DSM 10597T) and the type strain of T. guaymasensis is strain TYST (= DSM 11113T).

  11. Investigation of bacterial communities within the digestive organs of the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata provide insights into holobiont geographic clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique A Cowart

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR. Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation. To identify which hypothesis best fits, we tested whether bacterial assemblages exhibit differentiation across sites or host populations by performing a 16S rRNA metabarcoding survey on R. exoculata digestive prokaryote samples (n = 31 taken from three geochemically distinct vents across MAR: Rainbow, Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG and Logatchev. Analysis of communities across two organs (digestive tract, stomach, three molt colors (white, red, black and three life stages (eggs, juveniles, adults also provided insights into symbiont transmission mode. Examining both whole communities and operational taxonomic units (OTUs confirmed the presence of three main epibionts: Epsilonproteobacteria, Mollicutes and Deferribacteres. With these findings, we identified a clear pattern of geographic segregation by vent in OTUs assigned to Epsilonproteobacteria. Additionally, we detected evidence for differentiation among all communities associated to vents and life stages. Overall, results suggest a combination of environmental selection and vertical inheritance of some of the symbiotic lineages.

  12. 3D imaging of vents and sand injectites produced by Lower Cretaceous hydrothermal activity in the southern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien

    Ma. Strong amplitude anomalies present within the salt are good indication of the presence of igneous intrusions. The vents are imaged as sub-transparent agglomeration of sub-vertical pipe structures emanating above the seismic amplitude anomalies. The vents were analyzed through distinct categories......: size, shape, upper part shape and source bed. Most of the vents originate from the Lower Germanic Triassic Group (Bundsandstein). They are conical in shape and have an eye-shaped upper dome. At the top, numerous domes have been eroded. A few domes have jacked up the overburden, sometimes including...

  13. Adaptation to the deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps: Insights from the transcriptomes of Alvinocaris longirostris in both environments (United States)

    Hui, Min; Cheng, Jiao; Sha, Zhongli


    Alvinocaris longirostris Kikuchi and Ohta, 1995 is one of the few species co-distributed in deep-sea hydrothermal vent and cold seep environments. We performed the transcriptome analysis for A. longirostris and identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples from the Iheya North hydrothermal vent (HV) and a methane seep in the South China Sea (MS). From the 57,801 annotated unigenes, multi-copies of enzyme family members for eliminating toxic xenobiotics were isolated and seven putatively duplicated gene clusters of cytochrome P450s were discovered, which may contribute to adaptation to the harsh conditions. Eight single amino acid substitutions of a Rhodopsin gene with low expression in two deep-sea alvinocaridid species were positively selected when compared with shallow water shrimps, which may be the result of adaptation to the dim-light environment in deep sea. 408 DEGs were identified with 53 and 355 up-regulated in HV and MS, respectively. Various genes associated with sulfur metabolism, detoxification and mitochondria were included, revealing different mechanisms of adaptation to the two types of extreme environments. All results are expected to serve as important basis for the further study.

  14. Bacterial diversity and their adaptations in the shallow water hydrothermal vent at D. Joao de Castro Seamount (DJCS), Azores, Portugal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Ravindran, C.; Colaco, A.; Santos, R.S.; Meena, R.M.

    Bacterial diversity investigations were made from the shallow vent of D joao de castro, Azores, Portugal and their adaptations to a nutrient rich environment was investigated from 2004 and 2005 cruise samples. Assesment of the qualitative...

  15. Detection of active hydrothermal vent fields in the Pescadero Basin and on the Alarcon Rise using AUV multibeam and CTD data (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Troni, G.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J. F.; Thomas, H. J.; Thompson, D.; Conlin, D.; Martin, E. J.; meneses-Quiroz, E.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.; Angel Santa Rosa del Rio, M.


    The MBARI AUV D. Allan B. collected high resolution bathymetry, sidescan, and subbottom profiles along the neovolcanic zone of the Alarcon Rise and across the southern Pescadero Basin during 2012 and 2015 MBARI expeditions to the Gulf of California (GOC). The combination of high resolution multibeam bathymetry and seawater temperature data has proven effective in identifying active high temperature vent fields, as validated by inspection and sampling during ROV dives. The AUV carries a 200 kHz multibeam sonar, 110 kHz chirp sidescan sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp subbottom profiler, and a conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) sensor for ~17-hour duration missions. Flying at 5.4 km/hr at 50 m altitude, the processed AUV bathymetry has a 0.1 m vertical precision and a 1 m lateral resolution. Chimneys taller than 1.5 m are sufficiently distinctive to allow provisional identification. The CTD temperature data have a nominal 0.002°C accuracy. Following calculation of potential temperature and correcting for average local variation of potential temperature with depth, anomalies greater than 0.05 °C can be reliably identified using a spike detection filter. MBARI AUV mapping surveys are typically planned using a 150 m survey line spacing, so the CTD data may be collected as much as 75 m away from any vent plume source. Five active high temperature vent fields were discovered in the southern GOC, with the Auka Field in the southern Pescadero Basin, and the Ja Sít, Pericú, Meyibó, and Tzab-ek Fields along the Alarcon Rise. In all five cases, hydrothermal vent chimneys are readily identifiable in the multibeam bathymetry, and temperature anomalies are observed above background variability. Other apparent hydrothermal chimneys were observed in the bathmetry that did not exhibit water temperature anomalies; most of these were visited during ROV dives and confirmed to be inactive sites. The maximum water column anomalies are 0.13°C observed above the Meyibó field and 0.25

  16. Diversity patterns and isolation of Planctomycetes associated with metalliferous deposits from hydrothermal vent fields along the Valu Fa Ridge (SW Pacific). (United States)

    Storesund, Julia Endresen; Lanzèn, Anders; García-Moyano, Antonio; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Øvreås, Lise


    The microbial diversity associated with diffuse venting deep-sea hydrothermal deposits is tightly coupled to the geochemistry of the hydrothermal fluids. Previous 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (metabarcoding) of marine iron-hydroxide deposits along the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge, revealed the presence of diverse bacterial communities associated with these deposits (Storesund and Øvreås in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 104:569-584, 2013). One of the most abundant and diverse phyla detected was the enigmatic Planctomycetes. Here we report on the comparative analyses of the diversity and distribution patterns of Planctomycetes associated with metalliferous deposits from two diffuse-flow hydrothermal vent fields (Mariner and Vai Lili) from the Valu Fa Ridge in the Southwestern Pacific. Metabarcoding of 16S rRNA genes showed that the major prokaryotic phyla were Proteobacteria (51-73% of all 16S rRNA gene reads), Epsilonbacteraeota (0.5-19%), Bacteriodetes (5-17%), Planctomycetes (0.4-11%), Candidatus Latescibacteria (0-5%) and Marine Benthic Group E (Hydrothermarchaeota) (0-5%). The two different sampling sites differed considerably in overall community composition. The abundance of Planctomycetes also varied substantially between the samples and the sites, with the majority of the sequences affiliated with uncultivated members of the classes Planctomycetacia and Phycisphaerae, and other deep branching lineages. Seven different strains affiliated with the order Planctomycetales were isolated, mostly from the Vai Lili samples, where also the highest Planctomycetales diversity was seen. Most of the isolates were affiliated with the genera Gimesia, Rhodopirellula and Blastopirellula. One isolate was only distantly related to known cultured, but uncharacterized species within the Pir4 group. This study shows that the deep-sea Planctomycetes represent a very heterogeneous group with a high phylogenetic diversity and a substantial potential for novel organism discovery in these

  17. The Lost City hydrothermal system: Constraints imposed by vent fluid chemistry and reaction path models on subseafloor heat and mass transfer processes (United States)

    Seyfried, W. E.; Pester, Nicholas J.; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Ding, Kang


    Since the first reported discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal system in 2001, it was recognized that seawater alteration of ultramafic rocks plays a key role in the composition of the coexisting vent fluids. The unusually high pH and high concentrations of H2 and CH4 provide compelling evidence for this. Here we report the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids sampled from two vent structures (Beehive: ∼90-116 °C, and M6: ∼75 °C) at Lost City in 2008 during cruise KNOX18RR using ROV Jason 2 and R/V Revelle assets. The vent fluid chemistry at both sites reveals considerable overlap in concentrations of dissolved gases (H2, CH4), trace elements (Cs, Rb, Li, B and Sr), and major elements (SO4, Ca, K, Na, Cl), including a surprising decrease in dissolved Cl, suggesting a common source fluid is feeding both sites. The absence of Mg and relatively high concentrations of Ca and sulfate suggest solubility control by serpentine-diopside-anhydrite, while trace alkali concentrations, especially Rb and Cs, are high, assuming a depleted mantle protolith. In both cases, but especially for Beehive vent fluid, the silica concentrations are well in excess of those expected for peridotite alteration and the coexistence of serpentine-brucite at all reasonable temperatures. However, both the measured pH and silica values are in better agreement with serpentine-diopside-tremolite-equilibria. Geochemical modeling demonstrates that reaction of plagioclase with serpentinized peridotite can shift the chemical system away from brucite and into the tremolite stability field. This is consistent with the complex intermingling of peridotite and gabbroic bodies commonly observed within the Atlantis Massif. We speculate the existence of such plagioclase bearing peridotite may also account for the highly enriched trace alkali (Cs, Rb) concentrations in the Lost City vent fluids. Additionally, reactive transport modeling taking explicit account of temperature dependent rates of mineral

  18. Ecophysiology of the hydrothermal vent snail Ifremeria nautilei and barnacle Eochionelasmus ohtai manusensis, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: Insights from shell mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Lécuyer, Christophe; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Fourel, François; Vasile, Ştefan


    Deep-sea vent communities live on a limited area characterized by sharp physico-chemical (temperature, salinity, pH) gradients. Around the vent, the fauna is distributed accordingly, showing characteristic niche partitioning for different groups of animals. In this study we investigate shell microstructure, minor elements and stable isotope compositions of two groups of organisms such as a snail, Ifremeria nautilei, and a crustacean, Eochionelasmus ohtai manusensis. Both organisms occupy distinct niches within the same hydrothermal vent field of the Manus Basin, Western Pacific. Powder XRD and electron microbeam analysis of a polished cross-section indicate that the shells are composed of microcrystalline calcite, with distinct Na, Mg, Sr, and S element contents. For both specimens 20-30 μm large weddellite crystals were found. The δ18O profiles were obtained perpendicular to the growth increments of I. nautilei and E. o. manusensis calcitic shells. Those profiles reveal isotopic variations of 0.5 and 0.6‰, respectively for both intra- and inter-shell measurements. For E. o. manusensis, the Mg content suggests continuous shell growth during the year, both δ18O and Mg data supporting cyclical variation of temperature at vent site. The calculated temperatures at sites with I. nautilei and E. o. manusensis range from 17° to 21.5°C and from 2.1° to 7.2°C, respectively, showing a similar variability of 5-6 °C. The δ13C values of the Ifremeria calcitic shell range from 3‰ to 4.6‰ (V-PDB), the isotopic composition being 13C-enriched relative to the surrounding inorganic pool. The δ13C values of the chitine layer covering the shell range from - 33 to - 31.1‰. The δ13C values of Eochionelasmus vary between 0‰ and 1‰, reflecting the surrounding inorganic DIC pool.

  19. Presence and diversity of anammox bacteria in cold hydrocarbon-rich seeps and hydrothermal vent sediments of the Guaymas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russ, L.; Kartal, B.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Sollai, M.; Le Bruchec, J.; Caprais, J.-C.; Godfroy, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Jetten, M.S.M.


    Hydrothermally active sediments are highly productive, chemosynthetic areas which are characterized by the rapid turnover of particulate organic matter under extreme conditions in which ammonia is liberated. These systems might be suitable habitats for anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria

  20. Novel barite chimneys at the Loki´s Castle Vent Field shed light on key factors shaping microbial communities and functions in hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Helene eSteen


    Full Text Available In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki’s Castle Vent Field (LCVF. This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4 structures (≤ 1m high covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM, 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within

  1. Post-capture immune gene expression studies in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus acclimatized to atmospheric pressure. (United States)

    Barros, Inês; Divya, Baby; Martins, Inês; Vandeperre, Frederic; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Bettencourt, Raul


    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are extreme habitats that are distributed worldwide in association with volcanic and tectonic events, resulting thus in the establishment of particular environmental conditions, in which high pressure, steep temperature gradients, and potentially toxic concentrations of sulfur, methane and heavy metals constitute driving factors for the foundation of chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. Of all the different macroorganisms found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus is the most abundant species inhabiting the vent ecosystems from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). In the present study, the effect of long term acclimatization at atmospheric pressure on host-symbiotic associations were studied in light of the ensuing physiological adaptations from which the immune and endosymbiont gene expressions were concomitantly quantified by means of real-time PCR. The expression of immune genes at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 72 h, 1 week and 3 weeks post-capture acclimatization was investigated and their profiles compared across the samples tested. The gene signal distribution for host immune and bacterial genes followed phasic changes in gene expression at 24 h, 1 week and 3 weeks acclimatization when compared to other time points tested during this temporal expression study. Analyses of the bacterial gene expression also suggested that both bacterial density and activity could contribute to shaping the intricate association between endosymbionts and host immune genes whose expression patterns seem to be concomitant at 1 week acclimatization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to assess the distribution and prevalence of endosymbiont bacteria within gill tissues confirming the gradual loss of sulfur-oxidizing (SOX) and methane-oxidizing (MOX) bacteria during acclimatization. The present study addresses the deep-sea vent mussel B. azoricus as a model organism to study how acclimatization in aquaria and the

  2. Hydrothermal sediments as a potential record of seawater Nd isotope compositions: The Rainbow vent site (36°14'N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) (United States)

    Chavagnac, ValéRie; Palmer, Martin R.; Milton, J. Andrew; Green, Darryl R. H.; German, Christopher R.


    Geochemical compositions and Sr and Nd isotopes were measured in two cores collected ˜2 and 5 km from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Overall, the cores record enrichments in Fe and other metals from hydrothermal fallout, but sequential dissolution of the sediments allows discrimination between a leach phase (easily leachable) and a residue phase (refractory). The oxy-anion and transition metal distribution combined with rare earth element (REE) patterns suggest that (1) the leach fraction is a mixture of biogenic carbonate and hydrothermal Fe-Mn oxy-hydroxide with no significant contribution from detrital material and (2) >99.5% of the REE content of the leach fraction is of seawater origin. In addition, the leach fraction has an average 87Sr/86Sr ratio indistinguishable from modern seawater at 0.70916. Although we lack the ɛNd value of present-day deep water at the Rainbow vent site, we believe that the REE budget of the leach fraction is predominantly of seawater origin. We suggest therefore that the leach fraction provides a record of local seawater ɛNd values. Nd isotope data from these cores span the period of 4-14 ka (14C ages) and yield ɛNd values for North East Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW) that are higher (-9.3 to -11.1) than those observed in the nearby Madeira Abyssal Plain from the same depth (-12.4 ± 0.9). This observation suggests that either the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and Lower Deep Water contributions to the formation of NEADW are higher along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge than in the surrounding basins or that the relative proportion of ISOW was higher during this period than is observed today. This study indicates that hydrothermal sediments have the potential to provide a higher-resolution record of deep water ɛNd values, and hence deepwater circulation patterns in the oceans, than is possible from other types of sediments.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the aerobic, heterotroph Marinithermus hydrothermalis type strain (T1T) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gu, Wei [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yasawong, Montri [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute


    Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003 is the type species of the monotypic genus Marinithermus. M. hydrothermalis T1 T was the first isolate within the phylum ThermusDeinococcus to exhibit optimal growth under a salinity equivalent to that of sea water and to have an absolute requirement for NaCl for growth. M. hydrothermalis T1 T is of interest because it may provide a new insight into the ecological significance of the aerobic, thermophilic decomposers in the circulation of organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Marinithermus and the seventh sequence from the family Thermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,269,167 bp long genome with its 2,251 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  4. Complete genome sequence of the aerobic, heterotroph Marinithermus hydrothermalis type strain (T1(T)) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney. (United States)

    Copeland, Alex; Gu, Wei; Yasawong, Montri; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Pagani, Ioanna; Tapia, Roxanne; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Pan, Chongle; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J; Sikorski, Johannes; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja


    Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003 is the type species of the monotypic genus Marinithermus. M. hydrothermalis T1(T) was the first isolate within the phylum "Thermus-Deinococcus" to exhibit optimal growth under a salinity equivalent to that of sea water and to have an absolute requirement for NaCl for growth. M. hydrothermalis T1(T) is of interest because it may provide a new insight into the ecological significance of the aerobic, thermophilic decomposers in the circulation of organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Marinithermus and the seventh sequence from the family Thermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,269,167 bp long genome with its 2,251 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Morphology of First Zoeal Stage of Four Genera of Alvinocaridid Shrimps from Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps: Implications for Ecology, Larval Biology and Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández-Ávila

    Full Text Available Alvinocaridid shrimps are endemic species inhabiting hydrothermal vents and/or cold seeps. Although indirect evidences (genetic and lipid markers suggest that their larval stages disperse widely and support large scale connectivity, larval life and mechanisms underlying dispersal are unknown in alvinocaridids. Here we provide for the first time detailed descriptions of the first larval stage (zoea I of four alvinocaridid species: Rimicaris exoculata and Mirocaris fortunata from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Alvinocaris muricola from the Congo Basin and Nautilocaris saintlaurentae from the Western Pacific. The larvae were obtained from onboard hatching of brooding females (either at atmospheric pressure or at habitat pressure in hyperbaric chambers and from the water column near adult habitats, sampled with plankton pumps or sediment traps. Major characteristics of the alvinocaridid larvae include undeveloped mandible and almost complete absence of setation in the inner margin of the mouth parts and maxillipeds. Although the larvae are very similar between the four species studied, some morphological features could be used for species identification. In addition, undeveloped mouthparts and the large amount of lipid reserves strongly support the occurrence of primary lecithotrophy in the early stage of alvinocaridids. Although lecithotrophy in decapod crustaceans is usually associated with abbreviated larval development, as a mechanism of larval retention, morphological and physiological evidences suggest the occurrence of an extended and lecithotrophic larval stage in the Alvinocarididae. These traits permit the colonization of widely dispersed and fragmented environments of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Distribution of larval traits along the phylogenetic reconstruction of the Alvinocarididae and related families suggest that lecithotrophy/planktotrophy and extended/abbreviated development have evolved independently along related families in all

  6. Highlighting of quorum sensing lux genes and their expression in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata ectosymbiontic community. Possible use as biogeographic markers.

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    Simon Le Bloa

    Full Text Available Rimicaris exoculata is a caridean shrimp that dominates the fauna at several hydrothermal vent sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It has two distinct and stable microbial communities. One of these epibiontic bacterial communities is located in the shrimp gut and has a distribution and role that are poorly understood. The second colonizes its enlarged gill chamber and is involved in host nutrition. It is eliminated after each molt, and has colonization processes reminiscent of those of a biofilm. The presence and expression of genes usually involved in quorum sensing (QS were then studied. At four sites, Rainbow, TAG, Snake Pit and Logatchev, two lux genes were identified in the R. exoculata epibiontic community at different shrimp molt stages and life stages. RT-PCR experiments highlighted lux gene expression activity at TAG, Snake Pit and Rainbow vent sites. Their potential QS activity and their possible roles in epibiont colonization processes are discussed. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis has shown the presence of three clades for luxS (Epsilonproteobacteria and four clades for luxR (Gammaproteobacteria genes, each clade being restricted to a single site. These genes are more divergent than the 16S rRNA one. They could therefore be used as biogeographical genetic markers.

  7. Molecular identification of differentially regulated genes in the hydrothermal-vent species Bathymodiolus thermophilus and Paralvinella pandorae in response to temperature

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    Shillito Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps represent oases of life in the deep-sea environment, but are also characterized by challenging physical and chemical conditions. The effect of temperature fluctuations on vent organisms in their habitat has not been well explored, in particular at a molecular level, most gene expression studies being conducted on coastal marine species. In order to better understand the response of hydrothermal organisms to different temperature regimes, differentially expressed genes (obtained by a subtractive suppression hybridization approach were identified in the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus and the annelid Paralvinella pandorae irlandei to characterize the physiological processes involved when animals are subjected to long term exposure (2 days at two contrasting temperatures (10° versus 20°C, while maintained at in situ pressures. To avoid a potential effect of pressure, the experimental animals were initially thermally acclimated for 24 hours in a pressurized vessel. Results For each species, we produced two subtractive cDNA libraries (forward and reverse from sets of deep-sea mussels and annelids exposed together to a thermal challenge under pressure. RNA extracted from the gills, adductor muscle, mantle and foot tissue were used for B. thermophilus. For the annelid model, whole animals (small individuals were used. For each of the four libraries, we sequenced 200 clones, resulting in 78 and 83 unique sequences in mussels and annelids (about 20% of the sequencing effort, respectively, with only half of them corresponding to known genes. Real-time PCR was used to validate differentially expressed genes identified in the corresponding libraries. Strong expression variations have been observed for some specific genes such as the intracellular hemoglobin, the nidogen protein, and Rab7 in P. pandorae, and the SPARC protein, cyclophilin, foot protein and adhesive plaque protein in B. thermophilus

  8. Culture-Independent Identification of Manganese-Oxidizing Genes from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chemoautotrophic Ferromanganese Microbial Communities Using a Metagenomic Approach (United States)

    Davis, R.; Tebo, B. M.


    Microbial activity has long been recognized as being important to the fate of manganese (Mn) in hydrothermal systems, yet we know very little about the organisms that catalyze Mn oxidation, the mechanisms by which Mn is oxidized or the physiological function that Mn oxidation serves in these hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermal vents with thick ferromanganese microbial mats and Mn oxide-coated rocks observed throughout the Pacific Ring of Fire are ideal models to study the mechanisms of microbial Mn oxidation, as well as primary productivity in these metal-cycling ecosystems. We sampled ferromanganese microbial mats from Vai Lili Vent Field (Tmax=43°C) located on the Eastern Lau Spreading Center and Mn oxide-encrusted rhyolytic pumice (4°C) from Niua South Seamount on the Tonga Volcanic Arc. Metagenomic libraries were constructed and assembled from these samples and key genes known to be involved in Mn oxidation and carbon fixation pathways were identified in the reconstructed genomes. The Vai Lili metagenome assembled to form 121,157 contiguous sequences (contigs) greater than 1000bp in length, with an N50 of 8,261bp and a total metagenome size of 593 Mbp. Contigs were binned using an emergent self-organizing map of tetranucleotide frequencies. Putative homologs of the multicopper Mn-oxidase MnxG were found in the metagenome that were related to both the Pseudomonas-like and Bacillus-like forms of the enzyme. The bins containing the Pseudomonas-like mnxG genes are most closely related to uncultured Deltaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. The Deltaproteobacteria bin appears to be an obligate anaerobe with possible chemoautotrophic metabolisms, while the Chloroflexi appears to be a heterotrophic organism. The metagenome from the Mn-stained pumice was assembled into 122,092 contigs greater than 1000bp in length with an N50 of 7635 and a metagenome size of 385 Mbp. Both forms of mnxG genes are present in this metagenome as well as the genes encoding the putative Mn

  9. Ferrous iron- and ammonium-rich diffuse vents support habitat-specific communities in a shallow hydrothermal field off the Basiluzzo Islet (Aeolian Volcanic Archipelago). (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, G; Romeo, T; La Cono, V; La Spada, G; Smedile, F; Esposito, V; Sabatino, G; Di Bella, M; Canese, S; Scotti, G; Bo, M; Giuliano, L; Jones, D; Golyshin, P N; Yakimov, M M; Andaloro, F


    Ammonium- and Fe(II)-rich fluid flows, known from deep-sea hydrothermal systems, have been extensively studied in the last decades and are considered as sites with high microbial diversity and activity. Their shallow-submarine counterparts, despite their easier accessibility, have so far been under-investigated, and as a consequence, much less is known about microbial communities inhabiting these ecosystems. A field of shallow expulsion of hydrothermal fluids has been discovered at depths of 170-400 meters off the base of the Basiluzzo Islet (Aeolian Volcanic Archipelago, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). This area consists predominantly of both actively diffusing and inactive 1-3 meters-high structures in the form of vertical pinnacles, steeples and mounds covered by a thick orange to brown crust deposits hosting rich benthic fauna. Integrated morphological, mineralogical, and geochemical analyses revealed that, above all, these crusts are formed by ferrihydrite-type Fe 3+ oxyhydroxides. Two cruises in 2013 allowed us to monitor and sampled this novel ecosystem, certainly interesting in terms of shallow-water iron-rich site. The main objective of this work was to characterize the composition of extant communities of iron microbial mats in relation to the environmental setting and the observed patterns of macrofaunal colonization. We demonstrated that iron-rich deposits contain complex and stratified microbial communities with a high proportion of prokaryotes akin to ammonium- and iron-oxidizing chemoautotrophs, belonging to Thaumarchaeota, Nitrospira, and Zetaproteobacteria. Colonizers of iron-rich mounds, while composed of the common macrobenthic grazers, predators, filter-feeders, and tube-dwellers with no representatives of vent endemic fauna, differed from the surrounding populations. Thus, it is very likely that reduced electron donors (Fe 2+ and NH 4 + ) are important energy sources in supporting primary production in microbial mats, which form a habitat

  10. The thermal and chemical evolution of hydrothermal vent fluids in shale hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) systems from the MacMillan Pass district (Yukon, Canada) (United States)

    Magnall, J. M.; Gleeson, S. A.; Blamey, N. J. F.; Paradis, S.; Luo, Y.


    At Macmillan Pass (YT, Canada), the hydrothermal vent complexes beneath two shale-hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) deposits (Tom, Jason) are well preserved within Late Devonian strata. These deposits provide a unique opportunity to constrain key geochemical parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, fO2, ΣS) that are critical for metal transport and deposition in SHMS systems, and to evaluate the interaction between hydrothermal fluids and the mudstone host rock. This has been achieved using a combination of detailed petrography, isotopic techniques (δ34S, δ13C and δ18O values), carbonate rare earth element analysis (LA-ICP-MS), fluid inclusion analysis (microthermometry, gas analysis via incremental crush fast scan mass spectrometry), and thermodynamic modelling. Two main paragenetic stages are preserved in both vent complexes: Stage 1 comprises pervasive ankerite alteration of the organic-rich mudstone host rock and crosscutting stockwork ankerite veining (±pyrobitumen, pyrite and quartz) and; Stage 2 consists of main stage massive sulphide (galena-pyrrhotite-pyrite ± chalcopyrite-sphalerite) and siderite (±quartz and barytocalcite) mineralisation. Co-variation of δ18O and δ13C values in ankerite can be described by temperature dependent fractionation and fluid rock interaction. Together with fluid inclusion microthermometry, this provides evidence of a steep thermal gradient (from 300 to ∼100 °C) over approximately 15 m stratigraphic depth, temporally and spatially constrained within the paragenesis of both vent complexes and developed under shallow lithostatic (28), characteristic of diagenetic fluids, are coupled with positive europium anomalies and variable light REE depletion, which are more consistent with chloride complexation in hot (>250 °C) hydrothermal fluids. In this shallow sub-seafloor setting, thermal alteration of organic carbon in the immature, chemically reactive mudstones also had an important role in the evolution of fluid chemistry

  11. A new species and new record of deep-sea scale-worms (Polynoidae: Polychaeta) from the Okinawa Trough and the South China Sea. (United States)

    Sui, Jixing; Li, Xinzheng


    A new species of scale-worm, Lepidonotopodium okinawae sp. nov. from the Okinawa Trough is described. The new species differs from the other species of Lepidonotopodium by having 24 segments and numerous foveolae on the surface of elytra with one globular micropapilla in every foveola. A new record of the mussel commensal Branchipolynoe pettiboneae Miura & Hashimoto, 1991 is reported and described from the northern South China Sea, where for the first time the scale-worm is noted as occurring at a cold-seep. Keys to distinguish the species of Branchipolynoe and Lepidonotopodium are provided.

  12. Multiple I-Type Lysozymes in the Hydrothermal Vent Mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and Their Role in Symbiotic Plasticity.

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    Camille Detree

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was first to identify lysozymes paralogs in the deep sea mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus then to measure their relative expression or activity in different tissue or conditions. B. azoricus is a bivalve that lives close to hydrothermal chimney in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR. They harbour in specialized gill cells two types of endosymbiont (gram-bacteria: sulphide oxidizing bacteria (SOX and methanotrophic bacteria (MOX. This association is thought to be ruled by specific mechanism or actors of regulation to deal with the presence of symbiont but these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we focused on the implication of lysozyme, a bactericidal enzyme, in this endosymbiosis. The relative expression of Ba-lysozymes paralogs and the global anti-microbial activity, were measured in natural population (Lucky Strike--1700 m, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and in in situ experimental conditions. B. azoricus individuals were moved away from the hydrothermal fluid to induce a loss of symbiont. Then after 6 days some mussels were brought back to the mussel bed to induce a re-acquisition of symbiotic bacteria. Results show the presence of 6 paralogs in B. azoricus. In absence of symbionts, 3 paralogs are up-regulated while others are not differentially expressed. Moreover the global activity of lysozyme is increasing with the loss of symbiont. All together these results suggest that lysozyme may play a crucial role in symbiont regulation.

  13. Metabolic Profiling as a Screening Tool for Cytotoxic Compounds: Identification of 3-Alkyl Pyridine Alkaloids from Sponges Collected at a Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vent Site North of Iceland

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    Eydis Einarsdottir


    Full Text Available Twenty-eight sponge specimens were collected at a shallow water hydrothermal vent site north of Iceland. Extracts were prepared and tested in vitro for cytotoxic activity, and eight of them were shown to be cytotoxic. A mass spectrometry (MS-based metabolomics approach was used to determine the chemical composition of the extracts. This analysis highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of three sponge specimens, and all of them were identified as Haliclona (Rhizoniera rosea (Bowerbank, 1866. Therefore, these specimens were selected for further investigation. Haliclona rosea metabolomes contained a class of potential key compounds, the 3-alkyl pyridine alkaloids (3-APA responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the fractions. Several 3-APA compounds were tentatively identified including haliclamines, cyclostellettamines, viscosalines and viscosamines. Among these compounds, cyclostellettamine P was tentatively identified for the first time by using ion mobility MS in time-aligned parallel (TAP fragmentation mode. In this work, we show the potential of applying metabolomics strategies and in particular the utility of coupling ion mobility with MS for the molecular characterization of sponge specimens.

  14. Behavioural study of two hydrothermal crustacean decapods: Mirocaris fortunata and Segonzacia mesatlantica, from the Lucky Strike vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) (United States)

    Matabos, M.; Cuvelier, D.; Brouard, J.; Shillito, B.; Ravaux, J.; Zbinden, M.; Barthelemy, D.; Sarradin, P. M.; Sarrazin, J.


    Identifying the factors driving community dynamics in hydrothermal vent communities, and in particular biological interactions, is challenged by our ability to make direct observations and the difficulty to conduct experiments in those remote ecosystems. As a result, we have very limited knowledge on species' behaviour and interactions in these communities and how they in turn influence community dynamics. Interactions such as competition or predation significantly affect community structure in vent communities, and video time-series have successfully been used to gain insights in biological interactions and species behaviour, including responses to short-term changes in temperature or feeding strategies. In this study, we combined in situ and ex situ approaches to characterise the behaviour and interactions among two key species encountered along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR): the shrimp Mirocaris fortunata and the crab Segonzacia mesatlantica. In situ, species small-scale distribution, interactions and behaviour were studied using the TEMPO observatory module deployed on the seafloor at the base of the active Eiffel Tower edifice in the Lucky Strike vent field as part of the EMSO-Açores MoMAR observatory. TEMPO sampled 2 min of video four times a day from July 2011 to April 2012. One week of observations per month was used for 'long-term' variations, and a full video data set was analysed for January 2012. In addition, observations of crab and shrimp individuals maintained for the first time under controlled conditions in atmospheric pressure (classic tank) and pressurised (AbyssBox) aquaria allowed better characterisation and description of the different types of behaviour and interactions observed in nature. While the identified in situ spatial distribution pattern was stable over the nine months, both species displayed a significant preference for mussel bed and anhydrite substrata, and preferentially occupied the area located directly in the fluid flow axis

  15. Composition of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Communities as Revealed by Analyses of Signature Lipids, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Aquificales Cultures (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Edger, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Hayes, John M.; DesMarais, David J.; Cady, Sherry; Hope, Janet M.; Summons, Roger E.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    Extremely thermophilic microbial communities associated with the siliceous vent walls and outflow channel of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, have been examined for lipid biomarkers and carbon isotopic signatures. These data were compared with that obtained from representatives of three Aquificales genera. Thermocrinis ruber. "Thermocrinis sp. HI", Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, Aquifex pyrophilus and Aquifex aeolicus all contained phospholipids composed not only of the usual ester-linked fatty acids, but also ether-linked alkyls. The fatty acids of all cultured organisms were dominated by a very distinct pattern of n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21 compounds. The alkyl glycerol ethers were present primarily as CIS() monoethers with the expection of the Aquifex spp. in which dialkyl glycerol ethers with a boarder carbon-number distribution were also present. These Aquificales biomarker lipids were the major constituents in the lipid extracts of the Octopus Spring microbial samples. Two natural samples, a microbial biofilm growing in association with deposition of amorphous silica on the vent walls at 92 C, and the well-known 'pink-streamers community' (PSC), siliceous filaments of a microbial consortia growing in the upper outflow channel at 87 C were analyzed. Both the biofilm and PSC samples contained mono and dialkyl glycerol ethers with a prevalence of C-18 and C-20 alkyls. Phospholipid fatty acids were comprised of both the characteristic Aquificales n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21, and in addition, a series of iso-branched fatty acids from i-C-15:0 to i-C-21:0, With i-C-17:0 dominant in the PSC and i-C-19:0 in the biofilm, suggesting the presence of two major bacterial groups. Bacteriohopanepolyols were absent and the minute quantities of archaeol detected showed that Archaea were only minor constituents. Carbon isotopic compositions of the PSC yielded information about community structure and likely physiology. Biomass was C-13-depleted (10.9%) relative to available

  16. Boiling vapour-type fluids from the Nifonea vent field (New Hebrides Back-Arc, Vanuatu, SW Pacific): Geochemistry of an early-stage, post-eruptive hydrothermal system (United States)

    Schmidt, Katja; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Hannington, Mark D.; Anderson, Melissa O.; Bühring, Benjamin; Haase, Karsten; Haruel, Christy; Lupton, John; Koschinsky, Andrea


    In 2013, high-temperature vent fluids were sampled in the Nifonea vent field. This field is located within the caldera of a large shield-type volcano of the Vate Trough, a young extensional rift in the New Hebrides back-arc. Hydrothermal venting occurs as clear and black smoker fluids with temperatures up to 368 °C, the hottest temperatures measured so far in the western Pacific. The physico-chemical conditions place the fluids within the two-phase field of NaCl-H2O, and venting is dominated by vapour phase fluids with Cl concentrations as low as 25 mM. The fluid composition, which differs between the individual vent sites, is interpreted to reflect the specific geochemical fluid signature of a hydrothermal system in its initial, post-eruptive stage. The strong Cl depletion is accompanied by low alkali/Cl ratios compared to more evolved hydrothermal systems, and very high Fe/Cl ratios. The concentrations of REY (180 nM) and As (21 μM) in the most Cl-depleted fluid are among the highest reported so far for submarine hydrothermal fluids, whereas the inter-element REY fractionation is only minor. The fluid signature, which has been described here for the first time in a back-arc setting, is controlled by fast fluid passage through basaltic volcanic rocks, with extremely high water-rock ratios and only limited water-rock exchange, phase separation and segregation, and (at least) two-component fluid mixing. Metals and metalloids are unexpectedly mobile in the vapour phase fluids, and the strong enrichments of Fe, REY, and As highlight the metal transport capacity of low-salinity, low-density vapours at the specific physico-chemical conditions at Nifonea. One possible scenario is that the fluids boiled before the separated vapour phase continued to react with fresh glassy lavas. The mobilization of metals is likely to occur by leaching from fresh glass and grain boundaries and is supported by the high water/rock ratios. The enrichment of B and As is further controlled

  17. Geology and lithogeochemistry of hydrothermal mudstones from the upper block near the Duck Pond volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit, Newfoundland, Canada: evidence for low-temperature venting into oxygenated mid-Cambrian seawater (United States)

    Piercey, Stephen J.; Squires, Gerry; Brace, Terry


    Pyrite- and pyrrhotite-rich mudstones are spatially associated with Cambrian ( 512-509 Ma) volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits throughout the Tally Pond group, central Newfoundland, Canada. At the Duck Pond mine, sulfide-rich mudstones are hosted within a weakly mineralized upper block that structurally overlies the deposit but is older ( 513 versus 509 Ma). The mudstones are laminated, 10-30-cm thick, and pyrite- and pyrrhotite-rich and occur along pillow lava selvages, or in between pillow lavas, rhyolite flows, and volcaniclastic rocks. The mudstones are laterally extensive and proximal to the mudstone host rocks are hydrothermally altered to epidote-quartz-chlorite (basalt host) and sericite-quartz (rhyolite host). Lithogeochemical data for the sulfide-rich mudstones reflect the varying contributions of elements from sedimentary detritus, hydrothermal discharge, and hydrogenous scavenging from middle Cambrian seawater. The mudstones have minor detrital element abundances and significant hydrothermal element enrichments (i.e., elevated Fe2O3, S, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ba concentrations, high Fe/Al ratios). The hydrothermal mudstones are also enriched in oxyanions (i.e., P2O5, U, V, Cr, Ni, Co, and Hg), interpreted to have been enriched via oxidative scavenging from seawater by Fe-oxide/oxyhydroxide particles. The mudstones also have REE-Y signatures similar to modern oxygenated seawater with high Y/Ho and negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 0.40-0.86; average = 0.58), which correlate with adsorbed oxyanion concentrations. The low Eu/Eu* (1.02-1.86; average = 1.22) in the mudstones suggest that they were deposited from low-temperature (residence time to scavenge oxyanions from seawater and inherit a middle Cambrian seawater signature. The predominant seawater REE-Y-oxyanion signature in the Duck Pond upper block sulfide-rich mudstones suggests that they are distal hydrothermal sedimentary rocks that could have formed up to 10 km from their original vent sources

  18. Characterization of Microbial Communities Associated With Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Animals of the East Pacific Rise and the Galápagos Rift (United States)

    Ward, N.; Page, S.; Heidelberg, J.; Eisen, J. A.; Fraser, C. M.


    The composition of microbial communities associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals is of interest because of the key role of bacterial symbionts in driving the chemosynthetic food chain of the vent system, and also because bacterial biofilms attached to animal exterior surfaces may play a part in settlement of larval forms. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from such communities provides a snapshot of community structure, as this gene is present in all Bacteria and Archaea, and a useful phylogenetic marker for both cultivated microbial species, and uncultivated species such as many of those found in the deep-sea environment. Specimens of giant tube worms (Riftia pachyptila), mussels (Bathymodiolus thermophilus), and clams (Calyptogena magnifica) were collected during the 2002 R/V Atlantis research cruises to the East Pacific Rise (9N) and Galápagos Rift. Microbial biofilms attached to the exterior surfaces of individual animals were sampled, as were tissues known to harbor chemosynthetic bacterial endosymbionts. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples using a commercially available kit, and 16S rRNA genes amplified from the mixed bacterial communities using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and oligonucleotide primers targeting conserved terminal regions of the 16S rRNA gene. The PCR products obtained were cloned into a plasmid vector and the recombinant plasmids transformed into cells of Escherichia coli. Individual cloned 16S rRNA genes were sequenced at the 5' end of the gene (the most phylogenetically informative region in most taxa) and the sequence data compared to publicly available gene sequence databases, to allow a preliminary assignment of clones to taxonomic groups within the Bacteria and Archaea, and to determine the overall composition and phylogenetic diversity of the animal-associated microbial communities. Analysis of Riftia pachyptila exterior biofilm samples revealed the presence of members of the delta and

  19. Crustal structure and mantle transition zone thickness beneath a hydrothermal vent at the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39'E): a supplementary study based on passive seismic receiver functions (United States)

    Ruan, Aiguo; Hu, Hao; Li, Jiabiao; Niu, Xiongwei; Wei, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Aoxing


    As a supplementary study, we used passive seismic data recorded by one ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) station (49°41.8'E) close to a hydrothermal vent (49°39'E) at the Southwest Indian Ridge to invert the crustal structure and mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness by P-to-S receiver functions to investigate previous active seismic tomographic crustal models and determine the influence of the deep mantle thermal anomaly on seafloor hydrothermal venting at an ultra-slow spreading ridge. The new passive seismic S-wave model shows that the crust has a low velocity layer (2.6 km/s) from 4.0 to 6.0 km below the sea floor, which is interpreted as partial melting. We suggest that the Moho discontinuity at 9.0 km is the bottom of a layer (2-3 km thick); the Moho (at depth of 6-7 km), defined by active seismic P-wave models, is interpreted as a serpentinized front. The velocity spectrum stacking plot made from passive seismic data shows that the 410 discontinuity is depressed by 15 km, the 660 discontinuity is elevated by 18 km, and a positive thermal anomaly between 182 and 237 K is inferred.

  20. Hydrothermal Processes (United States)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.


    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  1. Insights into fluid flow and environmental conditions present in deep-sea hydrothermal vent deposits from measurements of permeability and porosity (United States)

    Gribbin, J. L.; Zhu, W.; Tivey, M. K.


    Evolution of permeability-porosity relationships (EPPRs) of different seafloor vent deposit sample types provide crucial information about how fluid flows within the deposits. In this study, we conducted permeability and porosity measurements on a wide range of vent sample types recovered from many different active seafloor vent fields. The sample set includes chalcopyrite-lined black smoker chimneys, Zn-rich diffusing spires (including white smokers), flanges/slabs/crusts (i.e., plate-like deposits that overlie pooled fluid), massive anhydrite, and cores recovered from the sides of vent structures. Using a probe permeameter, permeability measurements were systematically taken of each sample along several orientations. The measured permeability ranges over 6 orders of magnitude from 10-14 to 10-8 m2. Our data indicate that in general massive anhydrite samples are the least permeable with a mean at ~10-13 m2 and the samples from Zn-rich diffusing spires that were actively venting when collected are the most permeable with a mean at ~10-11 m2. With a mean at 10-11.5 m2, permeability data of flanges/slabs/crusts span over 4 orders of magnitude from 10-13 to 10-9 m2, the largest spread among all sample types tested. Permeability values of the outer portions of relict spires, ranging from ~10-13 m2 to 10-9.5 m2, displayed clear anisotropic trends: permeability along the radial directions is higher than that along the axial direction. Black smokers exhibit a strong layered heterogeneity, where inner chalcopyrite linings were significantly less permeable than outermost layers. To conduct porosity and directional permeability measurements, cylindrical cores will be taken from these vent samples. We will examine whether different sample types, or portions of samples, exhibit distinct permeability-porosity relationships, and will then use micro-structural observations of the cores to examine chimney growth processes (e.g., mineral deposition or cracking) that likely result

  2. Salt shell fallout during the ash eruption at the Nakadake crater, Aso volcano, Japan: evidence of an underground hydrothermal system surrounding the erupting vent (United States)

    Shinohara, Hiroshi; Geshi, Nobuo; Yokoo, Akihiko; Ohkura, Takahiro; Terada, Akihiko


    A hot and acid crater lake is located in the Nakadake crater, Aso volcano, Japan. The volume of water in the lake decreases with increasing activity, drying out prior to the magmatic eruptions. Salt-rich materials of various shapes were observed, falling from the volcanic plume during the active periods. In May 2011, salt flakes fell from the gas plume emitted from an intense fumarole when the acid crater lake was almost dry. The chemical composition of these salt flakes was similar to those of the salts formed by the drying of the crater lake waters, suggesting that they originated from the crater lake water. The salt flakes are likely formed by the drying up of the crater lake water droplets sprayed into the plume by the fumarolic gas jet. In late 2014, the crater lake dried completely, followed by the magmatic eruptions with continuous ash eruptions and intermittent Strombolian explosions. Spherical hollow salt shells were observed on several occasions during and shortly after the weak ash eruptions. The chemical composition of the salt shells was similar to the salts formed by the drying of the crater lake water. The hollow structure of the shells suggests that they were formed by the heating of hydrothermal solution droplets suspended by a mixed stream of gas and ash in the plume. The salt shells suggest the existence of a hydrothermal system beneath the crater floor, even during the course of magmatic eruptions. Instability of the magmatic-hydrothermal interface can cause phreatomagmatic explosions, which often occur at the end of the eruptive phase of this volcano.

  3. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough. (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li


    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity.

  4. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Lei Sun

    Full Text Available Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity.

  5. Formaldehyde as a carbon and electron shuttle between autotroph and heterotroph populations in acidic hydrothermal vents of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Romine, Margaret F.; Riha, Krystin M.; Inskeep, William P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.


    The Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains a large number of hydrothermal systems, which host microbial populations supported by primary productivity associated with a suite of chemolithotrophic metabolisms. We demonstrate that Metallosphaera yellowstonesis MK1, a facultative autotrophic archaeon isolated from a hyperthermal acidic hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) spring in Norris Geyser Basin, excretes formaldehyde during autotrophic growth. To determine the fate of formaldehyde in this low organic carbon environment, we incubated native microbial mat (containing M. yellowstonensis) from a HFO spring with 13C-formaldehyde. Isotopic analysis of incubation-derived CO2 and biomass showed that formaldehyde was both oxidized and assimilated by members of the community. Autotrophy, formaldehyde oxidation, and formaldehyde assimilation displayed different sensitivities to chemical inhibitors, suggesting that distinct sub-populations in the mat selectively perform these functions. Our results demonstrate that electrons originally resulting from iron oxidation can energetically fuel autotrophic carbon fixation and associated formaldehyde excretion, and that formaldehyde is both oxidized and assimilated by different organisms within the native microbial community. Thus, formaldehyde can effectively act as a carbon and electron shuttle connecting the autotrophic, iron oxidizing members with associated heterotrophic members in the HFO community.

  6. Vented Capacitor (United States)

    Brubaker, Michael Allen; Hosking, Terry Alan


    A technique of increasing the corona inception voltage (CIV), and thereby increasing the operating voltage, of film/foil capacitors is described. Intentional venting of the capacitor encapsulation improves the corona inception voltage by allowing internal voids to equilibrate with the ambient environment.

  7. 24 CFR 3280.611 - Vents and venting. (United States)


    ...) Materials—(1) Pipe. Vent piping shall be standard weight steel, wrought iron, brass, copper tube DWV, listed...) Size of vent piping—(1) Main vent. The drain piping for each toilet shall be vented by a 11/2 inch... venting cross section of a 11/2 inch diameter vent, connected to the toilet drain by one of the following...

  8. Origin of Abiotic Methane in Submarine Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Seewald, J. S.; German, C. R.; Grozeva, N. G.; Klein, F.; McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Reeves, E. P.; Wang, D. T.


    Results of recent investigations into the chemical and isotopic composition of actively venting submarine hydrothermal fluids and volatile species trapped in fluid inclusions will be discussed in the context of processes responsible for abiotic CH4 formation.

  9. Biaxial vent extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idemoto, A.; Maki, Y.; Oda, N.


    A biaxial vent extruder is described for processing of slurry-like waste fluids or radioactive waste fluids which have a hopper cylinger, a solidifying substance port and a solidified substance port. A plurality of vent cylinders each having a vent port are provided with a plunger type scraper. An extruding cylinder having a single opening for a main screw is connected to the assembled vent cylinders. The main screw extends to the upstream end of the extruding cylinder and a sub-screw extends to the extruding cylinder. The screws each having a full flight engaging the other and a set of rings are mounted on the screws near the respective vent port inlets. The screws are rotated in different directions and inwardly with respect to the vent ports. Rotors may be mounted on the screws to break down solid particles

  10. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems


    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  11. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems


    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  12. An estimate of hydrothermal fluid residence times and vent chimney growth rates based on 210Pb/Pb ratios and mineralogic studies of sulfides dredged from the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadko, D.; Tatsumoto, Mitsunobu


    The 210 Pb/Pb ratios across two sulfide samples dredged from the Juan de Fuca Ridge are used to estimate the growth rate of the sulfide material and the residence time of the hydrothermal fluid within the oceanic crust from the onset of basalt alteration. 210 Pb is added to the hydrothermal fluid by two processes: 1) high-temperature alteration of basalt and 2) if the residence time of the fluid is on the order of the 22.3-year half-life of 210 Pb, by in-situ growth from 222 Rn (Krishnaswami and Turekian, 1982). Stable lead is derived only from the alteration of basalt. The 210 Pb/Pb ratio across one sample was proportional 0.5 dpm/10 -6 g Pb, and across the other is was proportional 0.4 dpm/10 -6 g Pb. These values are quite close to the 238 U/Pb ratios of basalts from the area, suggesting that the residence time of the hydrothermal fluid from the onset of basalt alteration is appreciably less than the mean life of 210 Pb, i.e., the time required for ingrowth from the radon. An apparent growth rate of 1.2 cm/yr is derived from the slope of the 210 Pb/Pb curve for one of the samples. This is consistent with its mineralogy and texture which suggest an accretionary pattern of development. There is no obvious sequential growth pattern, and virtually no gradient in 210 Pb/Pb across the second sample. This is consistent with alteration of the original 210 Pb/Pb distribution by extensive remobilization reactions which are inferred from the mineralogic and textural relationships of the sample. (orig.)

  13. Geologic evolution of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (United States)

    Denny, Alden R.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.


    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel serpentinite-hosted vent field located on the Atlantis Massif southern wall. Results of 2 m resolution bathymetry, side scan, and video and still imagery, integrated with direct submersible observations provide the first high-resolution geologic map of the LCHF. These data form the foundation for an evolutionary model for the vent system over the past >120,000 years. The field is located on a down-dropped bench 70 m below the summit of the massif. The bench is capped by breccia and pelagic carbonate deposits underlain by variably deformed and altered serpentinite and gabbroic rocks. Hydrothermal activity is focused at the 60 m tall, 100 m across, massive carbonate edifice "Poseidon," which is venting 91°C fluid. Hydrothermal activity declines south and west of the Poseidon complex and dies off completely at distances greater than 200 m. East of Poseidon, the most recent stage of hydrothermal flow is characterized by egress of diffuse fluids from narrow fissures within a low-angle, anastomosing mylonite zone. South of the area of current hydrothermal activity, there is evidence of two discrete previously unrecognized relict fields. Active venting sites defined by carbonate-filled fissures that cut the carbonate cap rock at the summit of the massif mark the present-day northernmost extent of venting. These spatial relationships reflect multiple stages of field development, the northward migration of venting over time, and the likely development of a nascent field at the massif summit.

  14. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation (United States)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.


    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  15. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.


    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  16. Diversity of hydrolases from hydrothermal vent sediments of the Levante Bay, Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago) identified by activity-based metagenomics and biochemical characterization of new esterases and an arabinopyranosidase. (United States)

    Placido, Antonio; Hai, Tran; Ferrer, Manuel; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Distaso, Marco; Armstrong, Dale; Yakunin, Alexander F; Toshchakov, Stepan V; Yakimov, Michail M; Kublanov, Ilya V; Golyshina, Olga V; Pesole, Graziano; Ceci, Luigi R; Golyshin, Peter N


    A metagenomic fosmid expression library established from environmental DNA (eDNA) from the shallow hot vent sediment sample collected from the Levante Bay, Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago) was established in Escherichia coli. Using activity-based screening assays, we have assessed 9600 fosmid clones corresponding to approximately 350 Mbp of the cloned eDNA, for the lipases/esterases/lactamases, haloalkane and haloacid dehalogenases, and glycoside hydrolases. Thirty-four positive fosmid clones were selected from the total of 120 positive hits and sequenced to yield ca. 1360 kbp of high-quality assemblies. Fosmid inserts were attributed to the members of ten bacterial phyla, including Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobateria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Spirochaetes, Thermotogae, Armatimonadetes, and Planctomycetes. Of ca. 200 proteins with high biotechnological potential identified therein, we have characterized in detail three distinct α/β-hydrolases (LIPESV12_9, LIPESV12_24, LIPESV12_26) and one new α-arabinopyranosidase (GLV12_5). All LIPESV12 enzymes revealed distinct substrate specificities tested against 43 structurally diverse esters and 4 p-nitrophenol carboxyl esters. Of 16 different glycosides tested, the GLV12_5 hydrolysed only p-nitrophenol-α-(L)-arabinopyranose with a high specific activity of about 2.7 kU/mg protein. Most of the α/β-hydrolases were thermophilic and revealed a high tolerance to, and high activities in the presence of, numerous heavy metal ions. Among them, the LIPESV12_24 was the best temperature-adapted, retaining its activity after 40 min of incubation at 90 °C. Furthermore, enzymes were active in organic solvents (e.g., >30% methanol). Both LIPESV12_24 and LIPESV12_26 had the GXSXG pentapeptides and the catalytic triads Ser-Asp-His typical to the representatives of carboxylesterases of EC

  17. Distal transport of dissolved hydrothermal iron in the deep South Pacific Ocean. (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N; Boyle, Edward A; Jenkins, William J


    Until recently, hydrothermal vents were not considered to be an important source to the marine dissolved Fe (dFe) inventory because hydrothermal Fe was believed to precipitate quantitatively near the vent site. Based on recent abyssal dFe enrichments near hydrothermal vents, however, the leaky vent hypothesis [Toner BM, et al. (2012) Oceanography 25(1):209-212] argues that some hydrothermal Fe persists in the dissolved phase and contributes a significant flux of dFe to the global ocean. We show here the first, to our knowledge, dFe (Pacific Ocean, where dFe of 1.0-1.5 nmol/kg near 2,000 m depth (0.4-0.9 nmol/kg above typical deep-sea dFe concentrations) was determined to be hydrothermally derived based on its correlation with primordial (3)He and dissolved Mn (dFe:(3)He of 0.9-2.7 × 10(6)). Given the known sites of hydrothermal venting in these regions, this dFe must have been transported thousands of kilometers away from its vent site to reach our sampling stations. Additionally, changes in the size partitioning of the hydrothermal dFe between soluble (Pacific Rise only leaks 0.02-1% of total Fe vented into the abyssal Pacific, this dFe persists thousands of kilometers away from the vent source with sufficient magnitude that hydrothermal vents can have far-field effects on global dFe distributions and inventories (≥3% of global aerosol dFe input).

  18. Are vent crab behavioral preferences adaptations for habitat choice? (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Tseng, Li-Chun; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou


    Hydrothermal vent organisms are adapted to their extreme and patchily distributed habitats. They are expected to have evolved mechanisms that keep them in their specific habitation. Since little is known about the recruitment or habitat selection of HV organisms such as brachyurans, we examined the properties of several hydrothermal vent-associated cues on the behavior of the hydrothermal vent (HV) crab Xenograpsus testudinatus in the laboratory that were contrasted by the offering of non-vent cues. This crab species is endemic and dominates the vent fauna of Turtle Island off the NE coast of Taiwan. HV crabs were separately and in combination offered the following vent-specific cues: (1) sulfuric sediment, (3) air-bubbling, (4) elevated temperature, (5) dead settled zooplankton, (7) other crabs, and (8) shade. The non-vent-specific cues were: (2) quarz sediment, (6) dead fish, (8) light. These cues were provided on either side of a two-choice chamber. The movement of individual crabs was monitored: as initial and final choices, and as the proportion of time the crabs spent in each compartment (resident time). Cues were offered alone and no such cue as a control in the same set-up. Sulfuric sediments and dead fish were significantly more attractive to females, and other crabs irrespective of gender were significantly more attractive to males. When compared to expected distributions, crabs, irrespective of gender, significantly avoided light and tended to select other crabs, air-bubbling, sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, dead fish, dead zooplankton, and quarz sediments in the order of decreasing importance. Data do not support the hypothesis that dead settled zooplankton was particularly attractive nor that the other gender was selected. A combination of several vent-associated cues (sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, air-bubbling) facilitated the strongest attraction to the crabs as reflected by all response variables. The 'first choice' responses

  19. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.


    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  20. Voltammetric Investigation Of Hydrothermal Iron Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eKleint


    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vent fluids are highly enriched in iron (Fe compared to ambient seawater, and organic ligands may play a role in facilitating the transport of some hydrothermal Fe into the open ocean. This is important since Fe is a limiting micronutrient for primary production in large parts of the world`s surface ocean. We have investigated the concentration and speciation of Fe in several vent fluid and plume samples from the Nifonea vent field, Coriolis Troughs, New Hebrides Island Arc, South Pacific Ocean using competitive ligand exchange - adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE - AdCSV with salicylaldoxime (SA as the artificial ligand. Our results for total dissolved Fe (dFe in the buoyant hydrothermal plume samples showed concentrations up to 3.86 µM dFe with only a small fraction between 1.1% and 11.8% being chemically labile. Iron binding ligand concentrations ([L] were found in µM level with strong conditional stability constants up to log K[L],Fe3+ of 22.9. Within the non-buoyant hydrothermal plume above the Nifonea vent field, up to 84.7% of the available Fe is chemically labile and [L] concentrations up to 97 nM were measured. [L] was consistently in excess of Felab, indicating that all available Fe is being complexed, which in combination with high Felab values in the non-buoyant plume, signifies that a high fraction of hydrothermal dFe is potentially being transported away from the plume into the surrounding waters, contributing to the global oceanic Fe budget.

  1. Measure Guideline: Passive Vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, David [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)


    This document addresses the use of passive vents as a source of outdoor air in multifamily buildings. The challenges associated with implementing passive vents and the factors affecting performance are outlined. A comprehensive design methodology and quantified performance metrics are provided. Two hypothetical design examples are provided to illustrate the process. This document is intended to be useful to designers, decision-makers, and contractors implementing passive ventilation strategies. It is also intended to be a resource for those responsible for setting high-performance building program requirements, especially pertaining to ventilation and outdoor air. To ensure good indoor air quality, a dedicated source of outdoor air is an integral part of high-performance buildings. Presently, there is a lack of guidance pertaining to the design and installation of passive vents, resulting in poor system performance. This report details the criteria necessary for designing, constructing, and testing passive vent systems to enable them to provide consistent and reliable levels of ventilation air from outdoors.

  2. Vented nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Hirose, Y.


    A description is given of a vented nuclear fuel element having a plenum for accumulation of fission product gases and plug means for delaying the release of the fission product gases from the plenum, the plug means comprising a first porous body wettable with a liquid metal and a second porous body non-wettable with the liquid metal, the first porous body being impregnated with the liquid metal and in contact with the liquid metal

  3. Can Life Begin on Enceladus? A Perspective from Hydrothermal Chemistry. (United States)

    Deamer, David; Damer, Bruce


    Enceladus is a target of future missions designed to search for existing life or its precursors. Recent flybys of Enceladus by the Cassini probe have confirmed the existence of a long-lived global ocean laced with organic compounds and biologically available nitrogen. This immediately suggests the possibility that life could have begun and may still exist on Enceladus. Here we will compare the properties of two proposed sites for the origin of life on Earth-hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor and hydrothermal volcanic fields at the surface-and ask whether similar conditions could have fostered the origin of life on Enceladus. The answer depends on which of the two sites would be more conducive for the chemical evolution leading to life's origin. A hydrothermal vent origin would allow life to begin in the Enceladus ocean, but if the origin of life requires freshwater hydrothermal pools undergoing wet-dry cycles, the Enceladus ocean could be habitable but lifeless. These arguments also apply directly to Europa and indirectly to early Mars. Key Words: Enceladus-Hydrothermal vents-Hydrothermal fields-Origin of life. Astrobiology 17, 834-839.

  4. Hydrothermal activity, functional diversity and chemoautotrophy are major drivers of seafloor carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, J.B.; Woulds, C.; van Oevelen, D.


    Hydrothermal vents are highly dynamic ecosystems and are unusually energy rich in the deep-sea. Insitu hydrothermal-based productivity combined with sinking photosynthetic organic matter in a softsedimentsetting creates geochemically diverse environments, which remain poorly studied. Here,we use

  5. The importance of shallow hydrothermal island arc systems in ocean biogeochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkes, J.A.; Connelly, D.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Achterberg, E.P.


    Hydrothermal venting often occurs at submarine volcanic calderas on island arc chains, typically at shallower depths than mid-ocean ridges. The effect of these systems on ocean biogeochemistry has been under-investigated to date. Here we show that hydrothermal effluent from an island arc caldera was

  6. Anhydrite precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.


    The composition and metal concentration of hydrothermal fluids venting at the seafloor is strongly temperature-dependent and fluids above 300°C are required to transport metals to the seafloor (Hannington et al. 2010). Ore-forming hydrothermal systems and high temperature vents in general are often associated with faults and fracture zones, i.e. zones of enhanced permeabilities that act as channels for the uprising hydrothermal fluid (Heinrich & Candela, 2014). Previous numerical models (Jupp and Schultz, 2000; Andersen et al. 2015) however have shown that high permeabilities tend to decrease fluid flow temperatures due to mixing with cold seawater and the resulting high fluid fluxes that lead to short residence times of the fluid near the heat source. A possible mechanism to reduce the permeability and thereby to focus high temperature fluid flow are mineral precipitation reactions that clog the pore space. Anhydrite for example precipitates from seawater if it is heated to temperatures above ~150°C or due to mixing of seawater with hydrothermal fluids that usually have high Calcium concentrations. We have implemented anhydrite reactions (precipitation and dissolution) in our finite element numerical models of hydrothermal circulation. The initial results show that the precipitation of anhydrite efficiently alters the permeability field, which affects the hydrothermal flow field as well as the resulting vent temperatures. C. Andersen et al. (2015), Fault geometry and permeability contrast control vent temperatures at the Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Geology, 43(1), 51-54. M. D. Hannington et al. (2010), Modern Sea-Floor Massive Sulfides and Base Metal Resources: Toward an Estimate of Global Sea-Floor Massive Sulfide Potential, in The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Innovative Exploration, and New Discoveries, edited by R. J. Goldfarb, E. E. Marsh and T. Monecke, pp. 317-338, Society of Economic Geologists

  7. Tornado protection by venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanagh, C.A.


    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable

  8. Geochemical Tracers of Processes Affecting the Formation of Seafloor Hydrothermal Fluids and Deposits in the Manus Back-Arc Basin (United States)


    pp. 184-197. Grassle J. F. (1986) The ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. Advances in Marine Biology 23, 301-362. Halbach P...Gesellschaft 82, 183-210. Tunnicliffe V. (1991) The biology of hydrothermal vents: Ecology and evolution. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Reviews 29...Evidence for Magmatic Contributions to Submarine and Subaerial Gold Mineralization: Conical Seamount and the Ladolam Gold Deposit, Papua New Guinea

  9. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents...

  10. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents...

  11. Pito Seamount revisited: the discovery and mapping of new black smoker vents (United States)

    Cheadle, M. J.; John, B. E.; German, C. R.; Gee, J. S.; Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Swapp, S.


    In February 2017, the RV Atlantis PMaG (PaleoMagnetism and Gabbro) cruise re-visited a black smoker site originally discovered 24 years ago on Pito Seamount, by the submersible Nautile during the French Pito expedition (1993). Pito Seamount (111.639oW, 23.333oS) marks the northern tip of the propagating East Pacific Rise, bounding the east side of the Easter Microplate. There the seafloor rises to 2250mbsl and has a 900m wide, 50m deep axial valley, which hosts at least two separate fields of active hydrothermal vents. AUV Sentry mapping of the summit of Pito seamount (0.5-1m resolution) highlights over 50 active and inactive chimneys amid recent basaltic sheet flows, pillow mounds and ponded lava. The vents occur in two fields/sub-fields; the first covers an area of 800 x 200m, and lies parallel to the ridge axis, along incipient faults forming on the northeastern flank of the axial valley. The second field occurs in a 250m diameter area in the centre of the axial valley. Jason II dive 961 visited, sampled, measured vent orifice temperatures, and acquired 4k video of the chimneys, and re-discovered the active (Magnificent Village) vent first found by Nautile, in the now named Nautile vent field, together with five additional active hydrothermal vents (Jason, Medea, Sentry, Abe and Scotty's Castle). The Magnificent Village, the largest active vent, is 25m tall and has multiple active spires in three main groups surrounding a hollow amphitheater. Measured vent orifice temperatures ranged from 338oC (Magnificent Village) to 370oC (Jason). The vents host a fauna of alvinellid worms, bythograidid crabs, alvincardid shrimps, phymorhynchus gastropods, Corallimorphid anenomes and bathymodiolid mussels, but no vestimentiferan worms. Brisingid brittle stars colonize inactive chimneys.

  12. Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals that sulfur metabolism dominates the microbial ecology of rising hydrothermal plumes (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Breier, J. A., Jr.; Jain, S.; Reed, D. C.; Dick, G.


    Deep-sea hydrothermal plumes occur when hot fluids from hydrothermal vents replete with chemically reduced elements and compounds like sulfide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, iron and manganese mix with cold, oxic seawater. Chemosynthetic microbes use these reduced chemicals to power primary production and are pervasive throughout the deep sea, even at sites far removed from hydrothermal vents. Although neutrally-buoyant hydrothermal plumes have been well-studied, rising hydrothermal plumes have received little attention even though they represent an important interface in the deep-sea where microbial metabolism and particle formation processes control the transformation of important elements and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we used genome-resolved metagenomic analyses and thermodynamic-bioenergetic modeling to study the microbial ecology of rising hydrothermal plumes at five different hydrothermal vents spanning a range of geochemical gradients at the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) in the Western Pacific Ocean. Our analyses show that differences in the geochemistry of hydrothermal vents do not manifest in microbial diversity and community composition, both of which display only minor variance across ELSC hydrothermal plumes. Microbial metabolism is dominated by oxidation of reduced sulfur species and supports a diversity of bacteria, archaea and viruses that provide intriguing insights into metabolic plasticity and virus-mediated horizontal gene transfer in the microbial community. The manifestation of sulfur oxidation genes in hydrogen and methane oxidizing organisms hints at metabolic opportunism in deep-sea microbes that would enable them to respond to varying redox conditions in hydrothermal plumes. Finally, we infer that the abundance, diversity and metabolic versatility of microbes associated with sulfur oxidation impart functional redundancy that could allow it to persist in the dynamic settings of hydrothermal plumes.

  13. Fine-scale heat flow, shallow heat sources, and decoupled circulation systems at two sea-floor hydrothermal sites, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Stein, J. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Langseth, M.; Jin, W.; Iturrino, G.; Davis, E.


    Fine-scale heat-flow patterns at two areas of active venting in Middle Valley, a sedimented rift on the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge, provide thermal evidence of shallow hydrothermal reservoirs beneath the vent fields. The extreme variability of heat flow is explained by conductive heating immediately adjacent to vents and shallow circulation within sediments above the reservoir. This secondary circulation is hydrologically separated from the deeper system feeding the vents by a shallow conductive lid within the sediments. A similar separation of shallow and deep circulation may also occur at sediment-free ridge-crest hydrothermal environments.

  14. Acidophiles of saline water at thermal vents of Vulcano, Italy. (United States)

    Simmons, Susan; Norris, R


    DNA was extracted from samples taken from close to acidic hydrothermal vents on shore of the Aeolian Island of Vulcano (Italy). RNA gene sequences were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. A sequence with an origin in samples at 35 degrees and 45 degrees C corresponded to that of a novel Acidithiobacillus species that was isolated from water close to the vents. Novel, iron-oxidizing mesophilic acidophiles were isolated through enrichment cultures with ferrous iron but were not represented in the clone banks of environmental rDNA. These acidophiles were related to Thiobacillus prosperus, which was isolated previously from Vulcano. The archaeal sequences that comprised a clone bank representing a high-temperature sample (75 degrees C) corresponded to those of Acidianus brierleyi and of thermophiles previously isolated from Vulcano, Thermoplasma volcanium and Acidianus infernus.

  15. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.


    collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the

  16. Hydrothermal influence on nearshore sediments of Kos Island, Aegean Sea (United States)

    Megalovasilis, Pavlos; Godelitsas, Athanasios


    The Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre is a long-active, Plio-Pleistocene magmatic system in the subduction zone along the easternmost edge of the active Hellenic volcanic arc in the Aegean Sea. Although today there are signs of relative quiescence in volcanic activity, active onshore fumaroles and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents persist on, amongst others, the island of Kos. The present study explores the large-scale imprint of hydrothermally sourced heavy metals and nutrients on the island's coastal marine environment, based on geochemical data collected in September 2007 from hydrothermal waters and surficial nearshore sediments (Kos is severely influenced by ongoing submarine hydrothermal activity, and confirm that shallow-water sediment Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb levels are substantially higher than those of other islands along the Hellenic volcanic arc, and even exceed those of some deep-water hydrothermal vents in other world regions. Evidently, there may be significant metallic sulphide deposits of hydrothermal origin at depth beneath Kos.

  17. Preservation of iron(II) by carbon-rich matrices in a hydrothermal plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Manganini, Steven J.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moffett, James W.; Rouxel, Olivier; German, Christopher R.; Edwards, Katrina J.


    Hydrothermal venting associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism is globally widespread. This venting is responsible for a dissolved iron flux to the ocean that is approximately equal to that associated with continental riverine runoff. For hydrothermal fluxes, it has long been assumed that most of the iron entering the oceans is precipitated in inorganic forms. However, the possibility of globally significant fluxes of iron escaping these mass precipitation events and entering open-ocean cycles is now being debated, and two recent studies suggest that dissolved organic ligands might influence the fate of hydrothermally vented metals. Here we present spectromicroscopic measurements of iron and carbon in hydrothermal plume particles at the East Pacific Rise mid-ocean ridge. We show that organic carbon-rich matrices, containing evenly dispersed iron(II)-rich materials, are pervasive in hydrothermal plume particles. The absence of discrete iron(II) particles suggests that the carbon and iron associate through sorption or complexation. We suggest that these carbon matrices stabilize iron(II) released from hydrothermal vents in the region, preventing its oxidation and/or precipitation as insoluble minerals. Our findings have implications for deep-sea biogeochemical cycling of iron, a widely recognized limiting nutrient in the oceans.

  18. Argentine hydrothermal panorama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An attempt is made to give a realistic review of Argentine thermal waters. The topics discussed are the characteristics of the hydrothermal resources, classification according to their mineral content, hydrothermal flora and fauna, uses of hydrothermal resources, hydrothermal regions of Argentina, and meteorology and climate. A tabulation is presented of the principal thermal waters. (JSR)

  19. Vente d'artisanat

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Associaiton


      Éducation et Libération Vente d’artisanat du Tiers Monde Mardi 22 et mercredi 23 avril 2014 CERN, Bâtiment principal Togo, École Arc en ciel, construction des salles de classe. Appel pour le financement de ce chantier afin de libérer l’école de la charge des loyers payés pendant des années. Après nos réalisations en Amérique latine et au Bénin, nous mobilisons nos efforts pour l’école Arc en ciel de Kpémé, au Togo, sur les bords de l’Océan, à mi-chemin entre Lomé et la frontière entre le Bénin et le Togo. Il s’agit d’une école primaire privée, laïque qui a très bonne réputation en termes de résultats, notamment pour les écoliers en fin de scolar...

  20. Spontaneous and Widespread Electricity Generation in Natural Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Fields. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Ryuhei; Kasaya, Takafumi; Kumagai, Hidenori; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takai, Ken


    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents discharge abundant reductive energy into oxidative seawater. Herein, we demonstrated that in situ measurements of redox potentials on the surfaces of active hydrothermal mineral deposits were more negative than the surrounding seawater potential, driving electrical current generation. We also demonstrated that negative potentials in the surface of minerals were widespread in the hydrothermal fields, regardless of the proximity to hydrothermal fluid discharges. Lab experiments verified that the negative potential of the mineral surface was induced by a distant electron transfer from the hydrothermal fluid through the metallic and catalytic properties of minerals. These results indicate that electric current is spontaneously and widely generated in natural mineral deposits in deep-sea hydrothermal fields. Our discovery provides important insights into the microbial communities that are supported by extracellular electron transfer and the prebiotic chemical and metabolic evolution of the ocean hydrothermal systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Non-traditional Stable Isotope Systematics of Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Rouxel, O. J.


    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges is one of the fundamental processes controlling the chemistry of the oceans and the altered oceanic crust. Past studies have demonstrated the complexity and diversity of seafloor hydrothermal systems and have highlighted the importance of subsurface environments in controlling the composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralization types. Traditionally, the behavior of metals in seafloor hydrothermal systems have been investigated by integrating results from laboratory studies, theoretical models, mineralogy and fluid and mineral chemistry. Isotope ratios of various metals and metalloids, such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Sb have recently provided new approaches for the study of seafloor hydrothermal systems. Despite these initial investigations, the cause of the isotopic variability of these elements remains poorly constrained. We have little understanding of the isotope variations between vent types (black or white smokers) as well as the influence of source rock composition (basalt, felsic or ultrabasic rocks) and alteration types. Here, I will review and present new results of metal isotope systematics of seafloor hydrothermal systems, in particular: (1) determination of empirical isotope fractionation factors for Zn, Fe and Cu-isotopes through isotopic analysis of mono-mineralic sulfide grains lining the internal chimney wall in contact with hydrothermal fluid; (2) comparison of Fe- and Cu-isotope signatures of vent fluids from mid- oceanic and back-arc hydrothermal fields, spanning wide ranges of pH, temperature, metal concentrations and contributions of magmatic fluids enriched in SO2. Ultimately, the use of complementary non-traditional stable isotope systems may help identify and constrain the complex interactions between fluids,minerals, and organisms in seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  2. Submarine Hydrothermal Activity and Gold-Rich Mineralization at Brothers Volcano, Southern Kermadec Arc, New Zealand (United States)

    de Ronde, C. E.; Massoth, G. J.; Christenson, B. W.; Butterfield, D. A.; Ishibashi, J.; Hannington, M. D.; Ditchburn, B. G.; Embley, R. W.; Lupton, J. E.; Kamenetsky, D.; Reyes, A. G.; Lahr, J.; Takai, K.


    Brothers volcano is one of several hydrothermally active volcanoes that occur along the Kermadec active arc front, NE of New Zealand. It forms an elongate edifice 13 km long by 8 km across that strikes NW-SE. The volcano has a caldera with a basal diameter of ~3 km and a floor at 1,850 m below sea level, surrounded by 290 to 530 m high walls. A volcanic cone of dacite rises 350 m from the caldera floor and partially coalesces with the southern caldera wall. Three hydrothermal sites have been located; on the NW caldera wall, on the SE caldera wall, and on the dacite cone. The NW caldera vent site is a long-term hydrothermal system that is today dominated by evolved seawater but has had episodic injections of magmatic fluid. The SE caldera site represents the main upflow of a relatively well-established magmatic-hydrothermal system on the seafloor where sulfide-rich chimneys are extant. The cone site is a nascent magmatic-hydrothermal system where crack zones localize upwelling acidic waters. Each of these different vent sites represent diverse parts of an evolving hydrothermal system, any one of which may be typical of submarine volcanic arcs. Hydrothermal venting is today occurring at the NW caldera and cone sites. The former is characterized by high-temperature (up to 302°C) venting with pH down to 2.8, low Mg and SO4 values, Cl between 510 and 760 mM, elevated Si and increasing Fe and Mn values with increasing Cl concentrations, consistent with a mostly Cl-enriched endmember. By contrast, vent fluids from the cone site are gas-rich (up to 220 mM total gas), have temperatures 30 ppm) zones in some chimneys formed over a short period of time, coincident with pulses of magmatic fluid into the hydrothermal system.

  3. 14 CFR 23.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Each fuel tank must be vented... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents...

  4. A high-temperature hydrothermal deposit on the East Pacific Rise near 70N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulegue, J.; Stouff, P.; Perseil, E.A.; Bernat, M.; Dupre, B.; Francheteau, J.


    A SEABEAM survey of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) led to the selection of several sites having structural characteristics favorable for hydrothermal activity. Dredging of such an area located at 7 0 N on the EPR resulted in the recovery of sulfides, oxides and fresh basalt. Chemical analyses and isotopic compositions showed that the recovered pyrites were probably precipitated directly from hot vent hydrothermal waters. Chemical analyses and isotopic composition of manganese-iron oxides indicated that they too were of hydrothermal origin. 210 Pb/Pb measurements yielded ages of 90 +- 10 years for the deposits. This site may still be undergoing hydrothermal activity. (orig.)

  5. Diversity and phylogenetic analyses of bacteria from a shallow-waterhydrothermal vent in Milos island (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato eGiovannelli


    Full Text Available Studies of shallow-water hydrothermal vents have been lagging behind their deep-sea counterparts. Hence, the importance of these systems and their contribution to the local and regional diversity and biogeochemistry is unclear. This study analyzes the bacterial community along a transect at the shallow-water hydrothermal vent system of Milos island, Greece. The abundance and biomass of the prokaryotic community is comparable to areas not affected by hydrothermal activity and was, on average, 1.34×108 cells g-1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of the prokaryotic community increased with the distance from the center of the vent and appeared to be controlled by the temperature gradient rather than the trophic conditions. The retrieved 16S rRNA gene fragments matched sequences from a variety of geothermal environments, although the average similarity was low (94 %, revealing previously undiscovered taxa. Epsilonproteobacteria constituted the majority of the population along the transect, with an average contribution to the total diversity of 60%. The larger cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences was related to chemolithoautotrophic Sulfurovum spp., an Epsilonproteobacterium so far detected only at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The presence of previously unknown lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria could be related to the abundance of organic matter in these systems, which may support alternative metabolic strategies to chemolithoautotrophy. The relative contribution of Gammaproteobacteria to the Milos microbial community increased along the transect as the distance from the center of the vent increased. Further attempts to isolate key species from these ecosystems will be critical to shed light on their evolution and ecology.

  6. Geochemical Constraints on Archaeal Diversity in the Vulcano Hydrothermal System (United States)

    Rogers, K. L.; Amend, J. P.


    The shallow marine hydrothermal system of Vulcano, Italy hosts a wide diversity of cultured thermophilic Archaea, including Palaeococcus helgesonii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Pyrococcus furiosus, to name a few. However, recent studies have revealed a plethora of uncultured archaeal lineages in the Vulcano system. For example, a 16S rRNA gene survey of an onshore geothermal well identified a diverse archaeal community including deeply-branching uncultured Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Additionally, culture-independent hybridization techniques suggested that Archaea account for nearly half of the microbial community in the Vulcano system. Furthermore, geochemical characterization of fluids revealed numerous lithotrophic and heterotrophic exergonic reactions that could support as yet uncultured organisms. Archaeal diversity throughout the Vulcano hydrothermal system was investigated using 16S rRNA gene surveys at five submarine vents and an onshore sediment seep. Overall, archaeal diversity was higher (10 groups) at submarine vents with moderate temperatures (59°C) compared with higher temperature (94°C) vents (4 groups). Archaeal communities at the moderately thermal vents were dominated by Thermococcales and also contained Archaeoglobales, Thermoproteales, and uncultured archaea among the Korarchaeota, Marine Group I, and the Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeota (DHVE). Fluid composition also affects the microbial community structure. At two high-temperature sites variations in archaeal diversity can be attributed to differences in iron and hydrogen concentrations, and pH. Comparing sites with similar temperature and pH conditions suggests that the presence of Desulfurococcales is limited to sites at which metabolic energy yields exceed 10 kJ per mole of electrons transferred. The Vulcano hydrothermal system hosts diverse archaeal communities, containing both cultured and uncultured species, whose distribution appears to be constrained by

  7. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic igneous intrusions and related sediment-dominated hydrothermal activities in the South Yellow Sea Basin, the Western Pacific continental margin (United States)

    Yumao, Pang; Xunhua, Zhang; Guolin, Xiao; Luning, Shang; Xingwei, Guo; Zhenhe, Wen


    Various igneous complexes were identified in multi-channel seismic reflection profiles from the South Yellow Sea Basin. It is not rare that magmatic intrusions in sedimentary basins cause strong thermal perturbations and hydrothermal activities. Some intrusion-related hydrothermal vent complexes have been identified and they are considered to originate from the deep sedimentary contact aureole around igneous intrusions and terminate in upper vents structures, and are linked by a vertical conduit system. The upper vent complexes are usually eye-shaped, dome-shaped, fault-related, crater-shaped or pock-shaped in seismic profiles. A schematic model was proposed to illustrate the structures of different types of hydrothermal vent complexes. A conceptual conduit model composed of an upper pipe-like part and a lower branching part was also derived. Hydrothermal vent complexes mainly developed during the Middle-Late Cretaceous, which is coeval with, or shortly after the intrusion. The back-arc basin evolution of the area which is related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic may be the principal factor for voluminous igneous complexes and vent complexes in this area. It is significant to study the characteristics of igneous complexes and related hydrothermal vent complexes, which will have implications for the future study of this area.

  8. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field (United States)

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Josnasson, I.R.; Smith, M.F.


    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85??49???W and 85??55???W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens' equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (< 10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. The precipitation of base-metal sulfides beneath the seafloor is probably a result of fluid mixing and cooling. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems

  9. Sulfur metabolizing microbes dominate microbial communities in Andesite-hosted shallow-sea hydrothermal systems. (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Tang, Kai; Su, Jianqiang; Jiao, Nianzhi


    To determine microbial community composition, community spatial structure and possible key microbial processes in the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent systems off NE Taiwan's coast, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities of four samples collected from the water column extending over a redoxocline gradient of a yellow and four from a white hydrothermal vent. Ribosomal tag pyrosequencing based on DNA and RNA showed statistically significant differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities of the different hydrothermal plumes. The bacterial and archaeal communities from the white hydrothermal plume were dominated by sulfur-reducing Nautilia and Thermococcus, whereas the yellow hydrothermal plume and the surface water were dominated by sulfide-oxidizing Thiomicrospira and Euryarchaeota Marine Group II, respectively. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that methane (CH(4)) concentration was the only statistically significant variable that explains all community cluster patterns. However, the results of pyrosequencing showed an essential absence of methanogens and methanotrophs at the two vent fields, suggesting that CH(4) was less tied to microbial processes in this shallow-sea hydrothermal system. We speculated that mixing between hydrothermal fluids and the sea or meteoric water leads to distinctly different CH(4) concentrations and redox niches between the yellow and white vents, consequently influencing the distribution patterns of the free-living Bacteria and Archaea. We concluded that sulfur-reducing and sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs accounted for most of the primary biomass synthesis and that microbial sulfur metabolism fueled microbial energy flow and element cycling in the shallow hydrothermal systems off the coast of NE Taiwan.

  10. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge


    Dahle, H?kon; ?kland, Ingeborg; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pederesen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H


    Methods developed in geochemical modelling combined with recent advances in molecular microbial ecology provide new opportunities to explore how microbial communities are shaped by their chemical surroundings. Here, we present a framework for analyses of how chemical energy availability shape chemotrophic microbial communities in hydrothermal systems through an investigation of two geochemically different basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge: the Soria Moria Vent f...

  11. Sulfur metabolizing microbes dominate microbial communities in Andesite-hosted shallow-sea hydrothermal systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhang

    Full Text Available To determine microbial community composition, community spatial structure and possible key microbial processes in the shallow-sea hydrothermal vent systems off NE Taiwan's coast, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities of four samples collected from the water column extending over a redoxocline gradient of a yellow and four from a white hydrothermal vent. Ribosomal tag pyrosequencing based on DNA and RNA showed statistically significant differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities of the different hydrothermal plumes. The bacterial and archaeal communities from the white hydrothermal plume were dominated by sulfur-reducing Nautilia and Thermococcus, whereas the yellow hydrothermal plume and the surface water were dominated by sulfide-oxidizing Thiomicrospira and Euryarchaeota Marine Group II, respectively. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that methane (CH(4 concentration was the only statistically significant variable that explains all community cluster patterns. However, the results of pyrosequencing showed an essential absence of methanogens and methanotrophs at the two vent fields, suggesting that CH(4 was less tied to microbial processes in this shallow-sea hydrothermal system. We speculated that mixing between hydrothermal fluids and the sea or meteoric water leads to distinctly different CH(4 concentrations and redox niches between the yellow and white vents, consequently influencing the distribution patterns of the free-living Bacteria and Archaea. We concluded that sulfur-reducing and sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs accounted for most of the primary biomass synthesis and that microbial sulfur metabolism fueled microbial energy flow and element cycling in the shallow hydrothermal systems off the coast of NE Taiwan.

  12. Surface-discharging hydrothermal systems at Yucca Mountain: Examining the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.S.


    This paper discusses exposures of altered rock that have been thought to form by recent discharge of water from depth. They were examined to address a concern that hydrothermal processes could compromise the isolation capability of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Suspected hot-spring and hydrothermal-vent deposits are more likely the products of infiltration of meteoric water into newly deposited and still-hot pyroclastic flows >12 Myr ago

  13. Distribution of hydrothermal fluid around the ore body in the subseafloor of the Izena hydrothermal field (United States)

    Toki, T.; Otake, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Matsui, Y.; Kawagucci, S.; Kato, H.; Fuchida, S.; Miyahara, R.; Tsutsumi, A.; Kawakita, R.; Uza, H.; Uehara, R.; Shinjo, R.; Nozaki, T.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.


    From 16th November to 15th December 2016, D/V Chikyu drilled the sea bottom around hydrothermal fields at HAKUREI site in the Izena Hole, Okinawa Trough. Site C9025, C9026, C9027, C9028, and C9032 are located along the transect line from the top of the northern mound of HAKUREI site to the eastward, and Site C9030 for the control site is located about 500 m northwest of the mound. Mg concentrations have generally been used to estimate mixing ratios between hydrothermal end-member and seawater in samples from hydrothermal vents. Higher Mg concentrations, however, were detected in the interstitial water than that of seawater, which could be due to artificially dissolution of Mg-bearing minerals that had formed in in-situ environments, when the cored sediments had become cool after their recovery on ship. Similar features were observed with regard to sulfate concentrations, and it suggests that these chemical species are not suitable to estimate quantitatively the contribution of hydrothermally-derived components. In some layers, chloride concentrations were different from that of seawater, indicating that hydrothermal fluids that had been suffered from phase separation flowed into the layers. The deviation, however, was positive or negative relative to that of seawater for an influence of brine or vapor phase, respectively. Therefore chloride concentrations are also not suitable to evaluate a quantitative contribution of hydrothermal end-member. On the other hand, K and B showed only enrichments relative to the seawater, and their highest concentrations are consistent with the reported hydrothermal end-members of each species at HAKUREI site. Using the concentrations of K and B can be evaluated for an influence of hydrothermal components. Furthermore, the headspace gas data are useful in the layers of sulfide minerals and silicified rocks, even though the interstitial waters could not be obtained because of their hardness. Based on these indices, hydrothermal fluids

  14. Venting of gas deflagrations through relief pipes


    Ferrara, Gabriele


    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safety locations by means of relief pipes for the discharge of hot combustion products or blast waves (NFPA 68, 2002). The presence of the duct is likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to simply vented vessels posing a problem for the proper design of this venting configuration. The phenomenology of the vented explosion is complicated as the interaction of combustion in the duct with primary combustion in...

  15. Investigating microbial colonization in actively forming hydrothermal deposits using thermocouple arrays (United States)

    Tivey, M. K.; Reysenbach, A. L.; Hirsch, M.; Steinberg, J.; Flores, G. E.


    Investigations of microbial colonization of very young hydrothermal deposits were carried out in 2009 at hydrothermal vents in the Lau Basin (SW Pacific), and in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, with a test deployment at the Rainbow vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 2008. Our method entailed razing active chimneys and placing arrays of temperature probes (8 titanium-encased probes with their tips placed within a titanium cage) over the active flow. The chimneys that grew back through each array, encasing the temperature probe tips, were recovered after 2 to 15 days, along with temperature records. Molecular phylogenetic methods are being used to reveal the members of the microbial communities that developed in each chimney of known age and thermal history. A total of 15 array deployments were made at 10 vents in 6 different vent fields. Similar morphology beehives (with porous fine-grained interiors and steep temperature gradients across the outermost more-consolidated “wall”) formed at 2 of the 3 vents in Guaymas Basin (in 2 and 5 days at one vent and 3 and 15 days at a second), and at one vent each in the Kilo Moana (in 3 days), Tahi Moana (in 2.5 days), and Tui Malila (in 3 and 8 days) vent fields in the Lau Basin. In contrast, open conduit, thin walled chimneys grew within arrays at the Mariner vent field, Lau Basin, at 3 different vents (in 3 days at one vent, in 3 and 11 days at a second vent, and in 13 days at a third vent). A lower temperature (Archaea showed very little change in diversity over time, with members of the genera Thermococcus and Methanocaldococcus present in all samples analyzed, irrespective of location and timing of sampling. This is very different from a 72-hour test array deployment done in 2008 at Rainbow vent field, where the deposited soft material was colonized only by the sulfate-reducing archaeum, Archaeoglobus. These samples (8 beehives, 4 open conduit smokers, one diffuser spire, from chimneys of known composition

  16. Hydrothermal impacts on trace element and isotope ocean biogeochemistry. (United States)

    German, C R; Casciotti, K A; Dutay, J-C; Heimbürger, L E; Jenkins, W J; Measures, C I; Mills, R A; Obata, H; Schlitzer, R; Tagliabue, A; Turner, D R; Whitby, H


    Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles. More recently, new results from GEOTRACES have revealed that plumes rich in dissolved Fe, an important micronutrient that is limiting to productivity in some areas, are widespread above mid-ocean ridges and extend out into the deep-ocean interior. While Fe is only one element among the full suite of TEIs of interest to GEOTRACES, these preliminary results are important because they illustrate how inputs from seafloor venting might impact the global biogeochemical budgets of many other TEIs. To determine the global impact of seafloor venting, however, requires two key questions to be addressed: (i) What processes are active close to vent sites that regulate the initial high-temperature hydrothermal fluxes for the full suite of TEIs that are dispersed through non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes? (ii) How do those processes vary, globally, in response to changing geologic settings at the seafloor and/or the geochemistry of the overlying ocean water? In this paper, we review key findings from recent work in this realm, highlight a series of key hypotheses arising from that research and propose a series of new GEOTRACES modelling, section and process studies that could be implemented, nationally and internationally, to address these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations (United States)

    Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.


    Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places

  18. Organic sulfur metabolisms in hydrothermal environments. (United States)

    Rogers, Karyn L; Schulte, Mitchell D


    Sulfur is central to the metabolisms of many organisms that inhabit extreme environments. While biotic and abiotic cycling of organic sulfur compounds has been well documented in low-temperature anaerobic environments, cycling of organic sulfur in hydrothermal environments has received less attention. Recently published thermodynamic data have been used to estimate aqueous alkyl thiol and sulfide activities in deep-sea hydrothermal systems. Here we use geochemical mixing models to predict fluid compositions that result from mixing end-member hydrothermal fluid from the East Pacific Rise with bottom seawater. These fluid compositions are combined with estimates of methanethiol and dimethylsulfide activities to evaluate energy yields for potential organic sulfur-based metabolisms under hydrothermal conditions. Aerobic respiration has the highest energy yields (over -240 kJ/mol e⁻) at lower temperature; however, oxygen is unlikely to persist at high temperatures, restricting aerobic respiration to mesophilic communities. Nitrite reduction to N₂ has the highest energy yields at higher temperatures (greater than ∼40 °C). Nitrate and nitrite reduction to ammonium also yield significant energy (up to -70 kJ/mol e⁻). Much lower, but still feasible energy yields are calculated for sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and reduction with H₂. Organic compound family and the activity of methanethiol and dimethylsulfide were less important than metabolic strategy in determining overall energy yields. All metabolic strategies considered were exergonic within some portion of the mixing regime suggesting that organic sulfur-based metabolisms may be prevalent within deep-sea hydrothermal vent microbial communities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Emergency venting of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, H.


    With the numerical codes developed for safety analysis the venting of steam vessel can be simulated. ATHLET especially is able to predict the void fraction depending on the vessel height. Although these codes contain a one-dimensional model they allow the description of complex geometries due to the detailed nodalization of the considered apparatus. In chemical reactors, however, the venting process is not only influenced by the flashing behaviour but additionally by the running chemical reaction in the vessel. Therefore the codes used for modelling have to consider the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Further multi-component systems and dissolving processes have to be regarded. In order to preduct the fluid- and thermodynamic process it could be helpful to use 3-dimensional codes in combination with the one-dimensional codes as used in nuclear industry to get a more detailed describtion of the running processes. (orig./HP)

  20. Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (United States)

    Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Barriga, F. J.; Früh-Green, G.; Nakamura, K.


    Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki’s Castle vent field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge that is bordered by a tectonic terrain dominated by core complexes to the NW, and a ridge flank that is buried by sediments from the Bear Island Fan to the SE. Fluid compositions are anomalous to other basalt-hosted fields and indicate interactions with sediments at depths. The vent field is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting occurs at ultraslow spreading ridges despite the strongly reduced magmatic heat budget. ROV surveys have shown that venting occurs in two areas separated by around 100 m. Micro-bathymetry acquired by a Hugin AUV documents that two 20-30 tall mounds that coalesce at the base have developed around the vent sites. The micro-bathymetry also shows that the venting is located above two normal faults that define the NW margin of a rift that runs along the crest of the volcano. The black smoker fluids reach 317 °C, with an end-member SiO2 content of 16 mmol/kg. End-member chlorinity is around 85% of seawater suggesting that the fluids have phase-separated at depth. The fluid compositions indicate that the rock-water reactions occur around 2 km below the seafloor. The crustal thickness is estimated to be 4 +/- 0.5 km in the area. Whereas the depth of the reaction zone is comparable with faster spreading ridges, the fraction of crust cooled convectively by hydrothermal circulation is two times that of vent fields at ridges with normal crustal thickness.

  1. The distribution and stabilisation of dissolved Fe in deep-sea hydrothermal plumes (United States)

    Bennett, Sarah A.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Statham, Peter J.; Fones, Gary R.; German, Christopher R.


    We have conducted a study of hydrothermal plumes overlying the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 5° S to investigate whether there is a significant export flux of dissolved Fe from hydrothermal venting to the oceans. Our study combined measurements of plume-height Fe concentrations from a series of 6 CTD stations together with studies of dissolved Fe speciation in a subset of those samples. At 2.5 km down plume from the nearest known vent site dissolved Fe concentrations were ˜ 20 nM. This is much higher than would be predicted from a combination of plume dilution and dissolved Fe(II) oxidation rates, but consistent with stabilisation due to the presence of organic Fe complexes and Fe colloids. Using Competitive Ligand Exchange-Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CLE-CSV), stabilised dissolved Fe complexes were detected within the dissolved Fe fraction on the edges of one non-buoyant hydrothermal plume with observed ligand concentrations high enough to account for stabilisation of ˜ 4% of the total Fe emitted from the 5° S vent sites. If these results were representative of all hydrothermal systems, submarine venting could provide 12-22% of the global deep-ocean dissolved Fe budget.

  2. Hydrothermal activity, functional diversity and chemoautotrophy are major drivers of seafloor carbon cycling. (United States)

    Bell, James B; Woulds, Clare; Oevelen, Dick van


    Hydrothermal vents are highly dynamic ecosystems and are unusually energy rich in the deep-sea. In situ hydrothermal-based productivity combined with sinking photosynthetic organic matter in a soft-sediment setting creates geochemically diverse environments, which remain poorly studied. Here, we use comprehensive set of new and existing field observations to develop a quantitative ecosystem model of a deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem from the most southerly hydrothermal vent system known. We find evidence of chemosynthetic production supplementing the metazoan food web both at vent sites and elsewhere in the Bransfield Strait. Endosymbiont-bearing fauna were very important in supporting the transfer of chemosynthetic carbon into the food web, particularly to higher trophic levels. Chemosynthetic production occurred at all sites to varying degrees but was generally only a small component of the total organic matter inputs to the food web, even in the most hydrothermally active areas, owing in part to a low and patchy density of vent-endemic fauna. Differences between relative abundance of faunal functional groups, resulting from environmental variability, were clear drivers of differences in biogeochemical cycling and resulted in substantially different carbon processing patterns between habitats.

  3. Biosphere in 3.5 Ga submarine hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yuichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Science and Astronomy


    Abundant organic matter (kerogen) was identified in {approx}3.5 Ga hydrothermal silica dikes from the North Pole area in the Pilbara craton, Western Australia. The silica dikes developed in the uppermost 1000 m of the ancient oceanic crust. Thus, they would have been deposited in the 3.5 Ga sub-seafloor hydrothermal system. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of the kerogen were analyzed in this study. Their highly {sup 13}C-depleted isotopic compositions ({delta}{sup 13}C = -38 to -33 per mille) strongly suggest that they are originally derived from biologically produced organic matter. The remarkable similarity of the {delta}{sup 13}C values between the kerogen and modern hydrothermal vent organisms may suggest that the kerogen was derived from chemoautotrophic organisms. This idea is also consistent with their nitrogen isotopic compositions ({delta}{sup 15}N = -4 to +4 per mille). The silica dikes consist mainly of fine-grained silica with minor pyrite and sphalerite. These mineral assemblages indicate that the silica dike was deposited from relatively low-temperature (probably less than 150degC) reducing hydrothermal fluid. Thus, anaerobic thermophilic/hyperthermophilic organisms could have survived in the hydrothermal fluid, which formed the silica dikes. Therefore, it is plausible that a chemoautotrophic-based biosphere (possibly methanogenesis) probably existed in the Early Archean sub-seafloor hydrothermal system. (author)

  4. Biodiversity patterns, environmental drivers and indicator species on a high-temperature hydrothermal edifice, Mid-Atlantic Ridge


    Sarrazin, Jozée; Legendre, Pierre; de Busserolles, Fanny; Fabri, Marie-Claire; Guilini, Katja; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Morineaux, Marie; Vanreusel, Ann; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie


    Knowledge on quantitative faunal distribution patterns of hydrothermal communities in slow-spreading vent fields is particularly scarce, despite the importance of these ridges in the global mid-ocean system. This study assessed the composition, abundance and diversity of 12 benthic faunal assemblages from various locations on the Eiffel Tower edifice (Lucky Strike vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and investigated the role of key environmental conditions (temperature, total dissolved iron (TdFe...

  5. Thermophilic hydrogen-producing bacteria inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal environments represented by Caloranaerobacter. (United States)

    Jiang, Lijing; Xu, Hongxiu; Zeng, Xiang; Wu, Xiaobing; Long, Minnan; Shao, Zongze


    Hydrogen is an important energy source for deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. However, little is known about microbes and their role in hydrogen turnover in the environment. In this study, the diversity and physiological characteristics of fermentative hydrogen-producing microbes from deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields were described for the first time. Seven enrichments were obtained from hydrothermal vent sulfides collected from the Southwest Indian Ocean, East Pacific and South Atlantic. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that members of the Caloranaerobacter genus were the dominant component in these enrichments. Subsequently, three thermophilic hydrogen producers, strains H363, H53214 and DY22619, were isolated. They were phylogenetically related to species of the genus Caloranaerobacter. The H2 yields of strains H363, H53214, DY22619 and MV107, which was the type species of genus Caloranaerobacter, were 0.11, 1.21, 3.13 and 2.85 mol H2/mol glucose, respectively. Determination of the main soluble metabolites revealed that strains H363, H53214 and MV107 performed heterolactic fermentations, while strain DY22619 performed butyric acid fermentation, indicating distinct fermentation patterns among members of the genus. Finally, a diversity of forms of [FeFe]-hydrogenase with different modular structures was revealed based on draft genomic data of Caloranaerobacter strains. This highlights the complexity of hydrogen metabolism in Caloranaerobacter, reflecting adaptations to environmental conditions in hydrothermal vent systems. Collectively, results suggested that Caloranaerobacter species might be ubiquitous and play a role in biological hydrogen generation in deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.


    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  7. Numerical Analysis of a Passive Containment Filtered Venting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taejoon; Ha, Huiun; Heo, Sun


    The passive Containment Filtered Venting system (CFVS) does not have principally any kind of isolation valves or filtering devices which need periodic maintenance. In this study, the hydro-thermal analysis is presented to investigate the existence of flow instability in the passive CFVS and its performance under the pressure change of APR+ containment building with LB-LOCA M/E data. The Passive Containment Filtered Venting System was suggested as a part in i-Power development project and the operation mechanism was investigated by numerical modeling and simulation using GOTHIC8.0 system code. There are four Phases for consideration to investigate the pressurization of the containment building, loss of hydrostatic head in the pipe line of CFVS, opening of pipe line and gas ejection to the coolant tank, and the head recovery inside the pipe as the containment gas exhausted. The simulation results show that gas generation rate determine the timing of head recovery in the CFVS pipe line and that the equipment of various devices inducing pressure loss at the pipe can give the capacity of Phase control of the passive CFVS operation

  8. Explosive Volcanic Eruptions from Linear Vents on Earth, Venus and Mars: Comparisons with Circular Vent Eruptions (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Wimert, Jesse


    Conditions required to support buoyant convective plumes are investigated for explosive volcanic eruptions from circular and linear vents on Earth, Venus, and Mars. Vent geometry (linear versus circular) plays a significant role in the ability of an explosive eruption to sustain a buoyant plume. On Earth, linear and circular vent eruptions are both capable of driving buoyant plumes to equivalent maximum rise heights, however, linear vent plumes are more sensitive to vent size. For analogous mass eruption rates, linear vent plumes surpass circular vent plumes in entrainment efficiency approximately when L(sub o) > 3r(sub o) owing to the larger entrainment area relative to the control volume. Relative to circular vents, linear vents on Venus favor column collapse and the formation of pyroclastic flows because the range of conditions required to establish and sustain buoyancy is narrow. When buoyancy can be sustained, however, maximum plume heights exceed those from circular vents. For current atmospheric conditions on Mars, linear vent eruptions are capable of injecting volcanic material slightly higher than analogous circular vent eruptions. However, both geometries are more likely to produce pyroclastic fountains, as opposed to convective plumes, owing to the low density atmosphere. Due to the atmospheric density profile and water content on Earth, explosive eruptions enjoy favorable conditions for producing sustained buoyant columns, while pyroclastic flows would be relatively more prevalent on Venus and Mars. These results have implications for the injection and dispersal of particulates into the planetary atmosphere and the ability to interpret the geologic record of planetary volcanism.

  9. Comparative analyses of the bacterial community of hydrothermal deposits and seafloor sediments across Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Wang, Long; Yu, Min; Liu, Yan; Liu, Jiwen; Wu, Yonghua; Li, Li; Liu, Jihua; Wang, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hua


    As an ideal place to study back-arc basins and hydrothermal eco-system, Okinawa Trough has attracted the interests of scientists for decades. However, there are still no in-depth studies targeting the bacterial community of the seafloor sediments and hydrothermal deposits in Okinawa Trough. In the present study, we reported the bacterial community of the surface deposits of a newly found hydrothermal field in the southern Okinawa Trough, and the horizontal and vertical variation of bacterial communities in the sediments of the northern Okinawa Trough. The hydrothermal deposits had a relatively high 16S rRNA gene abundance but low bacterial richness and diversity. Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were predominant in hydrothermal deposits whereas Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi were abundant across all samples. The bacterial distribution in the seafloor of Okinawa Trough was significantly correlated to the content of total nitrogen, and had consistent relationship with total carbon. Gradual changes of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were found with the distance away from hydrothermal fields, while the hydrothermal activity did not influence the distribution of the major clades of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Higher abundance of the sulfur cycle related genes (aprA and dsrB), and lower abundance of the bacterial ammonia-oxidizing related gene (amoA) were quantified in hydrothermal deposits. In addition, the present study also compared the inter-field variation of Epsilonproteobacteria among multi-types of hydrothermal vents, revealing that the proportion and diversity of this clade were quite various.

  10. Mineralogy and Geochemistry from Trollveggen Vent Field Chimneys and Metalliferous Sediments (Mohns Ridge, West Jan Mayen Fracture Zone at 71°N) (United States)

    Dias, S.; Cruz, I.; Fonseca, R.; Barriga, F. J.; Pedersen, R.


    The Jan Mayen vent fields were discovered in the Mohns Ridge during an expedition with the Norwegian research vessel "G.O. Sars" in July 2005. They comprise two main active areas: (1) Soria Moria and (2) Gallionella Garden & Trollveggen. The Trollveggen vent field is located at depths of 700-750 m. Venting takes place mainly through white smoker chimneys with fluid temperatures reaching up to 260-270°C. Here we present mineralogical and geochemical data from vent chimneys and metalliferous sediments collected at the Trollveggen vent field with an ROV. Cross-sections of chimneys present evident mineralogical zonation, showing acicular barite crystals in the outer parts and sulfide enrichments in the interior (Sph + Cpy +/- Py - Po). Sediments are mainly formed by vent fragments but also by minerals precipitated by diffuse fluid circulation, showing a mineral assemblage similar to that of chimneys. Microprobe analyses were obtained both in sulfates and sulphides revealing a particular sphalerite composition, characterized by low Fe (< 2%) and high total trace metal contents (up to 4%, including Cu, Ag and Au). Geochemical profiles of gravity cores collected in the area surrounding Jan Mayen were also performed in order to investigate the presence of additional hydrothermal activity in the area. Total geochemical analyses showed a slight enrichment in trace metals, such as Cu, Zn and Fe, with exception of one core that reached 85 ppm for Cu, 150 ppm for Zn and 20% for Fe. The metal enrichment in this core suggests hydrothermal activity in the neighboring area.

  11. Review of containment vent filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.


    The technology applied for the design and construction of containment vent filters is compiled and reviewed. The national positions leading to the selection of venting or method of filtration are extracted from position papers. Several areas of further information needs are identified

  12. Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata. (United States)

    Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne


    The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first 'epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle.

  13. Hydrothermal plume anomalies over the southwest Indian ridge: magmatic control (United States)

    Yue, X.; Li, H.; Tao, C.; Ren, J.; Zhou, J.; Chen, J.; Chen, S.; Wang, Y.


    Here we firstly reported the extensive survey results of the hydrothermal activity along the ultra-slow spreading southwest Indian ridge (SWIR). The study area is located at segment 27, between the Indomed and Gallieni transform faults, SWIR. The seismic crustal thickness reaches 9.5km in this segment (Li et al., 2015), which is much thicker than normal crustal. The anomaly thickened crust could be affected by the Crozet hotspot or highly focused melt delivery from the mantle. The Duanqiao hydrothermal field was reported at the ridge valley of the segment by Tao et al (2009). The Deep-towed Hydrothermal Detection System (DHDS) was used to collect information related with hydrothermal activity, like temperature, turbidity, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and seabed types. There are 15 survey lines at the interval of 2 to 3 km which are occupied about 1300 km2 in segment 27. After processing the raw data, including wiping out random noise points, 5-points moving average processing and subtracting the ambient, we got anomalous Nephelometric Turbidity Units values (ΔNTU). And dE/dt was used to identify the ORP anomalous as the raw data is easily influenced by electrode potentials drifting (Baker et al., 2016). According to the results of water column turbidity and ORP distributions, we confirmed three hydrothermal anomaly fields named A1, A2 and A3. The three fields are all located in the western part of the segment. The A1 field lies on the ridge valley, west side of Duanqiao field. The A2 and A3 field lie on the northern and southern of the ridge valley, respectively. We propose that recent magmatic activity probably focus on the western part of segment 27.And the extensive distribution of hydrothermal plume in the segment is the result of the discrete magma intrusion. References Baker E T, et al. How many vent fields? New estimates of vent field populations on ocean ridges from precise mapping of hydrothermal discharge locations. EPSL, 2016, 449:186-196. Li J

  14. Filtered containment venting in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, L.; Ellisson, K.


    After the TMI accident, Swedish authorities decided that all Swedish nuclear power plants should be upgraded with respect to mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. One contribution to meet these ends is filtered containment venting, i.e. means to relieve containment overpressure and to clean the relief gas from radioactive components. The first system in operation was built at the Barsebaeck site (2 BWR's) where a gravel bed filter was installed. For the remaining Swedish units (7 BWR's and 3 PWR's) a passive, self-controlling wet scrubber system, FILTRA-MVSS, is now under installation. The principle of the FILTRA-MVSS is a self-controlling, self-pumping venturi collector submerged in a pool, and it is used to filter out emissions of solid and gaseous radioactive components

  15. Multilayer Insulation Ascent Venting Model (United States)

    Tramel, R. W.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Johnson, W. L.


    The thermal and venting transient experienced by tank-applied multilayer insulation (MLI) in the Earth-to-orbit environment is very dynamic and not well characterized. This new predictive code is a first principles-based engineering model which tracks the time history of the mass and temperature (internal energy) of the gas in each MLI layer. A continuum-based model is used for early portions of the trajectory while a kinetic theory-based model is used for the later portions of the trajectory, and the models are blended based on a reference mean free path. This new capability should improve understanding of the Earth-to-orbit transient and enable better insulation system designs for in-space cryogenic propellant systems.

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas


    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  17. Free-living nematode species (Nematoda) dwelling in hydrothermal sites of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Tchesunov, Alexei V.


    Morphological descriptions of seven free-living nematode species from hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are presented. Four of them are new for science: Paracanthonchus olgae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Cyatholaimidae), Prochromadora helenae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Chromadoridae), Prochaetosoma ventriverruca sp. n. (Desmodorida, Draconematidae) and Leptolaimus hydrothermalis sp. n. (Plectida, Leptolaimidae). Two species have been previously recorded in hydrothermal habitats, and one species is recorded for the first time in such an environment. Oncholaimus scanicus (Enoplida, Oncholaimidae) was formerly known from only the type locality in non-hydrothermal shallow milieu of the Norway Sea. O. scanicus is a very abundant species in Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Lost City hydrothermal sites, and population of the last locality differs from other two in some morphometric characteristics. Desmodora marci (Desmodorida, Desmodoridae) was previously known from other remote deep-sea hydrothermal localities in south-western and north-eastern Pacific. Halomonhystera vandoverae (Monhysterida, Monhysteridae) was described and repeatedly found in mass in Snake Pit hydrothermal site. The whole hydrothermal nematode assemblages are featured by low diversity in comparison with either shelf or deep-sea non-hydrothermal communities. The nematode species list of the Atlantic hydrothermal vents consists of representatives of common shallow-water genera; the new species are also related to some shelf species. On the average, the hydrothermal species differ from those of slope and abyssal plains of comparable depths by larger sizes, diversity of buccal structures, presence of food content in the gut and ripe eggs in uteri.

  18. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, R.J.


    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180 0 rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements

  19. Hydrothermal response to a volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm, Lassen, California (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Shelly, David R.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Clor, Laura; P.H. Seward,; Evans, William C.


    The increasing capability of seismic, geodetic, and hydrothermal observation networks allows recognition of volcanic unrest that could previously have gone undetected, creating an imperative to diagnose and interpret unrest episodes. A November 2014 earthquake swarm near Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, which included the largest earthquake in the area in more than 60 years, was accompanied by a rarely observed outburst of hydrothermal fluids. Although the earthquake swarm likely reflects upward migration of endogenous H2O-CO2 fluids in the source region, there is no evidence that such fluids emerged at the surface. Instead, shaking from the modest sized (moment magnitude 3.85) but proximal earthquake caused near-vent permeability increases that triggered increased outflow of hydrothermal fluids already present and equilibrated in a local hydrothermal aquifer. Long-term, multiparametric monitoring at Lassen and other well-instrumented volcanoes enhances interpretation of unrest and can provide a basis for detailed physical modeling.

  20. Diversity and distribution of microbes in deep-sea sub-vent systems, using newly designed in situ growth chambers (United States)

    Higashi, Y.; Sunamura, M.; Utsumi, M.; Urabe, T.; Maruyama, A.


    Subsurface of deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments is one of the most difficult fields on the Earth to approach and collect reliable samples for microbiological study. In our Archaean Park project, we developed in situ incubation instruments to directly collect microbes from sub-vent fields through a drilled borehole. After excavation using a portable submarine driller (BMS) around deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Suiyo Seamount on the Izu-Bonin Arc (2001, 2002) and the South Mariana (2003), microbial diversity was examined in samples collected from the boreholes, as well as natural vents, using catheter- and column-type in situ growth chambers. In the catheter samples collected from the Suiyo Seamount, several novel phylotypes of microbial SSU rRNA genes were assigned within epsilon-Proteobacteria and hyperthermophile-related Euryarchaea groups. The former novel epsilon group (SSSV-BE1) was also detected in the South Mariana, but they only appeared in the catheter samples collected just below the venting seafloor. These suggest that the group must be significant in warm, shallow and microaerobic sub-vent layers over the sea, at least in the northwest Pacific Ocean. The column-type in situ growth chamber was specially designed for creating and maintaining physico-chemical gradients in a ca. 40-cm-long column situated on an active vent. In Suiyo Seamount samples (vent temp.: ca. 30-100 degree C), a unique vertical profile was found in the diversity of Archaea. At the column bottom, most of the clones were assigned to be members within the lithoautotrophic thermophilic Ignicoccus, while heterotrophic thermophilic Thermococcus were abundant at the column top. Similar vertical profile has also been appeared in the column samples from the South Mariana. Further quantitative population analysis is now under going using these samples. Our approach to the sub-vent biosphere by the combination of drilling and in situ incubation is almost sure to give us important clues

  1. A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (United States)

    Kelley, Deborah S.; Karson, Jeffrey A.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Shank, Timothy M.; Butterfield, David A.; Hayes, John M.; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Olson, Eric J.; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S.; Brazelton, William J.; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J.; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Baross, John A.; Summons, Roger E.; Sylva, Sean P.


    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems.

  2. Hydrothermal and Chemosynthetic Ecosystems in the Southern Ocean: Current Knowledge on their Biology Paper 217790 (United States)

    Linse, K.; Rogers, A. D.; Bohrmann, G.; Copley, J.; Tyler, P. A.


    The existence of hydrothermal and other chemosynthetic ecosystems is not surprising in the Antarctic, with its active volcanoes, mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins, and abundance of marine mammals. In the last two decades a variety of active chemosynthetic ecosystems have been discovered in the Southern Ocean, including low- and high-temperature hydrothermal vents, methane seeps, and whalefalls. Here a summary of the data from the known chemosynthetic communites will be presented, comparing the faunas of vent sites in the Bransfield Strait with those of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) and the South Sandwich Arc, assessing the fauna at the South Georgia methane seep sites, and discussing the fauna on Antarctic whale falls. As the faunal assemblages of the ESR vents are the most studied in detail to date, this talk therefore focusses on the diversity and composition of the ESR macrofaunal assemblages, their foodweb structure and microdistributions in relation to fluid chemistry and microbiology, and their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships. The Southern Ocean drives the global ocean conveyor belt, and is suggested to be the centre of origin for global deep-sea fauna, as well as a region of high deep-sea species diversity. In the context of chemosynthetic environments, it may provide a gateway connecting the global vent and seep systems. The mostly endemic species of Southern Ocean vent macrofauna show links to either one or more oceans (Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific), with some evidence for circum-Antarctic connection. The ESR species Gigantopelta chessoia, Kiwa tyleri and Vulcanolepas scotiaensis have their closest known relatives at the Longqi Vent Field on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and one species of polynoid polychaete is known from ESR and SWIR vents. Meanwhile, Lepetdrilus sp. and a vesiocomyid clam are linked with species in the Atlantic vent fields. The stichasterid Paulasterias tyleri, the polychaete Rarricirrus jennae and the anthozoan

  3. Acoustics advances study of sea floor hydrothermal flow (United States)

    Rona, Peter A.; Jackson, Darrell R.; Bemis, Karen G.; Jones, Christopher D.; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Palmer, David R.; Silver, Deborah

    Sub-sea floor hydrothermal convection systems discharge as plumes from point sources and as seepage from the ocean bottom. The plumes originate as clear, 150-400°C solutions that vent from mineralized chimneys; precipitate dissolved metals as particles to form black or white smokers as they turbulently mix with ambient seawater; and buoyantly rise hundreds of meters to a level of neutral density where they spread laterally. The seepage discharges from networks of fractures at the rock-water interface as clear, diffuse flow, with lower temperatures, metal contents, and buoyancy than the smokers. The diffuse flow may be entrained upward into plumes, or laterally by prevailing currents in discrete layers within tens of meters of the sea floor. The role of these flow regimes in dispersing heat, chemicals, and biological material into the ocean from sub-sea floor hydrothermal convection systems is being studied on a global scale.

  4. Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean. (United States)

    Resing, Joseph A; Sedwick, Peter N; German, Christopher R; Jenkins, William J; Moffett, James W; Sohst, Bettina M; Tagliabue, Alessandro


    Hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges exerts an important control on the chemical composition of sea water by serving as a major source or sink for a number of trace elements in the ocean. Of these, iron has received considerable attention because of its role as an essential and often limiting nutrient for primary production in regions of the ocean that are of critical importance for the global carbon cycle. It has been thought that most of the dissolved iron discharged by hydrothermal vents is lost from solution close to ridge-axis sources and is thus of limited importance for ocean biogeochemistry. This long-standing view is challenged by recent studies which suggest that stabilization of hydrothermal dissolved iron may facilitate its long-range oceanic transport. Such transport has been subsequently inferred from spatially limited oceanographic observations. Here we report data from the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) that demonstrate lateral transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean. Dissolved iron exhibits nearly conservative (that is, no loss from solution during transport and mixing) behaviour in this hydrothermal plume, implying a greater longevity in the deep ocean than previously assumed. Based on our observations, we estimate a global hydrothermal dissolved iron input of three to four gigamoles per year to the ocean interior, which is more than fourfold higher than previous estimates. Complementary simulations with a global-scale ocean biogeochemical model suggest that the observed transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron requires some means of physicochemical stabilization and indicate that hydrothermally derived iron sustains a large fraction of Southern Ocean export production.

  5. 24 CFR 3280.710 - Venting, ventilation and combustion air. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venting, ventilation and combustion... Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.710 Venting, ventilation and combustion air. (a) The venting as required by... appliance listing and the appliance manufacturer's instructions. (b) Venting and combustion air systems...

  6. Sediment Microbial Communities Influenced by Cool Hydrothermal Fluid Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Zinke


    Full Text Available Cool hydrothermal systems (CHSs are prevalent across the seafloor and discharge fluid volumes that rival oceanic input from rivers, yet the microbial ecology of these systems are poorly constrained. The Dorado Outcrop on the ridge flank of the Cocos Plate in the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean is the first confirmed CHS, discharging minimally altered <15°C fluid from the shallow lithosphere through diffuse venting and seepage. In this paper, we characterize the resident sediment microbial communities influenced by cool hydrothermal advection, which is evident from nitrate and oxygen concentrations. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that Thaumarchaea, Proteobacteria, and Planctomycetes were the most abundant phyla in all sediments across the system regardless of influence from seepage. Members of the Thaumarchaeota (Marine Group I, Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodospirillales, Nitrospirae, Nitrospina, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes were enriched in the sediments influenced by CHS advection. Of the various geochemical parameters investigated, nitrate concentrations correlated best with microbial community structure, indicating structuring based on seepage of nitrate-rich fluids. A comparison of microbial communities from hydrothermal sediments, seafloor basalts, and local seawater at Dorado Outcrop showed differences that highlight the distinct niche space in CHS. Sediment microbial communities from Dorado Outcrop differ from those at previously characterized, warmer CHS sediment, but are similar to deep-sea sediment habitats with surficial ferromanganese nodules, such as the Clarion Clipperton Zone. We conclude that cool hydrothermal venting at seafloor outcrops can alter the local sedimentary oxidation–reduction pathways, which in turn influences the microbial communities within the fluid discharge affected sediment.

  7. Safe venting of ''red oil'' runaway reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Fauske, H.K.


    Calorimetry testing of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) saturated with strong nitric acid was performed to determine the relationship between vent size and pressure buildup in the event of a runaway reaction. These experiments show that runaway can occur in an open system, but that even when runaway is induced in the TBP/HN0 3 system, dangerous pressure buildup will be prevented with practical vent size

  8. Diversity of meiofauna from the 9°50'N East Pacific rise across a gradient of hydrothermal fluid emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gollner


    Full Text Available We studied the meiofauna community at deep-sea hydrothermal vents along a gradient of vent fluid emissions in the axial summit trought (AST of the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N region. The gradient ranged from extreme high temperatures, high sulfide concentrations, and low pH at sulfide chimneys to ambient deep-sea water conditions on bare basalt. We explore meiofauna diversity and abundance, and discuss its possible underlying ecological and evolutionary processes.After sampling in five physico-chemically different habitats, the meiofauna was sorted, counted and classified. Abundances were low at all sites. A total of 52 species were identified at vent habitats. The vent community was dominated by hard substrate generalists that also lived on bare basalt at ambient deep-sea temperature in the axial summit trough (AST generalists. Some vent species were restricted to a specific vent habitat (vent specialists, but others occurred over a wide range of physico-chemical conditions (vent generalists. Additionally, 35 species were only found on cold bare basalt (basalt specialists. At vent sites, species richness and diversity clearly increased with decreasing influence of vent fluid emissions from extreme flow sulfide chimney (no fauna, high flow pompei worm (S: 4-7, H'(loge: 0.11-0.45, vigorous flow tubeworm (S: 8-23; H'(loge: 0.44-2.00 to low flow mussel habitats (S: 28-31; H'(loge: 2.34-2.60.Our data suggest that with increasing temperature and toxic hydrogen sulfide concentrations and increasing amplitude of variation of these factors, fewer species are able to cope with these extreme conditions. This results in less diverse communities in more extreme habitats. The finding of many species being present at sites with and without vent fluid emissions points to a non endemic deep-sea hydrothermal vent meiofaunal community. This is in contrast to a mostly endemic macrofauna but similar to what is known for meiofauna from shallow-water vents.

  9. Comparative composition, diversity and trophic ecology of sediment macrofauna at vents, seeps and organic falls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo F Bernardino

    Full Text Available Sediments associated with hydrothermal venting, methane seepage and large organic falls such as whale, wood and plant detritus create deep-sea networks of soft-sediment habitats fueled, at least in part, by the oxidation of reduced chemicals. Biological studies at deep-sea vents, seeps and organic falls have looked at macrofaunal taxa, but there has yet to be a systematic comparison of the community-level attributes of sediment macrobenthos in various reducing ecosystems. Here we review key similarities and differences in the sediment-dwelling assemblages of each system with the goals of (1 generating a predictive framework for the exploration and study of newly identified reducing habitats, and (2 identifying taxa and communities that overlap across ecosystems. We show that deep-sea seep, vent and organic-fall sediments are highly heterogeneous. They sustain different geochemical and microbial processes that are reflected in a complex mosaic of habitats inhabited by a mixture of specialist (heterotrophic and symbiont-associated and background fauna. Community-level comparisons reveal that vent, seep and organic-fall macrofauna are very distinct in terms of composition at the family level, although they share many dominant taxa among these highly sulphidic habitats. Stress gradients are good predictors of macrofaunal diversity at some sites, but habitat heterogeneity and facilitation often modify community structure. The biogeochemical differences across ecosystems and within habitats result in wide differences in organic utilization (i.e., food sources and in the prevalence of chemosynthesis-derived nutrition. In the Pacific, vents, seeps and organic-falls exhibit distinct macrofaunal assemblages at broad-scales contributing to ß diversity. This has important implications for the conservation of reducing ecosystems, which face growing threats from human activities.

  10. Coastal submarine hydrothermal activity off northern Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, V.M.V.; Vidal, F.V.; Isaacs, J.D.; Young, D.R.


    In situ observations of submarine hydrothermal activity have been conducted in Punta Banda. Baja Califronia, Mexico, approximately 400 m from the coast and at a seawater depth of 30 m. The hydrothermal activity occurs within the Agua Blanca Fault, a major transverse structure of Northern Baja California. Hot springwater samples have been collected and analyzed. Marked differences exist between the submarine hot springwater, local land hot springwaters, groundwater, and local seawater. SiO 2 , HCO 3 , Ca, K, Li, B, Ba, Rb, Fe, Mn, As, and Zn are enriched in the submarine hot springwater, while Cl, Na, So 4 2 , Mg, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, and perhaps Pb are depleted in relation to average and local seawater values. Very high temperatures, at the hydrothermal vents, have been recorded (102 0 C at 4-atm pressure). Visible gaseous emanations rich in CH 4 and N 2 coexist with the hydrothermal solutions. Metalliferous deposits, pyrite, have been encountered with high concentrations of Fe, S, Si, Al, Mn, Ca, and the volatile elements As, Hg, Sb, and Tl, X ray dispersive spectrometry (1500-ppm detection limit). X ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy of the isolated metalliferous precipitates indicate that the principal products of precipitation are pyrite and gypsum accompanied by minor amounts of amorphous material containing Si and Al. Chemical analyses and XRD of the reference control rocks of the locality (volcanics) versus the hydrothermally altered rocks indicate that high-temperature and high-pressure water-rock interactions can in part explain the water chemistry characteristics of the submarine hydrothermal waters. Their long residence time, the occurrence of an extensive marine sedimentary formation, their association with CH 4 and their similarities with connate waters of oil and gas fields suggest that another component of their genesis could be in cation exchange reactions within deeply buried sediments of marine origin

  11. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids from the PACMANUS, Northeast Pual and Vienna Woods hydrothermal fields, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Reeves, Eoghan P.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Saccocia, Peter; Bach, Wolfgang; Craddock, Paul R.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Sylva, Sean P.; Walsh, Emily; Pichler, Thomas; Rosner, Martin


    Processes controlling the composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids in silicic back-arc or near-arc crustal settings remain poorly constrained despite growing evidence for extensive magmatic-hydrothermal activity in such environments. We conducted a survey of vent fluid compositions from two contrasting sites in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, to examine the influence of variations in host rock composition and magmatic inputs (both a function of arc proximity) on hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Fluid samples were collected from felsic-hosted hydrothermal vent fields located on Pual Ridge (PACMANUS and Northeast (NE) Pual) near the active New Britain Arc and a basalt-hosted vent field (Vienna Woods) located farther from the arc on the Manus Spreading Center. Vienna Woods fluids were characterized by relatively uniform endmember temperatures (273-285 degrees C) and major element compositions, low dissolved CO2 concentrations (4.4 mmol/kg) and high measured pH (4.2-4.9 at 25 degrees C). Temperatures and compositions were highly variable at PACMANUS/NE Pual and a large, newly discovered vent area (Fenway) was observed to be vigorously venting boiling (358 degrees C) fluid. All PACMANUS fluids are characterized by negative delta DH2O values, in contrast to positive values at Vienna Woods, suggesting substantial magmatic water input to circulating fluids at Pual Ridge. Low measured pH (25 degrees C) values (~2.6-2.7), high endmember CO2 (up to 274 mmol/kg) and negative delta 34SH2S values (down to -2.7 permille) in some vent fluids are also consistent with degassing of acid-volatile species from evolved magma. Dissolved CO2 at PACMANUS is more enriched in 13C (-4.1 permille to -2.3 permille) than Vienna Woods (-5.2 permille to -5.7 permille), suggesting a contribution of slab-derived carbon. The mobile elements (e.g. Li, K, Rb, Cs and B) are also greatly enriched in PACMANUS fluids reflecting increased abundances in the crust there relative to the Manus

  12. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C


    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.


    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  14. Microbial habitat connectivity across spatial scales and hydrothermal temperature gradients at Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eMeyer


    Full Text Available The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California hydrothermal vent area is known as a dynamic and hydrothermally vented sedimentary system, where the advection and production of a variety of different metabolic substrates support a high microbial diversity and activity in the seafloor. The main objective of our study was to explore the role of temperature and other environmental factors on community diversity, such as the presence of microbial mats and seafloor bathymetry within one hydrothermally vented field of 200 × 250 m dimension. In this field, temperature increased strongly with sediment depth reaching the known limit to life within a few decimeters. Potential sulfate reduction rate as a key community activity parameter was strongly affected by in situ temperature and sediment depth, declining from high rates of 1-5 μmol ml-1 d-1 at the surface to the detection limit below 5 cm sediment depth, despite the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis yielded a high-resolution fingerprint of the dominant members of the bacterial community. Our analyses showed strong temperature and sediment depth effects on bacterial cell abundance and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs number, both declining by more than one order of magnitude below the top 5 cm of the sediment surface. Another fraction of the variation in diversity and community structure was explained by differences in the local bathymetry and spatial position within the vent field. Nevertheless, more than 80% of all detected OTUs were shared among the different temperature realms and sediment depths, after being classified as cold (T<10°C, medium (10°C≤T<40°C or hot (T≥40°C temperature conditions, with significant OTU overlap with the richer surface communities. Overall, this indicates a high connectivity of benthic bacterial habitats in this dynamic and heterogeneous marine ecosystem influenced by strong hydrothermalism.

  15. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.


    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  16. Understanding the Compositional Variability of the Major Components of Hydrothermal Plumes in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zeng


    Full Text Available Studies of the major components of hydrothermal plumes in seafloor hydrothermal fields are critical for an improved understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the large-scale distribution of elements in the submarine environment. The composition of major components in hydrothermal plume water column samples from 25 stations has been investigated in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough. The physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal plume water in the Okinawa Trough have been affected by input of the Kuroshio current, and its influence on hydrothermal plume water from the southern Okinawa Trough to the middle Okinawa Trough is reduced. The anomalous layers of seawater in the hydrothermal plume water columns have higher K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, B3+, Ca2+/SO42-, and Mn2+/Mg2+ ratios and higher optical anomalies than other layers. The Mg2+, SO42-, Mg2+/Ca2+, and SO42-/Mn2+ ratios of the anomalous layers are lower than other layers in the hydrothermal plume water columns and are consistent with concentrations in hydrothermal vent fluids in the Okinawa Trough. This suggests that the chemical variations of hydrothermal plumes in the Tangyin hydrothermal field, like other hydrothermal fields, result in the discharge of high K+, Ca2+, and B3+ and low Mg2+ and SO42- fluid. Furthermore, element ratios (e.g., Sr2+/Ca2+, Ca2+/Cl− in hydrothermal plume water columns were found to be similar to those in average seawater, indicating that Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ca2+/Cl− ratios of hydrothermal plumes might be useful proxies for chemical properties of seawater. The hydrothermal K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and B3+ flux to seawater in the Okinawa Trough is about 2.62–873, 1.04–326, 1.30–76.4, and 0.293–34.7 × 106 kg per year, respectively. The heat flux is about 0.159–1,973 × 105 W, which means that roughly 0.0006% of ocean heat is supplied by seafloor hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough.

  17. Iron-based microbial ecosystem on and below the seafloor: a case study of hydrothermal fields of the southern mariana trough. (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Toki, Tomohiro; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Tsunogai, Urumu; Hirota, Akinori; Ohkuma, Moriya; Yamagishi, Akihiko


    Microbial community structures in deep-sea hydrothermal vents fields are constrained by available energy yields provided by inorganic redox reactions, which are in turn controlled by chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids. In the past two decades, geochemical and microbiological studies have been conducted in deep-sea hydrothermal vents at three geographically different areas of the Southern Mariana Trough (SMT). A variety of geochemical data of hydrothermal fluids and an unparalleled microbiological dataset of various samples (i.e., sulfide structures of active vents, iron-rich mats, borehole fluids, and ambient seawater) are available for comparative analyses. Here, we summarize the geochemical and microbiological characteristics in the SMT and assess the relationship between the microbial community structures and the fluid geochemistry in the SMT by thermodynamic modeling. In the high temperature vent fluids, aerobic sulfide-oxidation has the potential to yield large amounts of bioavailable energy in the vent fluids, which is consistent with the detection of species related to sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (such as Thiomicrospira in the Gammaproteobacteria and Sulfurimonas in the Epsilonproteobacteria). Conversely, the bioavailable energy yield from aerobic iron-oxidation reactions in the low-temperature fluids collected from man-made boreholes and several natural vents were comparable to or higher than those from sulfide-oxidation. This is also consistent with the detection of species related to iron-oxidizing bacteria (Mariprofundus in the Zetaproteobacteria) in such low-temperature samples. The results of combination of microbiological, geochemical, and thermodynamic analyses in the SMT provide novel insights into the presence and significance of iron-based microbial ecosystems in deep-sea hydrothermal fields.

  18. REE controls in ultramafic hosted MOR hydrothermal systems: An experimental study at elevated temperature and pressure (United States)

    Allen, Douglas E.; Seyfried, W. E.


    A hydrothermal experiment involving peridotite and a coexisting aqueous fluid was conducted to assess the role of dissolved Cl - and redox on REE mobility at 400°C, 500 bars. Data show that the onset of reducing conditions enhances the stability of soluble Eu +2 species. Moreover, Eu +2 forms strong aqueous complexes with dissolved Cl - at virtually all redox conditions. Thus, high Cl - concentrations and reducing conditions can combine to reinforce Eu mobility. Except for La, trivalent REE are not greatly affected by fluid speciation under the chemical and physical condition considered, suggesting control by secondary mineral-fluid partitioning. LREE enrichment and positive Eu anomalies observed in fluids from the experiment are remarkably similar to patterns of REE mobility in vent fluids issuing from basalt- and peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems. This suggests that the chondrite normalized REE patterns are influenced greatly by fluid speciation effects and secondary mineral formation processes. Accordingly, caution must be exercised when using REE in hydrothermal vent fluids to infer REE sources in subseafloor reaction zones from which the fluids are derived. Although vent fluid patterns having LREE enrichment and positive Eu anomalies are typically interpreted to suggest plagioclase recrystallization reactions, this need not always be the case.

  19. Preliminary Results on Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Loki's Castle Arctic Vents and Host Sediments (United States)

    Barriga, Fernando; Carvalho, Carlos; Inês Cruz, M.; Dias, Ágata; Fonseca, Rita; Relvas, Jorge; Pedersen, Rolf


    The Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field was discovered in the summer of 2008, during a cruise led by the Centre of Geobiology of the University of Bergen, integrated in the H2Deep Project (Eurocores, ESF). Loki's Castle is the northernmost hydrothermal vent field discovered to date. It is located at the junction between the Mohns Ridge and the South Knipovich Ridge, in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, at almost 74°N. This junction shows unique features and apparently there is no transform fault to accommodate the deformation generated by the bending of the rift valley from WSW-ENE to almost N-S. The Knipovich Rigde, being a complex structure, is an ultra-slow spreading ridge, with an effective spreading rate of only ~ 6 mm/y. It is partly masked by a substantial cover of glacial and post-glacial sediments, estimated to be between 12 and 20 ky old, derived from the nearby Bear Island fan, to the East of the ridge. The Loki's Castle vent site is composed of several active, over 10 m tall chimneys, producing up to 320°C fluid, at the top of a very large sulphide mound, which is estimated to be around 200 m in diameter. About a dozen gravity cores were obtained in the overall area. From these we collected nearly 200 subsamples. Eh and pH were measured in all subsamples. The Portuguese component of the H2Deep project is aimed at characterizing, chemically and mineralogically, the sulphide chimneys and the collected sediments around the vents (up to 5 meters long gravity cores). These studies are aimed at understanding the ore-forming system, and its implications for submarine mineral exploration, as well as the relation of the microbial population with the hydrothermal component of sediments. Here we present an overview of preliminary data on the mineralogical assemblage found in the analyzed sediments and chimneys. The identification of the different mineral phases was obtained through petrographic observations of polished thin sections under the microscope (with both

  20. Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.


    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation reactions. In contrast to their deep-sea counterparts, shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are often characterized by high arsenic concentrations of more than 500-times seawater levels. The arsenic

  1. Refining the Subseafloor Circulation Model of the Middle Valley Hydrothermal System Using Fluid Geochemistry (United States)

    Inderbitzen, K. E.; Wheat, C. G.; Baker, P. A.; Fisher, A. T.


    Currently, fluid circulation patterns and the evolution of rock/fluid compositions as circulation occurs in subseafloor hydrothermal systems are poorly constrained. Sedimented spreading centers provide a unique opportunity to study subsurface flow because sediment acts as an insulating blanket that traps heat from the cooling magma body and limits: (a) potential flow paths for seawater to recharge the aquifer in permeable upper basaltic basement and (b) points of altered fluid egress. This also allows for a range of thermal and geochemical gradients to exist near the sediment-water interface. Models of fluid circulation patterns in this type of hydrologic setting have been generated (eg. Stein and Fisher, 2001); however fluid chemistry datasets have not previously been used to test the model's viability. We address this issue by integrating the existing circulation model with fluid compositional data collected from sediment pore waters and high temperature hydrothermal vents located in Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Middle Valley hosts a variety of hydrologic regimes: including areas of fluid recharge (Site 855), active venting (Site 858/1036; Dead Dog vent field), recent venting (Site 856/1035; Bent Hill Massive Sulfide deposit) and a section of heavily sedimented basement located between recharge and discharge sites (Site 857). We will present new results based on thermal and geochemical data from the area of active venting (Sites 858 and 1036), that was collected during Ocean Drilling Program Legs 139 and 169 and a subsequent heat flow/gravity coring effort. These results illuminate fine scale controls on secondary recharge and fluid flow within the sediment section at Site 858/1036. The current status of high temperature vents in this area (based on observations made in July, 2014) will also be outlined.

  2. Characterizing the Morphology, Distribution, and Formation Geometry of Mercury's Pyroclastic Vents (United States)

    Jozwiak, L. M.; Head, J. W.; Wilson, L.


    We present a final catalog of pyroclastic vents on Mercury, identifying 104 candidate pyroclastic vents. We then assess the vent distribution, morphologic variation, and probable formation geometries.

  3. Chicxulub: testing for post-impact hydrothermal inputs into the Tertiary ocean (United States)

    Rowe, A.; Wilkinson, J.; Morgan, J.


    Large terrestrial impacts produce intense fracturing of the crust and large melt sheets, providing ideal conditions for extensive hydrothermal circulation. In marine settings, such as Chicxulub, there is the potential for downward penetration of cold seawater, heating by the thermal anomaly at the impact site and leaching of metals, prior to buoyancy driven flow back to the surface. There, fluids may undergo venting into the water column. A large proportion of the metals in such vent fluids precipitate close to the site of discharge; however, a proportion of the fluid is dispersed as a hydrothermal plume. Dissolved and particulate materials (in particular manganese and iron oxyhydroxides) can be carried for several hundreds of kilometers, before falling out to form metal-rich sediments. A series of Tertiary core samples has been obtained from the International Continental Drilling Program at Chicxulub (CSDP). These comprise fine-grained cream coloured carbonate sediments with fine laminations. Transmitted light and cathodoluminescence petrography have been used to carry out a preliminary characterization of the samples. Multi-element analysis has also been undertaken by ICP-AES. Samples were reduced to powder and digested using a nitric-perchloric-hydrofluoric acid attack. Rare earth elements (REE) have been analysed by ICP-MS and solutions were prepared using a modified nitric-perchloric-hydrofluoric acid attack. Geochemical analyses have been carried out to test for characteristic signals of hydrothermal input, such as enrichments in Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mg, Ba, Co, Cr and Ni. The REE are scavenged from seawater onto iron oxide surfaces in the plume; hence anomalous REE concentrations are also indicative of hydrothermal addition. Furthermore, the type of anomaly can differentiate between sediments proximal (+ve Eu) distal (-ve Ce) to the vent site. The stratigraphic extent of any anomalies can be used to constrain the duration of any post-impact circulation. The

  4. A new yeti crab phylogeny: Vent origins with indications of regional extinction in the East Pacific. (United States)

    Roterman, Christopher Nicolai; Lee, Won-Kyung; Liu, Xinming; Lin, Rongcheng; Li, Xinzheng; Won, Yong-Jin


    The recent discovery of two new species of kiwaid squat lobsters on hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean and in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean has prompted a re-analysis of Kiwaid biogeographical history. Using a larger alignment with more fossil calibrated nodes than previously, we consider the precise relationship between Kiwaidae, Chirostylidae and Eumunididae within Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) to be still unresolved at present. Additionally, the placement of both new species within a new "Bristly" clade along with the seep-associated Kiwa puravida is most parsimoniously interpreted as supporting a vent origin for the family, rather than a seep-to-vent progression. Fossil-calibrated divergence analysis indicates an origin for the clade around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the eastern Pacific ~33-38 Ma, coincident with a lowering of bottom temperatures and increased ventilation in the Pacific deep sea. Likewise, the mid-Miocene (~10-16 Ma) rapid radiation of the new Bristly clade also coincides with a similar cooling event in the tropical East Pacific. The distribution, diversity, tree topology and divergence timing of Kiwaidae in the East Pacific is most consistent with a pattern of extinctions, recolonisations and radiations along fast-spreading ridges in this region and may have been punctuated by large-scale fluctuations in deep-water ventilation and temperature during the Cenozoic; further affecting the viability of Kiwaidae populations along portions of mid-ocean ridge.

  5. Airborne lidar detection of an underwater thermal vent (United States)

    Roddewig, Michael R.; Churnside, James H.; Shaw, Joseph A.


    We report the lidar detection of an underwater feature that appears to be a thermal vent in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, USA, with the Montana State University Fish Lidar. The location of the detected vent was 30 m from the closest vent identified in a United States Geological Survey of Yellowstone Lake in 2008. A second possible vent is also presented, and the appearance of both vents in the lidar data is compared to descriptions of underwater thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake from the geological literature.

  6. On Small Disturbance Ascent Vent Behavior (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael


    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its ambient pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of a few minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. These pressure differentials are often restricted to low levels to prevent violation of container integrity. Such vents usually consist of fixed orifices, ducts, or combinations of both. Duct conductance behavior is fundamentally different from that for orifices in pressure driven flows governing the launch vehicle ascent depressurization environment. Duct conductance is governed by the average pressure across its length, while orifice conductance is dictated by a pressure ratio. Hence, one cannot define a valid equivalent orifice for a given duct across a range of pressure levels. This presentation discusses development of expressions for these two types of vent elements in the limit of small pressure differentials, explores conditions for their validity, and compares their features regarding ascent depressurization performance.

  7. Spatial variability in recruitment of benthos near drilling sites in the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Nakamura, Masako; Nakajima, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hiromi Kayama; Sasaki, Takenori; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi


    Due to increasing anthropogenic impacts on deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems, it is essential to understand population structure and maintenance through larval recruitment and recovery of vent faunas after disturbances. In this study, we quantified vent animal recruitment in the Okinawa Trough, in the western Pacific Ocean. This is the first study to investigate recruitment patterns at a man-made hydrothermal vent. Colonization plates were deployed at three sites. Site 1 manifested new hydrothermal shimmering with small chimneys, white bacterial mats, and some alvinocaridid shrimp that arrived after drilling. Site 2 showed no evidence of newly arrived foundation species after drilling, and Site 3 had pre-existing animal communities in the vicinity of the new vent. Twenty-two months after deployment, colonization plates were retrieved and recruited animals were inventoried. Species composition and abundance differed among sites, but relatively high similarity in species composition was observed at Sites 1 and 3, though not at Site 2. Newly established communities on the plates at Sites 1 and 2 (no pre-existing fauna) showed lower species richness and abundance than at Site 3. Differences in abundance and size-frequency distributions of major recruits on the plates (i.e. Lepetodrilus nux, Bathymodiolus spp.) suggest the importance of reproductive and early life-history characteristics in spatial variability of recruitment. Lepetodrilus nux populations established on the plates at Site 1 showed high genetic connectivity. These results illustrate the importance of localized recruitment, which may have a significant impact on sustainability of vent faunal populations, despite the existence of regional metapopulations.

  8. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough. (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken


    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica


    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  10. Energy landscapes shape microbial communities in hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. (United States)

    Dahle, Håkon; Økland, Ingeborg; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pederesen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida H


    Methods developed in geochemical modelling combined with recent advances in molecular microbial ecology provide new opportunities to explore how microbial communities are shaped by their chemical surroundings. Here, we present a framework for analyses of how chemical energy availability shape chemotrophic microbial communities in hydrothermal systems through an investigation of two geochemically different basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge: the Soria Moria Vent field (SMVF) and the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). Chemical energy landscapes were evaluated through modelling of the Gibbs energy from selected redox reactions under different mixing ratios between seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Our models indicate that the sediment-influenced LCVF has a much higher potential for both anaerobic and aerobic methane oxidation, as well as aerobic ammonium and hydrogen oxidation, than the SMVF. The modelled energy landscapes were used to develop microbial community composition models, which were compared with community compositions in environmental samples inside or on the exterior of hydrothermal chimneys, as assessed by pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. We show that modelled microbial communities based solely on thermodynamic considerations can have a high predictive power and provide a framework for analyses of the link between energy availability and microbial community composition.

  11. Characterization and function of the first antibiotic isolated from a vent organism: the extremophile metazoan Alvinella pompejana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Tasiemski

    Full Text Available The emblematic hydrothermal worm Alvinella pompejana is one of the most thermo tolerant animal known on Earth. It relies on a symbiotic association offering a unique opportunity to discover biochemical adaptations that allow animals to thrive in such a hostile habitat. Here, by studying the Pompeii worm, we report on the discovery of the first antibiotic peptide from a deep-sea organism, namely alvinellacin. After purification and peptide sequencing, both the gene and the peptide tertiary structures were elucidated. As epibionts are not cultivated so far and because of lethal decompression effects upon Alvinella sampling, we developed shipboard biological assays to demonstrate that in addition to act in the first line of defense against microbial invasion, alvinellacin shapes and controls the worm's epibiotic microflora. Our results provide insights into the nature of an abyssal antimicrobial peptide (AMP and into the manner in which an extremophile eukaryote uses it to interact with the particular microbial community of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. Unlike earlier studies done on hydrothermal vents that all focused on the microbial side of the symbiosis, our work gives a view of this interaction from the host side.

  12. Insight from Genomics on Biogeochemical Cycles in a Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal System (United States)

    Lu, G. S.; Amend, J.


    Shallow-sea hydrothermal ecosystems are dynamic, high-energy systems influenced by sunlight and geothermal activity. They provide accessible opportunities for investigating thermophilic microbial biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report biogeochemical data from a shallow-sea hydrothermal system offshore Paleochori Bay, Milos, Greece, which is characterized by a central vent covered by white microbial mats with hydrothermally influenced sediments extending into nearby sea grass area. Geochemical analysis and deep sequencing provide high-resolution information on the geochemical patterns, microbial diversity and metabolic potential in a two-meter transect. The venting fluid is elevated in temperature (~70oC), low in pH (~4), and enriched in reduced species. The geochemical pattern shows that the profile is affected by not only seawater dilution but also microbial regulation. The microbial community in the deepest section of vent core (10-12 cm) is largely dominated by thermophilic archaea, including a methanogen and a recently described Crenarcheon. Mid-core (6-8 cm), the microbial community in the venting area switches to the hydrogen utilizer Aquificae. Near the sediment-water interface, anaerobic Firmicutes and Actinobacteria dominate, both of which are commonly associated with subsurface and hydrothermal sites. All other samples are dominated by diverse Proteobacteria. The sulfate profile is strongly correlated with the population size of delta- and episilon-proteobactia. The dramatic decrease in concentrations of As and Mn in pore fluids as a function of distance from the vent suggests that in addition to seawater dilution, microorganisms are likely transforming these and other ions through a combination of detoxification and catabolism. In addition, high concentrations of dissolved Fe are only measurable in the shallow sea grass area, suggesting that iron-transforming microorganisms are controlling Fe mobility, and promoting biomineralization. Taken

  13. Marine Subsurface Microbial Communities Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments (United States)

    Brandt, L. D.; Hser Wah Saw, J.; Ettema, T.; House, C. H.


    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 meters below sea floor (mbsf). Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 mbsf. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data shows a shift over 15 mbsf from a heterogeneous community of cosmopolitan marine subsurface taxa toward an archaeal-dominated community in the deepest horizons of the predicted biosphere. Notably, the phylum Chloroflexi represents a substantial taxon through most horizons, where it appears to be replaced below 10 mbsf by punctuations of thermophilic and methanotrophic Archaea and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group abundances. DNA from the aforementioned transition horizons was further analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Preliminary taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic data agrees well with amplicon data in capturing the shift in relative abundance of Archaea increasing with depth. Additionally, reverse gyrase, a gene found exclusively in hyperthermophilic microorganisms, was recovered only in the metagenome of the deepest horizon. A BLAST search of this protein sequence against the GenBank non-redudnant protein database produced top hits with reverse gyrase from Thermococcus and Pyrococcus, which are

  14. Numerical Modeling of Hydrothermal Circulation at the Longqi-1 Field: Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Lowell, R. P.; Tao, C.; Rupke, L.; Lewis, K. C.


    The Longqi-1(Dragon Flag) hydrothermal field is the first high-temperature hydrothermal system observed on the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. Hydrothermal vents with temperatures near 380 °C are localized by detachment faulting within which extensional deformation likely increases permeability to provide preferred pathways for hydrothermal discharge. To better understand the Longqi-1 circulation system, we construct a 2-D numerical simulations in a NaCl- H2O fluid constrained by key observational data, such as vent temperature and heat output, crust structure derived from seismic data, and fault zone geometry deduced from seismicity. Heat output from AUV surveys is estimated to be » 300 ± 100 MW, and this value, in conjunction with vent temperature was used with the single-pass modeling approach to obtain an average permeability of 10-13 m-2 within the fault zone. In analogy with other fault-controlled hydrothermal systems such as Logatchev-1 we assume a lower background permeability of 10-14 m-2. The top boundary of the system is permeable and maintained at constant seafloor pressure, which is divided into two parts by the detachment fault. The pressure of the southern part is lower than the northern part to simulate the effect of the seafloor topography. The top boundary is upstream weighted to allow high temperature fluid to exit, while recharging fluid is maintained at 10°C. The bottom boundary is impermeable and is given a fixed temperature distribution at a depth of 7 km below the seafloor. The highest value Tmax is maintained over a distance given lateral distance and decreases linearly towards two ends to 300 °C. The salinity is set to 3.2 wt. % NaCl, and the simulations are assumed to be single phase. The results show that with a 7 km deep circulation system, Tmax = 550 oC gives a reasonable temperature and heat output of venting plume.We infer that the observed high salinity results from serpentinization reactions. Assuming all salinity

  15. Hydrothermal plumes over spreading-center axes: Global distributions and geological inferences (United States)

    Baker, Edward T.; German, Christopher R.; Elderfield, Henry

    Seafloor hydrothermal circulation is the principal agent of energy and mass exchange between the ocean and the earth's crust. Discharging fluids cool hot rock, construct mineral deposits, nurture biological communities, alter deep-sea mixing and circulation patterns, and profoundly influence ocean chemistry and biology. Although the active discharge orifices themselves cover only a minuscule percentage of the ridge-axis seafloor, the investigation and quantification of their effects is enhanced as a consequence of the mixing process that forms hydrothermal plumes. Hydrothermal fluids discharged from vents are rapidly diluted with ambient seawater by factors of 104-105 [Lupton et al., 1985]. During dilution, the mixture rises tens to hundreds of meters to a level of neutral buoyancy, eventually spreading laterally as a distinct hydrographic and chemical layer with a spatial scale of tens to thousands of kilometers [e.g., Lupton and Craig, 1981; Baker and Massoth, 1987; Speer and Rona, 1989].

  16. Modelling of particles collection by vented limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Pegourie, B.; Granata, G.


    This document deals with the use of vented limiters for the collection of neutral particles in Tore Supra. The model developed for experiments is presented together with its experimental validation. Some possible improvements to the present limiter are also proposed. (TEC). 5 refs., 3 figs

  17. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.


    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  18. Kolanut (Cola Nitida Vent Schott of Endlicher)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolanut (Cola Nitida Vent Schott of Endlicher). S.O. Agbeniyi, Otuonye, H.A. andAR. Adedeji Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria. Abstract. The mycoflora associated with processing stages of kolanut post-harvest were evaluated at the Cocoa. Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan Nigeria. Several samples of healthy and ...

  19. Summary of measurements with MicroVent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    This summary presents the main results when MicroVent is used in the cooling case, without heat recovery. Experiments have thus been performed with relatively low inlet air temperature (below 15°C). Different solutions have been compared to decrease the risk of draught in the occupied zone: ‐ usi...

  20. 33 CFR 159.61 - Vents. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vents. 159.61 Section 159.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE... to minimize clogging by either the contents of the tank or climatic conditions such as snow or ice. ...

  1. Constraints on the Lost City Hydrothermal System from borehole thermal data; 3-D models of heat flow and hydrothermal circulation in an oceanic core complex. (United States)

    Titarenko, S.; McCaig, A. M.


    A perennial problem in near-ridge hydrothermal circulation is that the only directly measurable data to test models is often vent fluid temperature. Surface heat flow measurements may be available but without the underlying thermal structure it is not known if they are transient and affected by local hydrothermal flow, or conductive. The Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex at 30 °N on the mid-Atlantic Ridge, offers a unique opportunity to better constrain hydrothermal circulation models. The temperature profile in gabbroic rocks of IODP Hole 1309D was measured in IODPExpedition 340T, and found to be near-conductive, but with a slight inflexion at ~750 mbsf indicating downward advection of fluid above that level. The lack of deep convection is especially remarkable given that the long-lived Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is located only 5km to the south. We have modelled hydrothermal circulation in the Massif using Comsol Multiphysics, comparing 2-D and 3-D topographic models and using temperature-dependent conductivity to give the best estimate of heatflow into the Massif. We can constrain maximum permeability in gabbro below 750 mbsf to 5e-17 m2. The thermal gradient in the upper part of the borehole can be matched with a permeability of 3e-14 m2 in a 750 m thick layer parallel to the surface of the massif, with upflow occurring in areas of high topography and downflow at the location of the borehole. However in 3-D the precise flow pattern is quite model dependent, and the thermal structure can be matched either by downflow centred on the borehole at lower permeability or centred a few hundred metres from the borehole at higher permeability. The borehole gradient is compatible with the longevity (>120 kyr) and outflow temperature (40-90 °C) of the LCHF either with a deep more permeable (1e-14 m2 to 1e-15 m2) domain beneath the vent site in 2-D or a permeable fault slot 500 to 1000m wide and parallel to the transform fault in 3-D. In both cases topography

  2. 33 CFR 183.520 - Fuel tank vent systems. (United States)


    ...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.520 Fuel tank vent systems. (a) Each fuel tank must have a vent system that prevents pressure in the tank from exceeding 80... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank vent systems. 183.520...

  3. 46 CFR 182.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vent pipes for fuel tanks. 182.450 Section 182.450... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.450 Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Each unpressurized fuel tank must be fitted with a vent pipe connected to the highest point of the tank...

  4. 14 CFR 27.975 - Fuel tank vents. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents. 27.975 Section 27.975... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.975 Fuel tank vents. (a) Each fuel tank... system must be designed to minimize spillage of fuel through the vents to an ignition source in the event...

  5. 46 CFR 119.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vent pipes for fuel tanks. 119.450 Section 119.450... Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.450 Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Each unpressurized fuel tank must... area of the vent pipe for diesel fuel tanks must be as follows: (1) Not less than the cross sectional...

  6. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping. (United States)


    ... of the tanks to vent pipes. (2) Tanks having a comparatively small surface, such as fuel oil settling... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank-vent piping. 56.50-85 Section 56.50-85 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-85 Tank-vent piping. (a) This section...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph (a)(1...

  8. Filtered atmospheric venting of LWR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.; Ahlstroem, P.E.; Bachofner, E.; Graeslund, C.; Johansson, K.; Nilsson, L.; Persson, Aa.; Eriksson, B.


    The FILTRA project is a cooperative Swedish programme which started in February 1980. It is aimed at investigating the possibility of reducing the risk for a large release of radioactivity, assuming a severe reactor accident. The project has been focused on filtered venting of the reactor containment. The first stage of the project has dealt with two types of severe accident sequences, namely core meltdown as a result of the complete loss of water supplies to the reactor pressure vessel and insufficient cooling of the reactor containment. Some important conclusion are the following. The applicability of computer models used to describe various phenomena in the accident sequence must be scrutinized. The details of the design of the containment are important and must be taken into consideration in a more accurate manner than in previous analyses. A pressure relief area of less than 1 m 2 appears to be adequate. The following principles should guide the technical design of filtered venting systems, namely reduction of the risk for the release of those radioactive substances which could cause long term land contamination, provision for a passive function of the vent filter system during the first 24 hours and achievement of filtering capabilities which make leakages in severe accidents comparable to the leakages of radioactive substances in less severe accidents, which do not necessarily actuate the pressure relief system. Nothing indicates that a system for filtered venting of a BWR containment would have a significant negative effect on the safety within the framework of the design basis. Efforts should be directed towards designing a filtered venting system for a BWR such as Barsebaeck. (authors)

  9. Microbial Diversity in Hydrothermal Surface to Sub-surface Environment of Suiyo Seamount (United States)

    Higashi, Y.; Sunamura, M.; Kitamura, K.; Kurusu, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Maruyama, A.


    After excavation trials to a hydrothermal subsurface biosphere of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, microbial diversity was examined using samples collected from drilled boreholes and natural vents with an catheter-type in situ microbial entrapment/incubator. This instrument consisted of a heat-tolerant cylindrical pipe with entrapment of a titanium-mesh capsule, containing sterilized inorganic porous grains, on the tip. After 3-10 day deployment in venting fluids with the maximum temperatures from 156 to 305degC, Microbial DNA was extracted from the grains and a 16S rDNA region was amplified and sequenced. Through the phylogenetic analysis of total 72 Bacteria and 30 Archaea clones, we found three novel phylogenetic groups in this hydrothermal surface to subsurface biosphere. Some new clades within the epsilon-Proteobacteria, which seemed to be microaerophilic, moderate thermophilic, and/or sulfur oxidizing, were detected. Clones related to moderate thermophilic and photosynthetic microbes were found in grain-attached samples at collapsed borehole and natural vent sites. We also detected a new clade closely related to a hyperthermophilic Archaea, Methanococcus jannashii, which has the capability of growing autotrophically on hydrogen and producing methane. However, the later two phylogroups were estimated as below a detection limit in microscopic cell counting, i.e., fluorescence in situ hybridization and direct counting. Most of microbes in venting fluids were assigned to be Bacteria, but difficult in specifying them using any known probes. The environment must be notable in microbial and genetic resources, while the ecosystem seems to be mainly supported by chemosynthetic products through the microbial sulfur oxidation, as in most deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Analyses Indicate High Diversity, Expansive Population Growth and High Genetic Connectivity of Vent Copepods (Dirivultidae) across Different Oceans. (United States)

    Gollner, Sabine; Stuckas, Heiko; Kihara, Terue C; Laurent, Stefan; Kodami, Sahar; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro


    Communities in spatially fragmented deep-sea hydrothermal vents rich in polymetallic sulfides could soon face major disturbance events due to deep-sea mineral mining, such that unraveling patterns of gene flow between hydrothermal vent populations will be an important step in the development of conservation policies. Indeed, the time required by deep-sea populations to recover following habitat perturbations depends both on the direction of gene flow and the number of migrants available for re-colonization after disturbance. In this study we compare nine dirivultid copepod species across various geological settings. We analyze partial nucleotide sequences of the mtCOI gene and use divergence estimates (FST) and haplotype networks to infer intraspecific population connectivity between vent sites. Furthermore, we evaluate contrasting scenarios of demographic population expansion/decline versus constant population size (using, for example, Tajima's D). Our results indicate high diversity, population expansion and high connectivity of all copepod populations in all oceans. For example, haplotype diversity values range from 0.89 to 1 and FST values range from 0.001 to 0.11 for Stygiopontius species from the Central Indian Ridge, Mid Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise, and Eastern Lau Spreading Center. We suggest that great abundance and high site occupancy by these species favor high genetic diversity. Two scenarios both showed similarly high connectivity: fast spreading centers with little distance between vent fields and slow spreading centers with greater distance between fields. This unexpected result may be due to some distinct frequency of natural disturbance events, or to aspects of individual life histories that affect realized rates of dispersal. However, our statistical performance analyses showed that at least 100 genomic regions should be sequenced to ensure accurate estimates of migration rate. Our demography parameters demonstrate that dirivultid

  11. Relative Importance of Chemoautotrophy for Primary Production in a Light Exposed Marine Shallow Hydrothermal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo V. Gomez-Saez


    Full Text Available The unique geochemistry of marine shallow-water hydrothermal systems promotes the establishment of diverse microbial communities with a range of metabolic pathways. In contrast to deep-sea vents, shallow-water vents not only support chemosynthesis, but also phototrophic primary production due to the availability of light. However, comprehensive studies targeting the predominant biogeochemical processes are rare, and consequently a holistic understanding of the functioning of these ecosystems is currently lacking. To this end, we combined stable isotope probing of lipid biomarkers with an analysis of the bacterial communities to investigate if chemoautotrophy, in parallel to photoautotrophy, plays an important role in autotrophic carbon fixation and to identify the key players. The study was carried out at a marine shallow-water hydrothermal system located at 5 m water depth off Dominica Island (Lesser Antilles, characterized by up to 55°C warm hydrothermal fluids that contain high amounts of dissolved Fe2+. Analysis of the bacterial diversity revealed Anaerolineae of the Chloroflexi as the most abundant bacterial class. Furthermore, the presence of key players involved in iron cycling generally known from deep-sea hydrothermal vents (e.g., Zetaproteobacteria and Geothermobacter, supported the importance of iron-driven redox processes in this hydrothermal system. Uptake of 13C-bicarbonate into bacterial fatty acids under light and dark conditions revealed active photo- and chemoautotrophic communities, with chemoautotrophy accounting for up to 65% of the observed autotrophic carbon fixation. Relatively increased 13C-incorporation in the dark allowed the classification of aiC15:0, C15:0, and iC16:0 as potential lipid biomarkers for bacterial chemoautotrophy in this ecosystem. Highest total 13C-incorporation into fatty acids took place at the sediment surface, but chemosynthesis was found to be active down to 8 cm sediment depth. In conclusion

  12. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.


    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  13. Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.


    Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite clay are usually taken to have the form of conversion of this clay mineral to other species, such as illite, disregarding microstructural alteration and cementation caused by precipitation of silica and other compounds. The report is focussed on identification of the primary processes that are involved in such alteration, the release of silica and the microstructural changes associated with heating being of major interest. In the first test phase, Na montmorillonite in distilled water was investigated by XRD, rheology tests and electron microscopy after heating to 60-225 0 C for 0.01 to 1 year. The preliminary conclusions are that heating produces contraction of the particle network to form dense 'branches', the effect being most obvious at the highest temperature but of significance even at 60-100 0 C. Release of substantial amounts of silica gas been documented for temperatures exceeding 150 0 and precipitation of silica was observed on cooling after the hydrothermal testing under the closed conditions that prevailed throughout the tests. The precipitates, which appeared to be amorphous and probably consisted of hydrous silica gels, were concluded to have increased the mechanical strength and caused some brittleness, particularly of the dense clays. The nature of the silica release, which is assumed to be associated with beidellitization, may be closely related to an unstable state of a certain fraction of tetrahedral silica at heat-inducted transfer between two different crystal modes of montmorillonite. (orig.)

  14. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.


    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0<_ x<_ 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that microbiologically produced Fe-complexing ligands may play critical roles in both the delivery of Fe(II) to oxidases, and the limited Fe(III) oxyhydroxide crystallinity observed within the biofilm. Our research provides insight into the structure and formation of naturally occurring, microbiologically produced Fe oxyhydroxide minerals in the deep-sea. We describe the initiation of microbial seafloor weathering, and the morphological and mineralogical signals that result from that process. Our observations provide a starting point from which progressively older and more extensively weathered seafloor sulfide minerals may be examined, with the ultimate goal of improved interpretation of ancient microbial processes and associated biological signatures.

  15. Bacterial sulfur cycle shapes microbial communities in surface sediments of an ultramafic hydrothermal vent field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Regina; Røy, Hans; Augustin, Nico


    RNA sequence analysis, was characterized by the capability to metabolize sulfur components. High sulfate reduction rates as well as sulfide depleted in (34)S further confirmed the importance of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. In contrast, methane was found to be of minor relevance for microbial life in mat......, these sediments were investigated in order to determine biogeochemical processes and key organisms relevant for primary production. Temperature profiling at two mat-covered sites showed a conductive heating of the sediments. Elemental sulfur was detected in the overlying mat and metal-sulfides in the upper...

  16. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.


    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe 1-x S, 0 (le) x (le) 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O 6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O 6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that microbiologically produced Fe-complexing ligands may play critical roles in both the delivery of Fe(II) to oxidases, and the limited Fe(III) oxyhydroxide crystallinity observed within the biofilm. Our research provides insight into the structure and formation of naturally occurring, microbiologically produced Fe oxyhydroxide minerals in the deep-sea. We describe the initiation of microbial seafloor weathering, and the morphological and mineralogical signals that result from that process. Our observations provide a starting point from which progressively older and more extensively weathered seafloor sulfide minerals may be examined, with the ultimate goal of improved interpretation of ancient microbial processes and associated biological signatures

  17. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on yeasts isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. (United States)

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Hué, Nguyen Thi Minh; Arzur, Danielle; Coton, Monika; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Jebbar, Mohamed; Barbier, Georges


    Hydrostatic pressure plays a significant role in the distribution of life in the biosphere. Knowledge of deep-sea piezotolerant and (hyper)piezophilic bacteria and archaea diversity has been well documented, along with their specific adaptations to cope with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Recent investigations of deep-sea microbial community compositions have shown unexpected micro-eukaryotic communities, mainly dominated by fungi. Molecular methods such as next-generation sequencing have been used for SSU rRNA gene sequencing to reveal fungal taxa. Currently, a difficult but fascinating challenge for marine mycologists is to create deep-sea marine fungus culture collections and assess their ability to cope with pressure. Indeed, although there is no universal genetic marker for piezoresistance, physiological analyses provide concrete relevant data for estimating their adaptations and understanding the role of fungal communities in the abyss. The present study investigated morphological and physiological responses of fungi to HHP using a collection of deep-sea yeasts as a model. The aim was to determine whether deep-sea yeasts were able to tolerate different HHP and if they were metabolically active. Here we report an unexpected taxonomic-based dichotomic response to pressure with piezosensitve ascomycetes and piezotolerant basidiomycetes, and distinct morphological switches triggered by pressure for certain strains. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Stochastic Mapping for Chemical Plume Source Localization With Application to Autonomous Hydrothermal Vent Discovery (United States)


    silkworm moth Bombyx mori to a series of silkworm moth mimics called PheGMots (Pheromone Guided Mobile Robots). Two European groups at the University of...coastal and estuarine sea floor. Chemical plumes in these habitats are thus turbulent themselves and, like atmospheric odor plumes, consist of discrete...their habitats are typically lower than in air, and they too must react to chemical stimulus on the time scales associated with the small scale

  19. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.


    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.


    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions (United States)

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Pierce, K.L.


    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing

  2. Geochemical evidence for the existence of high-temperature hydrothermal brines at Vesuvio volcano, Italy (United States)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Marini, Luigi; Russo, Massimo


    A high-temperature hydrothermal system is present underneath the crater area of Vesuvio volcano. It is suggested that NaCl brines reside in the high-temperature reservoir and influence the chemical composition of the gases discharged by the fumaroles of the crater bottom (vents FC1, FC2, and FC5). These have typical hydrothermal compositions, with H 2O and CO 2 as major components, followed by H 2, H 2S, N 2, CH 4, and CO (in order of decreasing contents) and undetectable SO 2, HCl, and HF. Fumarolic H 2O is either meteoric water enriched in 18O through high-temperature water-rock oxygen isotope exchange or a mixture of meteoric and arc-type magmatic water. Fumarolic CO 2 is mainly generated by decarbonation reactions of marine carbonates, but the addition of small amounts of magmatic CO 2 is also possible. All investigated gas species (H 2O, CO 2, CO, CH 4, H 2, H 2S, N 2, and NH 3) equilibrate, probably in a saturated vapor phase, at temperatures of 360 to 370°C for vent FC1 and 430 to 445°C for vents FC2 and FC5. These temperatures are confirmed by the H 2-Ar geoindicator. The minimum salt content of the liquid phase coexisting with the vapor phase is ˜14.9 wt.% NaCl, whereas its maximum salinity corresponds to halite saturation (49.2-52.5 wt.% NaCl). These poorly constrained salinities of NaCl brines reflect in large uncertainties in total fluid pressures, which are estimated to be 260 to 480 bar for vents FC2 and FC5 and 130 to 220 bar for vent FC1. Pressurization in some parts of the hydrothermal system, and its subsequent discharge through hydrofracturing, could explain the relatively frequent seismic crises recorded in the Vesuvio area after the last eruption. An important heat source responsible for hydrothermal circulation is represented by the hot rocks of the eruptive conduits, which have been active from 1631 to 1944. Geochemical evidence suggests that no input of fresh magma at shallow depths took place after the end of the last eruptive period.

  3. Hydrothermal activity at slow-spreading ridges: variability and importance of magmatic controls (United States)

    Escartin, Javier


    Hydrothermal activity along mid-ocean ridge axes is ubiquitous, associated with mass, chemical, and heat exchanges between the deep lithosphere and the overlying envelopes, and sustaining chemiosynthetic ecosystems at the seafloor. Compared with hydrothermal fields at fast-spreading ridges, those at slow spreading ones show a large variability as their location and nature is controlled or influenced by several parameters that are inter-related: a) tectonic setting, ranging from 'volcanic systems' (along the rift valley floor, volcanic ridges, seamounts), to 'tectonic' ones (rift-bounding faults, oceanic detachment faults); b) the nature of the host rock, owing to compositional heterogeneity of slow-spreading lithosphere (basalt, gabbro, peridotite); c) the type of heat source (magmatic bodies at depth, hot lithosphere, serpentinization reactions); d) and the associated temperature of outflow fluids (high- vs.- low temperature venting and their relative proportion). A systematic review of the distribution and characteristics of hydrothermal fields along the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggests that long-lived hydrothermal activity is concentrated either at oceanic detachment faults, or along volcanic segments with evidence of robust magma supply to the axis. A detailed study of the magmatically robust Lucky Strike segment suggests that all present and past hydrothermal activity is found at the center of the segment. The association of these fields to central volcanos, and the absence of indicators of hydrothermal activity along the remaining of the ridge segment, suggests that long-lived hydrothermal activity in these volcanic systems is maintained by the enhanced melt supply and the associated magma chamber(s) required to build these volcanic edifices. In this setting, hydrothermal outflow zones at the seafloor are systematically controlled by faults, indicating that hydrothermal fluids in the shallow crust exploit permeable fault zones to circulate. While

  4. Chemolithoautotrophy in a shallow-sea hydrothermal system, Milos Island, Greece (United States)

    Lu, G. S.; LaRowe, D.; Gilhooly, W., III; Druschel, G. K.; Fike, D. A.; Amend, J.


    In recent decades, numerous (hyper)thermophilic microorganisms have been isolated from hydrothermal venting systems. Although they have been shown to have the capabilities to catalyze a wide variety of reactions to gain energy, few pure cultures have been isolated from these environments. In order to more fully understand the catabolic potential of organisms living in and near hydrothermal vents, we have calculated the Gibbs energies (ΔGr) of 730 redox reactions that could be supplying energy to organisms in the shallow-sea hydrothermal sediments of Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece. This analysis required in-depth geochemical data on the pore fluids and minerals in these sediments near the vent site at several depths. The geochemical profiles of Saganaki vent show steep gradients in temperature, pH, and redox-sensitive compounds resulting from the mixing of hot ( 75oC), acidic ( pH 4), chemically reduced venting fluid with colder, slightly basic and oxidized seawater. We determined values of ΔGr for 47 sediment porewater samples along a 20cm x 2m transect for metabolic reactions involving 23 inorganic H-, O-, C-, N-, S-, Fe-, Mn-, and As- bearing compounds. 379 of the reactions considered were exergonic at one or more sampling locations. The most exergonic reactions were anaerobic CO oxidation with NO2- (136 - 162 kJ/mol e-), followed by the O2/CO, NO3-/CO, and NO2-/ H2S redox pairs. ΔGr values exhibit significant variation among sites as temperature, pH and chemical concentration vary, especially concentrations of Fe2+, Mn2+, and H2S. A great diversity of energy sources are available for microbial populations to exploit: in hotter sediments, sulfide oxidation coupled to nitrite reduction yields large amounts of energy per kg of sediment, whereas aerobic S0 oxidation is more energy-yielding in cooler areas. Our results show that at Saganaki there is a substantial amount of energy available from to microorganisms from sulfur-redox reactions. 16S rRNA pyrotag

  5. Isotopic evidence for hydrothermal discharge into anoxic seawater, Sudbury basin, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, R.E.S.; Davies, J.F.


    The Errington and Vermilion sedex Zn-Cu-Pb deposits occur within hydrothermal carbonate and chert that form part of a carbonaceous slate unit, the contact unit, at the base of the Onwatin formation. Within the underlying Onaping formation sulphur and organic carbon increase upward but maintain S/C org ratios near 0.36, indicative of diagenetic sulphide formed by biogenic sulphate reduction, a process that also accounts for 13 C-depleted carbonates in these rocks. δ 34 S-values in pyrite are close to + 7 0/00 throughout the Onaping but decrease abruptly to +3 0/00 in the contact unit; this decrease coincides with the first appearance of S/C org >> 0.36. Both the decrease in δ 34 S and increase in S/C org ratios result from venting of hydrothermal sulphur into the water column. Fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures average 170 deg C at the proposed vent site and 125 deg C in the distal contact unit sediment. The isotopic compositions of water, calculated using these temperatures and the isotopic compositions of carbonates, are - 1 0/00 for the sedex deposits at the vent site and - 3 0/00 in the distal sediments. (author). 56 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  6. Nanogeochemistry of hydrothermal magnetite (United States)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Reich, Martin; Simon, Adam C.; Suvorova, Alexandra; Knipping, Jaayke; Roberts, Malcolm P.; Rubanov, Sergey; Dodd, Aaron; Saunders, Martin


    Magnetite from hydrothermal ore deposits can contain up to tens of thousands of parts per million (ppm) of elements such as Ti, Si, V, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, which tend to either structurally incorporate into growth and sector zones or form mineral micro- to nano-sized particles. Here, we report micro- to nano-structural and chemical data of hydrothermal magnetite from the Los Colorados iron oxide-apatite deposit in Chile, where magnetite displays both types of trace element incorporation. Three generations of magnetites (X-Z) were identified with concentrations of minor and trace elements that vary significantly: SiO2, from below detection limit (bdl) to 3.1 wt%; Al2O3, 0.3-2.3 wt%; CaO, bdl-0.9 wt%; MgO, 0.02-2.5 wt%; TiO2, 0.1-0.4 wt%; MnO, 0.04-0.2 wt%; Na2O, bdl-0.4 wt%; and K2O, bdl-0.4 wt%. An exception is V2O3, which is remarkably constant, ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 wt%. Six types of crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) were identified by means of transmission electron microscopy in the trace element-rich zones, which are each a few micrometres wide: (1) diopside, (2) clinoenstatite; (3) amphibole, (4) mica, (5) ulvöspinel, and (6) Ti-rich magnetite. In addition, Al-rich nanodomains, which contain 2-3 wt% of Al, occur within a single crystal of magnetite. The accumulation of NPs in the trace element-rich zones suggest that they form owing to supersaturation from a hydrothermal fluid, followed by entrapment during continuous growth of the magnetite surface. It is also concluded that mineral NPs promote exsolution of new phases from the mineral host, otherwise preserved as structurally bound trace elements. The presence of abundant mineral NPs in magnetite points to a complex incorporation of trace elements during growth, and provides a cautionary note on the interpretation of micron-scale chemical data of magnetite.

  7. Elemental compositions of crab and snail shells from the Kueishantao hydrothermal field in the southwestern Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Zeng, Zhigang; Ma, Yao; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yin, Xuebo; Zhang, Suping; Zhang, Junlong; Jiang, Wei


    To reveal differences in the behavior of benthic vent animals, and the sources and sinks of biogeochemical and fluid circulations, it is necessary to constrain the chemical characteristics of benthic animals from seafloor hydrothermal fields. We measured the abundances of 27 elements in shells of the crab Xenograpsus testudinatus and the snail Anachis sp., collected from the Kueishantao hydrothermal field (KHF) in the southwestern Okinawa Trough, with the aim of improving our understanding of the compositional variations between individual vent organisms, and the sources of the rare earth elements (REEs) in their shells. The Mn, Hg, and K concentrations in the male X. testudinatus shells are found to be higher than those in female crab shells, whereas the reverse is true for the accumulation of B, implying that the accumulation of K, Mn, Hg, and B in the crab shells is influenced by sex. This is inferred to be a result of the asynchronous molting of the male and female crab shells. Snail shells are found to have higher Ca, Al, Fe, Ni, and Co concentrations than crab shells. This may be attributed to different metal accumulation times. The majority of the light rare earth element (LREE) distribution patterns in the crab and snail shells are similar to those of Kueishantao vent fluids, with the crab and snail shells also exhibiting LREE enrichment, implying that the LREEs contained in crab and snail shells in the KHF are derived from vent fluids.

  8. The Genome of Deep-Sea Vent Chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, K M; Sievert, S M; Abril, F N; Ball, L A; Barrett, C J; Blake, R A; Boller, A J; Chain, P G; Clark, J A; Davis, C R; Detter, C; Do, K F; Dobrinski, K P; Faza, B I; Fitzpatrick, K A; Freyermuth, S K; Harmer, T L; Hauser, L J; Hugler, M; Kerfeld, C A; Klotz, M G; Kong, W W; Land, M; Lapidus, A; Larimer, F W; Longo, D L; Lucas, S; Malfatti, S A; Massey, S E; Martin, D D; McCuddin, Z; Meyer, F; Moore, J L; Ocampo Jr., L H; Paul, J H; Paulsen, I T; Reep, D K; Ren, Q; Ross, R L; Sato, P Y; Thomas, P; Tinkham, L E; Zerugh, G T


    Presented here is the complete genome sequence of Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2, representative of ubiquitous chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This gammaproteobacterium has a single chromosome (2,427,734 bp), and its genome illustrates many of the adaptations that have enabled it to thrive at vents globally. It has 14 methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein genes, including four that may assist in positioning it in the redoxcline. A relative abundance of CDSs encoding regulatory proteins likely control the expression of genes encoding carboxysomes, multiple dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate transporters, as well as a phosphonate operon, which provide this species with a variety of options for acquiring these substrates from the environment. T. crunogena XCL-2 is unusual among obligate sulfur oxidizing bacteria in relying on the Sox system for the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. A 38 kb prophage is present, and a high level of prophage induction was observed, which may play a role in keeping competing populations of close relatives in check. The genome has characteristics consistent with an obligately chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, including few transporters predicted to have organic allocrits, and Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle CDSs scattered throughout the genome.

  9. Microbiological characterization of post-eruption "snowblower" vents at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Meyer


    Full Text Available Microbial processes within the subseafloor can be examined during the ephemeral and uncommonly observed phenomena known as snowblower venting. Snowblowers are characterized by the large quantity of white floc that is expelled from the seafloor following mid-ocean ridge eruptions. During these eruptions, rapidly cooling lava entrains seawater and hydrothermal fluids enriched in geochemical reactants, creating a natural bioreactor that supports a subseafloor microbial bloom. Previous studies hypothesized that the eruption-associated floc is made by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria; however, the microbes involved were never identified. Here we present the first molecular analysis combined with microscopy of microbial communities in snowblower vents from samples collected shortly after the 2011 eruption at Axial Seamount, an active volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We obtained fluid samples and white flocculent material from active snowblower vents as well as orange flocculent material found on top of newly formed lava flows. Both flocculent types revealed diverse cell types and particulates when examined by phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Distinct archaeal and bacterial communities were detected in each sample type through Illumina tag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and through sequencing of the sulfide oxidation gene, soxB. In fluids and white floc, the dominant bacteria were sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria and the dominant archaea were thermophilic Methanococcales. In contrast, the dominant organisms in the orange floc were Gammaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota Marine Group I. In all samples, bacteria greatly outnumbered archaea. The presence of anaerobic methanogens and microaerobic Epsilonproteobacteria in snowblower communities provides evidence that these blooms are seeded by subseafloor microbes, rather than from microbes in bottom seawater. These eruptive events thus provide a unique opportunity to observe subseafloor

  10. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent


    Pech, Ondřej; Jedelský, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jícha, Miroslav


    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of ...

  11. Lessons from Suiyo Seamount studies, for understanding extreme (ancient?) microbial ecosystems in the deep-sea hydrothermal fields (United States)

    Maruyama, A.; Higashi, Y.; Sunamura, M.; Urabe, T.


    Deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems are driven with various geo-thermally modified, mainly reduced, compounds delivered from extremely hot subsurface environments. To date, several unique microbes including thermophilic archaeons have been isolated from/around vent chimneys. However, there is little information about microbes in over-vent and sub-vent fields. Here, we report several new findings on microbial diversity and ecology of the Suiyo Seamount that locates on the Izu-Bonin Arc in the northwest Pacific Ocean, as a result of the Japanese Archaean Park project, with special concern to the sub-vent biosphere. At first, we succeeded to reveal a very unique microbial ecosystem in hydrothermal plume reserved within the outer rim of the seamount crater, that is, it consisted of almost all metabolically active microbes belonged to only two Bacteria phylotypes, probably of sulfur oxidizers. In the center of the caldera seafloor (ca. 1,388-m deep) consisted mainly of whitish sands and pumices, we found many small chimneys (ca. 5-10 cm) and bivalve colonies distributed looking like gray to black patches. These geo/ecological features of the seafloor were supposed to be from a complex mixing of hydrothermal venting and strong water current near the seafloor. Through quantitative FISH analysis for various environmental samples, one of the two representative groups in the plume was assessed to be from some of the bivalve colonies. Using the Benthic Multi-coring System (BMS), total 10 points were drilled and 6 boreholes were maintained with stainless or titanium casing pipes. In the following submersible surveys, newly developed catheter- and column-type in situ growth chambers were deployed in and on the boreholes, respectively, for collecting indigenous sub-vent microbes. Finally, we succeeded to detect several new phylotypes of microbes in these chamber samples, e.g., within epsilon-Proteobacteria, a photosynthetic group of alpha-Proteobacteria, and hyperthermophile

  12. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals (United States)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  13. Electrochemical CO2 Reduction by Ni-containing Iron Sulfides: How Is CO2 Electrochemically Reduced at Bisulfide-Bearing Deep-sea Hydrothermal Precipitates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Takai, Ken; Ishii, Takumi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei


    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the late 1970's has led to many hypotheses concerning chemical evolution in the prebiotic ocean and the early evolution of energy metabolism in ancient Earth. Such studies stand on the quest for the bioenergetic evolution to utilize reducing chemicals such as H 2 for CO 2 reduction and carbon assimilation. In addition to the direct reaction of H 2 and CO 2 , the electrical current passing across a bisulfide-bearing chimney structure has pointed to the possible electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction at the cold ocean-vent interface (R. Nakamura, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 7692 − 7694). To confirm the validity of this hypothesis, here, we examined the energetics of electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction by iron sulfide (FeS) deposits at slightly acidic pH. Although FeS deposits inefficiently reduced CO 2 , the efficiency of the reaction was substantially improved by the substitution of Fe with Ni to form FeNi 2 S 4 (violarite), of which surface was further modified with amine compounds. The potential-dependent activity of CO 2 reduction demonstrated that CO 2 reduction by H 2 in hydrothermal fluids was involved in a strong endergonic electron transfer reaction, suggesting that a naturally occurring proton-motive force (PMF) as high as 200 mV would be established across the hydrothermal vent chimney wall. However, in the chimney structures, H 2 generation competes with CO 2 reduction for electrical current, resulting in rapid consumption of the PMF. Therefore, to maintain the PMF and the electrosynthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal vent mineral deposits, we propose a homeostatic pH regulation mechanism of FeS deposits, in which elemental hydrogen stored in the hydrothermal mineral deposits is used to balance the consumption of the electrochemical gradient by H 2 generation

  14. Sill intrusion driven fluid flow and vent formation in volcanic basins: Modeling rates of volatile release and paleoclimate effects (United States)

    Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel


    Evidence of mass extinction events in conjunction with climate change occur throughout the geological record and may be accompanied by pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions. The processes that trigger such globally destructive changes are still under considerable debate. These include mechanisms such as poisoning from trace metals released during large volcanic eruptions (Vogt, 1972), CO2 released from lava degassing during the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) (Courtillot and Renne, 2003) and CH4 release during the destabilization of sub-seafloor methane (Dickens et al., 1995), to name a few. Thermogenic methane derived from contact metamorphism associated with magma emplacement and cooling in sedimentary basins has been recently gaining considerable attention as a potential mechanism that may have triggered global climate events in the past (e.g. Svensen and Jamtveit, 2010). The discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes that are spatially associated with such basins also supports the discharge of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (e.g. Jamtveit et al., 2004; Planke et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2006). A previous study that investigated this process using a fluid flow model (Iyer et al., 2013) suggested that although hydrothermal plume formation resulting from sill emplacement may indeed release large quantities of methane at the surface, the rate at which this methane is released into the atmosphere is too slow to trigger, by itself, some of the negative δ13C excursions observed in the fossil record over short time scales observed in the fossil record. Here, we reinvestigate the rates of gas release during sill emplacement in a case study from the Harstad Basin off-shore Norway with a special emphasis on vent formation. The presented study is based on a seismic line that crosses multiple sill structures emplaced around 55 Ma within the Lower Cretaceous sediments. A single well-defined vent complex is interpreted above the termination of the

  15. Archaeal and Bacterial Variation Across Geochemical Gradients in an Arsenic-Rich, Shallow Submarine Vent, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Osburn, M. R.; Amend, J. P.


    Near the Feni Islands of Papua New Guinea, reduced hydrothermal fluids mix with seawater, establishing redox disequilibria that may serve as energy sources for chemotrophic Archaea and Bacteria. Of particular interest are elevated arsenite concentrations (1000 μg/L) in the vent water and arsenate-rich ferrihydrite deposits (up to 7 wt.%) that envelope the sediment and coral. In sediment pore waters out to > 200m from the vents, a steeply decreasing arsenic gradient is observed. To establish a baseline of microbial community composition at the vent fluid-seawater interface, bulk DNA was extracted from ferrihydrite coatings, then amplified (16S rRNA, targeting both Archaea and Bacteria), cloned, and sequenced. Red and green biofilms associated with the coatings revealed archaeal communities exclusively composed of deeply-branching, uncultured Crenarchaea. The bacterial members of the community differed in the two biofilms; the red biofilm is primarily composed of gamma Proteobacteria, Chloroflexis, and Planctomycetes, but 60% of clones from the green biofilm community affiliates with the alpha Proteobacteria and candidate group OP11. The remaining portion of the bacterial community in the red coating is made of Thermotogales, Aquificales, Thermales phylotypes and uncultured Bacteria, while OP10, Chloroflexis and Plantomycetales complete the community in the green coatings. No clones associating with thermophilic bacterial groups were found in the green coatings. To provide a comparison to the vent source communities, a sediment core was taken 2.5m from the vent and two depths (10 and 40cm) were analyzed by similar molecular analysis. In both core horizons, the archaeal community is composed of > 75% uncultured Crenarchaea, similar to phylotypes found in deep-sea and terrestrial hydrothermal locations, with the remainder of the communities from known crenarchaeal phylotypes. The bacterial communities are primarily Chloroflexis and gamma Proteobacteria-like phylotypes

  16. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure? (United States)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team


    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, δ3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep

  17. Venting processes: Effects on the vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattwig, M.


    In the case of venting as a protective measure against explosions a dangerous pressure wave and a large flame must be expected in the neighbourhood of the vent. Moreover the recoil force which is exerted on the protected vessel can be the cause for the destruction of the plant. Therefore experiments have been made on the dependence of the pressure wave and the recoil force from well-known or easily determinable parameters. The results of the investigations allow the estimation of the maximum overpressure which must be expected at a given point outside the vessel, if the reduced explosion pressure which will be reached in the interior of the vessel is known. Beyond that it could be shown that the maximum recoil force is nearly always considerably smaller than the value given by theory. Only very rarely the theoretical value is reached. Therefore it is totally sufficient for practical purposes when the maximum recoil to be expected is calculated from the theoretical equation. (orig.) [de

  18. MAVEN Contamination Venting and Outgassing Analysis (United States)

    Petro, Elaine M.; Hughes, David W.; Secunda, Mark S.; Chen, Philip T.; Morrissey, James R.; Riegle, Catherine A.


    Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) is the first mission to focus its study on the Mars upper atmosphere. MAVEN will study the evolution of the Mars atmosphere and climate, by examining the conduit through which the atmosphere has to pass as it is lost to the upper atmosphere. An analysis was performed for the MAVEN mission to address two distinct concerns. The first goal of the analysis was to perform an outgassing study to determine where species outgassed from spacecraft materials would redistribute to and how much of the released material might accumulate on sensitive surfaces. The second portion of the analysis serves to predict what effect, if any, Mars atmospheric gases trapped within the spacecraft could have on instrument measurements when re-released through vents. The re-release of atmospheric gases is of interest to this mission because vented gases from a higher pressure spacecraft interior could bias instrument measurements of the Mars atmosphere depending on the flow rates and directions.

  19. Venting device for nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro; Ogata, Ken-ichi.


    An airtight vessel of a venting device of a nuclear reactor container is connected with a reactor container by way of a communication pipeline. A feed water tank is disposed at a position higher than the liquid surface of scrubbing water in the airtight vessel for supplying scrubbing water to the airtight vessel. In addition, a scrubbing water storage tank is disposed at a position hither than the feed water tank for supplying scrubbing water to the feed water tank. Storage water in the feed water tank is introduced into the airtight vessel by the predetermined opening operation of a valve by the pressure exerted on the liquid surface and the own weight of the storage water. Further, the storage water in the scrubbing water storage tank is led into the feed water tank by the water head pressure. The scrubbing water for keeping the performance of the venting device of the reactor container can be supplied by a highly reliable method without using AC power source or the like as a driving source. (I.N.)

  20. D:L-Amino Acid Modeling Reveals Fast Microbial Turnover of Days to Months in the Subsurface Hydrothermal Sediment of Guaymas Basin. (United States)

    Møller, Mikkel H; Glombitza, Clemens; Lever, Mark A; Deng, Longhui; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Doll, Mechthild; Su, Chin-Chia; Lomstein, Bente A


    We investigated the impact of temperature on the microbial turnover of organic matter (OM) in a hydrothermal vent system in Guaymas Basin, by calculating microbial bio- and necromass turnover times based on the culture-independent D:L-amino acid model. Sediments were recovered from two stations near hydrothermal mounds (community of microorganisms in the hydrothermal sediment demonstrated short turnover times. The modeled turnover times of microbial bio- and necromass in the hydrothermal sediments were notably faster (biomass: days to months; necromass: up to a few hundred years) than in the cold sediments (biomass: tens of years; necromass: thousands of years), suggesting that temperature has a significant influence on the microbial turnover rates. We suggest that short biomass turnover times are necessary for maintance of essential cell funtions and to overcome potential damage caused by the increased temperature.The reduced OM quality at the hyrothemal sites might thus only allow for a small population size of microorganisms.

  1. Linkages between mineralogy, fluid chemistry, and microbial communities within hydrothermal chimneys from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge (United States)

    Lin, T. J.; Ver Eecke, H. C.; Breves, E. A.; Dyar, M. D.; Jamieson, J. W.; Hannington, M. D.; Dahle, H.; Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Lilley, M. D.; Baross, J. A.; Holden, J. F.


    Rock and fluid samples were collected from three hydrothermal chimneys at the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge to evaluate linkages among mineralogy, fluid chemistry, and microbial community composition within the chimneys. Mössbauer, midinfrared thermal emission, and visible-near infrared spectroscopies were utilized for the first time to characterize vent mineralogy, in addition to thin-section petrography, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analyses. A 282°C venting chimney from the Bastille edifice was composed primarily of sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite, marcasite, and sphalerite. In contrast, samples from a 300°C venting chimney from the Dante edifice and a 321°C venting chimney from the Hot Harold edifice contained a high abundance of the sulfate mineral anhydrite. Geochemical modeling of mixed vent fluids suggested the oxic-anoxic transition zone was above 100°C at all three vents, and that the thermodynamic energy available for autotrophic microbial redox reactions favored aerobic sulfide and methane oxidation. As predicted, microbes within the Dante and Hot Harold chimneys were most closely related to mesophilic and thermophilic aerobes of the Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria. However, most of the microbes within the Bastille chimney were most closely related to mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobes of the Deltaproteobacteria, especially sulfate reducers, and anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea. The predominance of anaerobes in the Bastille chimney indicated that other environmental factors promote anoxic conditions. Possibilities include the maturity or fluid flow characteristics of the chimney, abiotic Fe2+ and S2- oxidation in the vent fluids, or O2 depletion by aerobic respiration on the chimney outer wall.

  2. Microbial diversity in hydrothermal surface to subsurface environments of Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, using a catheter-type in situ growth chamber. (United States)

    Higashi, Yowsuke; Sunamura, Michinari; Kitamura, Keiko; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Kurusu, Yasurou; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Urabe, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Akihiko


    After excavation using a portable submarine driller near deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, microbial diversity was examined in samples collected from inside the boreholes using an in situ growth chamber called a vent catheter. This instrument, which we devised for this study, consists of a heat-tolerant pipe tipped with a titanium mesh entrapment capsule that is packed with sterilized inorganic porous grains, which serve as an adhesion substrate. After this instrument was deployed inside each of the boreholes, as well as a natural vent, for 3-10 days in the vicinity of hot vent fluids (maxima: 156-305 degrees C), DNA was extracted from the adhesion grains, 16S rDNA was amplified, and randomly selected clones were sequenced. In phylogenetic analysis of more than 120 clones, several novel phylotypes were detected within the epsilon-Proteobacteria, photosynthetic bacteria (PSB)-related alpha-Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota clusters. Members of epsilon-Proteobacteria were frequently encountered. Half of these were classified between two known groups, Corre's B and D. The other half of the clones were assigned to new groups, SSSV-BE1 and SSSV-BE2 (Suiyo Seamount sub-vent origin, Bacteria domain, epsilon-Proteobacteria, groups 1 and 2). From this hydrothermal vent field, we detected a novel lineage within the PSB cluster, SSNV-BA1 (Suiyo Seamount natural vent origin, Bacteria domain, alpha-Proteobacteria, group 1), which is closely related to Rhodopila globiformis isolated from a hot spring. A number of archaeal clones were also detected from the borehole samples. These clones formed a novel monophyletic clade, SSSV-AE1 (Suiyo Seamount sub-vent origin, Archaea domain, Euryarchaeota, group 1), approximately between methanogenic hyperthermophilic members of Methanococcales and environmental clone members of DHVE Group II. Thus, this hydrothermal vent environment appears to be a noteworthy microbial and genetic resource. It is also

  3. Hydrothermal Solute Flux from Ebeko Volcanic Center, Paramushir, Kuril Islands (United States)

    Taran, Y.; Kalacheva, E.; Kotenko, T.; Chaplygin, I.


    Ebeko volcano on the northern part of Paramushir Island, Northern Kurils, is characterized by frequent phreatic eruptions, a strong low-temperature fumarolic activity at the summit and was the object of comprehensive volcanological and geochemical studies during the last half a century. The volcanic center is composed of several Pleistocene volcanic structures aadjacent to Ebeko and hosts a hydrothermal system with a high outflow rate of hot SO4-Cl acidic water (Upper Yurieva springs) with the current maximum temperature of ~85oC, pH 1.3 and TDS ~ 10 g/L. All discharging thermal waters are drained by the Yurieva River to the Sea of Okhotsk. The hot springs have been changing in time, generally decreasing their activity from near boiling in 1960s, with TDS ~ 20 g/L and the presence of a small steaming field at the upper part of the ~ 700 m long discharging area, to a much lower discharge rate of main vents, lower temperature and the absence of the steaming ground. The spring chemistry did not react to the Ebeko volcanic activity (14 strong phreato-magmatic events during the last 60 years).The total measured outputs of chloride and sulfur from the system last time (2006-2010) were estimated on average as 730 g/s and 980 g/s, respectively, which corresponds to the equivalent fluxes of 64 t/d of HCl and 169 t/d of SO2. These values are higher than the fumarolic volatile output from Ebeko. The estimated discharge rate of hot (85oC) water from the system with ~ 3500 ppm of chloride is about 0.3 m3/s which is much higher than the thermal water discharge from El Chichon or Copahue volcano-hydrothermal systems and among the highest hot water natural outputs ever measured for a volcano-hydrothermal system. We also report the chemical composition (major and ~ 60 trace elements including REE) of water from the main hot spring vents and the Yurieva river mouth.

  4. Pathways for abiotic organic synthesis at submarine hydrothermal fields. (United States)

    McDermott, Jill M; Seewald, Jeffrey S; German, Christopher R; Sylva, Sean P


    Arguments for an abiotic origin of low-molecular weight organic compounds in deep-sea hot springs are compelling owing to implications for the sustenance of deep biosphere microbial communities and their potential role in the origin of life. Theory predicts that warm H2-rich fluids, like those emanating from serpentinizing hydrothermal systems, create a favorable thermodynamic drive for the abiotic generation of organic compounds from inorganic precursors. Here, we constrain two distinct reaction pathways for abiotic organic synthesis in the natural environment at the Von Damm hydrothermal field and delineate spatially where inorganic carbon is converted into bioavailable reduced carbon. We reveal that carbon transformation reactions in a single system can progress over hours, days, and up to thousands of years. Previous studies have suggested that CH4 and higher hydrocarbons in ultramafic hydrothermal systems were dependent on H2 generation during active serpentinization. Rather, our results indicate that CH4 found in vent fluids is formed in H2-rich fluid inclusions, and higher n-alkanes may likely be derived from the same source. This finding implies that, in contrast with current paradigms, these compounds may form independently of actively circulating serpentinizing fluids in ultramafic-influenced systems. Conversely, widespread production of formate by ΣCO2 reduction at Von Damm occurs rapidly during shallow subsurface mixing of the same fluids, which may support anaerobic methanogenesis. Our finding of abiogenic formate in deep-sea hot springs has significant implications for microbial life strategies in the present-day deep biosphere as well as early life on Earth and beyond.

  5. Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections (United States)

    Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.


    Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava

  6. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions. (United States)


    ... Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.11 Standard for fuel venting emissions. (a) No fuel venting emissions shall be discharged into the atmosphere from any new or in-use aircraft gas... include one of the following: (1) Incorporation of an FAA-approved system that recirculates the fuel back...

  7. Thermal hydraulic analysis of BWR containment venting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, P.K.; Sharma, Prashant; Paul, U.K.; Gaikwad, Avinash


    Installation of additional containment filtered venting system (CFVS) is necessary to depressurize the containment to maintain its mechanical integrity due to over pressurization during severe accident condition. A typical venting system for BWR is modelled using RELAP5 and analysed to investigate the effect of various thermal hydraulic parameters on the operational parameters of the venting system. The venting system consists of piping from the containment to the scrubber tank and exit line from the scrubber tank. The scrubber tank is partially filled with water to enable the scrubbing action to remove the particulate radionuclides from the incoming containment air. The pipe line from the containment is connected to the venturi inlet and the throat of the venturi is open to the scrubber tank water inventory at designed submergence level. The exit of the venturi is open to scrubber tank water. Filters are used in the upper air space of the scrubber tank as mist separator before venting out the air into the atmosphere through the exit vent line. The effect of thermal hydraulic parameters such as inlet fluid temperature, inlet steam content and venturi submergence in the scrubber tank on the venting flow rate, exit steam content, scrubber tank inventory, overflow line and siphon breaker flow rate is analysed. Results show that inlet steam content and the venturi nozzle submergence influence the venting system parameters. (author)

  8. Water-rock interaction in the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Nisyros Island (Greece) (United States)

    Ambrosio, Michele; Doveri, Marco; Fagioli, Maria Teresa; Marini, Luigi; Principe, Claudia; Raco, Brunella


    In this work, we investigated the water-rock interaction processes taking place in the hydrothermal reservoir of Nisyros through both: (1) a review of the hydrothermal mineralogy encountered in the deep geothermal borehole Nisyros-2; and (2) a comparison of the analytically-derived redox potentials and acidities of fumarolic-related liquids, with those controlled by redox buffers and pH buffers, involving hydrothermal mineral phases. The propylitic zone met in the deep geothermal borehole Nisyros-2, from 950 to 1547 m (total depth), is characterised by abundant, well crystallised epidote, adularia, albite, quartz, pyrite, chlorite, and sericite-muscovite, accompanied by less abundant anhydrite, stilpnomelane, wairakite, garnet, tremolite and pyroxene. These hydrothermal minerals were produced in a comparatively wide temperature range, from 230 to 300 °C, approximately. Hydrothermal assemblages are well developed from 950 to 1360 m, whereas they are less developed below this depth, probably due to low permeability. Based on the RH values calculated for fumarolic gases and for the deep geothermal fluids of Nisyros-1 and Nisyros-2 wells, redox equilibrium with the (FeO)/(FeO 1.5) rock buffer appears to be closely attained throughout the hydrothermal reservoir of Nisyros. This conclusion may be easily reconciled with the nearly ubiquitous occurrence of anhydrite and pyrite, since RH values controlled by coexistence of anhydrite and pyrite can be achieved by gas separation. The pH of the liquids feeding the fumarolic vents of Stephanos and Polybote Micros craters was computed, by means of the EQ3 code, based on the Cl- δD relationship which is constrained by the seawater-magmatic water mixing occurring at depth in the hydrothermal-magmatic system of Nisyros. The temperature dependence of analytically-derived pH values for the reservoir liquids feeding the fumarolic vents of Stephanos and Polybote Micros craters suggests that some unspecified pH buffer fixes the

  9. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.


    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  10. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.


    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  11. Plumbing the depths of Yellowstone's hydrothermal system from helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic data (United States)

    Finn, C.; Bedrosian, P.; Holbrook, W. S.; Auken, E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.; Sims, K. W. W.; Carr, B.; Dickey, K.


    Although Yellowstone's iconic hydrothermal systems and lava flows are well mapped at the surface, their groundwater flow systems and thickness are almost completely unknown. In order to track the geophysical signatures of geysers, hot springs, mud pots, steam vents, hydrothermal explosion craters and lava flows at depths to hundreds of meters, we collected helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic (HEM) data. The data cover significant portions of the caldera including a majority of the known thermal areas. HEM data constrain electrical resistivity which is sensitive to groundwater salinity and temperature, phase distribution (liquid-vapor), and clay formed during chemical alteration of rocks. The magnetic data are sensitive to variations in the magnetization of lava flows, faults and hydrothermal alteration. The combination of electromagnetic and magnetic data is ideal for mapping zones of cold fresh water, hot saline water, steam, clay, and altered and unaltered rock. Preliminary inversion of the HEM data indicates very low resistivity directly beneath the northern part of Yellowstone Lake, intersecting with the lake bottom in close correspondence with mapped vents, fractures and hydrothermal explosion craters and are also associated with magnetic lows. Coincident resistivity and magnetic lows unassociated with mapped alteration occur, for example, along the southeast edge of the Mallard Lake dome and along the northeastern edge of Sour Creek Dome, suggesting the presence of buried alteration. Low resistivities unassociated with magnetic lows may relate to hot and/or saline groundwater or thin (<50 m) layers of early lake sediments to which the magnetic data are insensitive. Resistivity and magnetic lows follow interpreted caldera boundaries in places, yet deviate in others. In the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, NNE-SSW trending linear resistivity and magnetic lows align with mapped faults. This pattern of coincident resistivity and magnetic lows may reflect fractures

  12. A New Approach to Uncertainty Reduction in Launch Vehicle Compartment Venting (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch vehicle compartments are vented to the external environment during ascent to minimize undesirable structural loading. Prediction of venting performance is an...

  13. Design experiments for a vented containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesboel, R.


    A filtered containment venting system, operable late in 1985, is currently under installation at the Barsebaeck twin nuclear power station in Sweden. The filter unit, which communicates with the containments of both reactor units, but is separated from them by rupture discs, consists of a concrete bed, 40 m high and 20 m in diameter, filled with gravel of grain size 25-35 mm. The performance of the gravel bed under such accident conditions which might lead to an activation of this safeguard system has been the subject for investigation within the FILTRA project. These investigations have shown that the gravel bed acts as: an expansion volume for decreasing gas pressure and increasing gas residence time, a heat sink for condensing steam, an excellent filter medium for removing aerosols and elemental iodine, and a sump volume for collecting radioactive condensate. The results from iodine retention studies in gravel beds are mainly considered

  14. Hydrothermal systems and volcano geochemistry (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.


    The upward intrusion of magma from deeper to shallower levels beneath volcanoes obviously plays an important role in their surface deformation. This chapter will examine less obvious roles that hydrothermal processes might play in volcanic deformation. Emphasis will be placed on the effect that the transition from brittle to plastic behavior of rocks is likely to have on magma degassing and hydrothermal processes, and on the likely chemical variations in brine and gas compositions that occur as a result of movement of aqueous-rich fluids from plastic into brittle rock at different depths. To a great extent, the model of hydrothermal processes in sub-volcanic systems that is presented here is inferential, based in part on information obtained from deep drilling for geothermal resources, and in part on the study of ore deposits that are thought to have formed in volcanic and shallow plutonic environments.

  15. Active hydrothermal and non-active massive sulfide mound investigation using a new multiparameter chemical sensor (United States)

    Han, C.; Wu, G.; Qin, H.; Wang, Z.


    Investigation of active hydrothermal mound as well as non-active massive sulfide mound are studied recently. However, there is still lack of in-situ detection method for the non-active massive sulfide mound. Even though Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) and Electric Self-potential (SP) methods are good, they both are labour, time and money cost work. We proposed a new multiparameter chemical sensor method to study the seafloor active hydrothermal mound as well as non-active massive sulfide mound. This sensor integrates Eh, S2- ions concentration and pH electrochemical electrodes together, and could found chemical change caused by the active hydrothermal vent, even weak chemical abnormalities by non-active massive sulfide hydrothermal mound which MARP and CTD sometimes cannot detect. In 2012, the 1st Leg of the Chinese 26th cruise, the multiparameter chemical sensor was carried out with the deepsea camera system over the Carlsberg Ridge in Indian Ocean by R/V DAYANGYIHAO. It was shown small Eh and S2- ions concentration abnormal around a site at Northwest Indian ridge. This site was also evidenced by the TV grab. In the 2nd Leg of the same cruise in June, this chemical sensor was carried out with TEM and SP survey system. The chemical abnormalities are matched very well with both TEM and SP survey results. The results show that the multiparameter chemical sensor method not only can detect active hydrothermal mound, but also can find the non-active massive sulfide hydrothermal mound.

  16. Containment venting sliding pressure venting process for PWR and BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, B.


    In order to reduce the residual risk associated with hypothetical severe nuclear accidents, nuclear power plants in Germany as well as in certain other European countries have been or will be backfitted with a system for filtered containment venting. During venting system process design, particular importance is attached to the requirements regarding, for example, high aerosol loading capability, provision for decay heat removal from the scrubber unit, the aerosol spectrum to be retained and entirely passive functioning of the scrubber unit. The aerosol spectrum relevant for process design and testing varies depending on aerosol concentrations, the time at which venting is commenced and whether there is an upstream wetwell, etc. Because of this the Reactor Safety Commission in Germany has specified that SnO 2 with a mass mean diameter of approximately 0.5 μm should be used as an enveloping test aerosol. To meet the above-mentioned requirements, a combined venturi scrubber system was developed which comprises a venturi section and a filter demister section and is operated in the sliding pressure mode. This scrubber system was tested using a full-scale model and has now been installed in 14 PWR and BWR plants in Germany and Finland

  17. Permeability changes due to mineral diagenesis in fractured crust: implications for hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges (United States)

    Fontaine, Fabrice Jh.; Rabinowicz, Michel; Boulègue, Jacques


    The hydrothermal processes at ridge crests have been extensively studied during the last two decades. Nevertheless, the reasons why hydrothermal fields are only occasionally found along some ridge segments remain a matter of debate. In the present study we relate this observation to the mineral precipitation induced by hydrothermal circulation. Our study is based on numerical models of convection inside a porous slot 1.5 km high, 2.25 km long and 120 m wide, where seawater is free to enter and exit at its top while the bottom is held at a constant temperature of 420°C. Since the fluid circulation is slow and the fissures in which seawater circulates are narrow, the reactions between seawater and the crust achieve local equilibrium. The rate of mineral precipitation or dissolution is proportional to the total derivative of the temperature with respect to time. Precipitation of minerals reduces the width of the fissures and thus percolation. Using conventional permeability versus porosity laws, we evaluate the evolution of the permeability field during the hydrothermal circulation. Our computations begin with a uniform permeability and a conductive thermal profile. After imposing a small random perturbation on the initial thermal field, the circulation adopts a finger-like structure, typical of convection in vertical porous slots thermally influenced by surrounding walls. Due to the strong temperature dependence of the fluid viscosity and thermal expansion, the hot rising fingers are strongly buoyant and collide with the top cold stagnant water layer. At the interface of the cold and hot layers, a horizontal boundary layer develops causing massive precipitation. This precipitation front produces a barrier to the hydrothermal flow. Consequently, the flow becomes layered on both sides of the front. The fluid temperature at the top of the layer remains quite low: it never exceeds a temperature of 80°C, well below the exit temperature of hot vent sites observed at

  18. The Role of Siliceous Hydrothermal Breccias in the Genesis of Volcanic Massive Sulphide Deposits - Ancient and Recent Systems (United States)

    Costa, I. A.; Barriga, F. J.; Fouquet, Y.


    Siliceous hydrothermal breccias were sampled in two Mid-Atlantic Ridge active sites: Lucky Strike and Menez Gwen. These hydrothermal fields are located in the border of the Azorean plateau, southwest of the Azores islands where the alteration processes affecting basaltic rocks are prominent (Costa et al., 2003). The hydrothermal breccias are genetically related with the circulation of low temperature hydrothermal fluids in diffuse vents. The groundmass of these breccias precipitates from the fluid and consolidates the clastic fragments mostly composed of basalt. The main sources are the surrounding volcanic hills. Breccias are found near hydrothermal vents and may play an important role in the protection of subseafloor hydrothermal deposits forming an impermeable cap due to the high content in siliceous material. The amorphous silica tends to precipitate when the fluid is conductively cooled as proposed by Fouquet et al. (1998) after Fournier (1983). The process evolves gradually from an initial stage where we have just the fragments and circulating seawater. The ascending hydrothermal fluid mixes with seawater, which favours the precipitation of the sulphide components. Sealing of the initially loose fragments begins, the temperature rises below this crust, and the processes of mixing fluid circulation and conductive cooling are simultaneous. At this stage the fluid becomes oversaturated with respect to amorphous silica. This form of silica can precipitate in the open spaces of the porous sulphides and seal the system. Normally this can happen at low temperatures. At this stage the hydrothermal breccia is formed creating a progressively less permeable, eventually impermeable cap rock at the surface. Once the fluid is trapped under this impermeable layer, conductive cooling is enhanced and mixing with seawater is restricted, making the precipitation of amorphous silica more efficient. Since the first discovery and description of recent mineralized submarine

  19. Hydrothermal Cold Sintering (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    Solid state sintering transforms particle compact to a physically robust and dense polycrystalline monolith driven by reduction of surface energy and curvature. Since bulk diffusion is required for neck formation and pore elimination, sintering temperature about 2/3 of melting point is needed. It thus places limitations for materials synthesis and integration, and contributes to significant energy consumption in ceramic processing. Furthermore, since surface transport requires lower temperature than bulk processes, grain growth is often rapid and can be undesired for physical properties. For these reasons, several techniques have been developed including Liquid Phase Sintering (LPS), Hot Pressing (HP) and Field Assisted Sintering Technique (FAST), which introduce either viscous melt, external pressure or electric field to speed up densification rates at lower temperature. However, because of their inherent reliability on bulk diffusion, temperatures required are often too high for integrating polymers and non-noble metals. Reduction of sintering temperature below 400 °C would require a different densification mechanism that is based on surface transport with external forces to drive volume shrinkage. Densification method combining uniaxial pressure and solution under hydrothermal condition was first demonstrated by Kanahara's group at Kochi University in 1986 and was brought to our attention by the work of Kahari, etc, from University of Oulu on densification of Li2MoO 4 in 2015. This relatively new process showed promising ultra-low densification temperature below 300 °C, however little was known about its fundamental mechanism and scope of applications, which became the main focus of this dissertation. In this work, a uniaxial hydraulic press, a standard stainless steel 1/2 inch diameter die with heating band were utilized in densifying metal oxides. Applied pressure and sintering temperature were between 100 MPa and 700 MPa and from room temperature to 300

  20. Microbial Diversity of Carbonate Chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Implications for Life-Sustaining Systems in Peridotite Seafloor Environments (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Cimino, P.; Kelley, D. S.; Baross, J. A.


    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel peridotite-hosted vent environment discovered in Dec. 2000 at 30 N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This field contains multiple large (up to 60 m), carbonate chimneys venting high pH (9-10), moderate temperature (45-75 C) fluids. The LCHF is unusual in that it is located on 1.5 my-old oceanic crust, 15 km from the nearest spreading axis. Hydrothermal flow in this system is believed to be driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions involving iron-bearing minerals in the underlying seafloor. The conditions created by such reactions, which include significant quantities of dissolved methane and hydrogen, create habitats for microbial communities specifically adapted to this unusual vent environment. Ultramafic, reducing hydrothermal environments like the LCHF may be analogous to geologic settings present on the early Earth, which have been suggested to be important for the emergence of life. Additionally, the existence of hydrothermal environments far away from an active spreading center expands the range of potential life-supporting environments elsewhere in the solar system. To study the abundance and diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the environments that characterize the LCHF, carbonate chimney samples were analyzed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cell densities of between 105 and 107 cells/g were observed within various samples collected from the chimneys. Interestingly, 4-11% of the microbial population in direct contact with vent fluids fluoresced with Flavin-420, a key coenzyme involved in methanogenesis. Enrichment culturing from chimney material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions yielded microorganisms in the thermophilic and mesophilic temperature regimes in media designed for methanogenesis, methane-oxidation, and heterotrophy. PCR analysis of chimney material indicated the presence of both Archaea and Eubacteria in the carbonate samples. SSU rDNA clone libraries constructed from the

  1. Abundance and Distribution of Diagnostic Carbon Fixation Genes in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Gradient Ecosystem (United States)

    Blumenfeld, H. N.; Kelley, D. S.; Girguis, P. R.; Schrenk, M. O.


    The walls of deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys sustain steep thermal and chemical gradients resulting from the mixing of hot (350°C+) hydrothermal fluids with cold, oxygenated seawater. The chemical disequilibrium generated from this process has the potential to drive numerous chemolithoautotrophic metabolisms, many of which have been demonstrated to be operative in microbial pure cultures. In addition to the well-known Calvin Cycle, at least five additional pathways have been discovered including the Reverse Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (rTCA), the Reductive Acetyl-CoA pathway, and the 3-hydroxyproprionate pathway. Most of the newly discovered pathways have been found in thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea, which are the well represented in microbial diversity studies of hydrothermal chimney walls. However, to date, little is known about the environmental controls that impact various carbon fixation pathways. The overlap of limited microbial diversity with distinct habitat conditions in hydrothermal chimney walls provides an ideal setting to explore these relationships. Hydrothermal chimney walls from multiple structures recovered from the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific were sub-sampled and analyzed using PCR-based assays. Earlier work showed elevated microbial abundances in the outer portions of mature chimney walls, with varying ratios of Archaea to Bacteria from the outer to inner portions of the chimneys. Common phylotypes identified in these regions included Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Desulfurococcales. Total genomic DNA was extracted from mineralogically distinct niches within these structures and queried for genes coding key regulatory enzymes for each of the well studied carbon fixation pathways. Preliminary results show the occurrence of genes representing rTCA cycle (aclB) and methyl coenzyme A reductase (mcrA) - a proxy for the Reductive Acetyl-CoA Pathway within interior portion of mature

  2. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  3. Numerical Study of Severe Accidents on Containment Venting Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na Rae; Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek


    Under severe accident, the containment integrity can be challenged due to over-pressurization by steam and non-condensable gas generation. According to Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) result, the late containment failure by over-pressurization has been identified as the most probable containment failure mode. In addition, the analyses of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reveal the necessity of the proper containment depressurization to prevent the large release of the radionuclide to environment. Containment venting has been considered as an effective approach to maintain the containment integrity from over-pressurization. Basic idea of containment venting is to relieve the pressure inside of the containment by establishing a flow path to the external environment. To ensure the containment integrity under over-pressure conditions, it is crucial to conduct the containment vent in a timely manner with a sufficient discharge flow rate. It is also important to optimize the vent line size to prevent additional risk of leakage and to install at the site with limited space availability. The purpose of this study is to identify the effective venting conditions for preventing the containment over-pressurization and investigate the vent flow characteristics to minimize the consequence of the containment ventilation.. In order that, thermodynamic behavior of the containment and the discharged flow depending on different vent strategies are analyzed and compared. The representative accident scenarios are identified by reviewing the Level 2 PSA result and the sensitivity analyses with varying conditions (i.e. vent line size and vent initiation pressure) are conducted. MAAP5 model for the OPR1000 Korea nuclear power plant has been used for severe accident simulations. Containment venting can be an effective strategy to prevent the significant failure of the containment due to over-pressurization. However, it should be carefully conducted because the vented

  4. Modelling of hydrothermal characteristics of centrifugal nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarkho, A.A.; Omelchenko, M.P.; Borshchev, V.A.


    Presented for the first time is a method of recalculating the hydrothermal characteristics of centrifugal nozzles obtained in laboratory conditions for full-scale nozzles. From the experimental hydrothermal characteristics of nozzles observed in the laboratory it is allowed to calculate the hydrothermal characteristics of any other centrifugal nozzle whose diameter and dimensionless geometric characteristic are known

  5. Tank vent processing system having a corrosion preventive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Shoichi; Sato, Hirofumi


    Purpose: To prevent corrosion of a tank vent processing device by injecting an oxygen gas. Constitution: Oxygen gas and phosphorous at high temperature are poured into a tank vent processing device and amorphous oxide layers optimum to the prevention of external corrosion are formed to the inner surface of the device. Since the corrosion preventive device using the oxygen gas injection can be constituted as a relatively simple device, it is more economical than constituting a relatively large tank vent processing device with corrosion resistant stainless steels. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent (United States)

    Pech, Ondrej; Jedelsky, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jicha, Miroslav


    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  7. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pech Ondrej


    Full Text Available Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide-doped NaLaF 4 nanoparticles. JIGMET LADOL HEENA KHAJURIA SONIKA KHAJURIA ... Keywords. Citric acid; X-ray diffraction; down-conversion emission; energy transfer.

  9. Hydrothermal precipitation of artificial violarite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, W. H.; Toftlund, H.; Warner, T. E.


    The nonstoichiometric nickel-ore mineral, violarite, (Ni,Fe)3S4 was prepared as a phase-pure fine powder by a comparatively quick hydrothermal method from an aqueous solution of iron(II) acetate, nickel(II) acetate and DL-penicillamine in an autoclave at 130 °C for 45 h. Powder-XRD showed that th...

  10. Influence of magmatic volatiles on boron isotope compositions in vent fluids from the Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Wilckens, F. K.; Kasemann, S.; Bach, W.; Reeves, E. P.; Meixner, A.; Seewald, J.


    In this study we present boron (B), lithium (Li) and strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic composition of submarine hydrothermal fluids collected in 2006 and 2011 from PACMANUS, DESMOS and SuSu Knolls vent fields located in the Eastern Manus Basin [1,2]. Hydrothermal vent fluids within the Eastern Manus Basin range from high-temperature black smoker fluids to low-temperature diffuse fluids and acid-sulfate fluids. In general, the different fluid types show variable water-rock ratios during water-rock interaction and different inputs of magmatic volatiles. End-member black smoker fluids, which have in general high temperatures (mostly higher than 280°C) and pH values higher than 2 (measured at 25°C) are characterized by low δ7Li values (3.9 to 5.9‰) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704 to 0.705) similar to the values for island arc basalts. These results suggest low water-rock ratios during hydrothermal circulation. B concentrations and isotopic compositions in these fluids range from 1.0 to 2.6μM and 13 to 20‰, respectively. These data match with other vent fluids from island arc settings in the Western Pacific and plot in a B versus δ11B diagram on a two-component mixing line between seawater and island arc basalts [3]. Sr and Li isotopic composition of white smoker and acid-sulfate fluids overlap generally with the isotopic ratios for the black smoker fluids. However, in some fluids Sr isotope ratios are up to 0.709 near seawater composition suggesting higher water-rock ratios during water-rock interaction. B concentrations and isotope ratios in the white smoker and acid-sulfate fluids range from 0.6 to 2.2μM and 9 to 16‰, respectively which are lower compared with the values of black smoker fluids. In addition, these fluids do not fit on the mixing line between seawater and island arc basalt, and define another mixing trend in a B versus δ11B diagram. To explain this contradictory trend, a third mixing endmember is required that shifts B concentrations

  11. Changes in Fe Oxidation Rate in Hydrothermal Plumes as a Potential Driver of Enhanced Hydrothermal Input to Near-Ridge Sediments During Glacial Terminations (United States)

    Cullen, J. T.; Coogan, L. A.


    Recent studies have hypothesized that changes in sea level due to glacial-interglacial cycles lead to changes in the rate of melt addition to the crust at mid-ocean ridges with globally significant consequences. Arguably the most compelling evidence for this comes from increases in the hydrothermal component in near-ridge sediments during glacial-interglacial transitions. Here we explore the hypothesis that changes in ocean bottom water [O2] and pH across glacial-interglacial transitions would lead to changes in the rate of Fe oxidation in hydrothermal plumes. A simple model shows that a several fold increase in the rate of Fe oxidation is expected at glacial-interglacial transitions. Uncertainty in bottom water chemistry and the relationship between oxidation and sedimentation rates prevent direct comparison of the model and data. However, it appears that the null hypothesis of invariant hydrothermal vent fluxes into ocean bottom water that changed in O2 content and pH across these transitions cannot currently be discounted.

  12. Geochemical and visual indicators of hydrothermal fluid flow through a sediment-hosted volcanic ridge in the Central Bransfield Basin (Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Aquilina

    Full Text Available In the austral summer of 2011 we undertook an investigation of three volcanic highs in the Central Bransfield Basin, Antarctica, in search of hydrothermal activity and associated fauna to assess changes since previous surveys and to evaluate the extent of hydrothermalism in this basin. At Hook Ridge, a submarine volcanic edifice at the eastern end of the basin, anomalies in water column redox potential (E(h were detected close to the seafloor, unaccompanied by temperature or turbidity anomalies, indicating low-temperature hydrothermal discharge. Seepage was manifested as shimmering water emanating from the sediment and from mineralised structures on the seafloor; recognisable vent endemic fauna were not observed. Pore fluids extracted from Hook Ridge sediment were depleted in chloride, sulfate and magnesium by up to 8% relative to seawater, enriched in lithium, boron and calcium, and had a distinct strontium isotope composition ((87Sr/(86Sr = 0.708776 at core base compared with modern seawater ((87Sr/(86Sr ≈ 0.70918, indicating advection of hydrothermal fluid through sediment at this site. Biogeochemical zonation of redox active species implies significant moderation of the hydrothermal fluid with in situ diagenetic processes. At Middle Sister, the central ridge of the Three Sisters complex located about 100 km southwest of Hook Ridge, small water column E(h anomalies were detected but visual observations of the seafloor and pore fluid profiles provided no evidence of active hydrothermal circulation. At The Axe, located about 50 km southwest of Three Sisters, no water column anomalies in E(h, temperature or turbidity were detected. These observations demonstrate that the temperature anomalies observed in previous surveys are episodic features, and suggest that hydrothermal circulation in the Bransfield Strait is ephemeral in nature and therefore may not support vent biota.

  13. Different TDM/CH4 hydrothermal plume signatures: TAG site at 26N and serpentinized ultrabasic diapir at 15 degrees 05'N on the Mid-Atlantic ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlou, J.L.; Bougault, H. (IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France)); Appriou, P. (Univ. de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)); Nelsen, T.; Rona, P. (NOAA-AOML-OCD, Miami, FL (United States))


    As a part of the 1988 NOAA VENTS Program, CH{sub 4} and Mn tracers were used to identify and compare hydrothermal plumes found above the TAG Field (26{degrees}N) and in the rift valley at 15{degrees}N close to the eastern intersection of the ridge axis with the 15{degrees}20'N Fracture Zone at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Active hydrothermal venting was confirmed at TAG, based on elevated concentrations of total dissolved Mn (TDM up to 30 nmol/kg), high CH{sub 4} concentrations (up to 200 nL/L), and elevated nephelometry signals. Plumes of a different composition were identified at 15{degree}N with high CH{sub 4} concentrations (up to 400 nL/L), low total dissolved Mn concentrations (TDM < 1 nmol/kg) and no significant nephelometry signal. The different properties of these tracers and the different tracer ratios can be used to deduce vent fluid characteristics and compare one hydrothermal area to another. TDM/CH{sub 4} and Nephel/CH{sub 4} ratios at TEG are of the same order of magnitude as those observed at other spreading axis hydrothermal fields. At 15{degrees}N, the low TDM/CH{sub 4} ratio provides evidence of fluid circulation into ultrabasic rocks and offers a potentially useful and single method of exploring for hydrothermal activity associated with serpentinization. Mantle degassing through hydrothermal activity associated with serpentinization is an important process with respect to chemical and thermal exchanges between the upper mantle and the ocean. Different ratios of hydrothermal tracers (i.e., TDM/CH{sub 4}) provide a useful framework for identifying subseafloor processes along mid-oceanic ridges.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions. (United States)


    ....1325(e) for aggregate batch vent streams; (ii) For a boiler or process heater, a description of the location at which the vent stream is introduced into the boiler or process heater; (iii) For a boiler or... process vents or halogenated aggregate batch vent streams, the percent reduction of total hydrogen halides...

  15. A bestiary of ordinary vent activities at Stromboli (and what it tells us about vent conditions) (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio


    Normal active degassing at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) is traditionally divided in two classes. Puffing correspond to the frequent (~1 Hz) release of small gas pockets (0.5 - 1 m of diameter) at low exit velocities (5 - 15 m/s). Whereas, Strombolian explosions occur at a frequency of 1 - 10 per hour, and are characterized the ejection of bombs and/or ash at high velocities (50 - 400 m/s). In order to get a broader overview of two types of degassing, we used a thermal high speed FLIR SC655 camera to monitor the temperature anomalies generated by the expelled gas, ash, and/or bombs. The enhanced time and spatial resolutions of the camera (200 frames per second, 15 cm wide pixels) enables to use numerical algorithms to distinguish and characterize individual ejection events. In particular, for each explosion and puff, we compute the temperature, the volume, the exit point and the rise velocities of the expelled material. These values, as well as the frequency of the release events, are used to portray a total of 12 vent activities, observed during three field campaigns in 2012, 2013 and 2014. Sustained puffing was visible on 7 cases, with an intensity ranging on at least two orders of magnitude. Although the released gas volume is sometimes highly variable, on some cases, constant sized puffs allows to define a typical discharge frequency ranging between 0.4 and 1.5 Hz. Regular Strombolian explosions, with various duration, intensity and ash contents, are reported in 6 cases, 2 of them simultaneously presenting a puffing activity. In some cases, we noticed modifications of the vent activity just before the explosions. These precursors, usually lasting about 1 second but occasionally reaching 10 seconds, can be sorted into 1) increase of the puffing activity ; 2) emission of gas plumes ; 3) inflation of the visible vent surface. Finally, one vent activity was hybrid between puffing and Strombolian explosions, with frequent explosions (1 Hz) ejecting numerous

  16. Community Structure of Lithotrophically-Driven Hydrothermal Microbial Mats from the Mariana Arc and Back-Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin W. Hager


    Full Text Available The Mariana region exhibits a rich array of hydrothermal venting conditions in a complex geological setting, which provides a natural laboratory to study the influence of local environmental conditions on microbial community structure as well as large-scale patterns in microbial biogeography. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the bacterial small subunit (SSU rRNA gene from 22 microbial mats collected from four hydrothermally active locations along the Mariana Arc and back-arc to explore the structure of lithotrophically-based microbial mat communities. The vent effluent was classified as iron- or sulfur-rich corresponding with two distinct community types, dominated by either Zetaproteobacteria or Epsilonproteobacteria, respectively. The Zetaproteobacterial-based communities had the highest richness and diversity, which supports the hypothesis that Zetaproteobacteria function as ecosystem engineers creating a physical habitat within a chemical environment promoting enhanced microbial diversity. Gammaproteobacteria were also high in abundance within the iron-dominated mats and some likely contribute to primary production. In addition, we also compare sampling scale, showing that bulk sampling of microbial mats yields higher diversity than micro-scale sampling. We present a comprehensive analysis and offer new insights into the community structure and diversity of lithotrophically-driven microbial mats from a hydrothermal region associated with high microbial biodiversity. Our study indicates an important functional role of for the Zetaproteobacteria altering the mat habitat and enhancing community interactions and complexity.

  17. Population genetic structure of Rufous-Vented Prinia (Prinia burnesii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 27, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. The Rufous-vented Prinia is an endemic species of the. Indian subcontinent that is ..... considerations in listing subspecies under the U.S. Endangered. Species Act. Cons. Biol. 6: 1584-1594. Heukeshoven J ...

  18. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology (United States)

    Hebert, Leonard J.


    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  19. Explosion testing for the container venting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashdollar, K.L.; Green, G.M.; Thomas, R.A.; Demiter, J.A.


    As part of the study of the hazards of inspecting nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Site, the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Hanford Company have developed a container venting system to sample the gases that may be present in various metal drums and other containers. In support of this work, the US Bureau of Mines has studied the probability of ignition while drilling into drums and other containers that may contain flammable gas mixtures. The Westinghouse Hanford Company drilling procedure was simulated by tests conducted in the Bureau's 8-liter chamber, using the same type of pneumatic drill that will be used at the Hanford Site. There were no ignitions of near-stoichiometric hydrogen-air or methane-air mixtures during the drilling tests. The temperatures of the drill bits and lids were measured by an infrared video camera during the drilling tests. These measured temperatures are significantly lower than the ∼500 degree C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated hydrogen-air or the ∼600 degree C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated methane-air. The temperatures are substantially lower than the 750 degree C ignition temperature of hydrogen-air and 1,220 degree C temperature of methane-air when heated by a 1-m-diameter wire



    Anubhav Sinha; Vendra C. Madhav Rao; Jennifer X. Wen


    Explosion venting is a method commonly used to prevent or minimize damage to an enclosure caused by an accidental explosion. An estimate of the maximum overpressure generated though explosion is an important parameter in the design of the vents. Various engineering models (Bauwens et al., 2012, Molkov and Bragin, 2015) and European (EN 14994 ) and USA standards (NFPA 68) are available to predict such overpressure. In this study, their performance is evaluated using a number of published exper...

  1. The ProVent model learns to speak French. (United States)

    Cox, Christopher E


    Leroy and colleagues report on the accuracy of the Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation Prognostic Model ('ProVent') in a cohort study of patients ventilated for at least 21 days in one of three hospitals in the north of France. This study is noteworthy because it is the first to describe the performance of the ProVent model both outside the US and in a community hospital-based setting.

  2. A model for vented deflagration of hydrogen in a volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulpuru, S.R.; Wilkin, G.B.


    A simple model was constructed to predict the property transients resulting from the deflagration of a combustible mixture in a sphere or cylinder with venting of the gas mixture to the environment. A computer program VENT, was written to solve the model equation. The model will be particularly useful for studying hydrogen burning effects in loss-of-coolant plus losss of emergency coolant accidents in CANDU reactors

  3. Metabasalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: new insights into hydrothermal systems in slow-spreading crust (United States)

    Gillis, Kathryn M.; Thompson, Geoffrey


    compositions of hydrothermal fluids actively venting at the seafloor today become fixed. This prediction necessitates interaction between hydrothermal fluids and intersertal glass and/or mafic phases, in addition to plagioclase, in order to produce the observed range in vented fluid pH.

  4. Energy sources for chemolithotrophs in an arsenic- and iron-rich shallow-sea hydrothermal system. (United States)

    Akerman, N H; Price, R E; Pichler, T; Amend, J P


    The hydrothermally influenced sediments of Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, are ideal for investigating the chemolithotrophic activities of micro-organisms involved in arsenic cycling because hydrothermal vents there expel fluids with arsenite (As(III)) concentrations as high as 950 μg L(-1) . These hot (99 °C), slightly acidic (pH ~6), chemically reduced, shallow-sea vent fluids mix with colder, oxidized seawater to create steep gradients in temperature, pH, and concentrations of As, N, Fe, and S redox species. Near the vents, iron oxyhydroxides precipitate with up to 6.2 wt% arsenate (As(V)). Here, chemical analyses of sediment porewaters from 10 sites along a 300-m transect were combined with standard Gibbs energies to evaluate the energy yields (-ΔG(r)) from 19 potential chemolithotrophic metabolisms, including As(V) reduction, As(III) oxidation, Fe(III) reduction, and Fe(II) oxidation reactions. The 19 reactions yielded 2-94 kJ mol(-1) e(-) , with aerobic oxidation of sulphide and arsenite the two most exergonic reactions. Although anaerobic As(V) reduction and Fe(III) reduction were among the least exergonic reactions investigated, they are still potential net metabolisms. Gibbs energies of the arsenic redox reactions generally correlate linearly with pH, increasing with increasing pH for As(III) oxidation and decreasing with increasing pH for As(V) reduction. The calculated exergonic energy yields suggest that micro-organisms could exploit diverse energy sources in Tutum Bay, and examples of micro-organisms known to use these chemolithotrophic metabolic strategies are discussed. Energy modeling of redox reactions can help target sampling sites for future microbial collection and cultivation studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems of the Kuril Island Arc (Russia): Geochemistry of the Thermal Waters and Gases. (United States)

    Kalacheva, E.; Taran, Y.; Voloshina, E.; Kotenko, T.; Tarasov, K.


    More than 30 active volcanoes with historical eruptions are known on 20 main islands composing the Kuril Arc. Eight islands - Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Rasshua, Ushishir, Ketoy, Urup, Iturup and Kunashir - are characterized by hydrothermal activity, complementary to the fumarole activity in the craters and volcano slopes. At Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Iturup and Kunashir most of thermal manifestations are acidic to ultra-acidic hot springs associated with hydrothermal aquifers inside volcano edifices. The most powerful of them is the ultra-acid hydrothermal system of Ebeko volcano (Paramushir island) with more than 80 t/day of the chloride output and pH of springs of 1.5. At the summit part of the Ebeko volcano there are 12 thermal fields with the total thermal area exceeding 1 km2. The measured temperatures of fumaroles are from 98º C to 500ºC. Another type of hydrothermal activity are the wide spread coastal hot and neutral springs situated as a rule within the tide zone. Four groups of this type of thermal manifestation were found on the western shore of Shiashkotan island. It have Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 composition with temperatures 50-80°C and TDS 7-8 g/L. Coastal neutral springs were found also on Russhua, Uturup and Kunashir islands. Ushishir volcano-hydrothermal system in the middle of the arc is formed by the absorption of magmatic gases by seawater. In the crater of the Pallas cone (Ketoy island) there is a small Glazok lake with acid SO4 water and pH=2.4, TDS=2g/L, T=12oC. Ketoy volcano on the same island hosts a high temperature hydrothermal system with unusual boiling Ca-Na-SO4 neutral springs and steam vents. Mendeleev and Golovnin volcanoes on Kunashir Island are the southernmost of the Kuril arc. Mendeleev edifice is a centre of a large thermal area with many manifestations of different types including steam vents, acid springs and neutral coastal springs. In a 4.2x4 km wide caldera of Golovnin volcano there are two lakes with acid Cl-SO4 water and numerous

  6. SBWR PCCS vent phenomena and suppression pool mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, P. [Thermal-Hydraulics Lab., Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Andreani, M. [Nuclear Engineering Lab., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)


    The most important phenomena influencing the effectiveness of the pressure suppression capability of the water pool within the Wetwell compartment of the SBWR Containment, during the period of Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) venting, have been critically reviewed. In addition, calculations have been carried-out to determine the condensation of the vented steam and the distribution of the energy deposited in the liquid pool. It has been found that a large contribution to the vapour suppression is due to condensation inside the vent pipe. The condensation rate of the steam inside the bubbles, produced at the vent exit, during their rise to the surface, may however be rather low, because of the large size bubbles. This can lead to vapour channelling to the Wetwell gas space. The above comments are likely to be ameliorated if the vent exit is a distributed source or sparger. Due to the large water flow rates within the {open_quotes}bubbly two-phase plume{close_quotes} generated by the gas injection, the water in the pool above the vent exit is likely to be heated nearly isothermally (perfect mixing). The effect of the suppression pool walls would be to enhance the recirculation and, consequently to promote mixing. The large size of the bubbles therein and of the walls on pool mixing are the most severe difficulties in extrapolating the results from scaled experiments to prototypical conditions.

  7. The metatranscriptome of a deep-sea hydrothermal plume is dominated by water column methanotrophs and lithotrophs. (United States)

    Lesniewski, Ryan A; Jain, Sunit; Anantharaman, Karthik; Schloss, Patrick D; Dick, Gregory J


    Microorganisms mediate geochemical processes in deep-sea hydrothermal vent plumes, which are a conduit for transfer of elements and energy from the subsurface to the oceans. Despite this important microbial influence on marine geochemistry, the ecology and activity of microbial communities in hydrothermal plumes is largely unexplored. Here, we use a coordinated metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to compare microbial communities in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal plumes to background waters above the plume and in the adjacent Carmen Basin. Despite marked increases in plume total RNA concentrations (3-4 times) and microbially mediated manganese oxidation rates (15-125 times), plume and background metatranscriptomes were dominated by the same groups of methanotrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. Abundant community members of Guaymas Basin seafloor environments (hydrothermal sediments and chimneys) were not prevalent in the plume metatranscriptome. De novo metagenomic assembly was used to reconstruct genomes of abundant populations, including Marine Group I archaea, Methylococcaceae, SAR324 Deltaproteobacteria and SUP05 Gammaproteobacteria. Mapping transcripts to these genomes revealed abundant expression of genes involved in the chemolithotrophic oxidation of ammonia (amo), methane (pmo) and sulfur (sox). Whereas amo and pmo gene transcripts were abundant in both plume and background, transcripts of sox genes for sulfur oxidation from SUP05 groups displayed a 10-20-fold increase in plumes. We conclude that the biogeochemistry of Guaymas Basin hydrothermal plumes is mediated by microorganisms that are derived from seawater rather than from seafloor hydrothermal environments such as chimneys or sediments, and that hydrothermal inputs serve as important electron donors for primary production in the deep Gulf of California.

  8. Martian Magmatic-Driven Hydrothermal Sites: Potential Sources of Energy, Water, and Life (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Hare, T. M.; Tanaka, K. L.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Skinner, J. A.; Scott, D. H.


    Magmatic-driven processes and impact events dominate the geologic record of Mars. Such recorded geologic activity coupled with significant evidence of past and present-day water/ice, above and below the martian surface, indicate that hydrothermal environments certainly existed in the past and may exist today. The identification of such environments, especially long-lived magmatic-driven hydrothermal environments, provides NASA with significant target sites for future sample return missions, since they (1) could favor the development and sustenance of life, (2) may comprise a large variety of exotic mineral assemblages, and (3) could potentially contain water/ice reservoirs for future Mars-related human activities. If life developed on Mars, the fossil record would presumably be at its greatest concentration and diversity in environments where long-term energy sources and water coexisted such as at sites where long-lived, magmatic-driven hydrothermal activity occurred. These assertions are supported by terrestrial analogs. Small, single-celled creatures (prokaryotes) are vitally important in the evolution of the Earth; these prokaryotes are environmentally tough and tolerant of environmental extremes of pH, temperature, salinity, and anoxic conditions found around hydrothermal vents. In addition, there is a great ability for bacteria to survive long periods of geologic time in extreme conditions, including high temperature hydrogen sulfide and sulfur erupted from Mount St. Helens volcano. Our team of investigators is conducting a geological investigation using multiple mission-derived datasets (e.g., existing geologic map data, MOC imagery, MOLA, TES image data, geophysical data, etc.) to identify prime target sites of hydrothermal activity for future hydrological, mineralogical, and biological investigations. The identification of these sites will enhance the probability of success for future missions to Mars.

  9. Dissolution of biogenic ooze over basement edifices in the equatorial Pacific with implications for hydrothermal ventilation of the oceanic crust (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Spivack, A.J.; Davis, E.E.; Mayer, L.A.


    Recent observations indicate that curious closed depressions in carbonate sediments overlying basement edifices are widespread in the equatorial Pacific. A possible mechanism for their creation is dissolution by fluids exiting basement vents from off-axis hydrothermal flow. Quantitative analysis based on the retrograde solubility of calcium carbonate and cooling of basement fluids during ascent provides an estimate for the dissolution capacity of the venting fluids. Comparison of the dissolution capacity and fluid flux with typical equatorial Pacific carbonate mass accumulation rates shows that this mechanism is feasible. By maintaining sediment-free basement outcrops, the process may promote widespread circulation of relatively unaltered seawater in the basement in an area where average sediment thicknesses are 300-500 m. The enhanced ventilation can explain several previously puzzling observations in this region, including anomalously low heat flux, relatively unaltered seawater in the basement, and aerobic and nitrate-reducing microbial activity at the base of the sediments. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ferreira, Nildemar A.M.; Rumbao, Ana Carolina S. Coutinho; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter


    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150°C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  11. Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep


    Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is a class of ternary oxides that are known for their stable properties under extreme conditions, higher electron mobility compared to its binary counterparts and other interesting optical properties. The material is thus ideal for applications from solar cells and sensors to photocatalysts. Among the different methods of synthesizing ZTO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is an attractive green process that is carried out at low temperatures. In this review, we summarize the conditions leading to the growth of different ZTO nanostructures using the hydrothermal method and delve into a few of its applications reported in the literature. (topical review)

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, W.K.; Ferreira, N.A.M.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.; Rumbao, A.C.S.


    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150 deg C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  13. Newly discovered hydrothermal system on the Alarcón Rise, Mexico (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Martin, J. F.; Nieves-Cardoso, C.


    The Alarcón Rise lies at the mouth of the Gulf of California, and is the last segment of the East Pacific Rise before the plate boundary redirects into the gulf. As part of MBARI's expedition to the gulf in 2012, the neovolcanic zone of the entire ridge segment was mapped by MBARI's mapping AUV. 110 potential hydrothermal chimneys were identified in the new high resolution maps, and 70 were visited with the ROV Doc Ricketts, after having been sought in vain without the maps on an expedition in 2003. Two active vent fields were found, and have been named Meyibó and Ja sít from local native languages. They lie 2.5km apart at ~2300m depth, and are associated with a large, young sheet flow 1/3 of the way along the ridge from the south, on the most inflated part of the ridge. The southern field, Meyibó, contains 14 active chimneys (confirmed with ROV observations) nestled in grabens of several highly fractured cones surrounded by the sheet flow, and generally aligned with its discontinuous, 8km-long fissure system. The northern field, Ja sít, is a broad cluster of 8 active chimneys (also confirmed) rising above the sheet flow's channel system, more than 150m from the fissure. The chimneys stand as tall as 18 m. The most vigorous vent "black smoke" (mineral-rich fluid) >300°C and others are bathed in "white smoke". The active chimneys are populated with bacterial mat and dense clumps of Riftia pachyptila with tubes as long as 1.5m. Abundant limpets, Bythograea thermydron and galatheid crabs, and the pink vent fish Thermarces cerberus were on and near the giant tube worms. Alvinellid worms were observed at 2 chimneys. Some cracks in nearby lava flows vented clear fluid and were populated with tubeworms or Calyptogena magnifica clams. Several chimneys exhibited signs of waning activity: dead tubeworms were still attached and only a minor portion of the edifice supported bacterial mat and live tubeworms. Inactive chimneys are more numerous (48 were confirmed with ROV

  14. Distribution of bacteria and associated minerals in the gill chamber of the vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and related biogeochemical processes (United States)

    Zbinden, M.; Le Bris, N.; Compere, P.; Gaill, F.


    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafauna of some mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields. This species harbors a rich bacterial epibiosis inside its gill chamber. At the Rainbow vent field, the epibionts are associated with iron oxide deposits. Investigation of both bacteria and minerals by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDX) shows the occurrence of three distinct compartments in the gill chamber: (1) the lower pre-branchial chamber, housing bacteria, but devoid of minerals, (2) the "true" branchial chamber that contains the gills and remains free of both bacteria and minerals, and (3) the upper pre-branchial chamber housing the main ectosymbiotic bacterial community and associated iron oxides. According to our chemical and temperature data, abiotic iron oxidation appears to be kinetically inhibited in the environment of the shrimps and this would explain the lack of iron oxide deposits in the first two areas. We propose that, in the third area, iron oxidation is microbially promoted. The discrepancy between the spatial distribution of bacteria and minerals suggests that different bacterial metabolisms are involved in the two compartments. A possible explanation lies in the modification of physico-chemical conditions downstream of the gills, that would reduce the oxygen content and favor the development of bacterial iron-oxidizers in this Fe II-rich environment. A potential role of such iron-oxidizing symbionts in the shrimp diet is suggested. This would be unusual for hydrothermal ecosystems, where most previously described symbioses rely on sulphide or methane as an energy source.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard B. Coffin; Thomas J. Boyd; David L. Knies; Kenneth S. Grabowski; John W. Pohlman; Clark S. Mitchell


    The program for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration was initiated December 1997. Preliminary steps involved surveying a suite of biogeochemical parameters off the coast of Kona on the Big Island of Hawaii. The preliminary survey was conducted twice, in 1999 and 2000, to obtain a thorough data set including measurements of pH, current profiles, CO{sub 2} concentrations, microbial activities, and water and sediment chemistries. These data were collected in order to interpret a planned CO{sub 2} injection experiment. After these preliminary surveys were completed, local environment regulation forced moving the project to the coast north east of Bergen, Norway. The preliminary survey along the Norwegian Coast was conducted during 2002. However, Norwegian government revoked a permit, approved by the Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority, for policy reasons regarding the CO{sub 2} injection experiment. As a result the research team decided to monitor the natural CO{sub 2} flow off the southern coast of the Big Island. From December 3rd-13th 2002 scientists from four countries representing the Technical Committee of the International Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Experiment examined the hydrothermal venting at Loihi Seamount (Hawaiian Islands, USA). Work focused on tracing the venting gases, the impacts of the vent fluids on marine organisms, and CO{sub 2} influence on biogeochemical cycles. The cruise on the R/V Ka'imikai-O-Kanaloa (KOK) included 8 dives by the PISCES V submarine, 6 at Loihi and 2 at a nearby site in the lee of the Big Island. Data for this final report is from the last 2 dives on Loihi.

  16. Iron persistence in a distal hydrothermal plume supported by dissolved-particulate exchange (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; John, Seth G.; Marsay, Christopher M.; Hoffman, Colleen L.; Nicholas, Sarah L.; Toner, Brandy M.; German, Christopher R.; Sherrell, Robert M.


    Hydrothermally sourced dissolved metals have been recorded in all ocean basins. In the oceans' largest known hydrothermal plume, extending westwards across the Pacific from the Southern East Pacific Rise, dissolved iron and manganese were shown by the GEOTRACES program to be transported halfway across the Pacific. Here, we report that particulate iron and manganese in the same plume also exceed background concentrations, even 4,000 km from the vent source. Both dissolved and particulate iron deepen by more than 350 m relative to 3He--a non-reactive tracer of hydrothermal input--crossing isopycnals. Manganese shows no similar descent. Individual plume particle analyses indicate that particulate iron occurs within low-density organic matrices, consistent with its slow sinking rate of 5-10 m yr-1. Chemical speciation and isotopic composition analyses reveal that particulate iron consists of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, whereas dissolved iron consists of nanoparticulate Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and an organically complexed iron phase. The descent of plume-dissolved iron is best explained by reversible exchange onto slowly sinking particles, probably mediated by organic compounds binding iron. We suggest that in ocean regimes with high particulate iron loadings, dissolved iron fluxes may depend on the balance between stabilization in the dissolved phase and the reversibility of exchange onto sinking particles.

  17. Influence of CH4 and H2S availability on symbiont distribution, carbon assimilation and transfer in the dual symbiotic vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Santos


    Full Text Available High densities of mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus are present at hydrothermal vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was previously proposed that the chemistry at vent sites would affect their sulphide- and methane-oxidizing endosymbionts' abundance. In this study, we confirmed the latter assumption using fluorescence in situ hybridization on Bathymodiolus azoricus specimens maintained in a controlled laboratory environment at atmospheric pressure with one, both or none of the chemical substrates. A high level of symbiosis plasticity was observed, methane-oxidizers occupying between 4 and 39% of total bacterial area and both symbionts developing according to the presence or absence of their substrates. Using H13CO3− in the presence of sulphide, or 13CH4, we monitored carbon assimilation by the endosymbionts and its translocation to symbiont-free mussel tissues. Carbon was incorporated from methane and sulphide-oxidized inorganic carbon at rates 3 to 10 times slower in the host muscle tissue than in the symbiont-containing gill tissue. Both symbionts thus contribute actively to B. azoricus nutrition and adapt to the availability of their substrates. Further experiments with varying substrate concentrations using the same set-up should provide useful tools to study and even model the effects of changes in hydrothermal fluids on B. azoricus' chemosynthetic nutrition.

  18. The scale of hydrothermal circulation of the Iheya-North field inferred from intensive heat flow measurements and ocean drilling (United States)

    Masaki, Y.; Kinoshita, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Nakajima, R.; Kumagai, H.; Takai, K.


    Iheya-North hydrothermal field situated in the middle Okinawa trough backarc basin is one of the largest ongoing Kuroko deposits in the world. Active chimneys as well as diffuse ventings (maximum fluid temperature 311 °C) have been located and studied in detail through various geological and geophysical surveys. To clarify the spatial scale of the hydrothermal circulation system, intensive heat flow measurements were carried out and ~100 heat flow data in and around the field from 2002 to 2014. In 2010, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 was carried out, and subbottom temperature data were obtained around the hydrothermal sites. During the JAMSTEC R/V Kaiyo cruise, KY14-01 in 2014, Iheya-North "Natsu" and "Aki" hydrothermal fields were newly found. The Iheya-Noth "Natsu" and "Aki" sites are located 1.2 km and 2.6 km south from the Iheya-North original site, respectively, and the maximum venting fluid temperature was 317 °C. We obtained one heat flow data at the "Aki" site. The value was 17 W/m2. Currently, the relationship between these hydrothermal sites are not well known. Three distinct zones are identified by heat flow values within 3 km from the active hydrothermal field. They are high-heat flow zone (>1 W/m2; HHZ), moderate-heat-flow zone (1-0.1 W/m2; MHZ); and low-heat-flow zone (<0.1 W/m2; LHZ). With increasing distance east of the HHZ, heat flow gradually decreases towards MHZ and LHZ. In the LHZ, temperature at 37m below the seafloor (mbsf) was 6 °C, that is consistent with the surface low heat flow suggesting the recharge of seawater. However, between 70 and 90 mbsf, the coarser sediments were cored, and temperature increased from 25 °C to 40°C. The temperature was 905°C at 151 mbsf, which was measured with thermoseal strips. The low thermal gradient in the upper 40 m suggests downward fluid flow. We infer that a hydrothermal circulation in the scale of ~1.5 km horizontal vs. ~a few hundred meters vertical.

  19. Microbial analysis of Zetaproteobacteria and co-colonizers of iron mats in the Troll Wall Vent Field, Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vander Roost

    Full Text Available Over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that Zetaproteobacteria are widespread in hydrothermal systems and that they contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of iron in these environments. However, how chemical factors control the distribution of Zetaproteobacteria and their co-occurring taxa remains elusive. Here we analysed iron mats from the Troll Wall Vent Field (TWVF located at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The samples were taken at increasing distances from high-temperature venting chimneys towards areas with ultraslow low-temperature venting, encompassing a large variety in geochemical settings. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of biogenic iron stalks in all samples. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling we found that relative abundances of Zetaproteobacteria in the iron mats varied from 0.2 to 37.9%. Biogeographic analyses of Zetaproteobacteria, using the ZetaHunter software, revealed the presence of ZetaOtus 1, 2 and 9, supporting the view that they are cosmopolitan. Relative abundances of co-occurring taxa, including Thaumarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Proteobacteria, also varied substantially. From our results, combined with results from previous microbiological and geochemical analyses of the TWVF, we infer that the distribution of Zetaproteobacteria is connected to fluid-flow patterns and, ultimately, variations in chemical energy landscapes. Moreover, we provide evidence for iron-oxidizing members of Gallionellaceae being widespread in TWVF iron mats, albeit at low relative abundances.

  20. Geochemistry of fluids from Earth's deepest ridge-crest hot-springs: Piccard hydrothermal field, Mid-Cayman Rise (United States)

    McDermott, Jill M.; Sylva, Sean P.; Ono, Shuhei; German, Christopher R.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.


    Hosted in basaltic substrate on the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise, the Piccard hydrothermal field is the deepest currently known seafloor hot-spring (4957-4987 m). Due to its great depth, the Piccard site is an excellent natural system for investigating the influence of extreme pressure on the formation of submarine vent fluids. To investigate the role of rock composition and deep circulation conditions on fluid chemistry, the abundance and isotopic composition of organic, inorganic, and dissolved volatile species in high temperature vent fluids at Piccard were examined in samples collected in 2012 and 2013. Fluids from the Beebe Vents and Beebe Woods black smokers vent at a maximum temperature of 398 °C at the seafloor, however several lines of evidence derived from inorganic chemistry (Cl, SiO2, Ca, Br, Fe, Cu, Mn) support fluid formation at much higher temperatures in the subsurface. These high temperatures, potentially in excess of 500 °C, are attainable due to the great depth of the system. Our data indicate that a single deep-rooted source fluid feeds high temperature vents across the entire Piccard field. High temperature Piccard fluid H2 abundances (19.9 mM) are even higher than those observed in many ultramafic-influenced systems, such as the Rainbow (16 mM) and the Von Damm hydrothermal fields (18.2 mM). In the case of Piccard, however, these extremely high H2 abundances can be generated from fluid-basalt reaction occurring at very high temperatures. Magmatic and thermogenic sources of carbon in the high temperature black smoker vents are described. Dissolved ΣCO2 is likely of magmatic origin, CH4 may originate from a combination of thermogenic sources and leaching of abiotic CH4 from mineral-hosted fluid inclusions, and CO abundances are at equilibrium with the water-gas shift reaction. Longer-chained n-alkanes (C2H6, C3H8, n-C4H10, i-C4H10) may derive from thermal alteration of dissolved and particulate organic carbon sourced from the original

  1. Analysis of Gas Vent System in Overseas LILW Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Yub; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Ryong; Ha, Jae Chul [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) disposal facility is currently under construction in Korea. It is located in the aquifer, 80{approx}130 m below the ground surface. Thus, it is expected that disposal facility will be saturated after closure and various gases will be generated from metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials and radiolysis. Generated gases will move up to the upper part of the silo, and it will increase the pressure of the silo. Since the integrity of the engineered barrier could be damaged, development of effective gas vent system which can prevent the gas accumulation in the silo is essential. In order to obtain basic data needed to develop site-specific gas vent system, gas vent systems of Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, which have the disposal concept of underground facility, were analyzed

  2. Vent clearing analysis of a Mark III pressure suppression containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, R.


    An analysis of the vent clearing transient in a Mark III pressure suppression containment after a hypothetical LOCA is carried out. A two-dimensional numerical model solving the transient fluid dynamic equations is used. The geometry of the pressure suppression pool is represented and the pressure and velocity fields in the pool are obtained from the moment the LOCA occurs until the first vent in the drywell wall clears. The results are compared to those obtained with the one-diemensional model used for containment design, with special interest on two-dimensional effects. Some conclusions concerning the effect of the water discharged into the suppression pool through the vents on submerged structures are obtained. Future improvements to the model are suggested. (orig.)

  3. Vents Pattern Analysis at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy). (United States)

    Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina; Branca, Stefano


    Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. It is characterized by basaltic eruptions, both effusive and explosive, occurred during a complex eruptive history over the last 500 ka. Flank eruptions occur at an interval of decades, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones. A vent clustering at various scales is a common feature in many volcanic settings. In order to identify the clusters within the studied area, a spatial point pattern analysis is undertaken using vent positions, both known and reconstructed. It reveals both clustering and spatial regularity in the Etna region at different distances. The visual inspection of the vent spatial distribution suggests a clustering on the rift zones of Etna volcano. To confirm this evidence, a coarse analysis is performed by the application of Ξ2- and t-test simple statistics. Then, a refined analysis is performed by using the Ripley K-function (Ripley, 1976), whose estimator K(d), knowing the area of the study region and the number of vents, allow us to calculate the distance among two different location of events. The above estimator can be easier transformed by using the Besag L-function (Besag, 1977); the peaks of positive L(d)=[K(d)/π]1/2 -d values indicate clustering while troughs of negative values stand for regularity for their corresponding distances d (L(d)=0 indicates complete spatial randomness). Spatial pattern of flank vents is investigated in order to model the spatial distribution of likely eruptive vents for the next event, basically in terms of relative probabilities. For this, a Gaussian kernel technique is used, and the L(d) function is adopted to generate an optimal smoothing bandwidth based on the clustering behaviour of the Etna volcano. A total of 154 vents (among which 36 are reconstructed), related to Etna flank activity of the last 4.0 ka, is used to model future vent opening. The investigated region covers an area of 850 km2, divided

  4. Blast venting through blanket material in the HYLIFE ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Peterson, P.F.; Schrock, V.E.


    This work presents a numerical study of blast venting through various blanket configurations in the HYLIFE ICF reactor design. The study uses TSUNAMI -- a multi-dimensional, high-resolution, shock capturing code -- to predict the momentum exchange and gas dynamics for blast venting in complex geometries. In addition, the study presents conservative predictions of wall loading by gas shock and impulse delivered to the protective liquid blanket. Configurations used in the study include both 2700 MJ and 350 MJ fusion yields per pulse for 5 meter and 3 meter radius reactor chambers. For the former, an annular jet array is used for the blanket geometry, while in the latter, both annular jet array as well as slab geometries are used. Results of the study indicate that blast venting and wall loading may be manageable in the HYLIFE-II design by a judicious choice of blanket configuration

  5. Hydrothermal performance of catalyst supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Libera, Joseph A.; Dumesic, James A.; Pagan-Torres, Yomaira J.


    A high surface area catalyst with a mesoporous support structure and a thin conformal coating over the surface of the support structure. The high surface area catalyst support is adapted for carrying out a reaction in a reaction environment where the thin conformal coating protects the support structure within the reaction environment. In various embodiments, the support structure is a mesoporous silica catalytic support and the thin conformal coating comprises a layer of metal oxide resistant to the reaction environment which may be a hydrothermal environment.

  6. Organic, Gas, and Element Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids of the Newly Discovered Extensive Hydrothermal Area in the Wallis and Futuna Region (SW Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Konn


    Full Text Available Two newly discovered hydrothermal vent fields of the Wallis and Futuna region, Kulo Lasi and Fatu Kapa, were sampled for fluid geochemistry. A great geochemical diversity was observed and assigned to the diversity of lithologies as well as the occurrence of various processes. Kulo Lasi fluids likely formed by interaction with fresh volcanic rocks, phase separation, and mixing with magmatic fluid. Conversely, the geochemistry of the Fatu Kapa fluids would be mostly due to water/felsic lavas reactions. In terms of organic geochemistry, fluids from both fields were found to be enriched in formate, acetate, and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs: n-alkanes, n-fatty acids, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Concentrations of SVOCs reached a few ppb at most. The distribution patterns of SVOCs indicated that several processes and sources, at once of biogenic, thermogenic, and abiogenic types, likely controlled organic geochemistry. Although the contribution of each process remains unknown, the mere presence of organics at the μM level has strong implications for metal dispersion (cycles, deposition (ore-forming, and bioavailability (ecosystems, especially as our fluxes estimations suggest that back-arc hosted vent fields could contribute as much as MOR to the global ocean heat and mass budget.

  7. Multiple-vent programme to test the pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, I.


    Three pre-tests with a multiple vent configuration have been performed at the GKSS pressure suppression test facility. First test results indicate significant chugging events with occur periodically with 0.4 to 0.2 Hz. These events appear simultaneously in less than 10 ms at the exit of the three vent pipes and cause pressure pulses in the range of 3 bar. This report gives a short description of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the three pre-tests, test results and a first valuation of the experimental informations. (orig.) [de

  8. Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie


    Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area.

  9. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.


    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  10. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the pole to the magnetic data aided in mapping of various hydrothermally altered structures that may favour gold mineralisation. The interpretation of the aero data set has enhanced a lot of ... water serves as a concentrating, transporting and depositing agent through faults (structures) to the earth's surface. Hydrothermal ...

  11. Insights From Magnesium Isotopic Compositions on the Oceanic Hydrothermal Circulation: Is Seamount Weathering the Solution? (United States)

    Galy, A.; Carder, E.; Elderfield, H.


    It has been long recognised that the input of Mg in the ocean by river is removed by precipitation of Mg-rich bearing phases, either directly from the ocean such as dolomite or through hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. The sampling of hydrothermal fluids demonstrated the efficiency of Mg consumption by the alteration of the oceanic crust, even at temperatures as low as 15°. For high-temperature fluids vented through black or white smokers in the vicinity of the ridge, the Mg concentration is up to 50 time lower than in seawater, and the close relationship between chlorine and Mg led to the idea that seawater was feeding the hydrothermal system and that Mg is quantitatively removed from it during high-T° alteration, the so called zero Mg hypothesis. Despite some hint for a non zero Mg hydrothermal end-member for a handful sites, the low concentration of Mg in oceanic hydrothermal fluids (around 1 mmol/l) has been mainly attributed to contamination by seawater during the sampling. Here we present Mg isotopic composition of 14 seawater samples from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean and Red Seas and covering a range of depth of almost 5km and 26 hydrothermal fluids from 7 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with temperature from 15° to 380°C. We find the magnesium isotope composition of seawater to be constant, with a δ^{26}Mg = -0.82±0.10 ‰ relative to the DSM3 standard. This value is consistent with a long residence time for Mg in seawater. In addition, out of the 26 hydrothermal fluids studied, more than 58% differ from seawater for their Mg isotopic composition by more than 2σ. This number rises up to 88% at 2σmean level and the shift is systematic with the fluids being either indistinguishable from seawater or enriched in light isotopes by up to 2.4‰ in δ^{26}Mg. This clearly demonstrates that fluids having low Mg concentrations are not solely bearing Mg added by contamination during sampling. The isotopic

  12. Ca isotope fractionation and Sr/Ca partitioning associated with anhydrite formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems: An experimental approach (United States)

    Syverson, D. D.; Scheuermann, P.; Pester, N. J.; Higgins, J. A.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.


    The elemental and isotopic mass balance of Ca and Sr between seawater and basalt at mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal systems is an integrated reflection of the various physiochemical processes, which induce chemical exchange, in the subseafloor. Specifically, the processes of anhydrite precipitation and recrystallization are recognized to be important controls on governing the Ca and Sr elemental and isotope compositions of high temperature vent fluids, however, few experimental data exist to constrain these geochemical effects. Thus, to better understand the associated Sr/Ca partitioning and Ca isotope fractionation and rate of exchange between anhydrite and dissolved constituents, anhydrite precipitation and recrystallization experiments were performed at 175, 250, and 350°C and 500 bar at chemical conditions indicative of active MOR hydrothermal systems. The experimental data suggest that upon entrainment of seawater into MOR hydrothermal systems, anhydrite will precipitate rapidly and discriminate against the heavy isotopes of Ca (Δ44/40Ca(Anh-Fluid) = -0.68 - -0.25 ‰), whereas Sr/Ca partitioning depends on the saturation state of the evolving hydrothermal fluid with respect to anhydrite at each PTX (KD(Anh-Fluid) = 1.24 - 0.55). Coupling experimental constraints with the temperature gradient inferred for high temperature MOR hydrothermal systems in the oceanic crust, data suggest that the Ca isotope and Sr elemental composition of anhydrite formed near the seafloor will be influenced by disequilibrium effects, while, at higher temperatures further into the oceanic crust, anhydrite will be representative of equilibrium Sr/Ca partitioning and Ca isotope fractionation conditions. These experimental observations are consistent with analyzed Sr/Ca and Ca isotope compositions of anhydrites and vent fluids sampled from modern MOR hydrothermal systems1,2 and can be used to further constrain the geochemical effects of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust

  13. Radiogeochemical features of hydrothermal metasomatic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyushchev, E.V.; Ryabova, L.A.; Shatov, V.V.


    Considered are the most general peculiarities of uranium and thorium distributions in hydrothermal-metasomatic formations of three levels of substance formation: 1) in hydrothermal minerals; 2) in natural associations of these minerals (in the altered rocks, metasomatites, ores, etc.); 3) ordened series of zonally and in stage conjugated hydrothermal-metasomatic formations. Statistically stable recurrence of natural combinations of hydrothermal-metasomatic formations points out conjugation of their formation in the directed evolution in the general hydrothermal process. Series of metasomatic formations, the initial members of which are potassium metasomatites, mostly result in accumulation up to industrial concentrations of radioactive elements in final members of these formations. Development of midlow-temperature propylitic alterations in highly radiative rocks causes the same accumulation

  14. Environmental & Water Quality Operational Studies: Improvement of Hydropower Release Dissolved Oxygen with Turbine Venting. (United States)


    VENTED HYDROTURBINE .. 38 Model Development .......................................... 38 Model Application...mouth intake (Figures B26-B27). 37 A F -W V .0P V *W V *. V. VW . i. ~ ~ -% PART V: MODELING OF REAERATION THROUGH A VENTED HYDROTURBINE 75. Development

  15. Transfer and partitioning of energy and mass through seafloor hydrothermal systems: comparative studies at the Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) (Invited) (United States)

    Tivey, M. K.


    Seafloor hydrothermal systems are major players in the transfer of mass and energy from the mantle and crust to the ocean and biosphere. Over the past thirty years, much has been learned about this transfer to the ocean, but considerably less is known about the transfer to the biosphere. Study of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings has shown relationships between spreading rate and hydrothermal heat flux, substrate composition (including rock geochemistry, presence/absence of sediment) and hydrothermal fluid composition, and magmatic/tectonic events and temporal variability of fluid composition (e.g., German and Von Damm, Treatise On Geochemistry, 2004; Baker et al. AGU Monograph Series 91, 1995). Studies in arc and back-arc settings are documenting the effects of magmatic acid volatiles on fluid-rock reaction and fluid and vent deposit compositions (e.g., Ishibashi and Urabe, Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism, 1995). These comparative studies in a wide range of geologic settings, including at the three Ridge2000 ISS, have provided a fairly good understanding of the flux of heat and many elements to the ocean associated with high temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems. Considerably less is known, however, about the partitioning of heat and mass (particularly metals and sulfur) in hydrothermal systems. The deposits that form at vent sites are intimately linked within paths of energy and mass transport from the mantle and crust to the oceans. Transport differs greatly through different types of deposits (e.g., black smokers, white smokers/diffusers, flanges). Estimates of heat flux from measured temperatures of flow (unless integrated over and around an entire vent field) require an understanding of the partitioning of flow between focused black smokers and more diffuse flow from diffusers, flanges, and surfaces of deposits, and from the igneous substrate. Estimates of mass flux into the ocean require an understanding of the

  16. Population genetic structure of Rufous-Vented Prinia ( Prinia burnesii )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study is to ascertain genetic variation within Rufous-vented Prinia, Prinia burnesii an endemic species, by DNA fingerprinting applying random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Genetic material was obtained from three distant sites along western bank of River Indus. These sites include ...

  17. The filtered venting system under construction at barseback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, A.H.


    A filter venting containment system, bearing the acronym FILTRA will be installed at the Swedish nuclear power plant Barseback. The Barseback Power Plant is owned by the Southern Sweden Power Supply (Sydkraft AB) and has two 1700-MW boiling water reactors. The reactors are of ASEA-ATOM design with pressure suppression containments (Mark IItype). The installation of the filter venting system is a condition set by the Swedish government for a continued operating license after September 1, 1986. The construction work for the FILTRA plant, the first of its kind ever planned, will be completed at the end of 1985. The FILTRA is designed so that 99.9% of the core inventory of radioactivity, excluding inert gases, is retained in the reactor containment and filter system in the event of containment venting. Another design guideline is to achieve passive functioning of the FILTRA plant during the first 24 h of an accident. The FILTRA plant is common to the two reactors on the site and consists mainly of two systems, a venting system (pressure relief system) and a filtering system. The total cost is approximately U.S. $15 million

  18. Sweden employs a multi venturi scrubber for containment venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elisson, K.; Waltersten, T.


    The Filtra-MVSS for filtered venting of containment overpressure is a flexible system capable of covering a wide range of hypothetical design basis events for BWRs and PWRs. The system encompasses a number of special features, can be optimized for a specified decontamination factor, and can accommodate a wide range of off-gas flow rates. (author)

  19. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. (United States)


    ... explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before removing the cover; (2) If the vault or pit is vented, there must be a means of preventing external sources... ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter; (2) The ventilation must be enough to...

  20. GPE-BWR and the containment venting and filtering issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, J.; Santiago, J. de


    The Spanish Boiling Water Reactor Owner's Group (GPE-BWR) is formed by three utilities, owning four units: Santa Maria de Garona (46 MWe, BWR3, Mark I containment), Cofrentes (975 MWe, BWR6, Mark III containment) and Valdecaballeros (2x975 MWe, BWR6, Mark III containment) - all of the reactors having been supplied by General Electric. One of the GPE-BWR's several committees is the Safety and Licensing Committee, which follows up the evolution of severe accident topics and particularly the containment venting and filtering issue. In September 1987, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), the Spanish Regulatory Body, asked the GPE-BWR to define its position on the installation of a containment venting system. The GPE-BWR created a Working Group which presented a Report on Containment Venting to the CSN in January 1987 gathered from: the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); some US utilities; and several European countries, especially France, Germany and Sweden. CSN's review of the containment venting Report and the Action Plan proposed by the GPE-BWR finished in April 1988. The conclusion of the Report and the proposed Action Plan take into account the US NRC's identified open items on severe accidents and the R and D programs scheduled to close these items

  1. Fault control on patterns of Quaternary monogenetic vents in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and remote sensing data are used to examine the distribution of volcanism and fault geometry in the Ethiopian Rift between Omo-Chew Bahir rift and Tendaho graben during the Quaternary and evaluate their influence on the location and shape of individual vents as well as the development of alignments. The results ...

  2. CFD analysis of gas explosions vented through relief pipes. (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G


    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safe locations by means of relief pipes. However, the presence of the duct increases the severity of explosion if compared to simply vented vessels (i.e. compared to cases where no duct is present). Besides, the identification of the key phenomena controlling the violence of explosion has not yet been gained. Multidimensional models coupling, mass, momentum and energy conservation equations can be valuable tools for the analysis of such complex explosion phenomena. In this work, gas explosions vented through ducts have been modelled by a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach in which the laminar, flamelet and distributed combustion models have been implemented. Numerical test have been carried out by varying ignition position, duct diameter and length. Results have evidenced that the severity of ducted explosions is mainly driven by the vigorous secondary explosion occurring in the duct (burn-up) rather than by the duct flow resistance or acoustic enhancement. Moreover, it has been found out that the burn-up affects explosion severity due to the reduction of venting rate rather than to the burning rate enhancement through turbulization.

  3. Filtered atmospheric venting of light water reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgran, A.; Ahlstroem, P.E.; Nilsson, L.; Persson, Aa.


    The aim of filtered venting is to improve the function of the reactor containment in connection with very severe accidents. By equipping the containment with a safety valve for pressure relief and allowing the released gases to pass through an effective filter, it should be possible to achieve a considerable protective effect. The work has involved detailed studies of the core meltdown sequence, how the molten core material runs out of the reactor vessel, what effect it has on concrete and other structures and how final cooling of the molten core material takes place. On the basis of previous Swedish studies, the project has chosen to study a filter concept that consists of a gravel bed of large volume. This filter plant shall not only retain the radioactive particles that escape from the containment through the vent line, but shall also condense the accompanying steam. After the government decided in 1981 that Barsebaeck was to be equipped with filtered venting and issued specifications regarding its performance, the project aimed at obtaining results that could be used to design and verify a plant for filtered venting at the Barsebaeck nuclear power station. As far as the other Swedish nuclear power plants at Oskarshamn, Ringhals and Forsmark are concerned, the results are only applicable to a limited extent. Additional studies are required for these nuclear power plants before the value of filtered venting can be assessed. Based on the results of experiments and analyses, the project has made a safety analysis with Barsebaeck as a reference plant in order to study how the introduction of filtered venting affects the safety level at a station. In summary, the venting function appears to entail a not insignificant reduction of risks for boiling water reactors of the Barsebaeck type. For a number of types of such very severe core accident cases, the filter design studied ensures a substantial reduction of the releases. However it has not been possible within the

  4. Geophysical Signatures of cold vents on the northern Cascadia margin (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Paull, C. K.; Spence, G.; Hyndman, R. D.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Lundsten, E.; Ussler, W.; Schwalenberg, K.


    The accretionary prism of the northern Cascadia margin is a classic gas hydrate research area. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 146 and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 documented that gas hydrate is widely distributed across the margin. In recent years an increased research focus has been on cold vents, where methane gas is actively released. Two recent expeditions funded by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) were conducted in the area of IODP Sites U1327 and U1328. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was used to map the seafloor bathymetry followed by dives with the ROV Doc Ricketts for ground truth information of various seafloor morphological features identified. The two cruises revealed many new seafloor features indicative of methane venting that were previously unknown. Bullseye Vent (BV) has been extensively studied using seismic imaging, piston coring, heat-flow, controlled-source EM, and deep drilling. BV is seismically defined by a circular wipe-out zone but the new AUV data show that BV is rather an elongated depression. BV is associated with a shoaling in the BSR, but lacks evidence for the existence of an underlying fault in the previous data. Although a massive gas-hydrate plug was encountered within the top 40 mbsf in the IODP holes, the ROV observations only revealed some platy methane derived carbonate outcrops at the outer-most rim of the depressions, a few beds of Vesicomya clams, and no observed gas vents, which together do not indicate that BV is especially active now. Further northeast of BV, but along the same trend, active gas venting was found associated with seafloor blistering and bacterial mats suggesting that there is an underlying fault system providing a fluid flow conduit. The newly discovered vent area has few seismic line crossings; however the available seismic data surprisingly are not associated with wipe-out zones. Another prominent fault-related gas vent also was investigated during the

  5. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  6. Process for retention of iodine and aerosols during containment venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, B.; Betz, R.; Greger, G.U.; Werner, K.D.


    A process for retention of the majority of aerosols and iodine during containment venting was optimized. For this purpose, sections of a two-stage process comprising a venturi scrubber and a metal-fiber filter demister were tested under containment venting conditions assumed to prevail during a hypothetical core - melt accident and optimized with a view to achieving high decontamination factors and loading capacity while minimizing the size of the process. The loading and retention tests performed in a scrubber operating pressure range between 1 and 10 bar, at temperatures from 50 to 200degC (also boiling pools) and in air and steam atmospheres. Under these unfavorable conditions for aerosol retention, the retention efficiencies were determined at various flow rates with soluble and non-soluble aerosols as well as gaseous iodine. The retention efficiencies for BaSO 4 , uranine and SnO 2 aerosols were determined to be 99.95% to 99.99% for venturi scrubbers with metal-fiber filter demister. The retention efficiency for elemental iodine was determined to be ≥99% including revolatization effects over a 24-hour operating period. The high loading capacity of the venturi scrubber unit was verified after process modifications with various aerosols. The use of full-scale process section together with the best possible simulation of containment venting conditions by the test parameters ensured that the results can be transferred to real venting equipment. The aim of ensuring the retention of the majority of the aerosol-borne activity and of elemental iodine activity and minimizing the process size was clearly achieved and verified by means of this optimized venting equipment under an extremely wide range of hypothetical core-melt accident conditions. (orig.) With 17 refs., 3 tabs., 35 annexes [de

  7. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.


    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  8. Explosive volcanism on Mercury: Analysis of vent and deposit morphology and modes of eruption (United States)

    Jozwiak, Lauren M.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel


    The MESSENGER mission revealed, for the first time, conclusive evidence of explosive volcanism on Mercury. Several previous works have cataloged the appearance and location of explosive volcanism on the planet using a variety of identifying characteristics, including vent presence and deposit color as seen in multispectral image mosaics. We present here a comprehensive catalog of vents of likely volcanic origin; our classification scheme emphasizes vent morphology. We have analyzed the morphologies of all vents in our catalog, and recognize three main morphologies: "simple vent", "pit vent", and "vent-with-mound". The majority of vents we identify are located within impact craters. The spatial distribution of vents does not correlate with the locations of volcanic smooth plains deposits, in contrast to the Moon, nor do vents correlate with the locations of large impact basins (except for the Caloris and Tolstoj basins). Using the degradation state of the vent host crater as a proxy for maximum age, we suggest that vent formation has been active through the Mansurian and into the Kuiperian periods, although the majority of vents were likely formed much earlier in mercurian history. The morphologies and locations of vents are used to investigate a set of plausible formation geometries. We find that the most likely and most prevalent formation geometry is that of a dike, stalled at depth, which then explosively vents to the surface. We compare the vent and deposit size of mercurian pyroclastic deposits with localized and regional lunar pyroclastic deposits, and find a range of possible eruption energies and corresponding variations in eruption style. Localized lunar pyroclastic deposits and the majority of mercurian pyroclastic deposits show evidence for eruption that is consistent with the magmatic foam at the top of a dike reaching a critical gas volume fraction. A subset of mercurian vents, including the prominent Copland-Rachmaninoff vent to the northeast of the

  9. Mesonerilla neridae, n. sp. (Nerillidae): First meiofaunal annelid from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rouse, Greg W


    Though most common in coastal sandy bottoms, nerillid annelids have been found in a broad variety of habitats around the world and two genera have previously been reported from the deep sea. During a cruise to the southern East Pacific Rise and northern Pacific Antarctic Ridge (near Easter Island...

  10. Size matters at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: different diversity and habitat fidelity patterns of meio- and macrofauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollner, S.; Govenar, B.; Fisher, C.R.; Bright, M.


    Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient

  11. 40 CFR 63.115 - Process vent provisions-methods and procedures for process vent group determination. (United States)


    ... this section. (2) The gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40... accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters, or physical or chemical laws or...)(3) of this section. (i) The vent stream volumetric flow rate (Qs), in standard cubic meters per...

  12. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.


    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  13. Integrated 3D Geological Modeling to Gain Insight in the Effects of Hydrothermal Alteration on Post-Ore Deformation Style and Strain Localization in the Flin Flon Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Ore System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Schetselaar


    Full Text Available 3D geological modeling of lithogeochemical and geological data provides insight into the role of the sulfide ore horizon and associated footwall hydrothermal alteration in localizing shear strain in the Flin Flon volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, Canada, as deformation evolved from brittle-ductile to ductile regimes during collisional stages of the 1.9–1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson orogeny. 3D spatial characterization of hydrothermal alteration based on the Ishikawa index (AI and normative corundum percentages outline sericite + chlorite-rich high strain zones, consisting of Al-enriched and Na-depleted felsic and mafic volcanic rocks in the footwall of the sulfide ore horizon. The hydrothermal vent complex, from which these sheared alteration zones originated, was stacked together with the ore horizon by W-vergent thrust faults during an early collisional deformation regime, imbricating molasse-type clastic sediments with the ore-hosting volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Flin Flon arc assemblage. Chlorite-rich planar zones marked by high values of the Carbonate–chlorite–pyrite index (CCPI are laterally more extensive and outline a later system of ductile shear zones, in which phyllosilicates, quartz and chalcopyrite in stringer zones localized shear strain and enhanced transposition of the hydrothermal vent stockwork. The contrasting deformation styles of these two thrusting events and their localization within the ore horizon and hydrothermal vent stockwork have important implications for vectoring towards undiscovered ore in this mature mining camp that are possibly also relevant to other strongly deformed VMS ore systems.

  14. The 2012-2014 eruptive cycle of Copahue Volcano, Southern Andes. Magmatic-Hydrothermal system interaction and manifestations. (United States)

    Morales, Sergio; Alarcón, Alex; Basualto, Daniel; Bengoa, Cintia; Bertín, Daniel; Cardona, Carlos; Córdova, Maria; Franco, Luis; Gil, Fernando; Hernandez, Erasmo; Lara, Luis; Lazo, Jonathan; Mardones, Cristian; Medina, Roxana; Peña, Paola; Quijada, Jonathan; San Martín, Juan; Valderrama, Oscar


    Copahue Volcano (COPV), in Southern Andes of Chile, is an andesitic-basaltic stratovolcano, which is located on the western margin of Caviahue Caldera. The COPV have a NE-trending fissure with 9 aligned vents, being El Agrio the main currently active vent, with ca. 400 m in diameter. The COPV is placed into an extensive hydrothermal system which has modulated its recent 2012-2014 eruptive activity, with small phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptions and isolated weak strombolian episodes and formation of crater lakes inside the main crater. Since 2012, the Southern Andes Volcano Observatory (OVDAS) carried out the real-time monitoring with seismic broadband stations, GPS, infrasound sensors and webcams. In this work, we report pre, sin, and post-eruptive seismic activity of the last two main eruptions (Dec, 2012 and Oct, 2014) both with different seismic precursors and superficial activity, showing the second one a particularly appearance of seismic quiescence episodes preceding explosive activity, as an indicator of interaction between magmatic-hydrothermal systems. The first episode, in late 2012, was characterized by a low frequency (0.3-0.4 Hz and 1.0-1.5 Hz) continuous tremor which increased gradually from background noise level amplitude to values of reduced displacement (DR), close to 50 cm2 at the peak of the eruption, reaching an eruptive column of ~1.5 km height. After few months of recording low energy seismicity, a sequence of low frequency, repetitive and low energy seismic events arose, with a frequency of occurrence up to 300 events/hour. Also, the VLP earthquakes were added to the record probably associated with magma intrusion into a deep magmatic chamber during all stages of eruptive process, joined to the record of VT seismicity during the same period, which is located throughout the Caviahue Caldera area. Both kind of seismic patterns were again recorded in October 2014, being the precursor of the new eruptive cycle at this time as well as the

  15. Degassing during magma ascent in the Mule Creek vent (USA) (United States)

    Stasiuk, M.V.; Barclay, J.; Carroll, M.R.; Jaupart, Claude; Ratte, J.C.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Tait, S.R.


    The structures and textures of the rhyolite in the Mule Creek vent (New Mexico, USA) indicate mechanisms by which volatiles escape from silicic magma during eruption. The vent outcrop is a 300-m-high canyon wall comprising a section through the top of a feeder conduit, vent and the base of an extrusive lava dome. Field relations show that eruption began with an explosive phase and ended with lava extrusion. Analyses of glass inclusions in quartz phenocrysts from the lava indicate that the magma had a pre-eruptive dissolved water content of 2.5-3.0 wt% and, during eruption, the magma would have been water-saturated over the vertical extent of the present outcrop. However, the vesicularity of the rhyolite is substantially lower than that predicted from closed-system models of vesiculation under equilibrium conditions. At a given elevation in the vent, the volume fraction of primary vesicles in the rhyolite increases from zero close to the vent margin to values of 20-40 vol.% in the central part. In the centre the vesicularity increases upward from approximately 20 vol.% at 300 m below the canyon rim to approximately 40 vol.% at 200 m, above which it shows little increase. To account for the discrepancy between observed vesicularity and measured water content, we conclude that gas escaped during ascent, probably beginning at depths greater than exposed, by flow through the vesicular magma. Gas escape was most efficient near the vent margin, and we postulate that this is due both to the slow ascent of magma there, giving the most time for gas to escape, and to shear, favouring bubble coalescence. Such shear-related permeability in erupting magma is supported by the preserved distribution of textures and vesicularity in the rhyolite: Vesicles are flattened and overlapping near the dense margins and become progressively more isolated and less deformed toward the porous centre. Local zones have textures which suggest the coalescence of bubbles to form permeable

  16. Maintenir la continuité des collections à l'heure d'Internet : du catalogue de vente au site web de maison de vente


    Jacquet , Françoise


    International audience; La Bibliothèque nationale de France conserve depuis des siècles une importante collection de catalogues de vente sur support papier. Cependant avec l’apparition d’Internet on assiste à une dématérialisation des données documentaires en art. Aujourd’hui les sites des maisons de vente offrent en ligne les adjudications des ventes, récentes ou archivées et certaines ventes sont désormais annoncées uniquement sur Internet. Ces informations qui ne se trouvent pas sur les ca...

  17. Vent rate of superconducting magnets during quench in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.


    When a superconducting magnet goes normal, resistive heating in the conductor evaporates surrounding LHe, which must be vented. The nature and speed at which the magnet goes normal and He is vented are not subject to rigorous analysis. This paper presents vent data from an existing magnet. An approximate mathematical model is derived and fitted to the data to permit scaling of vent requirements to larger size magnets. The worst case models of the vent employed in Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) cryogenic system design are also presented

  18. Archaea, Bacteria, and Sulfur-Cycling in a Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Ecosystem (United States)

    Amend, J. P.; Huang, C.; Amann, R.; Bach, W.; Meyerdierks, A.; Price, R. E.; Schubotz, F.; Summons, R. E.; Wenzhoefer, F.


    Deep-sea hydrothermal systems are windows to the marine subsurface biosphere. It often is overlooked, however, that their far more accessible shallow-sea counterparts can serve the same purpose. To characterize the extent, diversity, and activity of the subsurface microbial community in the shallow vent ecosystem near Panarea Island (Italy), sediment cores were analyzed with a broad array of analytical techniques. Vent fluid and sediment temperatures reached up to 135 °C, with pHs in porewaters generally measuring 5-6. Microsensor profiles marked a very sharp oxic-anoxic transition, and when coupled to pH and H2S profiles, pointed to aerobic sulfide oxidation. With increasing depth from the sediment-water interface, porewater analyses showed a decrease in sulfate levels from ~30 mM to thermophilic sulfate reducing and acidophilic sulfide oxidizing bacteria. Results from several sites also showed that with increasing depth and temperature, biomass abundance of archaea generally increased relative to that of bacteria. Lastly, DGGE fingerprinting and 16S rRNA clone libraries from several depths at Hot Lake revealed a moderate diversity of bacteria, dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria; this class is known to catalyze both sulfur reduction and oxidation reactions, and to mediate the formation of iron-sulfides, including framboidal pyrite. Archaeal sequences at Hot Lake are dominated by uncultured Thermoplasmatales, plus several sequences in the Korarchaeota.

  19. Investigating Microbial Habitats in Hydrothermal Chimneys using Ti-Thermocouple Arrays: Microbial Diversity (United States)

    Pagé, A.; Tivey, M. K.; Stakes, D. S.; Bradley, A. M.; Seewald, J. S.; Wheat, C. G.; Reysenbach, A.


    In order to examine the changes that occur in the microbial community composition as a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney develops, we deployed Ti-thermocouple arrays over high temperature vents at two active sites of the Guaymas Basin Southern Trough. Chimney material that precipitated around the arrays was recovered after 4 and 72 days. Chimney material that precipitated prior to deployment of the arrays was also recovered at one of the sites (Busted Shroom). Culture-independent analysis based on the small subunit rRNA sequence (cloning and DGGE) was used to determine the microbial diversity associated with subsamples of each chimney. The original Busted Shroom chimney (BSO) was dominated by members of the Crenarchaeota Marine Group I, a group of cosmopolitan marine Archaea, ɛ -Proteobacteria, and γ -Proteobacteria, two divisions of Bacteria that are common to deep-sea vents. The 4 days old Busted Shroom chimney (BSD1) was dominated by members of the Methanocaldococcaceae, hyperthermophilic methanogens, and the 72 days old chimney (BSD2) by members of the Methanosarcinaceae, mesophilic and thermophilic methanogens. At the second site, Toadstool, the 72 days old chimney material that had precipitated around the array (TS) revealed the dominance of sequences from uncultured marine Archaea, the DHVE group I and II, and from the ɛ -Proteobacteria. Additionally, sequences belonging to the Methanocaldococcaceae and Desulfurococcaceae were recovered next to thermocouples that were at temperatures of 109° C (at Busted Shroom) and 116° C (at Toadstool), respectively. These temperatures are higher than the upper limit for growth of cultured representatives from each family.

  20. Hydrothermal fluid composition at Middle Valley, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Temporal and spatial variability (United States)

    Cruse, Anna M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Saccocia, Peter J.; Zierenberg, Robert

    Hydrothermal fluids were collected in July 2000 from the Dead Dog and Ore Drilling Program (ODP) Mound vent fields at Middle Valley, a sediment-covered spreading center on the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge. Measured fluid temperatures varied from 187° to 281°C in focused flow vents and 40°C in ODP Hole 1035F. Cl concentrations indicate that ODP Mound fluids undergo phase separation in the subsurface, whereas Dead Dog fluids do not. The lack of phase separation at Dead Dog is consistent with other geochemical indicators of lower subsurface temperatures. Cooling and equilibration with quartz after phase separation at the ODP Mound results in exit temperatures and silica concentrations that are indistinguishable from those at Dead Dog. The sulfur isotopic composition of aqueous ΣH2S indicates extensive reduction of seawater SO4 and leaching of basaltic sulfur at both areas. A new area of venting, which resulted from drilling operations during ODP Leg 169, was discovered on the eastern side of the ODP Mound. The fluids in the new area have compositions that are similar to those of Hole 1035H and Shiner Bock, except for lower H2 and higher H2S concentrations. These differences reflect the conversion of pyrite to pyrrhotite in the ODP Mound as fluids react with sulfide minerals during upflow. Fluid temperatures and compositions have remained constant between 1990 and 2000 indicating that subsurface reaction zone conditions did not change over this period. Near constant concentrations of sediment-derived mobile trace elements suggest that the residence time of fluids in a high-temperature reservoir exceeds 10 years.

  1. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario


    in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  2. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered Structures That Favour .... aircraft. Total line kilometers of 36,500 were covered in the survey. Magnetic ... tie lines occur at about 2000 metres interval in the ... visual inspection of the map.

  3. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  4. Shuttle Gaseous Hydrogen Venting Risk from Flow Control Valve Failure (United States)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Baurle, Robert A.; Gafney, Richard L.; Norris, Andrew T.; Pellett, Gerald L.; Rock, Kenneth E.


    This paper describes a series of studies to assess the potential risk associated with the failure of one of three gaseous hydrogen flow control valves in the orbiter's main propulsion system during the launch of Shuttle Endeavour (STS-126) in November 2008. The studies focused on critical issues associated with the possibility of combustion resulting from release of gaseous hydrogen from the external tank into the atmosphere during assent. The Shuttle Program currently assumes hydrogen venting from the external tank will result in a critical failure. The current effort was conducted to increase understanding of the risk associated with venting hydrogen given the flow control valve failure scenarios being considered in the Integrated In-Flight Anomaly Investigation being conducted by NASA.

  5. A vented pump limiter for the reversed field pinch RFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonato, P.


    The reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma performance, as in the Tokamak, is strongly correlated with the edge neutral particle control. The drawbacks of the conventional magnetic divertors and throat limiters on the RFP plasma have slackened the application of an active particle control system in existing devices. An advanced solution, based on the idea of the 'vented pump limiter' experimented on Tore Supra, has been conceived for RFX. This type of pump limiter is very attractive for a RFP. In this paper, the design of a 'vented limiter' prototype for RFX is presented. Up to six modules of this limiter can be installed at the equatorial plane of RFX, allowing a particle exhaust efficiency comparable with a divertor or a throat limiter working in a Tokamak. Finally, the optimization of this concept for the next step RFP device is presented. (orig.)

  6. Radiological Design Summary Report for TRU Vent and Purge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taus, L.B.


    This report contains top-level requirements for the various areas of radiological protection for workers. Detailed quotations of the requirements for applicable regulatory documents can be found in the accompanying Implementation Guide. For the purposes of demonstrating compliance with these requirements, per Engineering Standard 01064, shall consider / shall evaluate indicates that the designer must examine the requirement for the design and either incorporate or provide a technical justification as to why the requirement is not incorporated. The Transuranic Vent and Purge process is not a project, but is considered a process change. This process has been performed successfully by Solid Waste on lower activity TRU drums. This summary report applies a graded approach and describes how the Transuranic Vent and Purge process meets each of the applicable radiological design criteria and requirements specified in Manual WSRC-TM-95-1, Engineering Standard Number 01064

  7. Request for approval, vented container annual release fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.


    In accordance with the approval conditions for Modification to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC). dated August 24,1998, a new release fraction has been developed for submittal to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The proposed annual release fraction of 2.50 E-14 is proposed for use in future NOCs involving the storage and handling operations associated with vented containers on the Hanford Site. The proposed annual release fraction was the largest release fraction calculated from alpha measurements of the NucFil filters from 10 vented containers consisting of nine 55-gallon drums and one burial box with dimensions of 9.3 x 5.7 x 6.4 feet. An annual release fraction of 2.0 E-09 was used in the modification to the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC. This study confirmed that the release fraction used in the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC was conservative

  8. Request for approval, vented container annual release fraction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.


    In accordance with the approval conditions for Modification to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC). dated August 24,1998, a new release fraction has been developed for submittal to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The proposed annual release fraction of 2.50 E-14 is proposed for use in future NOCs involving the storage and handling operations associated with vented containers on the Hanford Site. The proposed annual release fraction was the largest release fraction calculated from alpha measurements of the NucFil filters from 10 vented containers consisting of nine 55-gallon drums and one burial box with dimensions of 9.3 x 5.7 x 6.4 feet. An annual release fraction of 2.0 E-09 was used in the modification to the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC. This study confirmed that the release fraction used in the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC was conservative

  9. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.


    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z


    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  11. Geochemical features of sulfides from the Deyin-1 hydrothermal field at the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15°S