WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrothermal utilization power

  1. Evaluation of utility monitoring and preoperational hydrothermal modeling at three nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Policastro, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper evaluates the preoperational hydrothermal modeling and operational monitoring carried out by utilities as three nuclear-power-plant sites using once-through cooling. Our work was part of a larger study to assess the environmental impact of operating plants for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the suitability of the NRC Environmental Technical Specifications (Tech Specs) as set up for these plants. The study revealed that the plume mappings at the Kewaunee, Zion, and Quad Cities sites were generally satisfactory in terms of delineating plume size and other characteristics. Unfortunately, monitoring was not carried out during the most critical periods when largest plume size would be expected. At Kewaunee and Zion, preoperational predictions using analytical models were found to be rather poor. At Kewaunee (surface discharge), the Pritchard Model underestimated plume size in the near field, but grossly overestimated the plume's far-field extent. Moreover, lake-level variations affected plume dispersion, yet were not considered in preoperational predictions. At Zion (submerged discharge) the Pritchard Model was successful only in special, simple cases (single-unit operation, no stratification, no reversing currents, no recirculation). Due to neglect of the above-mentioned phenomena, the model underpredicted plume size. At Quad Cities (submerged discharge), the undistorted laboratory model predicted plume dispersion for low river flows. These low flow predictions appear to be reasonable extrapolations of the field data acquired at higher flows

  2. Hydrothermal optimal power flow using continuation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoofat, M.; Seifi, H.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of optimal economic operation of hydrothermal electric power systems is solved using powerful continuation method. While in conventional approach, fixed generation voltages are used to avoid convergence problems, in the algorithm, they are treated as variables so that better solutions can be obtained. The algorithm is tested for a typical 5-bus and 17-bus New Zealand networks. Its capabilities and promising results are assessed

  3. thermal power stations' reliability evaluation in a hydrothermal system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A quantitative tool for the evaluation of thermal power stations reliability in a hydrothermal system is presented. ... (solar power); wind (wind power) and the rest, thermal power and ... probability of a system performing its function adequately for ...

  4. Market Power in Hydro-Thermal Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edin, Karl-Axel

    2006-12-01

    Despite having had a deregulated electricity market in Sweden for over ten years we still need to increase our understanding as to how deregulated electricity markets actually work and how possible problems are to be solved. One question that is always in focus is if the competition between generators in the Nordic electricity market really works the way it was intended. Many argue that the concentration in ownership of generation plants already has gone too far. Together with joint ownership in nuclear facilities and barriers for entrance, critics say that this has resulted in higher electricity prices than necessary. In this report different methods to (ex ante) study potential possibilities for generating firms to influence the electricity price (market power) and (ex post) discover possible manipulation through analysing the spot price and other observed factors on the electricity market are analysed. The purpose of the longer underlying paper is to give a comprehensive treatment of the electricity market with storage, i.e. hydro power, with an auction market organisation and to test the models on the Nordic market in order to explore the explanatory power of auction market theory and the theory of contestable market. The main theoretical effort in the paper concerns auction theory with inventories. The paper develops an inter-temporal auction model of a thermal-hydro power market. Parallel to the derivation of the basic equations a numerical model is developed in order to illustrate the results of the model. Section 2 of the present paper summarizes the basic equations (derived in the longer paper) for an inter-temporal auction thermal-hydro market. Section 3 contains the illustrations of solutions to equations for some stylized markets. In section 4 the auction model is tested on the Nordic market

  5. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  6. Hydro-thermal power flow scheduling accounting for head variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, M.E.; Ravindranath, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors treat the problem of optimal economic operation of hydrothermal electric power systems with variable head hydro plants employing the power flow equations to represent the network. Newton's method is used to solve the problem for a number of test systems. A comparison with solutions with fixed head is presented. In general the optimal schedule requires higher slack bus and thermal power generation and cost in the case of variable head hydro plant than that required by the fixed head hydro plant in all demand periods. Correspondingly, the hydro generation is less in the case of variable head hydro plant compared to fixed head hydro plant. A negligible difference in voltage magnitudes in all the time intervals, but it is observed that slightly higher voltages occur in the case of the fixed head hydro plant. Higher power and energy losses occur in the case of variable head hydro plants compared to the fixed head hydro plants

  7. Short term economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy systems using improved water cycle algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, S.S.; Malik, T.N.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing environmental concerns, the demand of clean and green energy and concern of atmospheric pollution is increasing. Hence, the power utilities are forced to limit their emissions within the prescribed limits. Therefore, the minimization of fuel cost as well as exhaust gas emissions is becoming an important and challenging task in the short-term scheduling of hydro-thermal energy systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm known as WCA-ER (Water Cycle Algorithm with Evaporation Rate) to inspect the short term EEPSHES (Economic Emission Power Scheduling of Hydrothermal Energy Systems). WCA has its ancestries from the natural hydrologic cycle i.e. the raining process forms streams and these streams start flowing towards the rivers which finally flow towards the sea. The worth of WCA-ER has been tested on the standard economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy test system consisting of four hydropower and three thermal plants. The problem has been investigated for the three case studies (i) ECS (Economic Cost Scheduling), (ii) ES (Economic Emission Scheduling) and (iii) ECES (Economic Cost and Emission Scheduling). The results obtained show that WCA-ER is superior to many other methods in the literature in bringing lower fuel cost and emissions. (author)

  8. Power from biomass: the power utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimova, K.; Angele, H.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at possible strategies that electricity utilities in Switzerland could follow in order to be able to make use of biomass as a source of energy. Increasing interest in damp biomass as a relatively cheap, renewable and climate-friendly source of energy is commented on. Strategic choices that energy utilities have to make when they decide to enter into the biomass market are examined. The potentials involved are examined, including biogenic materials from domestic wastes and from agriculture. Figures on potential waste tonnage are quoted. Questions on subsidies and the free market are examined. The setting up of 'virtual power stations' - networks of installations using photovoltaic, wind and biomass - is discussed, as are various strategies that utilities can follow in this area. Examples of such 'virtual power stations' are listed.

  9. Supply of geothermal power from hydrothermal sources: A study of the cost of power in 20 and 40 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S. (Petty (Susan) Consulting, Solano Beach, CA (United States)); Livesay, B.J. (Livesay Consultants, Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States)); Long, W.P. (Carlin Gold Co., Inc., Grass Valley, CA (United States)); Geyer, J. (Geyer (John) and Associates, Vancouver, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    This study develops estimates for the amount of hydrothermal geothermal power that could be on line in 20 and 40 years. This study was intended to represent a snapshot'' in 20 and 40 years of the hydrothermal energy available for electric power production should a market exist for this power. This does not represent the total or maximum amount of hydrothermal power, but is instead an attempt to estimate the rate at which power could be on line constrained by the exploration, development and support infrastructure available to the geothermal industry, but not constrained by the potential market for power.

  10. Strategy for utilizing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    One of the national goals is to achieve independence in the area of energy supplies in the next few years. It is believed that attaining this goal will require extensive utilization of nuclear power in conventional fission reactors. It is proposed that the best way to develop the nuclear resource is through government ownership of the reactors. It is argued that this will minimize the risks associated with the nuclear-power option and clear the way for its exploitation

  11. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man month study was undertaken to identify utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980s. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items that must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  12. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  13. Purchasing non-utility power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackeen, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas

  14. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  15. Energy models for generation planning and midterm operation of hydrothermal power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amthauer, E

    1981-01-01

    The aims of generation planning and midterm operation of a power system are reliable and economical load coverage at any moment. For solving some of the planning tasks, it is advantageous to use energy models, if a large amount of power is installed in hydro-storage plants. Energy models apply the probability of load coverage in a given period as a quantitative measure for a power system's reliability provided the availability of the transmission network is given. Reliability may be influenced by installing new plants (longterm) or by committing the existing plants in a particular fashion. An evaluation of these activities makes it possible to determine decisions which optimize a given object function. In this thesis, energy models for the Swiss hydrothermal power system are derived and tested by simulation. For this utility, energy supply during the emptying period of the storage plants in winter is of special interest. Therefore, the criteria for generation planning are derived by analysing the distribution functions of future energy balances in winter periods. The committment of the existing plants and energy exchange with other utilities in a straight following winter period are planned by means of a sequential decision process. It is shown how strategies for these planning tasks are found with the models. Those model parameters, having the highest influence on reliable and economical load coverage are extracted by means of sensitivity analysis.

  16. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  17. Modeling and simulation of the power demand and supply of a hydrothermal power generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronini, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Security of supply of electric energy is measured by the capacity to cover the energy demand and power of a supply grid. This coverage is important because the winter peak load period in Switzerland will become problematical in the near future. The objective of this research project is to analyze the ability of a power generating system to satisfy the power requirements of the corresponding supply network. The behaviour of the energy system in critical cases (loss of the largest generator, lack of available power from an external supplier or reduced capacity for energy storage) is tested for the present situation and for the rise in the annual load. The simulation of the load of the supply network is carried out by using a model developed for this project. This model is based on the analysis of half-hourly changes of load and on the statistical maximum values. The power generating system consists of nuclear generating units, hydro units with large reservoirs, run of the river installations and imported energy. Standby units such as gas turbines, spot market and coal-fired power stations are also available. Stochastic and deterministic energy and power models have been developed for the various power stations of the hydrothermal power system. In the case of nuclear power stations, a model has been developed on the basis of the output level, production losses and time and length of outages. The possible feeder streams of the run of the river installations and of the hydro units with a large reservoir are simulated using stochastic methods based on the historical values of the last 35 years. The commitment of the hydro units depends on the peak load requirements. The load and capacity over a period of several days and weeks have been simulated with stochastic models based on the Monte Carlo method and constantly (by half hour intervals) compared. In this manner each month can be simulated. (author) figs., tabs., 46 refs

  18. Thorium utilization in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraceno; Marcos.

    1978-10-01

    In this work the recent (prior to Aug, 1976) literature on thorium utilization is reviewed briefly and the available information is updated. After reviewing the nuclear properties relevant to the thorium fuel cycle we describe briefly the reactor systems that have been proposed using thorium as a fertile material. (author) [es

  19. Gradient decent based multi-objective cultural differential evolution for short-term hydrothermal optimal scheduling of economic emission with integrating wind power and photovoltaic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huifeng; Yue, Dong; Xie, Xiangpeng; Dou, Chunxia; Sun, Feng

    2017-01-01

    With the integration of wind power and photovoltaic power, optimal operation of hydrothermal power system becomes great challenge due to its non-convex, stochastic and complex-coupled constrained characteristics. This paper extends short-term hydrothermal system optimal model into short-term hydrothermal optimal scheduling of economic emission while considering integrated intermittent energy resources (SHOSEE-IIER). For properly solving SHOSEE-IIER problem, a gradient decent based multi-objective cultural differential evolution (GD-MOCDE) is proposed to improve the optimal efficiency of SHOSEE-IIER combined with three designed knowledge structures, which mainly enhances search ability of differential evolution in the shortest way. With considering those complex-coupled and stochastic constraints, a heuristic constraint-handling measurement is utilized to tackle with them both in coarse and fine tuning way, and probability constraint-handling procedures are taken to properly handle those stochastic constraints combined with their probability density functions. Ultimately, those approaches are implemented on five test systems, which testify the optimization efficiency of proposed GD-MOCDE and constraint-handling efficiency for system load balance, water balance and stochastic constraint-handling measurements, those obtained results reveal that the proposed GD-MOCDE can properly solve the SHOSEE-IIER problem combined with those constraint-handling approaches. - Highlights: • Gradient decent method is proposed to improve mutation operator. • Hydrothermal system is extended to hybrid energy system. • The uncertainty constraint is converted into deterministic constraint. • The results show the viability and efficiency of proposed algorithm.

  20. Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)

  1. Techno-economic Assessment of Integrated Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Combined Heat and Power Production from Lignocellulose Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste biomass as a mean for global carbon dioxide emissions mitigation remains under-utilized. This is mainly due to the low calorific value of virgin feedstock, characterized generally with high moisture content. Aqueous processing, namely hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water conditions, has been demonstrated experimentally to thermally densify solid lignocellulose into liquid fuels without the pre-requisite and energy consuming drying step. This study presents a techno-economic evaluation of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction system with downstream combined heat and power production from forest residues. The utilization of the liquefaction by-products and waste heat from the elevated processing conditions, coupled with the chemical upgrading of the feedstock enables the poly-generation of biocrude, electricity and district heat. The plant thermal efficiency increases by 3.5 to 4.6% compared to the conventional direct combustion case. The economic assessment showed that the minimum selling price of biocrude, based on present co-products market prices, hinders commercialization and ranges between 138 EUR to 178 EUR per MWh. A sensitivity analysis and detailed discussion on the techno-economic assessment results are presented for the different process integration and market case scenarios.

  2. Citizen utilities: The emerging power paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jemma; Newman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of citizen-based power systems in an integrated grid has been anticipated for decades. We can reveal how this is emerging in practice due to the significant uptake of solar photovoltaics (solar PV) and now battery storage in Perth, Australia. The high cost of electricity, high radiant energy levels and easy access to cheap Chinese technology, has led to dramatic buying during Perth's recent boomtown years. The traditional uni-directional power system is rapidly disrupting and this paper assesses where this may lead and what it means for the grid. Results of detailed monitoring in a solar powered house along with the impact of a battery storage system show the impact on the traditional grid is substantial but it will still be needed and must therefore adapt to the new distributed, bi-directional energy system. Surveys and price trajectories reveal how the trends to solar power storage will continue and how a citizen utility paradigm will emerge as the future grid building block using new blockchain support systems. Responses from utilities are then see to be fight, flight or innovate. - Highlights: • Citizen based power systems are emerging in Perth, Western Australia. • Solar power and battery storage systems are disrupting traditional utilities. • The grid will still have a role in the new, distributed power system. • The new system will lead to economic localism and the democratisation of power.

  3. Custom power - the utility solution to distribution power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, N H [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The design of custom power products for electric power distribution system was discussed. Problems with power quality that result in loss of production to critical processes are costly and create a problem for the customer as well as the electric utility. Westinghouse has developed power quality improvement equipment for customers and utilities, using new technologies based on power electronics concepts. The Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) is a fast response, solid-state power controller that provides flexible voltage control for improving power quality at the point of connection to the utility`s 4.16 to 69 kV distribution feeder. STATCOM is a larger version of the DSTATCOM that can be used to solve voltage flicker problems caused by electric arc furnaces. Westinghouse has also developed a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) which protects a critical customer plant load from power system voltage disturbances. Solid-State Breakers (SSB) have also been developed which offer a solution to many of the distribution system problems that result in voltage sags, swells, and power outages. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment for co-utilization C-5 and C-6 sugars of cassava alcohol residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huisheng; Lv, Chunliu; Zhang, Minhua; Liu, Shuangyan; Liu, Jiatao; Lian, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cassava alcohol residue was first pretreated by hydrothermal reaction. • Hydrothermal pretreatment was optimized by RSM for co-utilization of C-5 and C-6 sugars. • The maximum xylose yield and the highest enzymatic digestibility were not obtained at the same conditions. • Optimum pretreatment conditions were at 193 °C, with 11.4% solids and for 51 min. • The optimal theoretical ethanol production was 69.5 mg/g raw materials by co-utilization of C-5 and C-6 sugars. - Abstract: Hydrothermal reaction was first applied to pretreat cassava alcohol residue for realizing the co-utilization of xylose and glucose to assume fermentation ethanol. This work focused on the influence of hydrothermal pretreatment conditions on ethanol production. Hydrothermal reaction was used to explore the maximum xylose and glucose yields, in respect to reaction temperature (120–240 °C), solid-liquid ratio (0.023–0.150) and reaction time (15–120 min). The results showed that the suitable conditions were at 180–200 °C, for 45–60 min and with 10–12.5% solids. In this range, the conjunct of xylose and glucose would reach the maximum, which can make full use of hemicellulose and cellulose in cassava alcohol residue. According to the results, respond surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was used to further optimize the three independent variables for the highest ethanol by co-utilization of xylose and glucose. RSM revealed that the effect of temperature on ethanol production was much more significant than the effect of reaction time and solid-liquid ratio, and the highest ethanol production was 70.6 mg/g that was close to the experiment value of 69.5 mg/g at 193 °C for 51 min and with 11.5% solids. Furthermore, the crystallinity and morphology of the untreated and pretreated cassava alcohol residue were investigated to assess the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD

  5. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw...

  6. Utilization of agricultural waste in power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J.C. [ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Rasmussen, I. [MIDTKRAFT Power Co., Aarhus (Denmark)

    1993-12-31

    It is a goal of the Danish energy policy for the last decade to reduce energy consumption and to introduce fuels for power production with less CO{sub 2} emission than coal. This measure has caused a considerable effort by the Danish utilities to develop technologies that reduce CO{sub 2} emissions without causing heavy cost increases of power. Agricultural waste in the form of surplus straw is available in an amount equivalent to 20% of the annual coal imports to Denmark. Straw firing is difficult due to its significant contents of alkaline components. Consequently, its utilization presupposes the development of new technologies. The biomass development program is concentrated on two ways which are (1) co-firing of existing coal fired power station with a modest amount of straw and (2) development of CFB technology that allows a high share of biomass as well as coal only. These options were tested in a coal fired 70 MW spreader stoker unit and a 125 MW PF unit. Approx. 4000 t of straw were burned. Additional tests will be launched this autumn, burning 35,000 t of straw at rates up to 20% straw. The CFB option is pursued from the platform of a 80 MWth unit, operational early `92. This plant burns a mix of 50% straw and 50% coal and consumes annually 70.000 t of straw. Future development is aiming towards CFBs of 250 MW(e), burning in excess of 50% biomass.

  7. Automatic generation control of an interconnected hydrothermal power system considering superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Rajesh Joseph; Das, D.; Patra, Amit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2007-10-15

    This paper presents the analysis of automatic generation control (AGC) of an interconnected hydrothermal power system in the presence of generation rate constraints (GRCs). The improvement of AGC with the addition of a small capacity superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit in either, as well as in both the areas are studied. Time domain simulations are used to study the performance of the power system and control logic. The optimal values of the integral gain settings are obtained using integral squared error (ISE) technique by minimising a quadratic performance index. Suitable method for controlling the SMES unit is described. Analysis reveals that SMES unit fitted in either of the areas is as effective as SMES units fitted in both the areas and improves the dynamic performances to a considerable extent following a load disturbance in either of the areas. (author)

  8. Neuro-Fuzzy Computational Technique to Control Load Frequency in Hydro-Thermal Interconnected Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, two areas hydro-thermal power system connected through tie-lines is considered. The perturbation of frequencies at the areas and resulting tie line power flows arise due to unpredictable load variations that cause mismatch between the generated and demanded powers. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. The intelligent controllers like fuzzy logic, artificial neural network (ANN) and hybrid fuzzy neural network approaches are used for automatic generation control for the two area interconnected power systems. Area 1 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area 2 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent (ANFIS, ANN and fuzzy) control and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of controller sliding surface i.e. variable structure control is included. The model of interconnected power system has been developed with all five types of said controllers and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The performance of the intelligent controllers has been compared with the conventional PI and PID controllers for the interconnected power system. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy and PI, PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN, fuzzy and PI, PID. Thus the hybrid fuzzy neural network controller has better dynamic response i.e., quick in operation, reduced error magnitude and minimized frequency transients.

  9. Utility challenges in a competitive power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    2001-01-01

    Allete, formerly Minnesota Power, is no longer an electric utility, but a broadly-diversified company operating in 39 states and 8 Canadian provinces. Allete provides retail services in their water and energy business. In addition, they provide wholesale services in their automotive service business, they sell land to developers and have entered into the telecommunications and paper making industry. Diversification has been successful for Allete, and has resulted in a strong balance sheet and cash flow. Graphs depicting the company's business earnings, assets and growth rates were included in this power point presentation. Allete plans to triple its size and continue to maintain its annual growth of 10 per cent or better. tabs., figs

  10. Telecommunications: international opportunities for power utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A. [Teleglobe Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    International telecommunications services markets and trends were reviewed in an effort to identify business opportunities for Canadian power utilities. With increasing deregulation in the U.S. and Canada, and other countries around the globe, market opportunities are beginning to open up. In monopoly markets opportunities exist in providing dual infrastructures to upgrade both the power delivery services (frequently poor), and telecommunications. Billing, collection and customer service expertise might be other marketable commodities, perhaps packaged as part of a network provision project as a service to existing power and telecommunications service providers. In countries with directed competition markets local partnerships may be the only vehicle for entering the market. In managed competition markets opportunities were said to exist in cellular radio technology, as well as in switched telephone service, local, long distance, or international. In general, opportunities outside telecommunications-rich North America were considered to have better potential, due to rapid deregulation and higher current growth rates in telecommunications. Careful examination and research of the political and business environment prior to entering any of the potentially fertile areas was advised.

  11. Thermal power sludge – properties, treatment, utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sisol

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a knowledge about properties of thermal power sludge from coal combustion in smelting boilers is presented. The physical and technological properties of slag – granularity, density, specific, volume and pouring weight, hardness and decoupling – together with chemical properties influence its exploitation. The possibility of concentrating the Fe component by the mineral processing technologies (wet low-intenzity magnetic separation is verified. An industrial use of the slag in civil engineering, e.g. road construction, was realised. The slag-fly ashes are directly utilized in the cement production as a substitute of a part of natural raw materials. For the use of slag as the stoneware in the road construction, all the criteria are fulfilled.

  12. A municipal utility seeks IPP power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), primarily located in Sacramento County, one of the ten highest growth areas in the U.S. today, serves a 900 square mile area with over 450,000 customers and has seen peak loads of about 2200 MW. In June of 1989, the customer-owners of SMUD, voted to shutdown the 913 MW Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station which constituted nearly one-half of the district's power resources. The need to immediately replace the lost capacity was somewhat tempered as a consequence of previously signed contracts with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) for 550 MW and with the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) for 300 MW. Both contracts provide power for only ten years, ending in 1999, and while being competitively priced in the early years, include significant escalation in capacity charges beginning in 1995, and always price energy at local natural gas market prices while including other arduous conditions. When combined with their hydroelectric and other resources these contracts allow SMUD to remain competitive. However, there remains the incentive, and ultimately necessity, of replacing the contracts with alternative resources. This paper describes an aggressive program to obtain replacement resources which will diversify SMUD's resource mix and protect their customer-owners from the uncertainties of the future while retaining the benefits of tax exempt financing and being their own stockholders

  13. TARGETING HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATIONS UTILIZING LANDSAT-8 ANDASTER DATA IN SHAHR-E-BABAK, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shahr-e-Babak tract of the Kerman metalogenic belt is one of the most potential segments of Urumieh–Dokhtar (Sahand-Bazman magmatic arc. This area encompasses several porphyry copper deposits in exploration, development and exploitation hierarchy. The aim of this study is to map hydrothermal alterations caused by early Cenozoic magmatic intrusions in Shahr-e-Babak area. To this purpose, mineral mapping methods including band combinations, ratios and multiplications as well as PCA and MNF data space transforms in SWIR and VNIR for both ASTER and OLI sensors. Alteration zones according to spectral signatures of each type of alteration mineral assemblages such as argillic, phyllic and propylitic are successfully mapped. For enhancing the target areas false color composites and HSI-RGB color space transform are performed on developed band combinations. Previous studies have proven the robust application of ASTER in geology and mineral exploration; nonetheless, the results of this investigation prove applicability of OLI sensor from landsat-8 for alteration mapping. According to the results, evidently OLI sensor data can accurately map alteration zones. Additionally, the 12-bit quantization of OLI data is its privilege over 8-bit data of ASTER in VNIR and SWIR, thus OLI high quality results, which makes it easy to distinguish targets with enhanced color contrast between the altered and unaltered rocks.

  14. Targeting Hydrothermal Alterations Utilizing LANDSAT-8 Andaster Data in Shahr-E Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M.; Pour, A. B.; Maghsoudi, A.; Hashim, M.

    2017-10-01

    Shahr-e-Babak tract of the Kerman metalogenic belt is one of the most potential segments of Urumieh-Dokhtar (Sahand-Bazman) magmatic arc. This area encompasses several porphyry copper deposits in exploration, development and exploitation hierarchy. The aim of this study is to map hydrothermal alterations caused by early Cenozoic magmatic intrusions in Shahr-e-Babak area. To this purpose, mineral mapping methods including band combinations, ratios and multiplications as well as PCA and MNF data space transforms in SWIR and VNIR for both ASTER and OLI sensors. Alteration zones according to spectral signatures of each type of alteration mineral assemblages such as argillic, phyllic and propylitic are successfully mapped. For enhancing the target areas false color composites and HSI-RGB color space transform are performed on developed band combinations. Previous studies have proven the robust application of ASTER in geology and mineral exploration; nonetheless, the results of this investigation prove applicability of OLI sensor from landsat-8 for alteration mapping. According to the results, evidently OLI sensor data can accurately map alteration zones. Additionally, the 12-bit quantization of OLI data is its privilege over 8-bit data of ASTER in VNIR and SWIR, thus OLI high quality results, which makes it easy to distinguish targets with enhanced color contrast between the altered and unaltered rocks.

  15. Microbial utilization of naturally occurring hydrocarbons at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California; depth, 2,000 m) is a site of hydrothermal activity in which petroliferous materials is formed by thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter. We investigated certain components of these naturally occurring hydrocarbons as potential carbon sources for a specific microflora at these deep-sea vent sites. Respiratory conversion of [1- 14 C]hexadecane and [1(4,5,8)- 14 C]naphthalene to 14 CO 2 was observed at 4 degree C and 25 degree C, and some was observed at 55 degree C, but none was observed at 80 degree C. Bacterial isolates were capable of growing on both substrates as the sole carbon source. All isolates were aerobic and mesophilic with respect to growth on hydrocarbons but also grew at low temperatures (4 to 5 degree C). These results correlate well with previous geochemical analyses, indicating microbial hydrocarbon degradation, and show that at least some of the thermally produced hydrocarbons at Guaymas Basin are significant carbon sources to vent microbiota

  16. Large-scale Wind Power integration in a Hydro-Thermal Power Market

    OpenAIRE

    Trøtscher, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This master thesis describes a quadratic programming model used to calculate the spot prices in an efficient multi-area power market. The model has been adapted to Northern Europe, with focus on Denmark West and the integration of large quantities of wind power. In the model, demand and supply of electricity are equated, at an hourly time resolution, to find the spot price in each area. Historical load values are used to represent demand which is assumed to be completely inelastic. Supply i...

  17. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  18. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system

  19. Analysis and planning of the utilization of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarka, P.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization coefficient as one of the characteristics of availability of nuclear power plants and the operation results (like maximum power, block number, and electric energy generation) are investigated by different statistic methods for several nuclear power plants with PWR type reactors and compared with those of WWER 440-type reactors. By means of linear many-parameter regression analysis the utilization coefficient is studied in dependence on block power and time after reactor commissioning. Forecastings of mean utilization coefficients are presented for the power of WWER 1000-type reactors

  20. Aspiration toward geothermal energy utilization in regional development plan. Part 6. ; Hydrothermal fluid utilization business in Matsuo-mura of Iwate prefecture. Chiiki keikaku ni okeru 'chinetsu riyo' eno hofu. 6. ; Iwateken Matsuomura no chinetsu nessui riyo jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otobe, Y; Furutate, E

    1992-10-31

    Twenty six years have passed since the first geothermal power station was constructed in Matsuo-mura of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. This paper describes the history, the present situation and the future conception of the geothermal energy utilization in this village. This village includes Hachimantai of a vantage ground in the center and has the gross area of 233.8km[sup 2], the annual average temperature of 8.3 centigrade and the continuous snow cover period of about 100 days. The hot water leading facility was cooperatively constructed by Japan Metals and Chemicals, Hachimantai Hot Spring Development and Matsuo-mura. The total working expense is 539.3 million yen. Hot water sources are the condensate from the condenser of geothermal power plant and hot spring. This mixed hot water of 4.3 t/min is led to respective facilities. The hot water supplying channel has the length of 12.8km from the power station through the Hachimantai hot spring resort, Kamiyogi to Takaishino. Respective total areas of greenhouses using hydrothermal fluid in both districts are 1,075ha and the inlet temperature of hot water is 60 centigrade and kinds of crop are 5 like green pepper and others. Takaishino agricultural park has selected flower and ornamental plant culture such as poppy anemone, stock and statice which are suitable for this district of low temperature and insufficient sunshine. The planted area is 10,700m[sup 2]. 2 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Multi-purpose utilization of hydrothermal resources within the City of El Centro. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, P.B.; Province, S.G.; Yamasaki, R.N.; Newman, K.L.

    1979-04-01

    The engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal heat from the Heber KGRA for space heating/cooling and water heating for domestic and industrial process applications within the City of El Centro was investigated. The analysis proceeds through an engineering survey of present conventional energy utilization within the City to identify and evaluate those end uses which could potentially utilize geothermal heat as a substitute for fossil fuel or electrically produced heating and cooling. A general engineering and economic evaluation of heat and cold delivery alternatives followed including evaluations of geothermal fluid transmission options, alternative refrigeration techniques, heat and cold transmission media options, probable systems interfaces, materials evaluations, projected conventional energy costs, life cycle costs for existing conventional systems, projected pricing requirements for privately and municipally developed geothermal resources, the relative distribution costs of heat delivery options, and estimated residential and commercial retrofit costs. A cost-effective plan for large-scale utilization of geothermal energy in El Centro for district heating/cooling and industrial applications was developed from this evaluation and preliminary conclusions drawn. Institutional barriers and environmental impacts associated with geothermal development in the City were also evaluated. Potentially adverse impacts were identified along with mitigating measures that should either completely eliminate or reduce these adverse effects to levels of insignificance.

  2. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of hexangular starfruit-like vanadium oxide for high power aqueous supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jie; Li, Xinyong; Qu, Qunting; Zheng, Honghe

    2012-12-01

    Homogenous hexangular starfruit-like vanadium oxide was prepared for the first time by a one-step hydrothermal method. The assembly process of hexangular starfruit-like structure was observed from TEM images. The electrochemical performance of starfruit-like vanadium oxide was examined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The obtained starfruit-like vanadium oxide exhibits a high power capability (19 Wh kg-1 at the specific power of 3.4 kW kg-1) and good cycling stability for supercapacitors application.

  3. MIT research reactor. Power uprate and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Lin-Wen [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is a university research reactor located on MIT campus. and has a long history in supporting research and education. Recent accomplishments include a 20% power rate to 6 MW and expanding advanced materials fuel testing program. Another important ongoing initiative is the conversion to high density low enrichment uranium (LEU) monolithic U-Mo fuel, which will consist of a new fuel element design and power increase to 7 MW. (author)

  4. Data communication standards for power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nortoft, P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the development of electric utility communication technology during the next decade is addressed. Two main factors are identified: the European Single Market, and the environmental tasks of the nineties. The standardization efforts in Europe are seen as the crank centering this development. some of the standardization efforts reflecting this trend are described

  5. Evaluation of the integrated hydrothermal carbonization-algal cultivation process for enhanced nitrogen utilization in Arthrospira platensis production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Changhong; Wu, Peichun; Pan, Yanfei; Lu, Hongbin; Chi, Lei; Meng, Yingying; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable microalgal cultivation at commercial scale requires nitrogen recycling. This study applied hydrothermal carbonization to recover N of hot-water extracted Arthrospira platensis biomass residue into aqueous phase (AP) under different operation conditions and evaluated the N utilization, biomass yield and quality of A. platensis cultures using AP as the sole N source. With the increase of temperature at 190-210°C or reaction time of 2-3h, the N recovery rate decreased under nitrogen-repletion (+N) cultivation, while contrarily increased under nitrogen-limitation (-N) cultivation. Under +N biomass accumulation in the cultures with AP under 190°C was enhanced by 41-67% compared with that in NaNO3, and the highest protein content of 51.5%DW achieved under 200°C-2h was also 22% higher. Carbohydrate content of 71.4%DW under -N cultivation achieved under 210°C-3h was 14% higher than that in NaNO3. HTC-algal cultivation strategy under -N mode could save 60% of conventional N. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High degree utilization of computers for design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Takao; Sawada, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are the huge technology in which various technologies are compounded, and the high safety is demanded. Therefore, in the design of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to carry out the design by sufficiently grasping the behavior of the plants, and to confirm the safety by carrying out the accurate design evaluation supposing the various operational conditions, and as the indispensable tool for these analysis and evaluation, the most advanced computers in that age have been utilized. As to the utilization for the design, there are the fields of design, analysis and evaluation and another fields of the application to the support of design. Also in the field of the application to operation control, computers are utilized. The utilization of computers for the core design, hydrothermal design, core structure design, safety analysis and structural analysis of PWR plants, and for the nuclear design, safety analysis and heat flow analysis of FBR plants, the application to the support of design and the application to operation control are explained. (K.I.)

  7. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  8. Power generating system and method utilizing hydropyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, R.

    1986-12-30

    A vapor transmission cycle is described which burns a slurry of coal and water with some of the air from the gas turbine compressor, cools and cleans the resulting low-Btu fuel gas, burns the clean fuel gas with the remaining air from the compressor, and extracts the available energy in the gas turbine. The cycle lends itself to combined-cycle cogeneration for the production of steam, absorption cooling, and electric power.

  9. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Orikawa; H. Kamahara; Y. Atsuta; H. Daimon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS) dewatered sludge). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic...

  10. A Multiobjective Interval Programming Model for Wind-Hydrothermal Power System Dispatching Using 2-Step Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihong, Qu

    2014-01-01

    Wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching has received intensive attention in recent years because it can help develop various reasonable plans to schedule the power generation efficiency. But future data such as wind power output and power load would not be accurately predicted and the nonlinear nature involved in the complex multiobjective scheduling model; therefore, to achieve accurate solution to such complex problem is a very difficult task. This paper presents an interval programming model with 2-step optimization algorithm to solve multiobjective dispatching. Initially, we represented the future data into interval numbers and simplified the object function to a linear programming problem to search the feasible and preliminary solutions to construct the Pareto set. Then the simulated annealing method was used to search the optimal solution of initial model. Thorough experimental results suggest that the proposed method performed reasonably well in terms of both operating efficiency and precision. PMID:24895663

  11. A multiobjective interval programming model for wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching using 2-step optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kun; Jihong, Qu

    2014-01-01

    Wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching has received intensive attention in recent years because it can help develop various reasonable plans to schedule the power generation efficiency. But future data such as wind power output and power load would not be accurately predicted and the nonlinear nature involved in the complex multiobjective scheduling model; therefore, to achieve accurate solution to such complex problem is a very difficult task. This paper presents an interval programming model with 2-step optimization algorithm to solve multiobjective dispatching. Initially, we represented the future data into interval numbers and simplified the object function to a linear programming problem to search the feasible and preliminary solutions to construct the Pareto set. Then the simulated annealing method was used to search the optimal solution of initial model. Thorough experimental results suggest that the proposed method performed reasonably well in terms of both operating efficiency and precision.

  12. Hydroelectric power utilization of the River Crna Reka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova-Davidovikj, Jasna

    2001-01-01

    In the paper several feasibility studies for rational use of the Macedonian River Crna Reka, developed by foreign companies are analysed. The utilization of the hydro-power potential of the River Crna Reka is predicted to be by realization of two hydroelectric power plants with total capacity of 450 MW, as well as annual electric power generation of 600 GWh. This two HPPs will facilitate the development of the Macedonian electric power system

  13. Utilities' view on the fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities engagement in nuclear power requires an increasing amount of fuel management activities by the utilities in order to meet all tasks involved. These activities comprise essentially two main areas: - activities to secure the procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; - activities related to the incore fuel managment. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be realized by the utilities. Starting in the past, today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The scope of utilities' fuel management activities is analyzed with respect to organizational aspects, technical aspects, safeguarding aspects, and financial aspects. Utilities taking active part in the fuel management serves to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during the whole plant life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be assured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or on a larger scale of a power plant system, i.e., utility activities to minimize the effects of fuel cycle on the environment, which includes optimization of fuel behaviour, radiation exposure to public and personnel, and utility technical and economic evaluations of out- and incore fuel management. These activities of nuclear power producing utilities in the field of nuclear fuel cycle are together with a close cooperation with fuel industry as well as national and international authorities a necessary basis for the further utilization of nuclear power

  14. Issues related to gas use by European power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchere, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-fired combined cycle frequently appears as a least-cost option for newly built power plants. Moreover, this option also brings obvious environmental benefits. But, power utilities, facing unavoidable long term uncertainties about electricity demand are not at ease with long term commitments such a a take-or-pay formula or a price indexation not reflecting the market place in the power generation industry. Due to the flexibilities in the management of existing power plants (deferred closures, etc...) or even on the demand side (load shifting, peak clipping, etc...), early decision making is not compulsory. Therefore, a gas breakthrough in the power sector interfuel competition will require a mutual understanding of constraints and flexibilities faced by partners: gas sellers and power utilities. A fair rent sharing between them would certainly be a prerequisite to a large but possibly temporary access of natural gas to the European power sector. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.Rose

    2000-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift om the traditional business model of utilities. This paper will focus on deregulation in thc United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  16. Deregulation of the electric utility industry - implications for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation movement sweeping the international electric utility community represents a dramatic shift from the traditional utility business model. This paper will focus on deregulation in the United States and the new challenges for nuclear power plant operators. An overview of the new operating models being implemented in the US will lead into a discussion on new economic and operating concerns for nuclear power plant operators. (author)

  17. Power Dependence in Individual Bargaining: The Expected Utility of Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward J.; Bacharach, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    This study uses power-dependence theory as a framework for examining whether and how parties use information on each other's dependence to estimate the utility of an influence attempt. The effect of dependence in expected utilities is investigated (by role playing) in bargaining between employer and employee for a pay raise. (MF)

  18. Utilization of excess wind power in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Wilfried; Mischinger, Stefan; Linssen, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of future wind power utilization for charging electric vehicles (EVs) in Germany. The potential wind power production in the model years 2020 and 2030 is derived by extrapolating onshore wind power generation and offshore wind speeds measured in 2007 and 2010 to the installed onshore and offshore wind turbine capacities assumed for 2020 and 2030. The energy consumption of an assumed fleet of 1 million EVs in 2020 and 6 million in 2030 is assessed using detailed models of electric vehicles, real world driving cycles and car usage. It is shown that a substantial part of the charging demand of EVs can be met by otherwise unused wind power, depending on the amount of conventional power required for stabilizing the grid. The utilization of wind power is limited by the charging demand of the cars and the bottlenecks in the transmission grid. -- Highlights: •Wind power available for charging depends on minimum required conventional power (must-run). •With 20 GW must-run power, 50% of charging can be met by excess wind power. •Grid bottlenecks decrease charging met by wind power from 50 % to 30 %. •With zero must-run power, only very little wind power is available for charging

  19. Electrolysis: Information and Opportunities for Electric Power Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Levene, J.; Harrison, K.; Sen, P.K.; Novachek, F.

    2006-09-01

    Recent advancements in hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications show promise for economical near- to mid-term conversion to a hydrogen-based economy. As the use of hydrogen for the electric utility and transportation sectors of the U.S. economy unfolds, electric power utilities need to understand the potential benefits and impacts. This report provides a historical perspective of hydrogen, discusses the process of electrolysis for hydrogen production (especially from solar and wind technologies), and describes the opportunities for electric power utilities.

  20. Impact of power purchases from non-utilities on the utility cost of capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.; Belden, T.

    1995-01-01

    The bond rating agencies in the USA have asserted that long-term power purchase contracts between non-utility generators and utilities are the equivalent of debt to the utilities, and therefore raise the cost of capital to the purchaser. Non-Utility generators claim that these contracts reduce risk to the utilities. This debate is reflected in the 1992 Energy Policy Act. This paper investigates this controversy from the perspective of the equity markets. Using a CAPM framework, various specifications of the cost of equity capital are estimated, to shed light on this question. No evidence is found for the hypothesis that non-utility generation contracts raise the cost of capital. There does appear to be a slight increase in this cost for those utilities seeking to build their own generation capacity as opposed to purchasing it from non-utility suppliers. (author)

  1. An analysis of electric utility embedded power supply costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.; Brown, D.

    1998-01-01

    There is little doubt that for the vast majority of electric utilities the embedded costs of power supply exceed market prices, giving rise to the stranded cost problem. Beyond that simple generalization, there are a number of crucial questions, which this study attempts to answer. What are the regional patterns of embedded cost differences? To what extent is the cost problem attributable to nuclear power? How does the cost of purchased power compare to the cost of utility self-generation? What is the breakdown of utility embedded generation costs between operating costs - which are potentially avoidable--and ownership costs, which by definition are ''sunk'' and therefore not avoidable? How will embedded generation costs and market prices compare over time? These are the crucial questions for states as they address retail-restructuring proposal. This study presents an analysis of generation costs, which addresses these key questions. A computerized costing model was developed and applied using FERC Form 1 data for 1995. The model analyzed embedded power supply costs (i.e.; self-generation plus purchased power) for two groups of investor-owned utilities, 49 non-nuclear vs. 63 nuclear. These two subsamples represent substantially the entire US investor-owned electric utility industry. For each utility, embedded cost is estimated both at busbar and at meter

  2. Viewpoint of utilities regarding fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    The engagement of utilities in nuclear power requires them to engage in an increasing amount of fuel management activities in order to carry out all the tasks involved. Essentially, these activities involve two main areas: The procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; and in-core fuel management. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be borne by the utilities. Today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The fuel management activities of the utilities are analysed with respect to organizational, technical, safeguarding, and financial aspects. The active participation of the utilities in fuel management helps to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during its whole life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be ensured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or, on a larger scale, of a power plant system, i.e. activities by utilities to minimize fuel-cycle effects on the environment, which include optimization of fuel behaviour, and radiation exposure to the public and personnel; and technical and economic evaluations by utilities of out- and in-core fuel management. (author)

  3. Optimal pricing of non-utility generated electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.N.; Baughman, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of an optimal pricing policy for pricing non-utility generated power is pointed out in this paper. An optimal pricing policy leads to benefits for all concerned: the utility, industry, and the utility's other customers. In this paper, it is shown that reliability differentiated real-time pricing provides an optimal non-utility generated power pricing policy, from a societal welfare point of view. Firm capacity purchase, and hence an optimal price for purchasing firm capacity, are an integral part of this pricing policy. A case study shows that real-time pricing without firm capacity purchase results in improper investment decisions and higher costs for the system as a whole. Without explicit firm capacity purchase, the utility makes greater investment in capacity addition in order to meet its reliability criteria than is socially optimal. It is concluded that the non-utility generated power pricing policy presented in this paper and implied by reliability differentiated pricing policy results in social welfare-maximizing investment and operation decisions

  4. Evaluation of the Geothermal Public Power Utility Workshops in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.

    2004-10-01

    The federal government devotes significant resources to educating consumers and businesses about geothermal energy. Yet little evidence exists for defining the kinds of information needed by the various audiences with specialized needs. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the Geothermal Municipal Utility Workshops that presented information on geothermal energy to utility resource planners at customer-owned utilities in California. The workshops were sponsored by the Western Area Power Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy's GeoPowering the West Program and were intended to qualitatively assess the information needs of municipal utilities relative to geothermal energy and get feedback for future workshops. The utility workshop participants found the geothermal workshops to be useful and effective for their purposes. An important insight from the workshops is that utilities need considerable lead-time to plan a geothermal project. They need to know whether it is better to own a project or to purchase geothermal electricity from another nonutility owner. California customer-owned utilities say they do not need to generate more electricity to meet demand, but they do need to provide more electricity from renewable resources to meet the requirements of the state's Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  5. Basic plan for nuclear power development and utilization in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents specific measures to be carried out in 1987 to promote research, development and application of nuclear power. The first part deals with the strengthening of safety measures, centering on the improvement in regulation and administration for nuclear power safety; promotion of safety studies; improvement and strengthening of disaster prevention measures; improvement and strengthening of environmental activity surveys; improvement in exposure control measures for nuclear power operation workers; and establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle and safety in such activities as development of new reactors. The second part of the report addresses the promotion of nuclear power generation. Measures for this will be focused on the promotion of location of nuclear power plants and the development of advanced technology for light water reactors. The third part describes measures for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle, which cover the procurement of uranium resources; enrichment of uranium; reprocessing of spent fuel and utilization of plutonium and recovered uranium; and disposal of radioactive waste. Other parts presents measures to be carried out for the development of new power reactors; research on nuclear fusion; development of nuclear powered vessels; application of radiations; improvement in the infrastructure for nuclear power development and utilization; etc. (Nogami, K.)

  6. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  7. Contribution to the operating energy planning of hydrothermal power systems; Contribuicao ao planejamento da operacao energetica de sistemas hidrotermicos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Adriano Alber de Franca Mendes

    1991-08-01

    This work treats of the problem of the planning of the energy operation of hydrothermal power systems, gone back to those with predominance of hydraulic generation, as it is the case of the Brazilian system. The work makes an analysis of the problem of the planning of the energy operation of systems hydrothermal leaving of the concepts and nature of this problem. Their inherent difficulties are shown and they come the main approaches in operation in countries with predominance of hydroelectric generation. It still introduces the methodology in energy planning in Brazil being pointed their main limitations. Finally an alternative model for the planning of the energy operation of the system brazilian hydrothermal, based on the made studies is also presented.

  8. National Maglev initiative: California line electric utility power system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Phil

    1994-01-01

    The electrical utility power system requirements were determined for a Maglev line from San Diego to San Francisco and Sacramento with a maximum capacity of 12,000 passengers an hour in each direction at a speed of 300 miles per hour, or one train every 30 seconds in each direction. Basically the Maglev line requires one 50-MVA substation every 12.5 miles. The need for new power lines to serve these substations and their voltage levels are based not only on equipment loading criteria but also on limitations due to voltage flicker and harmonics created by the Maglev system. The resulting power system requirements and their costs depend mostly on the geographical area, urban or suburban with 'strong' power systems, or mountains and rural areas with 'weak' power systems. A reliability evaluation indicated that emergency power sources, such as a 10-MW battery at each substation, were not justified if sufficient redundancy is provided in the design of the substations and the power lines serving them. With a cost of $5.6 M per mile, the power system requirements, including the 12-kV DC cables and the inverters along the Maglev line, were found to be the second largest cost component of the Maglev system, after the cost of the guideway system ($9.1 M per mile), out of a total cost of $23 M per mile.

  9. Electric utility power plant construction costs, 1st Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    New UDI report combines historical construction costs for more than 1,000 coal, oil, gas, nuclear and geothermal units that have entered commercial operation since 1966 and projected power plant construction costs for about 400 utility-owned generating units scheduled to enter commercial operation during the next 20 years. Key design characteristics and equipment suppliers, A/E, constructor and original installed cost data. Direct construction costs without AFUDC are provided where known. Historical construction cost data are also provided for about 130 utility-owned hydroelectric, gas turbine, combined-cycle and diesel units (these data are generally for units entering service after 1980)

  10. Financing the electric power utilities, especially the nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1975-04-01

    Electric power demands in Japan have shown a remarkable growth at an annual rate of 12% since 1965. Nine electric power companies have invested large amounts of money so far, amounting to over 1 trillion yen every year since 1972. A survey of the electric power supply system and an estimation of the electric power demands in 1980 and in 1985 are given. It is expected that the main portion of electric power in the future will gradually be generated by nuclear plants. Financial features of the electrical power utilities, the credit risk of the electric power utilities, and the raising of funds by electric power utilities are discussed. It is concluded that it will be necessary (1) to expand the capital market, (2) to enable the electric power companies to issue a sufficient amount of bonds, (3) to make the Government financing institutions, such as the Japan Development Bank, provide the electric power companies with larger funds on a long-term and low-interest rate basis, and (4) even to take such drastic steps as subsidizing interest on private loans to the electric power companies. (B.P.)

  11. Utilizing Solar Power Technologies for On-Orbit Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit may be reduced if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The cost of access to low Earth orbit may also be reduced by launching oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the form of water. To achieve this reduction in costs of access to low Earth orbit and beyond, a propellant depot is considered that electrolyzes water in orbit, then condenses and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Power requirements for such a depot require Solar Power Satellite technologies. A propellant depot utilizing solar power technologies is discussed in this paper. The depot will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit. It receives tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth, converts the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and stores up to 500 metric tons of cryogenic propellants. This requires a power system that is comparable to a large Solar Power Satellite capable of several 100 kW of energy. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotates once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power is used to run the electrolysis system. Thermal control is maintained by body-mounted radiators; these also provide some shielding against orbital debris. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. Emphasis is placed on the Water-Ice to Cryogen propellant production facility. A very high power system is required for cracking (electrolyzing) the water and condensing and refrigerating the resulting oxygen and hydrogen. For a propellant production rate of 500 metric tons (1,100,000 pounds) per year, an average electrical power supply of 100 s of kW is required. To make the most efficient use of space solar power, electrolysis is performed only during the portion of the orbit that the Depot is in sunlight, so roughly twice this power level is needed for operations in sunlight

  12. How EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] helps utilities save money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A number of case studies are presented which illustrate how the work of the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA has enabled nuclear utilities to save money. The areas covered by the examples are: steam generator tube repair; streamlining of reliability centred maintenance; cost effective instrumentation and control maintenance; reducing the frequency of instrument calibration; optimising the engineering change process; detecting and reducing fuel failure; extending the qualified life of equipment. (U.K.)

  13. Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommele, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dafoe, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Using electricity to power vehicles can help advance energy security and reduce emissions, and also presents a new market opportunity for utilities looking to diversify and offer an added benefit to commercial customers. By providing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations for their employees, commercial customers can help attract and retain a cutting-edge workforce. These employers also signal a commitment to sustainability and demonstrate progressive leadership and a willingness to adopt advanced technology.

  14. Bulk power system performance issues affecting utility peaking capacity additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrity, T.F. [GE Power Sytems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a discussion of transmission system constraints and problems that affect the siting and rating of peaking capacity additions. Techniques for addressing and modifying these concerns are presented. Particular attention is paid to techniques that have been successfully used by utilities to improve power transfer and system loadability, while avoiding the construction of additional transmission lines. Proven techniques for dealing with thermal, short-circuit level and stability issues are presented.

  15. Study of factors governing US utility nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Under DOE contract No. DE-AC02-79ET34009, The S.M. Stoller Corporation has conducted a study of US utility attitudes toward nuclear power. In the course of this study SMSC carried out a utility survey the objectives of which were: (1) to identify and rank in importance the governing considerations in actions taken in the past three years to cancel or defer nuclear projects, and (2) to gain insight into the circumstances and attitudes likely to govern new base-load commitments over the next several years. During the survey, contacts were made at the senior management level with utilities representing approximately half of the country's total electric capacity and two-thirds of its present nuclear commitment. Analysis of the responses led to the conclusion that most, if not all, of the decisions reached by the respondent utilities in the past several years to cancel or defer nuclear projects were triggered by one or a combination of the following four considerations: financial constraints; reduction in expected system load growth; schedule delay in licensing and construction and/or unpredictability; and adverse state government policies or attitudes regarding nuclear power

  16. Evolving natural gas markets: LNG possibilities for a hydrothermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Tiago B.; Resende, Joao P.; Costa, Agnes M. [Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The latest advancements in the natural gas - NG industry have brought new opportunities for the resource's application, especially in the power industry. On the one hand, rapid growth in demand and falling costs of transportation over long distances, particularly as liquefied natural gas - LNG, should lead to a more integrated NG world market. On the other, the deregulation of electricity markets and the growth of independent power producers - IPPs using NG as a fuel for generating peak load power have increased the demand for more flexible NG supply contracts. These factors have allowed a shift in the timing of investment and contract negotiation in NG market. Traditionally, firms searched for trading partners and signed long-term contracts before investing in infrastructure. In the evolving LNG market, producers invest in infrastructure before they have buyers for all their expected outputs, while buyers undertake investment before having firm contracts for all their expected NG needs. These technological and market changes may foster greater participation of a fully flexible NG power plants in the Brazilian electricity market. Nowadays, thermal power long-term capacity contracts customized and negotiated in the local electricity pool (ACR) require power producer to award guarantees of NG firm supply, substantially increasing their cost. A combination of flexible LNG supply contracts and electricity pool contracts may present a solution to the lack of competitiveness of NG power plants in the Brazilian power industry. (author)

  17. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  18. The licensing procedure for the construction of power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, C.

    1987-01-01

    The requirement to obtain licences for plants constitutes a form of state control over the construction of power utilities. Under the Federal Pollution Law and the Atomic Energy Law, only the environmental compatibility of the planned plant is verified. Verifications according to the Law on the Fuel and Electricity Industries and the Federal Pollution Law, respectively the Atomic Energy Law and the Law on Power Generation from Coal are effected independently of one another by the different authorities. The granting of licences for the individual power plants may be subject to different laws in each instance. This paper covers only the licensing procedure under the Federal Pollution Law and the Atomic Energy Law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Electric power bidding model for practical utility system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabavathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive open market environment has been created due to the restructuring in the electricity market. In the new competitive market, mostly a centrally operated pool with a power exchange has been introduced to meet the offers from the competing suppliers with the bids of the customers. In such an open access environment, the formation of bidding strategy is one of the most challenging and important tasks for electricity participants to maximize their profit. To build bidding strategies for power suppliers and consumers in the restructured electricity market, a new mathematical framework is proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each participant submits several blocks of real power quantities along with their bidding prices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on Indian Utility-62 bus system and IEEE-118 bus system. Keywords: Bidding strategy, Day ahead electricity market, Market clearing price, Market clearing volume, Block bid, Intermediate value theorem

  20. Outlook for gas turbine plant utilization in htgr power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beknev, V.S.; Leont'ev, A.I.; Shmidt, K.L.; Surovtsev, I.G.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear reactor power plants that have found greatest favor in the nuclear power industry worldwide are pressurized water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and uranium-graphite channel reactors with saturated-steam steam turbine units (PTU). The efficiency of power generating stations built around reactors such as these does not exceed 30 to 32%, and furthermore they are ''tied down'' to water reservoirs, with the entailed severe thermal effects on the environmental surroundings. The low efficiency range cited is evidence of inefficacious utilization of the nuclear fuel, reserves of which have their limits just as there are limits to available reserves of fossil fuels. Forecasts are being floated of a possible uranium crisis (profitable mining of uranium) in the mid-1990's, even with the expected development of breeder reactors to bridge the gap

  1. The economic value of accurate wind power forecasting to utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S J [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Giebel, G; Joensen, A [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind power, the need for accurate forecasting is becoming ever more important. Wind power is by its very nature intermittent. For utility schedulers this presents its own problems particularly when the penetration of wind power capacity in a grid reaches a significant level (>20%). However, using accurate forecasts of wind power at wind farm sites, schedulers are able to plan the operation of conventional power capacity to accommodate the fluctuating demands of consumers and wind farm output. The results of a study to assess the value of forecasting at several potential wind farm sites in the UK and in the US state of Iowa using the Reading University/Rutherford Appleton Laboratory National Grid Model (NGM) are presented. The results are assessed for different types of wind power forecasting, namely: persistence, optimised numerical weather prediction or perfect forecasting. In particular, it will shown how the NGM has been used to assess the value of numerical weather prediction forecasts from the Danish Meteorological Institute model, HIRLAM, and the US Nested Grid Model, which have been `site tailored` by the use of the linearized flow model WA{sup s}P and by various Model output Statistics (MOS) and autoregressive techniques. (au)

  2. Power Oscillation Damping Controller for Wind Power Plant Utilizing Wind Turbine Inertia as Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2011-01-01

    For a wind power plant (WPP) the upper limit for active power output is bounded by the instantaneous wind conditions and therefore a WPP must curtail its power output when system services with active power are delivered. Here, a power oscillation damping controller (POD) for WPPs is presented...... that utilizes the stored kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) mechanical system as energy storage from which damping power can be exchanged. This eliminates the need for curtailed active power production. Results are presented using modal analysis and induced torque coefficients (ITC) to depict the torques...... induced on the synchronous generators from the POD. These are supplemented with nonlinear time domain simulations with and without an auxiliary POD for the WPP. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....

  3. Survey of thorium utilization in power reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.H.; Schleifer, P.; Dahlberg, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    It is clear that thorium-fueled thermal power reactor systems based on current technology can play a vital role in serving present and long-term energy needs. Advanced thorium converters and thermal breeders can provide an expanded resource base from which the world's growing energy demands can be met. Utilization of a symbiotic system of fast breeders and thorium-fueled thermal reactors can be particularly effective in providing low cost power while conserving uranium resources. Breeder reactors are characterized by high capital costs and very low fuel costs since they produce more fuel than they consume. This excess fuel can be used to fuel thermal converter reactors whose capital costs are low. This symbiosis is optimized when 233 U is bred in the fast breeders and then used to fuel high-conversion-ratio thermal converter reactors operating on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The thorium-cycle HTGR, after undergoing more than fifteen years of development in both the United States and Europe, provides for the optimum utilization of our limited uranium resources. Other thermal reactor systems, previously operating on the uranium cycle, also show potential in their capability to utilize the thorium cycle effectively

  4. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Hector; Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos; Lambert, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO 2 to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO 2 . The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO 2 . - Highlights: → We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. → Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. → Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. → Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. → Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  5. Utilization of waste heat from nuclear power plants in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of nuclear power will result in the relative and absolute increase in the amount of waste heat which can be used in agriculture for heating greenhouses, open spaces, for fish breeding in heated water, for growing edible mushrooms, growing algae, for frost protection of orchards, air conditioning of buildings for breeding livestock and poultry, and for other purposes. In addition of the positive effect of waste heat, the danger increases of disease, weeds and pests. Pilot plant installations should be build in Czechoslovakia for testing the development of waste heat utilization. (Ha)

  6. Threats and opportunities facing the power utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    This address describes how, throughout the world, technological, ideological, and economic forces are reshaping the way one works and does business. The electric power industry, one of the last bastions of conservatism, has awakened to the fact that it, too, is not immune to the pressure for change. It realizes that it cannot afford to bury its head in the sand when confronted with this challenge. This awakening will provide utilities with the stimulus needed to be innovative and cooperative, in partnership with their customers, in their response to this new business opportunity

  7. Coping with nuclear power risks: the electric utility incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.; Whipple, C.

    1982-01-01

    The financial risks associated with nuclear power accidents are estimated by interpolating between frequency-vs.-severity data from routine outages and the frequency-vs.-severity estimates from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This analysis indicates that the expected costs of plant damage and lost power production are large compared to the public risks estimated in WASH-1400, using values from An Approach to Quantitative Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG-0739), prepared by the NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of accident-prevention investments that include only anticipated public safety benefits will underestimate the value of such investments if reductions in power plant damage risk are not included. The analysis also suggests that utility self-interest and the public interest in safety are generally coincident. It is argued that greater use could be made of this self-interest in regulation if the relationship between the NRC and the industry were more cooperative, less adversary in nature

  8. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Fuchs, Sven

    and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological......Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use...... on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface...

  9. The relationship among CPU utilization, temperature, and thermal power for waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Anna M.; Sherbeck, Jon; Phelan, Patrick; Varsamopoulos, Georgios; Gupta, Sandeep K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work graphs a triad relationship among CPU utilization, temperature and power. • Using a custom-built cold plate, we were able capture CPU-generated high quality heat. • The work undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil to directly cool CPUs. • We found that it is possible to use CPU waste energy to power an absorption chiller. - Abstract: This work addresses significant datacenter issues of growth in numbers of computer servers and subsequent electricity expenditure by proposing, analyzing and testing a unique idea of recycling the highest quality waste heat generated by datacenter servers. The aim was to provide a renewable and sustainable energy source for use in cooling the datacenter. The work incorporates novel approaches in waste heat usage, graphing CPU temperature, power and utilization simultaneously, and a mineral oil experimental design and implementation. The work presented investigates and illustrates the quantity and quality of heat that can be captured from a variably tasked liquid-cooled microprocessor on a datacenter server blade. It undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil. The trials examine the feasibility of using the thermal energy from a CPU to drive a cooling process. Results indicate that 123 servers encapsulated in mineral oil can power a 10-ton chiller with a design point of 50.2 kW th . Compared with water-cooling experiments, the mineral oil experiment mitigated the temperature drop between the heat source and discharge line by up to 81%. In addition, due to this reduction in temperature drop, the heat quality in the oil discharge line was up to 12.3 °C higher on average than for water-cooled experiments. Furthermore, mineral oil cooling holds the potential to eliminate the 50% cooling expenditure which initially motivated this project

  10. The Municipal Electrical Utilities' role in buying and selling power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    Ontario's Municipal Electrical Utilities (MEUs) are the front-line providers of electricity services for most of the consumers in Ontario. MEUs serve 2.8 million customers (about 70 per cent of all power sold in Ontario). The new regulatory regime resulting from Ontario's Energy Competition Act (1998) will significantly impact MEUs. The changes aim to consolidate and rationalize the point of sale provision of power to Ontario customers and increase the efficiency of the sector. The Energy Competition Act (1998) creates a competitive electricity marketplace and provides mechanisms for its operation, but it is the MEUs which will bear the risk of market failures. Some of the changes which will be most important to MEUs are: (1) incorporation, (2) default supplier, and (3) oversight by the OEB. It is the author's view that the move towards open markets in electricity is unlikely to enlarge the decision making power of MEUs. On the contrary, the legislative scheme creates a complex regulatory environment wherein the distribution corporation must strictly comply with the OEB's requirements and public policy concerns in exercising its functions. As the MEUs essentially serve as a buffer in the newly opened retail markets, they must find ways to minimize their risk of market failures or spread the cost so as to remain viable commercial entities. They must also devise new information systems prior to the opening of the new market to deal with customer and default consumer pricing, billing and transfer of customers to and from retailers. Municipal utilities will also have to consider restructuring of their own operations, including determining which businesses should be pursued through competitive affiliates

  11. Utilization of brown coal in FRG power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1985-07-01

    FRG methods are studied for utilizing brown coal in view of the development of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal deposits. The use of brown coal in FRG power plants has increased from 15% in 1950- 1960 to 85% (total output) in 1982, providing 79.4 TWh of electrical energy. The remainder was used for briquetting, pulverization and breeze coke. In 1982 nearly 100 million tons of brown coal were burned by six large power stations (rated capacity 11,400 MW) to produce nearly 80 billion kWh of energy. Measures are discussed taken to reduce slagging and to remove excessive moisture content. Problems are analyzed associated with increased contamination of the atmosphere in areas with high population density (412/km/sup 2/) and cost of suppression is reviewed. According to available data, the cost of preventive measures taken by FRG, USA, Japan and the Netherlands is equal to 30% of the total cost of the energy. The most critical problem is suppression of sulfur dioxide, either by dry or wet scrubbers or by the addition of dry dolomite or lime to the furnace (75% of all SO/sub 2/ emissions in FRG comes from power stations). A method is described developed by RWE based on a series of distribution headers in the upper part of combustion chambers. At best, 70-80% reduction can be achieved. 14 references.

  12. The future of utility-scale wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, S.; Thresher, R.; Williams, T.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that by 2030, wind power could potentially displace between 3 and 4 quadrillion (10 15 ) Btus (quads) of primary energy, with an installed electrical generation capacity of 120,000 to 160,000 MW. This forecast is based upon economic analyses indicating that the costs of wind-generated electricity could be cost competitive with conventional fossil-fuel-based generation by early next century. The key to realizing this objective is overcoming technical challenges to the development of a next-generation of advanced wind turbines. These challenges include the detailed characterization of wind inflow to turbines at wind-power-plant sites, an understanding of unsteady aerodynamics, the development of sophisticated computer models of all aspects of turbine operation, and the application of a better understanding of component and system fatigue to new designs. Advanced wind systems will include such new technologies as blade designs incorporating advanced airfoils and new materials, variable-speed operation, advanced power electronics, rotor-hub enhancements, tall towers, aerodynamic controls, advanced drive trains, and expert control systems. A larger market share for wind energy will also require the resolution of issues surrounding transmission, storage, and the integration of an intermittent energy source into the utility grid

  13. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  14. Power quality enhancement at distribution level utilizing the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadkikar, Vinod

    The present doctoral work is based on the philosophy of optimal utilization of the available resources in a most effective and efficient way to improve the product efficiency and to reduce the overall cost. This work proposes a novel control philosophy termed as power angle control (PAC), in which both the series and shunt inverters share the load reactive power in co-ordination with each other without affecting the basic UPQC compensation capabilities. This eventually results in a better utilization of the series inverter, reduction in the shunt inverter rating to some extent and ultimately in the reduction of the overall cost of UPQC. Moreover, in this thesis work several other control approaches are also proposed, such as, unit vector template generation, quadrature voltage injection, generalized single-phase p-q theory and novel current unbalance compensation approach. All the developed concepts are successfully validated through digital simulation as well as extensive experimental investigations. Keywords. power quality, active power filter, unified power quality conditioner, reactive power compensation, harmonics compensation.

  15. Synthesis of high intrinsic loss power aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted hydrothermal-reduction route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behdadfar, Behshid; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Mozaffari, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that certain concentrations of citric acid (CA) are required to obtain only magnetic iron oxides with mean particle sizes around 8 nm. CA acts as a modulator and reducing agent in iron oxide formation which controls nanoparticle size. The XRD, magnetic and heating measurements showed that the temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction can affect the magnetic properties of obtained ferrofluids. The synthesized ferrofluids were stable at pH 7. Their mean hydrodynamic size was around 80 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.158. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 9.4 nHm 2 /kg. So this clean and cheap route is an efficient way to synthesize high ILP aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. - Graphical abstract: Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction method with citric acid as reductant which is an efficient way to synthesize aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. Highlights: ► Aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. ► Citric acid acted as reducing agent and surfactant in the route. ► This is a facile, low energy and environmental friendly route. ► The aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were monodispersed and stable at pH of 7. ► The calculated intrinsic loss power of the synthesized ferrofluids was very high.

  16. Compiling Utility Requirements For New Nuclear Power Plant Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, Eero

    2002-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted in November 2000 to the Finnish Government an application for a Decision-in-Principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Finland. The actual investment decision can be made first after a positive decision has been made by the Government and the Parliament. Parallel to the licensing process, technical preparedness has been upheld so that the procurement process can be commenced without delay, when needed. This includes the definition of requirements for the plant and preliminary preparation of bid inquiry specifications. The core of the technical requirements corresponds to the specifications presented in the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document, compiled by major European electricity producers. Quite naturally, an amount of modifications to the EUR document are needed that take into account the country- and site-specific conditions as well as the experiences gained in the operation of the existing NPP units. Along with the EUR-related requirements concerning the nuclear island and power generation plant, requirements are specified for scope of supply as well as for a variety of issues related to project implementation. (author)

  17. Dynamic Power Management for Portable Hybrid Power-Supply Systems Utilizing Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the optimization of power flows in portable hybrid power-supply systems (HPSSs has become an important issue with the advent of a variety of mobile systems and hybrid energy technologies. In this paper, a control strategy is considered for dynamically managing power flows in portable HPSSs employing batteries and supercapacitors. Our dynamic power management strategy utilizes the concept of approximate dynamic programming (ADP. ADP methods are important tools in the fields of stochastic control and machine learning, and the utilization of these tools for practical engineering problems is now an active and promising research field. We propose an ADP-based procedure based on optimization under constraints including the iterated Bellman inequalities, which can be solved by convex optimization carried out offline, to find the optimal power management rules for portable HPSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is tested through dynamic simulations for smartphone workload scenarios, and simulation results show that the proposed strategy can successfully cope with uncertain workload demands.

  18. Optimizing the Utility Power of a Geothermal Power Plant using Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) (Case Study: Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, R. H. M.; Manik, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant (SGPP) is one of the plants being developed by Pertamina Geothermal Energy (PGE) at the upstream phase. At the downstream phase, State - owned Electricity Company (PLN) through PT. Dizamatra Powerindo is the developer. The gross capacity of the power plant is 13.3 MW, consisting 1 unit of Monoblock (2 MW) developed by PGE and 2 units (2×5.65 MW) operated through Energy Sales Contract by PLN. During the development phase of a geothermal power plant, there is a chance to reduce the utility power in order to increase the overall plant efficiency. Reducing the utility power can be attempted by utilizing the wet bulb temperature fluctuation. In this study, a modeling process is developed by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software version 9.430. The possibility of energy saving is indicated by condenser pressure changes as a result of wet bulb temperature fluctuation. The result of this study indicates that the change of condenser pressure is about 50.8% on the constant liquid/gas (L/G) condition of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C. Further result indicates that in this power plant, Cooling Tower Fan (CTF) is the facility that has the greatest utility load, followed by Hot Well Pump (HWP). The saving of the greatest utility load is applied trough Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) instrumentation. The result of this modeling has been validated by actual operations data (log sheet). The developed model has also been reviewed trough Specific Steam Consumption (SSC), resulting that constant L/G condition allows the optimum condition on of the wet bulb temperature of 15°C to 25°C.

  19. Planning of the power hydrothermal system operation - alternatives for the modelling and uncertainties treatment; Planejamento da operacao de sistemas hidrotermicos de potencia - alternativas de modelagem e o tratamento das incertezas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Andre Flavio Soares; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mails: apereira@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; Barbosa, Paulo Sergio Franco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mail: franco@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The complexity of the operation scheduling of hydrothermal power systems lies, among other factors, in the interconnection between the operation decision in a certain stage and the future consequences of such decision. The operation of a hydrothermal power system comprises from the supervision and real time control of the generation and transport of electricity, to aspects as the modelling of the uncertainties concerning the future stream flows and the optimised management of the hydro power plant reservoirs. This work addresses a general formulation of the operation scheduling problem of hydrothermal power systems; a brief presentation of the various optimization techniques which can be used in its solution; and a discussion about the main alternatives that has been adopted to model the problem and to deal with its main uncertainties. (author)

  20. Mortality monitoring design for utility-scale solar power facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dietsch, Thomas; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-05-27

    unique conditions encountered at solar facilities. In particular, unlike at wind-power facilities, the unimpeded access to almost all areas within the facilities, the typically flat terrain, and general absence of thick vegetation allow distance-sampling techniques (Buckland and others, 2001, 2004) to be exploited to advantage at industrial solar sites. These protocols build on the work of Nicolai and others (2011), and as our understanding and techniques for monitoring improve, the methods may be further modified to incorporate improvements in the future. We present case studies based on monitoring methods currently implemented at different utility-scale solar facilities to illustrate how distance-sampling techniques may improve overall detectability without substantially increasing costs. Every facility is unique, and the protocols presented may be adapted based on specific monitoring objectives and conditions at each site.We provide guidance for designing monitoring programs whose objective it is to estimate the total number of bird and bat fatalities occurring at a facility over an extended period of time. We address spatial variation in causes of mortality, as well as potential sources of imperfect detection, for example, animals falling in or moving to unsearched areas, carcasses removed by predators, and carcasses missed by searchers. We suggest methods to estimate and account for each source of imperfect detection. This document focuses on monitoring design only and does not discuss approaches for estimating mortality from collected data. The development of statistically sound estimators relevant to the solar context is a current topic of research, although there are already strong foundations for estimation with distance-sampling methods in similar open, arid environments (Anderson and others, 2001; Freilich and others, 2005). Nonetheless, if protocols described in this document are followed, the resulting data will be adequate and sufficient for estimating

  1. Enhancing power generation of floating wave power generators by utilization of nonlinear roll-pitch coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrapragada, Karthik; Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2017-09-01

    We propose utilization of the nonlinear coupling between the roll and pitch motions of wave energy harvesting vessels to increase their power generation by orders of magnitude. Unlike linear vessels that exhibit unidirectional motion, our vessel undergoes both pitch and roll motions in response to frontal waves. This significantly magnifies the motion of the vessel and thus improves the power production by several orders of magnitude. The ocean waves result in roll and pitch motions of the vessel, which in turn causes rotation of an onboard pendulum. The pendulum is connected to an electric generator to produce power. The coupled electro-mechanical system is modeled using energy methods. This paper investigates the power generation of the vessel when the ratio between pitch and roll natural frequencies is about 2 to 1. In that case, a nonlinear energy transfer occurs between the roll and pitch motions, causing the vessel to perform coupled pitch and roll motion even though it is only excited in the pitch direction. It is shown that co-existence of pitch and roll motions significantly enhances the pendulum rotation and power generation. A method for tuning the natural frequencies of the vessel is proposed to make the energy generator robust to variations of the frequency of the incident waves. It is shown that the proposed method enhances the power output of the floating wave power generators by multiple orders of magnitude. A small-scale prototype is developed for the proof of concept. The nonlinear energy transfer and the full rotation of the pendulum in the prototype are observed in the experimental tests.

  2. Hydrothermal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  3. Utilization of space technology for terrestrial solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Patterson, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial applications, giving attention to problem areas which are currently impeding the further development of such systems. The rooftop testing of surplus solar panels is considered along with solar powered seismic observatories, solar powered portable radio sets, and design considerations identified from past experience. Present activities discussed are related to a solar powered on-shore beacon flasher system, a solar powered buoy, and a solar powered beacon flasher buoy.

  4. Owners of nuclear power plants: Percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1987-08-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of June 1, 1987. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docked for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally canceled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants/licensees and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants/licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OL's). Footnotes for both parts appear at the end of this document

  5. Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommele, Stephen; Dafoe, Wendy

    2016-06-01

    As stewards of an electric grid that is available almost anywhere people park, utilities that support workplace charging are uniquely positioned to help their commercial customers be a part of the rapidly expanding network of charging infrastructure. Utilities understand the distinctive challenges of their customers, have access to technical information about electrical infrastructure, and have deep experience modeling and managing demand for electricity. This case study highlights the experiences of two utilities with workplace charging programs.

  6. Low Power Microrobotics Utilizing Biologically Inspired Energy Generation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I study, the study team will investigate the usability of a microbial fuel cell to power a small microrover, design low-power electronics for effective...

  7. Electric Utility Generating Units: Repealing the Clean Power Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Power Plan established emission guidelines for states to follow in limiting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from existing power plants. EPA is proposing to repeal the CPP and rescind the accompanying legal memorandum.

  8. On the state of the art and some trends in industrial utilization of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockstroh, R.

    1980-01-01

    The status achieved in nuclear power utilization in the world and the prospects of further development are presented. Concerning the technological maturity as well as the economy and the environmental aspects the experience hitherto obtained enables the conclusion that nuclear plants have not to fear any comparison with conventional power stations. The social difficulties in the industrially developed capitalist countries in managing the complex problems of utilizing nuclear power are described and commented. Some political aspects of further nuclear power development are also indicated. Information is given about the measures and some objectives for acceleration of nuclear power utilization in the CMEA member states. (author)

  9. Utilization and storage problems in wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molly, J P

    1977-01-01

    The energy yield of a power plant consisting of wind energy converter and storer is considerably influenced by the choice of specific characteristic values of both components. Boundary conditions of the optimization process are site, consumer behavior and a minimum demand of supply safety. If the costs of the power plant components are known, then one may determine the cheapest wind power plant taking account of the boundary conditions. The preconditions and way of calculation for optimum rotary number, the best specific rotor disk power and the necessary storage capacity for a certain supply safety are given.

  10. About Economy of Fuel at Thermal Power Stations due to Optimization of Utilization Diagram of Power-Generating Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Svechko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of rational fuel utilization becomes more and more significant especially for thermal power stations (TPS. Thermal power stations have complicated starting-up diagrams and utilization modes of their technological equipment. Method of diagram optimization of TPS equipment utilization modes has been developed. The method is based on computer analytical model with application of spline-approximation of power equipment characteristics. The method allows to economize fuel consumption at a rate of 15-20 % with accuracy of the predicted calculation not more than 0.25 %.

  11. Utilization of graph theory in security analysis of power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Válek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes way how to use graph theory in security analysis. As an environment is used network of power lines and devices which are included here. Power grid is considered as a system of nodes which make together graph (network. On the simple example is applied Fiedler´s theory which is able to select the most important power lines of whole network. Components related to these lines are logicly ordered and considered by author´s modified analysis. This method has been improved and optimalized for risks related with illegal acts. Each power grid component has been connected with possible kind of attack and every of this device was gradually evaluated by five coefficients which takes values from 1 to 10. On the coefficient basis was assessed the level of risk. In the last phase the most risky power grid components have been selected. On the selected devices have been proposed security measures.

  12. Utilities get more involved in Inpo [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) was established four years ago in a bid to foster self improvement and self regulation among the American nuclear power utilities. A significant increase in utility commitment and involvement in many of its programmes appears to have made 1983 a very good year for INPO. (U.K.)

  13. Green power programs in Canada : 2003 : overview of Government green power policies, utility green power implementation initiatives, green power and certificate marketing programs, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.; Bramley, M.; Holmes, R.

    2004-09-01

    Green power is defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. It offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities in Canada associated with these four categories in 2003 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Green power generation facilities in 2003 totaled 775 MW of capacity compared to 539 MW in 2002. Hydro capacity represented 41 per cent, followed by wind capacity at 40 per cent and wood waste at 17 per cent. Most of the green power generation facilities in 2003 were located in Alberta, followed by British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 230 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Utilizing the building envelope for power generation and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Wang, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat loading of the building envelope is caused by strong solar radiation and incorrect material selection. As a result of the heat loading of the building envelope, the indoor air temperature is increased, resulting in high energy consumption by air conditioners to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment. This study explores the use of a hybrid wall integrated with heat collectors (water piping system) and solar thermal power generators, which absorbs solar radiation through water to reduce heat transmission thereby saving energy and generating power. Power generation is achieved by an OD (oscillator device) that installed between a water tank (hot side) and building interior (cold side). The device acts by temperature differences between hot air (expansion) and cold air (contraction). CFD (computational dynamic simulation) was used to assess the effects of the hybrid wall on the interior environment. The results show that exterior heat is absorbed by cool water thereby reducing the heat transmission into the building, resulting in less energy consumption by air conditioners and power generation by use of temperature differences. - Highlights: • This study explores a hybrid building wall to save energy and generate power. • Power generators operated by air pressure change via hot tank and cool interior. • Less energy consumption by air conditioners and heating water. • Performance of CFD simulated results and experiment results are similar. • The energy saving efficiency is around 15 kWh/day via hybrid wall in west façade.

  15. Green power programs in Canada : 2002 : Overview of Government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power and certificate marketing initiatives, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, M.; Boustie, S.; Vadgama, J.; Wieler, C.; Pape-Salmon, A.; Holmes, R.

    2003-11-01

    Green power is generally defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. Green power offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities associated with these four categories in 2002 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities in the report, such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Each category was presented in detail. The information included in the report was based on surveys sent to each program proponent. Follow-up communications and other publicly available information was also included. New programs operating in 2003 or currently under development were listed. refs., 8 tabs

  16. Experimental study of power generation utilizing human excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudasar, Roshaan; Kim, Man-Hoe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Power generation from human excreta has been studied under ambient conditions. • Biogas increases with solid wastes and continuous feeding at mesophilic conditions. • Understand the potential of human excreta for domestic power generating systems. • 26.8 kW h power is generated using biogas of 0.35 m 3 /kg from waste of 35 kg. • Continuous feeding produces 0.7 m 3 /kg biogas and generates 60 kW h power. - Abstract: This study presents the energetic performance of the biomass to produce power for micro scale domestic usage. Human excreta are chosen as the subject of the study to investigate their potential to produce biogas under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the research examines the approaches by which biogas production can be enhanced and purified, leading to a high-power generation system. The experimental work focuses on the design and fabrication of a biogas digester with a reverse solar reflector, water scrubbing tower, and a dryer. Anaerobic digestion has been considered as the decomposition method using solar energy which is a heat providing source. Specifically, two types of experiments have been performed, namely, feces to water weight proportion and continuous feeding experiments, each involving a set of six samples. The effect of parameters such as pH, ambient temperature, and biogas upgradation reveals that volume of biogas and power generation can be best obtained when an 8:2 feces to water weight sample is employed and when the feeding is applied every fifth day. In addition, this study discusses the environmental prospects of the biogas technology, which is achieved by using the water purification method to improve the methane percentage to 85% and remove undesired gases. The motivation behind this work is to understand the potential of human excreta for the development of domestic power generating systems. The results obtained reveal that 0.35 m 3 /kg of biogas is produced with 8:2 weight proportion sample, which

  17. Grid-connected solar power generation a utility's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, D.; Meron, G.; Fisher, D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze these new means of production from the electric utility point of view. This analysis will take into account the experience gained by Israel Electric Corporation while operating three demonstration plants. In addition, a techno-economic evaluation photovoltaic and thermal systems is presented and compared to that of conventional generation

  18. A survey of thorium utilization in thermal power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    The present status of thorium utilization in thermal reactors HTGR's, HWR's and LWR's has been reviewed. Physics considerations are made to obtain the optimum use of thorium. Existing information on reprocessing and refabrication is given together with the properties of thorium metal and thoria

  19. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.G.; Isenberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000 kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Safety issues are shown to be identified, and if properly addressed should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the federal and civilian community. These applications include both low and high altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low and high power lunar and planetary base power systems, broad-band global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television

  20. Economic evaluation of nuclear reactor operation utilizing power effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinsky, M.; Mydliar, J.

    1988-01-01

    The operation of a reactor at the so-called power effect may substantially increase the burnup of fuel to be removed. The aim of the evaluation of such reactor operation is the optimal determination of the time over which the yield of the higher use of fuel exceeds economic losses resulting from the increased share of constant expenditure of the price of generated kWh of electric power which ensues from such operation. A mathematical model is presented for such evaluation of reactor operation with regard to benefits for the national economy which is the basis of the ESTER 2 computer program. The calculations show that the prices of generated and delivered kWh are minimally 2% less than the prices of generated power without the power effect use. The minimum ranges in the interval of 30 to 50 days. The dependence of the price of generated and delivered kWh from the point of view of the operator of the power plant as well as the component of fuel price of generated kWh will not reach the minimum even after 50 days of operation. From the operating and physical points of view the duration of power effect is not expected to exceed 20 to 30 days which means that from the point of view of the national economy the price of generated and delivered kWh will be 1.6 to 2% less and the fuel component of the price of the generated kWh will be 3 to 4.5% lower. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 3 refs

  1. Utility-Marketing Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility?s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  2. Smart Heat and Power : Utilizing the Flexibility of Micro Cogeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.

    2010-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) contributes to a more sustainable electricity supply. Large-scale adoption of DG will bring radical changes to the traditional model of generation and supply as well as to the business model of the power industry. Furthermore, with innovations in information and

  3. A ''New Generation'' of Nuclear Power Plants- Electric Utility Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouani, D.; Reznik, L.; Tavron, B.

    1999-01-01

    A 50% increase in worldwide energy consumption in the next 20 years is anticipated, due to the global population growth and to higher standards of living. Meeting these energy demands with the fossil energy sources such as coal. gas and oil may lead to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases, resulting in global warming of several degrees with catastrophic climatic consequences. Implementation of various energy conservation measures may bring only insignificant reduction in demand levels. Hopes that the renewable energy sources (such as hydroelectric, solar, wind power, biomass and geothermal) may supply the growth in the demand - are unrealistic. Only nuclear power (providing already 16% of world electricity) may meet all the energy demand growth with negligible greenhouse emission

  4. Optimal utilization of electric power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, G.; Gjelsvik, E.

    1992-01-01

    It is attempted to address the questions of which advantages the equilibrium solution would have for the energy market under free trade conditions, how Nordic electric power can be used optimally and what the trading pattern looks like, which kind of competition the transmission of electricity via cables to Iceland and other Nordic countries will meet in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Continent, how high the option values are of trading with electric power via cables from, for example, Iceland to the UK and how great the profit could be from a more effective use of electricity for aluminium production in Norway and Iceland. Data are given on consumer prices for 1990 in Scandinavia, Germany and the UK, and a few graphs and a map illustrate the text. (AB)

  5. Prospects for utilization of nuclear power in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polliart, A -J; Goodman, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-02-15

    Electric energy plays a key role in developing the infrastructure of countries all over the world, and increase in consumption of electricity is a definite indicator of economic development. Although there is no nuclear power plant in Africa yet, it is not too early for long-term planning of the role of nuclear energy in fulfilling the electricity demands of the future economies of African countries. A realistic assessment of the future role of nuclear power in a given electric system requires much more than the determination of an economically optimal plant mix. It calls for optimization under a series of constraints. Among these are licensing and regulatory factors, public attitudes and the degree of commitment to nuclear power by national governments. For many developing countries, the problems of financing additional foreign exchange expenditures are so acute as to force them to defer otherwise highly profitable ventures. In the case of nations with large low-cost fossil fuel and hydro resources a great degree of flexibility has been and is likely to be maintained in establishing medium and long-term objectives for nuclear energy. (author)

  6. Utilization of nuclear power in oceans and its perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akio

    2000-01-01

    Since 1959, Russia retains many nuclear icebreakers and has a plan to construct two new types of nuclear icebreakers. In Japan, research for advanced marine reactors and its fundamental studies are being conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Ship Research Institute (SRI) and universities. The advanced marine reactor MRX designed by JAERI is a lightweight and compact integral PWR with a passive decay heat removal system. The Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) and the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) took a survey of the future nuclear ships and conducted an investigation of the total system related to the operation of nuclear ships, respectively, commissioned by JAERI. The committee of JSRA has recommended the displacement type of a large high-speed container ship promises to act as the next generation nuclear merchant ship. In the committee of JAIF, the cost evaluation has been made for a high-speed, large container ship equipped with two MRXs sailing the Pacific Ocean, and it is found that it could have an advantage economically over the diesel in some future conditions. The committee of JSRA has also recommended the deep-sea research vessel has been identified as a promising form for the next generation nuclear special-purpose ship, since the deep-sea represents a vast frontier in terms of basic scientific understanding of the earth. Many countries including Russia, Japan and U.S.A. are conducting a research of reactors for deep-sea vessels. The U.S. Navy made available nuclear powered submarines for civilian oceanographic research and the submarines were used in the Scientific Ice Expedition (SCICEX) program from 1995 to 1999. For floating nuclear power plant, the design of nuclear co-generation plant Pevek' for remote regions of Russia is completed using KLT-40C, based on a marine reactor. In Japan, fundamental studies of floating plants are being performed by private companies and JAERI. The designs of floating

  7. Utilization of nuclear power in oceans and its perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Akio [Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Since 1959, Russia retains many nuclear icebreakers and has a plan to construct two new types of nuclear icebreakers. In Japan, research for advanced marine reactors and its fundamental studies are being conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Ship Research Institute (SRI) and universities. The advanced marine reactor MRX designed by JAERI is a lightweight and compact integral PWR with a passive decay heat removal system. The Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) and the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) took a survey of the future nuclear ships and conducted an investigation of the total system related to the operation of nuclear ships, respectively, commissioned by JAERI. The committee of JSRA has recommended the displacement type of a large high-speed container ship promises to act as the next generation nuclear merchant ship. In the committee of JAIF, the cost evaluation has been made for a high-speed, large container ship equipped with two MRXs sailing the Pacific Ocean, and it is found that it could have an advantage economically over the diesel in some future conditions. The committee of JSRA has also recommended the deep-sea research vessel has been identified as a promising form for the next generation nuclear special-purpose ship, since the deep-sea represents a vast frontier in terms of basic scientific understanding of the earth. Many countries including Russia, Japan and U.S.A. are conducting a research of reactors for deep-sea vessels. The U.S. Navy made available nuclear powered submarines for civilian oceanographic research and the submarines were used in the Scientific Ice Expedition (SCICEX) program from 1995 to 1999. For floating nuclear power plant, the design of nuclear co-generation plant Pevek' for remote regions of Russia is completed using KLT-40C, based on a marine reactor. In Japan, fundamental studies of floating plants are being performed by private companies and JAERI. The designs of

  8. Prospects for utilization of superconductors in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernolepkov, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    Utilization of superconducting technology is greatly influenced by the discovery of the so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS). The present report considers to what extent there is a need for HTS in up-to-date engineering and how much they are prepared for practical applications. The work on the practical use of superconductors was started about 30 years ago. As a results, two fields of the high-current superconductivity have emerged. The first category is the field in which other alternatives were inconceivable from techno-economic points of view (magnets of thermo-nuclear installations, MHD generators, inductive energy storage systems, etc.). The second category involves areas where superconductors must demonstrate the ability to compete with existing technologies (electrical devices, magnetic separators, etc.). The present overview discusses developments of various low temperature superconducting devices, estimate their potential and evaluates future applications of HTS based on the experience accumulated in the USSR and other countries. (author)

  9. UWTOR-M, a stellarator power reactor utilizing modular coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Van Sciver, S.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    We briefly describe the parametric considerations which led to the UWTOR-M reference design point. The design has 18 twisted coils utilizing a multipolarity of 3, a major radius of 24 m, a coil radius of 4.77 m and a plasma aspect ratio of 14. An assumed β of 5% was used. This configuration leads to a rotational transform on the edge of 1.125 giving favorable plasma physics conditions. The natural stellarator divertor is used for impurity control in conjunction with innovative high performance divertor targets. A unique blanket design is proposed which minimizes tritium inventory in the reactor. Finally, since maintainability is a prime consideration, we describe a scheme for servicing the first wall/blanket and other reactor components

  10. Efforts to utilize risk assessment at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment means the use of the outputs that have been obtained through risk identification and risk analysis (risk information), followed by the determination of the response policy by comparing these outputs with the risk of judgement standards. This paper discusses the use of risk information with multifaceted nature and its significance, and the challenges to the further penetration of these items. As the lessons and risk assessment learnt from the past accidents, this paper takes up the cases of the severe accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi power stations, and discusses their causes and expansion factors. In particular, at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, important lessons were shortage in measures against the superimposition of earthquake and tsunami, and the insufficient use of risk assessment. This paper classified risk assessment from the viewpoint of risk information, and showed the contents and index for each item of risk reduction trends, risk increase trends, and measures according to the importance of risk. As the benefits of activities due to risk assessment, this paper referred to the application cases of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of IAEA, and summarized the application activities of 10 items of risk indexes by classifying them to safety benefits and operational benefits. For example, in the item of flexible Allowed Outage Time (AOT), the avoidance of plant shutdown and the flexibility improvement of maintenance scheduling at a plant are corresponding to the above-mentioned benefits, respectively. (A.O.)

  11. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  12. Argentine hydrothermal panorama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    An attempt is made to give a realistic review of Argentine thermal waters. The topics discussed are the characteristics of the hydrothermal resources, classification according to their mineral content, hydrothermal flora and fauna, uses of hydrothermal resources, hydrothermal regions of Argentina, and meteorology and climate. A tabulation is presented of the principal thermal waters. (JSR)

  13. Guidance for DoD Utilization of Host Nation Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    data)  The Honduran electric company,  Empresa  Nacional  de  Energia Electrica (ENEE) generates power and  operates the national transmission and...CDF  Cumulative Distribution Function  DoD  Department of Defense  ENEE  Empresa  Nacional  de  Energia Electrica  EUPW  Escalating Uniform Present Worth...generators with the fuel either purchased from the local  population or  transported  from remote fuel depots.  This incurs a significant cost for the

  14. Enhancing the utilization of photovoltaic power generation by superconductive magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.S.; Kumar, P.; Foreman, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) system can enhance large scale utilization of PV generation. With SMES support, power generated from PV arrays van be fully utilized under different weather conditions and PV penetrations can be increased to significant levels without causing adverse effects to the power system. Coupled with PV generation, a SMES system is even more effective in performing diurnal load leveling. A coordinated PV/SMES operation scheme is proposed and demonstrated under different weather conditions

  15. Concept of electric power output control system for atomic power generation plant utilizing cool energy of stored snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Seiji; Toita, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    A concept of the SEAGUL system (Snow Enhancing Atomic-power Generation UtiLity) is proposed in this paper. Lowering the temperature of sea water for cooling of atomic-power plant will make a efficiency of power generation better and bring several ten MW additional electric power for 1356 MW class plant. The system concept stands an idea to use huge amount of seasonal storage snow for cooling water temperature control. In a case study for the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, it is estimated to cool down the sea water of 29degC to 20degC by 80 kt snow for 3 hours in a day would brought 60 MWh electric power per a day. Annually 38.4 Mt of stored snow will bring 1800 MWh electric power. (author)

  16. Large-scale utilization of wind power in China: Obstacles of conflict between market and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Wang Feng; Wang Mei

    2012-01-01

    The traditional strict planning system that regulates China's power market dominates power industry operations. However, a series of market-oriented reforms since 1997 call for more decentralized decision-making by individual market participants. Moreover, with the rapid growth of wind power in China, the strict planning system has become one of the significant factors that has curtailed the generation of wind power, which contradicts with the original purpose of using the government's strong control abilities to promote wind power development. In this paper, we first present the reasons why market mechanisms are important for large-scale utilization of wind power by using a case analysis of the Northeast Grid, and then we illustrate the impact of conflicts between strict planning and market mechanisms on large-scale wind power utilization. Last, we explore how to promote coordination between markets and planning to realize large-scale wind power utilization in China. We argue that important measures include implementing flexible power pricing mechanisms instead of the current fixed pricing approach, formulating a more reasonable mechanism for distributing benefits and costs, and designing an appropriate market structure for large-scale wind power utilization to promote market liquidity and to send clear market equilibrium signals. - Highlights: ► We present the reasons why market is important for utilization of wind power. ► We discuss the current situation of the conflict between planning and market. ► We study the impact of conflict between planning and market on wind power output. ► We argue how to promote coordination between market and planning.

  17. Innovative online faculty development utilizing the power of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Melissa; Niebuhr, Virginia; D'Alessandro, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Faculty development (FD) is important for continued professional development, but expense and distance remain challenging. These challenges could be minimized by the free and asynchronous nature of social media (SM). We sought to determine the utility and effectiveness of conducting a national online FD activity on Facebook by assessing participants' perceptions and use and facilitators' challenges. An educational activity of a national FD program was managed on a closed Facebook group. Activities included postings of educational technology goals, abstracting an article, and commenting on peers' postings. Sources of quantitative data included the Facebook postings and the survey responses. Surveys before, after, and 6 months after the activity assessed knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviors. Sources of qualitative data were the open-ended survey questions and the content of the Facebook postings. All participants completed the FD activity and evaluations, yielding 38 postings and 115 comments. Before the activity, 88% had a personal Facebook account, 64% were somewhat/very confident using Facebook, 77% thought SM would be useful for professional networking, and 12% had used it professionally. Six months after the activity, professional usage had increased to 35%. Continued use of Facebook for future presentations of this FD activity was recommended by 76%. Qualitative analysis yielded 12 types of Facebook postings and 7 themes related to using SM for FD. Conducting a national FD activity on Facebook yielded excellent participation rates and positive participant impressions, and it affected professional usage. Facebook may become an additional tool in the educator's toolbox for FD as a result of its acceptability and accessibility. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Wenshi [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Vidic, Radisav D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 4×10-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<4×10-6 m/s).

  19. Report of Committee F. Industrial utilization and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouwer, T. [comp.

    1997-11-01

    During the 1994-1997 triennium Committee F had overall responsibility for the organization and coordination of investigations in the field of Industrial Gas Utilisation and Power Generation. This report comprises the work of four Subcommittees: F1 - natural gas in the brick industry; oxy-fuel firing in glass melting processes and gas infrared surface combustion techniques in industrial and commercial processes. F2 - treatment of wastes; natural gas for process cooling; potential for the use of natural gas in the food industry and NO{sub x} regulations; incentives for NO{sub x} reduction. F3 - evaluation of sulfur recovery processes; natural gas sweetening and potential dehydration by N-Formyl Morpholine (NFM); natural gas separation; conversion of natural gas; small-scale reformers for fuel cell plants; Haldor Topsoee Acetic Acid process; market for Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS) products; use of Dimethyl Ether (DME) as diesel substitute. F4 - studies on the advantages of cogeneration technology and market sturcture and market requirements. (au)

  20. Utilization of nuclear power - a sustainable error of history?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugerli, D.

    2004-01-01

    The history of atomic energy has been producing major surprises for at least half a century. A wave of atomic enthusiasm - which grew to a veritable atomic euphoria - was triggered by the famous atoms-for-peace speech by US president Eisenhower in 1953. Despite their inherent technocratic pacifism, Eisenhower's atoms led to critical conflicts within those societies that subscribed to the nuclear development scheme. A critical revision of these conflicts reveals a dramatic falling apart of the historic horizon of expectations and the historic development path. Notwithstanding, both the apologists of nuclear energy use and their antagonists have erred in many ways without truly losing their capacity to act. They misjudged the planning security, the safety of the installations, and the stability of the price relations on the energy and capital equipment markets. Moreover, both sides erred in their predictions concerning the political conditions and the social consequences of nuclear power plants. This observation is not historically insightful in the sense of learning from one's mistakes. It is insightful rather for the relationship between experience, expectation and decision on the one hand and socio-technical change on the other hand. (orig.)

  1. BIPV-powered smart windows utilizing photovoltaic and electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC) stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/Ta(2)O(5)/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V). The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750-1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  2. BIPV-Powered Smart Windows Utilizing Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO3/Ta2O5/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V. The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750–1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  3. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  4. Safety Performance Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants Utilizing THOMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won June; Ryu, Jung Uk; Suh, Kune Y.

    2005-01-01

    THOMAS (Thermal Hydraulics Online Monitoring Advisory System) is equipped with a couple of salient features compared with existing monitoring systems. The first has to do with the three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique to support the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators and personnel using the virtual reality (VR) technology. VR depicts an environment simulated by a computer. Most of the VR environments primarily include visual experiences, displayed either on a monitor or though special stereoscopic goggles. Users can often interactively manipulate a VR environment, either through standard input devices like a keyboard, or through specially designed devices like a cybergloves. Additional devices were not applied the in THOMAS. The visualized model file is brought to the VR space from the computer-aided design (CAD) tool. In the VR space, using mapping, the component color is changed with linked value of the safety variables. Operators thus can easily recognize the plant condition. This is related with the human factor engineering. The second is the function of decision making using the influence diagram logic. The influence diagram logic is based on the total probability and Bayesian theory. The accident modeling is rooted in the emergency operating procedure (EOP). The final goal of this system is, in the accident situation, to present a success path to the operator for the recovery of the NPP system. At the current developing level, the database signals THOMAS. In other words, a spectrum of system analysis codes provides the safety parameter values to the database, which are subsequently supplied to THOMAS through the network

  5. Analysis and evaluation for social acceptability for utilizing nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ting; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    This study is about the acceptability of the society of utilizing nuclear power in China. There are different interactions and opinions has been raised that leads conflict between the society and the nuclear technology people. Many emotions and views have mixed up: people have image of environment friendly, also have image of explosion, fright and danger. The purpose of this study is to make clear the social consciousness for utilizing nuclear power in China and to improve social acceptability. A survey by the questionnaire was conducted for investigation of the features of the social consciousness for necessity and safety for utilizing nuclear power in China. The questionnaire has been sent to 10000 citizens of Zhejiang province in south China from June to August 2010 (Zhejiang province is one of the earliest city for utilizing nuclear power plants in China). There were 4255 available respondents (42.6%) with 1851 men and 2404 women of adult who answered the questionnaire. The survey was including 37 items about energy problem, social consciousness for utilizing nuclear power, safety, the reliability of government and information sources. As a result, it was found that some 57.5% of adults are in favor of nuclear power plants. There are differences of sense between men and women. The reliability for safety of men for nuclear power is higher than that of women. Some 59.6% of men respondents are in favor of nuclear power plants, and about 10% respondents of women are in favor of nuclear power plants. Social acceptance is still one of the major barriers for further development of nuclear power, although recent technological and institutional innovation is clearly reduced its risk and enhanced its relative and absolute benefit compared to other energy resources. Consequently, this result indicates that women with maternal instinct may not be favor of nuclear power plants compared with men in China. (author)

  6. UTILIZATION OF SECONDARY COMBUSTIBLE POWER RESOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MUNICIPAL AND HOUSEHOLD FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an advantage to utilize secondary power resources (lignin, wastes of fine coal with its dressing, sawdust in mixture with local types of fuel (peat in order to fulfill power supply purpose, namely: obtaining hot water in boilers of small capacity and obtaining household fuel.

  7. The effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on stock prices of electric power utilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Shingo; Takeda, Fumiko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, which is owned by Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO), on the stock prices of the other electric power utilities in Japan. Because the other utilities were not directly damaged by the Fukushima nuclear accident, their stock price responses should reflect the change in investor perceptions on risk and return associated with nuclear power generation. Our first finding is that the stock prices of utilities that own nuclear power plants declined more sharply after the accident than did the stock prices of other electric power utilities. In contrast, investors did not seem to care about the risk that may arise from the use of the same type of nuclear power reactors as those at the Fukushima Daiichi station. We also observe an increase of both systematic and total risks in the post-Fukushima period, indicating that negative market reactions are not merely caused by one-time losses but by structural changes in society and regulation that could increase the costs of operating a nuclear power plant.

  8. The rise of smart customers. How consumer power will change the global power and utilities business. What the sector thinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This report is the second in a two-part study, geared to helping power and utilities companies adapt their business strategies and customer handling in a new smart world. It explores the views of power and utilities leaders across 12 countries on how smart might change consumers' needs and behaviors, what new services they plan to offer and where they see the strongest new opportunities and competitors. We also compare these results with those of the first study, which examined the views of consumers and their appetite for new smart services.

  9. Utilization of Flexible Demand in a Virtual Power Plant Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    High penetration levels from renewable energy sources in large-scale power systems demand a high degree of flexibility in the transmission and distribution system. This paper presents a method for utilization of flexible demand in the low-voltage distribution system using the thermal mass...... of a building to defer power consumption from electric space heating. The power consumption for heating is controlled by an operational virtual power plant, which is sending a set point for requested power consumption to the building management system. An optimization problem is formulated...

  10. A strategy for improving the profitability of utility power plants in a deregulated industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    When deregulation of the utility industry becomes a reality in the near future, power plant managers and engineers will face a completely changed business climate. Surviving in a competitive business world will require a dramatic alteration in the way most utility power plants are maintained and upgraded, and in their budget planning. Strategies will have to be developed and implemented that follow the guidelines of good business practices in competitive industries. Some utilities have already started to reduce overhead maintenance costs. Key aspects of their programs can serve as examples to other utilities who want to develop a strategy to improve their operating cost effectiveness. Cost-cutting measures have included development of procedures and data bases that allowed utilities to become independent of original equipment manufacturer (OEM) support and to keep their costs for maintenance, repairs, and replacement of power plant components to a minimum. Also, scheduled power plant outages based on the concepts of reliability-centered maintenance (Smith, 1993), remaining life assessment, and advanced integrity monitors instead of a fixed calendar (Swanekamp, 1996), have allowed utilities to extend the time between some outages by several years. These and other innovative approaches will become critical to power plants operating in the new, deregulated business climate. Examples of actual cost savings are presented here

  11. Utility-Marketer Partnerships. An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, E. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility’s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  12. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED POWER FLOW TRACING METHOD FOR REACTIVE POWER PRICING IN PRACTICAL UTILITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SUSITHRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive trend towards restructuring and unbundling of transmission services has resulted in the need to discover the impact of a particular generator to load. This paper initially presents the analysis of three different reactive power valuation methods namely, Modified Ybus , Virtual flow approach and modified power flow tracing to compute the reactive power output from a particular generator to particular load. Among these methods, the modified power flow electricity tracing method is identified as the best method to trace the reactive power contribution from various reactive power sources to loads, transmission line, etc. Also this proposed method breakdown the total reactive power loss in a transmission line into components to be allocated to individual loads. Secondly, based on this Method a novel allocation method for reactive power service for practical system is proposed. Hence, this method can be useful in providing additional insight into power system operation and can be used to modify existing tariffs of charging for reactive power transmission loss and reactive power transmission services. Simulation and comparison results are shown by taking WSCC 9 and IEEE 30 bus system as test system.

  13. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  14. SUPPLIER SELECTION CRITERIA IN A POWER UTILITY IN MALAYSIA: ENGINEERS’ PERCEPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivadass Thiruchelvam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection of electricity generating, transmitting and distributing systems is part of the problem-solving environment in a power utility because it is a long-term investment for the organisation. Therefore, the decision over supplier selection directly influences the operational and financial position of a power utility. In addition, the supplier selection of a power-related system is a complex multi-criteria decision problem. While some criteria may be common across different industries, there are some criteria unique to the power industry. This research aims to understand what constitutes the suitable supplier selection criteria for a power utility. This study reveals some interesting findings of how engineers perceive the importance of each criterion and suggests strongly that product quality, price and delivery are key determinants in the supplier evaluation process. The eighteen criteria considered for this study were mapped onto their respective cluster, namely: supplier’s organisational system and technology, buyer-supplier relationship and economic value. The findings of this study should assist various groups of stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, buyers and end users to gain a better understanding of social behaviour in making purchase decisions, particularly with regard to power utilities.

  15. Monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres derived by microwave-assisted hydrothermal process combined with carbothermal reduction for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongrong; Wu, Yixiong; Kong, Xiang Yang

    2014-07-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach combined with carbothermal reduction has been developed to synthesize monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres, which possess the diameter range of 1.0-1.5 μm, high tap density of ∼1.3 g cm-3, and mesoporous characteristic with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 30.6 m2 g-1. The obtained microspheres show meatball-like morphology aggregated by the carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) results indicate that carbon coating can effectively enhance both of the electronic and ionic conductivities for LiFePO4/C microspheres. The Li-ion diffusion coefficient of the LiFePO4/C microspheres calculated from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves is ∼6.25 × 10-9 cm2 s-1. The electrochemical performance can achieve about 100 and 90 mAh g-1 at 5C and 10C charge/discharge rates, respectively. As cathode material, the as-prepared LiFePO4/C microspheres show excellent rate capability and cycle stability, promising for high power lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Comment on “Short-term combined economic emission scheduling of hydrothermal power systems with cascaded reservoirs using differential evolution” by K.K. Mandal and N. Chakaborty [Energy Convers. Manage. 50 (2009) 97–104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Abdollah; Nezhad, Ali Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the short-term combined economic emission scheduling of hydrothermal power systems with cascaded reservoirs [Energy Convers Manage. 50 (2009) 97–104], while differential evolution algorithm has been employed to solve the optimization problem. However, this problem is subjected to several constraints like the generation limitations of generating units. The solutions reported in the original paper do not satisfy the constraint on the initial and final reservoir storage volumes of hydro units as well as the constraint on the generated power by such units, which should be positive at any time of the scheduling period. Thus, this paper intends to prove this issue and solve the problem using Normal Boundary Intersection (NBI) method, in order to propose the correct solutions satisfying all the constraints of the short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem

  17. Utilization of artificial intelligence techniques for the Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Thomas C.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) as currently envisioned, artificial intelligence/expert system techniques are being investigated to automate operations, maintenance, and diagnostic functions. A study was conducted to investigate this technology as it applies to failure detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) and health monitoring of power system components and of the total system. Control system utilization of expert systems for load scheduling and shedding operations was also researched. A discussion of the utilization of artificial intelligence/expert systems for Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for the Space Station effort is presented along with future plans at Rocketdyne for the utilization of this technology for enhanced Space Station power capability.

  18. Applications of supercomputing and the utility industry: Calculation of power transfer capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.D.; Behling, S.R.; Betancourt, R.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical models and iterative simulation using supercomputers can furnish cost-effective answers to utility industry problems that are all but intractable using conventional computing equipment. An example of the use of supercomputers by the utility industry is the determination of power transfer capability limits for power transmission systems. This work has the goal of markedly reducing the run time of transient stability codes used to determine power distributions following major system disturbances. To date, run times of several hours on a conventional computer have been reduced to several minutes on state-of-the-art supercomputers, with further improvements anticipated to reduce run times to less than a minute. In spite of the potential advantages of supercomputers, few utilities have sufficient need for a dedicated in-house supercomputing capability. This problem is resolved using a supercomputer center serving a geographically distributed user base coupled via high speed communication networks

  19. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state Public Utility Commissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.; Olson, J.; Hendrickson, P.

    1989-12-01

    Economic performance incentives established by state Public Utility Commissions (PUCs) currently are applicable to the construction or operation of approximately 73 nuclear power reactors owned by 27 utilities with investment greater than 10% in 18 states. The NRC staff monitors development of the incentives and periodically provides an updated report on all nuclear plant incentives to its headquarters and regional offices. The staff maintains contact with the PUCs and the utilities responsible for implementing the incentives in order to obtain the updated information and to consider potential safety effects of the incentives. This report on incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state PUCs presents the NRC staff's concerns on potential safety effects of economic performance incentives. It also includes a plant-by-plant survey that describes the mechanics of each incentive and discusses the financial effects of the incentive on the utility-owner(s) of the plant

  20. Incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This report on incentive regulation of nuclear power plants by state public utility commissions (PUCs). Economic performance incentives established by state PUCs are applicable to the construction or operation of about 45 nuclear power reactors owned by 30 utilities in 17 states. The NRC staff monitors development of the incentives and periodically provides an updated report on all nuclear plant incentives to its regional offices. The staff maintains contact with the PUCs and the utilities responsible for implementing the incentives in order to obtain the updated information and to consider potential safety effects of the incentives. This report presents the NRC staff's concerns on potential safety effects of economic performance incentives. It also includes a plant-by-plant survey that describes the mechanics of each incentive and discusses the financial effects of the incentive on the utility-owner(s) of the plant

  1. Economic assessment of the engineering basis for wind power: Perspective of a vertically integrated utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sanjoy

    2009-01-01

    If wind park configurations are globally coordinated across the service area of a power utility, then electricity can be generated for the grid with substantial cost advantages. Based on this premise, the paper introduces a model by which large scale assessment of grid connected wind based power generation may be undertaken for a utility service area. The model can be useful to the policy maker for decisions regarding suitable wind portfolio standards (WPS) definition. The utility, on the other hand, may use the model to study its service area for prospective wind based generation. Aspects of the problem modelled include cost-of-energy from individual generating units, daily load variations for the utility with emphasis on limited penetration, features of wind at prospective installation sites, makes of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) available, and recovery of expenditure through revenue. Application of the model to an assessment exercise for the state of Andhra Pradesh (India) is presented as an example. (author)

  2. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2016-01-21

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of

  3. Real power regulation for the utility power grid via responsive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Timothy J [Knoxville, TN; Kirby, Brendan J [Knoxville, TN; Kisner, Roger A

    2009-05-19

    A system for dynamically managing an electrical power system that determines measures of performance and control criteria for the electric power system, collects at least one automatic generation control (AGC) input parameter to at least one AGC module and at least one automatic load control (ALC) input parameter to at least one ALC module, calculates AGC control signals and loads as resources (LAR) control signals in response to said measures of performance and control criteria, propagates AGC control signals to power generating units in response to control logic in AGC modules, and propagates LAR control signals to at least one LAR in response to control logic in ALC modules.

  4. Space power system utilizing Fresnel lenses for solar power and also thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    A solar power plant suitable for earth orbits passing through Van Allen radiation belts is described. The solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency is estimated to be around 9 percent, and the expected power-to-weight ratio is competitive with photovoltaic arrays. The system is designed to be self-contained, to be indifferent to radiation belt exposures, store energy for periods when the orbiting system is in earth shadow (so that power generation is contant), have no moving parts and no working fluids, and be robust against micrometeorite attack. No electrical batteries are required.

  5. Statistical utility theory for comparison of nuclear versus fossil power plant alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garribba, S.; Ovi, A.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical formulation of utility theory is developed for decision problems concerned with the choice among alternative strategies in electric energy production. Four alternatives are considered: nuclear power, fossil power, solar energy, and conservation policy. Attention is focused on a public electric utility thought of as a rational decision-maker. A framework for decisions is then suggested where the admissible strategies and their possible consequences represent the information available to the decision-maker. Once the objectives of the decision process are assessed, consequences can be quantified in terms of measures of effectiveness. Maximum expected utility is the criterion of choice among alternatives. Steps toward expected values are the evaluation of the multidimensional utility function and the assessment of subjective probabilities for consequences. In this respect, the multiplicative form of the utility function seems less restrictive than the additive form and almost as manageable to implement. Probabilities are expressed through subjective marginal probability density functions given at a discrete number of points. The final stage of the decision model is to establish the value of each strategy. To this scope, expected utilities are computed and scaled. The result is that nuclear power offers the best alternative. 8 figures, 9 tables, 32 references

  6. The rise of smart customers. How consumer power will change the global power and utilities business. What consumers think

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    Smart technology puts unprecedented power in the hands of consumers to manage and control their energy use. In time, this will fundamentally shift the balance of customer relations. It seems the era of a one-way relationship - where a utility delivers energy to domestic consumers, end of story - is over. Most power and utility businesses are currently treating the smart transition as an infrastructure upgrade, focusing chiefly on the technology and on fulfilling regulatory obligations. So far, the customer perspective and need for consumer education have not figured prominently in smart implementation programs. But following customer resistance to implementations in the US and Australia, the sector has been alerted to further challenges. Consumers' newfound power to say 'no' is one that the industry is not used to dealing with. Power and utility businesses must learn from the mistakes made so far. They need customer buy-in before they can exploit the host of new business opportunities that smart technology could provide. To explore the sector's readiness to respond to the present cycle of change, we asked domestic energy consumers how they viewed their relationship with energy providers. We wanted to know if they understood the benefits of smart metering, as well as their appetite for smart energy services.

  7. Generative Adversarial Networks Based Heterogeneous Data Integration and Its Application for Intelligent Power Distribution and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanpeng Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous characteristics of a big data system for intelligent power distribution and utilization have already become more and more prominent, which brings new challenges for the traditional data analysis technologies and restricts the comprehensive management of distribution network assets. In order to solve the problem that heterogeneous data resources of power distribution systems are difficult to be effectively utilized, a novel generative adversarial networks (GANs based heterogeneous data integration method for intelligent power distribution and utilization is proposed. In the proposed method, GANs theory is introduced to expand the distribution of completed data samples. Then, a so-called peak clustering algorithm is proposed to realize the finite open coverage of the expanded sample space, and repair those incomplete samples to eliminate the heterogeneous characteristics. Finally, in order to realize the integration of the heterogeneous data for intelligent power distribution and utilization, the well-trained discriminator model of GANs is employed to check the restored data samples. The simulation experiments verified the validity and stability of the proposed heterogeneous data integration method, which provides a novel perspective for the further data quality management of power distribution systems.

  8. Proceedings of international workshop on utilization of nuclear power in oceans (N'ocean 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, A.; Nariyama, N.; Sawada, K.

    2000-03-01

    Human beings and the ocean have maintained close relations for a long time. The ocean produced the life at very old time and human beings have been benefited by ocean, particularly in Japan that is surrounded by the ocean. In the utilization of nuclear power in ocean, Japan has been very active from the beginning of the development of nuclear power. The nuclear powered ship MUTSU has been developed and completed the experimental voyage. Besides the nuclear powered ship, we are using the ocean for the transportation of radioactive materials. This International Workshop aimed at offering further information about nuclear utilization in oceans such as icebreakers, deep-sea submarines, high speed carriers, floating plant, desalination and heating plants, radioactive materials transport ships, and so on. The discussions on the economical, environmental and scientific effects are included. The 36 of the present papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. QoS-Guaranteed Power Control Mechanism Based on the Frame Utilization for Femtocells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mach Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a power control mechanism and proposes a novel approach for dynamic adaptation of femtocells' transmitting power. The basic idea is to adapt the transmitting power of femtocells according to current traffic load and signal quality between user equipments and the femtocell in order to fully utilize radio resources allocated to the femtocell. The advantage of the proposed scheme is in provisioning of high quality of service level to the femtocell users, while interference to users attached to macrobase station is minimized. The paper proposes the power adaptation algorithm and evaluates its performance in terms of mobility events, achieved throughput, and FAPs transmitting power. Performed simulations show that the proposed scheme can significantly reduce the number of mobility events caused by passerby users and thus to minimize signaling overhead generated in the network. In addition, our proposal enhances overall throughput for most of the investigated scenarios in comparison to other power control schemes.

  10. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Gazzino, Marco; Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson II, John G; Field, Randall; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases...

  11. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanzhang; Ma, Xiyuan; Xu, Jian; Bao, Yi; Liao, Siyang

    2017-09-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines. This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission, which has gained popularity, and local energy consumption, in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries. First, the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented. Then, the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security, reliability, cost, and capability to utilize wind energy. Finally, the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system, or supermicrogrid, in China. The coal-fired generators together with the short-term interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power. In the long term, the transfer of high-energy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  12. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanzhang SUN; Xiyuan MA; Jian XU; Yi BAO; Siyang LIAO

    2017-01-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines.This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission,which has gained popularity,and local energy consumption,in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries.First,the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented.Then,the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security,reliability,cost,and capability to utilize wind energy.Finally,the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system,or supermicrogrid,in China.The coal-fired generators together with the shortterm interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power.In the long term,the transfer of highenergy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  13. Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubo Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of new and renewable energy, incorporating variable adjustable power elements on the demand side is of particular interest. The utilization of batteries as flexible loads is a hot research topic. Lithium-ion batteries are key components in electric vehicles (EVs in terms of capital cost, mass and size. They are retired after around 5 years of service, but still retain up to 80% of their nominal capacity. Disposal of waste batteries will become a significant issue for the automotive industry in the years to come. This work proposes the use of the second life of these batteries as flexible loads to participate in the economic power dispatch. The characteristics of second life batteries (SLBs are varied and diverse, requiring a new optimization strategy for power dispatch at the system level. In this work, SLBs are characterized and their operating curves are obtained analytically for developing an economic power dispatch model involving wind farms and second life batteries. In addition, a dispatch strategy is developed to reduce the dispatch complex brought by the disperse spatial and time distribution of EVs and decrease the system operating cost by introducing incentive and penalty costs in regulating the EV performance. In theory, SLBs are utilized to reduce the peak-valley difference of power loads and to stabilize the power system. Test results based on a ten-unit power system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed dispatch model and the economic benefit of utilizing SLBs as flexible loads in power systems. This work may provide a viable solution to the disposal of waste batteries from EVs and to the stable operation of fluctuating power systems incorporating stochastic renewable energy.

  14. Clean utilization of low-rank coals for low-cost power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondreal, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the unique utilization problems of low-rank coals, the ten US steam electric plants having the lowest operating cost in 1990 were all fueled on either lignite or subbituminous coal. Ash deposition problems, which have been a major barrier to sustaining high load on US boilers burning high-sodium low-rank coals, have been substantially reduced by improvements in coal selection, boiler design, on-line cleaning, operating conditions, and additives. Advantages of low-rank coals in advanced systems are their noncaking behavior when heated, their high reactivity allowing more complete reaction at lower temperatures, and the low sulfur content of selected deposits. The principal barrier issues are the high-temperature behavior of ash and volatile alkali derived from the coal-bound sodium found in some low-rank coals. Successful upgrading of low-rank coals requires that the product be both stable and suitable for end use in conventional and advanced systems. Coal-water fuel produced by hydrothermal processing of high-moisture low-rank coal meets these criteria, whereas most dry products from drying or carbonizing in hot gas tend to create dust and spontaneous ignition problems unless coated, agglomerated, briquetted, or afforded special handling

  15. Some possibilities for improvement of fuel utilization in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.; Marinkovic, N.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for improving the nuclear fuel utilization with the emphasis on LWRs are being dealt with in this paper. Some basic results concerning tubular fuel pellets of the Krsko nuclear power plants are presented, showing promising possibilities for uranium saving from the neutronics point of view. (author)

  16. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  17. Northeast Utilities' participation in the Kaman/NASA wind power program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotker, M.

    1975-01-01

    The role of Northeast Utilities in the Kaman/NASA large wind generator study is reviewed. The participation falls into four principal areas: (1) technical assistance; (2) economic analysis; (3) applications; and (4) institutional and legal. A model for the economic viability of wind power is presented.

  18. Utilizing PowerPoint Presentation to Promote Fall Prevention among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary-Quarles, Audrey R.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a PowerPoint home safety (PPHS) presentation in enhancing awareness, knowledge and behavior change among senior center attendees in southern Illinois. Twelve centers were utilized as data collection sites in a pretest-posttest control group design. Through stratified randomization, centers were placed into categories (high,…

  19. A relative rate utility based distributed power allocation algorithm for Cognitive Radio Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Øien, G.E.; Lundheim, L.

    2012-01-01

    In an underlay Cognitive Radio Network, multiple secondary users coexist geographically and spectrally with multiple primary users under a constraint on the maximum received interference power at the primary receivers. Given such a setting, one may ask "how to achieve maximum utility benefit...

  20. Longer operating times of nuclear power plants. Options for compensating public utility advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, Sven; Kondziella, Hendrik; Bruckner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The current German government of CDU/CSU and FDP intends to prolong the operating time of existing nuclear power plants in Germany. The advantages resulting for public utilities are to be compensated. The authors discuss how compensation may be achieved and outline the available instruments. (orig.)

  1. Probability of islanding in utility networks due to grid connected photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, B.

    2002-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the probability of islanding in utility networks due to grid-connected photovoltaic power systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This report summarises the results on a study on the probability of islanding in power networks with a high penetration level of grid connected PV-systems. The results are based on measurements performed during one year in a Dutch utility network. The measurements of active and reactive power were taken every second for two years and stored in a computer for off-line analysis. The area examined and its characteristics are described, as are the test set-up and the equipment used. The ratios between load and PV-power are discussed. The general conclusion is that the probability of islanding is virtually zero for low, medium and high penetration levels of PV-systems.

  2. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  3. Utility-cogenerator game for pricing power sales and wheeling fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Akeo; Asano, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    The authors studied an extensive game model of an electricity market where a cogenerator sells excess electricity to an electric utility or to an end user. They found that a buy-back system (the utility purchases cogenerated power) is as efficient as a cogenerator-customer wheeling system and that these two systems are more desirable than a monopoly system for the regulator. The buy-back rate should be equal to (LP bargaining solution) or less than (Nash bargaining solution) the marginal cost of the electric utility. They also conducted an analysis of a two-period electricity market in which they found that the cogenerator that can supply excess power during peak period obtains the market advantage

  4. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi; Nagai, Hideo; Runggaldier, Wolfgang J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  5. Simulation analysis of emissions trading impact on a non-utility power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, Kashif; Ahmad, Intesar; Hassan, Tehzeebul; Aslam, Muhammad Farooq; Ngan, Hon-Wing

    2009-01-01

    Non-utility power plants can competitively participate in open electricity market to reduce operational costs but in the absence of pollution charges or emissions trading such generators are tempted to cause greater pollution for profit maximization. This paper presents a solution that incorporates pollution charges for nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide emissions in line with existing national environmental quality standards and a new carbon dioxide emissions trading mechanism. A novel approach has been used for allocation of allowable emissions that favors efficiently fuelled and environmentally friendly operation for maximizing profit. Impact of proposed carbon trading on economical utilization of enormous indigenous coal reserves has been analyzed and determined to be acceptable. Software developed in this paper, harnessing Sequential Quadratic Programming capabilities of Matlab, is shown to be adequate simulation tool for various emissions trading schemes and an useful operational decision making tool for constrained non-linear optimization problem of a non-utility power plant. (author)

  6. Simulation analysis of emissions trading impact on a non-utility power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran, Kashif; Ahmad, Intesar [Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of IT, Lahore (Pakistan); Hassan, Tehzeebul [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Lahore (Pakistan); Aslam, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore (Pakistan); Ngan, Hon-Wing [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China)

    2009-12-15

    Non-utility power plants can competitively participate in open electricity market to reduce operational costs but in the absence of pollution charges or emissions trading such generators are tempted to cause greater pollution for profit maximization. This paper presents a solution that incorporates pollution charges for nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide emissions in line with existing national environmental quality standards and a new carbon dioxide emissions trading mechanism. A novel approach has been used for allocation of allowable emissions that favors efficiently fuelled and environmentally friendly operation for maximizing profit. Impact of proposed carbon trading on economical utilization of enormous indigenous coal reserves has been analyzed and determined to be acceptable. Software developed in this paper, harnessing Sequential Quadratic Programming capabilities of Matlab, is shown to be adequate simulation tool for various emissions trading schemes and an useful operational decision making tool for constrained non-linear optimization problem of a non-utility power plant. (author)

  7. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi, E-mail: m_fuji@kvj.biglobe.ne.jp [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan); Nagai, Hideo, E-mail: nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Runggaldier, Wolfgang J., E-mail: runggal@math.unipd.it [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  8. Enrichment of bio-oil after hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae C. vulgaris grown in wastewater: Bio-char and post HTL wastewater utilization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Jayaseelan; Varshini, Padmanabhan; Prithvinath, P Kamath; Priyadarshini, Venkataramani; Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy

    2018-08-01

    In this study, bio-oil was produced through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of C. vulgaris biomass cultivated in wastewater and was enriched into transportation fuels. Bio-oil yield was 29.37% wt at 300 °C, 60 min, at 15 g/200 mL biomass loading rate with 3% wt nano ZnO catalyst loading. Applying catalyst reduced oxygen and nitrogen content in bio-oil and increased its calorific value (19.6 ± 0.8 MJ/Kg). Bio-oil was enriched through liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and higher yield was obtained at 30 °C for dichloromethane solvent (18.2% wt). Compounds of enriched oil were within the petro-diesel range (C 8 -C 21 ). Bio-char after HTL process was activated and used as adsorbent in wastewater treatment process to remove organic pollutants (COD, NO 3 , NH 3 and PO 4 ). Treated wastewater can be supplied as growth medium for microalgae cultivation in further experiments. Nearly 3-4 times the nanocatalyst can be reused in the HTL process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery to avoid wind power deviation penalties in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turker, Burak; Arroyo Klein, Sebastian; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Trujillo, Juan José; Bremen, Lueder von; Kühn, Martin; Busse, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies

  10. Comparison of candidate solar array maximum power utilization approaches. [for spacecraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Lindena, S.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of five potential approaches that can be utilized to detect the maximum power point of a solar array while sustaining operations at or near maximum power and without endangering stability or causing array voltage collapse. The approaches studied included: (1) dynamic impedance comparator, (2) reference array measurement, (3) onset of solar array voltage collapse detection, (4) parallel tracker, and (5) direct measurement. The study analyzed the feasibility and adaptability of these approaches to a future solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission, and, specifically, to a comet rendezvous mission. Such missions presented the most challenging requirements to a spacecraft power subsystem in terms of power management over large solar intensity ranges of 1.0 to 3.5 AU. The dynamic impedance approach was found to have the highest figure of merit, and the reference array approach followed closely behind. The results are applicable to terrestrial solar power systems as well as to other than SEP space missions.

  11. Study of the possibility of thermal utilization of contaminated water in low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of water contaminated with oil products is a topical problem for thermal power plants and boiler houses. It is reasonable to use special water treatment equipment only for large power engineering and industry facilities. Thermal utilization of contaminated water in boiler furnaces is proposed as an alternative version of its utilization. Since there are hot-water fire-tube boilers at many enterprises, it is necessary to study the possibility of thermal utilization of water contaminated with oil products in their furnaces. The object of this study is a KV-GM-2.0 boiler with a heating power of 2 MW. The pressurized burner developed at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, was used as a burner device for supplying liquid fuel. The computational investigations were performed on the basis of the computer simulation of processes of liquid fuel atomization, mixing, ignition, and burnout; in addition, the formation of nitrogen oxides was simulated on the basis of ANSYS Fluent computational dynamics software packages, taking into account radiative and convective heat transfer. Analysis of the results of numerical experiments on the combined supply of crude oil and water contaminated with oil products has shown that the thermal utilization of contaminated water in fire-tube boilers cannot be recommended. The main causes here are the impingement of oil droplets on the walls of the flame tube, as well as the delay in combustion and increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The thermal utilization of contaminated water combined with diesel fuel can be arranged provided that the water consumption is not more than 3%; however, this increases the emission of nitrogen oxides. The further increase in contaminated water consumption will lead to the reduction of the reliability of the combustion process.

  12. Study of the Utilization BWR Type Nuclear Power Reactor for Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itjeu Karliana; Sumijanto; Dhandhang Purwadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The needs of fresh water increased by rapid population growth and industrials expansion, but these demands can not be prepared naturally. Following this case, seawater desalination becomes the primer option which can fulfill the need through the nuclear desalination technology. The coupled nuclear power reactor enables to supply thermal energy for auxiliary equipment and pumps operation. The utilization study of power reactor type BWR coupled with desalination process has been performed. The goal of study is to obtain characteristic data of desalted water specification which desalination system coupling with nuclear power plant produced energy for desalination process. The study is carried out by browsing data and information, and comprehensive review of thermal energy correlation between NPP with desalination process installation. According to reviewing are found that the thermal energy and electric power utilization from the nuclear power reactor are enable to remove the seawater to produce desalted water and also to operate auxiliary equipments. The assessment results is VK-300 reactor prototype, BWR type 250 MW(e) power are cogeneration unit can supplied hot steam temperature 285 °C to the extraction turbine to empower 150 MW electric power, and a part of hot steam 130 °C is use to operate desalination process and remind heat is distribute to the municipal and offices at that region. The coupled of VK-300 reactor power type BWR with desalination installation of MED type enable to produce desalted water with high quality distillate. Based on the economic calculation that the VK-300 reactor power of BWR type produced water distillate capacity is 300.000 m 3 /hour with cost US$ 0.58/m 3 . The coupling VK-300 reactor power type BWR with MED desalination plant is competitive economically. (author)

  13. An integrated GIS environment enhancing the operation and planning of power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yared, George Antoine

    1996-05-01

    The evolution of electrical power systems was tightly geared by the development of two fields: power engineering, with the advanced technology of physical elements comprising all parts of a power system, and information processing tools to manage the performance of electric power utilities. Compared to power engineering that has gone through tremendous developments, information technology applications for electrical power systems are relatively young. The possible improvements of these applications are in their graphical, mapping an data analysis capabilities. State-of-the art information technology such as Geographic Information Systems provides these facilities. The objective of this thesis is to devise a technique that combines power system software tools with the Geographic Information Systems software to enhance the operation, control and planning of electrical transmission systems. The load flow, voltage control and fault analysis models for the transmission system will be re-engineered in a Geographic Information System environment.The research is generic, special attention is given to its application to the Lebanese electrical power system, which is recovering from an infrastructure devastating war. The research entails integrating power systems analysis and control package, or PSACP developed at the AUB within a Geographic Information Systems environment. This will enhance the power modeling capabilities by the use of powerful thematic mapping, geographic and data analysis and user interface techniques that come with Geographic Information Systems. An overview of the two technologies involved is presented, followed by a detailed description of the integration technique before describing the integrated system. Moving to a higher level, the features of the system are presented, followed by sample applications of the integrated system on the Lebanese electrical power system. The thesis contributes to the research arena by developing a software re

  14. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  15. Utilization of water soluble plastics for radiological control within nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.; Deltete, C.P.; Homyk, W.A.; Kasprzak, L.; Robinson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of plastic products for radioactive contamination control within nuclear power facilities currently results in relatively large volumes of waste requiring disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The utilization of a polymer resin product that possesses comparable physical attributes to currently utilized plastic materials, but which is water soluble, has significant potential to reduce the volume of plastic waste requiring disposal as radwaste. Such a volume reduction will reduce overall plant )ampersand M costs, reduce the overall waste volume allocation utilization, and improve the regulatory perception of any plant realizing a volume reduction through plastic source minimization. This potential reduction in waste volume (and associated availability of the Low-level Waste Policy Amendments Act disposal allocation for other purposes), combined with potential economic benefits summarized above, has led to the undertaking of a detailed evaluation, presented in this paper

  16. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  17. FY 2000 report on the development of hydrothermal use power plant, etc. Development of the binary cycle power plant (Development of a 10MW class plant); 2000 nendo Nessui riyo hatsuden plant tou kaihatsu. Bainari cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu - 10MW kyu plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a 10MW class demonstrative plant for geothermal binary power generation, the R and D were carried out, and the results obtained from FY 1995 to FY 1999 were summed up. In the interim evaluation made in July 1994, study was to be phasedly proceeded with for the main three systems (hydrothermal system, medium system and power generation system) which compose the 10MW class binary cycle power plant. The test on the hydrothermal system was started in FY 1995. In the R and D, the following were conducted for evaluation: design/manufacture/installation of the test device for the hydrothermal system, manufacture of demonstrative downhole pump (DHP) No.3 and test at plant, test on the hydrothermal system. As to the turbine working medium suitable for binary power plant, the specified freon/substitute freon have been used, but it seems that hydrocarbons such as butane and pentane can be effective in future. In the study of the economical efficiency, it was pointed out that for the commercialization, it is important to improve durability of DHP and further reduce the cost of DHP equipment and cost of repairs. (NEDO)

  18. hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bayón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we revise the classical formulation of the problem depriving it of the concepts that are superfluous from the mathematical point of view. We observe that a number of power stations can be substituted by a single one that behaves equivalently to the entire set. Proceeding in this way, we obtain a variational formulation in its purest sense (without restrictions. This formulation allows us to employ the theory of calculus of variations to the highest degree. We then calculate the equivalent minimizer in the case where the cost functions are second-order polynomials. We prove that the equivalent minimizer is a second-order polynomial with piece-wise constant coefficients. Moreover, it belongs to the class C1. Finally, we present various examples prompted by real systems and perform the proposed algorithms using Mathematica.

  19. Where U.S. utilities seek fuel to power reactors after 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    How utilities try to assure uranium supplies emerged Feb. 25 at a press conference in Canberra with four representatives of utilities that supply 20% of the operating nuclear capacity in the United States. Earlier, the speakers indicated that American import requirements would far exceed Australian estimates of the potential export market for Australian uranium. Australia, with the world's largest uncommitted uranium reserves, is wary of exporting because the opposition Labor Party adamantly opposes uranium development. If Labor returns to power, it could decide not to honor contracts by the present government. Participants included: Bernard Cherry, fuel manager at General Public Utilities; Colin Campbell of the Yankee Atomic Service Co., which provides engineering and fuel-supply service for seven New England nuclear plants; Jack Gilleland, assistant manager of power at the Tennessee Valley Authority; and Ralph Bostian, manager for systems results and fuel management at the Duke Power Co. When asked about available uranium supplies from Africa, the participants were dubious about those supplies; this led to a discussion on why the utilities are seeking their own sources. The answers are obvious. ERDA has indicated that about one-half of the operating reactors have fuel coverage beyond six reloads and about one-half of the reactors under construction have fuel coverage beyond two reloads

  20. Contracts on electric power supply set up between communities (communal associations, countries) and public electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrich, B

    1976-01-01

    There is not any original communal right to energy supply for the population. The affiliation of local power supply to the local administration cannot be justified either by the public purpose of service or by the term provision of existence. The utilities do not get a communal license when getting the so-called licensing contract. According to its legal nature, the licensing contract is a mixture of legal positions composed of elements of the civil law and the public law. (Administrative lawsuit). The so-called power supply contract is a mutual legal relationship under civil law on the utilization of electric power, made to last. (Permanent obligation for utilization). When concluding both contracts, it is a matter of economic activities undertaken by the communities. Fiscal considerations are in the foreground. Legal regulations concerning roads and distances and serving as starting points for concluding a licensing contract are alien to the system and are to be abolished. Communities should only be responsible for local energy supply on a basis under public law. In lieu of it a stronger obligation to be met by large utilities ought to be ensured by ties under public law.

  1. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities` cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  2. Financial impacts of nonutility power purchases on investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    To assist in its these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, Financial Impacts of Nonutility Power Purchases on Investor-Owned Electric Utilities. The primary purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the issues surrounding the financial impacts of nonutility generation contracts (since the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) on investor-owned utilities. The existing concern in this area is manifest in the provisions of Section 712 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, which required State regulatory commissions to evaluate various aspects of long-term power purchase contracts, including their impact on investor-owned utilities' cost of capital and rates charged to customers. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of the deliberations by both public and private decision-makers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  3. A study on electric power management for power producer-suppliers utilizing output of megawatt-solar power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Takano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth in penetration of photovoltaic generation units (PVs has brought new power management ideas, which achieve more profitable operation, to Power Producer-Suppliers (PPSs. The expected profit for the PPSs will improve if they appropriately operate their controllable generators and sell the generated electricity to contracted customers and Power Exchanges together with the output of Megawatt-Solar Power Plants (MSPPs. Moreover, we can expect that the profitable cooperation between the PPSs and the MSPPs decreases difficulties in the supply-demand balancing operation for the main power grids. However, it is necessary that the PPSs treat the uncertainty in output prediction of PVs carefully. This is because there is a risk for them to pay a heavy imbalance penalty. This paper presents a problem framework and its solution to make the optimal power management plan for the PPSs in consideration with the electricity procurement from the MSPPs. The validity of the authors’ proposal is verified through numerical simulations and discussions of their results.

  4. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    following utility- and site-specific conditions that may affect the economic viability of distributed renewable energy sources were considered: distribution system characteristics, and design standards, and voltage levels; load density, reliability, and power quality; solar insolation and wind resource levels; utility generation characteristics and load profiles; and investor-owned and publicly owned utilities, size, and financial assumptions.

  5. Descriptive statistics of occupational employment in nuclear power utilities. Final working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.R.; Johnson, R.C.

    1982-10-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations conducted a survey of its 58 member utilities during the Spring of 1982. This was the second such survey performed to identify employment trends and to project needs for trained personnel in the industry to 1991. The first was performed in 1981. The 1982 employment survey consisted of four questionnaires, asking for information on: (1) on-site employment; (2) on-site turnover; (3) off-site employment; and (4) off-site turnover. The survey instruments were designed to reflect approaches used by the utilities to meet the labor requirements for operation of nuclear power plants through off-site support personnel, contractors, and holding company personnel, as well as utility employees working at the plant site. On-site information was received from all 83 plants at the 58 utilities. However, employment information from Surry of VEPCO arrived too late to be included in the analysis. Therefore, their numbers are reflected in the adjusted totals. Responses to requests for off-site employment information were received from 55 of the 58 utilities

  6. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a petroleum refinery utilities plant using the condensing to power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes da Silva, Julio Augusto; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio [Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jams@usp.br, luiz.pellegrini@usp.br, soj@usp.br; Plaza, Claudio; Rucker, Claudio [Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: claudioplaza@petrobras.com.br, rucker@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a brief description of the main processes present in a modern high capacity refinery is done. The methodology used to evaluate, through exergy analysis, the performance of the refinery's utilities plant since it is responsible for a very considerable amount of the total exergy destruction in a refinery is presented. The utilities plant products: steam, electricity, shaft power and high pressure water had their exergy unit cost determined using exergoeconomic approach. A simple and effective method called condensing to power was used to define the product of the condensers in exergy basis. Using this method it is possible to define the product of the condenser without the use of negentropy concept nor the aggregation of condensers to the steam turbines. By using this new approach, the costs obtained for the plant's products are exactly the same costs obtained when the condenser is aggregated to the steam turbine but with the advantage that the information about the stream between condenser and the steam turbine is not lost and the condenser can be evaluated singly. The analysis shows that the equipment where attention and resources should be focused are the boilers followed by the gas turbine, that together, are responsible for 80% of total exergy destruction in the utilities plant. The total exergy efficiency found for the utilities plant studied is 35% while more than 280 MW of exergy is destroyed in the utilities processes. (author)

  7. Incentive regulation of investor-owned nuclear power plants by public utility regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, M.D.; Elliot, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) periodically surveys the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and state regulatory commissions that regulate utility owners of nuclear power plants. The NRC is interested in identifying states that have established economic or performance incentive programs applicable to nuclear power plants, including states with new programs, how the programs are being implemented, and in determining the financial impact of the programs on the utilities. The NRC interest stems from the fact that such programs have the potential to adversely affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulatory agency that administers an incentive program and each utility that owns at least 10% of an affected nuclear power plant. The agreements, orders, and settlements that form the basis for each incentive program were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program

  8. CEZ utility's coal-fired power plants: towards a higher environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindl, V.; Spilkova, T.; Vanousek, I.; Stehlik, J.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental efforts of the major Czech utility, CEZ a.s., are aimed at reducing air pollution arising from electricity and heat generating facilities. There are 3 main kinds of activity in this respect: phasing out of coal fired power plants; technological provisions to reduce emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from those coal fired units that are to remain in operation after 1998; and completion of the Temelin nuclear power plant. In 1995, emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide from CEZ's coal fired power plants were 19%, 79%, 59%, and 60%, respectively, with respect to the situation in 1992. The break-down of electricity generation by CEZ facilities (in GWh) was as follows in 1995: hydroelectric power plants 1673, nuclear power plants 12230, coal fired power plants without desulfurization equipment 30181, and coal fired power plants with desulfurization equipment 2277. Provisions implemented to improve the environmental friendliness of the individual CEZ's coal fired power plants are described in detail. (P.A.). 5 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Project risk management for development of non-utility power generators (NUGs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, T.

    1990-01-01

    The growing Non-Utility Generation (NUG) industry has brought new opportunities and challenges for the insurance industry. There can be unique engineering and financial risks involved in the development of Non-Utility Power Generation projects. The use of new technologies to meet stringent environmental regulations and to improve project performance and efficiency presents new challenges to the project developers and designers. The lack of funding, resources and experience of some of these projects may create unusual risks that could result in failure or deficiency in the performance of the projects

  10. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of Model Predictive Control to Balance Power Absorption Against Load Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Nikhar [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-03

    Wave energy converter (WEC) control strategies have been primarily focused on maximizing power absorption. The use of model predictive control strategies allows for a finite-horizon, multiterm objective function to be solved. This work utilizes a multiterm objective function to maximize power absorption while minimizing the structural loads on the WEC system. Furthermore, a Kalman filter and autoregressive model were used to estimate and forecast the wave exciting force and predict the future dynamics of the WEC. The WEC's power-take-off time-averaged power and structural loads under a perfect forecast assumption in irregular waves were compared against results obtained from the Kalman filter and autoregressive model to evaluate model predictive control performance.

  12. Utilization of a full-scope simulation for training the operating personel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A full-scope simulator of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant has been installed at the NUCLEBRAS Training Center in Mambucaba - close to the site where that Plant is being built -, the goal of providing training for the operating personnel of the KWU-design nuclear power plants to be installed in Brazil. Due to the delays which occurred in the construction of Angra-2, NUCLEBRAS has established an extensive program for the utilization of the simulator for the training of operators for German nuclear power plants and for Spain's Trillo Plant. Besides yielding profits to NUCLEBRAS, that program is resulting in considerable experience in the area of nuclear power plant operators' training generating international recognition to the NUCLEBRAS Training Center. (Author) [pt

  13. Utilization of Model Predictive Control to Balance Power Absorption Against Load Accumulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Nikhar; Tom, Nathan

    2017-09-01

    Wave energy converter (WEC) control strategies have been primarily focused on maximizing power absorption. The use of model predictive control strategies allows for a finite-horizon, multiterm objective function to be solved. This work utilizes a multiterm objective function to maximize power absorption while minimizing the structural loads on the WEC system. Furthermore, a Kalman filter and autoregressive model were used to estimate and forecast the wave exciting force and predict the future dynamics of the WEC. The WEC's power-take-off time-averaged power and structural loads under a perfect forecast assumption in irregular waves were compared against results obtained from the Kalman filter and autoregressive model to evaluate model predictive control performance.

  14. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  15. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  16. An innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for the treatment of decentralized wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changfu; Liu, Junxin; Liang, Hanwen; Guo, Xuesong; Li, Lin

    2013-02-01

    This article reports an innovative integrated system utilizing solar energy as power for decentralized wastewater treatment, which consists of an oxidation ditch with double channels and a photovoltaic (PV) system without a storage battery. Because the system operates without a storage battery, which can reduce the cost of the PV system, the solar radiation intensity affects the amount of power output from the PV system. To ensure that the power output is sufficient in all different weather conditions, the solar radiation intensity of 78 W/m2 with 95% confidence interval was defined as a threshold of power output for the PV system according to the monitoring results in this study, and a step power output mode was used to utilize the solar energy as well as possible. The oxidation ditch driven by the PV system without storage battery ran during the day and stopped at night. Therefore, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions could periodically appear in the oxidation ditch, which was favorable to nitrogen and phosphate removal from the wastewater. The experimental results showed that the system was efficient, achieving average removal efficiencies of 88% COD, 98% NH4+-N, 70% TN and 83% TP, under the loading rates of 140 mg COD/(g MLSS x day), 32 mg NH4+-N/(g MLSS x day), 44 mg TN/(g MLSS x day) and 5 mg TP/(g MLSS x day).

  17. Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy Peden; Sanjiv Shah

    2005-07-26

    This report describes complete results of the project entitled ''Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System''. This demonstration project was initiated in July 2003 and completed in March 2005. The objective of the project was to develop an integrated power production/variable frequency drive system that could easily be deployed in the oil field that would increase production and decrease operating costs. This report describes all the activities occurred and documents results of the demonstration.

  18. Utilization of uranium cost/benefit study for nuclear powered merchant ships. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.R.

    1977-05-01

    This study presents a cost/benefit analysis for the utilization of uranium in merchant ships versus the use of uranium for the generation of electricity in central power stations. The study concludes that an alternative naval fuel to oil must be developed for the merchant marine to reduce U.S. dependency upon foreign supplies of a critical fuel. The study further indicates that use of uranium for ship propulsion results in transport of large quantities of needed import/exports while the residual oil saved will generate the same quantity of electricity in a central power station as the uranium used for ship propulsion

  19. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  20. Utility Test Results of a 2-Megawatt, 10-Second Reserve-Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BALL,GREG J.; NORRIS,BENJAMIN L.

    1999-10-01

    This report documents the 1996 evaluation by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of an advanced reserve-power system capable of supporting 2 MW of load for 10 seconds. The system, developed under a DOE Cooperative Agreement with AC Battery Corporation of East Troy, Wisconsin, contains battery storage that enables industrial facilities to ''ride through'' momentary outages. The evaluation consisted of tests of system performance using a wide variety of load types and operating conditions. The tests, which included simulated utility outages and voltage sags, demonstrated that the system could provide continuous power during utility outages and other disturbances and that it was compatible with a variety of load types found at industrial customer sites.

  1. Utility survey on nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, D.F.; Bauman, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the large U.S. utilities were surveyed by telephone and mail on questions concerning nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers (NECs). The main purpose of the survey was for guidance of ERDA's NEC program. The questions covered the following topics: availability of sites; impact of environmental and other restraints; plans for development of multi-unit sites; interest in NEC development; interest in including fuel-cycle facilities in NECs; and opinions on the roles desired for the state and Federal governments in power plant siting. The main conclusion of the survey was that, while many utilities were considering multiple-unit sites of 2 to 5 units, none were planning larger energy centers at the present time. However, several expressed interest in NECs as a long-range future development

  2. Environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization in the thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem D Najafpour; Seyed Jafar Mehdizadeh; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide causes green house effect, has been considered as a pollutant source of our safe environment. Since combustion of fossil fuel may create tremendous amount of carbon dioxide, detecting any pollutant sources would be important to eliminate the pollution sources. Evaluation of smoke dispersion that has been generated by a power plant utilizing fossil fuel is the objective of this paper. The concentration of NO, and SO, in the soil, have been analyzed from a distance of 3 to 4 km far from power plant. The experimental results shown. that the concentration of toxic gases was a little above the international standards. Replacement of fossil fuel by natural gas caused NO, concentration to be developed in the atmosphere, therefore usage of natural gas is limited by environmental protection agencies. Beside the nuclear power plant, the power generated by other sources. are limited. Electric power generated by water dam is not a major contribution of electric power demand. Therefore generation of electricity by any other energy sources, which are friendly to the environment, is recommended. Other sources of energy, such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal, ocean thennal and renewable source of energy can be considered safe for the environment. The goal of environmental management system would be to meet the minimum requirements were established and demanded by the local environmental protection agency or international standard organization (ISO-14000). (Author)

  3. Numerical approach to optimal portfolio in a power utility regime-switching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulov, Tihomir B.; Koleva, Miglena N.; Vulkov, Lubin G.

    2017-12-01

    We consider a system of weakly coupled degenerate semi-linear parabolic equations of optimal portfolio in a regime-switching with power utility function, derived by A.R. Valdez and T. Vargiolu [14]. First, we discuss some basic properties of the solution of this system. Then, we develop and analyze implicit-explicit, flux limited finite difference schemes for the differential problem. Numerical experiments are discussed.

  4. EUR, an European utility requirements documents for future LWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Lienard, Michel; Redon, Ramon; Essmann, Juergen; Taylor, David T.

    2004-01-01

    A group of the major European utilities are developing a common requirement document which will be used for the LWR nuclear power plants to be built in Europe from the beginning of the next century. This document provides harmonised policies and technical requirements that will allow the implementation of a design developed in one country into another one. The objectives and contents of the document, the organisation set up for its production and the main requirements are summarised in the paper. (author)

  5. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Geothermal Power Plant, SMUDGEO No. 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The proposed construction of 72-MW geothermal power plant is discussed. The following aspects are covered: the project as proposed by the utility; the environmental setting; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the Growth Inducing Impacts. (MHR)

  6. Helping utilities harness the power of the web for substation automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, D.

    2000-11-01

    The significance of the Internet to the deregulated electric power industry and the ability to tap into the benefits of Web-enabled substation monitoring and control are reviewed. It is this author's contention that the convergence of Internet access from PCs, servers and Internet-ready intelligent electronic devices make it possible to have full-scale substation automation and control without the high price tag associated with SCADA systems. Whereas in the past automation solutions were thought to be appropriate only for big utilities, the potential of the Internet such as the GE-hosted enerVista.com service, which is made up of a number of modules which can provide many of the services of a complex enterprise management system at a fraction of the cost, make it possible for smaller utilities to overcome substation automation problems at an affordable cost. By having the communications link over the web, and data acquisition hosted by an outside vendor, even the smallest municipal utility can have the most up-to-date equipment at their disposal, and expand their control to SCADA-level functionality without having to incur the usual programming and technology costs. The example of Whitby Hydro to automate their three substation system with GE Power Management's Universal Relay (UR) intelligent electronic device system by installing a modem as an Internet appliance for 24/7 monitoring, optional protection and control, is cited. Utilities in Oshawa and Thunder Bay, Ontario, and others in New York State and Tennessee, are some of the other utilities currently involved in developing web-based applications that address their unique requirements. At present, there appears to be no limit to the role that the Internet can play in substation automation and control for utilities competing in a global market.

  7. Utilization of water power in the Hochsauerland District. Possibilities of utilizing water power plants while deriving profits for tourism. Wasserkraftnutzung im Hochsauerlandkreis. Moeglichkeiten zur Inwertsetzung der Wasserkraftanlagen im Rahmen einer touristischen Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrer, U.

    1994-01-01

    The idea of utilizing water power plants while driving profits for tourism intends to promote regional tourism and support the district at the same time. Since both precipitation and discharge conditions and the Hochsauerland relief provide favorable conditions for water power utilization, one finds various water wheel uses, i.e. corn mills or saw mills, water wheels for the metal-working industry, and hammer mills. This volume contains a comprehensive documentation of the water power plants in the Hochsauerland District. (BWI)

  8. POWER-GEN '90 conference papers: Volume 3 (Environmental trends and issues) and Volume 4 (Case histories - Non-utility power generation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This is book 2 of a collection of papers presented at the Third International Power Generation Industries Conference on December 4-6, 1990. The book contains Volume 3, Environmental Trends and Issues, and Volume 4, Case Histories - Non-utility Power Generation. The topics of the papers include environmental legislative and regulatory trends, acid rain compliance strategies and technologies, other global environmental concerns, gas fired systems, solid and waste fuels, despatching and wheeling, and strategies for purchasing non-utility power

  9. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M.; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J.; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid. PMID:27240365

  10. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J

    2016-05-26

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant's components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  11. Utilization of tidal power in Russia in overcoming the global energy and ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernshtein, L.B.; Usachev, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The 30 years of the exploitation of the TPP Rance in France and Kyslogubskaya TPP in Russia had proved the energy expedience economical and ecological effectiveness and a high performance of the tidal energy. The possibility of such utilizing could be proved thanks to the application of the theoretical cycles of Gibrat, of the bulb units and the russian model of the tidal utilizing and application of the floating methods of creating the TPP. The investigations at TPP Kislaya Guba helped to solve the row of problems of marine power building with the high exploitation performance and ecological safety. Thus the TPP of Mezen with a capacity of 17 million kW can transfer to the united power system of Europe 50 TWh/year and the Tugur TPP with a capacity 8 million kW can produce 20 TWh/year of energy for the power system of seaside of Russian and Japan. Penzinskaya TPP with the capacity of 87 million kW can be promoted in 21. century in connection to the advanced in USA proposition of construction of the combining transport-power tunnel across the Bering Strait. (authors)

  12. Joint Utility-Based Power Control and Receive Beamforming in Decentralized Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Feistel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of joint resource allocation in general wireless networks and its practical implementation aspects. The objective is to allocate transmit powers and receive beamformers to the users in order to maximize a network-wide utility that represents the attained QoS and is a function of the signal-to-interference ratios. This problem is much more intricate than the corresponding QoS-based power control problem. In particular, it is not known which class of utility functions allows for a convex formulation of this problem. In case of perfect synchronization, the joint power and receiver control problem can be reformulated as a power control problem under optimal receivers. Standard gradient projection methods can be applied to solve this problem. However, these algorithms are not applicable in decentralized wireless networks. Therefore, we decompose the problem and propose a convergent alternate optimization that is amenable to distributed implementation. In addition, in real-world networks noisy measurements and estimations occur. Thus, the proposed algorithm has to be investigated in the framework of stochastic approximation. We discuss practical implementation aspects of the proposed stochastic algorithm and investigate its convergence properties by simulations.

  13. Decision analysis for the siting of nuclear power plants: the relevance of multiattribute utility theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L; Nair, K.

    1975-01-01

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long-range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, clearly the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. Hence, the professional judgments and knowledge of experts in these areas should be utilized in analyses of siting decisions. Likewise, the preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate an approach for formally articulating the experts' judgments and the decision makers' preferences, both of which are clearly subjective, and processing these along with the more objective considerations in a logical manner to acquire the implications for decision making. The appropriateness and application of decision analysis for power plant location decisions is discussed and illustrated. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of the decision maker's preferences and tradeoffs concerning multiple objectives. (U.S.)

  14. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Moreno-Garcia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  15. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators

  16. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Villasenor, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  17. Photovoltaic rural electrification and the electric power utility. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J M; Villasenor, F; Urrutia, M [eds.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the national and international programs about photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and the electric power utility experiences about PV programs. The IERE Workshop was hold from May 8 to 12, 1995 in Cocoyoc, Mexico. It was organized by the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)) and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Workshop was attended by 38 delegates from 13 countries [Espanol] Este documento contiene los programas nacionales e internacionales sobre electrificacion fotovoltaica rural y las experiencias en programas fotovoltaicos de empresas electricas. El taller de trabajo IERE fue realizado los dias del 8 al 12 de mayo de 1995 en Cocoyoc, Mexico. Fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y el U.S. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (Instituto de Investigaciones de Energia Electrica de Estados Unidos). A este taller de trabajo asistieron 38 delegados de 13 paises

  18. A technology-assessment methodology for electric utility planning: With application to nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lough, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Electric utilities and public service commissions have not taken full advantage of the many proven methodologies and techniques available for evaluating complex technological issues. In addition, evaluations performed are deficient in their use of (1) methods for evaluating public attitudes and (2) formal methods of analysis for decision making. These oversight are substantiated through an examination of the literature relevant to electric utility planning. The assessment process known as technology assessment or TA is proposed, and a TA model is developed for route in use in utility planning by electric utilities and state regulatory commissions. Techniques to facilitate public participation and techniques to aid decision making are integral to the proposed model and are described in detail. Criteria are provided for selecting an appropriate technique on a case-by-case basis. The TA model proved to be an effective methodology for evaluating technological issues associated with electric utility planning such as decommissioning nuclear power plants. Through the use of the nominal group technique, the attitudes of a group of residential ratepayers were successfully identified and included in the decision-making process

  19. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  20. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  1. A Study on Guidelines for the Utilization of Unproven MMIS Technology In Nuclear Power Plant Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Kon; Shin, Yeong Cheol; Bae, Byoung Hwan

    2007-01-01

    New MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) technology is rapidly advanced as digital technology provides opportunity for more functionality and better cost effectiveness and NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operators are inclined to use the new technology for the construction of new plant and for the upgrade of existing plants. However, this new technology poses risks to the NPP operators at the same time. These risks are mainly due to the poor reliability of newly developed technology. KHNP's past experiences with the new MMIS equipment shows many cases of reliability problem. And their consequences include unintended plant trips, lowered acceptance of the new digital technology by the plant I and C maintenance crew, and increased licensing burden in answering for questions from the nuclear regulatory body. Considering the fact that the risk of these failures in the nuclear plant operation is far greater than those in other industry, utilities require proven technology for the MMIS in nuclear power plants. So that new MMIS technology might be testified as proven technology, guidelines for the utilization of unproven MMIS technology in nuclear power plant application is required for applying new advanced MMIS technology which is apparently needed to obtain a definite gain in simplicity or performance

  2. Power Struggle: Changing Momentum in the Restructured American Electric Utility System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsh, Richard F.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970's, producing and distributing electricity were considered as a natural monopoly. They were subjected to state regulation meant to defend the consumers' interest but which in reality enhanced the power of utility managers. The changes that happened since questioned the managers' control over the system. Following the technological stasis that occurred in the production of electricity, the oil crisis, and the awakening of the environmental movement, the Government adopted the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act in 1978, favoring the coming of cogeneration technologies benefiting the small producers. Market economy tended to replace natural monopoly. Deregulation became a valuable option and was stimulated by the 1992 Energy Policy Act. However, the electrical crisis in California and the recent blackout over part of the continent slowed down the pace of the change

  3. Examination of incentive mechanisms for innovative technologies applicable to utility and nonutility power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, IL (United States); Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.

    1993-08-01

    Innovative technologies, built by either utility or nonutility power generators, have the potential to lower costs with less environmental emissions than conventional technologies. However, the public-good nature of information, along with uncertain costs, performance, and reliability, discourages rapid adoption of these technologies. The effect of regulation of electricity production may also have an adverse impact on motivation to innovate. Slower penetration of cleaner, more efficient technologies could result in greater levels of pollution, higher electricity prices, and a reduction in international competitiveness. Regulatory incentives could encourage adoption and deployment of innovative technologies of all kinds, inducting clean coal technologies. Such incentives must be designed to offset risks inherent in innovative technology and encourage cost-effective behavior. To evaluate innovative and conventional technologies equally, the incremental cost of risk (ICR) of adopting the innovative technology must be determined. Through the ICR, the magnitude of incentive required to make a utility (or nonutility) power generator equally motivated to use either conventional or innovative technologies can be derived. Two technology risks are examined: A construction risk, represented by a 15% cost overrun, and an operating risk, represented by a increased forced outage rate (decreased capacity factor). Different incentive mechanisms and measurement criteria are used to assess the effects of these risks on ratepayers and shareholders. In most cases, a regulatory incentive could offset the perceived risks while encouraging cost-effective behavior by both utility and nonutility power generators. Not only would the required incentive be recouped, but the revenue requirements would be less for the innovative technology; also, less environmental pollution would be generated. In the long term, ratepayers and society would benefit from innovative technologies.

  4. Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Littell, David [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Kadoch, Camille [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Baker, Phil [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Bharvirkar, Ranjit [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Dupuy, Max [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Hausauer, Brenda [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Migden-Ostrander, Janine [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Rosenow, Jan [Regulatory Assistance Project; Xuan, Wang [Regulatory Assistance Project

    2017-09-12

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) enables regulators to reform hundred-year-old regulatory structures to unleash innovations within 21st century power systems. An old regulatory paradigm built to ensure safe and reliable electricity at reasonable prices from capital-intensive electricity monopolies is now adjusting to a new century of disruptive technological advances that change the way utilities make money and what value customers expect from their own electricity company. Advanced technologies are driving change in power sectors around the globe. Innovative technologies are transforming the way electricity is generated, delivered, and consumed. These emerging technology drivers include renewable generation, distributed energy resources such as distributed generation and energy storage, demand-side management measures such as demand-response, electric vehicles, and smart grid technologies and energy efficiency (EE). PBR enables regulators to recognize the value that electric utilities bring to customers by enabling these advanced technologies and integrating smart solutions into the utility grid and utility operations. These changes in the electric energy system and customer capacities means that there is an increasing interest in motivating regulated entities in other areas beyond traditional cost-of-service performance regulation. This report addresses best practices gleaned from more than two decades of PBR in practice, and analyzes how those best practices and lessons can be used to design innovative PBR programs. Readers looking for an introduction to PBR may want to focus on Chapters 1-5. Chapters 6 and 7 contain more detail for those interested in the intricate workings of PBR or particularly innovative PBR.

  5. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterlin, Ian F [Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-22

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  6. A study on utilization improvement of cogeneration potential in a complex industrial steam and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierka, O.; Variny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient cogeneration is widely acknowledged as one of measures reducing primary energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. This contribution bears on analyses of complex industrial power plants, incorporating the concept of exergetic and exergoecomic balances-a concept that has been rarely utilized in Slovakia up to day. Emphasis is laid on synergic use of marginal and exergoecomic analysis, thus assessing the economics of various complex cogeneration units' operational modes. The whole study, together with resulting recommendations for cogeneration efficiency improvement of the given unit is an excerpt of corresponding author's doctoral thesis. (Authors)

  7. A study on utilization improvement of cogeneration potential in a complex industrial steam and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierka, O.; Variny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient cogeneration is widely acknowledged as one of measures reducing primary energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. This contribution bears on analyses of complex industrial power plants, incorporating the concept of exergetic and exergoeconomic balances-a concept that has been rarely utilized in Slovakia up to day. Emphasis is laid on synergic use of marginal and exergoeconomic analysis, thus assessing the economics of various complex cogeneration units' operational modes. The whole study, together with resulting recommendations for cogeneration efficiency improvement of the given unit is an excerpt of corresponding author's doctoral thesis. (Authors)

  8. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.; Cole, A.

    1996-01-01

    The status and prospects of photovoltaic (PV) power systems are reviewed. The market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems by utilities is described, and the mission, objectives and thoughts of the collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries under the framework of the International Energy Agency are highly with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. Future sales of PV systems are expected to grow in the short and medium term mainly in the sector of isolated systems. (R.P.)

  9. Soil warming for utilization and dissipation of waste heat from power generation in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWalle, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Penn State research project, which studies the soil warming by circulation of heated power plant discharge water through a buried pipe network. Waste heat can be utilized by soil warming for increased crop growth in open fields with proper selection of crops and cropping systems. Dissipation of waste heat from a buried pipe network can be predicted using either of two steady-state conduction equations tested. Accurate predictions are dependent upon estimates of the pipe outer-surface temperatures, soil surface temperatures in heated soil and soil thermal conductivity. The effect of economic optimization on soil-warming land area requirements for a 1500 MWe power plant in Pennsylvania is presented. (M.S.)

  10. The comparative costs of nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants in an American electricity utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter compares the current and historic operating performances of twelve large nuclear and coal-fired units now operated by Commonwealth Edison Company, and provides specific comparison of bus-bar costs of electricity generated by those units in recent years. It also provides cost comparisons for future nuclear and coal-fired units and attempts to deal realistically with the effect of future inflation upon these comparisons. The chapter attempts to deal responsibly with the problem of uncertainty - how present-day comparisons may be affected by future developments and how my own published comparisons have varied over the past four or five years. The conclusion is reached that, given the uncertain world in which we live, no electric power supplier can afford to put all its eggs in one basket. Utility managers have a strong incentive to diversify their sources of power generation, and society as a whole would do well to encourage such diversification. (author)

  11. Modern combined cycle power plant utilizing the GT11N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The requirement imposed on modern power plants are increasingly demanding. The limits of: efficiency; environmental sensitivity; reliability and availability; are constantly being pushed. Today's state of the art combined cycle power plants are positioned well to meet these challenges. This paper reports that these objectives can be achieved through the selection of the proper gas turbine generator in an optimized cycle concept. A balanced approach to the plant design is required. It must not sacrifice any one of these requirements, in order to achieve the others. They achieve their fullest potential when firing a clean fuel, natural gas. However, fuel oil, both light (No. 2) and heavy (No. 6), can be utilized but some efficiency and environmental impact will have to be sacrificed

  12. The safety of nuclear power plants under the shareholder value orientation - example Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhmann, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Usually the safety of nuclear power plants is regarded as a technical question. Thereby humans only as a part of the man-machine system play a safety-relevant role usually. On this picture, the national regulation of this safety, the 'nuclear supervision' is designed. An innovative investigation of the Yale School of Management has concerned with the incidents around the so-called Millstone reactors in Waterford, Connecticut, and the economic collapse of the regional supplier Northeast Utilities (NU). The change of the corporate culture of the operator of the nuclear power station to a shareholder value orientation has released this 'enterprise disaster'. This investigation permits a first insight into the changed requirements on supervision, which goes beyond the nuclear supervision and which includes the price control in view of this change of the corporate culture

  13. Device for district heating with utilization of waste heat from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korek, J.

    1976-01-01

    In order to utilize the waste heat developing in power plants - especially in nuclear power plants - the author suggests to lead the waste heat of the coolers for oil (which the bearings are lubricated with), hydrogen (which serves for the stator rotor-cooling), and the stator cooling water to the circulating district heating water and to arrange these heat exchangers one behind another or parallel to each other in the water circuit of the district heating system. The oil cooler of the engine transformer is also connected with the circulation of the district heating water. The runback water of the district heating network could thus be heated from approx. 40 0 C up to 65 0 C. (UA) [de

  14. Utilization of power plant bottom ash as aggregates in fiber-reinforced cellular concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H K; Kim, H K; Hwang, E A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, millions tons of bottom ash wastes from thermoelectric power plants have been disposed of in landfills and coastal areas, regardless of its recycling possibility in construction fields. Fiber-reinforced cellular concrete (FRCC) of low density and of high strength may be attainable through the addition of bottom ash due to its relatively high strength. This paper focuses on evaluating the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash of thermoelectric power plant wastes as aggregates in FRCC. The flow characteristics of cement mortar with bottom ash aggregates and the effect of aggregate type and size on concrete density and compressive strength were investigated. In addition, the effects of adding steel and polypropylene fibers for improving the strength of concrete were also investigated. The results from this study suggest that bottom ash can be applied as a construction material which may not only improve the compressive strength of FRCC significantly but also reduce problems related to bottom ash waste.

  15. A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaojun; Che Defu

    2009-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia-water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component and thermodynamic analyses are conducted. The results show that the proposed combined cycle has good performance, with net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency of 33% and 48%, respectively, for a typical operating condition. The power output is equal to 1.25 MWh per kg of ammonia-water mixture. About 0.2 MW of electrical power for operating sea water pumps can be saved. Parametric analyses are performed for the proposed combined cycle to evaluate the effects of key factors on the performance of the proposed combined cycle through simulation calculations. Results show that a maximum net electrical efficiency can be obtained as the inlet pressure of ammonia turbine increases and the peak value increases as the ammonia mass fraction increases. Exergy efficiency goes up with the increased ammonia turbine inlet pressure. With the ammonia mass fraction increases, the net electrical efficiency increases, whereas exergy efficiency decreases. For increasing LNG turbine inlet pressure or heat source temperature, there is also a peak of net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency. With the increase of LNG gas turbine outlet pressure, exergy efficiency increases while net electrical efficiency drops

  16. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Santos, Rubens S. dos

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  17. Utilization of oil shale in power plants and environmental protection; Polevkivienergeetika ja keskkonna saastumine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia)

    1994-04-01

    Estonia n oil shale was first used as a power fuel in 1924 at the Tallinn Power Plant. The first pulverized oil-shale-fired steam boilers were used in the end of forties. A new period in the utilization of the Estonia n oil shale began in the years of 1959-1960, when the first power units were applied at the Baltic Thermal Power Plant. The project capacity of the plant was 1600 MW. In the 1973 the Estonia n thermal Power Plant was put into operation with the capacity of 1610 MW. The output of the electric power generated by oil.shale power plants in 1989, was 17.4 TWh; the maximum output was achieved in 1979 - 19.1 TWh. In 1989, the amount of the Estonia n oil shale consumed to generate electric power was equal to 22.3{center_dot}10{sup 6}t. On burning oil shale the main atmospheric pollutants are the following: nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and fly ash. The concentration of nitrogen oxide in the oil-shale flue gas leaving the chimney, expressed as nitrogen dioxide by an excess air factor 1.5, is in the range of 0.15-0.20 g/m{sup 3.} The total emission of nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere is approximately 15-20 thousand ton per year. the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the oil-shale flue gas leaving the boiler by an excess air factor 1.5 in the range of 1.0-1.8 g/m{sup 3.} the total emission of sulphur dioxide into atmosphere is in range of 140-160 thousand per year. As the oil-shale ash contains a large amount of the components capable of combining with sulphur in furnace and in boiler gas passes, the sulphur binding effect from ash is high, and it is in the range of 0.75-0.85. The boilers in oil-shale power plants are equipped with two-stage ash separation systems: cyclone and electrostatic al precipitators. The fly ash concentration in oil shale flue gas after electrostatic al precipitators by excess air factor 1.5 is 1-2 g/m{sup 3.} (author).

  18. Research on technology utilizing data freeway for base nuclear power materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Kurihara, Yutaka; Noda, Tetsuji; Shiraishi, Haruki; Kitajima, Masahiro; Nagakawa, Josei; Yamamoto, Norikazu

    1997-01-01

    In order to carry out the selection of the nuclear power materials which are used in radiation, from high temperature to very low temperature, and in corrosive environment, and the development of the materials effectively, the construction of huge material data base is indispensable. The development of the distributed type material data base called 'freeway' is advanced jointly by National Research Institute for Metals, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and Japan Science and Technology Corporation. It has been aimed at that the results obtained in each research institute are made into a data base by that institute, and those data bases can be utilized mutually through network. In fiscal year 1996, the transfer to the system, by which the function showing the contents of system data and the function of data retrieval can be utilized from internet, was begun jointly. The present state of the data freeway, the operation environment of World Wide Web, and the trial making of the computation program for forecasting the change of the chemical composition of materials by neutron irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Making the grid the backup: Utility applications for fuel cell power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklof, S.L. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are recognized as a versatile power generation option and accepted component of SMUD`s ART Program. SMUD has received wide support and recognition for promoting and implementing fuel cell power plants, as well as other innovative generation, based primarily on technological factors. Current economic and technical realities in the electric generation market highlight other important factors, such as the cost involved to develop a slate of such resources. The goal now is to develop only those select quality resources most likely to become commercially viable in the near future. The challenge becomes the identification of candidate technologies with the greatest potential, and then matching the technologies with the applications that will help to make them successful. Utility participation in this development is critical so as to provide the industry with case examples of advanced technologies that can be applied in a way beneficial to both the utility and its customers. The ART resource acquisitions provide the experience base upon which to guide this selection process, and should bring about the cost reductions and reliability improvements sought.

  20. Survey on the trends of atomic power development and utilization in 1973 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Japanese activities in the atomic power development and utilization during 1973 (FY) were investigated and compared with the previous year. The investigation was done for each type of organization; medical, educational, research institute, private company, and others. The results of the investigation can be summarized as follows. The total number of personnel being engaged in the field of atomic industry increased by 1.2%. About 52.8% of them belong to private companies. The number of trainees during 1973 increased by 7.9%. About 92.3% of them were trained in domestic organizations. The expenditure for research and development was 100 billion yen which is 12.1% larger than that in the previous year. About 73.4% was used by public research institutes including JAERI and PNC. Investment in equipments was 235.2 billion yen which was increase of 20%. Most of this money (215.4 billion yen) was invested for the construction of power plants by electric utilities. Total amount of production was 73 billion yen which was increase of 45.9%. (Aoki, K.)

  1. Modular-multiplex or single large power plants-advantages and disadvantages for utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endicott, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The question of growing interest in the fusion community is what size and type configuration fusion reactor(s) will lead to the most economical and attractive fusion power plant? There are two sides to this question. One involves how to build the most economical and attractive fusion reactor. This question which requires evaluation of reactor components within the reactor system is being examined at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and elsewhere. The other side involves examining the issues associated with the most economical size and configuration reactor to use. This question requires the evaluation of the changes in cost of service due to different size and configuration reactors on a utility system. The authors objective was to explore the advantages and disadvantages of using modular-multiplex power plants and to illustrate a means of quantifying the tradeoffs. The effort resulted in the identification of the key parameters involved in selecting the optimum size plant for a utility system and a better understanding of the tradeoffs that are possible. This paper discusses this effort in detail

  2. Initial Outcomes from a Multicenter Study Utilizing the Indego Powered Exoskeleton in Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefertiller, Candy; Hays, Kaitlin; Jones, Janell; Jayaraman, Arun; Hartigan, Clare; Bushnik, Tamara; Forrest, Gail F

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To assess safety and mobility outcomes utilizing the Indego powered exoskeleton in indoor and outdoor walking conditions with individuals previously diagnosed with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in outpatient clinics associated with 5 rehabilitation hospitals. A convenience sample of nonambulatory individuals with SCI ( N = 32) completed an 8-week training protocol consisting of walking training 3 times per week utilizing the Indego powered exoskeleton in indoor and outdoor conditions. Participants were also trained in donning/doffing the exoskeleton during each session. Safety measures such as adverse events (AEs) were monitored and reported. Time and independence with donning/doffing the exoskeleton as well as walking outcomes to include the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Timed Up & Go test (TUG), and 600-meter walk test were evaluated from midpoint to final evaluations. Results: All 32 participants completed the training protocol with limited device-related AEs, which resulted in no interruption in training. The majority of participants in this trial were able to don and doff the Indego independently. Final walking speed ranged from 0.19 to 0.55 m/s. Final average indoor and outdoor walking speeds among all participants were 0.37 m/s ( SD = 0.08, 0.09, respectively), after 8 weeks of training. Significant ( p exoskeleton.

  3. Powering-up Wireless Sensor Nodes Utilizing Rechargeable Batteries and an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Chamanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless sensor node (WSN system where an electromagnetic (EM energy harvester is utilized for charging its rechargeable batteries while the system is operational. The capability and the performance of an in-house low-frequency EM energy harvester for charging rechargeable NiMH batteries were experimentally verified in comparison to a regular battery charger. Furthermore, the power consumption of MicaZ motes, used as the WSN, was evaluated in detail for different operation conditions. The battery voltage and current were experimentally monitored during the operation of the MicaZ sensor node equipped with the EM vibration energy harvester. A compact (24.5 cm3 in-house EM energy harvester provides approximately 65 µA charging current to the batteries when excited by 0.4 g acceleration at 7.4 Hz. It has been shown that the current demand of the MicaZ mote can be compensated for by the energy harvester for a specific low-power operation scenario, with more than a 10-fold increase in the battery lifetime. The presented results demonstrate the autonomous operation of the WSN, with the utilization of a vibration-based energy harvester.

  4. PVMaT - OMNION Series 3000: Photovoltaic Power Conversion System for Utility Interconnected Application; Annual Report, May 1997 - February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.

    2000-09-13

    This report details the work performed which was geared towards making advancements in three major areas (cost, reliability and performance) of three-phase, utility interconnected and photovoltaic power conversion.

  5. Business case for implementing two ergonomic interventions at an electric power utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Patricia A; Marklin, Richard W

    2003-09-01

    Ergonomics analysis of line workers in the electric power industry who work overhead on utility poles revealed some tasks for which less than 1% of the general population had sufficient strength to perform. During a 2-year study, a large Midwestern US electric utility provided a university with a team of represented workers and management. They evaluated, recommended, and monitored interventions for 32 common line worker tasks that were rated at medium to high magnitude of risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Two of the recommended ergonomic interventions-the battery-operated press and cutter-were selected by the team as having the greatest potential for reducing risk factors of MSDs. Only overhead distribution line worker tasks were evaluated. A business case was formulated that took into account medical injury and illness statistics, workers' compensation, replacement worker and retraining costs. An outline of a business case formulation and a sample intervention payback calculation is shown. Based on the business case, the utility committed over US dollars 300000 to purchase battery-operated presses and cutters for their overhead distribution line crews.

  6. Characterization of coal blends for effective utilization in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Raaj, S.; Arumugam, S.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Anantharaman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This work will assist utilities to decide on the choice of coals for blending. • Conventional and advanced analytical techniques were used for characterization. • Fuel ratio, burnout profile, ash chemistry and carbon burnout are key factors. • Basic properties were additive while carbon burnout was non additive for the blends. - Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of coal blends using various conventional and advanced analytical techniques. There has been an increasing trend in utilizing imported coals for power generation in India and utilities are resorting to blended coal firing for various reasons, both financially as well as technically. Characterization studies were carried out on 2 combinations of Indian and imported coal blends. Conventional characterization such as proximate and ultimate analysis and determination of calorific value were carried out for the raw coals and blends as per ASTM standards. Following this thermal and mineral analysis of the samples were carried out using thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and computer controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM). Combustion experiments were also conducted using drop tube furnace (DTF) to determine the burnout of the raw coals and blends. The selection of technically suitable coal combination for blending, based on these characterization studies, has been detailed.

  7. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  8. Integrated high voltage power supply utilizing burst mode control and its performance impact on dielectric electro active polymer actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    Through resent years new high performing Dielectric Electro Active Polymers (DEAP) have emerged. To fully utilize the potential of DEAPs a driver with high voltage output is needed. In this paper a piezoelectric transformer based power supply for driving DEAP actuators is developed, utilizing...

  9. A novel GUI modeled fuzzy logic controller for a solar powered energy utilization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altas, I. H.; Sharaf, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic PVA-solar powered electrical systems comprise different components and subsystems to be controlled separately. Since the generated solar power is dependant on uncontrollable environmental conditions, it requires extra caution to design controllers that handle unpredictable events and maintain efficient load matching power. In this study, a photovoltaic (PV) solar array model is developed for Matlab/Simulink GUI environment and controlled using a fuzzy logic controller (FLC), which is also developed for GUI environment. The FLC is also used to control the DC load bus voltage at constant value as well as controlling the speed of a PMDC motor as one of the loads being fed. The FLC controller designed using the Matlab/Simuling GUI environment has flexible design criteria's so that it can easily be modified and extended for controlling different systems. The proposed FLC is used in three different parts of the PVA stand alone utilization scheme here. One of these parts is the speed control of the PMDC load, one of the other parts is controlling the DC load bus voltage, and the third part is the maximum power point (MPPT) tracking control, which is used to operate the PVA at its available maximum power as the solar insolation and ambient temperature change. This paper presents a study of a standalone Photovoltaic energy utilization system feeding a DC and AC hybrid electric load and is fully controlled by a novel and simple on-line fuzzy logic based dynamic search, detection and tracking controller that ensures maximum power point operation under excursions in Solar Insolation, Ambient temperature and electric load variations. The maximum power point MPP-Search and Detection algorithm is fully dynamic in nature and operates without any required direct measurement or forecasted PV array information about the irradiation and temperature. An added Search sensitivity measure is defined and also used in the MPP search algorithm to sense and dynamic response for

  10. Development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, T.; Ito, M.; Katsube, I.; Shibuya, E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of municipal solid waste. The systematic classification and design guideline are proposed in consideration of the characteristics of solid waste processing system. The conceptual design of thermoelectric power generation system is carried out for a typical middle scale incinerator system (200 ton/day) by the local model. Totally the recovered electricity is 926.5 kWe by 445 units (569,600 couples). In order to achieve detailed design, one dimensional steady state model taking account of temperature dependency of the heat transfer performance and thermoelectric properties is developed. Moreover, small scale on-site experiment on 60 W class module installed in the real incinerator is carried out to extract various levels of technological problems. In parallel with the system development, high temperature thermoelectric elements such as Mn-Si and so on are developed aiming the optimization of ternary compound and high performance due to controlled fine-grain boundary effect. The manganese silicide made by shrinking-rate controlled sintering method performs 5 (μW/cm K2) in power factor at 800 K. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. A Wind Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage for Improving the Utilization of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the wind energy industry is seriously restricted by grid connection issues and wind energy generation rejections introduced by the intermittent nature of wind energy sources. As a solution of these problems, a wind power system integrating with a thermal energy storage (TES system for district heating (DH is designed to make best use of the wind power in the present work. The operation and control of the system are described in detail. A one-dimensional system model of the system is developed based on a generic model library using the object-oriented language Modelica for system modeling. Validations of the main components of the TES module are conducted against experimental results and indicate that the models can be used to simulate the operation of the system. The daily performance of the integrated system is analyzed based on a seven-day operation. And the influences of system configurations on the performance of the integrated system are analyzed. The numerical results show that the integrated system can effectively improve the utilization of total wind energy under great wind power rejection.

  12. Utilization of logistic computer programs in the power plant piping industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzel, E.

    1982-01-01

    Starting from the general situation of the power plant piping industry, the utilization of computer programs as well as the specific magnitude of complexity connected with the project realisation, the necessity for using logistic computer programs especially in case of nuclear power plants is explained. The logistic term as well as the logistic data are described. At the example of the nuclear power plant KRB II, Gundremmingen, Block B/C the practical use of such programs is shown. The planning, scheduling and supervision is carried out computer-aided by means of network-technique. The material management, prefabrication, installation including management of certificates for welding and testing activities is planned and controlled by computer programs as well. With the piping systems installed a complete erection work documentation is available which also serves as base for the billing versus the client. The budgeted costs are continuously controlled by means of a cost control program. Summing-up the further development in controlling piping contracts computer-supported is described with regard to software, hardware and the organisation structure. Furthermore the concept of a self-supporting field computer is introduced for the first time. (orig.) [de

  13. Power Quality Improvement Utilizing Photovoltaic Generation Connected to a Weak Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tumbelaka, Hanny H. [Petra Christian University; Gao, Wenzhong [UNiversity of Denver

    2017-11-07

    Microgrid research and development in the past decades have been one of the most popular topics. Similarly, the photovoltaic generation has been surging among renewable generation in the past few years, thanks to the availability, affordability, technology maturity of the PV panels and the PV inverter in the general market. Unfortunately, quite often, the PV installations are connected to weak grids and may have been considered as the culprit of poor power quality affecting other loads in particular sensitive loads connected to the same point of common coupling (PCC). This paper is intended to demystify the renewable generation, and turns the negative perception into positive revelation of the superiority of PV generation to the power quality improvement in a microgrid system. The main objective of this work is to develop a control method for the PV inverter so that the power quality at the PCC will be improved under various disturbances. The method is to control the reactive current based on utilizing the grid current to counteract the negative impact of the disturbances. The proposed control method is verified in PSIM platform. Promising results have been obtained.

  14. Utilizing the Double-Precision Floating-Point Computing Power of GPUs for RSA Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankuo Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cryptographic algorithm (e.g., RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography implementations on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs have been researched for over a decade. The basic idea of most previous contributions is exploiting the highly parallel GPU architecture and porting the integer-based algorithms from general-purpose CPUs to GPUs, to offer high performance. However, the great potential cryptographic computing power of GPUs, especially by the more powerful floating-point instructions, has not been comprehensively investigated in fact. In this paper, we fully exploit the floating-point computing power of GPUs, by various designs, including the floating-point-based Montgomery multiplication/exponentiation algorithm and Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT implementation in GPU. And for practical usage of the proposed algorithm, a new method is performed to convert the input/output between octet strings and floating-point numbers, fully utilizing GPUs and further promoting the overall performance by about 5%. The performance of RSA-2048/3072/4096 decryption on NVIDIA GeForce GTX TITAN reaches 42,211/12,151/5,790 operations per second, respectively, which achieves 13 times the performance of the previous fastest floating-point-based implementation (published in Eurocrypt 2009. The RSA-4096 decryption precedes the existing fastest integer-based result by 23%.

  15. Pluto/Charon exploration utilizing a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion/power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a Pluto/Charon orbiter utilizing a bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power system based on the Particle Bed Reactor. The orbiter is sized for launch to Nuclear-Safe orbit atop a Titan IV or equivalent launch veicle. The bi-modal system provides thermal propulsion for Earth orbital departure and Pluto orbital capture, and 10 kWe of electric power for payload functions and for in-system maneuvering with ion thrusters. Ion thrusters are used to perform inclination changes about Pluto, a transfer from low Pluto orbit to low Charon orbit, and inclination changes about charon. A nominal payload can be deliverd in as little as 15 years, 1000 kg in 17 years, and close to 2000 kg in 20 years. Scientific return is enormously aided by the availability of up to 10 kWe, due to greater data transfer rates and more/better instruments. The bi-modal system can provide power at Pluto/Charon for 10 or more years, enabling an extremely robust, scientifically rewarding, and cost-effective exploration mission.

  16. Soft power geopolitics: how does the diminishing utility of military power affect the Russia – West confrontation over the “Common Neighbourhood”

    OpenAIRE

    Vasif HUSEYNOV

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the fact that a number of factors, but particularly the restricting utility of military force between great powers, increase the significance of soft power as a tool both for legitimization and expansion in international relations in general, and in the West – Russia confrontation over the “common (or shared) neighbourhood” in particular. It explores how this fact affects the policies of the Western powers and Russia within the frame of the confrontation they are in. Th...

  17. Affairs of power: Restructuring California's electric utility industry, 1968-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Allan

    This dissertation studies the process of change in the political economy of electric utilities. Following two decades of continual growth during the nation's post-World War Two economic and population boom, the electric power industry confronted increasing challenges to its traditional operating practices and cultural values, nowhere with greater intensity than in California. Pressure for change came from outside forces who opposed utilities' business practices, assailed their traditional vertically-integrated structure, questioned the political assumptions that sustained their monopoly status, and ultimately wrested away access to the once tightly controlled technology of electric generation and transmission. Because managers of both investor-owned and publicly-owned utilities continued to rely upon long-standing economic and technical assumptions derived from deeply held cultural values sustained by decades of business success, they were rendered unable to comprehend and unwilling to accommodate change. Persistent mistrust between the publicly-owned and privately-owned sectors further weakened the industry's ability to work cooperatively in the face of crucial challenges. Thus encumbered by endemic structural jealousy, technological path dependency, and organizational stasis, the industry did not respond with sufficient innovation to new social values and altering economic conditions, ultimately resulting in the discarding of the old political economy of regulated monopolism. Five precepts of economic history are identified as crucial elements of the process of change. First, the tension between protection and entry, and the related issue of access to technology, contributes to creation and modification of the political economy in which economic institutions function. Second, submission to governmental regulatory powers allows certain industries to control entry, restrict access, and protect themselves from the dynamics of competitive change. Third, an

  18. Best practices in the utilization and dissemination of operating experience at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1 entitled Fundamental Safety Principles: Safety Fundamentals states the need for operating organizations to establish a programme for the collection and analysis of operating experience in nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, lessons learned are disseminated to the staff of the organization and to relevant national and international organizations, operating experience is utilized and corrective actions are effectively implemented. This publication has been developed to provide advice and assistance to nuclear installations and related institutions, including contractors and support organizations, to strengthen and enhance their own feedback process through the implementation of best practices in the utilization and dissemination of operating experience and to assess their effectiveness. Dissemination and utilization of internal and external operating experience is essential in supporting a proactive safety management approach of preventing events from occurring. Few new events reveal a completely new cause or failure mechanism. Although not recognized prior to the event, most subsequent investigations identify internal or external industry operating experience that, if applied effectively, would have prevented the event. Therefore, the establishment of an effective utilization and dissemination process is very beneficial in raising awareness of the organization and individuals of available operating experience, and focussing effort in the implementation of the lessons learnt. This leads to improved safety and reliability. The present publication is the outcome of a coordinated effort involving the participation of experts of nuclear organizations in several Member States. It was written to complement the publication IAEA Services Series No. 10 entitled PROSPER Guidelines - Guidelines for Peer Review and for Plant Self-assessment of

  19. New technology for improved utilization of the interconnected power system; Ny teknologi for bedre utnyttelse av overfoerings-systemet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enger, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    The present paper deals with methods used for improving the utilization of interconnected power systems. The author discusses new technologies for improvement and safety of power transmission. Main themes covered in this paper are HVDC (High Voltage DC) systems in Norway, possibilities of load management control, other possible/necessary measures in the grid system, and the development and trends. 21 figs.

  20. Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    hydrothermal reheat power system by the use of Artificial Intelligent and PI Controller. ... form of Kinetic Energy stored in generator prime mover set, which results the ... A control strategy is needed that not only maintains constancy of frequency ...

  1. Emissions from the utility power industry in Poland - limitations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badyda, K.; Uzunov, N.

    1999-01-01

    According to the modified legislation in 1998 the detailed limitations concern three categories power generation enterprises by site and type using solid organic fuels mainly: electric energy generation based in 99 % and heat generation - in 75 % on coal. For the first category consists of about 100 utility electric power enterprises combined heat and power and heating stations of about 10000 MW total capacity the modernization programme was realized to reduce the basic pollutant emissions like nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide during the period 1989-1997. Tendency of burning low-sulfur and low-ash coals with much calorific value is shown in a table. The average calorific value of the hard coals burned increased from 18280 kJ/kg in 1989 to 21423 in 1997 and sulfur content decreased from 1.148 % to 0.851 % due also to building of desulfurization installations. Decreasing of the nitrogen oxides emission took part in the last years. The new limitations on emission and concentration of harmful substances in the atmosphere related to standard oxygen contents in the flue gases. Table data for comparison of the permissible emissions for high capacity plants (500 MW and above) on solid fuels in Austria, France, Netherlands, Germany,Poland, Turkey, USA, UK and Italy. Table data for Polish pollutant concentration standards, compared to the values in the E U and USA, in μg/m 3 . Table data about the charges for air pollutant emissions in Poland in 1999. Despite of significant improvement of new legislation treating harmful substances emissions to the atmosphere, there are still some practical shortcomings: decisions without technological considerations; changes without a transition period; the emissions from engines and gas turbines are out of the regulating decree or there is no uniform regulations and lack of uniform method for emission measurement at power installations. The programme for regulation of the Polish environment protection is estimated to about 35 billion

  2. Fuzzy logic utilization for the diagnosis of metallic loose part impact in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.-G.; Hong, H.-P.; Han, S.-J.; Chun, C.S.; Kim, B.-K.

    1996-01-01

    In consideration of the fuzzy nature of impact signals detected from the complex mechanical structures in a nuclear power plant under operation. Loose Part Monitoring System with a signal processing technique utilizing fuzzy logic is proposed. In the proposed Fuzzy Loose Part Monitoring System design, comprehensive relations among the impact signal features are taken into account in the fuzzy rule bases for the alarm discrimination and impact event diagnosis. Through the performance test with a mock-up facility, the proposed approach for the loose parts monitoring and diagnosis has been revealed to be effective not only in suppressing the false alarm generation but also in characterizing the metallic loose-part impact event, from the points of Possible Impacted-Area and Degree of Impact Magnitude

  3. Power station fly ash. A review of value-added utilization outside of the construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.S.; Scott, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The disposal of fly ash from coal-fired power stations causes significant economic and environmental problems. A relatively small percentage of the material finds application as an ingredient in cement and other construction products, but the vast majority of material generated each year is held in ash dams or similar dumps. This unproductive use of land and the associated long-term financial burden of maintenance has led to realization that alternative uses for fly ash as a value-added product beyond incorporation in construction materials are needed. Utilization of fly ash in such areas as novel materials, waste management, recovery of metals and agriculture is reviewed in this article with the aim of looking at new areas that will expand the positive reuse of fly ash, thereby helping to reduce the environmental and economic impacts of disposal

  4. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  5. Utilization of lignite power generation residues for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Iason M; Stivanakis, Victor E

    2009-04-15

    A novel process is proposed for the utilization of lignite combustion solid residues in the production of inflammable lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering, and carbon contained in BA was used as the process fuel. The main residues bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) from Megalopolis power plant were characterized, mixed in different proportions and treated through pelletization and sintering process. Sintering benefits from combustion of BA carbon content and the product is a hardened porous cake. The energy required for achievement of high temperatures, in the range of 1250 degrees C, was offered by carbon combustion and CO(2) evolution is responsible for porous structure formation. Selected physical properties of sintered material relevant to use as lightweight aggregates were determined, including bulk density, porosity and water absorption. Bulk density varies from 0.83 to 0.91 g/cm(3), porosity varies from 60% to 64% and water absorption varies from 66% to 80%. LWA formed is used for the production of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Thermal conductivity coefficient varies from 0.25 to 0.37 W/mK (lower than maximum limit 0.43 W/mK) and compressive strength varies from 19 to 23 MPa (higher than minimum limit 17 MPa). The results indicate that sintering of lignite combustion residues is an efficient method of utilization of carbon containing BA and production of LWA for structural and insulating purposes. Carbon content of BA is a key factor in LWA production. Finally, this research work comprises the first proposed application for utilization of BA in Greece.

  6. Utilization of power plant bottom-ash particles as stabilizer in aluminum foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asavavisithchai, Seksak; Prapajaraswong, Attanadol [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Aluminum foams, produced via powder metallurgical (PM) process, normally require the addition of ceramic particles in compaction stage, in order to increase both foamability of precursors and mechanical properties of the final foam products. Bottom ash particles are a by-product waste obtained from thermoelectric power plants which are commonly found to be used in landfill facilities. The major chemical constituent, approximately between 30 wt.-% and 60 wt.-%, of bottom ash particles is SiO{sub 2}, depending on chemical composition in coal, sintering condition and environment, and other process parameters. In this study, we explore the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash particles of thermoelectric power plant wastes as stabilizer in aluminum foams. A small amount of two-size bottom ash particles (mean size of 78 {mu}m and 186 {mu}m), between 1 wt.-% and 5 wt.-%, have been added to aluminum foams. Foam expansion, macro- and microstructures as well as mechanical properties, such as compressive strength and microhardness, were investigated. The results from the present study suggest that bottom ash particles can be used as a stabilizing material which can improve both cellular structure and mechanical properties of aluminum foams. (orig.)

  7. City/industry/utility partnership leads to innovative combined heat and power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J. [Savage and Associates, Quesnel, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a combined heat and power (CHP) project that was launched in Quesnel, British Columbia. The CHP is being developed in phases in which new components will enter the system, providing added benefits. Hot oil from a sawmill bioenergy system will be used to heat lumber kilns, generate electricity at an Organic Rankine Cycle co-generation plant, and heat water for a District Energy Loop (DEL) to heat up to 22 existing buildings in the city as well as sawmill and planer buildings. The DEL piping would comprise a 5 kilometre loop. The energy would come from recovered sawmill space heating, recovered stack energy, and additional biomass energy. All of the district heating and 41 per cent of the power would be from heat recovered from the existing industrial operation. This bio-economy vision ultimately involves incorporating a biogas digester into the system to process food, regional organic waste, and pulp mill residuals, relying on bio-solids and heat from the mill. The fertilizer from the digester would then be used in a biomass plantation, which would provide materials to industry for many products, including bio-refining. This project evolved in response to concerns about the ecological effects and long-term economics of aggressive utilization of forest biomass. 15 figs.

  8. Development and utilization of the NRC policy statement on the regulation of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; King, T.L.

    1988-06-01

    On March 26, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Policy for Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (50 FR 11884). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy as titled and published on July 8, 1986 ''Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants, Statement of Policy'' (51 FR 24643). It provides an overview of comments received from the public, of the significant changes from the proposed Policy Statement to the final Policy Statement, and of the Commission's response to six questions contained in the proposed Policy Statement. The report also discusses the definition for advanced reactors, the establishment of an Advanced Reactors Group, the staff review approach and information needs, and the utilization of the Policy Statement in relation to other NRC programs, including the policies for safety goals, severe accidents and standardization. In addition, guidance for advanced reactors with respect to operating experience, technology development, foreign information and data, and prototype testing is provided. Finally, a discussion on the use of less prescriptive and nonprescriptive design criteria for advanced reactors, which the Policy Statement encourages, is presented

  9. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson, J.G.; Field, Randall; Gazzino, Marco; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases because the elevated flue gas pressure raises the dew point and the available latent enthalpy in the flue gases. The high-pressure water-condensing flue gas thermal energy recovery system reduces steam bleeding which is typically used in conventional steam cycles and enables the cycle to achieve higher efficiency. The pressurized combustion process provides the purification and compression unit with a concentrated carbon dioxide stream. For the purpose of our analysis, a flue gas purification and compression process including de-SO x , de-NO x , and low temperature flash unit is examined. We compare a case in which the combustor operates at 1.1 bars with a base case in which the combustor operates at 10 bars. Results show nearly 3% point increase in the net efficiency for the latter case.

  10. Utilizing Yagi antennas in Lightning Mapping Array to detect low-power VHF signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, J.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.

    2013-12-01

    The New Mexico Tech VHF Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) being operated at Langmuir Laboratory in central New Mexico is comprised of 22 time-of-arrival stations spanning an area approximately 60 km north-south and 45 km east-west. Nine stations are at high altitude (3.1-3.3 km GPS) over a 3 x 4 km area around the mountain-top Laboratory, and 13 are on the surrounding plains and the Rio Grande valley, at altitudes between 1.4 and 2.2 km. Each station utilizes a vertical half-wave dipole antenna having about 2 dBi gain at horizontal incidence and providing omnidirectional azimuthal coverage. In 2012, four additional stations utilizing higher gain (11 dBi) Yagi antennas were co-located at four of the surrounding sites within 10-15 km of the laboratory, each pointed over the laboratory area. The purpose was to test if directional antennas would improve detection of low-power sources in the laboratory vicinity, such as those associated with positive breakdown or weak precursor events. The test involved comparing the number and quality of radiation sources obtained by processing data from two sets of stations: first for a 17-station network in which all stations were omnidirectional, and then for the same network with Yagi-based measurements substituted in place of the omni measurements at the four co-located stations. For radiation events located in both datasets, the indicated source power values from Yagi stations were typically 5-10 dB greater than their omnidirectional counterpart for sources over or near the laboratory, consistent with the 9 dB difference in on-axis gain values. The difference decreased through zero and to negative values with increasing distance from the laboratory, confirming that it was due to the directionality of the Yagi antennas. It was expected that a network having Yagi antennas at all outlying stations would improve the network's detection of lower power sources in its central region. Rather, preliminary results show that there is no

  11. A performance comparison of urban utility vehicles powered with IC engine and solid polymer fuel cell technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teachman, M.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Utility vehicles provide ground transportation for crew and electric power at work sites that lack grid supply. The performances of utility vehicles designed with conventional architectures (spark ignition engine for propulsion and a motor generator for electric power) and with a fuel cell/battery architectures, are compared over a range of vehicle missions. Results indicate that fuel cell/battery hybrid systems are lighter than conventional systems for missions requiring short driving distances and work site power levels exceeding 10 kW. Conventional spark ignition engine/gen-set power systems are lighter for missions requiring more than 1 hour of driving and less than 10 kW of work site power. Fuel cell/battery systems are more efficient than spark ignition engine/gen-set systems for all missions. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs

  12. Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation Electricore, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs (GPL), San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  13. Planning your first wind power project. A primer for utilities: Everything you need to know to bring your first wind power plant on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, K.; Davis, E.

    1994-12-01

    This primer has been prepared to help utility personnel become familiar with some or the details relative to wind power technology and project development. It is written as a series of relatively independent chapters to address specific topics or phases of wind power evaluation and development as they might occur within a utility. The topics include: wind prospecting and the first pass analysis, resource validation, project feasibility, resource planning and evaluation, resource acquisition, project development, equipment selection, project design and construction, and plant operation and maintenance

  14. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  15. 15 N utilization in nitride nuclear fuels for advanced nuclear power reactors and accelerator - driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, D.

    2005-01-01

    15 N utilization for nitride nuclear fuels production for nuclear power reactors and accelerator - driven systems is presented. Nitride nuclear fuel is the obvious choice for advanced nuclear reactors and ADS because of its favorable properties: a high melting point, excellent thermal conductivity, high fissile density, lower fission gas release and good radiation tolerance. The application of nitride fuels in nuclear reactors and ADS requires use of 15 N enriched nitrogen to suppress 14 C production due to (n,p) reaction on 14 N. Accelerator - driven system is a recent development merging of accelerator and fission reactor technologies to generate electricity and transmute long - lived radioactive wastes as minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm. A high-energy proton beam hitting a heavy metal target produces neutrons by spallation. The neutrons cause fission in the fuel, but unlike in conventional reactors, the fuel is sub-critical and fission ceases when the accelerator is turned off. Nitride fuel is a promising candidate for transmutation in ADS of minor actinides, which are converted into nitrides with 15 N for that purpose. Tacking into account that the world wide market is about 20 to 40 Kg 15 N annually, the supply of that isotope for nitride fuel production for nuclear power reactors and ADS would therefore demand an increase in production capacity by a factor of 1000. For an industrial plant producing 100 t/y 15 N, using present technology of isotopic exchange in NITROX system, the first separation stage of the cascade would be fed with 10M HNO 3 solution of 600 mc/h flow - rate. If conversion of HNO 3 into NO, NO 2 , at the enriching end of the columns, would be done with gaseous SO 2 , for a production plant of 100 t/y 15 N a consumption of 4 million t SO 2 /y and a production of 70 % H 2 SO 4 waste solution of 4.5 million mc/y are estimated. The reconversion of H 2 SO 4 into SO 2 in order to recycle of SO 2 is a problem to be solved to compensate the cost of SO 2

  16. Utilization of ash fractions from alternative biofuels used in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Hinge, J.; Christensen, I. (Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)); Dahl, J. (Force Technology, Broendby (Denmark)); Arendt Jensen, P. (DTU-CHEC, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Soendergaard Birkmose, T. (Dansk Landbrugsraadgivning, Landscentret, Aarhus (Denmark)); Sander, B. (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)); Kristensen, O. (Kommunekemi A/S, Nyborg (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    It is expected, that demand for the traditional biomass resources wood and straw will increase over the next years. In other projects a number of agro industrial waste products has been tested and characterized as fuels for power plants. The annual production in Denmark of these fuels is estimated at roughly 400.000 tons of Dry Matter per year, so the potential is substantial. The agro industrial biomass products include: Grain screening waste, pea shells, soy waste, cocoa waste, sugar beet waste, sunflower waste, shea waste, coffee waste, olive waste, rice shell waste, potato waste, pectin waste, carrageen waste, tobacco waste, rape seed waste and mash from breweries. In the PSO project 5075, 5 different types of fuel pellets was produced, which were rendered suitable for combustion in power plants. In this project, ash is produced from the above mentioned 5 mixtures together with another 2 mixtures produced especially for this project. From the 5 mixtures from PSO 5075, ash is produced at Danish Technological Institute's slag analyzer. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash from grate fired boilers at power plants. The ash/slag from the combustion in the slag analyzer was then grinded - thus resulting in a total of 5 ash products. At DTU CHEC's Entrained Flow Reactor, ash products from the 5+2 mixtures were produced. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash produced form suspension fired boilers at power plants. For each of the 7 mixtures, bottom-, cyclone and filter ash was taken out separately resulting in a total of 21 ash samples. The produced ashes have been evaluated for their properties as directly applied fertilizer. Furthermore, scenarios have been set up to assess the feasibility in producing artificial fertilizer from the ash products, based on known processes. In the main components the content of Na, S, Cl and K is significantly higher in filter ashes, whereas the content of Mg, Al, Si and Ca is significantly lower. The

  17. Group-decoupled multi-group pin power reconstruction utilizing nodal solution 1D flux profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lulin; Lu, Dong; Zhang, Shaohong; Wang, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A direct fitting multi-group pin power reconstruction method is developed. • The 1D nodal solution flux profiles are used as the condition. • The least square fit problem is analytically solved. • A slowing down source improvement method is applied. • The method shows good accuracy for even challenging problems. - Abstract: A group-decoupled direct fitting method is developed for multi-group pin power reconstruction, which avoids both the complication of obtaining 2D analytic multi-group flux solution and any group-coupled iteration. A unique feature of the method is that in addition to nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes, transversely-integrated 1D nodal solution flux profiles are also used as the condition to determine the 2D intra-nodal flux distribution. For each energy group, a two-dimensional expansion with a nine-term polynomial and eight hyperbolic functions is used to perform a constrained least square fit to the 1D intra-nodal flux solution profiles. The constraints are on the conservation of nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes. Instead of solving the constrained least square fit problem numerically, we solve it analytically by fully utilizing the symmetry property of the expansion functions. Each of the 17 unknown expansion coefficients is expressed in terms of nodal volume and surface average fluxes, corner fluxes and transversely-integrated flux values. To determine the unknown corner fluxes, a set of linear algebraic equations involving corner fluxes is established via using the current conservation condition on all corners. Moreover, an optional slowing down source improvement method is also developed to further enhance the accuracy of the reconstructed flux distribution if needed. Two test examples are shown with very good results. One is a four-group BWR mini-core problem with all control blades inserted and the other is the seven-group OECD NEA MOX benchmark, C5G7

  18. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  19. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Project of research and development of regional consortium (Development of energy saving type manufacturing process of smart material having electromagnetic wave absorbing function utilizing microwave-hydrothermal process); 1999 nendo micro ha - suinetsuho wo riyoshita denjiyha kyushu kino wo yusuru smart zairyo no sho energy gata seizo process no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present research is aimed at developing an energy saving manufacturing process of a smart material having electromagnetic wave absorbing function in conventionally undeveloped bands as high as 30 MHz to 60 GHz. The process is composed of design, synthesis and forming of hybrid electromagnetic wave absorbing materials in which such magnetically permeable substance and conductive substance as ferrite is covered on fabrics having large dielectric loss through controlling the particle diameters and membrane thickness by using the microwave-hydrothermal process. The following researches have been performed: (1) development of smart material design and hybrid process technology, (2) evaluation on the electromagnetic wave absorbing function, (3) development of a manufacturing process for a smart forming material, and (4) development of a process for processing fabric material surface utilizing ocean resources. In Item (1), electromagnetic wave shielding function of 30 dB or higher was found provided in 200 MHz to 2 GHz bands. Calcium silicate and ferrite were manufactured by using the microwave-hydrothermal process, and calcium silicate was formed with energy being saved by using the hydrothermal curing process. In Item (2), TR17301A made by the Advanced Corporation was used to structure a system to evaluate the field in the vicinity of electric field and magnetic field. In Item (3), a ferrite forming material manufacturing process was developed. In Item (4), an attempt was carried out on forming ferrite by using reactions of nickel salt and iron salt. (NEDO)

  20. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  1. Locations and attributes of utility-scale solar power facilities in Colorado and New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignizio, Drew A.; Carr, Natasha B.

    2012-01-01

    The data series consists of polygonal boundaries for utility-scale solar power facilities (both photovoltaic and concentrating solar power) located within Colorado and New Mexico as of December 2011. Attributes captured for each facility include the following: facility name, size/production capacity (in MW), type of solar technology employed, location, state, operational status, year the facility came online, and source identification information. Facility locations and perimeters were derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs (2011) produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters (accessed from the NAIP GIS service: http://gis.apfo.usda.gov/arcgis/services). Solar facility perimeters represent the full extent of each solar facility site, unless otherwise noted. When visible, linear features such as fences or road lines were used to delineate the full extent of the solar facility. All related equipment including buildings, power substations, and other associated infrastructure were included within the solar facility. If solar infrastructure was indistinguishable from adjacent infrastructure, or if solar panels were installed on existing building tops, only the solar collecting equipment was digitized. The "Polygon" field indicates whether the "equipment footprint" or the full "site outline" was digitized. The spatial accuracy of features that represent site perimeters or an equipment footprint is estimated at +/- 10 meters. Facilities under construction or not fully visible in the NAIP imagery at the time of digitization (December 2011) are represented by an approximate site outline based on the best available information and documenting materials. The spatial accuracy of these facilities cannot be estimated without more up-to-date imagery – users are advised to consult more recent imagery as it becomes available. The "Status" field provides information about the operational

  2. Highly efficient power system based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; Hart, Ron R.; Parish, Theodore A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was focused on developing a technologically feasible power system that is based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation. The new concept is an attempt to combine several advantageous design solutions, which have been proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors, into one innovative system that can offer exceptional energy conversion efficiency. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment escape from the fuel, collimation, collection, criticality, long-term performance, energy conversion efficiency, heat removal, and safety characteristics. Specific characteristics of the individual system components and the entire system are evaluated. Consistent analysis and evaluation of the technological feasibility of the concept were achieved using state-of-the-art computer codes that allowed realistic and consistent modeling. The calculated energy conversion efficiencies for the presented designs without a thermodynamic cycle and with the heavy water cycle are 52% and 62%, respectively. The analysis indicates that efficiencies up to 90% are potentially achievable. (author)

  3. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  4. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: financial history and future power requirements for the VACAR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Financial data for the period 1966 to 1981 are presented for the four investor-owned electric utilities in the VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas) region. This region was selected as representative for the purpose of assessing the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power for the future in the United States. The estimated demand for power and planned additions to generating capacity for the region through the year 2000 are also given

  5. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  6. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair G. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  7. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  8. Cost structure analysis of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on corporate financial statements of electric utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitake, Norifumi; Nagano, Koji; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze past and current cost structure of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on annual corporate financial statements published by the Japanese electric utility companies, instead of employing the conventional methodology of evaluating the generation cost for a newly constructed model plant. The result of our study on existing commercial nuclear plants reveals the increasing significance of O and M and fuel cycle costs in total generation cost. Thus, it is suggested that electric power companies should take more efforts to reduce these costs in order to maintain the competitiveness of nuclear power in Japan. (author)

  9. Vector and parallel computing on the IBM ES/3090, a powerful approach to solving problems in the utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, V.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes IBM's approach to parallel computing using the IBM ES/3090 computer. Parallel processing concepts were discussed including its advantages, potential performance improvements and limitations. Particular applications and capabilities for the IBM ES/3090 were presented along with preliminary results from some utilities in the application of parallel processing to simulation of system reliability, air pollution models, and power network dynamics

  10. Energy Saving Performance Analysis of An Inverter-based Regenerative Power Re-utilization Device for Urban Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Qiu, Zhiling; Hu, Leilei

    2018-04-01

    The inverter-based regenerative braking power utilization devices can re-utilize the regenerative energy, thus reduce the energy consumption of urban rail transit. In this paper the power absorption principle of the inverter-based device is introduced, then the key influencing factors of energy saving performance are analyzed based on the absorption model. The field operation data verified that the control DC voltage plays an important role and lower control DC voltage yields more energy saving. Also, the one year energy saving performance data of an inverter-based re-utilization device located in NanJing S8 line is provided, and more than 1.2 million kWh energy is recovered in the one year operation.

  11. Utilization of nuclear energy for generating electric power in the FRG, with special regard to LWR-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    Comments on interdependencies in energy industry and energy generation as seen by energy supply utilities, stating that the generation of electric power in Germany can only be based on coal and nuclear energy in the long run, are followed by the most important, fundamental, nuclear-physical, technological and in part political interdependencies prevailing in the starting situation of 1955/58 when the construction of nuclear power plant reactors began. Then the development ranging to the 28000 MW nuclear power output to be expected in 1985 is outlined, totalling in 115000 MW electric power in the FRG. Finally, using the respectively latest order, the technical set up of each of the reactor types with 1300 MWe unit power offered by German manufacturers are described: BBC/BBR PWR-type reactor Neupotz, KWU-PWR-type reactor Hamm and KWU PWR-type reactor double unit B+C Gundremmingen. (orig.) [de

  12. Energy Research Advisory Board, Civilian Nuclear Power Panel: Subpanel 1 report, Light water reactor utilization and improvement: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested that the Office of Nuclear Energy prepare a strategic national plan that outlines the Department's role in the future development of civilian nuclear power and that the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad hoc panel to review and comment on this plan. The Energy Research Advisory Board formed a panel for this review and three subpanels were formed. One subpanel was formed to address the institutional issues surrounding nuclear power, one on research and development for advanced nuclear power plants and a third subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. The subpanel on light water reactors held two meetings at which representatives of the DOE, the NRC, EPRI, industry and academic groups made presentations. This is the report of the subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. This report presents the subpanel's assessment of initiatives which the Department of Energy should undertake in the national interest, to develop and support light water reactor technologies

  13. Hydrothermal Cold Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    Solid state sintering transforms particle compact to a physically robust and dense polycrystalline monolith driven by reduction of surface energy and curvature. Since bulk diffusion is required for neck formation and pore elimination, sintering temperature about 2/3 of melting point is needed. It thus places limitations for materials synthesis and integration, and contributes to significant energy consumption in ceramic processing. Furthermore, since surface transport requires lower temperature than bulk processes, grain growth is often rapid and can be undesired for physical properties. For these reasons, several techniques have been developed including Liquid Phase Sintering (LPS), Hot Pressing (HP) and Field Assisted Sintering Technique (FAST), which introduce either viscous melt, external pressure or electric field to speed up densification rates at lower temperature. However, because of their inherent reliability on bulk diffusion, temperatures required are often too high for integrating polymers and non-noble metals. Reduction of sintering temperature below 400 °C would require a different densification mechanism that is based on surface transport with external forces to drive volume shrinkage. Densification method combining uniaxial pressure and solution under hydrothermal condition was first demonstrated by Kanahara's group at Kochi University in 1986 and was brought to our attention by the work of Kahari, etc, from University of Oulu on densification of Li2MoO 4 in 2015. This relatively new process showed promising ultra-low densification temperature below 300 °C, however little was known about its fundamental mechanism and scope of applications, which became the main focus of this dissertation. In this work, a uniaxial hydraulic press, a standard stainless steel 1/2 inch diameter die with heating band were utilized in densifying metal oxides. Applied pressure and sintering temperature were between 100 MPa and 700 MPa and from room temperature to 300

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  15. Rational power utilization and generation without nuclear energy: Potentials and assessment of effects on the power industry, ecology, and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuhr, K.P.; Eckerle, K.; Hofer, P.; Meckel, H.; Wolff, H.; Frey, B.; Schilling, K.; Brand, M.; Jochem, E.

    1987-10-01

    The unabridged version of the investigation gives the reader interested in details the relevant information on the individual analyses. The development of the investigation describes the analysis of the demographical and economical framework data, the long-term development of the energy price and the long-term energy demand development in a reference scenario. As most important status-quo condition it is defined that the development lines to be expected of the expected fuel and power demand and the supply of the power demand are indicated under the condition of further development of the nuclear power generation being borne by a political consensus. A contrast scenario examines if replacement of the nuclear energy would be possible by power cuts, development of the local heat supply and long-distance heat supply by cogeneration systems and development of the industrial cogeneration systems. (DG) [de

  16. Utilizing Maximum Power Point Trackers in Parallel to Maximize the Power Output of a Solar (Photovoltaic) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    completing the academic workload at NPS. Taking care of two toddlers all day, every day, is not an easy task. You make xxviii it seem effortless and...for the development of numerous thin-cell applications that meet the military’s requirements for ruggedness and power output. For example, the...2012, September 5). PV microinverters and power optimizers set for significant growth [PV Magazine Online]. Available: http://www.pv- magazine.com

  17. Trends in Japan's power generation costs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and their influence on finance of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuhji; Yamaguchi, Yuhji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the nuclear reactors that were suspended for periodic inspections after the Fukushima accident were not permitted to resume operation, and nuclear power generation in Japan continued to decline. In this article, the authors quantitatively evaluated the effects on power generation costs of Japan's situation, using electric utilities financial reports up to FY 2011. We also analyzed the profitability of the Japanese electric industry, using the financial statements included in the reports, and quantitatively evaluated the effects of changes in power generation costs. The total cost of power generation has increased from 7.5 trillion yen in FY 2010 before the Fukushima accident to 9.6 trillion yen in FY 2011 and to 10.6 trillion yen in FY 2012. In particular, the fuel cost for thermal power generation rose sharply from 3.7 trillion yen in FY 2010 to 6.1 trillion yen in FY 2011 and 7.3 trillion yen in FY 2012, almost doubling in the two years from FY 2010 to 2012. The unit cost of power generation rose sharply from 8.6 yen/kWh in FY 2010 to 11.8 yen/kWh in FY 2011 and 13.5 yen/kWh in FY 2012. The unit cost is expected to rise even further in FY 2013 due to the weak yen. As the result not only Tokyo Electric Power Company, but also the other general electric utilities registered huge net losses. Their retained earnings (total of eight utilities) dropped by 2 trillion yen between FY 2010 and 2012. With increased thermal power generation, the risk of rising costs associated with changes in primary energy prices and exchange rates has increased drastically. For the stability of the electricity industry and the development of the Japanese economy, the government should clearly formulate a basic policy regarding the composition of power sources, and an effective plan both at home and abroad, and should develop a system that will be also to handle sudden changes in the composition of power sources. (author)

  18. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Seaweed For Advanced Biochar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakoso Tirto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed such as Eucheuma Cottonii is a potential source of biomaterialIts high moisture content makes it suitable for hydrothermal conversion process since it doesn’t need to utilize dry feedstock. The aim of this study is to convert the biomass of red seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii into alternative fuels and high value biomaterials using hydrothermal process. The hydrothermal process seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii produce two types of products, liquid product and char (solid. This research focus on the char product. The char from hydrothermal process was then activated using the tubular furnace. The yield for activated char is 7.5 % and results of SEM analysis of activated char showed the formation of allotropes carbon include carbon micro spheres, carbon micro fibres and graphene. These structures have encountered application in a wide range of technological fields, such as adsorption, catalysis, hydrogen storage or electronics.

  19. Power utility generation portfolio optimization as function of specific RES and decarbonisation targets – EPBiH case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazagic, Anes; Merzic, Ajla; Redzic, Elma; Music, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Guidelines for power utilities to reach specific decarbonisation targets offered. • Optimization model of RES share to be introduced into power system is proposed. • Single criteria analysis and multicriteria sustainability assessment are applied. • The optimization method has been demonstrated on a real power system. • In the considered case, HIGH RES scenario showed to be the preferable one. - Abstract: This paper provides guidelines and principles for power utilities to reach specific energy and decarbonisation targets. Method of power generation portfolio optimization, as function of sustainability and decarbonisation, along with appropriate criteria, has been proposed. Application of this optimization method has been demonstrated on a real power system – power utility JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d. – Sarajevo (EPBiH), a typical example of South East European power system. The software tool WASP IV has been employed in the analysis, in order to define the dynamics and an optimized expansion of generation portfolio of the power system under consideration for the next period. The mid-term generation portfolio development plan for the EPBiH power system until year 2030 has been made during this research, taking into account the shutdown dynamics of existing power units and commissioning new ones, in order to provide safe supply of electric and heat energy for local consumers. Three basic scenario of renewable energy sources (RES) expansion have been analysed to reach specific RES and decarbonisation targets set for 2030, including RES share increase from the current level of 18% up to 35% (LOW RES), 45% (MID RES) and 55% (HIGH RES). Effects to the sustainability are considered through environmental, economic and social indicators. Multicriteria sustainability assessment gave an advantage to the HIGH RES, under assumption of equal weighting factors of economic and environment groups of indicators. Also, single criteria analysis has been

  20. Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressured Oxy-combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Klaus; McClung, Aaron; Davis, John

    2014-03-31

    The team of Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI) and Thar Energy LLC (Thar) applied technology engineering and economic analysis to evaluate two advanced oxy-combustion power cycles, the Cryogenic Pressurized Oxy-combustion Cycle (CPOC), and the Supercritical Oxy-combustion Cycle. This assessment evaluated the performance and economic cost of the two proposed cycles with carbon capture, and included a technology gap analysis of the proposed technologies to determine the technology readiness level of the cycle and the cycle components. The results of the engineering and economic analysis and the technology gap analysis were used to identify the next steps along the technology development roadmap for the selected cycle. The project objectives, as outlined in the FOA, were 90% CO{sub 2} removal at no more than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE) as compared to a Supercritical Pulverized Coal Plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The supercritical oxy-combustion power cycle with 99% carbon capture achieves a COE of $121/MWe. This revised COE represents a 21% reduction in cost as compared to supercritical steam with 90% carbon capture ($137/MWe). However, this represents a 49% increase in the COE over supercritical steam without carbon capture ($80.95/MWe), exceeding the 35% target. The supercritical oxy-combustion cycle with 99% carbon capture achieved a 37.9% HHV plant efficiency (39.3% LHV plant efficiency), when coupling a supercritical oxy-combustion thermal loop to an indirect supercritical CO{sub 2} (sCO{sub 2}) power block. In this configuration, the power block achieved 48% thermal efficiency for turbine inlet conditions of 650°C and 290 atm. Power block efficiencies near 60% are feasible with higher turbine inlet temperatures, however a design tradeoff to limit firing temperature to 650°C was made in order to use austenitic stainless steels for the high temperature pressure vessels and piping and to minimize the need for advanced turbomachinery features

  1. Power Flow Distribution Strategy for Improved Power Electronics Energy Efficiency in Battery Storage Systems: Development and Implementation in a Utility-Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schimpe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility-scale battery storage systems typically consist of multiple smaller units contributing to the overall power dispatch of the system. Herein, the power distribution among these units is analyzed and optimized to operate the system with increased energy efficiency. To improve the real-life storage operation, a holistic system model for battery storage systems has been developed that enables a calculation of the energy efficiency. A utility-scale Second-Life battery storage system with a capacity of 3.3 MWh/3 MW is operated and evaluated in this work. The system is in operation for the provision of primary control reserve in combination with intraday trading for controlling the battery state of charge. The simulation model is parameterized with the system data. Results show that losses in power electronics dominate. An operational strategy improving the energy efficiency through an optimized power flow distribution within the storage system is developed. The power flow distribution strategy is based on the reduction of the power electronics losses at no-load/partial-load by minimizing their in-operation time. The simulation derived power flow distribution strategy is implemented in the real-life storage system. Field-test measurements and analysis prove the functionality of the power flow distribution strategy and reveal the reduction of the energy throughput of the units by 7%, as well as a significant reduction of energy losses in the units by 24%. The cost savings for electricity over the system’s lifetime are approximated to 4.4% of its investment cost.

  2. Analysis of technologies and economics for geothermal energy utilization of electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijie, C.

    1993-01-01

    Geothermal energy -- it is a kind of heat energy which pertains to the internal heat of the earth. It carries the heat of the earth outward by the underground water of the rock section of the earth. Normally, the temperature of the thermal water is 50 degrees-140 degrees. During the 20th century, the rapid development of industry and agriculture quickly increased the need for large amounts of electric power. Now, although there are coal power plants, oil and nature gas power plants, hydroelectric power and nuclear power plants, all countries of the world attach importance to the prospect of geothermal power plants. It is the most economic (no consumption fuel) and safe (no pollution) power plant. (Present author considered that the chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants such as RII, R12, and etc. are not used). In 1904, Italy established the first geothermal power plant in the world. Soon afterwards, the U.S.A., Iceland, Japan, Russia, and New Zealand also established geothermal power plants. In 1970, China, North China, Jiang province and Guangdong province also established geothermal power plants. In 1975, the U.S.A. geothermal power plant capacity of 522mw was the first in the world

  3. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Britt, E.J.; Koester, J.K.; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Nikolaev, Y.V.; Nikitin, V.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author close-quote s approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Northwest power gamble: Washington utilities go for broke on nuclear; region's citizens make conservation bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummer, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) is asking for a reactor construction moratorium in an effort to get fast relief from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is authorized to guarantee power purchases from new power plants. Supporters of nuclear power plants as well as those of the soft energy path are watching to see how BPA will handle its mandate against acquiring new thermal plants until conservation and renewable energy potentials are exhausted. BPA can subvert the Pacific Northwest Power Act with 20-year contracts based on conventional forecasts despite evidence that new plants are unneeded. There is also evidence that the public rejects the idea of a moral obligation to bail out nuclear power cost overruns at taxpayer expense. The negotiations involve not only WPPSS and BPA, but Moody's Investor Service and environmental groups

  5. Impact of power purchases from nonutilities on the utility cost of capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.; Belden, T.

    1994-03-01

    This report studies the debt-equivalence debate empirically. The topics of the study include a review of the literature on the cost of equity capital for regulated utilities, a formulation of the debate on NUGs and the utility's cost of capital, a review of variable definitions and data sources, and a discussion of statistical issues and results

  6. 21st Century Power Partnership Fellowship Program: Supporting Next-generation Planning Modeling Practices at South Africa's Power Utility Eskom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, Owen

    2016-10-01

    This presentation details the 21st Century Power Partnership's fellowship program accomplishments from 2016. This fellowship brought two fellows from South Africa's power utility, Eskom, to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The fellows spent two weeks working to improve the fidelity of Eskom's PLEXOS long-term and short-term models, which are used in long-term generation planning exercises and capacity adequacy assessments. The fellows returned to Eksom equipped with a new suite of tools and skills to enhance Eksom's PLEXOS modeling capabilities.

  7. Pipe-anchor discontinuity analysis utilizing power series solutions, Bessel functions, and Fourier series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Dennis K.; Ranson, William F.

    2003-01-01

    One of the paradigmatic classes of problems that frequently arise in piping stress analysis discipline is the effect of local stresses created by supports and restraints attachments. Over the past 20 years, concerns have been identified by both regulatory agencies in the nuclear power industry and others in the process and chemicals industries concerning the effect of various stiff clamping arrangements on the expected life of the pipe and its various piping components. In many of the commonly utilized geometries and arrangements of pipe clamps, the elasticity problem becomes the axisymmetric stress and deformation determination in a hollow cylinder (pipe) subjected to the appropriate boundary conditions and respective loads per se. One of the geometries that serve as a pipe anchor is comprised of two pipe clamps that are bolted tightly to the pipe and affixed to a modified shoe-type arrangement. The shoe is employed for the purpose of providing an immovable base that can be easily attached either by bolting or welding to a structural steel pipe rack. Over the past 50 years, the computational tools available to the piping analyst have changed dramatically and thereby have caused the implementation of solutions to the basic problems of elasticity to change likewise. The need to obtain closed form elasticity solutions, however, has always been a driving force in engineering. The employment of symbolic calculus that is currently available through numerous software packages makes closed form solutions very economical. This paper briefly traces the solutions over the past 50 years to a variety of axisymmetric stress problems involving hollow circular cylinders employing a Fourier series representation. In the present example, a properly chosen Fourier series represent the mathematical simulation of the imposed axial displacements on the outside diametrical surface. A general solution technique is introduced for the axisymmetric discontinuity stresses resulting from an

  8. Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

  9. Soft power geopolitics: how does the diminishing utility of military power affect the Russia – West confrontation over the “Common Neighbourhood”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasif HUSEYNOV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the fact that a number of factors, but particularly the restricting utility of military force between great powers, increase the significance of soft power as a tool both for legitimization and expansion in international relations in general, and in the West – Russia confrontation over the “common (or shared neighbourhood” in particular. It explores how this fact affects the policies of the Western powers and Russia within the frame of the confrontation they are in. The paper narrows down its analytical focus on the efforts of the Kremlin to affect the public opinion in its neighbourhood and to counter Western soft power. It is argued that the Ukraine crisis has affected Russia’s perception of soft power, re-constructed its counter-revolutionary agenda, and increased the profile of propaganda in its foreign policy. The paper concludes that the soft power competition between Russia and West and the policies of the two powers to win over the hearts and minds of people in the shared neighbourhood re-define the character of geopolitical games in the Former Soviet Union.

  10. Study on public awareness of utilizing nuclear power in China. Changes in public awareness after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ting; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify public awareness of utilizing nuclear power in China and to determine the effects of the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. Web online surveys were carried out before and after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. The online survey before the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants had 4,255 adult respondents consisting of 1,851 males and 2,404 females. The online survey after the accident had 721 respondents consisting of 406 males and 315 females. The two online surveys about the attitude toward nuclear power plants consisted of 37 items, such as the necessity of nuclear power plants, the reliability of safety, and government confidence. As a result, respondents of the online surveys in China consider that nuclear energy is more important than the anxiety of accident. On the other hand, women have sensation of fear for the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants and radiation. (author)

  11. On the Dynamics and Statics of Power System Operation : Optimal Utilization of FACTS Devices and Management of Wind Power Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, power systems are dealing with some new challenges raised by the major changes that have been taken place since 80’s, e.g., deregulation in electricity markets, significant increase of electricity demands and more recently large-scale integration of renewable energy resources such as wind

  12. Fiscal 1981 Sunshine Project research report. Development of hydrothermal power plant. Development of binary cycle power plant. Conceptual plant design; 1981 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant no kaihatsu / binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho . Plant gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Conceptual design was made on a 10MW class binary cycle power plant for a demonstration plant superior in reliability and profitability, under most realistic current geothermal field conditions. In the design, study was made on heat balance, main pipe system, equipment allocation, and electric system for a plant system configuration, and study was also made on preheater, evaporator, condenser, turbine and others for plant component equipment. Further study was made on optimization of mist cooling condenser, instrumentation, control, utility, and environmental measures. The following basic data were obtained through the conceptual design: plant inlet hot water temperature: 130 degrees C, plant outlet hot water temperature: 70 degrees C, hot water flow rate: 1,415t/h, working fluid: R-114, R-114 pressure in evaporator: 11.98kg/cm{sup 2} abs, R-114 evaporation temperature: 91.1 degrees C, R-114 condensation temperature: 31.0 degrees C, R- 114 flow rate: 2,265t/h, site area: 106.5m x 102.4m, building area: 48.7m x 16.8m, and building height: 13.0m. (NEDO)

  13. UMCP-BG and E collaboration in nuclear power engineering in the framework of DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Lothar PhD

    2000-03-01

    The DOE-Utility Nuclear Power Engineering Education Matching Grant Program has been established to support the education of students in Nuclear Engineering Programs to maintain a knowledgeable workforce in the United States in order to keep nuclear power as a viable component in a mix of energy sources for the country. The involvement of the utility industry ensures that this grant program satisfies the needs and requirements of local nuclear energy producers and at the same time establishes a strong linkage between education and day-to-day nuclear power generation. As of 1997, seventeen pairs of university-utility partners existed. UMCP was never a member of that group of universities, but applied for the first time with a proposal to Baltimore Gas and Electric Company in January 1999 [1]. This proposal was generously granted by BG&E [2,3] in the form of a gift in the amount of $25,000 from BG&E's Corporate Contribution Program. Upon the arrival of a newly appointed Director of Administration in the Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, the BG&E check was deposited into the University's Maryland Foundation Fund. The receipt of the letter and the check enabled UMCP to apply for DOE's matching funds in the same amount by a proposal.

  14. Analysis on the cost performance and its impact to Japanese electric utilities and vision of the power portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Matsuo, Yuji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Most of the nuclear power plants in Japan have been shut down since the Fukushima accident in March 2011, without being permitted to restart after periodical inspections. Accordingly, thermal power generation significantly increased in FY 2011. In this paper the authors made a quantitative analysis on the unit costs of power generation and on the financial performance based on the financial reports of electric utilities. The average unit cost in FY 2011 rose to 11.6 JPY/kWh, 3 JPY/kWh higher than that in FY 2010, and will rise further to 12.6 JPY/kWh in FY 2012. The total retained profit of 8 utilities decreased by some 1 trillion JPY from FY 2010 to FY 2011 and will decrease further to 1 trillion JPY by the end of FY 2012, which is the lowest level in history. Clear decisions on energy policies and future power portfolio, as well as the restructuring of the electricity system in line with the rapid change in the power portfolio will be highly required for policy planners in Japan. (author)

  15. Radial power distribution shaping within a PWR fuel assembly utilizing asymmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, I.Z.

    1992-01-01

    As in-core fuel management designs evolve to meet the demands of increasing energy output, more innovative methods are developed to maintain power peaking within acceptable thermal margin limits. In-core fuel management staff must utilize various loading pattern strategies such as cross-core movement of fuel assemblies, multibatch enrichment schemes, and burnable absorbers as the primary means of controlling the radial power distribution. The utilization of fresh asymmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing assemblies as a fuel management tool provides an additional means of controlling the radial power distribution. At Siemens Nuclear Power Corporation (SNP), fresh fuel assemblies fabricated with asymmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing fuel rods have been used successfully for several cycles of reactor operation. Asymmetric assemblies are neutronically modeled using the same tools and models that SNP uses to model symmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing fuel assemblies. The CASMO-2E code is used to produce the homogenized macroscopic assembly cross sections for the nodal core simulator. Optimum fuel pin locations within the asymmetrical assembly are determined using the pin-by-pin PDQ7 assembly core model for each new assembly design. The optimum pin location is determined by the rod loading that minimizes the peak-to-average pin power

  16. Experimental study of the combined utilization of nuclear power heating plants for big towns and industrial complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, J.; Barabas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a comparison of nuclear power heating plants with an output corresponding to 1000MW(e) with plants of the same output using coal or oil. The economic aspects are compared, both as regards investment and operation costs. The comparison of the environmental aspects is performed on the atmospheric pollution from exhausts and gaseous emission and on the thermal pollutions in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Basic nuclear power plant schemes with two PWRs, each of 1500MW(th), are described. The plant supplies electric power and heat for factories and municipal heating systems (apartments, shops, and other auxiliary municipal facilities). At the same time the basic heat-flow diagram of a nuclear power heating plant is given, together with the relative losses. The study emphasizes the possible utilization of waste heat for heating glasshouses of 200m 2 . The problems of utilizing waste heat, and the needs of a big town and of industrial complexes in the vicinity of the nuclear power heating plant are also considered. (author)

  17. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  18. The diversification value of nuclear power as part of a utility technology mix when gas and carbon prices are uncertain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien A.; Nuttall, William J.; Newbery, David M.; Neufville, Richard de; Connors, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent revived interest, the prospects for new nuclear power investment in liberalized electricity industries without government support do not seem promising. The objective of this paper is twofold. First it aims to identify the specific features of nuclear power technology that makes it an unattractive choice. The second objective is to estimate the value to a utility of a nuclear investment as a hedge against uncertain gas and carbon prices. A stylized 5-plant Real Option utility model shows that while the nuclear option value represents about 18% of the net present value (NPV) of the nuclear plant investment in the case where electricity and gas prices are uncorrelated, it reduces to nearly zero for correlation factors between electricity and gas price greater than 30%. These results suggest that the private diversification incentives in electricity markets might not be aligned with the social value of a diverse fuel-mix at the country level. (Author)

  19. Assessing power plant impacts on fish populations at Northeast Utilities sites: winter flounder studies at Millstone Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorda, E.; Danila, D.J.; Miller, J.D.; Bireley, L.E.; Jacobsen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    An historical view is presented of the various impact assessment approaches used to study the winter flounder, including efforts to identify and quantify compensation and to model its population dynamics. This review illustrates the need for unbiased estimates of basic life history parameters and power plant related mortalities if compensatory mechanisms are to be understood and if impact assessments are to be meaningful. 67 references, 19 figures, 10 tables

  20. Hard Power and Soft Power: The Utility of Military Force as an Instrument of Policy in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    tomor- row. Unfortunately, we have to attempt the impos- sible , which is why one should be empathetic towards those who must provide answers for...dependent on the sense in the question. But in this particular case, an implicit ques- tion poorly articulated does serve agreeably to elicit a... sible misunderstanding is the fact that merely by con- juring an alternative species of power, an obvious but unjustified sense of equivalence

  1. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  2. Nonlinear Power Flow Control Design Utilizing Exergy, Entropy, Static and Dynamic Stability, and Lyapunov Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Robinett III, Rush D

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear Powerflow Control Design presents an innovative control system design process motivated by renewable energy electric grid integration problems. The concepts developed result from the convergence of three research and development goals: • to create a unifying metric to compare the value of different energy sources – coal-burning power plant, wind turbines, solar photovoltaics, etc. – to be integrated into the electric power grid and to replace the typical metric of costs/profit; • to develop a new nonlinear control tool that applies power flow control, thermodynamics, and complex adaptive systems theory to the energy grid in a consistent way; and • to apply collective robotics theories to the creation of high-performance teams of people and key individuals in order to account for human factors in controlling and selling power into a distributed, decentralized electric power grid. All three of these goals have important concepts in common: exergy flow, limit cycles, and balance between compe...

  3. Electric utilities deregulation and its impact on nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trehan, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Under restructuring and deregulation, it is not clear as to who would have the responsibility, and what obligations the market participants would have to ensure that the electrical system reliability (stability) is maintained. Due to the dynamic nature of the electrical grid, especially with the implementation of restructuring and deregulation, vulnerabilities exist which may impact the reliability (stability) of the offsite electrical power system. In a nuclear power generating unit, an offsite electric power system and an onsite electric power system are required to permit the functioning of structures, systems, and components which are important to safety. The safety function for each system is to provide sufficient capacity and capability to assure that the containment integrity is maintained during power operation or in the event of a postulated accident. Analyses performed by the applicants must verify that the electrical grid remains stable in the event of a loss of the nuclear unit generator, the largest other unit on the grid or the most critical transmission line. The stability of the electric grid is assumed in the safety analyses and a change in it would impact those analyses. However, it may impact the availability of a stable electric power to the safety buses because of the limited number of available transmission lines. This paper discusses electrical power generation and demand, reserve margins, power transfer capability, development of new innovative technologies to compensate for lack of the construction of transmission lines, legislation for the formulation of a self regulation organization (SRO), grid disturbances that may lead to a voltage collapse, and the vulnerabilities which may impact the availability of a stable power to the nuclear power generating stations

  4. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  5. Application of cultural algorithm to generation scheduling of hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaohui; Yuan Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    The daily generation scheduling of hydrothermal power systems plays an important role in the operation of electric power systems for economics and security, which is a large scale dynamic non-linear constrained optimization problem. It is difficult to solve using traditional optimization methods. This paper proposes a new cultural algorithm to solve the optimal daily generation scheduling of hydrothermal power systems. The approach takes the water transport delay time between connected reservoirs into consideration and can conveniently deal with the complicated hydraulic coupling simultaneously. An example is used to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed cultural algorithm, comparing with both the Lagrange method and the genetic algorithm method. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has rapid convergence speed and higher solution precision. Thus, an effective method is provided to solve the optimal daily generation scheduling of hydrothermal systems

  6. An essay pertaining to the supply and price of natural gas as fuel for electric utilities and independent power producers; and, the related growth of non-utility generators to meet capacity shortfalls in the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact natural gas and petroleum prices have on how the electric power industry decides to meet increasing demand for electric power. The topics of the paper include the pricing impact of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, the BTU parity argument, electric utility capacity shortfalls in 1993, the growth of the non-utility generator and the independent power developer market, natural gas as the desired fuel of the decade, the financial strategy in acquiring natural gas reserves, the cost and availability of natural gas supplies for non-utility generators, and the reluctance of the gas producers to enter long term contracts

  7. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety

  8. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    A fully differential rail-to-rail Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption is proposed in this paper. By using the adaptive biasing circuit and two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be obtained together with reduced power...... consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...

  9. Enhancing substrate utilization and power production of a microbial fuel cell with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel as cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Gábor Márk; Lóránt, Bálint; Lóka, Máté; Nagy, Balázs; László, Krisztina

    2017-07-01

    Catalytic efficiency of a nitrogen-doped, mesoporous carbon aerogel cathode catalyst was investigated in a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) applying graphite felt as base material for cathode and anode, utilizing peptone as carbon source. This mesoporous carbon aerogel containing catalyst layer on the cathode increased the maximum power density normalized to the anode volume to 2.7 times higher compared to the maximum power density obtained applying graphite felt cathode without the catalyst layer. At high (2 and 3) cathode/anode volume ratios, maximum power density exceeded 40 W m -3 . At the same time, current density and specific substrate utilization rate increased by 58% resulting in 31.9 A m -3 and 18.8 g COD m -3  h -1 , respectively (normalized to anode volume). Besides the increase of the power and the rate of biodegradation, the investigated catalyst decreased the internal resistance from the range of 450-600 to 350-370 Ω. Although Pt/C catalyst proved to be more efficient, a considerable decrease in the material costs might be achieved by substituting it with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel in MFCs. Such cathode still displays enhanced catalytic effect.

  10. Hydrothermal Disintegration and Extraction of Different Microalgae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kröger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the disintegration and extraction of microalgae to produce lipids and biofuels, a novel processing technology was investigated. The utilization of a hydrothermal treatment was tested on four different microalgae species (Scenedesmus rubescens, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata and Arthorspira platensis (Spirulina to determine whether it has an advantage in comparison to other disintegration methods for lipid extraction. It was shown, that hydrothermal treatment is a reasonable opportunity to utilize microalgae without drying and increase the lipid yield of an algae extraction process. For three of the four microalgae species, the extraction yield with a prior hydrothermal treatment elevated the lipid yield up to six times in comparison to direct extraction. Only Scenedesmus rubescens showed a different behaviour. Reason can be found in the different cell wall of the species. The investigation of the differences in cell wall composition of the used species indicate that the existence of algaenan as a cell wall compound plays a major role in stability.

  11. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  12. Utilization of the research reactors for the power reactor control instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, J.; Verdant, R.; Gilbert, J.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on characteristics and reliability of control instruments lead to testing with various radiations of various intensities and energy spectra. Osiris and Triton reactors present this great variety of radiations and a flexibility of use better than power reactors [fr

  13. Improved margin utilization through the use of beacon power distribution surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R. Wade; Boyd, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Core Operations, including fuel cycle costs, can be significantly improved when state of the art surveillance techniques are employed for core power distribution monitoring. Core power distribution monitoring and Technical Specification surveillance are major operational issues at PWR's, particularly in plants with movable in core detectors. Even plants with fixed in core detectors do not always make use of the continuous data that is available. The BEACON TM system (Best Estimate Analysis of Core Operations - Nuclear) is a core monitoring and operational support package developed by Westinghouse for use in PWR plants with fixed or movable in core detectors. BEACON is a real time core monitoring system, which uses existing core instrumentation data and an on-line neutronics model to provide continuous monitored of the core power distribution information. With this information available the BEACON system can be used to continuously monitor core power margin for the plant Tech Spec surveillance requirements and for plant operational guidance

  14. Estimating Economic and Logistic Utility of Connecting to Unreliable Power Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    techniques for microgrids and distributed energy resources, and the development of test assets to provide consistent evaluation of DER control ...energy systems. This includes creating advanced architectures and system designs to improve the resiliency of power grids, prototyping new control

  15. Sharing product data of nuclear power plants across their lifecycles by utilizing a neutral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Duhwan [WIG Craft Research Division, Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute, KORDI, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dhmun@moeri.re.kr; Hwang, Jinsang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mars@icad.kaist.ac.kr; Han, Soonhung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shhan@kaist.ac.kr; Seki, Hiroshi [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)], E-mail: hiroshi.seki.mf@hitachi.com; Yang, Jeongsam [Industrial and Information Systems Engineering, Ajou University (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jyang@ajou.ac.kr

    2008-02-15

    Many public and private Korean organizations are involved during the lifecycle of a domestic nuclear power plant. Korea Plant Engineering Co. (KOPEC) participates in the design stage, Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power (KHNP) operates and manages all nuclear power plants in Korea, Doosan Heavy Industry and Construction Co. manufactures the main equipment, and a construction company constructs the plant. Even though each organization has its own digital data management system and obtains a certain level of automation, data sharing among organizations is poor. KHNP obtains drawings and technical specifications from KOPEC in the form of paper. This results in manual re-work of definitions, and errors can potentially occur in the process. In order to establish an information bridge between design and operation and maintenance (O and M) phases, a generic product model (GPM), a data model from Hitachi, is extended for constructing a neutral data warehouse and the Korean Nuclear Power Plant Information Sharing System (KNPISS) is implemented.

  16. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.; Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews the status and prospects of photovoltaic power systems and the R and D trends (silicon performances, thin films, balance of systems components), and describes the market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems: at the short and medium term level, isolated systems for rural electricity supply in IEA member countries and decentralized energy supply (remote users and village power) in developing countries; at the medium and long term level, decentralized building integration in urban and rural areas, power stations for peak power and local grid support. The objectives of the IEA collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries are summarized, with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. 4 figs

  17. Sharing product data of nuclear power plants across their lifecycles by utilizing a neutral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Duhwan; Hwang, Jinsang; Han, Soonhung; Seki, Hiroshi; Yang, Jeongsam

    2008-01-01

    Many public and private Korean organizations are involved during the lifecycle of a domestic nuclear power plant. Korea Plant Engineering Co. (KOPEC) participates in the design stage, Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power (KHNP) operates and manages all nuclear power plants in Korea, Doosan Heavy Industry and Construction Co. manufactures the main equipment, and a construction company constructs the plant. Even though each organization has its own digital data management system and obtains a certain level of automation, data sharing among organizations is poor. KHNP obtains drawings and technical specifications from KOPEC in the form of paper. This results in manual re-work of definitions, and errors can potentially occur in the process. In order to establish an information bridge between design and operation and maintenance (O and M) phases, a generic product model (GPM), a data model from Hitachi, is extended for constructing a neutral data warehouse and the Korean Nuclear Power Plant Information Sharing System (KNPISS) is implemented

  18. COHO - Utilizing Waste Heat and Carbon Dioxide at Power Plants for Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Sumanjeet [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wilson, Aaron [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Wendt, Daniel [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Mendelssohn, Jeffrey [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Bakajin, Olgica [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Desormeaux, Erik [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States); Klare, Jennifer [Porifera Inc., Hayward, CA (United States)

    2017-07-25

    The COHO is a breakthrough water purification system that can concentrate challenging feed waters using carbon dioxide and low-grade heat. For this project, we studied feeds in a lab-scale system to simulate COHO’s potential to operate at coal- powered power plants. COHO proved successful at concentrating the highly scaling and challenging wastewaters derived from a power plant’s cooling towers and flue gas desulfurization units. We also found that COHO was successful at scrubbing carbon dioxide from flue gas mixtures. Thermal regeneration of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis draw solution ended up requiring higher temperatures than initially anticipated, but we also found that the draw solution could be polished via reverse osmosis. A techno-economic analysis indicates that installation of a COHO at a power plant for wastewater treatment would result in significant savings.

  19. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  20. Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.

    1988-06-01

    Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite clay are usually taken to have the form of conversion of this clay mineral to other species, such as illite, disregarding microstructural alteration and cementation caused by precipitation of silica and other compounds. The report is focussed on identification of the primary processes that are involved in such alteration, the release of silica and the microstructural changes associated with heating being of major interest. In the first test phase, Na montmorillonite in distilled water was investigated by XRD, rheology tests and electron microscopy after heating to 60-225 0 C for 0.01 to 1 year. The preliminary conclusions are that heating produces contraction of the particle network to form dense 'branches', the effect being most obvious at the highest temperature but of significance even at 60-100 0 C. Release of substantial amounts of silica gas been documented for temperatures exceeding 150 0 and precipitation of silica was observed on cooling after the hydrothermal testing under the closed conditions that prevailed throughout the tests. The precipitates, which appeared to be amorphous and probably consisted of hydrous silica gels, were concluded to have increased the mechanical strength and caused some brittleness, particularly of the dense clays. The nature of the silica release, which is assumed to be associated with beidellitization, may be closely related to an unstable state of a certain fraction of tetrahedral silica at heat-inducted transfer between two different crystal modes of montmorillonite. (orig.)

  1. Lunar electric power systems utilizing the SP-100 reactor coupled to dynamic conversion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.; Durand, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    An integration study was performed by Rocketdyne under contract to NASA-LeRC. The study was concerned with coupling an SP-0100 reactor to either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion system. The application was for a surface power system to supply power requirements to a lunar base. A power level of 550 kWe was selected based on the NASA Space Exploration Initiative 90-day study. Reliability studies were initially performed to determine optimum power conversion redundancy. This study resulted in selecting three operating engines and one stand-by unit. Integration design studies indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion systems could be integrated with the PS-100 reactor. The Stirling system had an integration advantage because of smaller piping size and fewer components. The Stirling engine, however, is more complex and heavier than the Brayton rotating unit, which tends to off-set the Stirling integration advantage. From a performance consideration, the Brayton had a 9 percent mass advantage, and the Stirling had a 50 percent radiator advantage

  2. A Method of Maximum Power Control in Single-phase Utility Interactive Photovoltaic Generation System by using PWM Current Source Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neba, Yasuhiko

    This paper deals with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the photovoltaic generation with the single-phase utility interactive inverter. The photovoltaic arrays are connected by employing the PWM current source inverter to the utility. The use of the pulsating dc current and voltage allows the maximum power point to be searched. The inverter can regulate the array voltage and keep the arrays to the maximum power. This paper gives the control method and the experimental results.

  3. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Pierce, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing

  4. Utilization of low-temperature heat sources for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from marine diesel engines, industries and refrigeration plants to biomass, geothermal and solar heat sources. There is a great potential for enhancing the utilization of these heat sources by novel...

  5. Delays help German utilities maintain self-financing ratios. [Financing nuclear power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, G [Dresden Bank, AG (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-05-01

    Estimates of electricity consumption have been substantially reduced and nuclear plant is now expected to be 22% of total generating capacity in 1985 instead of the earlier forecast of 36%. The decline in the ordering of new plant has benefited the financial position of the electricity utilities and the expected fall in self-financing ratios has not occurred.

  6. MPC for Wind Power Gradients - Utilizing Forecasts, Rotor Inertia, and Central Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    decentralized energy storage in the turbines’ inertia combined with a central storage unit or deferrable consumers can be utilized to achieve this goal at a minimum cost. We propose a variation on model predictive control to incorporate predictions of wind speed. Due to the aerodynamics of the turbines...

  7. An advanced conceptual Tokamak fusion power reactor utilizing closed cycle helium gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    UWMAK-III is a conceptual Tokamak reactor designed to study the potential and the problems associated with an advanced version of Tokamaks as power reactors. Design choices have been made which represent reasonable extrapolations of present technology. The major features are the noncircular plasma cross section, the use of TZM, a molybdenum based alloy, as the primary structural material, and the incorporation of a closed-cycle helium gas turbine power conversion system. A conceptual design of the turbomachinery is given together with a preliminary heat exchanger analysis that results in relatively compact designs for the generator, precooler, and intercooler. This paper contains a general description of the UWMAK-III system and a discussion of those aspects of the reactor, such as the burn cycle, the blanket design and the heat transfer analysis, which are required to form the basis for discussing the power conversion system. The authors concentrate on the power conversion system and include a parametric performance analysis, an interface and trade-off study and a description of the reference conceptual design of the closed-cycle helium gas turbine power conversion system. (Auth.)

  8. Implantable power generation system utilizing muscle contractions excited by electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Genta; Hijikata, Wataru; Tomioka, Kota; Shinshi, Tadahiko

    2016-06-01

    An implantable power generation system driven by muscle contractions for supplying power to active implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and neurostimulators, is proposed. In this system, a muscle is intentionally contracted by an electrical stimulation in accordance with the demands of the active implantable medical device for electrical power. The proposed system, which comprises a small electromagnetic induction generator, electrodes with an electrical circuit for stimulation and a transmission device to convert the linear motion of the muscle contractions into rotational motion for the magneto rotor, generates electrical energy. In an ex vivo demonstration using the gastrocnemius muscle of a toad, which was 28 mm in length and weighed 1.3 g, the electrical energy generated by the prototype exceeded the energy consumed for electrical stimulation, with the net power being 111 µW. It was demonstrated that the proposed implantable power generation system has the potential to replace implantable batteries for active implantable medical devices. © IMechE 2016.

  9. Broadband internet connection utilizing electric power cables, v. 16(61)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastinovski, Jovche

    2008-01-01

    Considering the introduction of wide spread communication, once again, pay our attention to the oldest network in Macedonia(and world wide)- the electrical network. Being widespread, it can make the broadband communication available from any place that has an electrical connection. This includes the rural areas, which the commercial companies are not interested in. Since the early 80-ties the big power companies have realized the potential of the use electric network for communication. its beginning had faced with difficulties, since in order to send data via the noisy interferes with other units such as the radio and military equipment. But nowadays these obstacles are more or lass overcame. Some of the companies are using BPL (broadband power lines) communication for their daily operations, while in the same time this relatively new technology for data transfer over power lines is under heavy developing. (Author)

  10. Environmental protection in coal utilization and its problems at Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Power Station, Kapar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, L.C. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia). Research and Development Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    Efforts to prevent and minimise pollution as well as to enhance the quality of the environment around the new coal-fired Sultan Salanuddin Power Station are described. Malaysian environmental regulations are mentioned and pollution-reducing elements designed into the power plant are listed. A Public Participation Forum was held to inform the public of the planned power station and the environmental considerations. An Environmental Audit was conducted which compared the measured impacts of the operational station with the predicted expectations. On-going air quality and wastewater discharge monitoring procedures are outlined. Measures to control coal dust and spontaneous combustion of coal, and methods used to dispose of coal ash are described. 3 figs.

  11. Utilization of underground coal gasification to provide electric power and emerging nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysen, J.E.; Beaver, F.W.; Schmit, C.R.; Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a process conceived over a hundred years ago and used successfully, since the 1940s, to generate low-Btu gas for electric power production. The process is applicable to many coal resources that cannot, for a variety of reasons, be economically produced. While UCG cannot compete economically with conventional oil gas, and coal reserves, emerging nations requiring electric power for development of an industrial infrastructure may provide the niche market that is necessary for the commercial development of UCG. Recent UCG field testing, conducted in the United States, demonstrated that UCG could be successfully conducted without adverse environmental impact. This testing also resulted in increased understanding of the interactions between the UCG process and the local hydrogeological environment. With this knowledge, the probability of successful commercial UCG development can be increased by selecting a UCG site with hydrogeologically and economically favorable properties. And approach for commercial UCG development for producing electric power in emerging nations is presented

  12. Thermoelectric Power Generation Utilizing the Waste Heat from a Biomass Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdil, Marian; Pospisil, Jiri

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the presented work is to test the possibility of using thermoelectric power to convert flue gas waste heat from a small-scale domestic pellet boiler, and to assess the influence of a thermoelectric generator on its function. A prototype of the generator, able to be connected to an existing device, was designed, constructed, and tested. The performance of the generator as well as the impact of the generator on the operation of the boiler was investigated under various operating conditions. The boiler gained auxiliary power and could become a combined heat and power unit allowing self-sufficient operation. The created unit represents an independent source of electricity with effective use of fuel.

  13. Broadband internet connection utilizing electric power cables, v. 16(62)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastinovski, Jovche

    2008-01-01

    Considering the introduction of wide spread communication, once again, pay our attention to the oldest network in Macedonia(and world wide)- the electrical network. Being widespread, it can make the broadband communication available from any place that has an electrical connection. This includes the rural areas, which the commercial companies are not interested in. Since the early 80-ties the big power companies have realized the potential of the use electric network for communication. its beginning had faced with difficulties, since in order to send data via the noisy interferes with other units such as the radio and military equipment. But nowadays these obstacles are more or lass overcame. Some of the companies are using BPL (broadband power lines) communication for their daily operations, while in the same time this relatively new technology for data transfer over power lines is under heavy developing. (Author)

  14. Static synchronous compensator with superconducting magnetic energy storage for high power utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Marcelo G.; Mercado, Pedro E.; Watanabe, Edson H.

    2007-01-01

    Power systems security in the case of contingencies is ensured by maintaining adequate 'short-term generation reserve'. This reserve must be appropriately activated by means of the primary frequency control (PFC). Because the generation is an electro-mechanical process, the primary control reserve controllability is not as fast as required, especially by modern power systems. Since the new improvements achieved on the conventional control methods have not been enough to satisfy the high requirements established, the necessity of enhancing the performance of the PFC has arisen. At present, the new energy storage systems (ESS) are a feasible alternative to store excess energy for substituting for the primary control reserve. In this way, it is possible to combine this new ESS with power converter based flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS). This allows an effective exchange of active power with the electric grid and, thus, enhances the PFC. This paper presents an improved PFC scheme incorporating a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) coupled with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. A detailed full model and a control algorithm based on a decoupled current control strategy of the enhanced compensator are proposed. The integrated STATCOM/SMES controller topology includes three level, multi-pulse, voltage source inverters (VSI) with phase control and incorporates a two quadrant, three level, dc-dc chopper as the interface between the STATCOM and the SMES coil. A novel three level control scheme is proposed by using concepts of instantaneous power in the synchronous rotating d-q reference frame. The dynamic performance of the presented control algorithms is evaluated through digital simulation performed by using SimPowerSystems of SIMULINK/MATLAB T M , and technical analysis is performed to obtain conclusions about the benefits of using SMES devices in the PFC of the electric system. Presently, a laboratory scale prototype device based on

  15. Possibilities of Utilization the Risk – Based Techniques in the Field of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the risk-based concept that may be applicable to offshore wind power plants has been presented. The aim of the concept is to aid designers in the early design and retrofit phases of the project in case of lack or insufficient information in relevant international standards. Moreover the initial classification of components within main system parts of offshore wind power plant has been performed. Such classification is essential in order to apply risk-based concept. However further scientific researches need to be performed in that field to develop detailed concept useful for future practical applications.

  16. The change in power engineering brought about by utilizing new energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frewer, H.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation of the energy situation prevailing in the FRG after the oil crisis as well as of the tasks set for future power engineering, is followed by a survey on major technologies concerning energy conversion. The following subjects are dealt with: Standardization of light-water reactors, district heating by means of nuclear power plants with light-water reactors, fossil coal gasification for generating methane, hydrogen and synthetic fuels, nuclear district energy, the potential of alternative options for generating energy (sun, wind, fusion, etc.), energy conservation, energy storage and energy transportation, and the importance of the fast breeder reactor for energy supply. (UA) [de

  17. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  18. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  19. Nanogeochemistry of hydrothermal magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Reich, Martin; Simon, Adam C.; Suvorova, Alexandra; Knipping, Jaayke; Roberts, Malcolm P.; Rubanov, Sergey; Dodd, Aaron; Saunders, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Magnetite from hydrothermal ore deposits can contain up to tens of thousands of parts per million (ppm) of elements such as Ti, Si, V, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, which tend to either structurally incorporate into growth and sector zones or form mineral micro- to nano-sized particles. Here, we report micro- to nano-structural and chemical data of hydrothermal magnetite from the Los Colorados iron oxide-apatite deposit in Chile, where magnetite displays both types of trace element incorporation. Three generations of magnetites (X-Z) were identified with concentrations of minor and trace elements that vary significantly: SiO2, from below detection limit (bdl) to 3.1 wt%; Al2O3, 0.3-2.3 wt%; CaO, bdl-0.9 wt%; MgO, 0.02-2.5 wt%; TiO2, 0.1-0.4 wt%; MnO, 0.04-0.2 wt%; Na2O, bdl-0.4 wt%; and K2O, bdl-0.4 wt%. An exception is V2O3, which is remarkably constant, ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 wt%. Six types of crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) were identified by means of transmission electron microscopy in the trace element-rich zones, which are each a few micrometres wide: (1) diopside, (2) clinoenstatite; (3) amphibole, (4) mica, (5) ulvöspinel, and (6) Ti-rich magnetite. In addition, Al-rich nanodomains, which contain 2-3 wt% of Al, occur within a single crystal of magnetite. The accumulation of NPs in the trace element-rich zones suggest that they form owing to supersaturation from a hydrothermal fluid, followed by entrapment during continuous growth of the magnetite surface. It is also concluded that mineral NPs promote exsolution of new phases from the mineral host, otherwise preserved as structurally bound trace elements. The presence of abundant mineral NPs in magnetite points to a complex incorporation of trace elements during growth, and provides a cautionary note on the interpretation of micron-scale chemical data of magnetite.

  20. Utilization of polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to improve the performance of modern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakich, J.D.; Lenk, D.W.; Koepfinger, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the first commercially available polymer enclosed intermediate class metal oxide surge arrester. It describes the unique construction of the design, including reduced size, increased flexibility, a collared seal on the polymer housing and an open webbed fiberglass-epoxy module which houses the metal oxide disc elements. Performance advantages are discussed. These include improved short term contamination performance of the insulator-like polymer design when compared to multi-unit porcelain housed designs. Data will show that polymer housed open-webbed fiberglass module construction extends the pressure relief capability beyond that of typical porcelain enclosed designs. The capability of the polymer enclosed design to withstand repeated pressure relief tests, simulating system reclose on a failed arrester, is also discussed. This paper discusses the circumstances at one utility which has considered utilizing polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to effectively upgrade their system protection capabilities

  1. On the way to becoming ''quite ordinary enterprises''. Strategic orientation of the power utilities in the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    Competition is an indispensable prerequisite of evolution. In the sector of electricity supply it is defined, inter alia, by the choice of source of primary energy. On the other hand, opening of the European market entails new challenges. In many European countries, electric energy is converted at less expense than in Germany. The builders of capital intensive power grid systems are trying to protect themselves against their competitive chances deteriorating also by their being required to make these grid systems available to competitors not having to bear these expenses. Nuclear power plants are among the most capital intensive generating units in the power industry. However, operating them is not only a matter of the power utilities; to them, nuclear power is one tpye of primary energy out of many others. Instead, the government must indicate the direction, through its energy policy, in which future technologies are to create international competitive advantages to domestic industries. In addition, the government must provide the funds necessary in the launching phase. (orig.) [de

  2. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  3. CO{sub 2}-mitigation measures through reduction of fossil fuel burning in power utilities. Which road to go?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupp, A. [Energetica International Inc., Suva (Fiji)

    1996-12-31

    Five conditions, at minimum, should be examined in the comparative analysis of CO{sub 2}-mitigation options for the power sector. Under the continuing constraint of scarce financial resources for any private or public investment in the power sector, the following combination of requirements characterise a successful CO{sub 2}-mitigation project: (1) Financial attractiveness for private or public investors. (2) Low, or even negative, long range marginal costs per ton of `CO{sub 2} saved`. (3) High impact on CO{sub 2}-mitigation, which indicates a large market potential for the measure. (4) The number of individual investments required to achieve the impact is relatively small. In other words, logistical difficulties in project implementation are minimised. (5) The projects are `socially fair` and have minimal negative impact on any segment of the society. This paper deals with options to reduce carbonaceous fuel burning in the power sector. Part I explains how projects should be selected and classified. Part II describes the technical options. Since reduction of carbonaceous fuel burning may be achieved through Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) both are treated. Within the context of this paper SSM does not mean to expand power supply as demand grows. It means to economically generate and distribute power as efficiently as possible. In too many instances DSM has degenerated into efficient lighting programs and utility managed incentives and rebate programs. To what extent this is a desirable situation for utilities in Developing Countries that face totally different problems as their counterparts in highly industrialised countries remains to be seen. Which road to go is the topic of this paper.

  4. Effect of cycle coupling-configuration on energy cascade utilization for a new power and cooling cogeneration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Xuye; Zheng, Danxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new power and cooling cogeneration cycle was proposed. • The thermophysical properties and the performance of the new cycle were calculated. • Different cycle coupling-configurations were analyzed. • The energy efficiency boosting mechanism of the new cycle was elucidated. - Abstract: To recover mid-low grade heat, a new power/cooling cogeneration cycle was proposed by combining the Kalina cycle and the double-effect ammonia–water absorption refrigeration (DAAR) cycle together, and the equivalent heat-to-power and exergy efficiencies of the cogeneration cycle reached 41.18% and 58.00%, respectively. To determine the effect of cycle coupling-configuration on energy cascade utilization for the new cycle, the cycle coupling-configuration of the Kalina and DAAR cycles were first analyzed, after which the cycle coupling-configuration of the new cycle was analyzed. Analysis results showed that the cycle coupling-configuration of the new cycle enhanced the energy cascade utilization. Furthermore, the energy efficiency boosting mechanism of the new cycle was elucidated

  5. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluşan, H; Gharehbaghi, K; Külah, H; Zorlu, Ö; Muhtaroğlu, A

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage. (paper)

  6. A novel Modulation Topology for Power Converters utilizing Multiple Carrier Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    Power converters are known to generate spectral components in the range of interest of electromagnetic compatibility measurements. Common approaches to manipulate some selected components in these frequency ranges are shown here. These approaches add components to the input signal of the modulato...

  7. Study on a heat recovery system for the thermal power plant utilizing air cooling island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Fu, Lin; Sun, Fangtian; Zhang, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    A new heat recovery system for CHP (combined heat and power) systems named HRU (heat recovery unit) is presented, which could recover the low grade heat of exhausted steam from the turbine at the thermal power plant directly. Heat recovery of exhausted steam is often accomplished by recovering the heat of cooling water in current systems. Therefore, two processes of heat transfer is needed at least. However, exhausted steam could be condensed in the evaporator of HRU directly, which reduce one process of heat transfer. A special evaporator is designed condense the exhausted steam directly. Simulated results are compared to experiments, which could include the calculation of heat transfer coefficients of different parts of HRU. It is found that about 25Mw of exhausted steam is recovered by this system. HRU could be promising for conventional CHP systems, which could increase the total energy efficiency obviously and enlarge the heating capacity of a built CHP system. - Highlights: • A new heat recovery system for thermal power plant is presented. • A mathematical model including heat transfer coefficients calculation is given. • This heat recovery system is experimented at a thermal power plant. • Performances of this system under different working conditions are simulated

  8. A study on enhancing the utilization of nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Han, Do Hee; Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Lok; Jo, Se Hyun; Lee, Han Myung; Won, Byung Chool; Park, Sung Gi

    1992-01-01

    As the world recognizes the global warming problem as an important issue it has to solve, nuclear power is being considered as a way to solve the problem. This study reviews (1) what the global warming problem is, (2) why the problem occurs, and (3) how the problem can be solved. This study also review international effort to solve the problem in terms of intergovernmental negotiation on climate change and its effect on Korea. This study discusses the role of nuclear power in solving the problem, contrasting the argument of those who object to the use of nuclear power. With the argument of those who agree to the use of nuclear power. This study reviews and analyzes recent changes in the international nuclear society; especially fortification of special inspection and safeguards by the IAEA, and attempt to append dual purpose items to London Guidelines. This study reviews the history of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act in the USA in terms of its background and role. This study discusses the Nuclear proliferation Prevention Act which was proposed recently in the USA. This study suggests policies Korea should take to respond to the changes effectively. (Author)

  9. CONSIDERATIONS FOR FAILURE PREVENTION IN AEROSPACE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS UTILIZING HIGHER VOLTAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    exist to develop tests that mimic the aerospace environment. Testing and qualification requirements for hermetic components need to consider leakage ...containing significant amounts of water . Different parts of the flight cycle may also be critical for specific components. Open-box power electronics...60270 [A-3]. Specialized test systems have been developed to detect and characterize PD in electrical equipment at atmospheric pressures. Although

  10. Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants : A Project Developer’s Guide

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    With an installed capacity greater than 137 gigawatts (GWs) worldwide and annual additions of about 40 GWs in recent years, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has become an increasingly important energy supply option. A substantial decline in the cost of solar PV power plants (80 percent reduction since 2008) has improved solar PV’s competitiveness, reducing the needs for subsidies and ena...

  11. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...

  12. Evaluation of a Trapezoidal Predictive Controller for a Four-Wire Active Power Filter for Utility Equipment of Metro Railway, Power-Land Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Salas-Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The realization of an improved predictive current controller based on a trapezoidal model is described, and the impact of this technique is assessed on the performance of a 2 kW, 21.6 kHz, four-wire, Active Power Filter for utility equipment of Metro Railway, Power-Land Substations. The operation of the trapezoidal predictive current controller is contrasted with that of a typical predictive control technique, based on a single Euler approximation, which has demonstrated generation of high-quality line currents, each using a 400 V DC link to improve the power quality of an unbalanced nonlinear load of Metro Railway. The results show that the supply current waveforms become virtually sinusoidal waves, reducing the current ripple by 50% and improving its power factor from 0.8 to 0.989 when the active filter is operated with a 1.6 kW load. The principle of operation of the trapezoidal predictive controller is analysed together with a description of its practical development, showing experimental results obtained with a 2 kW prototype.

  13. Fly ashes from Polish power plants and combined heat and power plants and conditions of their application for carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz-Bochenczyk, A.; Mokrzycki, E. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland). Mineral & Energy Economic Research Institute

    2006-09-15

    Poland has large resources of hard coal and brown coal. Therefore power industry is mostly based on these two original energy carriers. The power plants producing heat and electrical energy create combustion byproducts. These products include: fly ashes, slags, carbon dioxide and other gaseous compounds. In year 2003 fly ashes emission from hard coal combustion in Poland reached 37 000 tons and over 15 000 tons from brown coal combustion. Fly ashes are widely used in the economy. They are used in building materials industry, in road building and geotechnics. CO{sub 2} emission in Poland in 2003 originating from hard coal combustion was almost 91 million tons and from brown coal combustion-almost 58 million tons. High emissions of CO{sub 2} originating from power engineering processes of coal combustion are deleterious to the natural environment, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Presently there are carried out studies aimed at limiting CO{sub 2} emission coming from industrial processes. Fly ash properties are determined by qualitative characteristics of combusted coal, its chemical composition and combustion technology. Chemical composition of Polish fly ashes is very diversified. Fly ashes with high calcium oxide content can be used for carbon dioxide fixation. Fly ash carbonation is a complicated process however safe for natural environment. Polish fly ashes coming from power engineering, conditions of their use for the carbon dioxide utilization as well as their quantitative and qualitative characteristics are the subjects of this paper.

  14. Adaptive Data Aggregation and Compression to Improve Energy Utilization in Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ikjune; Kim, Hyeok; Noh, Dong Kun

    2017-05-27

    A node in a solar-powered wireless sensor network (WSN) collects energy when the sun shines and stores it in a battery or capacitor for use when no solar power is available, in particular at night. In our scheme, each tiny node in a WSN periodically determines its energy budget, which takes into account its residual energy, and its likely acquisition and consumption. If it expects to acquire more energy than it can store, the data which has it has sensed is aggregated with data from other nodes, compressed, and transmitted. Otherwise, the node continues to sense data, but turns off its wireless communication to reduce energy consumption. We compared several schemes by simulation. Our scheme reduced the number of nodes forced to black out due to lack of energy so that more data arrives at the sink node.

  15. Operation and utilization of low power research reactor critical facility for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, S.K.; Karhadkar, C.G.

    2017-01-01

    An Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) has been designed and developed for maximum power generation from thorium considering large reserves of thorium. The design envisages using 54 pin MOX cluster with different enrichment of "2"3"3U and Pu in Thoria fuel pins. Theoretical models developed to neutron transport and the geometrical details of the reactor including all reactivity devices involve approximations in modelling, resulting in uncertainties. With a view to minimize these uncertainties, a low power research reactor Critical Facility was built in which cold clean fuel can be arranged in a desired and precise geometry. Different experiments conducted in this facility greatly contribute to understand and validate the physics design parameters

  16. Legal aspects of nuclear power production and utilization in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iojrysh, A.I.; Supataeva, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    The history and prospects of development of nuclear power engineering in the USSR are considered. The problems of establishment and development of the atomic energy law are discussed. The general characteristics of the atomic energy legislation are given. The principal problem of the atomic energy law is the development of the mechanism fo nuclear power engineering management able to provide protection of people life, health and property. Peaceful use of nuclear energy is the basic principle of the Soviet atomic energy law. Departamental acts are the main sources of atomic energy legislation. Ordering of legislation, its systematization, approval of a complex standard act being the Soviet atomic energy law will result in completing the formation of a new complex branch of soviet legislation namely, the atomic energy law

  17. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  18. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  19. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  20. Optimization of waste heat utilization in cold end system of thermal power station based on neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zenghui

    2018-04-01

    At present, the flue gas waste heat utilization projects of coal-fired boilers are often limited by low temperature corrosion problems and conventional PID control. The flue gas temperature cannot be reduced to the best efficiency temperature of wet desulphurization, resulting in the failure of heat recovery to be the maximum. Therefore, this paper analyzes, researches and solves the remaining problems of the cold end system of thermal power station, so as to provide solutions and theoretical support for energy saving and emission reduction and upgrading and the improvement of the comprehensive efficiency of the units.

  1. Re-Examining first principles of regulation: NRG power marketing, LLC v. Maine public utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, Mark R.

    2010-03-15

    Maine PUC and Morgan Stanley have resolved some of the key issues facing the energy industry. The Supreme Court has plainly and directly in both cases reaffirmed the central role that private contracts play in the energy industry and set terms to balance the need to secure long-term investment with the public interest that lies at the heart of the Federal Power Act. (author)

  2. Nuclear power investment and generating costs from a utility point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, B.F.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear power stations presently in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany have electricity generating costs between 3.5 Pf/kWh and 4.5 Pf/kWh. The higher electricity generating costs are due mainly to the increased expenditure required for the protection of plants against airplane crashes, earthquakes and sabotage, and to the higher costs of the entire fuel cycle. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Potential utilities of optimal estimation and control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.; Purviance, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Optimal estimation and control theories offer the potential for more precise control and diagnosis of nuclear power plants. The important element of these theories is that a mathematical plant model is used in conjunction with the actual plant data to optimize some performance criteria. These criteria involve important plant variables and incorporate a sense of the desired plant performance. Several applications of optimal estimation and control to nuclear systems are discussed

  4. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  5. Proposal on nuclear information Hub in Asia. Placing stress on nuclear power utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasugi, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    Recently, several countries in Asia expressed official interest in nuclear power introduction toward 2020s. In designing the nuclear power introduction, estimation of required amount of resources, i.e. workload, personnel, facilities and budget corresponding to them, based upon indigenous conditions of the country, is a matter of great importance. For objective estimation, use of reliable information is indispensable, and from this point databases play essential role. However, it is not easy to reach suitable information for the purpose, due to reliability, significance, and freshness of data, and due to troublesomeness to retrieve key-words among similar data in a great quantity. For easier use, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) would like to propose the information system which includes 'Asian Nuclear Information Web-Site' and 'Nuclear Information Database in Asia'. Expected participants of this system are: 1) country or area with official commitment or interest in nuclear power, and 2) organization with capacity for information provision. JAIF provisionally desires Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan Area, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam, for a start, to support this system. Cooperation, including publishing newsletter and holding study or symposia, could be carried out. (author)

  6. Electric Power Research Institute's role in applying superconductivity to future utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, M.

    1975-01-01

    Economics has been the single most important factor in determining the future of any new commercial technology in the United States. This criterion is in need of serious examination in view of the projected sharply increasing consumption of energy in the next few decades, particularly in the form of electricity. In order to make a smooth and meaningful transition from conventional methods of generating and transmitting electricity, a coordinated effort between all segments of the private and public domains will be required. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) should play a vital role in planning for both the imminent short term, and long term national electrical energy needs; and in coordinating efforts to achieve these vital goals. If, as predicted, the U. S. power consumption increases by more than a factor of six in the next 30 years, it should be clear that it is necessary to develop high power density methods of producing and transmitting electricity. Superconductivity is the natural prime candidate for a new feasible technology that can take on this responsibility

  7. Evaluating the Cost-Benefits of Utilizing Host Nation Power for US Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    treated.  In  fact, even the most unreliable host nation  grids  almost always have a higher availability then  solar   PV ,  which has at best a 30% capacity...heating value of the fuel. For diesel fuel, this is 40.737 kWh/gal.    I is the cost of adding a  connection  to the HN  power   grid  (including wires...Each base relies heavily on electrical  power  to accomplish their  mission.  In countries with poor electrical  system  reliability the  power  for these

  8. Optimization of Power Utilization in Multimobile Robot Foraging Behavior Inspired by Honeybees System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faisul Arif; Ramli, Abd Rahman; Samsudin, Khairulmizam; Hashim, Shaiful Jahari

    2014-01-01

    Deploying large numbers of mobile robots which can interact with each other produces swarm intelligent behavior. However, mobile robots are normally running with finite energy resource, supplied from finite battery. The limitation of energy resource required human intervention for recharging the batteries. The sharing information among the mobile robots would be one of the potentials to overcome the limitation on previously recharging system. A new approach is proposed based on integrated intelligent system inspired by foraging of honeybees applied to multimobile robot scenario. This integrated approach caters for both working and foraging stages for known/unknown power station locations. Swarm mobile robot inspired by honeybee is simulated to explore and identify the power station for battery recharging. The mobile robots will share the location information of the power station with each other. The result showed that mobile robots consume less energy and less time when they are cooperating with each other for foraging process. The optimizing of foraging behavior would result in the mobile robots spending more time to do real work. PMID:24949491

  9. Water-Chemistry and Its Utility Systems in CCP Power Units (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Damageability of heat transfer surfaces of waste heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) of combined- cycle plants (CCP) can be reduced due to an increase in the quality of make-up and feed water, the use of phosphate-alkaline or amino compound water chemistry (WC), and improved chemical quality control of the heat carrier and make-up water preparation techniques. Temporary quality standards for the heat medium developed by the All-Russia Thermal Engineering institute (VTI) for CCP power units are presented in comparison with the IAPWS standards; preferences for the choice of a WC type for some power units commissioned in Russia in the first decade of this century are shown; and operational data on the quality of feed, boiler water, and steam for two large CCP-450 and CCP-425 power units are given. The state and prospects for the development of chemical-technological monitoring systems and CCP water treatment plants are noted. Estimability of some CCP diagnostic parameters by measuring specific electric conductivity and pH is shown. An extensive bibliography on this topic is given.

  10. Modeling and design of light powered biomimicry micropump utilizing transporter proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Sze, Tsun-Kay Jackie; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-11-01

    The creation of compact micropumps to provide steady flow has been an on-going challenge in the field of microfluidics. We present a mathematical model for a micropump utilizing Bacteriorhodopsin and sugar transporter proteins. This micropump utilizes transporter proteins as method to drive fluid flow by converting light energy into chemical potential. The fluid flow through a microchannel is simulated using the Nernst-Planck, Navier-Stokes, and continuity equations. Numerical results show that the micropump is capable of generating usable pressure. Designing parameters influencing the performance of the micropump are investigated including membrane fraction, lipid proton permeability, illumination, and channel height. The results show that there is a substantial membrane fraction region at which fluid flow is maximized. The use of lipids with low membrane proton permeability allows illumination to be used as a method to turn the pump on and off. This capability allows the micropump to be activated and shut off remotely without bulky support equipment. This modeling work provides new insights on mechanisms potentially useful for fluidic pumping in self-sustained bio-mimic microfluidic pumps. This work is supported in part by the National Science Fundation Grant CBET-1250107.

  11. Comfort and performance of power line maintainers' gloves during electrical utility work in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S; Boyle, C; Wells, R

    2014-01-01

    Electrical utility workers wear thick rubber gloves and often work in the cold. To document the challenge of working in the cold and the effectiveness of different glove/liner combinations in keeping workers' hands warm. Ten experienced male electrical utility employees worked in a controlled temperature walk-in chamber at -20 °C for 45 minutes for each of five glove conditions: standard five-finger rubber gloves with cotton liners and gauntlets, mitten style gloves, a prototype wool liner, and two heating options; glove or torso. Dependent measures were maximum grip force, skin temperatures, finger dexterity and sensitivity to touch, ratings of perceived effort and a rating of thermal sensation. Participants' hand skin temperatures decreased, they perceived their hands to be much colder, their finger sensitivity decreased and their ratings of perceived exertion increased, however their performance did not degrade over the 45 minute trials. The mitten-style gloves showed a smaller drop in skin temperature for the 3rd and 5th digits (pglove conditions. Mitten style gloves kept workers' hands warmer than the standard five finger glove.

  12. The expanded role of municipal utilities in a deregulated power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudhomme, H. [Sudbury Hydro Electric Commission, Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    A review of how Sudbury Hydro Electric Commission is meeting the challenges of transforming itself from a regulated monopoly into a competitive business was presented. The utility designed its organization in a Business Unit Model and has developed alliances and partnerships with the City of Sudbury, other municipalities, other utilities and the private sector. The internal `business units` include wires, metering, billing, energy services, district energy, telecommunications and radio services. The physical network includes (1) SCADA (Supervisory Control And Acquisition) devices at all substations and many switch locations, (2) automated meter reading devices for electric, water and gas for all their customers, and (3) load control devices at customer locations. Sudbury Hydro`s partners include AT and T Canada, Cisco, ICS and sureNet, the Sudbury Regional Network which is a consortium of 21 health, education, municipal and industry stakeholders. In the future, Sudbury Hydro will offer services such as cable television programming, movie videos on demand, telephone and access to the INTERNET. Beyond the direct benefits to consumers, the city of Sudbury will also benefit significantly from the building of this network.

  13. Detection of Frauds and Other Non-technical Losses in Power Utilities using Smart Meters: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Ul Hasan, Qadeer

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of losses in power distribution system and techniques to mitigate these are two active areas of research especially in energy scarce countries like Pakistan to increase the availability of power without installing new generation. Since total energy losses account for both technical losses (TL) as well as non-technical losses (NTLs). Utility companies in developing countries are incurring of major financial losses due to non-technical losses. NTLs lead to a series of additional losses, such as damage to the network (infrastructure and the reduction of network reliability) etc. The purpose of this paper is to perform an introductory investigation of non-technical losses in power distribution systems. Additionally, analysis of NTLs using consumer energy consumption data with the help of Linear Regression Analysis has been carried out. This data focuses on the Low Voltage (LV) distribution network, which includes: residential, commercial, agricultural and industrial consumers by using the monthly kWh interval data acquired over a period (one month) of time using smart meters. In this research different prevention techniques are also discussed to prevent illegal use of electricity in the distribution of electrical power system.

  14. Economic considerations of plutonium utilization in the nuclear power strategy of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.; Tusa, E.; Routti, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the current and prospected share of nuclear power in the national energy supply strategy an optimal programme is developed for exploitation of plutonium in both light water and fast reactor systems. Assuming cost trends until and beyond the year 2000 for uranium, plutonium, uranium enrichment, fuel fabricaton and assessing the availability of plutonium from the domestic power plants and from abroad the nuclear construction programme is optimized economically in view of the estimated development in the investment costs of various plant types. Given the expected nuclear share of the energy procurement this sector is covered by the alternative production schemes, i.e. light water reactors with and without plutonium recycle and fast reactors. The plant sizes are allowed to be either 500 MWe or 1000 MWe. The installation dates are fixed manually with a minor flexibility of time but with all the three degrees of freedom in the plant types. Defining the objective function in terms of minimized revenue requirement in plant amortization and operation the generated scenarios are screened off and they finally converge to the optimal policy of nuclear power construction up to the year 2000. Special attention is placed on the constraints which eliminate excessive proliferation of reactor types. This is mainly implemented by the criterion of increasing the domestic share in the investments. The established technology is associated with a larger share of the Finnish manufacturing and the introduction of new fuel or reactor type is taken to correspond to a reduced domestic investment share. The results yield the time schedule and installed capacity of the three different production means. Due to the uncertainties prevailing in the forecasts sensitivity studies are performed as functions of the major economic parameters and their temporal development

  15. Economic considerations of plutonium utilization in the nuclear power strategy of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.; Tusa, E.; Routti, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the current and predicted share of nuclear power in the national energy supply strategy, an optimal programme is developed for the exploitation of plutonium in both light-water and fast reactor systems. Assuming cost trends beyond the year 2000 for uranium, plutonium, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and assessing the availability of plutonium from domestic power plants and from abroad, the nuclear construction programme is optimized economically in view of the estimated development in the investment costs of various plant types. Given the expected nuclear share of the energy procurement this sector is covered by the alternative production schemes, i.e. light-water reactors with and without plutonium recycle, and fast reactors. Defining the objective function in terms of minimized revenue requirement in plant amortization and operation the generated scenarios are screened off and they finally converge to the optimal policy of nuclear power construction up to the year 2000. The established technology is associated with a larger share of the domestic manufacturing and the introduction of a new fuel or reactor type is taken to correspond to a reduced domestic investment share. In the investment costs the domestic fraction is regarded competitive up to a certain marginal excess. Plutonium recycle is seen to be competitive from 1985 or as soon as the required amount of fuel has been reprocessed. The domestic accumulation of plutonium will be able to support the introduction of the LMFBR in 1997. Owing to the uncertainties prevailing in the forecasts, sensitivity studies are performed as functions of the major economic parameters and their temporal development. (author)

  16. Utilization of waste heat from GT-MHR for power generation in organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, Mortaza; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) is currently being developed by an international consortium. In this power plant, circulating helium that has to be compressed in a single or two successive stages cools the reactor core. For thermodynamic reasons, these compression stages require pre-cooling of the helium to about 26 deg. C through the use of intercooler and pre-cooler in which water is used to cool the helium. Considerable thermal energy (∼300 MWth) is thus dissipated in these components. This thermal energy is then rejected to a heat sink. For different designs, the temperature ranges of the helium in the intercooler and pre-cooler could be about 100 and 150 deg. C, respectively. These are ideal energy sources to be used in an organic Rankine cycles for power generation. This study examines the performance of a gas-cooled nuclear power plant with closed Brayton cycle (CBC) combined with two organic Rankine cycles (ORC). More attention was paid to the irreversibilities generated in the combined cycle. Individual models are developed for each component through applications of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The effects of the turbine inlet temperature, compressor pressure ratio, evaporator temperature and temperature difference in the evaporator on the first- and second-law efficiencies and on the exergy destruction rate of the combined cycle were studied. Finally the combined cycle was optimized thermodynamically using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. Based on identical operating conditions, a comparison between the GT-MHR/ORC and a simple GT-MHR cycle is also made. It was found that both the first- and second-law efficiencies of GT-MHR/ORC cycle are about 3%-points higher than that of the simple GT-MHR cycle. Also, the exergy destruction rate for GT-MHR/ORC cycle is about 5% lower than that of the GT-MHR cycle.

  17. Electric utility system planning studies for OTEC power integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-30

    Florida Power Corporation (FPC) conducted an evaluation of the possible integration of OTEC into the FPC system. Existing system planning procedures, assumptions, and corporate financial criteria for planning new generating capacity were used without modification. A baseline configuration for an OTEC plant was developed for review with standard planning procedures. The OTEC plant characteristics and costs were incorporated in considerable detail. These basic inputs were examined using the FPC system planning methods. It was found that with the initial set of conditions, OTEC would not be economically viable. Using the same system planning procedures, a number of adjustments were made to the key study assumptions. It was found that two considerations dominate the analysis; the assumed rate of fuel cost escalation, and the projected capital cost of the OTEC plant. The analysis produced a parametric curve: on one hand, if fuel costs were to escalate at a rate greater than assumed (12% vs the assumed 5% for coal), and if no change were made to the OTEC input assumptions, the basic economic competitive criteria would be equivalent to the principal alternative, coal fueled plants. Conversely, if the projected cost of the OTEC plant were to be reduced from the assumed $2256/kW to $1450/kW, the economic competitiveness criterion would be satisfied. After corporate financial analysis, it was found that even if the cost competitive criterion were to be reached, the plan including OTEC could not be financed by Florida Power Corporation. Since, under the existing set of conditions for financing new plant capital requirements, FPC could not construct an OTEC plant, some other means of ownership would be necessary to integrate OTEC into the FPC system. An alternative such as a third party owning the plant and selling power to FPC, might prove attractive. (WHK)

  18. Utilization of biogas released from palm oil mill effluent for power generation using self-preheated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A lab-scale reactor called self-preheating flameless combustion (SPFC) system is experimented. • Feasibility of power generation by POME biogas is modeled using SPFC system. • 4 MW power is available by POME biogas utilization in a typical palm oil mill with 300,000 tons production. • The rate of power generation increases when 2% hydrogen is added to POME biogas ingredients. - Abstract: In palm oil mills, for one ton crude palm oil (CPO) production, 70 m"3 biogas is released from palm oil mill effluent (POME) which can endanger the environment. Palm oil mills without appropriate strategies for biogas collection can participate in greenhouse gases (GHGs) generation actively. In this paper, a typical palm oil mill with annual capacity of 300,000 ton oil palm production and 3 MW electricity demand is considered as a pilot plant and feasibility of power generation by POME biogas is modeled by Aspen Plus considering flameless mode in combustion system. A new design of lab-scale flameless reactor called self-preheated flameless combustion (SPFC) system is presented and employed in power generation modeling. In SPFC system, the flameless chamber is employed as a heater to preheat an oxidizer over the self-ignition temperature of the fuel. A helical stainless steel pipe (called self-preheating pipe) is installed inside the chamber to conduct the oxidizer from exhaust zone to the combustion zone inside the chamber and preheat oxidizer. In the flameless mode, the diluted oxidizer is injected to the helical pipe from the exhaust zone and the preheated oxidizer at the burner is conducted to the flameless furnace through a distributor. In SPFC system external heater for preheating oxidizer is removed and the rate of power generation increases. The results show that 10.8 MW power could be generated in ultra-lean POME biogas SPFC. However, the rate of pollutant especially CO_2 and NO_x is high in this circumstances. In stoichiometric condition, 4 MW power

  19. Utilization of genetic algorithm in on-line tuning of fluid power servos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, J.

    1997-12-31

    This study describes a robust and plausible method based on genetic algorithms suitable for tuning a regulator. The main advantages of the method presented is its robustness and easy-to-use feature. In this thesis the method is demonstrated by searching for appropriate control parameters of a state-feedback controller in a fluid power environment. To corroborate the robustness of the tuning method, two earlier studies are also presented in the appendix, where the presented tuning method is used in different kinds of regulator tuning situations. (orig.) 33 refs.

  20. Utilization of genetic algorithm in on-line tuning of fluid power servos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, J

    1998-12-31

    This study describes a robust and plausible method based on genetic algorithms suitable for tuning a regulator. The main advantages of the method presented is its robustness and easy-to-use feature. In this thesis the method is demonstrated by searching for appropriate control parameters of a state-feedback controller in a fluid power environment. To corroborate the robustness of the tuning method, two earlier studies are also presented in the appendix, where the presented tuning method is used in different kinds of regulator tuning situations. (orig.) 33 refs.

  1. Implementation of the utilization program for the fuel elements of the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.R.; Serra, O.H.; Parker, Alejandro

    1981-01-01

    The programming operation for the use of the fuel elements in the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant was initially under the responsibility of the KWU Company, as part of the services rendered due for the manufacturing of said elements. This job was done with the help of the TRISIC program, developed in the early seventies by CNEA and SIEMENS staff. From april 21, 1979 on, CNEA took over the responsibility and strategy of the interchange of fuel elements. The several stages carried out for the implementation of this service are detailed. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  3. On the Empirical Estimation of Utility Distribution Damping Parameters Using Power Quality Waveform Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Y. H. Gu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient yet accurate methodology for estimating system damping. The proposed technique is based on linear dynamic system theory and the Hilbert damping analysis. The proposed technique requires capacitor switching waveforms only. The detected envelope of the intrinsic transient portion of the voltage waveform after capacitor bank energizing and its decay rate along with the damped resonant frequency are used to quantify effective X/R ratio of a system. Thus, the proposed method provides complete knowledge of system impedance characteristics. The estimated system damping can also be used to evaluate the system vulnerability to various PQ disturbances, particularly resonance phenomena, so that a utility may take preventive measures and improve PQ of the system.

  4. Utilization of surplus electricity from wind power for dynamic biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The methanation of CO2 has been increasingly discussed for the potential long term storage of electricity and for facilitating grid load management. Using the regions of northern Germany as a case study, the feasibility of CO2 conversion from biogas plants and its integration in existing natural...... gas grid was examined in this study. Furthermore the material and energy flows of in the methanation process, were evaluated to provide expression for the quantities of excess electrical energy which could be potentially stored using the biogas integrated systems. The study results showed...... that with 480 biogas plants in the region would be able to utilize up to 0.7 TWh surplus electricity could be used to produce 100 106 m3 at standard temperature and pressure of upgraded methane per year....

  5. Utilization of a Vircator to drive a High Power Relativistic Klystron Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardelle, J.; Bardy, J.; Cassany, B.; Desanlis, T.; Eyl, P.; Galtié, A.; Modin, P.; Voisin, L.; Balleyguier, P.; Gouard, P.; Donohue, J.

    2002-11-01

    At CESTA, we have been producing electron beams for some fifteen years by using induction accelerators and pulse diodes. First we had performed Frre-Electron Lasers experiments and we are currently studying the production of High-Power microwaves in the S-band. Among the possible sources we have chosen to perform Relativistic Klystron (RK) experiments with a pulse diode capable of generating a 700kV, 15 kA, 100 ns annular electron beam. In an amplifier configuration, we are testing the idea of using a Vircator as the driver for the first cavity of the klystron. This Vircator uses a simple electrical generator (Marx capacitor bank) which operates in the S-band in the GW class. By reducing the power level to about 100 MW, a 200 ns reliable and reproducible input driver pulse is obtained. First, we present the results of a preliminary experiment for which a coaxial cavity has been built in order to be fed by the Vircator emission at 2.45 GHz. Secondly, we give the experimental results in an oscillator configuration which corresponds to the fisrt step of our RK studies. Comparisons with the results of numerical simulations performed with MAGIC and MAFIA will be given for both experiments.

  6. Discussion on the trend of information resource utilization in nuclear power enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lihong

    2010-01-01

    Content of abstract The use for information resources of nuclear power enterprises will play increasingly vital role in network environment and market competition. Based on the digitization library and archives management conception, Nuclear power enterprise intelligence information service should achieve its function as 'the reference centre of the of administration and decision-making', 'the implement centre of work', 'the museum that witnesses the development and assimilates experience', 'the resource centre for employee's training' for the enterprise combining with the archives center resource by using the technology of digitization and network to deepen the professional edit and research and searches service, which establishes incorporate information management environment for the enterprise. In the process of digitization and informationization management for scientific and technical information construction, enterprise should perform according to its state by stages, ensuring a field carrying out a job according to reality. With the transformation of intelligence information service pattern, an enterprise should pay attention to the ability improvement and the role transformation of the intelligence agent, also to the intellectual property rights during the process and use of information resources. (authors)

  7. Evaluating Proposed Investments in Power System Reliability and Resilience: Preliminary Results from Interviews with Public Utility Commission Staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eto, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers and regulatory agencies are expressing renewed interest in the reliability and resilience of the U.S. electric power system in large part due to growing recognition of the challenges posed by climate change, extreme weather events, and other emerging threats. Unfortunately, there has been little or no consolidated information in the public domain describing how public utility/service commission (PUC) staff evaluate the economics of proposed investments in the resilience of the power system. Having more consolidated information would give policymakers a better understanding of how different state regulatory entities across the U.S. make economic decisions pertaining to reliability/resiliency. To help address this, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA) to conduct an initial set of interviews with PUC staff to learn more about how proposed utility investments in reliability/resilience are being evaluated from an economics perspective. LBNL conducted structured interviews in late May-early June 2016 with staff from the following PUCs: Washington D.C. (DCPSC), Florida (FPSC), and California (CPUC).

  8. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-07

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand.

  9. Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper present analysis on dynamic performance of Load Frequency Control (LFC) of three area interconnected hydrothermal reheat power system by the use of Artificial Intelligent and PI Controller. In the proposed scheme, control methodology developed using conventional PI controller, Artificial Neural Network ...

  10. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  11. Synthesis of leucite, sanidine and a melt of sanidine at 930-10300C and 2 Kb: partition coefficients of Rb, Ca, Sr and Ba between these phases and hydrothermal solution of KCl. Geological utilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, A.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    This work shows the results of hydrothermal experiments to determine the distribution coefficients of alcali and alcaline earth elements in trace concentrations between sanidine and liquids of same composition and between leucite and liquid. At 2 Kb pressure and 930 0 C for sanidine, 930 0 and 1030 0 C for leucite and 1030 0 C for a melt of sanidine composition the concentration of trace elements (TE) in the coexisting potassium bearing aqueous fluid phase was varied between 10 -1 to 10 -6 mole to one mol of K + . By use of radioactive tracers (Rb 86 , Ca 45 , Sr 85 , Ba 133 ) the concentrations in TE of the aqueous phase, the solids and melts has been determined. This indirect method will give a good aproximation of the behaviour of TE between a melt and crystallising solids. These aprotimations lead to following conclusions: a) during the crystallisation of leucite, this phase incorporates large quantities of Ba and Rb, depleting the residual melt in those elements. Sr and Ca, on the other hand are enriched in the residual melt. b) the crystallisation of sanidine depletes even more the residual melt in Ba, Sr shows similias behaviour, Rb and Ca, however, are enriched in the residual melt phase. (author) [pt

  12. Development and utilization of indicators to summarize and represent performance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kakubari, Yukihiro; Kikkawa, Shigeru

    1996-01-01

    We have developed eight performance indicators (PIs) that enable quantitative and overall comprehension of operating performance. Among these eight indicators there are 'capability factor' 'incidents and failures' and 'radiation exposure and radioactive wastes', all used to represent the safety and reliability of a nuclear power plant. Results of analysis and evaluation by means of these PIs are distributed to the regulatory agency and other organizations every year, for the benefit of all involved. We have also been examining a technique that may allow synthesis of these PIs into a single, simpler comprehensive indicator that covers all aspects of plant performance. In this report, we present analysis and evaluation of the PIs, the technique to provide a comprehensive performance indicators and actual application. (author)

  13. Power plant and utility performance: how world-record outages are being achieved in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Two record-breaking refuelling outages at power reactors in the USA are described. The first, at Browns Ferry 3 BWR, was accomplished in 19 days 39 minutes - a shorter time than for an General Electric BWR anywhere in the world hitherto. The management attribute this success to planning, personnel and performance. As well as refuelling, inspections and maintenance, major modifications were carried out. These included the completion of the installation of digital feedwater reactor level control and digital feedwater heater level control. The second outage, at South Texas Project 2 BWR, at 17 days 14 hours and 10 minutes was the fastest yet recorded for any US nuclear unit. This achievement is ascribed to excellent outage preparation and scheduling, the superior condition of the plant equipment and teamwork and safety consciousness on behalf of the plant personnel. Finally, brief consideration is given to the nuclear performance recovery programme of Commonwealth Edison and Ontario Hydro Nuclear. (UK)

  14. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  15. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides 58 Co and 60 Co 100%, and over 60% for 134 Cs and 137 Cs. (authors)

  16. Possibilities of utilizing the Hungarian reserves of lignite in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faur, G

    1978-01-01

    The Upper Pannonian lignite reserves subjected to study are suited to opencast mining with respect to their depth and thickness. All of them are characterized by occurrence in multiple beds, the thickness of which however is different per area. The dirt between the strata consists mostly of sand, to a lesser degree of clay or of materials between the former. Continuously operating dredges can be used for working, the types depending on the thickness of the overburden and the technology to be applied. Deep wells with submerged pumps may be employed for drainage. High-capacity mining districts can be operated at the areas subjected to study, new districts must however be opened up to increase the productive capacity beyond a certain limit. Establishment of a significant power station capacity is made possible by the explored lignite reserves. (In Hungarian)

  17. Utilization of Yatagan Power Plant Fly Ash in Production of Building Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önel, Öznur; Tanriverdi, Mehmet; Cicek, Tayfun

    2017-12-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal combustion, which accumulates in large quantities near the coal-fired power plants as waste material. Fly ash causes serious operational and environmental problems. In this study, fly ash from Yatağgan thermal power plant was used to produce light-weight building bricks. The study aimed to reduce the problems related to fly ash by creating a new area for their use. The optimum process parameters were determined for the production of real size bricks to be used in construction industry. The commercial size bricks (200 × 200 × 90-110 mm) were manufactured using pilot size equipment. Mechanical properties, thermal conductivity coefficients, freezing and thawing strengths, water absorption rates, and unit volume weights of the bricks were determined. Etringite (Ca6Al2 (SO4)3 (OH)12 25(H2O)) and Calcium Silicate Hydrate (2CaO.SiO2.4H2O) were identified as the binding phases in the real size brick samples after 2 days of pre-curing and 28 days curing at 50° C and 95% relative moisture. The water absorption rate was found to be 27.7 % in terms of mass. The mechanical and bending strength of the brick samples with unit volume weight of 1.29 g.cm-3 were determined as 6.75 MPa and 1,56 MPa respectively. The thermal conductivity of the fly ash bricks was measured in average as 0,340 W m-1 K-1. The fly ash sample produced was subjected to toxic leaching tests (Toxic Property Leaching Procedure (EPA-TCLP 1311), Single-step BATCH Test and Method-A Disintegration Procedure (ASTM)). The results of these tests suggested that the materials could be classified as non-hazardous wastes / materials.

  18. Design and process integration of organic Rankine cycle utilizing biomass for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ependi, S.; Nur, T. B.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has high potential biomass energy sources from palm oil mill industry activities. The growing interest on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) application to produce electricity by utilizing biomass energy sources are increasingly due to its successfully used for generating electricity from rejected waste heat to the environment in industrial processes. In this study, the potential of the palm oil empty fruit bunch, and wood chip have been used as fuel for biomass to generate electricity based ORC with combustion processes. The heat from combustion burner was transfer by thermal oil heater to evaporate ORC working fluid in the evaporator unit. The Syltherm-XLT thermal oil was used as the heat carrier from combustion burner, while R245fa was used as the working fluid for ORC unit. Appropriate designs integration from biomass combustion unit to ORC unit have been analyzed and proposed to generate expander shaft-work. Moreover, the effect of recuperator on the total system efficiency has also been investigated. It was observed that the fuel consumption was increased when the ORC unit equipped recuperator operated until certain pressure and decreased when operated at high pressure.

  19. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI - , F - , and SO 4 = . We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements

  20. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  1. Flower-like CuO synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and crystalline structure, the control of the shape and size of the semiconductors ... hydrothermal process using copper threads as precursor and pointed out ... 2.3 Instrumentation. Power X-ray .... Measurement of Tianjin University. References.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Heat flux from magmatic hydrothermal systems related to availability of fluid recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J.V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C.F.; Bloomberg, S.; Hernandez, P.A.; Mazot, A.; Viveiros, F.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Magmatic hydrothermal systems are of increasing interest as a renewable energy source. Surface heat flux indicates system resource potential, and can be inferred from soil CO2 flux measurements and fumarole gas chemistry. Here we compile and reanalyze results from previous CO2 flux surveys worldwide to compare heat flux from a variety of magma-hydrothermal areas. We infer that availability of water to recharge magmatic hydrothermal systems is correlated with heat flux. Recharge availability is in turn governed by permeability, structure, lithology, rainfall, topography, and perhaps unsurprisingly, proximity to a large supply of water such as the ocean. The relationship between recharge and heat flux interpreted by this study is consistent with recent numerical modeling that relates hydrothermal system heat output to rainfall catchment area. This result highlights the importance of recharge as a consideration when evaluating hydrothermal systems for electricity generation, and the utility of CO2 flux as a resource evaluation tool.

  5. A study on excavation of rock mass by lasers. Researching the possibility of utilizing low-power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Fumio [Taisei Corporation, Technology Research Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The object of this research is to develop the techniques of rock-mass excavation by laser irradiation. This rock-mass excavation technique by lasers has a characteristic of extremely little effect to the surroundings of an excavation site no matter how the target rock mass is with regard to geological aspects and given physical property. Moreover, it could be utilized in excavation of waste dump facilities, which need to be re-buried, and applied to excavation of long piles and tunnels, which are drilled through different kinds of strata, and to improvement of rock mass and ground. Lasers have a characteristic of concentrating the energy into a limited point and not only discontinue or cut a large area with a small output like sharp scissors but also block up the cracks deep inside the rock mass by fusing vitrification for its improvement. It leads to restrain the loss of energy, minimization of the effected environment, effective utilization of resources and energy, environmental restoration, and improvement of the working environment. In the field of nuclear fuel, which includes excavating dump pits, dismantling a furnace, and taking appropriate steps of mine remains, excavating, cutting, and fusing could be required to do within a limited space of rock mass or concrete. Up to the present, those things have been done mainly by large machines, but it is too scarce in possibility for them to improve their large size, heavy weight, difficulty in unmanned operation, limited shapes of cutting, and stabilization of waste. In this research the concrete system images have been examined, doing the fundamental researches about higher-power lasers, smaller sizing, transmitting by fibers to find our the breakthrough to realization of laser excavation, This year, as the summary of examining the laser excavation techniques, utilizing a low-power laser, which is thought to be highly effective in rock-mass improvement, will be examined, considering application of the technique

  6. Perspectives of nuclear power in the UK - the view of a utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golby, P.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda in UK due to the discussion about climate change and security of supply. First, the UK has to face up to the challenges of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions. The UK Government has adopted a clear leadership position on climate change internationally. Second, UK is facing some fundamental questions about the future security of the energy supplies. The decline of UKs' gas reserves in the North Sea is bringing to an end the years in which the UK could afford to be relatively relaxed energy and energy policy almost took care of itself. We are expecting the next major milestone with the UK Government due to publish an 'Energy Withe Paper'. Alongside that document they are also due to launch a new consultation on nuclear power and whether it should have a role in the UK market. For investment in nuclear to be a credible economic option for investors a number of issues will need to be addressed by the UK Government. These issues include the public and political acceptance, the management of the waste by the Government, and an efficient regulatory and licensing framework for new plants. Two words should be addressed to the UK Government at the moment - urgency and partnership. Urgency - because we desperately need to see progress on energy policy over the next 12 months. It is 5 minutes to midnight and the clock is ticking. Partnership - because investors are ready to make the necessary investments but we need in the UK the long-term policy framework that will underpin and support the scale of the investment we need to see. (orig.)

  7. Single event upset mitigation techniques for FPGAs utilized in nuclear power plant digital instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Holbert, Keith E.; Clark, Lawrence T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Triple modular redundancy (TMR) implementation is the best solution for digital I and C. → Maximal probability of two simultaneous errors with TMR maximum partition is 4.44%. → Dual modular redundancy minimum logic partitioning design is an additional option. - Abstract: Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are integrated circuits being increasingly used for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of low cost, re-configurability and low design turn-around time. However, to ensure reliability, proper design techniques must be employed since the memory and logic in FPGAs are susceptible to single event upsets (SEUs). Triple modular redundancy (TMR) has become a common SEU mitigation design technique because of its straightforward implementation and reliable results. Partitioned TMR approaches are introduced in this paper, and formulae derived indicate that the maximum probability of two simultaneous errors [P E ] max is inversely proportional to the number of logic partitions in a TMR design, when each redundant logic block in every logic partition has the same number of sensitive nodes. However, the maximum logic partitioning design cannot completely eliminate the possibility of two simultaneous upsets. For the example test circuit it is found that [P E ] max is reduced dramatically from 66.67% for minimum logic partitioning to 4.44% for maximum logic partitioning. Because TMR introduces significant overhead due to its full hardware redundancy, a dual modular redundancy approach is also examined for application to less demanding situations. By comparative analysis this study reaches the conclusion that the maximum logic partitioning TMR implementation is the best solution for digital I and C applications in NPPs where obtaining robustness is of the highest importance, despite its higher area overhead.

  8. Diagnostic utility of three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound for postmenopausal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ari; Lee, Ji Young; Chun, Sungwook; Kim, Heung Yeol

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the role of three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound (3D PD-US) to detect endometrial lesions in women with postmenopausal endometrial bleeding. In this prospective observational study, from January 2009 to November 2012, we recruited 225 postmenopausal women with postmenopausal uterine bleeding who met the study criteria. Women who had hematologic disease, chronic medical diseases, or nonuterine pelvic diseases were excluded. Prior to endometrial biopsy, the patients underwent a baseline transvaginal ultrasound screening. The vascular indices and endometrial volumes were calculated with 3D PD-US and compared with the endometrial histopathology. Among the endometrial histopathologic findings of 174 women, atrophic endometrium was the most common finding (30.5%). Endometrial malignancy was confirmed in 28 cases (16.1%), and endometrial hyperplasia was diagnosed in 17 cases (9.8%). The prevalence of endometrial cancer was high in patients who had endometrial thickness >9.5 mm (p < 0.001) and volume greater than 4.05 mL (p < 0.001). For the endometrial carcinoma only, the cutoff values of vascular index, flow index, and vascular flow index for predicting malignancy were 13.070, 12.610, and 3.764, respectively. For endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial thickness and vascular flow index were significant findings. Endometrial vasculature and volume can be obtained using 3D PD-US. The diagnostic usefulness of 3D PD-US for endometrial diseases is promising in women with postmenopausal endometrial bleeding. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cogeneration and Small Power Production Quarterly Report to the California Public Utilities Commission First Quarter 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-01-01

    At the end of the First Quarter of 1984, the number of signed contracts and letter agreements for cogeneration and small power production projects was 322, with a total estimated nominal capacity of 2,643 MW. Of these totals, 215 projects, capable of producing 640 MW, are operational. A map indicating the location of operational facilities under contract with PG and E is provided. Developers of cogeneration, solid waste, or biomass projects had signed 110 contracts with a potential of 1,467 MW. In total, 114 contracts and letter agreements had been signed with projects capable of producing 1,508 MW. PG and E also had under active discussion 35 cogeneration projects that could generate a total of 425 MW to 467 MW, and 11 solid waste or biomass projects with a potential of 94 MW to 114 MW. One contract had been signed for a geothermal project, capable of producing 80 MW. There were 7 solar projects with signed contracts and a potential of 37 MW, as well as 5 solar projects under active discussion for 31 MW. Wind farm projects under contract numbered 32, with a generating capability of 848 MW. Also, discussions were being conducted with 18 wind farm projects, totaling 490 MW. There were 101 wind projects of 100 kW or less with signed contracts and a potential of 1 MW, as well as 6 other small wind projects under active discussion. There were 64 hydroelectric projects with signed contracts and a potential of 148 MW, as well as 75 projects under active discussion for 316 MW. In addition, there were 31 hydroelectric projects, with a nominal capacity of 187 MW, that Pg and E was planning to construct.

  10. Ecologically clean technologies for utilization of fuel-power complex's wastes. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter 5 technology of atmospheric air radiation purification from different toxicants consists in radiation-chemical oxidation of sulfur and nitrogen compounds with following acids receiving is described. Radiation methods of purification are ecologically clean and have high effectiveness within wide operation range and its allow to conduct simultaneously of purification from different mixtures (both organic and inorganic) and water disinfection. Now radiation purification of sewage gradually displacing traditional ways (mechanical, biological and chemical). Usually electron accelerators with energy 1.2-4.0 MeV are using for radiation treatment of sewage as well as gamma-radiation sources. Radiation method one of few does not leading to additional water mineralization. Usage of ionizing radiation considerably simplify of sewage purification technology and making it reliable and easy controlling. Data on influence of absorption dose value on metals content in examined sewage samples are given. Early was determined, that ash and slag materials: fly ash , ash-pulp and ash-slag wastes occupy vast ash disposal area on Ekibastuz Thermal Power Plant-1,2 and its have relatively stable macro-component content and are distinguished by micro-component ones. Concentration and content of both the rare and the scattering metals are changing from 10 -4 up to 10 -2 %. Besides content of metals like vanadium, zirconium and helium is comparable with content in industrial ores. In the chapter tbe technological scheme of reprocessing of ash-slag materials is offered, due to in the result of leaching one may obtain concentrate of metals or finished product after recovery by any chemical or physical method. The technology is based firstly, on the usage of leaching, allowing to reprocessing of large mass of raw materials, and secondarily on usage for sorption concentration purposes of local natural ceolytes

  11. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and

  12. Cogeneration and Small Power Production Quarterly Report to the California Public Utilities Commission. Second Quarter 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-01-01

    At the end of the Second Quarter of 1984, the number of signed contracts and letter agreements for cogeneration and small power production projects was 334, with total estimated nominal capacity of 2,876 MW. Of these totals, 232 projects, capable of producing 678 MW, are operational (Table A). A map indicating the location of operational facilities under contract with PG and E is provided as Figure A. Developers of cogeneration projects had signed 80 contracts with a potential of 1,161 MW. Thirty-three contracts had been signed for solid waste/biomass projects for a total of 298 MW. In total, 118 contracts and letter agreements had been signed with cogeneration, solid waste, and biomass projects capable of producing 1,545 MW. PG and E also had under active discussion 46 cogeneration projects that could generate a total of 688 MW to 770 MW, and 13 solid waste or biomass projects with a potential of 119 MW to 139 MW. One contract had been signed for a geothermal project, capable of producing 80 MW. Two geothermal projects were under active discussion for a total of 2 MW. There were 8 solar projects with signed contracts and a potential of 37 MW, as well as 4 solar projects under active discussion for 31 MW. Wind farm projects under contract numbered 34, with a generating capability of 1,042 MW, Also, discussions were being conducted with 23 wind farm projects, totaling 597 MW. There were 100 wind projects of 100 kW or less with signed contracts and a potential of 1 MW, as well as 7 other small wind projects under active discussion. There were 71 hydroelectric projects with signed contracts and a potential of 151 MW, as well as 76 projects under active discussion for 505 MW. In addition, there were 18 hydroelectric projects, with a nominal capacity of 193 MW, that PG and E was planning to construct. Table B displays the above information. Appendix A displays in tabular form the status reports of the projects as of June 30, 1984.

  13. Application of laser-based profilometry to tubing in power generating utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, James L.

    1995-05-01

    used for routine inspections on marine boiler tubes by the U.S. Navy, with units located in several parts of the United States and overseas. In 1993 QUEST began exploring the possibility of extending this technology to the inspection of commercial tubes used in power generation and chemical processing. The following is an overview of the use of laser profilometry for nondestructive testing.

  14. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  15. Power Generation Utilizing Process Gases to Avoid Flaring; Elkraftproduktion ur processgas som idag facklas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naesvall, Henrik; Larfeldt, Jenny

    2011-01-15

    There is an increasing awareness that process gases, such as associated gases in oil extraction and byproduct gases in liquidizing of natural gas, can be utilized for energy production. Efficient energy production through the use of a gas turbine is profitable both from economical and environmental point of view compared to simply getting rid of the process gas in flares. Gases with an elevated amount of heavier hydrocarbons generally speaking burns faster and more intense compared to standard natural gas. In gas turbines with so called premixed, low emitting combustor systems this might induce changes in flame stability and the combustion stability connected with this. This might in turn affect the emissions from the gas turbine, the operation life and ability to operate. This work aimed at proving the potential of running Siemens standard SGT-600 and SGT-700 engines on gas with elevated amount of heavy hydrocarbons. Pentane (C{sub 5}H{sub 12}) was used as a model substance for heavy hydrocarbons and a facility for feeding and mixing pentane with natural gas was designed and built at Siemens delivery test bed in Finspaang. The two engines were demonstrated to be able to operate on the mixed fuel at various loads. The results show that both engines are able to stable operation on fuels with up to 10% by volume pentane content. Stable in the sense that no change in combustion dynamics was noted and the control system worked as normal. There were no impact on the temperature distribution through the turbine that could be seen and a boroscope inspection after the test did not reveal anything unusual. A slight increase in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) was detected explained by a slightly more intense flame which also explains the simultaneous lowering of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Unexpected difficulties were faced by the external laboratories when the sampled gas samples should be analysed. If the difficulties in analysing the samples could have been

  16. Analysis on misconducts and inappropriate practices by Japan's Nuclear Power Utilities and Assessment of their corrective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, Seishi; Ozawa, Michihiro; Kanegae, Naomichi; Tani, Masaaki; Miyakoshi, Naoki; Madarame, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    On March 30, 2007, Japan's electric utilities reported the results of a complete review of their powergenerating units to the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI). The Ethics Committee of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) then recommended an assessment method to analyze the seriousness of the problems from multiple perspectives in order to support the public's understanding of the reported problems. Accordingly, the Ethics Committee conducted the assessment. The assessment considered each reported problem associated with nuclear power-generating units and the preventive measures completed between June 2007 and September 2008 (corrective measures continued beyond that period). The results were presented at the autumn conferences of AESJ in 2007 and 2008, and are discussed in this report. (author)

  17. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  18. Genome-resolved metagenomics reveals that sulfur metabolism dominates the microbial ecology of rising hydrothermal plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Breier, J. A., Jr.; Jain, S.; Reed, D. C.; Dick, G.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal plumes occur when hot fluids from hydrothermal vents replete with chemically reduced elements and compounds like sulfide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, iron and manganese mix with cold, oxic seawater. Chemosynthetic microbes use these reduced chemicals to power primary production and are pervasive throughout the deep sea, even at sites far removed from hydrothermal vents. Although neutrally-buoyant hydrothermal plumes have been well-studied, rising hydrothermal plumes have received little attention even though they represent an important interface in the deep-sea where microbial metabolism and particle formation processes control the transformation of important elements and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we used genome-resolved metagenomic analyses and thermodynamic-bioenergetic modeling to study the microbial ecology of rising hydrothermal plumes at five different hydrothermal vents spanning a range of geochemical gradients at the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) in the Western Pacific Ocean. Our analyses show that differences in the geochemistry of hydrothermal vents do not manifest in microbial diversity and community composition, both of which display only minor variance across ELSC hydrothermal plumes. Microbial metabolism is dominated by oxidation of reduced sulfur species and supports a diversity of bacteria, archaea and viruses that provide intriguing insights into metabolic plasticity and virus-mediated horizontal gene transfer in the microbial community. The manifestation of sulfur oxidation genes in hydrogen and methane oxidizing organisms hints at metabolic opportunism in deep-sea microbes that would enable them to respond to varying redox conditions in hydrothermal plumes. Finally, we infer that the abundance, diversity and metabolic versatility of microbes associated with sulfur oxidation impart functional redundancy that could allow it to persist in the dynamic settings of hydrothermal plumes.

  19. EMI environment EMC considerations concerning equipment upgrades at a nuclear utility power generating station a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As equipment is upgraded during scheduled power outages in nuclear power generating stations, more and more utilities will be faced with the problem of dealing with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) issues that have evolved with the trend of manufacturers designing equipment based around state-of-the-art high technology logic devices. This paper lists Commonwealth Edison Company (CECO) equipment that was scrutinized by National Technical Systems (NTS) for its EMI impact. The test requirements and test procedures for assessing EMI and EMC are outlined. Although on-site mapping data was gathered to assist CECO for the upgrade described here of the Auxiliary Electric Equipment Room of a Westinghouse Eagle 21 Reactor Protection System at the Zion Unit No.1 Station, blanket mapping of every location for every upgrade is a short term, expensive solution to the EMI problem. It is concluded that the primary problem of lack of system and component level EMI specifications must be addressed by a governing body. 7 refs., 2 figs

  20. Hydrothermal systems and volcano geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The upward intrusion of magma from deeper to shallower levels beneath volcanoes obviously plays an important role in their surface deformation. This chapter will examine less obvious roles that hydrothermal processes might play in volcanic deformation. Emphasis will be placed on the effect that the transition from brittle to plastic behavior of rocks is likely to have on magma degassing and hydrothermal processes, and on the likely chemical variations in brine and gas compositions that occur as a result of movement of aqueous-rich fluids from plastic into brittle rock at different depths. To a great extent, the model of hydrothermal processes in sub-volcanic systems that is presented here is inferential, based in part on information obtained from deep drilling for geothermal resources, and in part on the study of ore deposits that are thought to have formed in volcanic and shallow plutonic environments.

  1. ATP and phosphocreatine utilization in single human muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output at elevated muscle temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stuart R; Söderlund, Karin; Ferguson, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of muscle temperature (Tm) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine utilization in single muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output in humans. Six male participants performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a friction-braked cycle ergometer under both normal (Tm = 34.3 degrees C, s = 0.6) and elevated (T(m) = 37.3 degrees C, s = 0.2) muscle temperature conditions. During the elevated condition, muscle temperature of the legs was raised, passively, by hot water immersion followed by wrapping in electrically heated blankets. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and immediately after exercise. Freeze-dried single fibres were dissected, characterized according to myosin heavy chain composition, and analysed for ATP and phosphocreatine content. Single fibres were classified as: type I, IIA, IIAX25 (1 - 25% IIX isoform), IIAX50 (26 - 50% IIX), IIAX75 (51 - 75% IIX), or IIAX100 (76 - 100% IIX). Maximal power output and pedal rate were both greater (P < 0.05) during the elevated condition by 258 W (s = 110) and 22 rev . min(-1) (s = 6), respectively. In both conditions, phosphocreatine content decreased significantly in all fibre types, with a greater decrease during the elevated condition in type IIA fibres (P < 0.01). Adenosine triphosphate content was also reduced to a greater (P < 0.01) extent in type IIA fibres during the elevated condition. The results of the present study indicate that after passive elevation of muscle temperature, there was a greater decrease in ATP and phosphocreatine content in type IIA fibres than in the normal trial, which contributed to the higher maximal power output.

  2. Hydrothermal research and development assessment. Task Force report: projections for direct-heat applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Low and moderate temperature hydrothermal resources suitable for direct-heat applications have been identified in 37 states. The extent to which three resources might be used over the next 20 years were evaluated and the probable impact of Federal programs on hydrothermal resource utilization was assessed. The use types that comprise the bulk of the market were determined. Representative firms and municipalities were interviewed to determine their willingness to use hydrothermal energy, and to determine the investment decision criteria that would influence their actions. (MHR)

  3. Studies for the layout and technical conception of a two-circuit HTR power plant of 600 MWsub(el) under public utilizer aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetten, R.

    1981-01-01

    In this study concerning conceptions for a nuclear power plant of 600 MWsub(el) with high-temperature reactor a conception for a HTR-nuclear power plant of 600 MWsub(el) to be built in the Federal Republic of Germany in future is developed on the basis of operating experience with the 15-MW-AVR-experimental nuclear power plant, the construction of the THTR-300 nuclear power plant and the gas-cooled reactors of English, French and American origin. This report gives a survey of the most important findings and the requirements on behalf of the public utilities for a nuclear power plant with high-temperature reactor with the dimensions of 600 MWsub(el). The examination of the utilities basic requirements for a power plant and the experience made during the licensing procedure led to this technical and safety conception for a HTR nuclear power plant with spherical fuel elements. In addition, the questions of the possibility of recurrent tests and of repairing safety components and also the future shut-down of the power plant, which are important for the public utilities, are examined. (orig./GL) [de

  4. Influence of hydrothermal processing on functional properties and grain morphology of finger millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraj, Usha; Meera, M S; Reddy, S Yella; Malleshi, Nagappa G

    2015-03-01

    Finger millet was hydrothermally processed followed by decortication. Changes in color, diameter, density, sphericity, thermal and textural characteristics and also some of the functional properties of the millet along with the grain morphology of the kernels after hydrothermal processing and decortication were studied. It was observed that, the millet turned dark after hydrothermal processing and color improved over native millet after decortication. A slight decrease in grain diameter was observed but sphericity of the grains increased on decortication. The soft and fragile endosperm turned into a hard texture and grain hardness increased by about 6 fold. Hydrothermal processing increased solubility and swelling power of the millet at ambient temperature. Pasting profile indicated that, peak viscosity decreased significantly on hydrothermal processing and both hydrothermally processed and decorticated millet exhibited zero breakdown viscosity. Enthalpy was negative for hydrothermally processed millet and positive for decorticated grains. Microscopic studies revealed that the orderly structure of endosperm changed to a coherent mass after hydrothermal processing and the different layers of seed coat get fused with the endosperm.

  5. Final Technical Report for Contract No. DE-EE0006332, "Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormier, Dallas [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States); Edra, Sherwin [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States); Espinoza, Michael [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States); Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs, San Diego, CA (United States); Kostylev, Vladimir [Green Power Labs, San Diego, CA (United States); Pavlovski, Alexandre [Green Power Labs, San Diego, CA (United States); Jelen, Deborah [Electricore, Inc., Valencia, CA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  6. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jillian M; Zielinski, Frank U; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Moraru, Cristina; Amann, Rudolf; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Wankel, Scott D; Barbe, Valerie; Pelletier, Eric; Fink, Dennis; Borowski, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Dubilier, Nicole

    2011-08-10

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations and in situ mass spectrometry, we show here that the symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge use hydrogen to power primary production. In addition, we show that the symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Pacific vents have hupL, the key gene for hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, the symbionts of other vent animals such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata also have hupL. We propose that the ability to use hydrogen as an energy source is widespread in hydrothermal vent symbioses, particularly at sites where hydrogen is abundant.

  7. Thermal power generation and the environment. I. Hydrothermal and hydrochemical regime studies of the cooling reservoir of the Lithuanian SSR Central Steam Power Station. Teploenergetika i okruzhayushchaya sreda i gidrotermicheskii i gidrokhinicheskii rezhim vodokhranilishcha okhzaditelya intovskoi gres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Studies were of the physico-geographical conditions (relief, soil, vegetation, etc.) of a water-collection basin and their effect on the processes taking place in a reservoir. An analysis is made of the elements that make up the input and outflow segments of a reservoir's water balance, particularly the evaporation of heated waters from the surface of the reservoir. Data are given on long-term measurements of the thermal regime of a reservoir-coolant, heat-exchange processes and their connection with the efficient operation of a thermal power station. The thermal balance of a reservoir is defined. A study was made of the effect that the Lithuaniam central power steam station has on atmospheric sediments, the physico-chemical regime of the reservoir-coolant, river drainage, and ground water. A description is given of the chemical composition of the surface bottom deposits, the intensity of modern sedimentation processes and sediment accumulation in the reservoir. 126 references, 70 figures, 36 tables.

  8. Modelling of hydrothermal characteristics of centrifugal nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarkho, A.A.; Omelchenko, M.P.; Borshchev, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented for the first time is a method of recalculating the hydrothermal characteristics of centrifugal nozzles obtained in laboratory conditions for full-scale nozzles. From the experimental hydrothermal characteristics of nozzles observed in the laboratory it is allowed to calculate the hydrothermal characteristics of any other centrifugal nozzle whose diameter and dimensionless geometric characteristic are known

  9. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH) 2 . The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH) 2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. Development of hydrothermal power plant (Development of binary cycle power plant); 1980 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1980 research result on evaluation of elementary technology studies, research on plant technologies, and assessment of profitability for development of the next 10MW class large binary cycle power plant. In evaluation of heat media and heat cycles, selection of heat media and preparation of specimens through document survey, measurement of thermal characteristics, and preparation of pressure-enthalpy charts were carried out for selection of promising media. In evaluation of materials, as the field corrosion test and simulation results on 3 kinds of welding materials, it was concluded that SUS316 is best as material. In evaluation of heat medium turbine, through the test on oil film seal and mechanical seal techniques, various information were obtained. In evaluation of mist-cooling condenser, experiment on the basic unit heat exchanger, and study on the optimum design were carried out. In addition, research on plant technologies, and assessment of profitability were conducted. (NEDO)

  11. Gold-bearing hydrothermal veins in Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidenko, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    Indicators such as the correlation of mineralization to plutonic and vulcanic formations and various facies of metamorphism, the character of the structural-tectonic control of mineralization, characteristics of silica redistribution as well that of calcium, water, and other components in altering ore zones, the specificity of sygenetic fluid inclusions in minerals, morphology, the internal structure and other typomorphic indicators of native gold and its accessories are utilized in the working out of a genetic classification for compiling a complex of diagnostic indicators of post-magmatic mineralization on Chukotka at various depths. Those indicators, in addition to earlier known hydrothermal gold ore formations, can be used to identify still other types of mineralization, particularly pyrite group minerals.

  12. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide-doped NaLaF 4 nanoparticles. JIGMET LADOL HEENA KHAJURIA SONIKA KHAJURIA ... Keywords. Citric acid; X-ray diffraction; down-conversion emission; energy transfer.

  14. Hydrothermal precipitation of artificial violarite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, W. H.; Toftlund, H.; Warner, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nonstoichiometric nickel-ore mineral, violarite, (Ni,Fe)3S4 was prepared as a phase-pure fine powder by a comparatively quick hydrothermal method from an aqueous solution of iron(II) acetate, nickel(II) acetate and DL-penicillamine in an autoclave at 130 °C for 45 h. Powder-XRD showed that th...

  15. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. Development of hydrothermal power plant. Development of binary cycle power plant (Research on heat cycle, heat medium, material and heat medium turbine); 1980 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu (netsu cycle oyobi netsubaitai no kenkyu, zairyo no kenkyu narabini netsubaitai turbine no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1980 research result on each element of the next 10MW class geothermal binary cycle power plant, following last year. In the research on heat cycle and heat medium, measurement was made on the liquid density, vapor density, liquid specific heat, vapor specific heat and thermal conductivity of 8 heat media to prepare the precise pressure enthalpy chart. The thermal stability of each medium was also measured under a flow condition. The heat cycle of each medium was calculated in a hydrothermal temperature range of 120-160 degrees C for evaluation of its output. In the research on material, field corrosion test and laboratory simulation were made on 3 kinds of heat exchanger martials for acidic hot water to study the corrosion behavior of welding members. In the research on heat medium turbine, study was made on sealing characteristics such as differential pressure, flow rate and friction of sealing oil for oil film seal and mechanical seal as shaft seal devices of heat medium turbines for the 10MW class geothermal plant. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar heat power generation); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyonetsu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Research was made on solar heat power generation following last fiscal year, as a part of solar energy utilization technologies. In this fiscal year, in particular, research was made on the following: selection of suitable sites for solar heat power plants in Japan, estimation of expected power supply, positioning of a solar heat power system among future power systems, operation policy of solar heat power systems, survey on suitable sites for the 1,000kW pilot power plant, operation characteristics of the small test plant, design of the 1,000kW pilot power plant, test methods and facilities for every element equipment of solar heat power systems, an environmental test method for mostly solar collectors, and the profitability of solar heat power systems. Optimum operation temperature levels were nearly 350 degrees C for distributed systems and nearly 400 degrees C for centralized ones. The distributed system is profitable in a unit capacity range less than 5-10MWe, while the centralized system is profitable in a range over 10MWe. Under some assumptions, the power cost of solar heat power systems was estimated to be 20-30yen/kWH. (NEDO)

  17. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. A feasibility report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of forming borehole plugs by hydrothermal transport was examined with respect to five systems, utilizing available literature data. In general, it would appear possible to create plugs with hydrothermal cements, with hydrothermally transported quartz, and with carbonates precipitated in-situ using carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide and water as reacting fluids. Hydrothermal cements appear to be most feasible from an engineering and economic point of view using a slurry with a lime-alumina-silica composition carried into the hole in a single pipe at temperatures in the range of 200 0 C and requiring only enough pressure to drive the mixture into the hole. Quartz or chalcedony plugs would be the most impervious, have the lowest chemical reactivity with groundwater, the lowest thermal expansion, and be most compatible with the wall rock. Deposition is likely to be slow, and there are severe engineering problems associated with a single pipe system carrying silica-rich solutions at temperatures in excess of 500 0 C at pressure of 2000 bars (30,000 psi). Calcite plugs could be formed as compatible plug materials in contact with a limestone or dolomite wall rock. It is not known whether non-porous plugs can be readily formed and there is also a problem of chemical reaction with percolating groundwater. The clay-water and sulfur-water systems do not appear to be viable plug systems. In-situ reconstitution of the wall rock does not appear to be an economically feasible possibility

  18. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  19. How many years should I be married: Long-term power contracts in the electric utility industry in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Ferre, Alberto

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation deals with the effects of long-term power contracts in the electric utility in Texas on consumer welfare, investigating economic and legal aspects of price formation. The study focuses on the institutions---vertical integration and contractual arrangements---that govern the transactions between the different links in the electricity provision chain and its effects on retail electricity prices for residential, commercial and industrial customers. The main hypothesis is that long-term power contracts serve as an uncertainty reduction mechanism to the buyer by clearly defining the conditions of the exchange for a significant period of time. In turn, this reduction of uncertainty is compensated by a premium to the seller in the form of higher prices. It is found that long-term wholesale power contracts present varying levels of flexibility in the terms of the exchange that are directly translated into prices and bills, providing support to the main hypothesis. Control variables include the role of new technologies, degree of competition and population demographics. Each control variable has differing impacts of different customer classes, depending on their demand elasticity. The study poses several interesting policy implications. First, the institutions that will govern and supervise the functioning of the market have an important weight in its success. The results indicate that competition cannot be a policy objective in itself There is a balancing act between the additional needs of a functional market in terms of infrastructure, information and coordination, and the inefficiencies that occur for lack of consumer options. Second, all customers are not equal. Some customer classes have fewer alternatives than others do, their consumption patterns differ and their dependence on electricity varies. Therefore, a policy that treats all customer classes the same will produce an inferior outcome. Third, the relevant environment matters. Legislative

  20. Decision 13-2009 in the matter of a review by the NWT Public Utilities Board regarding customer complaints of high consumption on power bills from Northland Utilities Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acorn, J.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2009, in response to customer complaints, the Northwest Territories Public Utilities Board requested that Northland Utilities conduct a review of at least the last 3 billing cycles to detect and explain unusually high power bills. Northland responded that the complaints were based primarily on price, not usage, and that the findings can be attributed to rate adjustments as well as colder weather. However, the Board decided to examine certain aspects of Northland's response in detail and initiated an inquiry under section 52 of the Public Utilities Act. The Board determined that Northland Utilities' process for investigating customer complaints was too informal and without any clear structure, resulting in confusion for some customers. The Board directed the utility to develop a document for dealing with customer concerns that clearly outlines the rights and responsibilities of both the utility and the customers. The Board also directed Northland Utilities to reduce the $500 threshold for a company-initiated review of an account to $400. This document addressed issues regarding estimated versus actual meter readings; the number of days in a billing cycle; the prominence of consumption and overall cost on a bill; bill calculators; customer consumption monitoring; pre-paid meters; and meter accuracy. Specific customer complaints were included along with a summary of Board directives.

  1. Preparing Canada's power systems for transition to the year 2000 : Y2K readiness assessment results for Canadian electric utility companies : first quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The effort made by Canadian electric utilities to minimize any power disruptions during the year 2000 (Y2K) transition is discussed and the state of readiness of the electric power industry with respect to the Y2K computer challenge is outlined. Canadian utilities started addressing Y2K issues several years ago, and today, reports show that every major electric utility in Canada is either on, or ahead of schedule to meet the industry established milestones for Y2K readiness. This report includes the assessment of all of Canada's large electric utilities, plus about 95 per cent of Canada's small distribution utilities. On average, the bulk electric utilities in Canada expect to be Y2K ready by mid-June 1999. This means that equipment and systems will operate properly for all dates including Y2K, or that there will be an operating strategy in place to mitigate the effects of any improper operations of equipment or systems. In terms of overall preparations for Y2K, Canada is ahead of the North American averages. Bulk electric utilities for non-nuclear generation are now 100 per cent complete in the inventory phase, 99 per cent complete in the assessment phase, and 91 per cent complete in the remediation/testing phase. For nuclear generation, completion rates are the same except for the remediation/testing phase which is 97 per cent complete. 1 tab., 21 figs

  2. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  3. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  4. Electron microscopy study of microbial mat in the North Fiji basin hydrothermal vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Kim, J. W.; Lee, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems consisting of hydrothermal vent, hydrothermal sediment and microbial mat are widely spread around the ocean, particularly spreading axis, continental margin and back-arc basin. Scientists have perceived that the hydrothermal systems, which reflect the primeval earth environment, are one of the best places to reveal the origin of life and extensive biogeochemical process of microbe-mineral interaction. In the present study multiline of analytical methods (X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)) were utilized to investigate the mineralogy/chemistry of microbe-mineral interaction in hydrothermal microbial mat. Microbial mat samples were recovered by Canadian scientific submersible ROPOS on South Pacific North Fiji basin KIOST hydrothermal vent expedition 1602. XRD analysis showed that red-colored microbial mat contains Fe-oxides and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Various morphologies of minerals in the red-colored microbial mat observed by SEM are mainly showed sheath shaped, resembled with Leptothrix microbial structure, stalks shaped, similar with Marioprofundus microbial structure and globule shaped microbial structures. They are also detected with DNA analysis. The cross sectional observation of microbial structures encrusted with Fe-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide at a nano scale by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique was developed to verify the structural/biogeochemical properties in the microbe-mineral interaction. Systematic nano-scale measurements on the biomineralization in the microbial mat leads the understandings of biogeochemical environments around the hydrothermal vent.

  5. Shortcomings in safety management: symptoms, examples and recovery processes. Omission of Operational Culture can be fatal for the power utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezoucky, F.; )

    2006-01-01

    During recent years, many utilities and their nuclear branches have undergone substantial change. The effectiveness of management in handling the change varies considerably from utility to utility. At the extreme, the way the change is managed and nuclear safety and operational performance aspects are integrated can either help lead a plant to operational excellence or destroy what was once an effective organisation. (author)

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ferreira, Nildemar A.M.; Rumbao, Ana Carolina S. Coutinho; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter

    2009-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150°C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  7. Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is a class of ternary oxides that are known for their stable properties under extreme conditions, higher electron mobility compared to its binary counterparts and other interesting optical properties. The material is thus ideal for applications from solar cells and sensors to photocatalysts. Among the different methods of synthesizing ZTO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is an attractive green process that is carried out at low temperatures. In this review, we summarize the conditions leading to the growth of different ZTO nanostructures using the hydrothermal method and delve into a few of its applications reported in the literature. (topical review)

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, W.K.; Ferreira, N.A.M.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.; Rumbao, A.C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150 deg C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  9. Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, S C

    2000-01-01

    Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or l...

  10. Guidelines and workbook for assessment of organization and administration of utilities seeking operating license for a nuclear power plant. Guidelines for utility organization and administration plan. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, J.A.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.N.; Sommers, P.; Widrig, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    The Guidelines are intended to provide guidance to the user in preparing a written plan for a proposed nuclear organization and administration. The Guidelines allow for individual approaches to organizational structures to account for differences in plant size, number of operating units, number of plant sites, and the individual utility approach to providing technical support. These unique approaches, however, should meet the criteria of a reasoned, fully developed, and logically consistent focus on the user's organization in terms of organization of work, policies and procedures, staffing, and external relationships

  11. Factors affecting the potential of direct load control for non-generating utilities. Final report. [Distribution and wholesale power supply interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-01

    Several alternatives are available for achieving load management, including direct or voluntary control of customer loads, customer or utility energy storage systems for diurnal load shifting, and expanded interconnection and operation of electric power systems. All of these alternatives are available to the fully integrated (generating, transmitting and distributing) electric utility and the analysis of their effects encompasses the power supply and delivery system. However, the costs and benefits of the alternatives to the fully integrated electric utility are perhaps not so obvious. Therefore, by considering a non-generating utility, this analysis focuses upon the distribution system and wholesale power supply interaction as a step toward an analysis including the power supply and delivery system. This report develops an analysis procedure and discusses some of the relevant factors to be consdered in the application of direct load control for a non-generating utility system. The analysis concentrates on the distribution system only to determine the effect of rates and payback as a result of direct load control. Thus, the study is responsive to the specific needs of the non-generating utility. This analysis of direct load control encompasses the determination of those loads amenable to control, the selection of a suitable one-way communications system to rend control and the estimation of expected benefits and costs. The complementary functions to the application of direct load control such as automatic meter reading via the addition of a bi-directional communications system and voltage control are not included in the analysis but are detailed for future consideration.

  12. Requirements on future energy supply. Analysis on the demand of future power plant capacity and strategy for a sustainable power utilization in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This strategy paper was drawn up with a view to maximum ecological compatibility of pwer plant modernization and sustainable power generation and use. The first part of the paper analyzes the power plants to be decommissioned on a medium-term basis and - against the background of several different scenarios for future power demand - an estimate of power plant capacities required by 2020. The second part describes the goals and concrete requirements of sustainable energy use. In the final part, the available instruments are presented, and those instruments are recommended that will be best suited for making power demand and supply efficient, sustainable and environment-friend.y [de

  13. Synergistic Use of Nighttime Satellite Data, Electric Utility Infrastructure, and Ambient Population to Improve Power Outage Detections in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony A. Cole

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic hazards are frequently responsible for disaster events, leading to damaged physical infrastructure, which can result in loss of electrical power for affected locations. Remotely-sensed, nighttime satellite imagery from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB can monitor power outages in disaster-affected areas through the identification of missing city lights. When combined with locally-relevant geospatial information, these observations can be used to estimate power outages, defined as geographic locations requiring manual intervention to restore power. In this study, we produced a power outage product based on Suomi-NPP VIIRS DNB observations to estimate power outages following Hurricane Sandy in 2012. This product, combined with known power outage data and ambient population estimates, was then used to predict power outages in a layered, feedforward neural network model. We believe this is the first attempt to synergistically combine such data sources to quantitatively estimate power outages. The VIIRS DNB power outage product was able to identify initial loss of light following Hurricane Sandy, as well as the gradual restoration of electrical power. The neural network model predicted power outages with reasonable spatial accuracy, achieving Pearson coefficients (r between 0.48 and 0.58 across all folds. Our results show promise for producing a continental United States (CONUS- or global-scale power outage monitoring network using satellite imagery and locally-relevant geospatial data.

  14. A technical and environmental approach of the utilization of the Diesel instead of the natural gas in thermoelectric power plants in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Iraides Aparecida de Castro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). College of Engineering]. E-mail: iraides@debas.eel.usp.br; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Energy Dept.]. E-mail: joseluz@feg.unesp.br; www.feg.unesp.br/gose

    2008-07-01

    This work analyses the Thermodynamic and Ecological Performance of a thermoelectric power plant with nominal power of 310 MW in combined cycle. In the worldwide scenery, combined cycle power plants have become more and more known, due to the stage of development of the technology as well as to its high efficiency and low levels of atmospherical emissions when compared with conventional thermodynamic cycles. In Brazil, unfortunately, the diesel oil has been utilized in thermoelectric power plants, for the natural gas has not met the demand, in face of the problems in the contract with Bolivia. The study of the operation of these thermoelectric power plants with a second combustible, as the diesel, for instance, becomes more necessary, seen that the levels of thermal efficiency and of emissions undergo considerable alterations. This work aims to analyze the thermal and ecological efficiency of this thermoelectric power plant, through a comparison between the natural gas and the diesel. And analysis of the First Law of Thermodynamics is made and the ecological efficiency of the plant being studied for the two combustibles is determined. From the results obtained, it is inferred that the utilization of the natural associated to the use of the technology of the combined cycle presents better energetic and ecological efficiency when compared to the diesel. (author)

  15. Utility-scale variable-speed wind turbines using a doubly-fed generator with a soft-switching power converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, C.H.; Lauw, H.K.; Marckx, D.A. [Electronic Power Conditioning, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Utility-scale wind turbines operating at variable RPM have been studied for a considerable period of time. Whereas the increase in energy output originally has been considered the principal benefit of variable-speed operation, the ability to tightly control the drive-train torque by electronic means is becoming another very important cost factor, especially for turbine ratings above 500 kilowatts. This cost benefit becomes even more significant as optimum turbine ratings today are approaching (and surpassing) 1 Megawatt. Having identified the benefits for the turbine, the designer is confronted with the task of finding the most cost-effective variable-speed generation system which allows him to make use of the benefits, yet does not introduce well-known electrical problems associated with state-of-the-art variable-speed generator controls, such as drastically reduced generator winding life, excessive harmonics on the utility, and poor utility power factor. This paper will indicate that for high-power (> 500 kW), utility-scale wind turbines a doubly-fed generator system in connection with a soft-switching resonant power converter is the least-cost variable-speed generation system offering all of the desired benefits, yet avoids the introduction of the potential electrical problems stated above. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Unutilized energy utilizing systems. ; Power and levelling measures and unutilized energies. Miriyo energy katsuyo system. ; Denryoku fuka heijunka taisaku to miriyo energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuromoto, E. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-12

    This paper explains quantitatively performance of heat storage tanks contributing largely to levelling power loads, and promoting and spreading more effective use of unutilized energies. A model case was used to compare differences in effectiveness of unutilized energy utilization with and without use of heat storage tanks. The heat demand used was a value in a day with a peak room cooling demand, and a heat supply system using water heat source heat pumps that utilize sewage treated water was used to manufacture cold water. As a result, the effective utilization rate of unutilized energy was increased to about 1.3 times when heat storage tanks were used. Effectiveness of a heat storage tank comes from its capability that excess amount of cold water manufactured during nighttime when heat demand falls by utilizing sewage treated water is stored in the heat storage tank, and the stored cold water can be supplied being mixed with cold water manufactured during daytime when heat demand rises sharply in daytime. Because sewage treated water has its annual temperature difference stabilized at about 10[degree]C, a heat pump utilizing the sewage treated water can reduce power required to produce heat of 1 Gcal by about 40% during room heating and about 15% during room cooling over the heating tower type heat pump. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. An investigation into the application of modern heuristic optimisation techniques to problems in power and processing utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahal, Keshav Prasad

    2000-01-01

    The work contained in this thesis demonstrates that there is a significant requirement for the development and application of new optimisation techniques for solving industrial scheduling problems, in order to achieve a better schedule with significant economic and operational impact. An investigation of how modern heuristic approaches, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA), fuzzy logic and hybrids of these techniques, may be developed, designed and implemented appropriately for solving short term and long term NP-hard scheduling problems that exist in electric power utilities and process facilities. GA and SA based methods are developed for generator maintenance scheduling using a novel integer encoding and appropriate GA and SA operators. Three hybrid approaches (an inoculated GA, a GA/SA and a GA with fuzzy logic) are proposed in order to improve the solution performance, and to take advantage of any flexibilities inherent in the problem. Five different GA-based approaches are investigated for solving the generation scheduling problem. Of those, a knowledge-based hybrid GA approach achieves better solutions in a shorter computational time. This approach integrates problem specific knowledge, heuristic dispatch calculation and linear programming within the GA-framework. The application of a GA-based methodology is proposed for the scheduling of storage tanks of a water treatment facility. The proposed approach is an integration of a GA and a heuristic rule-base. The GA string considers the tank allocation problem, and the heuristic approach solves the rate determination problems within the framework of the GA. For optimising the schedule of operations of a bulk handling port facility, a generic modelling tool is developed characterising the operational and maintenance activities of the facility. A GA-based approach is integrated with the simulation software for optimising the scheduling of operations of the facility. Each of these approaches is

  18. Optimal sizing of utility-scale photovoltaic power generation complementarily operating with hydropower: A case study of the world’s largest hydro-photovoltaic plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Wei; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Shengzhi; Yang, Jie; Meng, Erhao; Li, Yunyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation across the world is revealed. • Three scenarios of the novel operation mode are proposed to satisfy different load demand. • A method for optimally sizing a utility-scale photovoltaic plant is developed by maximizing the net revenue during lifetime. • The influence of complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation upon water resources allocation is investigated. - Abstract: The high variability of solar energy makes utility-scale photovoltaic power generation confront huge challenges to penetrate into power system. In this paper, the complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation is explored, aiming at improving the power quality of photovoltaic and promoting the integration of photovoltaic into the system. First, solar-rich and hydro-rich regions across the world are revealed, which are suitable for implementing the complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation. Then, three practical scenarios of the novel operation mode are proposed for better satisfying different types of load demand. Moreover, a method for optimal sizing of a photovoltaic plant integrated into a hydropower plant is developed by maximizing the net revenue during lifetime. Longyangxia complementary hydro-photovoltaic project, the current world’s largest hydro-photovoltaic power plant, is selected as a case study and its optimal photovoltaic capacities of different scenarios are calculated. Results indicate that hydropower installed capacity and annual solar curtailment rate play crucial roles in the size optimization of a photovoltaic plant and complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation exerts little adverse effect upon the water resources allocation of Longyangxia reservoir. The novel operation mode not only improves the penetration of utility-scale photovoltaic power generation but also can provide a valuable reference for the large-scale utilization of other kinds of renewable energy worldwide.

  19. Research and development of utilization system of photovoltaic power generation. R and D of stand-alone power system (for marine use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This is an annual report for 1985 for NEDO -contracted project. The project aims at establishing an efficient, stable power generating solar cell technology and developing a power supply system for the ocean development. In order to install an independent off-shore power supply system for the marine ranch at Kamiura, Oita Prefecture, a frame berge was constructed on the Tsuinoura pier and an annularly arranged disc type solar cell with the center tapered at 4 % in an umbrella shape towards outside. Designed capacity was 10 KWp maximum output, and total 11 KVA (1 KVA at heavy duty load and 10 KVA at sun-shining load). The power source system consists of units for solar cell, power storage, control, orthogonal conversion, and of various loads. The system can make a normal observation by a wireless data transmission from off-shore onto the ground. (2 figs, 4 tabs)

  20. 100 kWe lunar/Mars surface power utilizing the SP-100 reactor with dynamic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.; Mason, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an integration study which was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton of Stirling power conversion subsystem. a power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. For the lunar environment, the reactor and primary coolant loop would be contained in a guard vessel to protect from a loss of primary loop containment. For the Mars environment, all refractory components including the reactor, primary coolant, and power conversion components would be contained in a vacuum vessel for protection against the CO 2 environment